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Sample records for mosquitoes diptera culicidae

  1. Crowdsourcing for large-scale mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling

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    Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...

  2. Expectoration of Flaviviruses during sugar feeding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    van den Hurk, Andrew F; Johnson, Petrina H; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Northill, Judy A; Simmons, Russell J; Jansen, Cassie C; Frances, Stephen P; Smith, Greg A; Ritchie, Scott A

    2007-09-01

    Biological transmission of arboviruses to a vertebrate host occurs when virions are expelled along with saliva during blood feeding by a hematophagous arthropod. We undertook experiments to determine whether mosquitoes expectorate flaviviruses in their saliva while sugar feeding. Batches of Culex annulirostris Skuse and Culex gelidus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) were orally infected with Japanese encephalitis (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, JEV), Kunjin (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, KUNV; a subtype of West Nile virus), and Murray Valley encephalitis (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, MVEV) viruses. After a 7-d extrinsic incubation, these mosquitoes were offered sucrose meals via cotton pledgets, which were removed daily and processed for viral RNA by using real-time TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. JEV, MVEV, and KUNV RNA was detected in all pledgets removed from batches of Cx. gelidus on days 7-14 postexposure. In contrast, detection rates were variable for Cx. annulirostris, with KUNV detected in 0.3 M sucrose pledgets on all days postexposure, and JEV and MVEV detected on 57 and 50% of days postexposure, respectively. Higher concentrations of sucrose in the pledget did not increase virus detection rates. When individual JEV-infected Cx. gelidus were exposed to the sucrose pledget, 73% of mosquitoes expectorated virus with titers that were detectable by TaqMan RT-PCR. These results clearly show that flaviviruses are expectorated by infected mosquitoes during the process of sugar feeding on artificial pledgets. Potential applications of the method for arboviral bioassays and field surveillance are discussed.

  3. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Mila 26 – Maliuc area (Danube Delta, Romania – preliminary data

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    PRIOTEASA Florian-Liviu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the preliminary results of the survey of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae in Maliuc - Mila 26 area, in 2006. A number of 1,255 mosquitoes, belonging to 14 species have beencaptured in three investigation sites. The results of the data-analysis were used for drawing up the annual dynamics of the various mosquito species from a specific location in Maliuc - Mila 26 area for the period April –September.

  4. Attractiveness of MM-X traps baited with human or synthetic odor to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Spitzen, J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Jawara, M.; Milligan, P.; Galimard, A.M.S.; Beek, van T.A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to

  5. Nationwide inventory of mosquito biodiversity (Diptera: Culicidae) in Belgium, Europe.

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    Versteirt, V; Boyer, S; Damiens, D; De Clercq, E M; Dekoninck, W; Ducheyne, E; Grootaert, P; Garros, C; Hance, T; Hendrickx, G; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2013-04-01

    To advance our restricted knowledge on mosquito biodiversity and distribution in Belgium, a national inventory started in 2007 (MODIRISK) based on a random selection of 936 collection points in three main environmental types: urban, rural and natural areas. Additionally, 64 sites were selected because of the risk of importing a vector or pathogen in these sites. Each site was sampled once between May and October 2007 and once in 2008 using Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus traps. Diversity in pre-defined habitat types was calculated using three indices. The association between species and environmental types was assessed using a correspondence analysis. Twenty-three mosquito species belonging to traditionally recognized genera were found, including 21 indigenous and two exotic species. Highest species diversity (Simpson 0.765) and species richness (20 species) was observed in natural areas, although urban sites scored also well (Simpson 0.476, 16 species). Four clusters could be distinguished based on the correspondence analysis. The first one is related to human modified landscapes (such as urban, rural and industrial sites). A second is composed of species not associated with a specific habitat type, including the now widely distributed Anopheles plumbeus. A third group includes species commonly found in restored natural or bird migration areas, and a fourth cluster is composed of forest species. Outcomes of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed sampling scheme and support the choice of the trap type. Obtained results of this first country-wide inventory of the Culicidae in Belgium may serve as a basis for risk assessment of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  6. Reduced Insecticide Susceptibility in Aedes vexans (Diptera: Culicidae) Where Agricultural Pest Management Overlaps With Mosquito Abatement.

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    Dunbar, Mike W; Bachmann, Amanda; Varenhorst, Adam J

    2018-05-04

    Mosquito abatement programs in Midwestern communities frequently exist within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Although separately managed, both agricultural pests and mosquitoes are targeted by similar classes of insecticides. As a result, there is the potential for unintended insecticide exposure to mosquito populations from agricultural pest management. To determine the impact that agricultural management practices have on mosquito insecticide susceptibility we compared the mortality of Aedes vexans (Meigen; Diptera: Culicidae) between populations sampled from locations with and without mosquito abatement in South Dakota, a region dominated by agricultural production. Collection locations were either within towns with mosquito abatement programs (n = 2; Brookings and Sioux Falls, SD) or located > 16 km from towns with mosquito abatement programs (n = 2; areas near Harrold and Willow Lake, SD). WHO bioassays were used to test susceptibly of adults to differing insecticide classes relative to their respective controls; 1) an organochlorine (dieldrin 4%), 2) an organophosphate (malathion 5%), and 3) a pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%). Corrected mortality did not significantly differ between locations with or without abatement; however, when locations were analized by proportion of developed land within the surrounding landscape pyrethroid mortality was significantly lower where crop production dominated the surrounding landscape and mosquito abatement was present. These data suggest that agricultural pest management may incidentally contribute to reduced mosquito susceptibility where overlap between agricultural pest management and mosquito abatement exists. Decoupling insecticide classes used by both agricultural and public health pest management programs may be necessary to ensure continued efficacy of pest management tools.

  7. Worthy of their name: how floods drive outbreaks of two major floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed.

  8. Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Mário Luís Pessôa Guedes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae. Considering that some species of Culicidae are vectors of pathogens, both the knowledge of the diversity of the mosquito fauna and how some environment factors influence in it, are important subjects. In order to address the composition of Culicidae species in a forest reserve in southern Atlantic Forest, we compared biotic and abiotic environmental determinants and how they were associated with the occurrence of species between sunset and sunrise. The level of conservation of the area was also considered. The investigation was carried out at Reserva Natural do Morro da Mina, in Antonina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We performed sixteen mosquito collections employing Shannon traps at three-hour intervals, from July 2008 to June 2009. The characterization of the area was determined using ecological indices of diversity, evenness, dominance and similarity. We compared the frequency of specimens with abiotic variables, i.e., temperature, relative humidity and pluviosity. Seven thousand four hundred ten mosquito females were captured. They belong to 48 species of 12 genera. The most abundant genera were Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Aedes and Runchomyia. Among the species, the most abundant was Anopheles cruzii, the primary vector of Plasmodium spp. in the Atlantic Forest. Results of the analyses showed that the abiotic variables we tested did not influence the occurrence of species, although certain values suggested that there was an optimum range for the occurrence of culicid species. It was possible to detect the presence of species of Culicidae with different epidemiologic profiles and habitat preference.

  9. Impact of livestock on a mosquito community (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Brazilian tropical dry forest

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    Santos,Cleandson Ferreira; Borges,Magno

    2015-01-01

    AbstractINTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the effects of cattle removal on the Culicidae mosquito community structure in a tropical dry forest in Brazil.METHODS: Culicidae were collected during dry and wet seasons in cattle presence and absence between August 2008 and October 2010 and assessed using multivariate statistical models.RESULTS: Cattle removal did not significantly alter Culicidae species richness and abundance. However, alterations were noted in Culicidae community composition.CO...

  10. Determination of Mosquitoes Fauna (Culicidae: Diptera in Poldokhtar County of Lorestan Province, 2015

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    Zahirnia A H

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insects as the largest category of arthropods include numerous groups and families that the most important of them belong to order Diptera, family Culicidae. Because of feeding on the human's blood, a number of species of this family have been known as responsible for the transmission of pathogens for many diseases such as malaria, filariasis, encephalitis, yellow fever and dengue fever in the world. Given that no research has been conducted to determine the fauna of existing mosquitoes in the city of Poldokhtar, Lorestan Province, the present study aimed to exactly determine the mosquitoes' fauna in this city to perform appropriate prevention measures. Methods: In this faunistic and cross-sectional descriptive study, four urban areas and four rural areas in four geographic directions in the city of Poldokhtar were determined. In each urban area, two places and in each designated rural area, four places including two human places and two animal places were selected. From the early of April 2015 to the early of January 2016, larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes of the Culicidae family were collected. Sampling methods for larvae, pupae and mature were ladling, night catch, total and hand catch with an aspirator. Characteristics including the name of the collector, date of collection, code related to habitat, habitat status (permanent or temporary, type of vegetation cover, type of substrate, and the situation of sunlight were recorded in the related form. The samples were identified by resources and valid identification keys. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 19. Results: Totally, 5392 mosquito adults of the Culicidae family including 1818 mosquito adults and 3574 larvae in designated areas in the city as well as four rural areas were collected. The three genera Anopheles (21.9%, Culex (64.6%, and Culiseta (13.5% were diagnosed. Also, from three genera, 12 species were identified as follows: Culex theiler, Cx

  11. Impact of livestock on a mosquito community (Diptera: Culicidae in a Brazilian tropical dry forest

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    Cleandson Ferreira Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the effects of cattle removal on the Culicidae mosquito community structure in a tropical dry forest in Brazil.METHODS: Culicidae were collected during dry and wet seasons in cattle presence and absence between August 2008 and October 2010 and assessed using multivariate statistical models.RESULTS: Cattle removal did not significantly alter Culicidae species richness and abundance. However, alterations were noted in Culicidae community composition.CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to evaluate the impact of cattle removal on Culicidae community structure in Brazil and demonstrates the importance of assessing ecological parameters such as community species composition.

  12. Impact of livestock on a mosquito community (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Brazilian tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cleandson Ferreira; Borges, Magno

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of cattle removal on the Culicidae mosquito community structure in a tropical dry forest in Brazil. Culicidae were collected during dry and wet seasons in cattle presence and absence between August 2008 and October 2010 and assessed using multivariate statistical models. Cattle removal did not significantly alter Culicidae species richness and abundance. However, alterations were noted in Culicidae community composition. This is the first study to evaluate the impact of cattle removal on Culicidae community structure in Brazil and demonstrates the importance of assessing ecological parameters such as community species composition.

  13. Analyzing mosquito (Diptera: culicidae diversity in Pakistan by DNA barcoding.

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    Muhammad Ashfaq

    Full Text Available Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications.Sequence variation in the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used to identify mosquito species, reveal genetic diversity, and map the distribution of the dengue-vector species in Pakistan. Analysis of 1684 mosquitoes from 491 sites in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2010-2013 revealed 32 species with the assemblage dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (61% of the collection. The genus Aedes (Stegomyia comprised 15% of the specimens, and was represented by six taxa with the two dengue vector species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, dominant and broadly distributed. Anopheles made up another 6% of the catch with An. subpictus dominating. Barcode sequence divergence in conspecific specimens ranged from 0-2.4%, while congeneric species showed from 2.3-17.8% divergence. A global haplotype analysis of disease-vectors showed the presence of multiple haplotypes, although a single haplotype of each dengue-vector species was dominant in most countries. Geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed the later species was dominant and found in both rural and urban environments.As the first DNA-based analysis of mosquitoes in Pakistan, this study has begun the construction of a barcode reference library for the mosquitoes of this region. Levels of genetic diversity varied among species. Because of its capacity to differentiate species, even those with subtle morphological differences, DNA barcoding aids accurate tracking of vector populations.

  14. Artificial activation of mature unfertilized eggs in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae).

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    Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Hatakeyama, Masatsugu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    In the past decade, many transgenic lines of mosquitoes have been generated and analyzed, whereas the maintenance of a large number of transgenic lines requires a great deal of effort and cost. In vitro fertilization by an injection of cryopreserved sperm into eggs has been proven to be effective for the maintenance of strains in mammals. The technique of artificial egg activation is a prerequisite for the establishment of in vitro fertilization by sperm injection. We demonstrated that artificial egg activation is feasible in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae). Nearly 100% of eggs dissected from virgin females immersed in distilled water darkened, similar to normally oviposited fertilized eggs. It was revealed by the cytological examination of chromosomes that meiotic arrest was relieved in these eggs approximately 20 min after incubation in water. Biochemical examinations revealed that MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) and MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase) were dephosphorylated similar to that in fertilized eggs. These results indicate that dissected unfertilized eggs were activated in distilled water and started development. Injection of distilled water into body cavity of the virgin blood-fed females also induced activation of a portion of eggs in the ovaries. The technique of artificial egg activation is expected to contribute to the success of in vitro fertilization in A. stephensi.

  15. Lista dos mosquitos da Bolívia: (Diptera, Culicidae

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    N. L. Cerqueira

    1943-08-01

    Full Text Available Em quinze gêneros, cento e vinte e seis espécies de mosquitos foram constatadas no material capturado pelo Servicio de Fiebre Amarilla desde 1933 até 1942. Êste número, três vezes mais elevado do que o existente na literatura para o país, seria ainda maior se possível fôsse identificar sem o auxílio de machos inúmeras fêmeas das espécies de Culex. Tôdas as espécies estudadas apresentavam suas distribuições geográficas nos departamentos e províncias onde casos de Febre Amarela foram observados. Algumas cosiderações foram feitas em torno de espécies que não correspondiam exatamente com as descrições existentes, assim como descrições de outras foram dadas, cujos sexos opostos apenas eram conhecidos.One hundred and twenty-six species of mosquitoes, corresponding fifteen genera, have been found in material collected by the Bolivian Yellow Fever Service between 1933 and 1942. This number is three times that given for the country in existing literature and would be even largar if it were possible to identify a consierable group of Culex mosquitoes composed principally of female specimens. All species studied come from Departmetns and Provinces where cases of yellow fever have been found. Consideration has been given to certain species which do not agree exactly with existing descriptions, and supplementary descriptions have been made for the male or female of two additional species for which only description of the opposite sex had existed.

  16. Los mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae y su importancia en Venezuela | The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae And their importance in Venezuela

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    Irma Fátima Agrela Da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of various diseases that affect the health of the Venezuelan population. The increase in the incidence of malaria and the emergence of diseases such as chikungunya and Zika make it necessary to implement control measures to reduce the impact of these diseases in Venezuela. To do this, it is essential to know the aspects related to their morphology, bioecology and the characteristics that make possible the participation of mosquitoes in the transmission of these diseases. The purpose of this review is to describe these aspects.

  17. An updated checklist of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Madagascar

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    Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Le Goff, Gilbert; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2016-01-01

    An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species). This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species), Aedes (35 species), Anopheles (26 species), Coquillettidia (3 species), Culex (at least 50 species), Eretmapodites (4 species), Ficalbia (2 species), Hodgesia (at least one species), Lutzia (one species), Mansonia (2 species), Mimomyia (22 species), Orthopodomyia (8 species), Toxorhynchites (6 species), and Uranotaenia (73 species). Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%). Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27%) with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar. PMID:27101839

  18. An updated checklist of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae from Madagascar

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    Tantely Michaël Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species. This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species, Aedes (35 species, Anopheles (26 species, Coquillettidia (3 species, Culex (at least 50 species, Eretmapodites (4 species, Ficalbia (2 species, Hodgesia (at least one species, Lutzia (one species, Mansonia (2 species, Mimomyia (22 species, Orthopodomyia (8 species, Toxorhynchites (6 species, and Uranotaenia (73 species. Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%. Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27% with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar.

  19. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and their relevance as disease vectors in the city of Vienna, Austria.

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    Lebl, Karin; Zittra, Carina; Silbermayr, Katja; Obwaller, Adelheid; Berer, Dominik; Brugger, Katharina; Walter, Melanie; Pinior, Beate; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Rubel, Franz

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors for a wide range of pathogenic organisms. As large parts of the human population in developed countries live in cities, the occurrence of vector-borne diseases in urban areas is of particular interest for epidemiologists and public health authorities. In this study, we investigated the mosquito occurrence in the city of Vienna, Austria, in order to estimate the risk of transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes were captured using different sampling techniques at 17 sites in the city of Vienna. Species belonging to the Culex pipiens complex (78.8 %) were most abundant, followed by Coquillettidia richiardii (10.2 %), Anopheles plumbeus (5.4 %), Aedes vexans (3.8 %), and Ochlerotatus sticticus (0.7 %). Individuals of the Cx. pipiens complex were found at 80.2 % of the trap sites, while 58.8 % of the trap sites were positive for Cq. richiardii and Ae. vexans. Oc. sticticus was captured at 35.3 % of the sites, and An. plumbeus only at 23.5 % of the trap sites. Cx. pipiens complex is known to be a potent vector and pathogens like West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV), Tahyna virus (TAHV), Sindbis virus (SINV), Plasmodium sp., and Dirofilaria repens can be transmitted by this species. Cq. richiardii is a known vector species for Batai virus (BATV), SINV, TAHV, and WNV, while Ae. vexans can transmit TAHV, USUV, WNV, and Dirofilaria repens. An. plumbeus and Oc. sticticus seem to play only a minor role in the transmission of vector-borne diseases in Vienna. WNV, which is already wide-spread in Europe, is likely to be the highest threat in Vienna as it can be transmitted by several of the most common species, has already been shown to pose a higher risk in cities, and has the possibility to cause severe illness.

  20. Odonate Nymphs: Generalist Predators and their Potential in the Management of Dengue Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Waseem Akram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue is amongst the most serious mosquito-borne infectious disease with hot spots in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Unfortunately, no licensed vaccine for the disease is currently available in medicine markets. The only option available is the management of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae.Method: Predatory potential of five odonate nymphs namely Anax parthenope, Bradinopyga geminate, Ischnura forcipata, Rhinocypha quadrimaculata, and Orthetrum sabina were evaluated against the 4th instar larvae of the den­gue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, under laboratory conditions. The consumption of the mosquito larvae was eval­uated at three water volume levels viz., 1 liter, 2 liter and 3 liter.Results: The number of Ae. aegypti larvae consumed varied significantly among the five species, and at different levels of water volume (P< 0.01. However, the interaction between odonate nymphs and the water volumes was statistically non-significant (P> 0.05. Ischnura forcipata consumed the highest number of Ae. aegypti larvae (n=56 followed by A. parthenope (n=47 and B. geminate (n=46. The number of larvae consumed was decreased with in­creasing search area or water volume, and the highest predation was observed at 1-liter water volume.Conclusion: The odonate nymphs could be a good source of biological agents for the management of the mosquitoes at larval stages. 

  1. Second Supplement to A Catalog of the Mosquitoes of the World (Diptera: Culicidae)

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    1984-01-01

    104. Brunhes, J. 1977a. Les moustiques de l’archipel des Comores I. - Inventaire, &partition et description de quatre esptces ou sous-espscies...nouvelles. Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M. Ser. Entomol. Med. Parasitol. 15:131-152. Brunhes, J. 1977b. Les moustiques de l’archipel des Comores 11. - Description de...Dieng. 1978. Aedes (Stegomyia) neoafricanus un nouvelle espzcie de moustique capture’e au Sgne’gal Oriental (Diptera: Culicidae), Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M

  2. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

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    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. INVENTORY OF MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE IN CONSERVATION UNITS IN BRAZILIAN TROPICAL DRY FORESTS

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    Cleandson Ferreira SANTOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, most studies of the Culicidae family are concentrated in rainforest regions. As such, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the diversity of Culicidae in regions with different climatic and vegetational characteristics. The aim of this study was to compile an inventory of Culicidae in protected areas of the semi-arid region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in order to better understand the diversity of the family within this region. The study was conducted across four protected areas in the northern region of the state, in tropical dry forest (TDF fragments. Sampling methods included Shannon trap and CDC light trap, as well as active collection. A total of 11,219 mosquito specimens were collected between August 2008 and July 2012, belonging to 11 genera and 45 species; 15 new records for the state of Minas Gerais were registered, as well as 26 new records for semi-arid regions within the state. The high number of new Culicidae records in this region demonstrates the importance of inventory studies for increasing the knowledge of culicid biodiversity in Minas Gerais, and in particular within semi-arid regions of the state.

  4. INVENTORY OF MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) IN CONSERVATION UNITS IN BRAZILIAN TROPICAL DRY FORESTS.

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    Santos, Cleandson Ferreira; Silva, Alex Chavier; Rodrigues, Raquel Andrade; de Jesus, Jamilli Sanndy Ramos; Borges, Magno Augusto Zazá

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, most studies of the Culicidae family are concentrated in rainforest regions. As such, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the diversity of Culicidae in regions with different climatic and vegetational characteristics. The aim of this study was to compile an inventory of Culicidae in protected areas of the semi-arid region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in order to better understand the diversity of the family within this region. The study was conducted across four protected areas in the northern region of the state, in tropical dry forest (TDF) fragments. Sampling methods included Shannon trap and CDC light trap, as well as active collection. A total of 11,219 mosquito specimens were collected between August 2008 and July 2012, belonging to 11 genera and 45 species; 15 new records for the state of Minas Gerais were registered, as well as 26 new records for semi-arid regions within the state. The high number of new Culicidae records in this region demonstrates the importance of inventory studies for increasing the knowledge of culicid biodiversity in Minas Gerais, and in particular within semi-arid regions of the state.

  5. Attractiveness of MM-X Traps Baited with Human or Synthetic Odor to Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    QIU, YU TONG; SMALLEGANGE, RENATE C.; TER BRAAK, CAJO J. F.; SPITZEN, JEROEN; VAN LOON, JOOP J. A.; JAWARA, MUSA; MILLIGAN, PAUL; GALIMARD, AGNES M.; VAN BEEK, TERIS A.; KNOLS, BART G. J.; TAKKEN, WILLEM

    2013-01-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to which carbon dioxide (CO2) was added were tested in four sets of experiments. In a second series of experiments, MM-X traps with 14 odor blends without CO2 were tested. A blend of ammonia and l-lactic acid with or without CO2 was used as control odor in series 1 and 2, respectively. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps were placed in a traditional house and an experimental house to monitor mosquito densities during the experiments. The MM-X traps caught a total number of 196,756 mosquitoes, with the most abundant species belonging to the genera Mansonia (70.6%), Anopheles (17.5%), and Culex (11.5%). The most abundant mosquito species caught by the CDC traps (56,290 in total) belonged to the genera Mansonia (59.4%), Anopheles (16.0% An. gambiae s.l. Giles, and 11.3% An. ziemanni Grünberg), and Culex (11.6%). MM-X traps baited with synthetic blends were in many cases more attractive than MM-X traps baited with human odors. Addition of CO2 to synthetic odors substantially increased the catch of all mosquito species in the MM-X traps. A blend of ammonia + L-lactic acid + CO2 + 3-methylbutanoic acid was the most attractive odor for most mosquito species. The candidate odor blend shows the potential to enhance trap collections so that traps will provide better surveillance and possible control. PMID:18047195

  6. [Detection of flavivirus in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Easter Island-Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collao, Ximena; Prado, Lorena; González, Christian; Vásquez, Ana; Araki, Romina; Henríquez, Tuki; Peña, Cindy M

    2015-02-01

    Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, mainly by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex (Culicidae) that are detected in tropical and subtropical areas. Main flaviviruses of public health importance are: dengue, West Nile virus, yellow fever, among others. In continental Chile, flaviviruses has not been detected. However, there are indigenous cases of dengue detected in Easter Island since 2002, as the presence of its vector Aedes aegypti. The aim of this study was: To determine diversity of flavivirus mosquitoes present in Easter Island. Thirty pools of mosquitoes collected in Hanga Roa were analyzed; a RT-PCR nested flavivirus was performed. Thirteen positive samples were detected and the amplification products were sequenced, identifying two specific flavivirus Insect, the Cell fusing agent virus and other related viruses Kamiti River. This is the first study in Chile showed the presence of flavivirus in vectors in Easter Island.

  7. Mitochondrial markers for molecular identification of Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) involved in transmission of arboviral disease in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Shelley; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou A; Cooper, Alan; Holmes, Edward C

    2005-01-01

    Correct classification of the insect vector is central to the study of arboviral disease. A simple molecular method for identification of the main vectors of the mosquito-borne viruses, dengue, yellow fever, and Rift Valley fever in Senegal, West Africa, was developed. We present a system in which the five mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) responsible for the majority of flaviviral disease transmission in Senegal can be reliably identified using small amounts of DNA coextracted during flaviviral screening procedures, via an easy amplification of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase c subunit I or II (COI or COII, respectively). We observed that despite very similar morphology, the two cryptic disease vector species Aedes furcifer Edwards and Aedes taylori Edwards are highly divergent at the molecular level. This sequence variation was used as a basis for the development of a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism system for the differentiation of the two species. We also present the first investigation of the phylogeny of the culicine mosquitoes based on all COI and COII sequences currently available. There seems to be very low intraspecific variation in both genes, whereas interspecific variation is high. As a consequence, COI and COII are ideal candidates for the molecular identification of disease vectors to species level, whereas deeper divergences remain equivocal by using these genes. This system provides a new technique for the accurate identification of culicine disease vectors in West Africa and provides a basis for the expansion of such methods into the study of a range of diseases.

  8. Mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) de los parques naturales de la Comunidad Valenciana

    OpenAIRE

    Bernués Bañeres, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    La familia Culicidae incluye algunas de las especies de dípteros más relevantes en el ámbito de la Salud Pública, no solo por las molestias que son capaces de causar debido a su tipo de alimentación hematófaga, sino por su capacidad para actuar como vectores de enfermedades de afección humana. Por este motivo, los mosquitos han sido, desde siempre, una de las dianas predilectas en los programas de control establecidos para la regulación de sus poblaciones y, por tanto, como medida profiláctic...

  9. An Annotated Bibliography of the Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Diseases of Guam (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    of elephantiasis , with 83 Americans and 28 natives admitted during the year with dengue fever, No cases of malaria were known to have originated on...group, p. 109. Mosquito Systematics Vol. 8(4) 1976 -3e *South Pacific Conmission. 1951. Conference of experts on filariasis and elephantiasis . So

  10. The impact of industrial anthropization on mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) communities in mangrove areas of Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, A S; Couri, M S; Florindo, L

    2012-02-01

    The effects of industrial anthropization on species composition and community diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) were studied in a mangrove area impacted by industrial activities as compared to a preserved area, both around Guanabara Bay in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Diversity, equitability, and species richness in Culicidae community differed between the studied areas. Indicator species analysis and correspondence analysis were carried out and indicated that the Sabethini, especially Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) theobaldi Lane, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) fuscipes (Edwards), and a non-identified species of Wyeomyia sp. were associated to the preserved area, whereas Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann and Aedes scapularis (Rondani) to the impacted area.

  11. Taxonomic Study of Species Formerly Identified as Anopheles mediopunctatus and Resurrection of An. costai (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Diptera: Culicidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 10: 169-187. 1962. Entomologia medica, vol. I. Parte Geral, Diptera, Anophelini. Faculdade de Higiene e...Ronderos. 1962. Mosquitos de la Re- Ortiz, I. 1968. Apuentes de entomologia medica: 10s mos- publica Argentina. I. Tribu Anophelini (Diptera - Culic

  12. A low-cost mesocosm for the study of behaviour and reproductive potential in Afrotropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B T; Stone, C M; Ebrahimi, B; Briët, O J T; Foster, W A

    2015-03-01

    A large-scale mesocosm was constructed and tested for its effectiveness for use in experiments on behaviour, reproduction and adult survivorship in the Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in temperate climates. The large space (82.69 m(3) ) allowed for semi-natural experiments that increased demand on a mosquito's energetic reserves in an environment of widely distributed resources. A one-piece prefabricated enclosure, made with white netting and vinyl, prevented the ingress of predators and the egress of mosquitoes. Daylight and white materials prompted the mosquitoes to seclude themselves in restricted daytime resting sites and allowed the easy collection of dead bodies so that daily mortality could be assessed accurately using a method that accounts for the loss of a proportion of bodies. Here, daily, age-dependent mortality rates of males and females were estimated using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. In overnight experiments, mosquitoes successfully located plants and took sugar meals. A 3-week survival trial with a single cohort demonstrated successful mating, blood feeding, oviposition and long life. The relatively low cost of the mesocosm and the performance of the mosquitoes in it make it a viable option for any behavioural or ecological study of tropical mosquitoes in which space and seasonal cold are constraining factors. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Abrigos de mosquitos Culex (Culex em zona rural (Diptera: Culicidae Resting places of mosquitoes Culex (Culex in rural zones (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almério de Castro Gomes

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available As atividades antrópicas levadas a cabo em zona rural têm afetado o comportamento de mosquitos Culex (Culex, motivo pelo qual foi realizada investigação para observar seus abrigos naturais em área de pastagem, margem e interior de matas primitivas ou residuais. Foram escolhidas três localidades com características mesológicas diferenciadas pelo tipo de atividade humana, todas situadas na região do Vale do Ribeira, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As espécies mais abundantes foram Cx. mollis (28,0%, Cx. declarator (25,0%, Cx. lygrus (13,0% e Cx. coronator (9,6%. O conjunto Cx. Bidens + Cx. dolosus + Cx. chidesteri, de hábito mais urbanizado, foi capturado em número muito reduzido. Com relação aos ambientes pesquisados, a mata contribuiu com 2.281 indivíduos (71,4%, sugerindo ser local de abrigo preferido pelo grupo, exceto para Cx. quinquefasciatus. Avaliou-se o potencial de domiciliação de cada espécie e suas conseqüências para a população humana.The human activities carried out in rural zones have been affeecting the behavior of mosquitoes of the Culex (Culex subgenera, which was the reason for undertaking this investigation with a view to registering data on the natural resting places in pastures and on the edge of or within primitive and residual forest areas. Three localities with different mesological conditions, as to type of human activity, all them situated in the Ribeira Valley region of S. Paulo State, Brazil, were chosen. The species most abundantly found were Cx. mollis (28.0%, Cx. declarator (25.0%, Cx. lygrus (13.0% and Cx. coronator (9.6%. The collection of mosquitoes Cx. bidens + Cx. dolosus + Cx. chidesteri, known to be more urban, was much smaller than that of any other species of the group. With reference to outdoor environments, woodland contributed with 2,281 individuals (71.4% suggesting their preference for this resting place, except for Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results are evaluated for the determination

  14. A low-cost mesocosm for the study of behaviour and reproductive potential of Afrotropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bryan T.; Stone, Christopher M.; Ebrahimi, Babak; Briët, Olivier J.T.; Foster, Woodbridge A.

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale mesocosm was constructed and tested for its effectiveness for experiments on behaviour, reproduction, and adult survivorship of the Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in temperate climates. The large space (82.69 m3) allowed for semi-natural experiments that increased demand on a mosquito’s energetic reserves in an environment of widely distributed resources. A one-piece prefabricated enclosure, made with white netting and vinyl, prevented the ingress of predators and the egress of mosquitoes. Daylight and white materials prompted the mosquitoes to seclude themselves in restricted daytime resting sites and allowed easy collection of dead bodies so that daily mortality could be assessed accurately, using a method that accounts for a proportion of bodies being lost. Here, daily, age-dependent mortality rates of males and females were estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. In overnight experiments, mosquitoes successfully located plants and took sugar meals. A 3-week survival trial with a single-cohort demonstrated successful mating, blood feeding, oviposition, and long life. The relatively low cost of the mesocosm and the performance of the mosquitoes in it make it a viable option for any behavioural or ecological study of tropical mosquitoes where space and seasonal cold are constraining factors. PMID:25294339

  15. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Habitat Surveillance by Android Mobile Devices in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tai-Ping; Tian, Jun-Hua; Xue, Rui-De; Fang, Yi-Liang; Zheng, Ai-Hua

    2016-12-17

    In 2014, Guangzhou City, South China, suffered from its worst outbreak of dengue fever in decades. Larval mosquito habitat surveillance was carried out by using android mobile devices in four study sites in May 2015. The habitats with larval mosquitoes were recorded as photo waypoints in OruxMaps or in videos. The total number of potential mosquito habitats was 342, of which 166 (49%) were found to have mosquito larvae or pupae. Small containers were the most abundant potential habitats, accounting for 26% of the total number. More mosquito larvae and pupae, were found in small containers than in other objects holding water, for example, potted or hydroponic plants ( p Android mobile devices are a convenient and useful tool for surveillance of mosquito habitats, and the enhancement of source reduction may benefit the prevention and control of dengue vector mosquitoes.

  16. Species composition and fauna distribution of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and its importance for vector-borne diseases in a rural area of Central Western - Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Alexandre Leal-Santos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study describes ecological data obtained in a rural area in the State of Mato Grosso, including the insects belonging to the family Culicidae, especially those framed as potential vectors of tropical diseases. In 2015, we collected adult mosquitoes in fragments of forest in a rural area located in Mato Grosso Central West of Brazil. We captured 18,256 mosquitoes of the sub-families Culicinae and Anophelinae and have identified 34 species belonging to 12 genera: Aedes (1 species, Anopheles (8 species, Coquillettidia (1 species, Haemagogus (1 species, Culex (5 species, Psorophora  (5 species, Ochlerotatus (4 species, Deinocerites (1 species,  Mansonia (4 species, Sabethes (2 species, Limatus (1 species, Wyeomyia (1 species. The family Culicidae presented high richness and abundance, established by diversity indexes (Margalef α =3.26; Shannon H' = 2.09; Simpson D = 0.19 with dominance of the species Anopheles (Nyssorhyncus darlingi Root (89.8%. This species has considerable epidemiological value, considered the main vector of malaria in Mato Grosso. Many species of mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens that cause disease in humans and domestic animals, transmitting pathogens including viruses (arboviruses, filaria worms (helminths and protozoa. Composição de espécies e distribuição da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae e sua importância para doenças transmitidas por vetores em uma área rural do centro-ocidental - Mato Grosso, Brasil Resumo. Este estudo descreve dados ecológicos de uma área rural do Estado de Mato Grosso e dos insetos da família Culicidae especialmente aqueles enquadrados como vetores potenciais de doenças tropicais. Em 2015, coletamos mosquitos adultos em fragmentos de floresta em localidades de áreas rurais no Mato Grosso região Centro Oeste do Brasil. Foram capturados 18.256 exemplares alados de mosquitos das subfamílias Culicinae e Anophelinae e identificadas 34 espécies pertencentes a 12 g

  17. Midgut of the non-hematophagous mosquito Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Diptera, Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Godoy, Raquel S. M.; Fernandes, Kenner M.; Martins, Gustavo F.

    2015-01-01

    In most mosquito species, the females require a blood-feeding for complete egg development. However, in Toxorhynchites mosquitoes, the eggs develop without blood-feeding, and both females and males exclusively feed on sugary diets. The midgut is a well-understood organ in blood-feeding mosquitoes, but little is known about it in non-blood-feeding ones. In the present study, the detailed morphology of the midgut of Toxorhynchites theobaldi were investigated using histochemical and ultrastructu...

  18. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae Habitat Surveillance by Android Mobile Devices in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Ping Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, Guangzhou City, South China, suffered from its worst outbreak of dengue fever in decades. Larval mosquito habitat surveillance was carried out by using android mobile devices in four study sites in May 2015. The habitats with larval mosquitoes were recorded as photo waypoints in OruxMaps or in videos. The total number of potential mosquito habitats was 342, of which 166 (49% were found to have mosquito larvae or pupae. Small containers were the most abundant potential habitats, accounting for 26% of the total number. More mosquito larvae and pupae, were found in small containers than in other objects holding water, for example, potted or hydroponic plants (p < 0.05. Mosquito larvae were collected from all plastic road barriers, used tires, and underground water. Aedes albopictus larvae were found from small and large containers, stumps, among others. The overall route index (RI was 11.3, which was 14.2 times higher than the grade C criteria of the National Patriotic Health Campaign Committee (NPHCC, China. The higher RIs were found from the bird and flower markets, schools, and underground parking lots. The results indicated that Android mobile devices are a convenient and useful tool for surveillance of mosquito habitats, and the enhancement of source reduction may benefit the prevention and control of dengue vector mosquitoes.

  19. Mosquito ovicidal properties of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternativ...

  20. Midgut of the non-hematophagous mosquito Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Diptera, Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Raquel S M; Fernandes, Kenner M; Martins, Gustavo F

    2015-10-30

    In most mosquito species, the females require a blood-feeding for complete egg development. However, in Toxorhynchites mosquitoes, the eggs develop without blood-feeding, and both females and males exclusively feed on sugary diets. The midgut is a well-understood organ in blood-feeding mosquitoes, but little is known about it in non-blood-feeding ones. In the present study, the detailed morphology of the midgut of Toxorhynchites theobaldi were investigated using histochemical and ultrastructural methods. The midgut of female and male T. theobaldi adults consists of a long, slender anterior midgut (AMG), and a short, dilated posterior midgut (PMG). The AMG is subdivided into AMG1 (short, with folds) and AMG2 (long, without folds). Nerve branches and enteroendocrine cells are present in AMG and PMG, respectively. Compared with the PMG of blood-feeding female mosquitoes, the PMG of T. theobaldi is smaller; however, in both mosquitoes, PMG seems be the main region of food digestion and absorption, and protein secretion. The epithelial folds present in the AMG of T. theobaldi have not been reported in other mosquitoes; however, the midgut muscle organization and endocrine control of the digestion process are conserved in both T. theobaldi and blood-feeding mosquitoes.

  1. Fauna and Larval Habitats of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae of West Azerbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Khoshdel-Nezamiha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several important diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. Despite of the potential of the occurrence of some mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile, dirofilariasis and malaria in the region, there is no recent study of mosquitoes in West Azerbaijan Province. The aim of this investigation was to study the fauna, composition and distribution of mosquitoes and the characteristics of their larval habitats in this province.Larvae and adult collections were carried out from different habitats using the standard methods in twenty five localities of seven counties across West Azerbaijan Province.Overall, 1569 mosquitoes including 1336 larvae and 233 adults were collected from 25 localities. The details of geographical properties were recorded. Five genera along with 12 species were collected and identified including: Anopheles claviger, An. maculipennis s.l., An. superpictus, Culex pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. modestus, Cx. hortensis, Cx. mimeticus, Culiseta Longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caspius s.l., Oc. geniculatus and Uranotaenia unguiculata. This is the first record of Oc. geniculatus in the province.Due to the geographical location of the West Azerbaijan Province, it comprises different climatic condition which provides suitable environment for the establishment of various species of mosquitoes. The solidarity geographical, cultural and territorial exchanges complicate the situation of the province and its vectors as a threat for future and probable epidemics of mosquito-borne diseases.

  2. An Update on the Potential of North American Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to Transmit West Nile Virus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turell, Michael J; Dohm, David J; Sardelis, Michael R; O 'Guinn, Monica L; Andreadis, Theodore G; Blow, Jamie A

    2004-01-01

    .... To develop appropriate surveillance and control strategies, the identification of which mosquito species are competent vectors and how various factors influence their ability to transmit this virus must be determined...

  3. [The mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of the environs of the Sayan-Shushenskoe hydroelectric power station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornostaeva, R M

    1999-01-01

    Among females and larvae of mosquitoes collected in 1969, 1981-1984 in the area of the Sayan-Shushenskoe hydroelectric power station (140 km up the Yenisei River from the Abakan city) 5 genera and 30 species were recorded. Based on recent collections and reference data (Gornostaeva e. a., 1969; Gornostaeva, Danilov, 1986) the fauna of the region in question includes 31 species of mosquitoes (Anopheles--1, Culiseta--2, Coquillettidia--1, Aedes--22, Culex--5).

  4. Resistance Level of Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae from Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Mei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the aquatic habitats, species composition, and the insecticide resistance level of the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens in Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey of mosquito larval habitats was conducted from May to November 2014 to determine the species composition and larval abundance. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique, and a total of four habitat types were sampled. The fourth instar larvae of Cx. pipiens pallens collected in each habitat type were tested for resistance to five insecticides according to a WHO bioassay. A total of 7,281 mosquito larvae were collected, of which 399 (5.48% were categorized as Anopheles mosquito larvae ( An. sinensis , 6636 (91.14% as culicine larvae ( Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. halifaxii, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus , 213 (2.93% as Armigeres larvae, and 33 (0.45% as Aedes larvae ( Aedes albopictus . In addition, a total of 1,149 mosquito pupae were collected. Culex larvae were distributed in all habitats investigated. Tukeys HSD analysis showed that roadside drainages were the most productive habitat type for Culex larvae. Armigeres species were found only in drains, Aedes only in water tanks, and Anopheles in water that was comparatively clear and rich in emergent plants. Bioassay showed that the maximum resistance level of Cx. pipiens pallens was to deltamethrin, while it was lowest to plifenate. The productivity of various mosquitoes in different habitat types is very heterogeneous. It is particularly important to modify human activity and the environment to achieve effective mosquito vector control. For effective larval control, the type of habitat should be considered, and the most productive habitat type should be given priority in mosquito abatement programs.

  5. Xenomonitoring of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae for the Presence of Filarioid Helminths in Eastern Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Susanne Übleis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Information on mosquito-borne filarioid helminths in Austria is scarce, but recent discoveries of Dirofilaria repens indicate autochthonous distribution of this parasite in Eastern Austria. In the current xenomonitoring study, more than 48,000 mosquitoes were collected in Eastern Austria between 2013 and 2015, using different sampling techniques and storage conditions, and were analysed in pools with molecular tools for the presence of filarioid helminth DNA. Overall, DNA of D. repens, Setaria tundra, and two unknown filarioid helminths were documented in twenty mosquito pools within the mitochondrial cox1 gene (barcode region. These results indicate that S. tundra, with roe deer as definite hosts, is common in Eastern Austria, with most occurrences in floodplain mosquitoes (e.g., Aedes vexans. Moreover, DNA of D. repens was found in an Anopheles plumbeus mosquito close to the Slovakian border, indicating that D. repens is endemic in low prevalence in Eastern Austria. This study shows that xenomonitoring is an adequate tool to analyse the presence of filarioid helminths, but results are influenced by mosquito sampling techniques, storage conditions, and molecular protocols.

  6. Detection of the Invasive Mosquito Species Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Hugo Costa; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Neto, Maria; Silva, Sílvia; Marques, Fátima; Silva, Ana Sofia; Alves, Maria João

    2018-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is an invasive mosquito originating from the Asia-Pacific region. This species is of major concern to public and veterinary health because of its vector role in the transmission of several pathogens, such as chikungunya, dengue, and Zika viruses. In Portugal, a National Vector Surveillance Network (REde de VIgilância de VEctores—REVIVE) is responsible for the surveillance of autochthonous, but also invasive, mosquito species at points of entry, such as airports, ports, storage areas, and specific border regions with Spain. At these locations, networks of mosquito traps are set and maintained under surveillance throughout the year. In September 2017, Ae. albopictus was detected for the first time in a tyre company located in the North of Portugal. Molecular typing was performed, and a preliminary phylogenetic analysis indicated a high similarity with sequences of Ae. albopictus collected in Europe. A prompt surveillance response was locally implemented to determine its dispersal and abundance, and adult mosquitoes were screened for the presence of arboviral RNA. A total of 103 specimens, 52 immatures and 51 adults, were collected. No pathogenic viruses were detected. Despite the obtained results suggest low abundance of the population locally introduced, the risk of dispersal and potential establishment of Ae. albopictus in Portugal has raised concern for autochthonous mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. PMID:29690531

  7. Detection of the Invasive Mosquito Species Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Costa Osório

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is an invasive mosquito originating from the Asia-Pacific region. This species is of major concern to public and veterinary health because of its vector role in the transmission of several pathogens, such as chikungunya, dengue, and Zika viruses. In Portugal, a National Vector Surveillance Network (REde de VIgilância de VEctores—REVIVE is responsible for the surveillance of autochthonous, but also invasive, mosquito species at points of entry, such as airports, ports, storage areas, and specific border regions with Spain. At these locations, networks of mosquito traps are set and maintained under surveillance throughout the year. In September 2017, Ae. albopictus was detected for the first time in a tyre company located in the North of Portugal. Molecular typing was performed, and a preliminary phylogenetic analysis indicated a high similarity with sequences of Ae. albopictus collected in Europe. A prompt surveillance response was locally implemented to determine its dispersal and abundance, and adult mosquitoes were screened for the presence of arboviral RNA. A total of 103 specimens, 52 immatures and 51 adults, were collected. No pathogenic viruses were detected. Despite the obtained results suggest low abundance of the population locally introduced, the risk of dispersal and potential establishment of Ae. albopictus in Portugal has raised concern for autochthonous mosquito-borne disease outbreaks.

  8. Monthly prevalence and diversity of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Keshavarzi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To get new data about the ecology of mosquitoes, which would be valuable to develop programs for future provision of mosquito controls in the study area. Methods: During April to September 2012, larvae of mosquitoes were collected from six counties in south of Fars Province using dipping method. Characteristics of larval breeding places were considered based on water conditions. Species diversity was examined in terms of alpha and beta measures, with the intent of comparing mosquito diversity according to the typology of regions. Results: During this investigation, totally, 5 057 larvae of mosquitoes belonging to 5 genera and 17 different mosquito species were recognized, namely, Anopheles dthali, Anopheles fluviatilis, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles superpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus, Culex mimeticus, Culex perexiguus, Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex theileri (Cx. theileri, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex sinaiticus, Culex torrentium, Culex modestus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Culiseta longiareolata and Aedes vexans (Ae. vexans. This is the first record of Ae. vexans, Culex perexiguus and Culex modestus in the Province. Cx. pipiens (27.3%, Cx. theileri (15.9% and Cx. quinquefasciatus (9.4% were the most abundant species found respectively. Cx. pipiens reached the highest density in August and July, while Cx. theileri, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. vexans were found in high numbers in June. Diversity analysis indicated the highest species diversity in the Mohr County (Margalef index of 1.41 and Shannon index of 1.7 and the lowest species diversity in the Lamerd County (Margalef index of 0.33 and Shannon index of 0.38. Conclusions: Regarding to this research, there are some potential vectors of medical and veterinary importance in Fars Province. Results of the present study may serve as a basis for risk assessment of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  9. Native Argentinean cyclopoids (Crustacea: Copepoda as predators of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C Tranchida

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Copepods from La Plata, Argentina were investigated to characterize the local community of larvivorous copepods inhabiting mosquito breeding sites and to identify new predator species of the mosquitoes which occur in artificial containers, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens. Diversity of larvivorous cyclopoids was highest in permanent pools. Predation by sex and age, selectivity on mosquito species, and daily predation rate during five days were studied for Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops uruguayensis, Macrocyclops albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus. Female copepods presented the highest predatory capacity. No predatory preference for mosquito species was found. According to overall predation potential, copepods were ranked as follows: D. uruguayensis Se hizo una prospección de copépodos en La Plata, Argentina, con los objetivos de caracterizar la comunidad local de copépodos larvívoros en sitios de cría de mosquitos, e identificar nuevas especies depredadoras de los mosquitos de contenedores artificiales Aedes aegypti y Culex pipiens. La diversidad de ciclopoides larvívoros fue máxima en charcos permanentes. Se examinó la depredación por sexos y edad, la selectividad por especies de mosquito, y la tasa de depredación diaria durante cinco días en Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops uruguayensis, Macrocyclops albidus y Mesocyclops longisetus. Los copépodos hembra presentaron la capacidad depredadora más alta. No se encontró preferencia por alguna especie de mosquito. De acuerdo al potencial de depredación en general, los copépodos se ordenan así: D. uruguayensis < A. robustus < M. albidus < M. longisetus. También se evaluó la tolerancia a la desecación del hábitat y la capacidad de resistir en agua de contenedores artificiales. D. uruguayensis y A. robustus sobrevivieron en condiciones de sequía, pero D. uruguayensis presentó menor supervivencia en agua de floreros de cementerio. M. albidus no sobrevivió condiciones de

  10. Evaluation of immature mosquitocidal properties of Xanthium strumarium Linn. plant extracts against Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Kasim Roba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate immature mosquitocidal properties of Xanthium strumarium plant extracts against Culex mosquitoes at Entomology Laboratory, Maraki Campus, University of Gondar. Methods: The immature mosquitocidal activity of plant extracts was tested by following World Health Organization recommended protocol. Acetone, methanol and water extracts were prepared at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L concentrations and tested against third and fourth instar larvae and pupae of Culex mosquitoes. The mortality rate of immature mosquitoes was recorded after 24, 48 and 72 h exposure period continuously. Results: Third instar larvae after 24 h exposure period, maximum mortality of 77.80% was recorded at 250 mg/L concentration of acetone extract. After 48 h and 72 h exposure period, maximum mortality of 88.90% was recorded in acetone extract in all the tested concentration. The maximum mortality of fourth instar larvae was 88.90% in acetone extract at 200 and 250 mg/L concentrations. Pupal mortality was also greater in acetone extract. The percentage of mortality in all the stage of mosquitoes was higher in acetone extract followed by methanol and water extract. Conclusions: The percentage of mortality is associated with concentration of the extracts tested and exposure period. This laboratory study confirmed immature mosquitocidal activity of Xanthium strumarium leaf extracts against Culex mosquitoes. The aqueous leaf extract can be used by applying on small man-made breeding places to prevent adult emergence.

  11. Mosquito adulticidal properties of Delonix elata (Family: Fabaceae against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Mohan Rajeswary

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the adulticidal activity of hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol leaf and seed extracts of Delonix elata (D. elata against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti. Methods: The bioassay was conducted in an experimental kit consisting of two cylindrical plastic tubes both measuring 125 mm×44 mm following the WHO method; mortality of the mosquitoes was recorded after 24 h. Results: The adulticidal activity of plant leaf and seed extracts showed moderate toxic effect on the adult mosquitoes after 24 h of exposure period. However, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in the leaf methanol extract of D. elata against Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values 162.87 and 309.32 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: From this result, it can be concluded the crude extract of D. elata was an excellent potential for controlling Ae. aegypti mosquitoes.

  12. Wolbachia and dengue virus infection in the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae.

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    Jéssica Barreto Lopes Silva

    Full Text Available Dengue represents a serious threat to human health, with billions of people living at risk of the disease. Wolbachia pipientis is a bacterial endosymbiont common to many insect species. Wolbachia transinfections in mosquito disease vectors have great value for disease control given the bacterium's ability to spread into wild mosquito populations, and to interfere with infections of pathogens, such as dengue virus. Aedes fluviatilis is a mosquito with a widespread distribution in Latin America, but its status as a dengue vector has not been clarified. Ae. fluviatilis is also naturally infected by the wFlu Wolbachia strain, which has been demonstrated to enhance infection with the avian malarial parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum. We performed experimental infections of Ae. fluviatilis with DENV-2 and DENV-3 isolates from Brazil via injection or oral feeding to provide insight into its competence for the virus. We also examined the effect of the native Wolbachia infection on the virus using a mosquito line where the wFlu infection had been cleared by antibiotic treatment. Through RT-qPCR, we observed that Ae. fluviatilis could become infected with both viruses via either method of infection, although at a lower rate than Aedes aegypti, the primary dengue vector. We then detected DENV-2 and DENV-3 in the saliva of injected mosquitoes, and observed that injection of DENV-3-infected saliva produced subsequent infections in naïve Ae. aegypti. However, across our data we observed no difference in prevalence of infection and viral load between Wolbachia-infected and -uninfected mosquitoes, suggesting that there is no effect of wFlu on dengue virus. Our results highlight that Ae. fluviatilis could potentially serve as a dengue vector under the right circumstances, although further testing is required to determine if this occurs in the field.

  13. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) grouping based on larval habitat characteristics in high mountain ecosystems of Antioquia, Colombia.

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    Rosero-García, Doris; Rúa-Uribe, Guillermo; Correa, Margarita M; Conn, Jan E; Uribe-Soto, Sandra

    2018-06-01

    Information about mosquito ecology in the high mountain ecosystems of the Neotropical region is sparse. In general, few genera and species have been reported in these ecosystems and there is no information available on habitats and the mosquitoes occupying them. In the present study, specimens collected from NW Colombia in HME were grouped using larval habitat data via an Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) determination. A total of 719 mosquitoes was analyzed belonging to 44 OTUs. The analysis considered habitat features and clustered the specimens into six groups from A-F. Five of these included species from different genera, suggesting common habitat requirements. Group E with four genera, seven subgenera, and six species occupied the highest areas (above 3,000 m), whereas three groups (B, D, F) were detected at lower altitudes (1,960-2,002 m). Bromeliads were the most common larval habitat, with 47% (335/719) of the specimens; five genera, six subgenera, and eight species were identified and classified into 66% (29/44) of the OTUs. This work showed some similarities to the habitat requirements and provides a grouping system that constitutes an important baseline for the classification of mosquito fauna from high mountain ecosystems according to altitude and larval habitat. © 2018 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  14. Feeding patterns of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in six Brazilian environmental preservation areas.

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    dos Santos Silva, Júlia; Alencar, Jeronimo; Costa, Janira Martins; Seixas-Lorosa, Elias; Guimarães, Anthony Érico

    2012-12-01

    Feeding patterns of mosquitoes in six Brazilian environmental preservation areas were analyzed by the precipitin technique. The mosquito populations were captured using Shannon traps during different time periods. Bird, cow, dog, horse, opossum, human, and rodent antisera diagnostic tests were employed and results were analyzed by calculating the Sørensen similarity index and using the null-model test. Of the 647 analyzed specimens, 443 reacted to the utilized antisera, of which 331 reacted to one blood source, with the most frequent being birds (49.4%); and 112 specimens reacted to two blood sources, with the most frequent combination from birds + rodents (14.3%). The feed profiles demonstrated that Anopheles albitarsis, An. evansae, Aedes fulvus, Psorophora albigenu, Ps. albipes, Ps. ferox, and Mansonia titillans fed predominantly on birds. The similarity index showed that in some localities An. cruzii, Chagasia fajardi, Ae. scapularis, Ae. serratus, Haemagogus leucocelaenus, Ps. albigenu, and Ps. ferox presented similar dietary habits. The null-models test indicated that species from SMSP, INP, CGNP, and THP demonstrated an aggregate pattern, while species from SONP and SBNP showed a random pattern. The mosquitoes fed predominantly on birds, but from an epidemiological standpoint, the eclectic feeding habits were found to be constant among the mosquitoes analyzed. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  15. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna in an area endemic for West Nile virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebesta, Oldřich; Halouzka, Jiří; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Juřicová, Zina; Rudolf, Ivo; Šikutová, Silvie; Svobodová, Petra; Reiter, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2010), s. 156-162 ISSN 1081-1710 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mosquito es * Anopheles * Aedes * Culex * climate * ecology Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.256, year: 2010

  16. Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica.

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    Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Troyo, Adriana; Solano, Mayra E; Avendaño, Adrián; Beier, John C

    2009-12-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry season. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100 x 100m) was selected for the study. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii). Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi) and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.). A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area, C quinquefasciatus, C nigripalpus, and the other species of Culex could be considered potential vectors of other pathogens. The presence and ecology of all mosquito species should be studied to optimize surveillance and prevention of dengue and to prevent the emergence of other mosquito-transmitted diseases.

  17. Modelling the spatial distribution of the nuisance mosquito species Anopheles plumbeus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Justicia, Adolfo; Cianci, Daniela

    2015-05-01

    Landscape modifications, urbanization or changes of use of rural-agricultural areas can create more favourable conditions for certain mosquito species and therefore indirectly cause nuisance problems for humans. This could potentially result in mosquito-borne disease outbreaks when the nuisance is caused by mosquito species that can transmit pathogens. Anopheles plumbeus is a nuisance mosquito species and a potential malaria vector. It is one of the most frequently observed species in the Netherlands. Information on the distribution of this species is essential for risk assessments. The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential spatial distribution of An. plumbeus in the Netherlands. Random forest models were used to link the occurrence and the abundance of An. plumbeus with environmental features and to produce distribution maps in the Netherlands. Mosquito data were collected using a cross-sectional study design in the Netherlands, from April to October 2010-2013. The environmental data were obtained from satellite imagery and weather stations. Statistical measures (accuracy for the occurrence model and mean squared error for the abundance model) were used to evaluate the models performance. The models were externally validated. The maps show that forested areas (centre of the Netherlands) and the east of the country were predicted as suitable for An. plumbeus. In particular high suitability and high abundance was predicted in the south-eastern provinces Limburg and North Brabant. Elevation, precipitation, day and night temperature and vegetation indices were important predictors for calculating the probability of occurrence for An. plumbeus. The probability of occurrence, vegetation indices and precipitation were important for predicting its abundance. The AUC value was 0.73 and the error in the validation was 0.29; the mean squared error value was 0.12. The areas identified by the model as suitable and with high abundance of An. plumbeus, are

  18. Repellency and toxicity of aromatic plant extracts against the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Abdallah F; El-Haj, Samih; Tueni, Marie; Taoubi, Khalil; Nader, Natalie Abi; Mrad, Abir

    2005-06-01

    The insecticidal activities of essential oil extracts from leaves, flowers and roots of aromatic plants against fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus Forskal were determined. Extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill were the most toxic, followed by those of Ferula hermonis Boiss, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, Pinus pinea L, Laurus nobilis L and Eucalyptus spp with LC50 values of 24.5, 44.0, 60.0, 75.0, 117.0 and 120.0 mg litre(-1), respectively. Combination tests between the LC50 and the maximum sub-lethal concentration (MSLC) were determined. Over 20 major components were identified in extracts from each plant species tested. Five essential oils and nine pure components were studied for their repellency against mosquito bites. Terpineol and 1,8-cineole were the most effective against Culex pipiens molestus bites offering complete protection for 1.6 and 2 h, respectively.

  19. Fauna of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicida) in Asir Provence, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ashry, Hamdy A; Kenawy, Mohamed A; Shobrak, Mohammed

    2014-04-01

    An entomological survey was undertaken for one year to update the mosquito fauna of Asir Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 31 species of 8 genera were reported of which genus Culex (55%) was the most common. Most of collected larvae (59%) belonged to genus Culex (+ Lutzia) followed by Culiseta (26%), Anopheles (13%) and Aedine spp. (2%). Cx. pipiens (39%) and Cs. longiareolata (26.%) were generally the most abundant of all collected larvae. Of the Anopheles spp., An. dthali was common (40%), of Culex spp., Cx. pipiens was predominating (66%) and of Aedine spp., St. aegypti was predominating (71%). Four species: An. fluviatilis, Cx. mattinglyi, Cx. arbieeni and Cx. mimeticus were new reports in Asir Region and Cx. wigglesworthi recorded for the first time from the kingdom. Larvae were more common in low- and highlands than in the moderately altitude areas. In general all species prefer stagnant water but with the exception of Aedine larvae (altogether), the other species prefer presence of algae, vegetation and shade and absence of turbidity (except Culex spp.). A total of 98 different forms of association were reported of which 9 forms were common. All genera breed year round with peaks of abundance during spring for Anopheles spp. and Culex spp. and during winter for Aedine spp. and Cs. longiareolata. A complete list of mosquito fauna of Asir Region comprising 45 spp. was presented based on the present and previous surveys. The study concluded that the occurrence and prevalence of mosquito species mainly the disease vectors in Asir carry the thread of maintaining and transmission of several mosquito-borne diseases.

  20. Host feeding pattern of Japanese encephalitis virus vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Kuttanadu, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Samuel, P; Arunachalam, N; Hiriyan, J; Tyagi, B K

    2008-09-01

    Identification of blood meals of vector mosquitoes is an important tool in the epidemiological investigations of vector-borne diseases. The blood meals of three mosquito species involved in the transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) from the Kuttanadu area, Kerala, were determined using the agarose gel diffusion technique. A total of 4959 blood smears belonging to Culex (Culex) tritaeniorhynchus Giles (3273), Cx. (Culex) gelidus Theobald (64), Mansonia (Mnd.) indiana Edwards (735) ,and Ma. (Mnd.) uniformis (Theobald) (887) were tested. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus had predominantly fed on bovids (46.4%), and a good proportion (29%) had fed on more than one host. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was highly zoophagic, and human feeding accounted for only 1.5% of those individuals successfully tested. Cx. gelidus showed bovid feeding at 36% and pig feeding at 12.5%. The test results showed 42.3% Ma. indiana and 12.2% Ma. uniformis had fed on humans. Multiple feeding was observed in Ma. indiana and Ma. uniformis, and most of the double feedings were from bovids and ovids (7.9 and 20.1%, respectively). Pig feeding accounted for 4.8% of the feedings by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, 5.3% of Ma. indiana, and 6.4% of Ma. uniformis. This study is significant because of the role played by these mosquitoes in the transmission of JEV in the Kuttanadu area of Kerala, India.

  1. Mediation of deet repellency in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) by species, age, and parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, D R

    1998-05-01

    Laboratory bioassays assessed differences in the protection time provided by the repellent deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) against 5-d-old nulliparous and 10-, 15-, and 20-d-old nulliparous and parous female Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles albimanus (Weidemann), and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say sensu lato. Mean protection time was shortest against An. albimanus (1.6 h) and An. quadrimaculatus (1.5 h) and longest against Ae. aegypti (6.5 h), but was not significantly influenced by mosquito age or parity. Mean percentage of biting at repellent failure time was highest in An. albimanus (14.2%), followed by An. quadrimaculatus (7.0%) and Ae. aegypti (2.9%), was higher in parous females (10.8%) than in nulliparous females (5.9%), and was highest overall (35%) in 20-d-old parous An. albimanus. Interaction between mosquito species and parity and between parity and age factors, respectively, resulted from a significant decrease in percentage of biting by parous An. quadrimaculatus compared with other females, and a significant increase in biting by 20-d-old parous females compared with other females. The main finding of this study is that repellent protection time is unaffected by parity; this is important because parous mosquitoes are the primary target of personal-protection measures in disease-endemic areas. When repellent failure did occur, there was a higher risk of bite by old, parous An. albimanus than for any other species, age, or parity grouping of females.

  2. Comparative Efficacy of Commercial Mosquito Coils Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Malaysia: A Nationwide Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, A C; Chen, C D; Low, V L; Lee, H L; Azidah, A A; Lau, K W; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted using the glass chamber method to determine the susceptibility status of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) from 11 states in Malaysia to commercial mosquito coils containing four different active ingredients, namely metofluthrin, d-allethrin, d-trans allethrin, and prallethrin. Aedes aegypti exhibited various knockdown rates, ranging from 14.44% to 100.00%, 0.00% to 61.67%, 0.00% to 90.00%, and 0.00% to 13.33% for metofluthrin, d-allethrin, d-trans allethrin, and prallethrin, respectively. Overall, mortality rates ranging from 0.00% to 78.33% were also observed among all populations. Additionally, significant associations were detected between the knockdown rates of metofluthrin and d-allethrin, and between metofluthrin and d-trans allethrin, suggesting the occurrence of cross-resistance within pyrethroid insecticides. Overall, this study revealed low insecticidal activity of mosquito coils against Ae. aegypti populations in Malaysia, and consequently may provide minimal personal protection against mosquito bites. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. II - Habitat distribution

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    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae ecology was studied in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992. A total of 24,943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. Aedes scapularis, Coquillettidia chrysonotum, Cq. venezuelensis, Wyeomyia dyari, Wy. longirostris, Wy. theobaldi and Wy. palmata were more frequently collected at swampy and at flooded areas. Anopheles mediopunctatus, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. serratus, Ae. fulvus, Psorophora ferox, Ps. albipes and the Sabethini in general, were captured almost exclusively in forested areas. An. cruzii, An. oswaldoi and An. fluminensis were captured more frequently in a residence area. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the only one truly eusynanthropic. An. cruzii and Ae. scapularis were captured feeding on blood inside and around the residence, indicating that both species, malaria and arbovirus vectors respectively, may be involved in the transmission of these such diseases in rural areas.

  4. Toxicity of Beauveria bassiana-28 Mycelial Extracts on Larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanandhan, Perumal; Kavitha, Thangaraj; Karthi, Sengodan; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Shivakumar, Muthugoundar Subramanian

    2018-03-03

    Microbial-based pest control is an attractive alternative to chemical insecticides. The present study sought to evaluate the toxicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana -28 ethyl acetate extracts on different larval stages and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. B. bassiana -28 ethyl acetate mycelial extracts produced mosquitocidal activity against larvae and pupae which was comparable to that of the commercial insecticide B. bassiana -22 extract. The LC 50 (lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed larvae) values of B. bassiana -28 extracts for 1st to 4th instar larvae and pupae were 11.538, 6.953, 5.841, 3.581 and 9.041 mg/L respectively. Our results show that B. bassiana -28 ethyl acetate mycelial extract has strong insecticidal activity against larval and pupal stages of Cx. quinquefasciatus . Fourier transform infrared spectrum study of B. bassiana -28 extract shows peaks at 3226.91; 2927.94; 1593.13; 1404.18; 1224.18; 1247.94; 1078.21; 1018.41; 229.69; and 871.82 cm -1 . Major spectral peaks were observed at 3226.91 cm -1, assigned to N-H stretching, 2927.94 cm -1 assigned to C-H bonding and 1595.13 cm -1 assigned to C-O stretching. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry studies of B. bassiana -28 ethyl acetate crude extract showed presence of six major compounds viz. N -hexadecanoic acids (13.6040%); Z,Z -9,12 octadecadienic acid (33.74%); 9-eicosyne (10.832%); heptacosane (5.148%); tetrateracontane (5.801%); and 7 hexyleicosane (5.723%). Histology of mosquito midgut tissue shows tissue lysis as a result of B.bassiana -28 extract exposure. The study shows that bioactive molecules obtained from B. bassiana -28 mycelial extract has insecticidal properties and can be used as alternative for mosquito control.

  5. Toxicity of Beauveria bassiana-28 Mycelial Extracts on Larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Vivekanandhan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial-based pest control is an attractive alternative to chemical insecticides. The present study sought to evaluate the toxicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana-28 ethyl acetate extracts on different larval stages and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. B. bassiana-28 ethyl acetate mycelial extracts produced mosquitocidal activity against larvae and pupae which was comparable to that of the commercial insecticide B. bassiana-22 extract. The LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed larvae values of B. bassiana-28 extracts for 1st to 4th instar larvae and pupae were 11.538, 6.953, 5.841, 3.581 and 9.041 mg/L respectively. Our results show that B. bassiana-28 ethyl acetate mycelial extract has strong insecticidal activity against larval and pupal stages of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Fourier transform infrared spectrum study of B. bassiana-28 extract shows peaks at 3226.91; 2927.94; 1593.13; 1404.18; 1224.18; 1247.94; 1078.21; 1018.41; 229.69; and 871.82 cm−1. Major spectral peaks were observed at 3226.91 cm−1, assigned to N–H stretching, 2927.94 cm−1 assigned to C–H bonding and 1595.13 cm−1 assigned to C–O stretching. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry studies of B. bassiana-28 ethyl acetate crude extract showed presence of six major compounds viz. N-hexadecanoic acids (13.6040%; Z,Z-9,12 octadecadienic acid (33.74%; 9-eicosyne (10.832%; heptacosane (5.148%; tetrateracontane (5.801%; and 7 hexyleicosane (5.723%. Histology of mosquito midgut tissue shows tissue lysis as a result of B.bassiana-28 extract exposure. The study shows that bioactive molecules obtained from B. bassiana-28 mycelial extract has insecticidal properties and can be used as alternative for mosquito control.

  6. Larvicidal properties of two asclepiadaceous plant species against the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Elsayed Edriss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain mosquito species are important vectors of fatal human diseases, among which Anopheles arabiensis is known to be associated with malaria transmission in different tropical and subtropical areas. Since chemical control of mosquitoes was linked with numerous drawbacks, like resistance development, the search for effective environmentally sound alternatives is urgently needed. Therefore, it was aimed by this study to evaluate some extracts prepared from two asclepiadaceous plants, viz., Solenostemma argel “Hargel” (seeds and leaves and Calotropis procera “Usher” (leaves and flowers, as natural larvicides against An. arabiensis. The main parameters included bioassays of treatments for knockdown and residual effects, besides phytochemical analysis of the tested extracts. The results revealed variable groups of secondary metabolites in the two plants, with S. argel seemed to be the richest one. Hence, S. argel extracts caused higher larval mortalities than those of C. procera. This could be ascribed to some potent secondary metabolites in the former plant, which needs further studies. Almost all the high concentrations of S. argel extracts exerted the highest knockdown effect (90% mortality after 24 h, which were comparable with those obtained by two standard insecticides. The highest doses of petroleum ether and water extracts of this plant also manifested significantly higher residual effects than the other extracts after three days following treatments, but were surpassed by the chemical insecticides thereafter. However, S. argel seed petroleum ether extract at 0.5% was the most effective of all botanicals up to three weeks of exposure. This extract needs to be evaluated under field conditions for proper exploitation as mosquito larvicide.

  7. Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica

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    Olger Calderón-Arguedas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry season. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100x100m was selected for the study. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii. Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.. A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area, C quinquefasciatus, C. nigripalpus, and the other species of Culex could be considered potential vectors of other pathogens. The presence and ecology of all mosquito species should be studied to optimize surveillance and prevention of dengue and to prevent the emergence of other mosquito-transmitted diseases. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1223-1234. Epub 2009 December 01.La riqueza de especies de mosquitos urbanos de la Gran Puntarenas (Puntarenas, Costa Rica fue evaluada por medio de análisis larvales. Dos encuestas entomológicas fueron realizadas en siete localidades de la Gran Puntarenas durante un año. Una de las encuestas fue realizada en la estación seca y la otra se llevó a

  8. Larvicidal Activity of Nerium oleander against Larvae West Nile Vector Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Fouad El-Akhal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Outbreaks of the West Nile virus infection were reported in Morocco in 1996, 2003, and 2010. Culex pipiens was strongly suspected as the vector responsible for transmission. In the North center of Morocco, this species has developed resistance to synthetic insecticides. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to the insecticides as natural biocides. Objective. In this work, the insecticidal activity of the extract of the local plant Nerium oleander, which has never been tested before in the North center of Morocco, was studied on larval stages 3 and 4 of Culex pipiens. Methods. Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The mortality values were determined after 24 h of exposure and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. Results. The extract had toxic effects on the larvae of culicid mosquitoes. The ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander applied against the larvae of Culex pipiens has given the lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 in the order of 57.57 mg/mL and 166.35 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. This investigation indicates that N. oleander could serve as a potential larvicidal, effective natural biocide against mosquito larvae, particularly Culex pipiens.

  9. Toxic Response of Mosquito Culex Quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae to some Agricultural Pesticides (Butachlor and Pertilachlor

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    Aliakbar Hedayati*

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The expansion of herbicide used in aquatic ecosystems as well as in terrestrial if is not properly controlled may produce harmful effects on freshwater fisheries. Residue limits of these agricultural chemicals in tropical fishery waters should be established. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of butachlor and pertilachlor as potential dangerous herbicides to assess mortality effects of these chemicals to the Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods: This study was carried out in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran at summer 2013. Culex samples were exposed to different concentrations of butachlor and pertilachlor (0-200ppm for butachlor and pertilachlor for 96 h. Results: The low toxicity of LC50s obtained for butachlor (23.81±0.04 and pertilachlor (27.97±0.05 indicate that butachlor and pertilachlor were lowly toxic to Mosquito Cu. quinquefasciatus. Conclusion: Although pretilachlor and butachlor are low toxic but pretilachlor is less toxic in field conditions, these data are useful to potential ecosystem risk assessment.

  10. Potential for North American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit rift valley fever virus.

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    Turell, Michael J; Wilson, William C; Bennett, Kristine E

    2010-09-01

    To determine which arthropods should be targeted for control should Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) be detected in North America, we evaluated Culex erraticus (Dyar and Knab), Culex erythrothorax Dyar, Culex nigripalpus Theobald, Culex pipiens L., Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Aedes dorsalis (Wiedemann), Aedes vexans (Meigen), Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, and Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones from the western, midwestern, and southern United States for their ability to transmit RVFV. Female mosquitoes were allowed to feed on adult hamsters inoculated with RVFV, after which engorged mosquitoes were incubated for 7-21 d at 260C, then allowed to refeed on susceptible hamsters, and tested to determine infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Other specimens were inoculated intrathoracically, held for 7 d, and then allowed to feed on a susceptible hamster to check for a salivary gland barrier. When exposed to hamsters with viremias > or =10(8.8) plaque-forming units/ml blood, Cx. tarsalis transmitted RVFV efficiently (infection rate = 93%, dissemination rate = 56%, and estimated transmission rate = 52%). In contrast, when exposed to the same virus dose, none of the other species tested transmitted RVFV efficiently. Estimated transmission rates for Cx. erythrothorax, Cx. pipiens, Cx. erraticus, and Ae. dorsalis were 10, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively, and for the remaining species were feeding preference, longevity, and foraging behavior should be considered when determining the potential role that these species could play in RVFV transmission.

  11. Genetic Variations in Bionomics of (Diptera: Culicidae Mosquito Population in Minna, North Central Nigeria

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    Azubuike C. Ukubuiwe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to have an improved knowledge on the bioecology of Culex quinquefasciatus , a prerequisite in the development of cost-effective control strategies, has informed the present preliminary investigation to put in better perspective variations that exist in the egg rafts of the species. Freshly laid egg rafts were collected and incubated at ambient temperature in well-labeled plastic trays. The results showed overall inconsistency in all indices monitored for the egg rafts. Generally, survivorship was high for the species. All immature stage and adult parameters measured varied significantly among the egg rafts and between/within sexes of the species. Therefore, this study suggests the presence of inherent variation in the bionomics of egg rafts of C. quinquefasciatus , probably influenced by the environment and hence underscores the need for additional studies to further elucidate the roles of genetics and environment in vectorial competence of the species, in order to develop robust sustainable mosquito vector control protocols.

  12. Larval mosquito habitat utilization and community dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Unlu, Isik; Obenauer, Peter; Hughes, Tony; Healy, Sean; Crepeau, Taryn; Farajollahi, Ary; Kesavaraju, Banu; Fonseca, Dina; Schoeler, George; Gaugler, Randy; Strickman, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. japonicus (Theobald) are important container-inhabiting mosquitoes that transmit disease agents, outcompete native species, and continue to expand their range in the United States. Both species deposit eggs in natural and artificial containers and thrive in peridomestic environments. The goal of our study was to examine the types and characteristics of containers that are most productive for these species in the northeastern United States. In total, 306 containers were sampled in urban, suburban, and rural areas of New Jersey. Multiple biotic and abiotic factors were recorded in an attempt to identify variables associated with the productivity of each species. Based on pupal abundance and density of container types, results showed that tires, trash cans, and planter dishes were the most important containers for Ae. albopictus, while planter dishes were the most important containers for Ae. japonicus. Container color (black and gray), material (rubber), and type (tires) were correlated with species presence for Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus. These factors may play a role in the selection of oviposition sites by female mosquitoes or in the survival of their progeny. Differences in species composition and abundance were detected between areas classified as urban, suburban, and rural. In urban and suburban areas, Ae. albopictus was more abundant in container habitats than Ae. japonicus; however, Ae. japonicus was more abundant in rural areas, and when water temperatures were below 14 degrees C. Our results suggest many variables can influence the presence of Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus in container habitats in northeastern United States.

  13. Weak Larval Competition Between Two Invasive Mosquitoes Aedes koreicus and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Baldacchino, Frédéric; Arnoldi, Daniele; Lapère, Charlotte; Rosà, Roberto; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Capelli, Gioia; Rizzoli, Annapaola

    2017-09-01

    Aedes (Hulecoeteomyia) koreicus (Edwards) and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) are two invasive mosquito species well established in northeastern Italy, and these two species may co-occur in artificial larval habitats such as tires, buckets, drums, and catch basins. Because Ae. albopictus has been shown experimentally to be a superior competitor to several mosquito species, we investigated larval competition between Ae. koreicus and Ae. albopictus using two diet levels (low level and high level) and 10 Ae. albopictus: Ae. koreicus density combination levels (30:0, 60:0, 15:15, 30:30, 10:20, 20:10, 20:40, 40:20, 0:60, and 0:30). A multivariate analysis (MANOVA) demonstrated a significant effect of the density combination on Ae. koreicus survivorship, female development time, and female wing length considered simultaneously in low-level diet and high-level diet treatments. Pairwise comparisons across low-level diet treatments showed a significant reduction of Ae. koreicus survivorship in 20:10 combination treatments (i.e. 20 Ae. albopictus and 10 Ae. koreicus larvae) compared to 10:20, 20:40, and 30:30 combination treatments, while no difference was detected for Ae. albopictus between density combination treatments. Furthermore, Ae. albopictus developed faster than Ae. koreicus regardless of diet and density combination treatments. Our results show weak larval competition between Ae. koreicus and Ae. albopictus with a slight advantage of the latter species. On the other hand, the presence of Ae. albopictus seems to favor the emergence of larger Ae. koreicus females. We suggest that factors such as habitats preferences or seasonal distributions may be determinant for the invasion success of Ae. koreicus. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. First report of Coelomomyces santabrancae sp. nov. (Blastocladiomycetes: Blastocladiales) infecting mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in central Brazil.

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    Rueda-Páramo, M E; Montalva, C; Arruda, W; Fernandes, É K K; Luz, C; Humber, R A

    2017-10-01

    A project from 2013 to 2017 sought to discover pathogenic fungi and oomycetes from dipteran species that are vectors of major diseases of humans and animals in central Brazil and to begin evaluating the potential of these pathogens as potential biological control agents concentrated on mosquito larvae. Some collecting sites proved to be especially productive for pathogens of naturally occurring mosquito species and for placements of healthy sentinel larvae of Aedes aegypti in various sorts of containers in a gallery forest in the Santa Branca Ecoturismo Private Reserve of Natural Patrimony (RPPN) near Terezópolis de Goiás (GO). Collections during May-April of 2016 and February 2017 yielded a few dead mosquito larvae of an undetermined Onirion sp. (Culicidae: Sabethini) whose hemocoels contained many ovoid, thick-walled, yellow-golden to golden-brown, ovoid thick-walled resistant sporangia, 38.3±4×22.8±2.3µm, decorated by numerous, closely and randomly spaced punctations of variable size and shape. These were the first indisputable collections from Brazil of any Coelomomyces species. Comparisons of the morphology of these sporangia with those of other species of Coelomomyces, confirmed that this Brazilian fungus represented a new species that is described here as Coelomomyces santabrancae. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Feeding Patterns of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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    Alencar, Jeronimo; Mello, Cecília Ferreira de; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; Araújo, Andressa Nunes; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Silva, Júlia Dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    The stomach contents of culicids from the Atlantic Forest in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, were analyzed using the precipitin technique to evaluate the feeding patterns of the species. Sampling was performed from February 2012 to December 2013, using CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traps to catch mosquitoes from 15 00 to 07 00 hours. The following antisera were used: bird, rodent, opossum, human, horse, capybara, lizard, and frog. Of the 325 adult bloodfed females caught and analyzed, 273 (84.0%) reacted in the precipitin test. The percentage of specimens with a positive reaction to a single antiserum included bird (39.2%), rodent (22.5%), opossum (13.2%), capybara (6.6%), horse (5.7%), frog (6.2%), human (4.0%), and lizard (2.6%). The specimens that reacted positively against more than one blood source (46) most frequently presented the following combinations: bird + rodent and bird + frog (17.4%), followed by bird + human (13.0%). The predominance of positive results for birds suggested that the avian-rich environment might have influenced the feeding behavior of the culicids. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. MODELO BIOGEOGRÁFICO DE LOS MOSQUITOS CULEX SPP. (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE EN MÉXICO

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    Maria Torres Olave

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mosquitoes distribution and the presence of arboviruses are determined by temperature, rainfall, geographic barriers, and other factors that determine the distribution of Culex spp. and can influence the human arboviral. The objective of this study was to identify potential spatial distribution of Culex spp. The ecological niche modeling was performed using MaxEnt Ecological niche modeling was performed using MaxEnt, bioclimatic variables (WorldClim used for this process are derived from the monthly values of temperature and precipitation to generate biologically significant variables (representing annual trends and limiting factors for the distribution of species. The resulting maps can be interpreted as relative suitability areas, these areas are presented on the east coast of Mexico, mainly in the states of Veracruz and Tabasco. The results show that Bio 2 (mean monthly temperature range, Bio 7 (annual range of temperature and Bio 11 (mean temperature of the coldest quarter, determine the highest percentage range. Distribution modeling Culex spp. It is an approach to identify the most vulnerable areas in Mexico. It is necessary to strengthen and establish multidisciplinary programs for the prevention ofCulexspp transmitted diseases.

  17. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae assemblages associated with Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads in Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    Marques Tatiani C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most substantial and best preserved area of Atlantic Forest is within the biogeographical sub-region of Serra do Mar. The topographic complexity of the region creates a diverse array of microclimates, which can affect species distribution and diversity inside the forest. Given that Atlantic Forest includes highly heterogeneous environments, a diverse and medically important Culicidae assemblage, and possible species co-occurrence, we evaluated mosquito assemblages from bromeliad phytotelmata in Serra do Mar (southeastern Brazil. Methods Larvae and pupae were collected monthly from Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads between July 2008 and June 2009. Collection sites were divided into landscape categories (lowland, hillslope and hilltop based on elevation and slope. Correlations between bromeliad mosquito assemblage and environmental variables were assessed using multivariate redundancy analysis. Differences in species diversity between bromeliads within each category of elevation were explored using the Renyi diversity index. Univariate binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess species co-occurrence. Results A total of 2,024 mosquitoes belonging to 22 species were collected. Landscape categories (pseudo-F value = 1.89, p = 0.04, bromeliad water volume (pseudo-F = 2.99, p = 0.03 and bromeliad fullness (Pseudo-F = 4.47, p An. homunculus was associated with Cx. ocellatus and the presence of An. cruzii was associated with Cx. neglectus, Cx. inimitabilis fuscatus and Cx. worontzowi. Anopheles cruzii and An. homunculus were taken from the same bromeliad, however, the co-occurrence between those two species was not statistically significant. Conclusions One of the main findings of our study was that differences in species among mosquito assemblages were influenced by landscape characteristics. The bromeliad factor that influenced mosquito abundance and assemblage structure was fullness. The findings of the current

  18. Ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal properties of Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) (Family: Asparagaceae) root extracts against filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus), dengue (Aedes aegypti) and malaria (Anopheles stephensi) vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2014-04-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present investigation was undertaken to study the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extracts of root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of Asparagus racemosus against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed 99-100% hatchability. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of root of Asparagus racemosus against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with the LC50 and LC90 values were 115.13, 97.71 and 90.97 ppm and 210.96, 179.92, and 168.82 ppm, respectively. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in

  19. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil Note on the culicidae (Diptera: Culicidae of the River Purus Basin, Acre, Amazonian, Brazil

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    Delsio Natal

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae collections were made on the Pedro Peixoto Colonization Project in the State of Acre, Brazil. Four thousand, five hundred and eighty-eight (4,588 specimens were collected and fifty-three (53 species or group recognised. The occurrence of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi is given special emphasis.

  20. Spatiotemporal variation of mosquito diversity (Diptera: Culicidae) at places with different land-use types within a neotropical montane cloud forest matrix.

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    Abella-Medrano, Carlos Antonio; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego

    2015-09-24

    Land-use change has led to a dramatic decrease in total forest cover, contributing to biodiversity loss and changes of ecosystems' functions. Insect communities of medical importance can be favored by anthropogenic alterations, increasing the risk of novel zoonotic diseases. The response of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance and richness to five land-use types (shade coffee plantation, cattle field, urban forest, peri-urban forest, well-preserved montane cloud forest) and three seasons ("dry", "rainy" and "cold") embedded in a neotropical montane cloud forest landscape was evaluated. Standardized collections were performed using 8 CDC miniature black-light traps, baited with CO2 throughout the year. Generalized additive mixed models were used to describe the seasonal and spatial trends of both species richness and abundance. Rank abundance curves and ANCOVAs were used to detect changes in the spatial and temporal structure of the mosquito assemblage. Two cluster analyses were conducted, using 1-βsim and the Morisita-Horn index to evaluate species composition shifts based on incidences and abundances. A total of 2536 adult mosquitoes were collected, belonging to 9 genera and 10 species; the dominant species in the study were: Aedes quadrivittatus, Wyeomyia adelpha, Wy. arthrostigma, and Culex restuans. Highest richness was recorded in the dry season, whereas higher abundance was detected during the rainy season. The urban forest had the highest species richness (n = 7) when compared to all other sites. Species composition cluster analyses show that there is a high degree of similarity in species numbers across sites and seasons throughout the year. However, when considering the abundance of such species, the well-preserved montane cloud forest showed significantly higher abundance. Moreover, the urban forest is only 30 % similar to other sites in terms of species abundances, indicating a possible isolating role of the urban environment. Mosquito

  1. Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes from Atlantic forest in Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil (Diptera, Culicidae, with new records for the State of Santa Catarina Mosquitos associados a bromélias em Mata Atlântica na Ilha de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil (Diptera, Culicidae, com novos registros para o Estado de Santa Catarina

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    Gerson Azulim Müller

    Full Text Available Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Atlantic Forest in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, were studied, examining plants of Vriesea philippocoburgi Wawra and Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii at secondary Atlantic rain forest, and A. lindenii and Vriesea friburgensis Mez var. paludosa (L. B. Smith at "restinga" per month, during 12 months. No immature forms of mosquitoes were collected from A. lindenii in the secondary forest. Collections obtained 368 immature mosquitoes, none of them from A. lindenii from rain forest. Culex (Microculex spp. constituted 79.8% of the total, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia spp. 17.93%, and Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii (Dyar & Knab, 1908 only 1.36%. The study shows the great predominance of species of medical importance not yet proved, and the small number of immature stages of anopheline mosquitoes. The rainfall, but not the mean temperatures, significantly influenced the quantity of mosquitoes from V. philippocoburgi. Significant differences between the quantities of immature forms of all the bromeliad species were found, and the shape of the plants could be important to the abundance of mosquitoes. All six species of Cx. (Microculex found are recorded for the first time in the State of Santa Catarina, and all six species of Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia are recorded for the first time in bromeliads in this state.Mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae associados a bromélias em Mata Atlântica na Ilha de Santa Catarina, no Estado de Santa Catarina, foram estudados. Foram examinadas mensalmente plantas de Vriesea philippocoburgi Wawra e Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii de floresta atlântica pluvial ombrófila e A. lindenii e Vriesea friburgensis Mez var. paludosa (L. B. Smith de restinga, durante 12 meses. As coletas resultaram em 368 formas imaturas de mosquitos, sendo que nenhuma foi coletada em A. lindenii de mata ombrófila. Culex (Microculex spp. constituíram 79,8% do total

  2. The Mosquitoes of the Subgenus Culex in Southwestern Asia and Egypt (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 24, Number 1, 1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Pathol. Exot. 53: 531-542. 1968. Contribution a I’etude des moustiques du Maroc (Diptera, Culicidae) six especes nouvelles pour le pays. Cah. ORSTOM...quelques moustiques du Maroc. Arch. inst. Pasteur Maroc 2: 361-365. 1957. Sur Culex torrentium Martini. Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Comp. 32: 438-442...De Grandpre, A.D. and D. D’E. De Charmoy 1900(1901). Les moustiques : anatomie et biologie. Contribution a I’etude des Culicides et principalement

  3. A list of mosquito species of the Brazilian State of Pernambuco, including the first report of Haemagogus janthinomys (Diptera: Culicidae, yellow fever vector and 14 other species (Diptera: Culicidae Lista de espécies de mosquitos do Estado de Pernambuco e primeiro relato de Haemagogus janthinomys (Diptera: Culicidae vetor de febre amarela silvestre e outras 14 espécies (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Nádia Consuelo Aragão

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Besides mosquito species adapted to urban environments (Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, only 15 species of Anopheles had been recorded in the State of Pernambuco. METHODS: Human-landing mosquitoes were collected in Dois Irmãos Park, in Recife. RESULTS: The first report for the state of Haemagogus janthinomys, an important vector of yellow fever virus, and 14 other species, including Trichoprosopon lampropus, a first reported for Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: The mosquito fauna in the area is diversified and has potential medical and veterinary importance.INTRODUÇÃO: Além de mosquitos adaptados ao ambiente urbano (Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti e Ae. albopictus, apenas 15 espécies de Anopheles haviam sido relatadas no Estado de Pernambuco. MÉTODOS: Mosquitos que pousavam em humanos no Parque Dois Irmãos, em Recife foram coletados. RESULTADOS: Haemagogus janthinomys, importante vetor de vírus de febre amarela, e outras 14 espécies são relatadas pela primeira vez no estado, incluindo Trichoprosopon lampropus, relatado pela primeira vez no Brasil. CONCLUSÕES: A fauna de mosquitos na área é muito diversificada e tem potencial importância médica e veterinária.

  4. The Brazilian Malaria Vector Anopheles (Kerteszia) Cruzii: Life Stages and Biology (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Mosquitos no litoral paranaense. I - Idade fisioldgica de no Parque National da Serra dos Orgaos, Anopheles cruzii (Diptera, Culicidae). Arq. Estado do...no Parque National da Peryassii, A.G. 1908. OS culicideos do Brazil. Serra dos Grgaos, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Inst. de Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro...Kerteszia no litoral Guimar%es, A.E. and V.N.M. Victoria. 1986. do estado de Santa Catarina. Rev. Bras. Mosquitos no Parque National da Serra dos

  5. Estacionalidad de la densidad larval del mosquito Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae y otros insectos asociados a su hábitat en Sucre, Venezuela

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    Jesús Berti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles aquasalis es considerado como el principal vector de malaria humana en el norte de Venezuela. El estudio longitudinal se llevó a cabo en áreas costeras de la Península de Paria, estado Sucre. El hábitat de las larvas de A. aquasalis fue clasificado como: manglar salobre y pantano herbáceo. Muestreos para recolectar larvas de mosquitos e insectos asociados se realizaron mensualmente en ambos criaderos desde enero hasta diciembre de 1999 (30 muestras. Simultáneamente se midieron cinco variables seleccionadas del agua: conductividad, salinidad, oxígeno disuelto, temperatura y pH. En ambos criaderos de determinaron las variaciones estacionales y temporales de las larvas de A. aquasalis e insectos acuáticos. Para el período de estudio, la abundancia de larvas fue mayor en el manglar. El análisis de correspondencia mostró una fuerte relación entre algunos factores químicos del agua y la abundancia de las larvas. La abundancia de las larvas de A. aquasalis en ambas épocas, se correlacionó positivamente con la salinidad del agua, pH y conductividad, y negativamente con el oxígeno disuelto, en la estación seca. La presencia de larvas se correlacionó positivamente con la presencia de Avicennia germinans. En el manglar existió una asociación positiva entre la abundancia de larvas y la abundancia de la familia Scirtidae y una correlación negativa entre la abundancia de larvas y la precipitación mensual (Spearman, así como una correlación negativa significativa entre la abundancia de Gerridae y la precipitación mensual. En el pantano herbáceo, no había asociaciones significativas entre la abundancia de las larvas de A. aquasalis y la abundancia de otros insectos acuáticos asociados al hábitat.Larval seasonality of the mosquito Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae and other insects associated to its habitat in Sucre, Venezuela. Anopheles aquasalis Curry is considered the main vector of human malaria in Northern

  6. An Algal Diet Accelerates Larval Growth of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuno, N; Kohzu, A; Tayasu, I; Nakayama, T; Githeko, A; Yan, G

    2018-01-21

    The population sizes of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) increase dramatically with the onset of the rainy season in sub-Saharan Africa, but the ecological mechanisms underlying the increases are not well understood. As a first step toward to understand, we investigated the proliferation of algae, the major food of mosquito larvae, in artificial fresh water bodies exposed to sunlight for a short period, and old water bodies exposed to sunlight for a long period, and the effects thereof on the development of these anopheline larvae. We found that an epizoic green algal species of the genus Rhopalosolen (Chlorophyta: Chlorophyceae) proliferated immediately after water freshly taken from a spring was placed in sunlight. This alga proliferated only briefly (for ~10 d) even if the water was repeatedly exposed to sunlight. However, various algal species were observed in water that remained under sunlight for 40 d or longer (i.e., in old water bodies). The growth performance of larvae was higher in sunlight-exposed (alga-rich) water than in shade-stored (alga-poor) water. Stable isotope analysis suggested that these two anopheline species fed on Rhopalosolen algae in fresh water bodies but hardly at all on other algae occurring in the old water bodies. We concluded that freshly formed ground water pools facilitate high production of anopheline species because of the proliferation of Rhopalosolen algae therein, and the increase in the number of such pools in the rainy season, followed by rapid increases in A. gambiae and A. arabiensis numbers. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Identification of Salivary Gland Proteins Depleted after Blood Feeding in the Malaria Vector Anopheles campestris-like Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sor-suwan, Sriwatapron; Jariyapan, Narissara; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Phumee, Atchara; Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Intakhan, Nuchpicha; Chanmol, Wetpisit; Bates, Paul A.; Saeung, Atiporn; Choochote, Wej

    2014-01-01

    Malaria sporozoites must invade the salivary glands of mosquitoes for maturation before transmission to vertebrate hosts. The duration of the sporogonic cycle within the mosquitoes ranges from 10 to 21 days depending on the parasite species and temperature. During blood feeding salivary gland proteins are injected into the vertebrate host, along with malaria sporozoites in the case of an infected mosquito. To identify salivary gland proteins depleted after blood feeding of female Anopheles ca...

  8. Ecology of Culiseta Melanura and Other Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Walton County, FL, During Winter Period 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Bingham, Andrea M; Hunt, Brenda; Morse, Gary; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2015-09-01

    Winter ecology of putative vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) in northern Florida was investigated at field locations with evidence of historic EEEV winter transmission. Light traps and resting shelters were used to sample the mosquito community in the vicinity of eight sentinel flocks throughout the winter period (November-April) of 2013 and 2014 in Walton County, FL. Overall mosquito activity was relatively low, although mosquitoes were captured during each week of the study period. Mosquito activity was linked to morning temperature, and females were captured when ambient morning temperatures were quite low (1-5°C). Anopheles crucians Wiedemann, Culex erraticus (Dyar and Knab), Culex territans Walker, and Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) were the most commonly collected mosquito species (of 20 total species). Analysis of blood-engorged mosquitoes revealed a number of mosquito species feeding upon chickens, other birds, amphibians, and domestic and wild mammals. Cs. melanura fed primarily upon chickens and songbirds (Passeriformes), suggesting that this mosquito species is the likely winter vector of EEEV to sentinel chickens in northern Florida. Both resident and nonresident songbird species were fed upon, constituting 63.9 and 36.1% of total songbird meals, respectively. Our results suggest important roles for Cs. melanura and songbird hosts for the winter transmission of EEEV in northern Florida. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Mediation of oviposition site selection in the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) by semiochemicals of microbial origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumba, L.A.; Guda, T.O.; Deng, A.L.; Hassanali, A.; Beier, J.C.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory studies were carried out to investigate the role of larval habitat-derived microorganisms in the production of semiochemicals for oviposition site selection by Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto mosquitoes. Dual-choice bioassays with gravid females were conducted in standard mosquito

  10. Sindbis virus infection alters blood feeding responses and DEET repellency in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Day, Jonathan F; Xue, Rui-De; Bowers, Doria F

    2012-03-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) female mosquitoes infected systemically with Sindbis virus (SINV) took longer than uninfected mosquitoes to locate and fully engorge on blood. On days 7 and 14 postexposure, blood feeding took 1.3 and 1.5 times longer in mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection, respectively. SINV dissemination did not affect the average weight of unfed Ae. aegypti, but did result in a 10 and 12% increase in blood imbibed compared with mosquitoes without a positive SINV dissemination and non-SINV-exposed mosquitoes, respectively. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection fed an average of 4 h sooner than uninfected mosquitoes when offered a bloodmeal contained inside a DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) saturated (30%) bovine sausage casing. Together, these results indicate that behavioral changes in mosquito host-seeking, blood feeding and sensitivity to DEET occurred in mosquitoes after SINV infection and dissemination.

  11. Evaluation of a peridomestic mosquito trap for integration into an Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) push-pull control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Ferdinand V; Achee, Nicole L; Grieco, John P; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Eisen, Lars; Shah, Pankhil; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2012-06-01

    We determined the feasibility of using the BG-Sentinel™ mosquito trap (BGS) as the pull component in a push-pull strategy to reduce indoor biting by Aedes aegypti. This included evaluating varying numbers of traps (1-4) and mosquito release numbers (10, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250) on recapture rates under screen house conditions. Based on these variations in trap and mosquito numbers, release intervals were rotated through a completely randomized design with environmental factors (temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity) and monitored throughout each experiment. Data from four sampling time points (05:30, 09:30, 13:30, and 17:30) indicate a recapture range among treatments of 66-98%. Furthermore, 2-3 traps were as effective in recapturing mosquitoes as 4 traps for all mosquito release numbers. Time trends indicate Day 1 (the day the mosquitoes were released) as the "impact period" for recapture with peak numbers of marked mosquitoes collected at 09:30 or 4 h post-release. Information from this study will be used to guide the configuration of the BGS trap component of a push-pull vector control strategy currently in the proof-of-concept stage of development in Thailand and Peru. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  12. Molecular DNA identification of blood sources fed on, for Culicine mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae collected in the Songkhla province, southern Thailand

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    Theerakamol Pengsakul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Culicine mosquitoes are medically important vectors. Therefore, mosquito control measures are a crucial strategy to interrupt disease transmission. Collection of data on mosquito feeding patterns is crucial for developing an effective vector control strategy. The objective of this study was to use molecular biology methods to identify the sources of DNA in mosquito blood meals. The DNA from blood meals in the mosquito stomachs was extracted and amplified with multiplex PCR, using specific primer sets based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, to identify the DNA sources among human, pig, goat, dog, cow, and chicken. Among the 297 mosquito samples collected in the Songkhla province of Thailand, in Aedes spp. mosquitoes the percentages positive for human, dog, pig, chicken, cow, a mixture of 2 vertebrate DNAs, or of 3, and negative (no identified DNA were 61.90, 2.38, 2.38, 0.60, 0.60, 4.18, 1.20 and 26.79% respectively. In Culex spp. blood meals the rank order was different: fractions positive for chicken, human, dog, cow, goat, pig, a mixture of 2 or 3 vertebrate DNAs, and negative were 40.83, 10.00, 5.00, 4.17, 1.67, 0.83, 8.32, 3.32 and 25.83% respectively. This study shows that feeding behaviors of the two species differ, with most Aedes spp. blood meals containing human blood, while Culex spp. had primarily consumed chicken blood. An improved understanding of the feeding behaviors of mosquitoes could contribute to new, more effective strategies for the control of mosquito populations.

  13. Seasonal Distribution, Biology, and Human Attraction Patterns of Culicine Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Forest Near Puerto Almendras, Iquitoes, Peru

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, James

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted, as part of a field-ecology study of arboviral activity in the Amazon Basin of Peru, to determine the taxonomy, frequency, seasonal, and vertical distributions of potential mosquito vectors...

  14. Molecular identification of host feeding patterns of snow-melt mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae): potential implications for the transmission ecology of Jamestown Canyon virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, C C; Olival, Kevin J; Perkins, Susan L

    2010-03-01

    We collected blood-fed, snow-melt mosquitoes (Culicidae: Culiseta and Aedes) to describe the feeding patterns of potential mosquito vectors of Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV, Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus). JCV is an arthropod-borne, zoonotic virus with deer as the primary amplifying host in western alpine ecosystems. We collected mosquitoes from natural resting areas, fiber pots, and carbon-dioxide baited miniature light traps in the Colorado Rocky Mountains in 2007. We conducted two polymerase chain reactions to amplify and sequence vertebrate DNA extracted from blood-fed mosquitoes, which yielded comparable, but not identical, results. Mammal-specific primers found mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) as the source of all bloodmeals. To determine if unamplified bloodmeals were from nonmammalian sources, we screened all samples with conserved vertebrate primers, which confirmed the initial polymerase chain reaction results, but also found porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) and human (Homo sapiens) as additional bloodmeal sources. We consistently found that mule deer were the primary hosts for mosquitoes in this system. These results suggest that snow-melt mosquitoes, in particular A. cataphylla, may be important vectors in western JCV alpine systems and may also act as a bridge vector for JCV from cervid virus reservoirs to humans.

  15. Effects of Preexposure to DEET on the Downstream Blood-Feeding Behaviors of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharto, Victor A; Grieco, John P; Murphy, Jittawadee R; Olsen, Cara H; Colacicco-Mayhugh, Michelle G; Stewart, V Ann; Achee, Nicole L; Turell, Michael J

    2016-06-10

    Mosquito behavior is heavily influenced by the chemical molecules in the environment. This knowledge can be used to modify insect behaviors; particularly to reduce vector-host contact as a powerful method for disease prevention. N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) is the most widely used insect repellent in the market and an excellent example of a chemical that has been used to modify insect behavior for disease prevention. However, genetic insensitivity and habituation in Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes after preexposure to DEET have been reported. In this study, we investigated the effect of preexposure to DEET on the downstream blood-feeding behavior of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes and the duration of the effect. We exposed mosquitoes to four different DEET concentrations: 0.10, 0.12, 0.14, and 0.16% for 10 min then allowed the mosquitoes to blood-feed on an artificial blood-feeding system either immediately or after being held for 1, 3, 6, or 24 h following DEET exposure. We found that preexposing Ae. aegypti mosquitoes to 0.14 or 0.16% DEET lowered their blood engorgement level, but did not alter their landing and probing behavior when compared to the control test populations. The reduction in complete blood-feeding was observed at all time periods tested, but was only statistically significant at 3 and 6 h after the preexposure process. Because reduction in blood meal has been associated with increased refeeding, future studies analyzing the effect of this behavior using arbovirus-infected mosquitoes are needed to address the concern of potentially increased vectorial capacity. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Development of lymphatic filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) in mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) fed artificially on microfilaremic blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paily, K P; Hoti, S L; Balaraman, K

    2006-11-01

    The efficiency of laboratory colonies of mosquitoes such as Anopheles stephensi Liston, Aedes aegypti (L.) Liverpool strain, Ae. aegypti wild type, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Culex sitiens Wiedemann, and Armigeres subalbatus Coquillett in supporting the development of Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold) (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) microfilariae to infective larvae was investigated. The mosquitoes were fed on heparinized microfilaremic human blood by using a membrane-feeding unit with Parafilm as membrane. The rate of infection, parasite development, and parasite burden were compared with that in the known vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Cx. quinquefasciatus showed the highest percentage of infection, followed by Ae. aegypti Liverpool strain and An. stephensi. The rate of development of the parasite was more or less similar in all the three species, and infective larvae were found on day 13. When the larvae were harvested on day 17, Cx. quinquefasciatus yielded the highest numbers, followed by Ae. aegypti Liverpool strain and An. stephensi. The percentage of infection was low, and the development was slow in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus compared with the other susceptible species. The parasite developed to second-stage larvae only by day 22 and to infective larvae by day 28. When 2-wk-old Cx. tritaeniorhynchus were fed on microfilaremic blood, they could develop the parasite to infective larvae by day 13 postfeeding. All other species of mosquitoes tested were found to be refractory to parasite development. It is shown that Cx. quinquefasciatus is the most suitable mosquito host for the production of infective larvae. However, Ae. aegypti Liverpool strain, which is commonly used for Brugia malayi filarial parasite, also can be used for generation of W. bancrofti infective larvae to circumvent the problem of maintaining two mosquito species.

  17. Contribution to the Biodiversity Assessment of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Atlantic Forest in Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-de-Freitas, Vinícios; França, Rodrigo Massabki; Bartholomay, Lyric C; Marcondes, Carlos Brisola

    2017-03-01

    The mosquito fauna of a coastal area of Santa Catarina state, Brazil (Baixada do Maciambu), was assessed, and possible mosquito larval habitats were mapped. Five new species records for the state are presented, two of which also are new genera records. From the 24 recognized species present in the area, 28% were from the subfamily Anophelinae and 72% from the Culicinae. The community structure throughout a year, the relevance of the new findings, and the medical importance of some species are discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal Delsio

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.

  19. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsio Natal

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.

  20. Identification of salivary gland proteins depleted after blood feeding in the malaria vector Anopheles campestris-like mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriwatapron Sor-suwan

    Full Text Available Malaria sporozoites must invade the salivary glands of mosquitoes for maturation before transmission to vertebrate hosts. The duration of the sporogonic cycle within the mosquitoes ranges from 10 to 21 days depending on the parasite species and temperature. During blood feeding salivary gland proteins are injected into the vertebrate host, along with malaria sporozoites in the case of an infected mosquito. To identify salivary gland proteins depleted after blood feeding of female Anopheles campestris-like, a potential malaria vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques were used. Results showed that 19 major proteins were significantly depleted in three to four day-old mosquitoes fed on a first blood meal. For the mosquitoes fed the second blood meal on day 14 after the first blood meal, 14 major proteins were significantly decreased in amount. The significantly depleted proteins in both groups included apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase/apyrase, D7, D7-related 1, short form D7r1, gSG6, anti-platelet protein, serine/threonine-protein kinase rio3, putative sil1, cyclophilin A, hypothetical protein Phum_PHUM512530, AGAP007618-PA, and two non-significant hit proteins. To our knowledge, this study presents for the first time the salivary gland proteins that are involved in the second blood feeding on the day corresponding to the transmission period of the sporozoites to new mammalian hosts. This information serves as a basis for future work concerning the possible role of these proteins in the parasite transmission and the physiological processes that occur during the blood feeding.

  1. Identification of salivary gland proteins depleted after blood feeding in the malaria vector Anopheles campestris-like mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sor-suwan, Sriwatapron; Jariyapan, Narissara; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Phumee, Atchara; Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Intakhan, Nuchpicha; Chanmol, Wetpisit; Bates, Paul A; Saeung, Atiporn; Choochote, Wej

    2014-01-01

    Malaria sporozoites must invade the salivary glands of mosquitoes for maturation before transmission to vertebrate hosts. The duration of the sporogonic cycle within the mosquitoes ranges from 10 to 21 days depending on the parasite species and temperature. During blood feeding salivary gland proteins are injected into the vertebrate host, along with malaria sporozoites in the case of an infected mosquito. To identify salivary gland proteins depleted after blood feeding of female Anopheles campestris-like, a potential malaria vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques were used. Results showed that 19 major proteins were significantly depleted in three to four day-old mosquitoes fed on a first blood meal. For the mosquitoes fed the second blood meal on day 14 after the first blood meal, 14 major proteins were significantly decreased in amount. The significantly depleted proteins in both groups included apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase/apyrase, D7, D7-related 1, short form D7r1, gSG6, anti-platelet protein, serine/threonine-protein kinase rio3, putative sil1, cyclophilin A, hypothetical protein Phum_PHUM512530, AGAP007618-PA, and two non-significant hit proteins. To our knowledge, this study presents for the first time the salivary gland proteins that are involved in the second blood feeding on the day corresponding to the transmission period of the sporozoites to new mammalian hosts. This information serves as a basis for future work concerning the possible role of these proteins in the parasite transmission and the physiological processes that occur during the blood feeding.

  2. Larvicidal Activities of Indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates and Nematode Symbiotic Bacterial Toxins against the Mosquito Vector, Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases and the resistance of mosquitoes to conventional pesticides have recently caused a panic to the authorities in the endemic countries. This study was conducted to identify native larvicidal biopesticides against Culex pipiens for utilization in the battle against mosquito-borne diseases.Methods: Larvicidal activities of new indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis isolates and crude toxin complexes (TCs of two nematode bacterial-symbionts, Photorhabdus luminescens akhurstii (HRM1 and Ph. luminescens akhurstii (HS1 that tested against Cx. pipiens. B. thuringiensis isolates were recovered from different environmental samples in Saudi Arabia, and the entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis indica (HRM1 and He. sp (HS1 were iso­lated from Egypt. Larvicidal activities (LC50 and LC95 of the potentially active B. thuringiensis strains or TCs were then evaluated at 24 and 48h post-treatment.Results: Three B. thuringiensis isolates were almost as active as the reference B. thuringiensis israelensis (Bti-H14, and seven isolates were 1.6–5.4 times more toxic than Bti-H14. On the other hand, the TCs of the bacterial sym­bionts, HRM1 and HS1, showed promising larvicidal activities. HS1 showed LC50 of 2.54 folds that of HRM1 at 24h post-treatment. Moreover, histopathological examinations of the HS1-treated larvae showed deformations in midgut epithelial cells at 24h post-treatment.Conclusion: Synergistic activity and molecular characterization of these potentially active biocontrol agents are currently being investigated. These results may lead to the identification of eco-friend mosquito larvicidal product(s that could contribute to the battle against mosquito-borne diseases.

  3. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan Marimuthu; Rajeswary Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant, Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce) against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: Twenty five early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO (2005). The larval mor...

  4. Mosquito repellent properties of Delonix elata (L. gamble (Family: Fabaceae against filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extract of Delonix elata (D. elata leaf and seed against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: Evaluation was carried out in a net cage (45 cm伊30 cm伊25 cm containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Repellent activity was carried out in the laboratory conditions according to the WHO 2009 protocol. Plant crude extracts of D. elata were applied at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm2 separately in the exposed fore arm of study subjects. Ethanol was used as the sole control. Results: In this study, the applied plant crude extracts were observed to protect against mosquito bites. There were no allergic reactions experienced by the study subjects. The repellent activity of the extract was dependent on the strength of the extract. Among the tested solvents, the leaf and seed methanol extract showed the maximum efficacy. The highest concentration of 5.0 mg/cm2 provided over 150 min and 120 min protection, respectively. Conclusions: Crude extracts of D. elata exhibit the potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus, the mosquito vector of filariasis.

  5. Anopheles plumbeus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany: updated geographic distribution and public health impact of a nuisance and vector mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heym, Eva C; Kampen, Helge; Fahle, Marcus; Hohenbrink, Tobias L; Schäfer, Mandy; Scheuch, Dorothee E; Walther, Doreen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to map the current spatial distribution of Anopheles plumbeus in Germany, a potential vector of malaria parasites and West Nile virus. Reports of mass occurrence and nuisance connected with artificial breeding site usage by this species were analysed. Distribution data were collected from 2011 to 2014 mainly through trapping and submissions of adult mosquito specimens to a citizen science project. In the framework of the latter, additional information was gathered on recent nuisance incidents caused by An. plumbeus, including a longitudinal analysis of mosquito occurrence and the impact of management measures at a nuisance site in south-western Germany. Based on the most comprehensive set of collection data obtained during the last decades, An. plumbeus is shown to be widely distributed over Germany. The data also indicate a continuing extension of the breeding site repertoire of the species from natural to artificial habitats that facilitate mass development. Increasing incidents of persistent nuisance suggest that this mosquito species is rarely diagnosed correctly and managed adequately. As An. plumbeus is both a serious nuisance pest and a potential vector species, awareness of this species and the public health problems linked to it should be raised among pest managers and public health personnel. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. (Fabaceae against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindarajan Marimuthu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant, Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: Twenty five early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO (2005. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. The ovicidal activity was determined against Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito eggs to various concentrations ranging from 100-750 mg/L under the laboratory conditions. Results: The methanol extract of the leaves and seed of P. dulce was the most effective against the larvae with LC 50 and LC90 values 164.12 mg/L, 214.29 mg/L, 289.34 mg/L and 410.18 mg/L being observed after 24 h of exposure. The efficacy of methanol was followed by that of the ethyl acetate, chloroform, benzene and hexane extracts. The mean percent hatchability of the egg rafts were observed after 48 h of treatment. About 100% mortality was observed at 500 mg/L for leaf and 750 mg/L for seed methanol extracts of P. dulce. Conclusions: From the results, it can be concluded that the larvicidal and ovicidal effect of P. dulce against Cx. quinquefasciatus make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs.

  7. Culicidae (Diptera, Culicomorpha from the western Brazilian Amazon: Juami-Japurá Ecological Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With 312 trap-hours of sampling effort, 1554 specimens of Culicidae (Diptera were collected, using CDC and Malaise traps, in nine different locations along the Juami River, within the Juami-Japurá Ecological Station, Amazonas State, Brazil. A list of mosquito species with 54 taxa is presented, which includes three new distributional records for the state of Amazonas. The species found belong to the genera Anopheles, Aedeomyia, Aedes, Psorophora, Culex, Coquillettidia, Sabethes, Wyeomyia and Uranotaenia.

  8. Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae by Hiroshi Nakano*a)b)c), Abbas...larvicides against Aedes aegypti. Structural differences among compounds 3, 5, and 8 consisted in differing AcO and OH groups attached to C(3’’) and C(4...serious human diseases including malaria, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue, and filariasis. The urban-adapted Aedes aegypti mosquito has become

  9. Microhabitats de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em internódios de taquara na Mata Atlântica, Paraná, Brasil Mosquitoes microhabitats (Diptera, Culicidae in bamboo internodes in Atlantic forest, Paraná, Brazil

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    Ana Leuch Lozovei

    Full Text Available During two consecutive years, from January 1985 to December 1986, a comparative study of mosquitoes preferences for breeding habitat was carried out in the Atlantic Forest of the Serra do Mar, Paraná State, Brazil. To achieve it, 1875 bamboo internodes aligned vertically in live green, bamboo plants Merostachys speciosa Munro and Merostachys sp. were used, in which metabolic water was exuded from the plant itself, and presenting different size/pattern holes at their lateral walls, bored by the local sylvan fauna. Another group of 1200 individual internode traps was used as comparative element, carved out with a transversal cut by a saw, filled with local stream water and held in branches at different heights in the vegetal strata nearby. At both microhabitat types, a total of 17 culicid species was registered. Culex (Microculex neglectus Lutz, 1904, Cx. (Carrollia soperi Antunes & Lane, 1937, Sabethes (Sabethes batesi Lane & Cerqueira, 1942 and Sa. (Sabethinus melanonymphe (Dyar, 1924colonized exclusively live plant internodes, while Culex (Microculex elongatus Rozeboom & Lane, 1950, Cx. (Carrollia iridescens (Lutz, 1905, Cx. (Carrollia kompi Valencia,1973and Trichoprosopon (Trichoprosopon soaresi Dyar & Knab, 1907 bred only in internode traps. The remaining nine species colonized both habitats indistinctly. Quantitatively, was detected the abundance of 60.1% at live green internodes, against 39.9% for internode traps. Concerning the different patterns of bored live internode holes, 40.3% of the total computed specimens were collected in square or rectangular holes, 31.9% in two hole internodes, one minute circular, the other wider, and the remaining 28.8% of specimens distributed in other pattern type internodes. The mosquitoes breeding at these microhabitats fall in the culicid entomofauna specialized at locating and detecting peculiar and propitious mesogen conditions for breeding purposes.

  10. Diet and density dependent competition affect larval performance and oviposition site selection in the mosquito species Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Yoshioka Miho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oviposition-site choice is an essential component of the life history of all mosquito species. According to the oviposition-preference offspring-performance (P-P hypothesis, if optimizing offspring performance and fitness ensures high overall reproductive fitness for a given species, the female should accurately assess details of the heterogeneous environment and lay her eggs preferentially in sites with conditions more suitable to offspring. Methods We empirically tested the P-P hypothesis using the mosquito species Aedes albopictus by artificially manipulating two habitat conditions: diet (measured as mg of food added to a container and conspecific density (CD; number of pre-existing larvae of the same species. Immature development (larval mortality, development time to pupation and time to emergence and fitness (measured as wing length were monitored from first instar through adult emergence using a factorial experimental design over two ascending gradients of diet (2.0, 3.6, 7.2 and 20 mg food/300 ml water and CD (0, 20, 40 and 80 larvae/300 ml water. Treatments that exerted the most contrasting values of larval performance were recreated in a second experiment consisting of single-female oviposition site selection assay. Results Development time decreased as food concentration increased, except from 7.2 mg to 20.0 mg (Two-Way CR ANOVA Post-Hoc test, P > 0.1. Development time decreased also as conspecific density increased from zero to 80 larvae (Two-Way CR ANOVA Post-Hoc test, P . Combined, these results support the role of density-dependent competition for resources as a limiting factor for mosquito larval performance. Oviposition assays indicated that female mosquitoes select for larval habitats with conspecifics and that larval density was more important than diet in driving selection for oviposition sites. Conclusions This study supports predictions of the P-P hypothesis and provides a mechanistic understanding

  11. Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

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    Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause millions of human deaths each year. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans in tropical and subtropical areas by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The use of synthetic insecticides to control this mosquito is accompanied by high operational costs and adverse...

  12. [Mosquito complex (Diptera, Culicidae) in a West Nile fever focus in the Volgograd Region. II. Host-feeding patterns of mosquitoes in different habitats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonova, O V; Fedorova, M V; Lopatina, Iu V; Bezzhonova, O V; Bulgakova, T V; Platonov, A E

    2007-01-01

    Host preference of the mosquitoes collected in the urban and rural habitats of Volgograd and its suburbs was studied by the precipitation reaction test. Human and avian blood was detected in Cx. pipiens, Cx. modestus, Ae. vexans, Ae. behningi, Ae. caspius, Ae. sticticus, and females of the Anopheles maculipennis. The proportion of the mosquitoes fed on birds was similar in the urban and rural biotopes whereas that of the mosquitoes feeding on humans was significantly higher in Volgograd than in its environs. The increase in the number of human blood-fed mosquitoes in the city resulted mainly from the females collected in its multi-storied buildings.

  13. Species composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran.

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    Nikookar, Seyed Hassan; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Fazeli-Dinan, Mahmoud; Nasab, Seyed Nouraddin Mousavi; Aarabi, Mohsen; Ziapour, Seyyed Payman; Enayati, Ahmadali

    2016-05-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in the past years in management of mosquito borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and West Nile fever through research in biology and ecology of the vectors, these diseases are still major threats to human health. Therefore, more research is required for better management of the diseases. This investigation provides information on the composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. In a large scale field study, mosquito larvae were collected from 120 sentinel sites in 16 counties in Mazandaran Province, using standard 350 ml dipper. Sampling took place monthly from May to December 2014. Collected larvae were mounted on glass slides using de Faure's medium and were diagnosed using morphological characters. Totally, 19,840 larvae were collected including three genera and 16 species from 120 larval habitats, as follows: Anopheles claviger, Anopheles hyrcanus, Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Anopheles marteri, Anopheles plumbeus, Anopheles pseudopictus, Culex pipiens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex torrentium, Culex perexiguus, Culex territans, Culex mimeticus, Culex hortensis, Culiseta annulata, Culiseta longiareolata, and Culiseta morsitans. Predominant species were Cx. pipiens and An. maculipennis s.l. which show the highest co-occurrence. The pair of species An. hyrcanus/An. pseudopictus showed significant affinity and association. High co-occurrence of the predominant species Cx. pipiens and An. maculipennis s.l. in the study area is of considerable importance in terms of vector ecology. It was also revealed that An. pseudopictus/An. hyrcanus often occur sympatrically indicating their common habitat requirements. The information may be equally important when vector control measures are considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Circulation of DENV2 and DENV4 in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes from Praia, Santiago Island, Cabo Verde.

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    Guedes, Duschinka R D; Gomes, Elisete T B; Paiva, Marcelo H S; Melo-Santos, Maria A V de; Alves, Joana; Gómez, Lara F; Ayres, Constância F J

    2017-07-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses, such as Dengue (DENV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), and Zika (ZIKV), pose a challenge to public health, due to their worldwide distribution and large-scale outbreaks. Dengue fever is currently one of the most important diseases and it is caused by four serotypes of DENV and is mainly transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. It is estimated that 50-100 million cases are reported every year worldwide. More recently, CHIKV and ZIKV, which are also transmitted by Ae. aegypti, have caused epidemics in countries in the Caribbean region, the Pacific region, and Americas. Cabo Verde faced its first dengue outbreak in 2009, with more than 21,000 reported cases and four registered deaths. The epidemic was caused by DENV-3 transmitted by Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. In addition, the country faced a Zika outbreak with more than 7,500 notified cases from October 2015 to May 2016. In the present study, we conducted a survey in mosquito samples to detect arboviruses circulating in the local vector population. Collections were performed from November 2014 to January 2015, in the City of Praia, the capital of Cabo Verde, using aspirators and BG-sentinel traps. Samples were examined by multiplex Reverse Transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A total of 161 Ae. aegypti adult females were analyzed (34 pools) and from these samples, eight pools were found positive for DENV-2 and DENV-4. Our results revealed a very high natural infection rate in the vector population and showed two different serotypes co-circulating in the island that differ from the one detected in the 2009 outbreak in Cabo Verde. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  15. Daily oviposition patterns of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae on different types of aqueous substrates

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    Knols Bart GJ

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae Giles is the most important vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Knowledge of the factors that influence its daily oviposition pattern is crucial if field interventions targeting gravid females are to be successful. This laboratory study investigated the effect of oviposition substrate and time of blood feeding on daily oviposition patterns of An. gambiae mosquitoes. Methods Greenhouse-reared gravid and hypergravid (delayed oviposition onset An. gambiae sensu stricto and wild-caught An. gambiae sensu lato were exposed to three types of substrates in choice and no-choice cage bioassays: water from a predominantly anopheline colonised ground pool (anopheline habitat water, swamp water mainly colonised by culicine larvae (culicine habitat water and distilled water. The daily oviposition pattern and the number of eggs oviposited on each substrate during the entire egg-laying period were determined. The results were subjected to analysis of variance using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure. Results The main oviposition time for greenhouse-reared An. gambiae s.s. was between 19:00 and 20:00 hrs, approximately one hour after sunset. Wild-caught gravid An. gambiae s.l. displayed two distinct peak oviposition times between 19:00 and 20:00 hrs and between 22:00 and 23:00 hrs, respectively. During these times, both greenhouse-reared and wild-caught mosquitoes significantly (P P Conclusion This study shows that the peak oviposition time of An. gambiae s.l. may be regulated by the light-dark cycle rather than oviposition habitat characteristics or feeding times. However, the number of eggs laid by the female mosquito during the peak oviposition time is affected by the suitability of the habitat.

  16. Kerteszia Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes and bromeliads: A landscape ecology approach regarding two species in the Atlantic rainforest.

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    Chaves, Leonardo Suveges Moreira; Rodrigues de Sá, Ivy Luizi; Bergamaschi, Denise Pimentel; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2016-12-01

    On the ecological scale of an organism, a homogeneous geographical landscape can represent a mosaic of heterogeneous landscapes. The bionomy of Kerteszia mosquitoes can contribute to foundation landscape ecology by virtue of in the role of the configuration and composition of the habitat played in the distribution of mosquito species. Thus, this study aimed: to compare the abundance of Kerteszia in dense tropical rainforest, restinga and rural area, to assess the bioecological characteristics of the main bromeliads hosting Kerteszia, and to associate the bioecological arrangement of the bromeliads with Kerteszia distribution. Field collections were conducted in a monthly schedule from December of 2010 to November 2011. The vegetation of landscapes was characterized on the basis of a digital cartographic database, the manual of the Brazilian vegetation, environmental atlas information, satellite images and visits to the sites. Multivariate generalized linear models were employed using the R-project statistical program. The results were: Anopheles cruzii was the most frequent species in dense tropical rainforest (67.42%), with a positive association (deviance=25.8; P=0.002). Anopheles bellator was more abundant in the Restinga area (78.97%), with a positive association (deviance=10.4, P=0.018). There was a positive aggregation of Restinga with An. bellator (RR=2.42) but a lower level with An. cruzii (RR=0.31). Thus we can conclude that landscape characteristics influence the distribution of Kerteszia mosquitoes. An. bellator has a higher prevalence in Restinga areas, whereas An. cruzii was the most prevalent in the dense tropical rainforest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Salivary Gland Proteome during Adult Development and after Blood Feeding of Female Anopheles dissidens Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Jariyapan, Narissara; Mano, Chonlada; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Sor-Suwan, Sriwatapron; Sriwichai, Patchara; Saeung, Atiporn; Bates, Paul A

    Understanding changes in mosquito salivary proteins during the time that sporozoite maturation occurs and after blood feeding may give information regarding the roles of salivary proteins during the malarial transmission. Anopheles dissidens (formerly Anopheles barbirostris species A1) is a potential vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand. In this study, analyses of the proteomic profiles of female An. dissidens salivary glands during adult development and after blood feeding were carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed at least 17 major salivary gland proteins present from day one to day 21 post emergence at 8 different time points sampled. Although there was variation observed, the patterns of protein expression could be placed into one of four groups. Fifteen protein spots showed significant depletion after blood feeding with the percentages of the amount of depletion ranging from 8.5% to 68.11%. The overall results identified various proteins, including a putative mucin-like protein, an anti-platelet protein, a long form D7 salivary protein, a putative gVAG protein precursor, a D7-related 3.2 protein, gSG7 salivary proteins, and a gSG6 protein. These results allow better understanding of the changes of the salivary proteins during the adult mosquito development. They also provide candidate proteins to investigate any possible link or not between sporozoite maturation, or survival of skin stage sporozoites, and salivary proteins.

  18. Genetic Diversity and Population Genetics of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae: Culex spp. from the Sonoran Desert of North America

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    Edward Pfeiler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of Culex mosquitoes inhabiting the Sonoran Desert region of North America were studied using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite molecular markers. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI from mosquitoes collected over a wide geographic area, including the Baja California peninsula, and mainland localities in southern Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico, showed several well-supported partitions corresponding to Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tarsalis, and two unidentified species, Culex sp. 1 and sp. 2. Culex quinquefasciatus was found at all localities and was the most abundant species collected. Culex tarsalis was collected only at Tucson, Arizona and Guaymas, Sonora. The two unidentified species of Culex were most abundant at Navojoa in southern Sonora. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities in the COI gene segment were substantially lower in Cx. quinquefasciatus compared with the other three species. Analysis of molecular variance revealed little structure among seven populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus, whereas significant structure was found between the two populations of Cx. tarsalis. Evidence for an historical population expansion beginning in the Pleistocene was found for Cx. tarsalis. Possible explanations for the large differences in genetic diversity between Cx. quinquefasciatus and the other species of Culex are presented.

  19. Potential of crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens L., against the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Choochote, Wej; Tuetun, Benjawan; Kanjanapothi, Duangta; Rattanachanpichai, Eumporn; Chaithong, Udom; Chaiwong, Prasong; Jitpakdi, Atchariya; Tippawangkosol, Pongsri; Riyong, Doungrat; Pitasawat, Benjawan

    2004-12-01

    Crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens, was investigated for anti-mosquito potential, including larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activities against Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue haemorrhagic fever. The ethanol-extracted A. graveolens possessed larvicidal activity against fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti with LD50 and LD95 values of 81.0 and 176.8 mg/L, respectively. The abnormal movement observed in treated larvae indicated that the toxic effect of A. graveolens extract was probably on the nervous system. In testing for adulticidal activity, this plant extract exhibited a slightly adulticidal potency with LD50 and LD95 values of 6.6 and 66.4 mg/cm2, respectively. It showed repellency against Ae. aegypti adult females with ED50 and ED95 values of 2.03 and 28.12 mg/cm2, respectively. It also provided biting protection time of 3 h when applied at a concentration of 25 g%. Topical application of the ethanol-extracted A. graveolens did not induce dermal irritation. No adverse effects on the skin or other parts of the body of human volunteers were observed during 3 mo of the study period or in the following 3 mo, after which time observations ceased. A. graveolens, therefore, can be considered as a probable source of some biologically active compounds used in the development of mosquito control agents, particularly repellent products.

  20. Comparison of automatic traps to capture mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in rural areas in the tropical Atlantic rainforest

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    Ivy Luizi Rodrigues de Sa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In several countries, surveillance of insect vectors is accomplished with automatic traps. This study addressed the performance of Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI in comparison with those of CDC with CO2 and lactic acid (CDC-A and CDC light trap (CDC-LT. The collection sites were in a rural region located in a fragment of secondary tropical Atlantic rainforest, southeastern Brazil. Limatus durhami and Limatus flavisetosus were the dominant species in the MMI, whereas Ochlerotatus scapularis was most abundant in CDC-A. Culex ribeirensis and Culex sacchettae were dominant species in the CDC-LT. Comparisons among traps were based on diversity indices. Results from the diversity analyses showed that the MMI captured a higher abundance of mosquitoes and that the species richness estimated with it was higher than with CDC-LT. Contrasting, difference between MMI and CDC-A was not statistically significant. Consequently, the latter trap seems to be both an alternative for the MMI and complementary to it for ecological studies and entomological surveillance.

  1. Genetic Diversity and Population Genetics of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae: Culex spp.) from the Sonoran Desert of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Edward; Flores-López, Carlos A.; Mada-Vélez, Jesús Gerardo; Escalante-Verdugo, Juan; Markow, Therese A.

    2013-01-01

    The population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of Culex mosquitoes inhabiting the Sonoran Desert region of North America were studied using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite molecular markers. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) from mosquitoes collected over a wide geographic area, including the Baja California peninsula, and mainland localities in southern Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico, showed several well-supported partitions corresponding to Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tarsalis, and two unidentified species, Culex sp. 1 and sp. 2. Culex quinquefasciatus was found at all localities and was the most abundant species collected. Culex tarsalis was collected only at Tucson, Arizona and Guaymas, Sonora. The two unidentified species of Culex were most abundant at Navojoa in southern Sonora. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities in the COI gene segment were substantially lower in Cx. quinquefasciatus compared with the other three species. Analysis of molecular variance revealed little structure among seven populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus, whereas significant structure was found between the two populations of Cx. tarsalis. Evidence for an historical population expansion beginning in the Pleistocene was found for Cx. tarsalis. Possible explanations for the large differences in genetic diversity between Cx. quinquefasciatus and the other species of Culex are presented. PMID:24302868

  2. Biting activity of Aedes scapularis (Rondani and Haemagogus mosquitoes in Southern Brazil (Diptera: Culicidae Atividade hematófaga de mosquitos Aedes scapularis (Rondani e Haemagogus no sul do Brasil (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available The biting activity of a population of Aedes scapularis (Rondani, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz and Hg. leucocelaenus (Dyar and Shannon in Southern Brazil was studied between March 1980 and April 1983. Data were obtained with 25-hour human bait catches in three areas with patchy residual forests, named "Jacaré-Pepira", "Lupo" Farm, and "Sta. Helena" Farm, in the highland region of S. Paulo State (Brazil. Data obtained on Ae. scapularis were compared with those formerly gathered in the "Ribeira'' Valley lowlands, and were similar, except in the "Lupo" Farm study area, where a precrepuscular peak was observed, not recorded at the "Jacaré-Pepira" site or in the "Ribeira" Valley. In all the areas this mosquito showed diurnal and nocturnal activity, but was most active during the evening crepuscular period. These observations support the hypothesis about the successful adaptation of Ae. scapularis to man-made environments and have epidemiological implications that arise from it. As for Haemagogus, results obtained on the "Lupo" and "Sta. Helena" regions agree with previous data obtained in several other regions and show its diurnal activity. The proximity of "Lupo" Farm, where Hg. capricornii and Hg. leucocelaenus showed considerable activity, to "Araraquara" city where Aedes aegypti was recently found, raises some epidemiological considerations about the possibility of urban yellow fever resurgence.No período de março de 1980 a abril de 1983 foi estudada a atividade hematófaga de uma população de Aedes scapularis (Rondani, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, Hg. leucocelaenus (Dyar e Shannon, na região sul do Brasil. Os dados foram obtidos com o emprego de isca humana, mediante captura de 25 horas de duração e correspondente a três áreas, contendo manchas de floresta residual, denominadas Jacaré-Pepira, Fazenda Lupo e Fazenda Santa Helena. Os resultados relativos a Ae. scapularis foram comparados com as coletas anteriormente feitas em áreas de

  3. Biogeography of the two major arbovirus mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae, in Madagascar

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    Raharimalala Fara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past ten years, the Indian Ocean region has been the theatre of severe epidemics of chikungunya and dengue. These outbreaks coincided with a high increase in populations of Aedes albopictus that outcompete its sister taxon Aedes aegypti in most islands sampled. The objective of this work was to update the entomological survey of the two Aedes species in the island of Madagascar which has to face these arboviroses. Methods The sampling of Aedes mosquitoes was conducted during two years, from October 2007 to October 2009, in fifteen localities from eight regions of contrasting climates. Captured adults were identified immediately whereas immature stages were bred until adult stage for determination. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using two mtDNA genes, COI and ND5 and trees were constructed by the maximum likelihood (ML method with the gene time reversible (GTR model. Experimental infections with the chikungunya virus strain 06.21 at a titer of 107.5 pfu/mL were performed to evaluate the vector competence of field-collected mosquitoes. Disseminated infection rates were measured fourteen days after infection by immunofluorescence assay performed on head squashes. Results The species Aedes aegypti was detected in only six sites in native forests and natural reserves. In contrast, the species Aedes albopictus was found in 13 out of the 15 sites sampled. Breeding sites were mostly found in man-made environments such as discarded containers, used tires, abandoned buckets, coconuts, and bamboo cuts. Linear regression models showed that the abundance of Ae. albopictus was significantly influenced by the sampling region (F = 62.00, p -16 and period (F = 36.22, p = 2.548 × 10-13, that are associated with ecological and climate variations. Phylogenetic analysis of the invasive Ae. albopictus distinguished haplotypes from South Asia and South America from those of Madagascar, but the markers used were not discriminant enough

  4. Comparison of Mosquito Magnet and Biogents Sentinel Traps for Operational Surveillance of Container-Inhabiting Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, Ilia; Kawalkowski, Margaret; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

    2016-03-01

    Container-inhabiting Aedes are among the most medically important mosquito vectors of diseases. They also impact health and quality of life by their persistent and severe biting. Monitoring of container-inhabiting Aedes species is challenging due to the need for specialized traps and lures. Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap has become a standard for Aedes albopictus (Skuse) surveillance; however, it has substantial problems with durability, quality of construction, and sample exposure to the elements. The goal of this study was to develop a methodology for collecting medically important container-inhabiting Aedes species in numbers sufficient for population trend analysis, control efficacy studies, and pathogen testing. Mosquito Magnets (MM) baited with BG lure and R-octenol were selected as the most practical alternative to BGS, collecting significantly more Ae. albopictus (32.1 ± 0.7 vs. 5.6 ± 0.1), Aedes japonicus (Theobald) (10.1 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.02), and Aedes triseriatus (Say) (0.9 ± 0.04 vs. 0.04 ± 0.004) females on average per trapping under a variety of weather conditions. MM can be particularly useful for long-term surveillance or when large numbers of specimens are required for pathogen isolation, such as at the sites with suspected dengue or chikungunya transmission. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Maintenance of host DNA integrity in field-preserved mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) blood meals for identification by DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Lawrence E; Holderman, Chris J; Gillett-Kaufman, Jennifer L; Kawahara, Akito Y; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2016-09-15

    Determination of the interactions between hematophagous arthropods and their hosts is a necessary component to understanding the transmission dynamics of arthropod-vectored pathogens. Current molecular methods to identify hosts of blood-fed arthropods require the preservation of host DNA to serve as an amplification template. During transportation to the laboratory and storage prior to molecular analysis, genetic samples need to be protected from nucleases, and the degradation effects of hydrolysis, oxidation and radiation. Preservation of host DNA contained in field-collected blood-fed specimens has an additional caveat: suspension of the degradative effects of arthropod digestion on host DNA. Unless effective preservation methods are implemented promptly after blood-fed specimens are collected, host DNA will continue to degrade. Preservation methods vary in their efficacy, and need to be selected based on the logistical constraints of the research program. We compared four preservation methods (cold storage at -20 °C, desiccation, ethanol storage of intact mosquito specimens and crushed specimens on filter paper) for field storage of host DNA from blood-fed mosquitoes across a range of storage and post-feeding time periods. The efficacy of these techniques in maintaining host DNA integrity was evaluated using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the presence of a sufficient concentration of intact host DNA templates for blood meal analysis. We applied a logistic regression model to assess the effects of preservation method, storage time and post-feeding time on the binomial response variable, amplification success. Preservation method, storage time and post-feeding time all significantly impacted PCR amplification success. Filter papers and, to a lesser extent, 95 % ethanol, were the most effective methods for the maintenance of host DNA templates. Amplification success of host DNA preserved in cold storage at -20 °C and desiccation was poor. Our data

  6. Molecular approaches for blood meal analysis and species identification of mosquitoes (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae) in rural locations in southern England, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Triana, Luis Miguel; Brugman, Victor Albert; Prosser, Sean Williams John; Weland, Chris; Nikolova, Nadya; Thorne, Leigh; Marco, Mar Fernández DE; Fooks, Anthony Richard; Johnson, Nicholas

    2017-04-03

    Thirty-four species of Culicidae are present in the UK, of which 15 have been implicated as potential vectors of arthropod-borne viruses such as West Nile virus. Identification of mosquito feeding preferences is paramount to the understanding of vector-host-pathogen interactions which, in turn, would assist in the control of disease outbreaks. Results are presented on the application of DNA barcoding for vertebrate species identification in blood-fed female mosquitoes in rural locations. Blood-fed females (n = 134) were collected in southern England from rural sites and identified based on morphological criteria. Blood meals from 59 specimens (44%) were identified as feeding on eight hosts: European rabbit, cow, human, barn swallow, dog, great tit, magpie and blackbird. Analysis of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I mtDNA barcoding region and the internal transcribed spacer 2 rDNA region of the specimens morphologically identified as Anopheles maculipennis s.l. revealed the presence of An. atroparvus and An. messeae. A similar analysis of specimens morphologically identified as Culex pipiens/Cx. torrentium showed all specimens to be Cx. pipiens (typical form). This study demonstrates the importance of using molecular techniques to support species-level identification in blood-fed mosquitoes to maximize the information obtained in studies investigating host feeding patterns.

  7. Larvicidal and repellent effect of some Tribulus terrestris L., (Zygophyllaceae extracts against the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M.Y. El-Sheikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti transmits etiologic agents of yellow fever and dengue. Vaccine for dengue virus is not available and vector control is essential to minimize dengue incidence. The larvicidal and repellent effect of the crude ethanol, acetone and petroleum ether extract leaves of Tribulus terrestris, against 3rd instar larvae and adults of mosquito, Ae. aegypti the vector of dengue fever was evaluated. The efficacy of petroleum ether extract seemed to be more effective with LC50 64.6 ppm followed by acetone extract with LC50 173.2 ppm and finally ethanolic extract with LC50 376.4 ppm. Moreover, the acetone and petroleum ether extracts exerted a highly delayed toxic effect on the pupae and adults resulted from treated larvae, where the pupal mortality was 57.1% and 100% at concentrations 400 and 100 ppm, respectively. Also, the petroleum ether and acetone extracts showed reduction effects on adult emergence. The repellent action of the plant extracts tested was varied depending on the solvent used in extraction and the dose of the extract. The most effective plant extract that evoked 100% repellency or biting deterrence was petroleum ether extract at a dose of 1.5 mg/cm2 compared with 100% repellency for commercial formulation, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET at the same dose. Hence, these extracts can be used as an effective alternative to the existing synthetic pesticides for the control of Ae. aegypti.

  8. Influence of Age and Nutritional Status on Flight Performance of the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Lauren F. Collins

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a competent vector for arboviruses and recently was implicated as the vector of the first autochthonous cases of dengue and chikungunya in southern Europe. The objective of this study was to analyze the flight performance of female Ae. albopictus of different ages that were starved, sugar-fed, or sugar-fed and blood-fed, using flight mills. After three days of starvation post emergence, females flew an average distance of 0.7 ± 0.5 km in 1.9 ± 1.5 h during a 16 h trial period, whereas sugar- or sugar- and blood-fed females of this age covered a significantly higher distance of around 3 km with a mean total flight time of around 6 h. The age of females (up to four weeks had no effect on performance. The average of maximal continuous flight segments of sugar-fed (2.14 ± 0.69 h and blood-fed (3.17 ± 0.82 h females was distinctly higher than of starved females (0.38 ± 0.15 h of which most flyers (83% performed maximal flight segments that lasted no longer than 0.5 h. Overall, the results for the laboratory monitored flight performance of Ae. albopictus confirm their ability to disperse a few kilometres between breeding site and host.

  9. First report of field evolved resistance to agrochemicals in dengue mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae, from Pakistan

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    Shehzad Khurram

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agrochemicals have been widely used in Pakistan for several years. This exposes mosquito populations, particularly those present around agricultural settings, to an intense selection pressure for insecticide resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of representative agrochemicals against various populations of Aedes albopictus (Skuse collected from three different regions from 2008-2010. Results For organophosphates and pyrethroids, the resistance ratios compared with susceptible Lab-PK were in the range of 157-266 fold for chlorpyrifos, 24-52 fold for profenofos, 41-71 fold for triazofos, and 15-26 fold for cypermethrin, 15-53 fold for deltamethrin and 21-58 fold for lambdacyhalothrin. The resistance ratios for carbamates and new insecticides were in the range of 13-22 fold for methomyl, 24-30 fold for thiodicarb, and 41-101 fold for indoxacarb, 14-27 fold for emamectin benzoate and 23-50 fold for spinosad. Pair wise comparisons of the log LC50s of insecticides revealed correlation among several insecticides, suggesting a possible cross resistance mechanism. Moreover, resistance remained stable across 3 years, suggesting field selection for general fitness had also taken place for various populations of Ae. albopictus. Conclusion Moderate to high level of resistance to agrochemicals in Pakistani field populations of Ae. albopictus is reported here first time. The geographic extent of resistance is unknown but, if widespread, may lead to problems in future vector control.

  10. First report of field evolved resistance to agrochemicals in dengue mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Shehzad, Khurram; Shaalan, Essam A

    2011-07-22

    Agrochemicals have been widely used in Pakistan for several years. This exposes mosquito populations, particularly those present around agricultural settings, to an intense selection pressure for insecticide resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of representative agrochemicals against various populations of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) collected from three different regions from 2008-2010. For organophosphates and pyrethroids, the resistance ratios compared with susceptible Lab-PK were in the range of 157-266 fold for chlorpyrifos, 24-52 fold for profenofos, 41-71 fold for triazofos, and 15-26 fold for cypermethrin, 15-53 fold for deltamethrin and 21-58 fold for lambdacyhalothrin. The resistance ratios for carbamates and new insecticides were in the range of 13-22 fold for methomyl, 24-30 fold for thiodicarb, and 41-101 fold for indoxacarb, 14-27 fold for emamectin benzoate and 23-50 fold for spinosad. Pair wise comparisons of the log LC50s of insecticides revealed correlation among several insecticides, suggesting a possible cross resistance mechanism. Moreover, resistance remained stable across 3 years, suggesting field selection for general fitness had also taken place for various populations of Ae. albopictus. Moderate to high level of resistance to agrochemicals in Pakistani field populations of Ae. albopictus is reported here first time. The geographic extent of resistance is unknown but, if widespread, may lead to problems in future vector control.

  11. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520

  12. Infestação pelo mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae na cidade de Chapecó – SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junir Antonio Lutinski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n2p143   A dengue se tornou um problema de saúde pública e vem causando preocupação aos profissionais de saúde. Este estudo visou a avaliar os fatores condicionantes para a ocorrência de dengue na cidade de Chapecó – SC. Foram analisadas as informações disponíveis no Sistema de Informações de Febre Amarela e Dengue (SISFAD e foi realizada uma pesquisa a partir de um questionário semiestruturado aplicado à população. As análises indicam a associação da infestação pelo mosquito transmissor da dengue com o lixo inadequadamente tratado e com os depósitos de captação de água da chuva, assim como com o ambiente residencial. A prevenção à dengue no município de Chapecó envolve a implantação de políticas públicas de educação ambiental em saúde para a separação e destinação adequada dos resíduos sólidos e melhorias no sistema de abastecimento público de água. Campanhas educativas voltadas aos cuidados no ambiente domiciliar também são necessárias.

  13. Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropic environment: 1- Parity of blood seeking Anopheles (Kerteszia in South-Eastern Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Anopheles (Kerteszia were sampled fortnightly over a one-year period (August 1991 to July 1992 at Ribeira Valley, S. Paulo State, Brazil. Indoor and outdoor collections were made on human bait at evening crepuscular period. The Polovodova technique for age grading was applied to 3,501 females of Anopheles cruzii and to 416 females of An. bellator. That sample represented 34.4% of the total number of mosquitoes collected. The most abundant species found was An. cruzii. However, An. bellator showed an endophagy that was almost three times greater than that of An. cruzii. The overall parous rate was 25.4% and uniparity was practically dominant one. A proportion of 26.9% of An. cruzii and 12.0% of An. bellator were found to be uniparous. Only three outdoor females of the former species (0.1% showed biparity. Parity of An. cruzii was higher in females caught outdoors than in those caught indoors. Nevertheless, 497 nulliparous females examined (417 cruzii and 80 bellator had ovaries that had advanced to Christophers and Mer stages III to V. These results imply that these females had already practised hematophagy. Relating these results to those from the parous females, a high statistical significance was found, leading to the conclusion that gonothophic discordance is a common pattern among these anophelines. Further, these results obtained with human bait catches strongly suggest that nearly 38.0% of these host-seeking females had already taken at least one previous blood-meal. So it is possible that enough time could thus be available for the plasmodian development in the vectors.

  14. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Walter Ceretti-Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be re­tained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for im­mature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects.Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 munici­pal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically.Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens and Cx. (Microculex imitator (444. The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus.Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. 

  15. Passage of ingested Mansonella ozzardi (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) microfilariae through the midgut of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jefferson A; Bell, Jeffrey A; Turell, Michael J; Chadee, Dave D

    2007-01-01

    When virus and microfilariae are ingested concurrently by a mosquito, microfilariae (mf) may penetrate the mosquito midgut and introduce virus directly into the mosquito hemocoel, allowing mosquitoes to become infectious much sooner than normal and enhancing transmission of viruses by mosquitoes. Mansonella ozzardi (Manson) is a benign filarial nematode parasite of humans in Latin America and is transmitted by black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Because M. ozzardi and dengue are sympatric, we wanted to know whether M. ozzardi mf had the ability to penetrate the midgut of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) and thus play a potential role in the enhancement of dengue transmission. To test this, the F1 progeny from locally collected Ae. aegypti were fed on M. ozzardi-infected human males in an endemic village in northern Trinidad. Mosquitoes were dissected at various times after feeding and examined for mf in the midguts and thoraces. Microfilariae penetrated the midguts of 43% of 63 mosquitoes that ingested mf. Overall, 11% of mf penetrated the midgut by 17 h after being ingested. The intensity of midgut penetration was positively correlated to the numbers of mf ingested. Because midgut penetration is a key requirement for mf enhancement to occur, the potential exists that M. ozzardi could be involved in the enhancement of dengue virus transmission.

  16. Prevention of Dengue fever through plant based mosquito repellent Clausena dentata (Willd.) M. Roem (Family: Rutaceae) essential oil against Aedes aegypti l. (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, S; Jebanesan, A

    2010-03-01

    Plant based repellent against mosquito borne diseases are used recently because synthetic repellents cause side effects like breathing problem, eye irritation, head ache, cough, etc. The use of natural products for dengue control would protect the environment, reduce dependence on expensive synthetic repellents and also generate local employment. Essential oil was isolated by steam distillation which was used against the bites of Aedes aegypti and duration of protection period was assessed. Skin-irritant potential test was also conducted on 25 healthy volunteers by using four-point scale. The increase in the concentrations of essential oil increased the mean protection time against the bites of Aedes aegypti. The lowest mean protection time was 180.0 min for 2.5% and highest time of 255.0 min for 10%. The mean score of zero for skin-irritant potential test for all the concentrations indicated that the essential oil did not cause irritation to human skin. Results indicated that the use of plant based repellent for the control of dengue fever would replace the currently used synthetic repellents which causes many side effects.

  17. Identification and Transcription Profiling of NDUFS8 in Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae): Developmental Regulation and Environmental Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    Identification and transcription profiling of NDUFS8 in Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae): developmental regulation and environmental response...7205 Email lmzhao@ufl.edu Abstract: The cDNA of a NADH dehydrogenase-ubiquinone Fe-S protein 8 subunit (NDUFS8) gene from Aedes (Ochlerotatus...information useful for developing dsRNA pesticide for mosquito control. Keywords: Aedes taeniorhynchus, AetNDUFS8, mRNA expression, development

  18. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant...

  19. Microsporidiosis (Microsporidia: Culicosporidae) alters blood-feeding responses and DEET repellency in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Donald R; Xue, Rui-De; Rotstein, Margaret A; Becnel, James J

    2007-11-01

    Infection of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) with Edhazardia aedis (Microsporidia: Culicosporidae) reduced mean human host attraction and landing/probing rates in female mosquitoes by 53 and 62%, respectively, compared with rates in microsporidia-free females. Infection with E. aedis reduced the average weight of unfed female mosquitoes by 4%, caused them to imbibe 23% less blood, and to lay 30% fewer eggs than healthy females. In contrast, E. aedis-infected mosquitoes required 20% more time (>1 h) than healthy females to bite skin treated with 15% DEET. Statistically significant morbidity in E. aedis-infected females was indicated by reductions in host attraction and landing/probing responses, the mass of unfed and blood-engorged females, and fecundity, and by increased DEET repellency.

  20. An updated checklist of the Culicidae (Diptera) of Morocco, with notes on species of historical and current medical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trari, Bouchra; Dakki, Mohamed; Harbach, Ralph E

    2017-06-01

    An updated checklist of the mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) recorded in Morocco from 1916 to 2016 is provided, including synonyms and synonymous usage for each species. Forty-three species belonging to seven genera are recorded so far: Anopheles (9), Aedes (12) Coquillettidia (2), Culex (12), Culiseta (5), Orthopodomyia (1) and Uranotaenia (2). Traditional and equivalent names in the polyphyletic concept of Aedes are provided for the aedine species. The historical importance and current potential threat of mosquitoes to human health in Morocco is reviewed. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  1. A Brief Survey of the Mosquitoes of South Sulawesi, Indonesia, with Special Reference to the Identity of ’Anopheles barbirostris’ (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Margolembo Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-20

    mosquitoes hitherto recorded from Sulawesi and adjacent islands is presented. The prevalence of malaria and filariasis in transmigration villages of...East Indian mosquitoes. Bull. Ent. Res. 25: 501-19, illus. 1939. Notes on Dutch East- Indian mosquitoes. Tij&hr. Ent. 82: 91-113, illus. Brug, S...Macdonald, W. W. 1957. Malaysian parasites. XVI. An interim review of the non-anopheline mosquitoes of Malaya. Stud. Inst. Med. Res., Malaya 28: l-34

  2. Synergism between ammonia, lactic acid and carboxylic acids as kairomones in the host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Qiu, Y.T.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2005-01-01

    Host odours play a major role in the orientation and host location of blood-feeding mosquitoes. Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto, which is the most important malaria vector in Africa, is a highly anthropophilic mosquito species, and the host-seeking behaviour of the females of this mosquito is

  3. Efficacy of Some Wearable Devices Compared with Spray-On Insect Repellents for the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Stacy D; Chung, Hae-Na; Gonzales, Kristina K; Vulcan, Julia; Li, Yiyi; Ahumada, Jorge A; Romero, Hector M; De La Torre, Mario; Shu, Fangjun; Hansen, Immo A

    2017-01-01

    The current Zika health crisis in the Americas has created an intense interest in mosquito control methods and products. Mosquito vectors of Zika are of the genus Aedes, mainly the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. L. The use of repellents to alter mosquito host seeking behavior is an effective method for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases. A large number of different spray-on repellents and wearable repellent devices are commercially available. The efficacies of many repellents are unknown. This study focuses on the efficacy of eleven different repellents in reducing the number of Ae. aegypti female mosquitoes attracted to human bait. We performed attraction-inhibition assays using a taxis cage in a wind tunnel setting. One person was placed upwind of the taxis cage and the mosquito movement towards or away from the person was recorded. The person was treated with various spray-on repellents or equipped with different mosquito repellent devices. We found that the spray-on repellents containing N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide and p-menthane-3,8-diol had the highest efficacy in repelling mosquitoes compared to repellents with other ingredients. From the five wearable devices that we tested, only the one that releases Metofluthrin significantly reduced the numbers of attracted mosquitoes. The citronella candle had no effect. We conclude that many of the products that we tested that were marketed as repellents do not reduce mosquito attraction to humans. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  4. Composition and Genetic Diversity of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) on Islands and Mainland Shores of Kenya’s Lakes Victoria and Baringo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajamma, Yvonne Ukamaka; Villinger, Jandouwe; Omondi, David; Salifu, Daisy; Onchuru, Thomas Ogao; Njoroge, Laban; Muigai, Anne W. T.; Masiga, Daniel K.

    2016-01-01

    The Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria regions of Kenya are associated with high seroprevalence of mosquito-transmitted arboviruses. However, molecular identification of potential mosquito vector species, including morphologically identified ones, remains scarce. To estimate the diversity, abundance, and distribution of mosquito vectors on the mainland shores and adjacent inhabited islands in these regions, we collected and morphologically identified adult and immature mosquitoes and obtained the corresponding sequence variation at cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) gene regions. A total of 63 species (including five subspecies) were collected from both study areas, 47 of which have previously been implicated as disease vectors. Fourteen species were found only on island sites, which are rarely included in mosquito diversity surveys. We collected more mosquitoes, yet with lower species composition, at Lake Baringo (40,229 mosquitoes, 32 species) than at Lake Victoria (22,393 mosquitoes, 54 species). Phylogenetic analysis of COI gene sequences revealed Culex perexiguus and Cx. tenagius that could not be distinguished morphologically. Most Culex species clustered into a heterogeneous clade with closely related sequences, while Culex pipiens clustered into two distinct COI and ITS2 clades. These data suggest limitations in current morphological identification keys. This is the first DNA barcode report of Kenyan mosquitoes. To improve mosquito species identification, morphological identifications should be supported by their molecular data, while diversity surveys should target both adults and immatures. The diversity of native mosquito disease vectors identified in this study impacts disease transmission risks to humans and livestock. PMID:27402888

  5. Analysis of ovary-specific genes in relation to egg maturation and female nutritional condition in the mosquitoes Georgecraigius atropalpus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telang, Aparna; Rechel, Julie A; Brandt, Jessica R; Donnell, David M

    2013-03-01

    Analysis of the reproductive physiology of anautogenous mosquitoes at the molecular level is complicated by the simultaneity of ovarian maturation and the digestion of a blood meal. In contrast to anautogenous mosquitoes, autogenous female mosquitoes can acquire greater nutrient stores as larvae and exhibit higher ovarian production of ecdysteroids at adult eclosion. These features essentially replace the role of a blood meal in provisioning the first batch of eggs and initiating egg development. To gain insight into the process of ovary maturation we first performed a transcript analysis of the obligatory autogenous mosquito Georgecraigius atropalpus (formerly Ochlerotatus atropalpus). We identified ESTs using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) of transcripts from ovaries at critical times during oogenesis in the absence of blood digestion. Preliminary expression studies of genes such as apolipophorin III (APO) and oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) suggested these genes might be cued to female nutritional status. We then applied our findings to the medically important anautogenous mosquito Aedes aegypti. RNAi-based analyses of these genes in Ae. aegypti revealed a reduction in APO transcripts leads to reduced lipid levels in carcass and ovaries and that OSBP may play a role in overall lipid and sterol homeostasis. In addition to expanding our understanding of mosquito ovarian development, the continued use of a comparative approach between autogenous and anautogenous species may provide novel intervention points for the regulation of mosquito egg production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Field evaluation of the Off! Clip-on Mosquito Repellent (metofluthrin) against Aedes albopictus and Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) in northeastern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rui-De; Qualls, Whitney A; Smith, Michael L; Gaines, Marcia K; Weaver, James H; Debboun, Mustapha

    2012-05-01

    Repellent efficacy of the Off! Clip-on Mosquito Repellent device (S. C. Johnson and Son, Inc., Racine, WI) containing Metofluthrin was evaluated on six human volunteers against the container-breeding mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and the salt marsh mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) at two field locations in northeastern Florida. The device repelled mosquitoes by releasing a vaporized form of the pyrethroid insecticide metofluthrin ([AI] 31.2%) and provided 70% protection from Ae. albopictus bites for > 3 h. For the second field trial, a repellent device that was used in the first trial was tested after being open for >1 wk. This device provided 79% protection from Ae. taeniorhynchus bites for 3 h. Our field results showed that the repellent device was 70 and 79% effective at repelling Ae. albopictus and Ae. taeniorhynchus from human test subjects in both field locations in northeastern Florida.

  7. Mosquito blood-meal analysis for avian malaria study in wild bird communities: laboratory verification and application to Culex sasai (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Soon; Tsuda, Yoshio; Sasaki, Toshinori; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Hirota, Yoshikazu

    2009-10-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to verify molecular techniques of avian malaria parasite detection distinguishing between an infected mosquito (oocysts on midgut wall) and infective mosquito (sporozoites in salivary glands) in parallel with blood-meal identification from individual blood-fed mosquitoes prior to application to field survey for avian malaria. Domestic fowl infected with Plasmodium gallinaceum was exposed to a vector and non-vector mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens, respectively, to compare the time course of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection for parasite between competent and refractory mosquitoes. DNA of the domestic fowl was detectable for at least 3 days after blood feeding. The PCR-based detection of P. gallinaceum from the abdomen and thorax of A. aegypti corresponded to the microscopic observation of oocysts and sporozoites. Therefore, this PCR-based method was considered useful as one of the criteria to assess developmental stages of Plasmodium spp. in mosquito species collected in the field. We applied the same PCR-based method to 21 blood-fed C. sasai mosquitoes collected in Rinshi-no-mori Park in urban Tokyo, Japan. Of 15 blood meals of C. sasai successfully identified, 86.7% were avian-derived, 13.3% were bovine-derived. Plasmodium DNA was amplified from the abdomen of three C. sasai specimens having an avian blood meal from the Great Tit (Parus major), Pale Thrush (Turdus pallidus), and Jungle Crow (Corvus macrorhynchos). This is the first field study on host-feeding habits of C. sasai in relation to the potential role as a vector for avian malaria parasites transmitted in the Japanese wild bird community.

  8. Isolation of Tahyna virus (California Encephalitis Group) from Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera, Culicidae), a mosquito species new to, and expanding in, Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Šebesta, Oldřich; Peško, Juraj; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; Venclíková, Kristýna; Rudolf, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 6 (2014), s. 1264-1267 ISSN 0022-2585 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Tahyna virus * Orthobunyavirus * mosquito * Anopheles hyrcanus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.953, year: 2014

  9. Mosquito larvicidal properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan

    2014-06-01

    Mosquitoes transmit dreadful diseases to human beings wherein biological control of these vectors using plant-derived molecules would be an alternative to reduce mosquito population. In the present study activity of aqueous leaf extract and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Helitropium indicum plant leaves against late third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The range of varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 μg/mL) were tested against the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The synthesized AgNPs from H. indicum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and histogram. The synthesized AgNPs showed larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of H. indicum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of H. indicum aqueous leaf extract appeared to be effective against A. stephensi (LC50, 68.73 μg/mL; LC90, 121.07 μg/mL) followed by A. aegypti (LC50, 72.72 μg/mL; LC90, 126.86 μg/mL) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50, 78.74 μg/mL; LC90, 134.39 μg/mL). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90 values: A. stephensi had LC50 and LC90 values of 18.40 and 32.45 μg/mL, A. aegypti had LC50 and LC90 values of 20.10 and 35.97 μg/mL, and C. quinquefasciatus had LC50 and LC90 values of 21.84 and 38.10 μg/mL. No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the leaf aqueous extracts of H. indicum and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the

  10. Longitudinal evaluation of Ocimum and other plants effects on the feeding behavioral response of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in the field in Tanzania

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    Tenu Filemoni

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of repellent materials from plants against nuisance insects is common with great potential to compliment existing malaria control programmes and this requires evaluation in the field. Ocimum plant species, Ocimum suave (Willd and O. kilimandscharicum (Guerke materials and their essential oils extracted by steam distillation were evaluated in the field and experimental huts for repellence, exophily and feeding inhibition effects against three mosquito species, Anopheles arabiensis (Patton, An. gambiae ss (Giles and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. The protective effect of essential oils from Ocimum plants were compared with N, N-diethly-3- methylbenzamide (DEET, a standard synthetic repellent. Also, the protective effect of fumigation by burning of repellent plants; Ocimum suave, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus globules and Lantana camara were tested in experimental huts and selected local houses. Results In the field, protection by Ocimum plants from mosquito bites was high and there was small variation among different mosquito species. Protection efficiency was 93.4%, 91.98% and 89.75% for An. arabiensis while for Cx. quinquefaciatus it was 91.30%, 88.65% and 90.50% for DEET, Ocimum suave and O. kilimandscharicum respectively. In the experimental hut, deterrence induced by burning of Ocimum and other plants ranged from 73.1.0% to 81.9% for An. arabiensis and 56.5% to 67.8% for Cx. quinquefaciatus, while feeding inhibition was 61.1% to 100% for An. arabiensis and 50% to 100% for Cx. quinquefaciatus. Evaluations under field conditions confirmed high protective efficacy, enhanced feeding inhibition and house entry inhibition (Deterrence. Conclusion This study shows the potential of Ocimum suave and Ocimum kilimandscharicum crude extracts and whole plants of Ocimum suave, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus globules and Lantana camara for use in protecting against human biting

  11. Host-feeding patterns of Culex pipiens and other potential mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) of West Nile virus (Flaviviridae) collected in Portugal.

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    Osório, Hugo Costa; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Alves, Maria João

    2012-05-01

    The host blood-feeding patterns of mosquito vectors affects the likelihood of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens, including West Nile Virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV). In Portugal, data are unavailable regarding the blood-feeding habits of common mosquito species, including Culex pipiens L., considered the primary vector of WNV to humans. The sources of bloodmeals in 203 blood-fed mosquitoes of nine species collected from June 2007 to November 2010 in 34 Portuguese counties were analyzed by sequencing cytochrome-b partial fragments. Cx. pipiens was the most common species collected and successfully analyzed (n = 135/78). In addition, blood-fed females of the following species were analyzed: Ochlerotatus caspius Pallas (n = 20), Culex theileri Theobald (n = 16), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (n = 10), Culiseta longiareolata Macquart (n = 7), Aedes aegypti L. (n = 6), Culex perexiguus Theobald (n = 3), Culiseta annulata Schrank (n = 3), and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday (n = 3). The Cx. pipiens mosquitoes fed predominantly on birds (n = 55/78, 70.5%), with a high diversity of avian species used as hosts, although human blood was identified in 18 specimens (18/78, 23.1%). No significant differences were found between the host-feeding patterns of blood-fed Cx. pipiens collected in residential and nonresidential habitats. The occurrence of human derived blood meals and the presence of a mix avian-human bloodmeal accordingly suggest this species as a potential vector of WNV. Therefore, in Portugal, Cx. pipiens may play a role both in the avian-to-avian enzootic WNV cycle and in the avian-to-mammal transmission. In this context, the identity of Cx. pipiens (considering the forms molestus and pipiens) and the potential consequence on feeding behavior and WNV transmission are discussed.

  12. Host-feeding patterns of native Culex pipiens and invasive Aedes albopictus mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in urban zones from Barcelona, Spain.

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    Muñnoz, Joaquin; Eritja, Roger; Alcaide, Miguel; Montalvo, Tomás; Soriguer, Ramón C; Figuerola, Jordi

    2011-07-01

    The feeding patterns of haematophagous arthropods are of major importance in the amplification and transmission of infectious disease agents to vertebrate hosts, including humans. The establishment of new vector populations in nonnative range might alter transmission networks. The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) represents an example of how an invasive species can alter the risk of viral transmission to humans. Blood meal molecular identification from two sympatric mosquito species (the invasive Ae. albopictus and the native Culex pipiens) was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-based methods. Samples were collected in Barcelona metropolitan area, Spain, from June to October 2009 as part of a monitoring-control program. Blood meals were identified to the species level in 30 Ae. albopictus and 43 Cx. pipiens. Ae. albopictus acquired blood exclusively from human hosts (100%), whereas Cx. pipiens fed on a diversity of avian and mammalian hosts, including 35.7% of blood meals from humans. Based on mosquito diet, our results suggest that the Ae. albopictus invasion in Spain might increase the risk of virus transmission to humans and could support local outbreaks of imported tropical viruses such as dengue and chikungunya. However, in the studied area, the presence of this invasive species would have a negligible effect on the transmission of zoonotic agents such as West Nile virus. However, Cx. pipiens could amplify and transmit West Nile virus, but avian contribution to its diet was lower than that reported in North America. Feeding patterns of these mosquito species may help to understand the flavivirus outbreaks recently reported in southwestern Europe.

  13. Creams formulated with Ocimum gratissimum L. and Lantana camara L. crude extracts and fractions as mosquito repellents against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Keziah, Ezeike Amarachi; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Danga, Simon Pierre Yinyang; Younoussa, Lame; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are the most deadly vectors of parasites that cause diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and filariasis. In view of the recent increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, the objective of this study was to determine the repellent activity of creams formulated with methanol crude extract (MCE), hexane fraction (HF), and ethyl acetate fractions (EAFs) of Ocimum gratissimum and Lantana camara leaves in single and combined actions against female Aedes aegypti. Evaluation was carried out in the net cages (30 by 30 by 30 cm) containing 60 blood-starved female mosquitoes each and were assayed in the laboratory condition following World Health Organization 2009 protocol. All formulations (single and mixture) were applied at 2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/cm(2) in the exposed area of human hands. Only acetone + white soft paraffin served as negative control and odomos (12% DEET) as positive control. All the formulations presented good protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction by the human volunteers. The repellent activity was dependent on the strength of the extracts and fractions. Among the tested formulations, the maximum protection time was observed in MCE (120 min) and EAF (150 min) of O. gratissimum; MCE:MCE (150 min) and HF:HF (120 min) mixtures of both plants. In addition, MCE:MCE and HF:HF mixtures from both plants showed possible synergistic effect. From the results, the combination of O. gratissimum and L. camara to formulate natural mosquito repellent using small amount of extracts can be encouraging to be an alternative to conventional DEET. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  14. In vivo binding of the Cry11Bb toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin to the midgut of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Ruiz Lina María

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin produces numerous proteins among which 94 kDa known as Cry11Bb, has mosquitocidal activity. The mode of action of the Cry11 proteins has been described as similar to those of the Cry1 toxins, nevertheless, the mechanism of action is still not clear. In this study we investigated the in vivo binding of the Cry11Bb toxin to the midgut of the insect species Anopheles albimanus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus by immunohistochemical analysis. Spodoptera frugiperda was included as negative control. The Cry11Bb protein was detected on the apical microvilli of the midgut epithelial cells, mostly on the posterior midgut and gastric caeca of the three mosquito species. Additionally, the toxin was detected in the Malpighian tubules of An. albimanus, Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and in the basal membrane of the epithelial cells of Ae. aegypti midgut. No toxin accumulation was observed in the peritrophic membrane of any of the mosquito species studied. These results confirm that the primary site of action of the Cry11 toxins is the apical membrane of the midgut epithelial cells of mosquito larvae.

  15. Larval feeding duration affects ecdysteroid levels and nutritional reserves regulating pupal commitment in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telang, Aparna; Frame, Laura; Brown, Mark R

    2007-03-01

    What little is known about the endocrine regulation of mosquito development suggests that models based on Lepidoptera and Drosophila may not apply. We report on basic parameters of larval development and the commitment to metamorphosis in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti that are affected by varying the length of feeding time for last instar larvae. A critical mass for pupal commitment was achieved after 24 h of feeding by last instars, also the age at which tissue production and hemolymph titers of ecdysteroids are increasing. A greater proportion of last instars successfully pupated and eclosed as adults as the length of their feeding time increased. Less than 24 h of feeding time resulted in last instars that were developmentally arrested; these larvae tolerated starvation conditions for up to 2 weeks and retained the capacity to pupate if re-fed. Starvation tolerance may be a common trait among container-inhabiting species, and this period is an important factor to be considered for vectorial capacity and control measures. To distinguish cues for metamorphosis related to a larva's nutritional status versus its age, newly molted last instars were fed for different periods of time but sampled at the same age; ecdysteroid levels, body mass and nutrient reserves were then measured for each group. Our data suggest that metamorphic capacity is dependent on a larva's nutritional condition and not just the age at which ecdysteroid titers increase. Last instars that have fed for a particular length of time may initiate their metamorphic molt when both threshold levels of nutrient reserves and ecdysteroid titer have been met. Future studies will lead to a conceptual model specific for the nutritional and hormonal regulation of mosquito post-embryonic development. This model should facilitate the exploitation of current and novel insect growth regulators that are among favored strategies for vector population suppression.

  16. Comparative analysis of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae: Aedes aegypti Liston) responses to the insecticide Temephos and plant derived essential oil derived from Piper betle L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Lija-Escaline, Jalasteen; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2017-05-01

    Resistance to treatments with Temephos or plant derived oil, Pb-CVO, between a field collected Wild Strain (WS) and a susceptible Laboratory Strain (LS) of Ae. aegypti were measured. The Temephos (0.1mg/L) showed the greatest percentage of mosquito mortality compared to Pb-CVO (1.5mg/L) in LS Ae. aegypti. However, WS Ae. aegypti was not significantly affected by Temephos (0.1mg/L) treatment compare to the Pb-CVO (1.5mg/L). However, both strains (LS and WS) when treated with Pb-CVO (1.5mg/L) displayed steady larval mortality rate across all instars. The LC 50 of Temephos was 0.027mg in LS, but increased in WS to 0.081mg/L. The LC 50 of Pb-CVO treatment was observed at concentrations of 0.72 and 0.64mg/L for LS and WS strains respectively. The enzyme level of α- and β-carboxylesterase was reduced significantly in both mosquito strains treated with Pb-CVO. Whereas, there was a prominent deviation in the enzyme ratio observed between LS and WS treated with Temephos. The GST and CYP450 levels were upregulated in the LS, but decreased in WS, after treatment with Temephos. However, treatment with Pb-CVO caused both enzyme levels to increase significantly in both the strains. Visual observations of the midgut revealed cytotoxicity from sub-lethal concentrations of Temephos (0.04mg/L) and Pb-CVO (1.0mg/L) in both strains of Ae. aegypti compared to the control. The damage caused by Temephos was slightly less in WS compared to LS mosquito strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Household survey of container-breeding mosquitoes and climatic factors influencing the prevalence of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Al Thabiany; Dieng, Hamady; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Mahyoub, Jazem A; Turkistani, Abdulhafis M; Mesed, Hatabbi; Koshike, Salah; Satho, Tomomitsu; Salmah, MR Che; Ahmad, Hamdan; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Ramli, Ahmad Saad; Miake, Fumio

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of container breeding mosquitoes with emphasis on the seasonality and larval habitats of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) in Makkah City, adjoining an environmental monitoring and dengue incidence. Methods Monthly visits were performed between April 2008 and March 2009 to randomly selected houses. During each visit, mosquito larvae were collected from indoors and outdoors containers by either dipping or pipetting. Mosquitoes were morphologically identified. Data on temperature, relative humidity, rain/precipitations during the survey period was retrieved from governmental sources and analyzed. Results The city was warmer in dry season (DS) than wet season (WS). No rain occurred at all during DS and even precipitations did fall, wetting events were much greater during WS. Larval survey revealed the co-breeding of Aedes, Culex and Anopheles in a variety of artificial containers in and around homes. 32 109 larvae representing 1st , 2nd, 3rd, and 4th stages were collected from 22 618 container habitats. Culicines was far the commonest and Aedes genus was as numerous as the Culex population. Ae. aegypti larval abundance exhibited marked temporal variations, overall, being usually more abundant during WS. Ten types of artificial containers were found with developing larvae. 70% of these habitats were located indoors. 71.42% of indoor containers were permanent and 28.58% was semi-permanent during WS. Cement tanks was the only container type permanent during DS. Ae. aegypti larval indices (CI, HI, BI) recorded were greater during WS. Conclusions Taken together, these results indicate a high risk of dengue transmission in the holy city. PMID:23569860

  18. Estudios comparativos del ciclo de vida del mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: culicidae de dos colonias de la costa atlántica colombiana

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    Claribell Hernández

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se realizó con el propósito de establecer, en forma preliminar, en el laboratorio, si el mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus procedente de Barranquilla y Cartagena es realmente una sola cepa y si el proceso de colonización (cría en el laboratorio influye en el tiempo de duración de las etapas de desarrollo del ciclo de vida de este díptero. Las colonias se establecieron con mosquitos adultos, machos y hembras, recolectados en lugares cercanos a Barranquilla y Cartagena. Los insectos se identificaron taxonómicamente y se colocaron en jaulas Gerberg, en las que se introdujeron tazas con tierra húmeda para que las hembras ovipositaran. De cada localidad, se mantuvieron seis generaciones continuas a una temperatura promedio de 27°C y una humedad relativa promedio de 80%. Los estadios inmaduros se alimentaron con Ken-L molido; los adultos de los dos sexos, con solución azucarada y a las hembras se les colocó un curí para que tomaran su comida de sangre. Se registraron los tiempos de duración de cada etapa del ciclo biológico en cada una de las generaciones y se analizaron por medio de la prueba t de comparación de promedios para muestras independientes. Para los tiempos de duración de larva (t=1,51 y pupa (t=0,30 de las dos poblaciones del mosquito, no se encontraron diferencias significativas; sin embargo, para el tiempo de eclosión de la larva sí las hubo (t=4,21. Al relacionar las seis generaciones de Cartagena no se encontraron diferencias significativas para el tiempo de duración de pupa y eclosión de la larva, pero sí se presentaron a partir de la cuarta generación, para el tiempo de duración de los estadios larvarios. Los resultados de este estudio preliminar sugieren que el mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus de Barranquilla y Cartagena representa una sola especie. Se demostró, además, que su proceso de colonización, el cual involucra la adaptación de este insecto a las condiciones específicas de un insectario

  19. First isolation of Aedes flavivirus in the Western Hemisphere and evidence of vertical transmission in the mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

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    Haddow, Andrew D., E-mail: adhaddow@gmail.com [Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biodefense, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States); Guzman, Hilda; Popov, Vsevolod L. [Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biodefense, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States); Wood, Thomas G.; Widen, Steven G. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States); Haddow, Alastair D. [Mercy Clinic, 2115 S. Fremont, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States); Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C. [Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biodefense, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States)

    2013-06-05

    We report here the first evidence of vertical transmission of Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) and its first isolation in the Western Hemisphere. AEFV strain SPFLD-MO-2011-MP6 was isolated in C6/36 cells from a pool of male Aedes albopictus mosquitoes that were reared to adults from larvae collected in southwest Missouri, USA, in 2011. Electron micrographs of the virus showed virions of approximately 45 nm in diameter with morphological characteristics associated with flaviviruses. The genomic sequence demonstrated that AEFV-SPFLD-MO-2011-MP6 shares a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity with the AEFV Narita-21 strain, isolated in Japan in 2003. Intracerebral inoculation of newborn mice with the virus failed to produce observable illness or death and the virus did not replicate in vertebrate cells, consistent with a lack of vertebrate host range. - Highlights: ► The first report of Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) in the Western Hemisphere. ► The first evidence of vertical transmission of AEFV in mosquitoes. ► The first electron micrograph of AEFV. ► The first attempt to infect animals with AEFV.

  20. First isolation of Aedes flavivirus in the Western Hemisphere and evidence of vertical transmission in the mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddow, Andrew D.; Guzman, Hilda; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Wood, Thomas G.; Widen, Steven G.; Haddow, Alastair D.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    We report here the first evidence of vertical transmission of Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) and its first isolation in the Western Hemisphere. AEFV strain SPFLD-MO-2011-MP6 was isolated in C6/36 cells from a pool of male Aedes albopictus mosquitoes that were reared to adults from larvae collected in southwest Missouri, USA, in 2011. Electron micrographs of the virus showed virions of approximately 45 nm in diameter with morphological characteristics associated with flaviviruses. The genomic sequence demonstrated that AEFV-SPFLD-MO-2011-MP6 shares a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity with the AEFV Narita-21 strain, isolated in Japan in 2003. Intracerebral inoculation of newborn mice with the virus failed to produce observable illness or death and the virus did not replicate in vertebrate cells, consistent with a lack of vertebrate host range. - Highlights: ► The first report of Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) in the Western Hemisphere. ► The first evidence of vertical transmission of AEFV in mosquitoes. ► The first electron micrograph of AEFV. ► The first attempt to infect animals with AEFV

  1. Synergistic action of octopamine receptor agonists on the activity of selected novel insecticides for control of dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed Ahmed Ibrahim; Vogel, Christoph Franz Adam

    2015-05-01

    Studying insecticide resistance in mosquitoes has attracted the attention of many scientists to elucidate the pathways of resistance development and to design novel strategies in order to prevent or minimize the spread and evolution of resistance. Here, we tested the synergistic action of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and two octopamine receptor (OR) agonists, amitraz (AMZ) and chlordimeform (CDM) on selected novel insecticides to increase their lethal action on the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. However, chlorfenapyr was the most toxic insecticide (LC50 = 193, 102, and 48 ng/ml, after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure, respectively) tested. Further, PBO synergized all insecticides and the most toxic combinatorial insecticide was nitenpyram even after 48 and 72 h exposure. In addition, OR agonists significantly synergized most of the selected insecticides especially after 48 and 72 h exposure. The results imply that the synergistic effects of amitraz are a promising approach in increasing the potency of certain insecticides in controlling the dengue vector Ae. aegypti mosquito. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Presence and Potential Distribution of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalan, Katja; Ivovic, Vladimir; Glasnovic, Peter; Buzan, Elena

    2017-11-07

    In Slovenia, two invasive mosquito species are present, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera: Culicidae). In this study, we examined their actual distribution and suitable habitats for new colonizations. Data from survey of species presence in 2013 and 2015, bioclimatic variables and altitude were used for the construction of predictive maps. We produced various models in Maxent software and tested two bioclimatic variable sets, WorldClim and CHELSA. For the variable selection of A. albopictus modeling we used statistical and expert knowledge-based approach, whereas for A. j. japonicus we used only a statistically based approach. The best performing models for both species were chosen according to AIC score-based evaluation. In 2 yr of sampling, A. albopictus was largely confined to the western half of Slovenia, whereas A. j. japonicus spread significantly and can be considered as an established species in a large part of the country. Comparison of models with WorldClim and CHELSA variables for both species showed models with CHELSA variables as a better tool for prediction. Finally, we validated the models performance in predicting distribution of species according to collected field data. Our study confirms that both species are co-occurring and are sympatric in a large part of the country area. The tested models could be used for future prevention of invasive mosquitoes spreading in other countries with similar bioclimatic conditions. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Feeding habits of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in an area of sylvatic transmission of yellow fever in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, Luis Filipe; Júnior, Rubens Pinto Cardoso; de Paula, Marcia Bicudo; Scandar, Sirle Abdo Salloum; Pacchioni, Márcio Lunardeli; Fernandes, Aristides; Consales, Cleide Aschenbrenner

    2015-01-01

    The reintroduction of sylvatic yellow fever in the state of São Paulo after about six decades was confirmed in the Northwestern region in 2000, where in 2008 there also occurred an important epizootic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feeding habits of culicids potentially involved in the sylvatic transmission of the virus in this region. Specimens were collected in 24 forested localities at ground level with hand nets and mouth aspirators. Collections were made quarterly between October 2006 and July 2008 during daylight hours. Blood-meal identification was carried out in mosquitoes of the tribes Aedini, Mansoniini and Sabethini. The biotin/avidin sandwich ELISA was employed to determine six source types: bird, bovine, equine, rat, human and monkey. A total of 24,879 females of the three tribes were obtained, 245 (0.98%) of which were engorged. The presence of three different blood sources per engorged female was the predominant situation, and included 35.10% of the total of samples processed. Samples with two or four different sources were represented by 25.31% and 25.71%, of the specimens, respectively, while just 9.39% had only one type and 1.22%, five different sources. Aedes scapularis, Ae. serratus (Group), Psorophora albigenu and Ps. ferox were the most abundant species and accounted for about 95% of the engorged specimens. Of the principal vector species, Haemagogus janthinomys/capricornii was found with bird, bovine and primate blood. These sources were predominant and alternated top ranking as the most frequent source according to the mosquito species and collection site. In general, primate blood was the most prevalent source. The human population of the region visits this ecotone frequently, which indicates the need for the periodical assessment of vaccination coverage against yellow fever. The frequency of non-human primate blood source in mosquito species that show minor vector importance in yellow fever virus transmission deserves

  4. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae em áreas do Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina, Brasil. I - Distribuição por habitat

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    Guimarães Anthony Érico

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer a influência exercida por três diferentes biótopos em áreas do Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina (PNSB sobre a fauna local de mosquitos. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas capturas mensais em ambiente silvestre e domiciliar, em isca humana, durante três diferentes períodos do dia, pelo período de 24 meses consecutivos, de janeiro de 1991 a dezembro de 1992. RESULTADOS: Foram capturados 11.808 espécimes adultos, pertencentes a 28 espécies. Ru. reversa e An. cruzii foram predominantes, respectivamente 52,5% e 17,9% do total de mosquitos. Ru. reversa representou 59,4% do total de espécimes no ambiente de mata fechada, seguida por Ru. frontosa com 10,5% e An. cruzii com 9,9%. No ambiente formado por campos de altitude e matas de galeria, o An. cruzii predominou com 48,1%, seguido por Ru. reversa com 28,1%. No ambiente modificado pelo homem, o An. cruzii predominou com 73,7% dos espécimes. Coquillettidia chrysonotum foi a única que se apresentou preferencialmente nesse biótopo: 14,9% no intra, 19,4% no peri e 65,7% no extradomicílio. An. cruzii e Ru. reversa foram constantes em todos os ambientes ao longo do ano. CONCLUSÕES: Com exceção de Cq. chrysonotum, com preferência pelo ambiente modificado pelo homem, os mosquitos apresentam hábitos assinantrópicos no PNSB. An. cruzii, embora assinantrópico, se aproxima e adentra o domicílio para realizar a hematofagia. A presença do Ae. serratus no extra e peridomicílio reforça a importância epidemiológica como vetora potencial de arboviroses. Os Sabethini apresentaram-se exclusivamente silvestres.

  5. Captura de mosquitos antropofílicos (Diptera, Culicidae em uma área urbana da região oeste da Bahia, Brasil

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    Isana M. dos Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A região oeste da Bahia passa por acelerado processo de desenvolvimento agrícola, o que tem gerado problemas de infraestrutura nos municípios. A falta de saneamento básico e de coleta dos resíduos são alguns desses problemas, os quais têm papel importante no aumento de criadouros disponíveis aos culicídeos. Assim, considerando as possibilidades de contato entre vetor e população humana, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a fauna de culicíeos adultos em uma área urbana no oeste da Bahia e verificar a presença de espécies de interesse em saúde pública. As amostragens de mosquitos adultos foram realizadas no município de Barreiras, de fevereiro de 2009 a janeiro de 2010, das 17h30min às 21h00min. Ao total foram capturados 1.744 mosquitos e oito gêneros foram identificados: Aedes, Coquilletidia, Culex, Limatus, Mansonia, Ochlerotatus, Psorophora e Uranotaenia. Culex quinquefasciatus foi a espécie mais frequente e abundante. Outras espécies encontradas, e que apresentam importância epidemiológica, foram Aedes aegypti e Ochlerotatus scapularis. Considerando que muitas espécies coletadas em Barreiras possuem importância epidemiológica e ocorrem mesmo durante a estação seca devido à ausência de saneamento básico, é importante que os municípios da região oeste da Bahia sejam alvo constante das atividades de vigilância epidemiológica.

  6. Efectos de la competencia larval en los mosquitos de contenedores artificiales, Aedes aegypti y Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae en condiciones semi-controladas

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    Analía FRANCIA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las larvas de los mosquitos Aedes aegypti (Linneo y Culex pipiens Linneo pueden criar conjuntamente en pequeños contenedores artificiales de agua, se genera así una competencia interespecífica y/o intraespecífica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar la magnitud relativa de la competencia intra e interespecífica en A. aegypti y C. pipiens, generada durante el desarrollo larval en contenedores artificiales. Las variables medidas como respuesta fueron la supervivencia y el tiempo de desarrollo larval, y la biomasa total producida en estado de pupa. Se criaron larvas de ambos mosquitos en neumáticos de automóvil con agua declorinada y hojarasca. Se introdujeron larvas recién eclosionadas de acuerdo a la densidad (δ estimada según un censo previo de A. aegypti y C. pipiens. Se realizaron los siguientes tratamientos agregando larvas de: (1 A. aegypti hasta alcanzar δ A. aegypti determinada según el censo previo, (2 C. pipiens hasta δ C. pipiens del censo previo, (3 A. aegypti hasta alcanzar la suma de δ A. aegypti y δ C. pipiens del censo previo, (4 C. pipiens hasta alcanzar la suma de δ A. aegypti y δ C. pipiens del censo previo y (5 A. aegypti y C. pipiens hasta δ A. aegypti y δ C. pipiens del censo previo. Las tres variables medidas fueron afectadas por los tratamientos, excepto la supervivencia y la biomasa producida por C. pipiens. Aedes aegypti fue más alterada por la competencia intraespecífica que por la competencia interespecífica. En C. pipiens, la competencia interespecífica superó en sus efectos a la competencia intraespecífica. Existió asimetría competitiva, ya que C. pipiens fue más afectada por A. aegypti que lo contrario.

  7. Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropic environment: 10- survey of adult behaviour of Culex nigripalpus and other species of Culex (Culex in South-Eastern Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey of adult behaviour of Culex (Culex species was carried out from August 1992 through December 1993 in a human modified (anthropic environment in the Ribeira Valley, S.Paulo State, Brazil. Culex nigripalpus dominated the catches at several sites and it's tendency to increase in the anthropic environment became quite clear. Nevertheless no high level of synanthropy was demonstrated. So it seems that the mosquito may have a restricted role in natural arbovirus cycles. Nonetheless, Cx. nigripalpus must be considered a potential vector of arboviruses, especially St. Louis encephalitis virus outside dwellings.São relatados os resultados obtidos mediante coletas regulares de adultos de Culex (Culex em ambientes antrópico do Vale do Ribeira, SP, Brasil, no período de agosto de 1992 a dezembro de 1993. Pôde-se evidenciar a dominancia de Culex nigripalpus nas várias coletas efetuadas. Revelou-se claramente a preferência por parte desse mosquito em aumentar sua densidade no ambiente antrópico. Todavia, sua freqüência ao domicílio mostrou-se baixa, revelando fraco grau de sinantropia. Assim sendo, seu papel vetor de arbovirus parece restringir-se à participação no ciclo natural desses agentes infecciosos. Contudo, pode-se considerá-lo como vetor potencial no meio extradomiciliar. Nesse particular, seu papel pode não ser negligenciável, especialmente no que tange à possibilidade de transmissão de encefalite de S.Luís, cujo agente já foi assinalado na região.

  8. Effect of food on immature development, consumption rate, and relative growth rate of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae, a predator of container breeding mosquitoes

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    D Dominic Amalraj

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Food utilization by the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann was studied in the laboratory by offering larvae of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, Anopheles stephensi (Liston, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. Quantitative analyses of data indicated that immature development was significantly faster with increase in food availability. The regression analysis showed that the degrees of the relationship between immature duration (Id and food availability were higher when offered early instars of prey (first and second instars than late instars. Consumption rate (Cr of the predator increased with increase in food availability and this relationship was highly significant when larvae of An. stephensi were offered as food. Consumption rate to food level decreased with increase in the age class of the prey. There was a significant negative correlation between Id and Cr. This aspect helps to increase population turnover of T. splendens in a shorter period when the prey is abundant. Conversely, the predator compensated the loss in daily food intake at low food level by extending Id thereby attains the minimum threshold pupal weight for adult emergence. There was an increase in the relative growth rate (RGR of the predator when An. stephensi was offered as prey and this was related to the high protein content of the prey per body weight. There was a positive correlation between Cr and RGR. This adaptive life characteristic strategy of this predator is useful for mass-rearing for large scale field release programmes in the control of container breeding mosquitoes is discussed.

  9. Environmental factors associated with larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in irrigation and major drainage areas in the middle course of the Rift Valley, central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenea, Oljira; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2011-06-01

    Larval control is an integral part of malaria vector management in Ethiopia and elsewhere. For effective larval control, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for spatio-temporal variation in larval production is essential. A study was thus conducted to characterize larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes in irrigation and major drainage areas between Adami Tulu and Meki towns, in the middle course of the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Aquatic habitats were sampled for anopheline larvae and the associated environmental variables (water temperature, turbidity, water current, water pH and other variables) were measured, characterized and analyzed. Microscopic identification of the late instars (III and IV) of anopheline larvae collected throughout the study period yielded nearly 47.6% Anopheles pharoensis, 32.1% An. arabiensis, 17.1% An. squamosus and only 3.2% of other species (An. coustani and An. cinereus). Larvae of the local malaria vectors, An. arabiensis and An. pharoensis were most abundantly sampled from sand pools and natural swamps, respectively. Logistic regression analysis detected four best predictor variables associated with larval abundance of malaria vector species. Thus, relative abundance of An. arabiensis larvae was significantly and inversely associated with aquatic vegetation and water current, whereas the relative abundance of An. pharoensis larvae was significantly and positively associated with water temperature and the presence of algae in the water bodies. Dry season anopheline larval habitats such as riverine sand pools that are created and maintained by perennial water bodies and their associated water development projects need to be considered in vector control operations.

  10. Characterization and potential role of microRNA in the Chinese dominant malaria mosquito Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) throughout four different life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinyu; Wu, Jiatong; Zhou, Shuisen; Wang, Jingwen; Hu, Wei

    2018-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are one kind of small non-coding RNAs widely distributed in insects. Many studies have shown that miRNAs play critical roles in development, differentiation, apoptosis, and innate immunity. However, there are a few reports describing miRNAs in Anopheles sinensis , the most common, and one of the dominant malaria mosquito in China. Here, we investigated the global miRNA expression profile across four different developmental stages including embryo, larval, pupal, and adult stages using Illumina Hiseq 2500 sequencing. In total, 164 miRNAs were obtained out of 107.46 million raw sequencing reads. 99 of them identified as known miRNAs, and the remaining 65 miRNAs were considered as novel. By analyzing the read counts of miRNAs in all developmental stages, 95 miRNAs showed stage-specific expression (q  1) in consecutive stages, indicating that these miRNAs may be involved in critical physiological activity during development. Sixteen miRNAs were identified to be commonly dysregulated throughout four developmental stages. Many miRNAs showed stage-specific expression, such as asi-miR-2943 was exclusively expressed in the embryo stage, and asi-miR-1891 could not be detected in larval stage. The expression of six selected differentially expressed miRNAs identified by qRT-PCR were consistent with our sequencing results. Furthermore, 5296 and 1902 target genes were identified for the dysregulated 68 known and 27 novel miRNAs respectively by combining miRanda and RNAhybrid prediction. GO annotation and KEGG pathway analysis for the predicted genes of dysregulated miRNAs revealed that they might be involved in a broad range of biological processes related with the development, such as membrane, organic substance transport and several key pathways including protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, propanoate metabolism and folate biosynthesis. Thirty-two key miRNAs were identified by microRNA-gene network analysis. The present study represents the

  11. Modeling the Environmental Suitability for Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tammi L; Haque, Ubydul; Monaghan, Andrew J; Eisen, Lars; Hahn, Micah B; Hayden, Mary H; Savage, Harry M; McAllister, Janet; Mutebi, John-Paul; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2017-11-07

    The mosquitoes Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.)(Diptera:Culicidae) and Ae. (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera:Culicidae) transmit dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses and represent a growing public health threat in parts of the United States where they are established. To complement existing mosquito presence records based on discontinuous, non-systematic surveillance efforts, we developed county-scale environmental suitability maps for both species using maximum entropy modeling to fit climatic variables to county presence records from 1960-2016 in the contiguous United States. The predictive models for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus had an overall accuracy of 0.84 and 0.85, respectively. Cumulative growing degree days (GDDs) during the winter months, an indicator of overall warmth, was the most important predictive variable for both species and was positively associated with environmental suitability. The number (percentage) of counties classified as environmentally suitable, based on models with 90 or 99% sensitivity, ranged from 1,443 (46%) to 2,209 (71%) for Ae. aegypti and from 1,726 (55%) to 2,329 (75%) for Ae. albopictus. Increasing model sensitivity results in more counties classified as suitable, at least for summer survival, from which there are no mosquito records. We anticipate that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus will be found more commonly in counties classified as suitable based on the lower 90% sensitivity threshold compared with the higher 99% threshold. Counties predicted suitable with 90% sensitivity should therefore be a top priority for expanded mosquito surveillance efforts while still keeping in mind that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus may be introduced, via accidental transport of eggs or immatures, and potentially proliferate during the warmest part of the year anywhere within the geographic areas delineated by the 99% sensitivity model. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work

  12. Expanding the distribution of two species of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Argentina and notes on their bionomics Ampliación de la distribución de dos especies de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae en Argentina y notas sobre su bionomía

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    Raúl E. Campos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the discovery of the mosquitoes Toxorhynchites haemorrhoidalis (Lynch Arribálzaga and Ochlerotatus milleri Dyar in Corrientes and Buenos Aires provinces respectively, thereby extending the geographical distribution of both species in Argentina.En esta nota, se informa el hallazgo de los mosquitos Toxorhynchites haemorrhoidalis (Lynch Arribálzaga y de Ochlerotatus milleri Dyar en la provincia de Corrientes y Buenos Aires respectivamente; con lo cual se amplía la distribución geográfica de ambas especies en Argentina.

  13. Spatial distribution of arboviral mosquito vectors (Diptera, Culicidae in Vale do Ribeira in the South-eastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest Distribuição espacial de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae vetores de arbovírus no Vale do Ribeira, sudeste da Mata Atlântica, Brasil

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    Gabriel Zorello Laporta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are vectors of arboviruses that can cause encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Aedes serratus (Theobald, Aedes scapularis (Rondani and Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt are potential vectors of arboviruses and are abundant in Vale do Ribeira, located in the Atlantic Forest in the southeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The objective of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of these mosquitoes and estimate the risk of human exposure to mosquito bites. Results of the analyses show that humans are highly exposed to bites in the municipalities of Cananéia, Iguape and Ilha Comprida. In these localities the incidence of Rocio encephalitis was 2% in the 1970s. Furthermore, Ae. serratus, a recently implicated vector of yellow fever virus in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, should be a target for the entomological surveillance in the southeastern Atlantic Forest. Considering the continental dimensions of Brazil and the inherent difficulties in sampling its vast area, the habitat suitability method used in the study can be an important tool for predicting the distribution of vectors of pathogens.Mosquitos são vetores de arbovírus que podem causar encefalites e febres hemorrágicas em humanos. Aedes serratus (Theobald, Aedes scapularis (Rondani, e Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt são vetores potenciais de arbovírus e são abundantes no Vale do Ribeira, Mata Atlântica, sudeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O objetivo desse estudo foi inferir a distribuição espacial desses mosquitos e estimar o risco da exposição humana às picadas de mosquitos. Os resultados das análises indicaram que os humanos estão altamente expostos às picadas nos municípios de Cananéia, Iguape e Ilha Comprida. Nessas localidades a incidência de encefalite Rocio foi 2% na década de 1970. Adicionalmente, Ae. serratus, que foi recentemente implicado vetor do vírus da febre amarela no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, deveria ser alvo da

  14. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do norte do Parana, Brasil: II. Coletas com isca humana Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae in natural and artificial breeding sites of the rural area in north Paraná, Brazil: II. Capture of human bait

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    José Lopes

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available With then purpose of knowing the species of mosquitos that colonize an anthropogenic area in the North of Paraná, Brazil. 1496 specimens were captured by the humam bait method, accountig 23 species among them the following were predominam: Anopheles strodei Root, 1926; An. evansae Brethes, 1926; An. galvaoi Causey, Deane & Deane, 1943; An. albitarsis Lynch Arribalzaga, 1878; Coquillettidea juxtamansonia Chagas, 1907; Co. venezuelensis Theobaldi, 1912; Culex (Melanoconion sp. e Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 and showed shong anthopophilia and a high degree of adaptation to humam environment. On the cantray, the species that showed lilth adaptation to such ambients or to the geoclimatic conditions of the region were: Anopheles triannulatus (Neiva & Pinto, 1922; An. parvus (Chagas, 1907; An. lutzii Cruzi, 1901, Culex amazonensis (Lutz, 1905; Cx. chidesteri; Psorophora confinnis (Linch Arribalzaga, 1891; Ps. discrucians (Walker, 1856; Ps. cingulata (Fabricius, 1805 e Aedes scapularis. Although Anopheles argyritarsis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827; Culex coronator Dyar & Knab, 1906; Cx. mollis Dyar & Knab, 1906 and Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, 1823, were captured in little numbers, it is knowntht they an mosquito of human surroundings. These mosquitos showed a plak of feeding activity directly related to sunset bat did not have a bimodal behaviour. Anophelinae were in general more active in spring while Culex Linnaeus, 1758; Coquillettidia Dyar, 1905; Aedes Meigen, 1818; Mansonia Blanchard, 1901 e Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827 were more active in summer.

  15. Nanoparticles in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: bioactivity of Bruguiera cylindrica-synthesized nanoparticles against dengue virus DEN-2 (in vitro) and its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Paulpandi, Manickam; Althbyani, Abdulaziz Dakhellah Meqbel; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Wang, Lan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Mohan, Jagathish; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Parajulee, Megha N; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects serving as the most important vectors for spreading human pathogens and parasites. Dengue is a viral disease mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Its transmission has recently increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depend on effective vector control measures. Mangrove plants have been used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide array of purposes. In this research, we proposed a method for biosynthesis of antiviral and mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous extract of Bruguiera cylindrica leaves. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical analyses, including UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Bruguiera cilyndrica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgNP were tested against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were the most effective. LC50 values ranged from 8.93 ppm (larva I) to 30.69 ppm (pupa). In vitro experiments showed that 30 μg/ml of AgNP significantly inhibited the production of dengue viral envelope (E) protein in vero cells and downregulated the expression of dengue viral E gene. Concerning nontarget effects, we observed that the predation efficiency of Carassius auratus against A. aegypti was not affected by exposure at sublethal doses of AgNP. Predation in the control was 71.81 % (larva II) and 50.43 % (larva III), while in an AgNP-treated environment, predation was boosted to 90.25 and 76.81 %, respectively. Overall, this study highlights the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue virus. Furthermore, B. cylindrica-synthesized AgNP can be employed at low doses to reduce larval and pupal population of A. aegypti, without detrimental

  16. O acervo de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae de Nelson L. Cerqueira na Coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brasil The Nelson L. Cerqueira Mosquito Collection (Diptera, Culicidae in the Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil

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    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Registra-se a descoberta de espécimes de mosquitos que pertenciam a Nelson L. Cerqueira, e estão sendo depositados na coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. A coleção contém 2.046 espécimes adultos e 387 lâminas representando 261 espécies, 22 gêneros, incluindo 51 parátipos de 34 espécies. Mais de 90% dos espécimes foram coletados no Brasil dos quais metade são do Estado do Amazonas. As espécies representadas neste acervo são listadas indicando o número de espécimes para cada tipo de preparação e as localidades de coleta. O material tipo também é listado, incluindo os dados dos rótulos de identificação e de procedência, bem como outras informações pertinentes.The discovery of mosquito specimens that belonged to Nelson L. Cerqueira, which are being deposited in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia Invertebrate Collection, is reported. The collection contains 2,046 adult specimens and 387 slide preparations representing 261 species, 22 genera, including 51 paratypes of 34 species. More than 90% of the specimens were collected in Brazil of which half are from the State of Amazonas. A list of the species represented in this collection is provided indicating the number of specimens for each type of preparation and the collecting localities. The type specimens are also listed including their label data and other pertinent information.

  17. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome in Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Wang, Yan; Li, Xiang-Yu; Peng, Heng; Ma, Ya-Jun

    2017-10-02

    Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) is a primary vector of Plasmodium vivax and Brugia malayi in most regions of China. In addition, its phylogenetic relationship with the cryptic species of the Hyrcanus Group is complex and remains unresolved. Mitochondrial genome sequences are widely used as molecular markers for phylogenetic studies of mosquito species complexes, of which mitochondrial genome data of An. sinensis is not available. An. sinensis samples was collected from Shandong, China, and identified by molecular marker. Genomic DNA was extracted, followed by the Illumina sequencing. Two complete mitochondrial genomes were assembled and annotated using the mitochondrial genome of An. gambiae as reference. The mitochondrial genomes sequences of the 28 known Anopheles species were aligned and reconstructed phylogenetic tree by Maximum Likelihood (ML) method. The length of complete mitochondrial genomes of An. sinensis was 15,076 bp and 15,138 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and an AT-rich control region. As in other insects, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the J strand, except for ND5, ND4, ND4L, ND1, two rRNA and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the N strand. The bootstrap value was set as 1000 in ML analyses. The topologies restored phylogenetic affinity within subfamily Anophelinae. The ML tree showed four major clades, corresponding to the subgenera Cellia, Anopheles, Nyssorhynchus and Kerteszia of the genus Anopheles. The complete mitochondrial genomes of An. sinensis were obtained. The number, order and transcription direction of An. sinensis mitochondrial genes were the same as in other species of family Culicidae.

  18. Spatial evaluation of larvae of Culicidae (Diptera from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control

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    Rafael Piovezan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial evaluation of Culicidae (Diptera larvae from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control. This study investigates the spatial distribution of urban Culicidae and informs entomological monitoring of species that use artificial containers as larval habitats. Collections of mosquito larvae were conducted in the São Paulo State municipality of Santa Bárbara d' Oeste between 2004 and 2006 during house-to-house visits. A total of 1,891 samples and nine different species were sampled. Species distribution was assessed using the kriging statistical method by extrapolating municipal administrative divisions. The sampling method followed the norms of the municipal health services of the Ministry of Health and can thus be adopted by public health authorities in disease control and delimitation of risk areas. Moreover, this type of survey and analysis can be employed for entomological surveillance of urban vectors that use artificial containers as larval habitat.

  19. Efectos de la competencia larval en los mosquitos de contenedores artificiales, Aedes aegypti y Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae en condiciones semi-controladas Effects of larval competition between the container mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae in semi-controlled conditions

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    Analía Francia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las larvas de los mosquitos Aedes aegypti (Linneo y Culex pipiens Linneo pueden criar conjuntamente en pequeños contenedores artificiales de agua, se genera así una competencia interespecífica y/o intraespecífica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar la magnitud relativa de la competencia intra e interespecífica en A. aegypti y C. pipiens, generada durante el desarrollo larval en contenedores artifi ciales. Las variables medidas como respuesta fueron la supervivencia y el tiempo de desarrollo larval, y la biomasa total producida en estado de pupa. Se criaron larvas de ambos mosquitos en neumáticos de automóvil con agua declorinada y hojarasca. Se introdujeron larvas recién eclosionadas de acuerdo a la densidad (5 estimada según un censo previo de A. aegypti y C. pipiens. Serealizaron los siguientes tratamientos agregando larvas de: (1 A. aegypti hasta alcanzar δ A. aegypti determinada según el censo previo, (2 C. pipiens hasta δ C. pipiens del censo previo, (3 A. aegypti hasta alcanzar la suma de δ A. aegypti y δ C. pipiens del censo previo, (4 C. pipiens hasta alcanzar la suma de δ A. aegypti y δ C. pipiens del censo previo y (5 A. aegypti y C. pipiens hasta δ A. aegypti y δ C. pipiens del censo previo. Las tres variables medidas fueron afectadas por los tratamientos, excepto la supervivencia y la biomasa producida por C. pipiens. Aedes aegypti fue más alterada por la competencia intraespecífica que por la competencia interespecífica. En C. pipiens, la competencia interespecífica superó en sus efectos a la competencia intraespecífica. Existió asimetría competitiva, ya que C. pipiens fue más afectada por A. aegypti que lo contrario.Larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linneo and Culex pipiens Linneo may develop together in small artificial water containers, promoting inter- and/or intra-specific competition. Our aim was to compare the relative importance of interspecific and intraspecific competition in both species during

  20. Description of the Immature Stages of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rondoni (Neiva & Pinto) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Neiva & Pinto) (Diptera: Culicidae) Maria Anice Mureb Sallum/+, Richard C Wilkerson* Núcleo de Pesquisa Taxonômica e Sistemática em Entomologia ...Taxonômica e Sistemática em Entomologia Médica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo. The following specimens were used for setal counts and measurements (the

  1. A Qualitative Evidence of the Breeding Sites of Patton (Diptera: Culicidae in and Around Kassala Town, Eastern Sudan

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    Asma Mahmoud Hamza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae is considered the most efficient malaria vector in eastern Sudan. This study aims to characterize the breeding sites of An. arabiensis throughout the year in and around Kassala town, eastern Sudan. Diverse larval habitat types were visited and characterized based on the habitat type and chemical composition. Mosquito larvae were found in many diverse habitats. During the rainy season, rain pools and water bodies created by the seasonal Gash River serve as the main breeding sites. In the dry season, irrigation canals, seepage from water pipes, neglected wells, artificial containers, and man-made ditches serve as the main breeding sites. Breeding water showed a pH of 7.9 and a low concentration of the total dissolved salts. The results of this study may be considered in planning and implementing larval control programs in the area.

  2. Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropic environment: 1- Parity of blood seeking Anopheles (Kerteszia in South-Eastern Brazil Estudos sobre mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae e ambiente antrópico: 1- Paridade de Anopheles (Kerteszia em atividade hematófaga, na região sudeste do Brasil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Anopheles (Kerteszia were sampled fortnightly over a one-year period (August 1991 to July 1992 at Ribeira Valley, S. Paulo State, Brazil. Indoor and outdoor collections were made on human bait at evening crepuscular period. The Polovodova technique for age grading was applied to 3,501 females of Anopheles cruzii and to 416 females of An. bellator. That sample represented 34.4% of the total number of mosquitoes collected. The most abundant species found was An. cruzii. However, An. bellator showed an endophagy that was almost three times greater than that of An. cruzii. The overall parous rate was 25.4% and uniparity was practically dominant one. A proportion of 26.9% of An. cruzii and 12.0% of An. bellator were found to be uniparous. Only three outdoor females of the former species (0.1% showed biparity. Parity of An. cruzii was higher in females caught outdoors than in those caught indoors. Nevertheless, 497 nulliparous females examined (417 cruzii and 80 bellator had ovaries that had advanced to Christophers and Mer stages III to V. These results imply that these females had already practised hematophagy. Relating these results to those from the parous females, a high statistical significance was found, leading to the conclusion that gonothophic discordance is a common pattern among these anophelines. Further, these results obtained with human bait catches strongly suggest that nearly 38.0% of these host-seeking females had already taken at least one previous blood-meal. So it is possible that enough time could thus be available for the plasmodian development in the vectors.Relata-se os resultados obtidos em coletas regulares de Anopheles cruzii e An. bellator, mediante o emprego de isca humana e por ocasião do crepúsculo vespertino. Objetivou-se, precipuamente, conhecer a paridade de populações dessas espécies, quando em plena tentativa hematófaga, tanto no ambiente intra como peridomiciliar. As coletas foram levadas a

  3. Comparative Bio-Efficacy and Synergism of New Generation Polyfluorobenzyl and Conventional Pyrethroids Against Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Manas; Akulwad, Ambadas; Kshirsagar, Rajendra; Muthukrishnan, Siva

    2018-05-28

    Intensive exposure to insecticides has resulted in the evolution of insecticide resistance in the mosquitoes. We tested the bio-efficacy of two Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) laboratory strains differentially bio-responsive to pyrethroids to understand the comparative efficacy of different polyfluorobenzyle and conventional pyrethroid molecules and the role of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) in synergizing these molecules in increased tolerance of mosquitoes to these molecules. We have taken deltamethrin (α-cyano pyrethroid with phenoxybenzyl moiety); permethrin (phenoxybenzyl pyrethroid without an α-cyano group); transfluthrin, dimefluthrin, metofluthrin, and meperfluthrin (polyfluorinated benzyl compounds); and prallethrin (modified cyclopentadienone compound) for this study. We found higher bio-efficacy in dimefluthrin, metofluthrin, and meperfluthrin compared with transfluthrin against tested mosquito strains. We found that transfluthrin exhibited synergism with PBO, which supports the hypothesis that P450 enzymes could play a role in the detoxification process of transfluthrin, which was earlier not believed. However, other polyfluorobenzyl pyrethroids with a 4-(methoxymethyl) phenyl capping in the tetrafluorobenzyl ring (dimefluthrin, metofluthrin, and meperfluthrin) exhibit greater synergism with PBO compared with transfluthrin. Further study is required to understand the mechanism for higher synergistic ratios in polyfluorobenzyl pyrethroids with 4-(methoxymethyl) phenyl moiety and ascertain the possible involvement of novel mechanisms that may involve in developing resistance. This is the first report of comparative bio-efficacy of multiple polyfluorobenzyl pyrethroids and PBO synergism against mosquitoes.

  4. Feeding patterns of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from eastern Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Silva, Júlia dos Santos; de Oliveira, Luis Claudio Motta; Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Morone, Fernanda; Lorosa, Elias Seixas

    2012-07-01

    Blood-feeding sources of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the eastern region of the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina were analyzed by precipitin technique. One hundred fifty-four female mosquitoes collected by CDC traps in the Navegantes municipality 13-15 February 2005 reacted to one or more of eight antisera, including chicken, dog, goat, sheep, horse, opossum, human and rodent antisera. One hundred thirty-seven specimens (89%) reacted to only one source, and 17 (11%) specimens reacted to two sources. Among the 137 specimens reacting to only one source, reactions to rodent (50.4%), sheep (5.8%), chicken (5.1%), goat (5.1%), dog (2.2%), horse (3.6%), and human (3.6%) antisera were observed. The analyzed species demonstrated a high degree of opportunistic feeding behavior in relation to host preference. Results are compared with results from similar studies, and the low proportion of reactions to human antisera is discussed.

  5. Activity of a lipid synthesis inhibitor (spiromesifen in Culiseta longiareolata (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Hayette Bouabida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the activity of spiromesifen against the most abundant and investigated mosquito species, Culiseta longiareolata Aitken, 1954 (Diptera, Culicidae. Methods: Culiseta longiareolata larvae were collected from untreated areas located at Tébessa (Northeast Algeria. A commercial formulation of spiromesifen (Oberon® 240 SC was tested at different concentrations ranging between 238 and 1428 μg/L on newly molted fourth-instar larvae under standard laboratory conditions according to Word Health Organization recommendations. The effects were examined on the mortality, the morphometric measurements, two biomarkers (catalase and malondialdehyde, and the biochemical composition of larvae, respectively. Results: The compound exhibited insecticidal activity. Moreover, it disturbed growth and several morphological aberrations were observed. It also affected body volume, biomarkers and contents of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. A marked effect on lipids and malondialdehyde was noted, confirming its primary mode of action on lipid synthesis. Conclusions: Spiromesifen appears less potent than other insecticides tested such as the insect growth disruptors. Keywords: Culiseta longiareolata, Spiromesifen, Toxicity, Biochemical composition, Biomarkers

  6. Exploring genetic variation in haplotypes of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) through DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Karthika, Pushparaj; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Del Serrone, Paola; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-05-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of many pathogens and parasites of humans, as well as domestic and wild animals. In urban and semi-urban Asian countries, Cx. quinquefasciatus is a main vector of nematodes causing lymphatic filariasis. In the African region, it vectors the Rift Valley fever virus, while in the USA it transmits West Nile, St. Louis encephalitis and Western equine encephalitis virus. In this study, DNA barcoding was used to explore the genetic variation of Cx. quinquefasciatus populations from 88 geographical regions. We presented a comprehensive approach analyzing the effectiveness of two gene markers, i.e. CO1 and 16S rRNA. The high threshold genetic divergence of CO1 (0.47%) gene was reported as an ideal marker for molecular identification of this mosquito vector. Furthermore, null substitutions were lower in CO1 if compared to 16S rRNA, which influenced its differentiating potential among Indian haplotypes. NJ tree was well supported with high branch values for CO1 gene than 16S rRNA, indicating ideal genetic differentiation among haplotypes. TCS haplotype network revealed 14 distinct clusters. The intra- and inter-population polymorphism were calculated among the global and Indian Cx. quinquefasciatus lineages. The genetic diversity index Tajima' D showed negative values for all the 4 intra-population clusters (G2-4, G10). Fu's FS showed negative value for G10 cluster, which was significant and indicated recent population expansion. However, the G2-G4 (i.e. Indian lineages) had positive values, suggesting a bottleneck effect. Overall, our research firstly shed light on the genetic differences among the haplotypes of Cx. quinquefasciatus species complex, adding basic knowledge to the molecular ecology of this important mosquito vector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Insecticide resistance in two Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) strains from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, J A; Marín, R; Rodríguez, M M; Severson, D W; Ricardo, Y; French, L; Díaz, M; Pérez, O

    2013-03-01

    Dengue (family Flaviridae, genus Flavivirus, DENV) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are presently important public health problems in Costa Rica. The primary strategy for disease control is based on reducing population densities of the main mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). This is heavily dependent on use of chemical insecticides, thus the development of resistance is a frequent threat to control program effectiveness. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of insecticide resistance and the metabolic resistance mechanisms involved in two Ae. aegypti strains collected from two provinces (Puntarenas and Limon) in Costa Rica. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines and resistance in adults was measured through standard bottle assays. The activities of beta-esterases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and glutathione S-transferases (GST), were assayed through synergists and biochemical tests, wherein the threshold criteria for each enzyme was established using the susceptible Rockefeller strain. The results showed higher resistance levels to the organophosphate (OP) temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin in larvae. The efficacy of commercial formulations of temephos in controlling Ae. aegypti populations was 100% mortality up to 11 and 12 d posttreatment with daily water replacements in test containers. Temephos and deltamethrin resistance in larvae were associated with high esterase activity, but not to cytochrome P450 monooxygenase or GST activities. Adult mosquitoes were resistant to deltamethrin, and susceptible to bendiocarb, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin. Because temephos and deltamethrin resistance are emerging at the studied sites, alternative insecticides should be considered. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin could be good candidates to use as alternatives for Ae. aegypti control.

  8. Susceptibility of larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae to entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae

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    María L. PESCHIUTTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae es vector de los agentes etiológicos de la fiebre amarilla y del dengue. Una alternativa al control químico de este vector es el uso de agentes biológicos. Los nematodos entomopatógenos son efectivos en el control de plagas. La infectividad y el ciclo de vida de un aislado argentino de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae en larvas de A. aegypti se registró por primera vez bajo condiciones de laborato - rio. Para cada unidad experimental, 30 larvas de mosquito de segundo estadio fueron expuestas a 8 dosis del nematodo (0:1, 1:1, 5:1, 15:1, 100:1, 500:1, 750:1, 1500:1. Los juveniles infectivos (JIs utilizados fueron multiplicados sobre Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. La continuidad infectiva de los JIs obtenidos de A. aegypti fue probada aplicándolos en una dosis de 100:1 sobre larvas del mosquito . Las tasas de mortalidad fueron de 0% a 84%. El número de nematodos desarrollados dentro de la larva de mosquito, la mortalidad larval y los nuevos JIs se incrementaron con el aumento de la dosis de nematodos. Los resultados indican que H. bacteriophora es capaz de infectar larvas de A. aegypti , se desarrolla y produce nuevos JIs, permitiendo la continuidad de su ciclo de vida.

  9. Mosquitos Culicidae como vetores emergentes de infecções Culicidae mosquitoes as emerging vectors of diseases

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se sucinta revisão do relacionamento entre as chamadas infecções emergentes e o conceito de vetores emergentes. Estes são entendidos não apenas no que concerne aos que são descritos como tais, de forma nova, mas também aqueles com acentuadas mudanças de comportamento. Os fatores específicos que propiciam esse fenômeno identificam-se à poderosa influência humana sobre o ambiente. Assim, aquele construído pelo homem e conhecido como antrópico representa a função de pressão seletiva que induz as populações vetoras a se adaptarem às novas circunstâncias. Nelas inclui-se fatores ecológicos ambientais, ou demográficos, que incrementam o contato com os novos comportamentos vetoriais. Relata-se o encontro de criadouros anômalos de mosquitos Culicidae nas Américas. A interpretação desses encontros é feita visando à vigilância epidemiológica. O significado dessa emergência ou reemergência pode se traduzir no aparecimento de problemas epidemiológicos. Sugere-se que, em sendo assim, a vigilância epidemiológica deva ser feita em grau global.A review is presented of the relationships between the so-called emerging infectious diseases and what may be defined as emerging vectors. These include not only those that have recently appeared but also those that present remarkable behavioral changes. Specific factors leading to that emergence can be associated with the powerful human influence on the environment. So the man-made, i.e. anthropic environment, exercises a selective pressure inducing vector populations to adapt to new circumstances. These may arise from ecological, environmental, or demographic factors that increase contact with the new vector. With this in mind, data on anomalous Culicidae breeding places in the Americas are reported. An interpretation of these findings is offered in the light of epidemiological surveillance. The question is whether vector emergence or re-emergence may constitute an

  10. The Previously Undetected Presence of Culex restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) in Central America, with Notes on Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    geografica actualizada. Rev. Inv. Salud Publica (Mexico) 33: 11 I - 125. Heinemann, S.J. and J.N. Belkin. 1977. Collection records of the project...Mosquitoes of Middle America” 8. Central America: Belize (BH), Guatemala (GUA), El Salvador ( SAL ), Honduras (HON), Nicaragua (NI, NIC). Mosq. Syst...Culicidae). Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Biol. Notes 52, 50 pp. Vargas, L. 1956. Especies y distribucidn de mosquitos mexicanos no anofelinos. Rev. Instit. de

  11. First record of Orthopodomyia pulcripalpis (Rondani, 1872) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittra, Carina; Obwaller, Adelheid G; Wimmer, Victoria; Berer, Dominik; Eigner, Barbara; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2017-06-01

    During a three-year mosquito monitoring from 2014 to 2016, the strictly ornithophilic, originally Mediterranean species Orthopodomyia pulcripalpis (Rondani, 1872) was collected as single specimen for the first time in Austria in the district of Penzing in Vienna. Morphological species determination was confirmed by analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. We thus not only confirm the existence of another mosquito species in Austria, but also add a new genus to the Austrian Culicidae taxa list.

  12. Influence of Bloodmeal Source on Reproductive Output of the Potential West Nile Vector, Culex theileri (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Berna; Durmaz, Esra; Alten, Bulent

    2014-11-01

    Culex theileri Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) has a wide Afrotropical, southern Palaearctic, northern Oriental, and European distribution. It is mainly considered as a mammophilic mosquito and also feeds on birds and serves as a vector for various zoonotic diseases including West Nile virus. Despite its broad distribution and evidence indicating that Cx. theileri is a competent vector of human and domestic animal pathogens, basic biological and ecological features of this species have not been well investigated. We evaluated the impact of bloodmeal source (human, chicken, cow, and a double bloodmeal such as human and cow or chicken and cow and mixed bloodmeals [cow, chicken, and human] via artificial feeding) on fecundity, hatching rates, developmental times, and viability from egg to adult for laboratory colonized Cx. theileri. Fecundity in mosquitoes that took a chicken bloodmeal, a double bloodmeal and mixed bloodmeals was significantly higher than in females fed on a single cow or single human blood. This is the first study about the bloodmeal sources effect on laboratory-reared Cx. theileri populations and these findings contribute to our understanding of the impact of bloodmeal source on reproduction in Cx. theileri. As it is known that Cx. theileri is a vector for West Nile virus, the potential impacts of bloodmeal source on virus transmission are discussed. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  13. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Afrotropical Region. 2. The Dendrophilus Group of Species (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 29, Number 4, 1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    or reservoirs of eight viruses , six of which cause human illness (Chikungunya, dengue 1 and 2, Dugbe, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever and Zika ...suggested that Ae. deboeri may be the jungle vector of the yellow fever virus in Langata. A edes Aedes Aedes Aedes (Stegomyia) demeilloni Edwards... Aedes (Stegomyia) Iedgeri (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 13: 92-113. Aedes (Stegomyia) bromeliae (Diptera: Culicidae), the yellow fever virus

  14. Human skin emanations in the host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braks, M.

    1999-01-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a parasite ( Plasmodium spp.) that is transmitted between human individuals by mosquitoes, belonging to the order of insects, Diptera, family of Culicidae (mosquitoes) and genus of Anopheles (malaria

  15. A comparative analysis of resistance testing methods in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from St. Johns County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) was tested for resistance to permethrin, bifenthrin, and malathion using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassays and topical toxicology assays on adults and larval bioassays. Eggs were collected from 3 locations across St. Johns C...

  16. The quantitative structure-insecticidal activity relationships from plant derived compounds against chikungunya and zika Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae) vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Laura M; Romanelli, Gustavo P; Rozo, Ciro E; Duchowicz, Pablo R

    2018-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of a series of 62 plant derived molecules against the chikungunya, dengue and zika vector, the Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae) mosquito, is subjected to a Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) analysis. The Replacement Method (RM) variable subset selection technique based on Multivariable Linear Regression (MLR) proves to be successful for exploring 4885 molecular descriptors calculated with Dragon 6. The predictive capability of the obtained models is confirmed through an external test set of compounds, Leave-One-Out (LOO) cross-validation and Y-Randomization. The present study constitutes a first necessary computational step for designing less toxic insecticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. (Fabaceae against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    M Govindarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae. Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC 50 and LC 90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  18. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, M; Rajeswary, M; Sivakumar, R

    2013-01-01

    In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  19. The effects of blood feeding and exogenous supply of tryptophan on the quantities of xanthurenic acid in the salivary glands of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okech, Bernard; Arai, Meiji; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2006-03-24

    Xanthurenic acid (XA), produced as a byproduct during the biosynthesis of insect eye pigment (ommochromes), is a strong inducer of Plasmodium gametogenesis at very low concentrations. In previous studies, it was shown that XA is present in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito salivary glands and that during blood feeding the mosquitoes ingested their own saliva into the midgut. Considering these two facts together, it is therefore likely that XA is discharged with saliva during blood feeding and is swallowed into the midgut where it exerts its effect on Plasmodium gametocytes. However, the quantities of XA in the salivary glands and midgut are unknown. In this study, we used high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection to detect and quantify XA in the salivary glands and midgut. Based on the results of this study, we found 0.28+/-0.05 ng of XA in the salivary glands of the mosquitoes, accounting for 10% of the total XA content in the mosquito whole body. The amounts of XA in the salivary glands reduced to 0.13+/-0.06 ng after mosquitoes ingested a blood meal. Approximately 0.05+/-0.01 ng of XA was detected in the midgut of nonblood fed An. stephensi mosquitoes. By adding synthetic tryptophan as a source of XA into larval rearing water (2 mM) or in sugar meals (10 mM), we evaluated whether XA levels in the mosquito (salivary glands, midgut, and whole body) were boosted and the subsequent effect on infectivity of Plasmodium berghei in the treated mosquito groups. A female specific increase in XA content was observed in the whole body and in the midgut of mosquito groups where tryptophan was added either in the larval water or sugar meals. However, XA in the salivary glands was not affected by tryptophan addition to larval water, and surprisingly it reduced when tryptophan was added to sugar meals. The P. berghei oocyst loads in the mosquito midguts were lower in mosquitoes fed tryptophan treated sugar meals than in mosquitoes

  20. Spatial evaluation of larvae of Culicidae (Diptera from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Piovezan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial evaluation of Culicidae (Diptera larvae from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control. This study investigates the spatial distribution of urban Culicidae and informs entomological monitoring of species that use artificial containers as larval habitats. Collections of mosquito larvae were conducted in the São Paulo State municipality of Santa Bárbara d' Oeste between 2004 and 2006 during house-to-house visits. A total of 1,891 samples and nine different species were sampled. Species distribution was assessed using the kriging statistical method by extrapolating municipal administrative divisions. The sampling method followed the norms of the municipal health services of the Ministry of Health and can thus be adopted by public health authorities in disease control and delimitation of risk areas. Moreover, this type of survey and analysis can be employed for entomological surveillance of urban vectors that use artificial containers as larval habitat.Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores. Este estudo investiga a distribuição espacial da fauna urbana e de Culicidae e informa o monitoramento entomológico de espécies que usam recipientes artificiais como habitat larval. Coletas de larvas de mosquitos foram realizadas no município paulista de Santa Bárbara d' Oeste entre os anos de 2004 e 2006, durante visitas casa-a-casa. Um total de 1.891 amostras foi considerado, com nove espécies diferentes coletadas. A distribuição das espécies foi avaliada através do método de krigagem estatística extrapolando as divisões administrativas do município. O método de coleta adotado no presente estudo está de acordo com os métodos sugeridos aos serviços de saúde municipais pelo Ministério da Saúde e pode, portanto, ser adotado pelas autoridades p

  1. Larval habitat for the avian malaria vector culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in altered mid-elevation mesic-dry forests in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Effective management of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in Hawai'i's endemic honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) requires the identification and subsequent reduction or treatment of larval habitat for the mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). We conducted ground surveys, treehole surveys, and helicopter aerial surveys from 20012003 to identify all potential larval mosquito habitat within two 100+ ha mesic-dry forest study sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i; 'Ainahou Ranch and Mauna Loa Strip Road. At 'Ainahou Ranch, anthropogenic sites (43%) were more likely to contain mosquitoes than naturally occurring (8%) sites. Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were predominately found in anthropogenic sites while Aedes albopictus larvae occurred less frequently in both anthropogenic sites and naturally-occurring sites. Additionally, moderate-size (???20-22,000 liters) anthropogenic potential larval habitat had >50% probability of mosquito presence compared to larger- and smaller-volume habitat (malaria, may be controlled by larval habitat reduction in the mesic-dry landscapes of Hawai'i where anthropogenic sources predominate.

  2. Evaluation of Lambda-Cyhalothrin and Pyriproxyfen Barrier Treatments for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Management in Urbanized Areas of New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Isik; Williams, Gregory M; Rochlin, Ilia; Suman, Devi; Wang, Yi; Chandel, Kshitij; Gaugler, Randy

    2018-02-28

    Mosquito control programs in the United States are still searching for best management practices to control the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse; Diptera: Culicidae). Most intervention methods for this species are either labor intensive (e.g., source reduction) or short-term (e.g., ultra-low-volume adulticiding). We investigated the effectiveness of barrier spray pesticide applications within urban and suburban residential yards in New Jersey as a control strategy using a before-after-control-impact (BACI) approach. Applications of Demand CSR pyrethroid (9.7% AI lambda-cyhalothrin) only or combined Demand CSR and Archer IGR insect growth regulator (1.3% AI pyriproxyfen) applications resulted in significant and similar decreases in adult mosquito abundance post-treatment ranging from 78 to 74% respectively, compared with the untreated control. Both insecticides exceeded the 70% reduction threshold considered as effective for Ae. albopictus control for 2 to 4 wk. However, applications of Archer IGR alone did not reduce adult mosquito abundance. The field study results were supported by laboratory no-choice bioassays using treated leaf foliage. Our study is the first data driven evidence of the residual efficacy of barrier pesticide applications in New Jersey with lambda-cyhalothrin that provided significant reductions in adult Ae. albopictus populations for an extended duration.

  3. [A complex of blood-sucking mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in the focus of West Nile fever in the Volgograd Region. III. Species feeding on birds and man and the rhythms of their nocturnal activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatina, Iu V; Bezzhonova, O V; Fedorova, M V; Bulgakova, T V; Platonov, A E

    2007-01-01

    The rate and nocturnal rhythm of mosquito attacks of birds and human beings were studied in the open biotopes of Volgograd and its vicinity in 2004. Thirteen and 11 species of the subfamily Culicinae were collected under the Berezantsev bell and from the traps containing a chicken (a hen), respectively; of them 9 species were common. The mosquitoes of an Anopheles maculipennis complex were caught in a small portion to the traps of both types. Most species of Aedes were highly anthropophilic, showed the minimum activity at night and their abundance considerably decreased by the early transmission period. Among the species that were active during the transmission period, Ae. vexans, Coq. richiardii, and Cx. modestus more intensively attacked a human being than birds and Cx. pipiens was frequently attracted into the hen traps. The attraction of each species of the caught varied during the transmission period. The maximum attacks of Cx. modestus and Cx. pipiens on man and birds coincide and those of Coq. Richiardii and Cx. pipiens on man was observed earlier than on birds. A possible role of mosquitoes of different species in the epizootic and epidemiological processes is discussed.

  4. Vertebrate hosts and phylogenetic relationships of amphibian trypanosomes from a potential invertebrate vector, Culex territans Walker (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Crans, Wayne; Gaugler, Randy

    2009-04-01

    The blood meals of field-collected female Culex territans (Diptera: Culicidae) were concurrently assayed for the presence of trypanosomes and for vertebrate host identification. We amplified vertebrate DNA in 42 of 119 females and made positive identification to the host species level in 29 of those samples. Of the 119 field-collected Cx. territans females, 24 were infected with trypanosomes. Phylogenetic analysis placed the trypanosomes in the amphibian portion of the aquatic clade of the Trypanosomatidae. These trypanosomes were isolated from Cx. territans females that had fed on the frog species Rana clamitans, R. catesbeiana, R. virgatipes, and Rana spp. Results support a potential new lineage of dipteran-transmitted amphibian trypanosomes may occur within the aquatic clade. The frequency in which female Cx. territans acquire trypanosomes, through diverse feeding habits, indicates a new relationship between amphibian trypanosomes and mosquitoes that has not been examined previously. Combining Trypanosoma species, invertebrate, and vertebrate hosts to existing phylogenies can elucidate trypanosome and host relationships.

  5. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Noleto Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul. A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50 ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors.

  6. The Effect of Larval Diet on Adult Survival, Swarming Activity and Copulation Success in Male Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Bethan J; Idugboe, Stefano; McManus, Kirelle; Drury, Florence; Qureshi, Alima; Cator, Lauren J

    2018-01-10

    Control of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) populations is vital for reducing the transmission of several pervasive human diseases. The success of new vector control technologies will be influenced by the fitness of laboratory-reared transgenic males. However, there has been relatively little published data on how rearing practices influence male fitness in Aedes mosquitoes. In the laboratory, the effect of larval food availability on adult male fitness was tested, using a range of different fitness measures. Larval food availability was demonstrated to be positively correlated with adult body size. Larger males survived longer and exhibited greater swarming activity. As a consequence, larger males may have more mating opportunities in the wild. However, we also found that within a swarm larger males did not have an increased likelihood of copulating with a female. The outcome of the mating competition experiments depended on the methodology used to mark the males. These results show that fitness assessment can vary depending on the measure analyzed, and the methodology used to determine it. Continued investigation into these fitness measures and methodologies, and critically, their utility for predicting male performance in the field, will increase the efficiency of vector control programs. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  7. Effect of Quorum Sensing by Staphylococcus epidermidis on the Attraction Response of Female Adult Yellow Fever Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), to a Blood-Feeding Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyang; Crippen, Tawni L; Coates, Craig J; Wood, Thomas K; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of yellow fever and dengue fever, is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths annually. Compounds such as carbon dioxide, amino acids, fatty acids and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been widely studied for their role in attracting Ae. aegypti to hosts. Many VOCs from humans are produced by associated skin microbiota. Staphyloccocus epidermidis, although not the most abundant bacteria according to surveys of relative 16S ribosomal RNA abundance, commonly occurs on human skin. Bacteria demonstrate population level decision-making through quorum sensing. Many quorum sensing molecules, such as indole, volatilize and become part of the host odor plum. To date, no one has directly demonstrated the link between quorum sensing (i.e., decision-making) by bacteria associated with a host as a factor regulating arthropod vector attraction. This study examined this specific question with regards to S. epidermidis and Ae. aegypti. Pairwise tests were conducted to examine the response of female Ae. aegypti to combinations of tryptic soy broth (TSB) and S. epidermidis wildtype and agr- strains. The agr gene expresses an accessory gene regulator for quorum sensing; therefore, removing this gene inhibits quorum sensing of the bacteria. Differential attractiveness of mosquitoes to the wildtype and agr- strains was observed. Both wildtype and the agr- strain of S. epidermidis with TSB were marginally more attractive to Ae. aegypti than the TSB alone. Most interestingly, the blood-feeder treated with wildtype S. epidermidis/TSB attracted 74% of Ae. aegypti compared to the agr- strain of S. epidermidis/TSB (P ≤ 0.0001). This study is the first to suggest a role for interkingdom communication between host symbiotic bacteria and mosquitoes. This may have implications for mosquito decision-making with regards to host detection, location and acceptance. We speculate that mosquitoes "eavesdrop" on the chemical discussions occurring between

  8. Effect of Quorum Sensing by Staphylococcus epidermidis on the Attraction Response of Female Adult Yellow Fever Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae, to a Blood-Feeding Source.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyang Zhang

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of yellow fever and dengue fever, is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths annually. Compounds such as carbon dioxide, amino acids, fatty acids and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs have been widely studied for their role in attracting Ae. aegypti to hosts. Many VOCs from humans are produced by associated skin microbiota. Staphyloccocus epidermidis, although not the most abundant bacteria according to surveys of relative 16S ribosomal RNA abundance, commonly occurs on human skin. Bacteria demonstrate population level decision-making through quorum sensing. Many quorum sensing molecules, such as indole, volatilize and become part of the host odor plum. To date, no one has directly demonstrated the link between quorum sensing (i.e., decision-making by bacteria associated with a host as a factor regulating arthropod vector attraction. This study examined this specific question with regards to S. epidermidis and Ae. aegypti. Pairwise tests were conducted to examine the response of female Ae. aegypti to combinations of tryptic soy broth (TSB and S. epidermidis wildtype and agr- strains. The agr gene expresses an accessory gene regulator for quorum sensing; therefore, removing this gene inhibits quorum sensing of the bacteria. Differential attractiveness of mosquitoes to the wildtype and agr- strains was observed. Both wildtype and the agr- strain of S. epidermidis with TSB were marginally more attractive to Ae. aegypti than the TSB alone. Most interestingly, the blood-feeder treated with wildtype S. epidermidis/TSB attracted 74% of Ae. aegypti compared to the agr- strain of S. epidermidis/TSB (P ≤ 0.0001. This study is the first to suggest a role for interkingdom communication between host symbiotic bacteria and mosquitoes. This may have implications for mosquito decision-making with regards to host detection, location and acceptance. We speculate that mosquitoes "eavesdrop" on the chemical discussions

  9. Predation and control efficacies of Misgurnus mizolepis (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae) toward Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae) and fish toxicity of temephos in laboratory and septic tank conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Seong Chun; Kwon, Young Hyun; Min, Kyung Il; Kim, Hyung Soo; Kim, Nam-Jin; Kim, Jun-Ran; Son, Bong Gi; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2014-07-01

    Culex pipiens molestus Forskal (Diptera: Culicidae) is the dominant mosquito species in septic tanks in South Korea. An assessment was made of the biological control potential of mud loaches, Misgurnus mizolepis Günther (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae), toward Cx. p. molestus larvae in laboratory and septic tanks. Results were compared with those of temephos 20% emulsifiable concentrate. In laboratory tests, all mud loaches survived on sedimentation chamber- and effluent chamber-collected water of aerobic septic tanks (ASTs), whereas all mud loaches died within 3-12 h after introduction into sedimentation chamber- and effluent chamber-collected water of anaerobic septic tanks, Gill hyperplasia and hemorrhages at the bases of pectoral fins were detected in all dead mud loaches. These appeared to have been caused by bacterial disease, rather than the physical and chemical characteristics of the septic tank water. A mud loach consumed an average range of 1,072-1,058 larvae of Cx. p. molestus in the AST water at 24 h. At the manufacturer's recommended rate (10 ml/ton) in the AST water, the temephos formulation did not cause fish mortality. In the AST experiment, predation of mosquito larvae by mud loaches at a release rate of one fish per 900 mosquito larvae resulted in complete mosquito control from the third day after treatment throughout the 18-wk survey period, compared with temephos 20% emulsifiable concentrate-treated AST water (reduction rate, 40% at 28 days after treatment). Reasonable mosquito control in aerobic septic tanks can be achieved by mosquito breeding season stocking of a rate of one mud loach per 900 mosquito larvae.

  10. Mosquito traps designed to capture Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae females: preliminary comparison of Adultrap, MosquiTRAP and backpack aspirator efficiency in a dengue-endemic area of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the efficiency of Adultrap under field conditions is compared to a CDC backpack aspirator and to MosquiTRAP. An urban dengue-endemic area of Rio de Janeiro was selected to evaluate the efficiency of mosquito traps in capturing Aedes aegypti females. Adultrap and aspirator captured similar numbers of Ae. aegypti females, with the former showing high specificity to gravid individuals (93.6%. A subsequent mark-release-recapture experiment was conducted to evaluate Adultrap and MosquiTRAP efficiency concomitantly. With a 6.34% recapture rate, MosquiTRAP captured a higher mean number of female Ae. aegypti per trap than Adultrap (Ç2 = 14.26; df = 1; p < 0,05. However, some MosquiTRAPs (28.12% contained immature Ae. aegypti after 18 days of exposure in the field and could be pointed as an oviposition site for female mosquitoes. Both trapping methods, designed to collect gravid Ae. aegypti females, seem to be efficient, reliable and may aid routine Ae. aegypti surveillance.

  11. Identification of person and quantification of human DNA recovered from mosquitoes (Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curic, Goran; Hercog, Rajna; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Wagner, Jasenka

    2014-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Culicidae) are widespread insects and can be important in forensic context as a source of human DNA. In order to establish the quantity of human DNA in mosquitoes' gut after different post-feeding interval and for how long after taking a bloodmeal the human donor could be identified, 174 blood-engorged mosquitoes (subfamily Anophelinae and Culicinae) were captured, kept alive and sacrificed at 8h intervals. Human DNA was amplified using forensic PCR kits (Identifiler, MiniFiler, and Quantifiler). A full DNA profiles were obtained from all Culicinae mosquitoes (74/74) up to 48 h and profiling was successful up to 88 h after a bloodmeal. Duration of post-feeding interval had a significant negative effect on the possibility of obtaining a full profile (pfeeding interval. Culicinae mosquitoes are a suitable source of human DNA for forensic STR kits more than three days after a bloodmeal. Human DNA recovered from mosquito can be used for matching purposes and could be useful in revealing spatial and temporal relation of events that took place at the crime scene. Therefore, mosquitoes at the crime scene, dead or alive, could be a valuable piece of forensic evidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biological activity of Xanthium strumarium seed extracts on different cancer cell lines and Aedes caspius, Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Fahd A. Al-Mekhlafi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects of methanol extracts of Xanthium strumarium on different cancer cell lines and on the mortality rates of Aedes caspius, Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae were investigated. Among the cell lines tested, the Jurkat cell line was the most sensitive to the methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction, with reported LC50 values of 50.18 and 48.73 μg/ml respectively. Conversely, methanol extracts were not that toxic to the A549 cell line though the toxicity increased on further purification. The percentage of growth inhibition was dose dependent for the methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction. The ethyl acetate fraction showed higher toxicity to all cell lines tested when compared to the methanol extract. The results showed that methanol extracts of plant seeds caused 100% mortality of mosquito larvae at a concentration of 1000 μg/ml after 24 h of treatment. The LC50 and LC90 values of X. strumarium were found to be 531.07 and 905.95 μg/ml against Ae. caspius and 502.32 and 867.63 μg/ml against Cx. Pipiens, respectively. From the investigations, it was concluded that the crude extract of X. strumarium showed a weak potential for controlling the larval instars of Ae. caspius and Cx. pipiens. However, on further purification the extract lost the larvicidal activity. The ethyl acetate fraction showed higher toxicity to all cell lines tested when compared to the methanol extract. The ethyl acetate fraction investigated in this study appears to have a weak larvicidal activity but a promising cytotoxic activity. Future studies will include purification and investigation in further detail of the action of X. strumarium on Cancer Cell Lines and mosquitoes.

  13. Biological activity of Xanthium strumarium seed extracts on different cancer cell lines and Aedes caspius, Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Fahd A; Abutaha, Nael; Mashaly, Ashraf M A; Nasr, Fahd A; Ibrahim, Khalid E; Wadaan, Mohamed A

    2017-05-01

    Effects of methanol extracts of Xanthium strumarium on different cancer cell lines and on the mortality rates of Aedes caspius, Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) were investigated. Among the cell lines tested, the Jurkat cell line was the most sensitive to the methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction, with reported LC 50 values of 50.18 and 48.73 μg/ml respectively. Conversely, methanol extracts were not that toxic to the A549 cell line though the toxicity increased on further purification. The percentage of growth inhibition was dose dependent for the methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction. The ethyl acetate fraction showed higher toxicity to all cell lines tested when compared to the methanol extract. The results showed that methanol extracts of plant seeds caused 100% mortality of mosquito larvae at a concentration of 1000 μg/ml after 24 h of treatment. The LC 50 and LC 90 values of X. strumarium were found to be 531.07 and 905.95 μg/ml against Ae. caspius and 502.32 and 867.63 μg/ml against Cx. Pipiens, respectively. From the investigations, it was concluded that the crude extract of X. strumarium showed a weak potential for controlling the larval instars of Ae. caspius and Cx. pipiens . However, on further purification the extract lost the larvicidal activity. The ethyl acetate fraction showed higher toxicity to all cell lines tested when compared to the methanol extract. The ethyl acetate fraction investigated in this study appears to have a weak larvicidal activity but a promising cytotoxic activity. Future studies will include purification and investigation in further detail of the action of X. strumarium on Cancer Cell Lines and mosquitoes.

  14. Permethrin resistance in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and associated fitness costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hiang Hao; Zairi, Jaal

    2013-03-01

    Insecticide resistance has become a serious issue in vector management programs. Information on insecticidal resistance and its associated mechanisms is important for successful insecticide resistance management. The selection of a colony of permethrin-resistant Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), originating from Penang Island, Malaysia, yielded high larval-specific resistance to permethrin and cross-resistance to deltamethrin. Synergism assays showed that the major mechanism underlying this resistance involves cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. The resistance is autosomal, polygenically inherited and incompletely dominant (D = 0.26). Resistant larvae were reared under different conditions to assess the fitness costs. Under high larval density, larval development time of the resistant SGI strain was significantly longer than the susceptible VCRU strain. In both high- and low-density conditions SGI showed a lower rate of emergence and survival compared with the VCRU strain. Resistant larvae were more susceptible to predation by Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae. The body size of SGI females reared under high-density conditions was larger compared with females of the susceptible strain. SGI females survived longer when starved than did VCRU females. The energy reserve upon eclosion was positively correlated with the size of the adults.

  15. Breeding of Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) in water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of adult mosquitoes, with humans acting as baits, was employed for the study. Environmental inspection and collection of larvae in the water-holding containers around the buildings were used to study the breeding sites of the mosquitoes. A total of 73 adult mosquitoes, made up of Aedes albopictus (76.71%) and A. aegypti ...

  16. Evaluation of Two Entomopathogenic Fungi for Control of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Underground Storm Drains in the Coachella Valley, California, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popko, David A; Henke, Jennifer A; Mullens, Bradley A; Walton, William E

    2017-12-22

    Commercially available formulations of two entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), were assessed for control of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) in underground storm drain systems (USDS) in the Coachella Valley of southern California. Each of three treatments, the two fungi or a water control, was applied to 1 m2 of vertical wall at eight USDS sites in spring and autumn of 2015. Fungal infectivity and lethality were assessed at 1 d and 1, 2, and 4 wk post-application. Overnight bioassays using adult lab-reared female mosquitoes were carried out on the treated USDS wall areas and then mosquitoes were held in the laboratory for up to 21 d to allow fungal infections to be expressed. Postmortem fungal sporulation was assessed up to 2 wk at 100% humidity. Mosquito-fungal interactions also were assessed in bioassays of the three treatments on filter paper exposed to USDS conditions during autumn. Metarhizium anisopliae killed mosquitoes faster than B. bassiana; nevertheless, both freshly applied formulations caused greater than 80% mortality. Fungal persistence declined significantly after 1 wk under USDS conditions, but some infectivity persisted for more than 4 wk. Beauveria bassiana was more effective against Cx. qinquefasciatus in the spring, while M. anisopliae was more effective in the cooler conditions during autumn. USDS environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, standing water) influenced fungal-related mortality and infection of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The utility of these fungal formulations for mosquito abatement in the Coachella Valley and implications for fungal control agents in USDS environments are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Studies on Anopheles (Kerteszia) homunculus Komp (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Brasileira de Malariologia e Doenças Tropicais 16, 329–348. Forattini, O.P. (1962) Entomologia médica. Parte geral, Diptera, Anophelini. Vol.1...Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 52, 671–673. Schultz, J., Müller, T., Achtziger, M., Seibel, P.N., Dandekar, T

  18. Chemical Compositions of the Peel Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium and its Natural Larvicidal Activity against the Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae in Comparison with Citrus paradisi

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    Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, essential oils and extracts derived from plants have received much interest as potential bioactive agents against mosquito vectors.Methods: The essential oils extract from fresh peel of ripe fruit of Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi were tested against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae under laboratory condition. Then chemical com­position of the essential oil of C. aurantium was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS.Results: The essential oils obtained from C. aurantium, and C. paradisi showed good larviciding effect against An. stephensi with LC50 values 31.20 ppm and 35.71 ppm respectively. Clear dose response relationships were established with the highest dose of 80 ppm plant extract evoking almost 100% mortality. Twenty-one (98.62% constituents in the leaf oil were identified. The main constituent of the leaf oil was Dl-limonene (94.81.Conclusion: The results obtained from this study suggest that the limonene of peel essential oil of C. aurantium is promising as larvicide against An. stephensi larvae and could be useful in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds.

  19. Feeding patterns of Haemagogus capricornii and Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Diptera: Culicidae) in two Brazilian states (Rio de Janeiro and Goiás).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Pacheco, Juliana Barreto; Guimarães, Anthony Erico

    2008-09-01

    We present the identification of bloodfeeding sources of Haemagogus (Haemagogus) capricornii Lutz and Haemagogus (Conopostegus) leucocelaenus (Dyar & Shannon) (Diptera: Culicidae) from different regions of Brazil, as analyzed by precipitin tests. Anti-sera for bird, bovine, equine, human, opossum, and rodent were used. Two hundred one mosquitoes were examined (147 Hg. leucocelaenus and 54 Hg. capricornii), of which 177 reacted for some anti-serum. For Hg. leucocelaenus, 86 (68.3%) reacted to one blood source, 38 (30.2%) to two sources, and two (1.6%) to three sources; the combinations of bird + human (18.4%), bird + rodent (15.8%), and bird + marsupial (15.8%) were the most frequent. For Hg. capricornii, 34 (66.7%) reacted to one blood source; combinations bird + rodent (37.5%) and bird + marsupial (25%) were the most frequent combinations. Mosquito preference for bloodfeeding sources was different in these areas, possibly because of the availability of sources. This diversity of sources can have important epidemiological implications.

  20. Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Gerson A. Müller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil. Human-attracted mosquitoes were collected for one hour, around sunset time (half hour before and half after, from April to December 2006, in two environments (riparian forest and near houses, in Tibagi river basin, Palmeira municipality, State of Paraná. Seven-hundred forty-nine mosquitoes, belonging to 13 species, were collected. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42.86% and Psorophora discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40.59% were the most frequent species. No significant differences between quantities of Ps. champerico (t = -0.792; d.f. = 16; p = 0.43 and Ps. discrucians (t = 0.689; d.f. = 16; p = 0.49 obtained in riparian forest and near houses were observed, indicating similar conditions for crepuscular activity of these species in both environments. Psorophora champerico and Ps. discrucians responded (haematophagic activity to environmental stimuli associated with the twilight hours differently in distinct habitats studied. The former species is registered for the first time in the Atlantic forest biome.

  1. Occurence of larval Culicidae (Diptera in water retained in Aquascypha hydrophora (Fungus: Stereaceae in Central Amazônia, Brazil

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    Ruth LM Ferreira

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The community structure of insects, especially mosquito larvae, in water held in the fungus Aquascypha hydrophora (Berk. Reid (Stereaceae is reported. The study was done in the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, 26 km east of Manaus, AM, Brazil, from September 1998 through November 1999. The most abundant entomofauna were immature Culicidae (n = 121 91.7%, followed by adult Dytiscidae (n = 3 2.3%, immature Chironomidae (n = 5 3.8% and immature Tipulidae (n = 3 2.3%. Culicidae associated with A. hydrophora comprised species of the subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae.

  2. Salivary gland proteins of the human malaria vector, Anopheles dirus B (Diptera: Culicidae Proteínas das glândulas salivares do Anopheles dirus B (Diptera: Culicidae, vetor da malária humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narissara Jariyapan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland proteins of the human malaria vector, Anopheles dirus B were determined and analyzed. The amount of salivary gland proteins in mosquitoes aged between 3 - 10 days was approximately 1.08 ± 0.04 µg/female and 0.1 ± 0.05 µg/male. The salivary glands of both sexes displayed the same morphological organization as that of other anopheline mosquitoes. In females, apyrase accumulated in the distal regions, whereas alpha-glucosidase was found in the proximal region of the lateral lobes. This differential distribution of the analyzed enzymes reflects specialization of different regions for sugar and blood feeding. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that at least seven major proteins were found in the female salivary glands, of which each morphological region contained different major proteins. Similar electrophoretic protein profiles were detected comparing unfed and blood-fed mosquitoes, suggesting that there is no specific protein induced by blood. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel analysis showed the most abundant salivary gland protein, with a molecular mass of approximately 35 kilodaltons and an isoelectric point of approximately 4.0. These results provide basic information that would lead to further study on the role of salivary proteins of An. dirus B in disease transmission and hematophagy.Proteínas das glândulas salivares do Anopheles dirus B (Diptera: Culicidae, vetor da malária humana foram determinadas e analisadas. A quantidade de proteínas das glândulas salivares em mosquitos com três a 10 dias de idade foi de aproximadamente 1,08 ± 0,04 µg/ fêmea e de 0,1 ± 0,05 µg/macho. As glândulas salivares de ambos os sexos mostraram organização morfológica semelhante à de outros mosquitos anofelinos. Em fêmeas, apirase acumula-se nas regiões distais, enquanto alfa-glucosidase foi encontrada na região proximal dos lóbulos laterais. Esta distribuição diferencial das enzimas analisadas reflete a especialização de

  3. Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae From Florida Transmitted Zika Virus

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    Chelsea T. Smartt

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a laboratory colony of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were experimentally able to salivate Zika virus (ZIKV, Flaviviridae; Flavivirus at 16 days post infection (dpi. ZIKV RNA was detected in bodies and in saliva deposited on filter paper cards with subsequent studies demonstrating the presence of live ZIKV in saliva.

  4. Host-seeking and blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) exposed to vapors of geraniol, citral, citronellal, eugenol, or anisaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huiling; Wei, Jianrong; Dai, Jianqing; Du, Jiawei

    2008-05-01

    The changes of the host-seeking and blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) surviving in a space containing vapors of the spatial repellents geraniol, eugenol, citral, anisaldehyde, or citronellal were evaluated using an arm-in-cage test and a bioassay of bloodmeals on a shaved mouse. The mosquitoes surviving concentrations of geraniol, citral, eugenol, or anisaldehyde at 0.013, 0.025, 0.050, 0.100, and 0.250 microg/cm3 for 24 and 48 h all showed different degrees of reduction in host-seeking ability. After 48 h of exposure to 0.250 microg/cm3 geraniol, almost 100% of the mosquitoes lost their host-seeking ability. The next most potent spatial repellent, anisaldehyde, stopped host seeking by > 85.5%. Citronellal did not result in a significant reduction in the host-seeking ability at any concentration level after either 24 or 48 h of treatment. We also found that reduction of host-seeking ability recovered after various times. The longest recovery time (144 h) was observed for geraniol after 24 h at 0.250 microg/cm3. In the study, geraniol, eugenol, and citral all significantly affected the activation and orientation stages of the blood-feeding behavior. However, only anisaldehyde significantly interrupted the normal blood-feeding of mosquitoes in all stages of behavior. These initial laboratory results clearly showed that anisaldehyde and geraniol could be promising spatial repellents against Ae. albopictus that they could play a major role in new repellent technology.

  5. Biological differences in reproductive strategy between the mosquito sibling species Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. quadriannulatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Stuke, K.; Klowden, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Females of the afrotropical mosquito species Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto and An. quadriannulatus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) were studied for the effect of blood meal size and the frequency of blood feeding on reproductive development during the first gonotrophic cycle. To standardize

  6. Human skin microbiota and their volatiles as odour baits for the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    Host seeking by the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is mainly guided by volatile chemicals present in human odours. The skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of these volatiles, and skin bacteria grown on agar plates attract An. gambiae

  7. Composition of the Essential Oil of Pink Chablis Bluebeard (Caryopteris x clandonensis ’Durio’) and Its Biological Activity against the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-07

    oil of Pink Chablis™ bluebeard (Caryopteris ×clandonensis ’Durio’) and its biological activity against the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti ARTICLE...bluebeard (Caryopteris ×clandonensis ’Durio’) and its biological activity against the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti Eugene K. Blythe1...mosquito [ Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)]. Essential oil from the aerial parts of this mildly aromatic ornamental species was extracted by water

  8. New Sabethes (Diptera: Culicidae) species records for Ecuador, from Colonso-Chalupas biological reserve, province of Napo (Amazon)

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, J.C.; Enríquez, S.; Campaña, Y.; Benítez Ortíz, W.

    2015-01-01

    Two new records of Sabethes mosquitoes (Culicidae: Nematocera) are reported for Ecuador with the respective extension of their geographical distribution in the Neotropics: Sabethes intermedius Lutz and Sabethes soperi Lane & Cerqueira, from the provinces of Napo (Amazon) into the Natural Reserve of Colonso-Chalupas at 1,200 m altitude, beside Tena city, Ecuador. Both species are considered as potential vectors of sylvatic Yellow Fever virus and Mayaro virus. Information on collection local...

  9. First record of Aedes koreicus (Diptera, Culicidae) in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalan, Katja; Šušnjar, Jana; Ivović, Vladimir; Buzan, Elena

    2017-08-01

    The first record of Aedes koreicus was made in the village of Lovrenc na Dravskem Polju, north-eastern part of the country. The discovery of Ae. koreicus in various continental European countries motivated us to revise samples of the collected Aedes japonicus japonicus. We found Ae. koreicus in samples from 2013, where the larvae were misidentified as Ae. j. japonicus. The species was identified morphologically and molecularly. The first discovery of Ae. koreicus advocates an urgent need for a nationwide mosquito surveillance programme.

  10. Baseline Susceptibility of Filarial Vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Cu-licidae to Five Insecticides with Different Modes of Action in Southeast of Iran

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    Yaser Salim-Abadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae is an important vector for many human diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility level of larval and adult stages of Cu. quinquefasciatus to different groups of WHO recommended insecticides for vector control.Methods: Larval stages of the Culex mosquitoes were collected from their natural habitats in Rafsanjan County at Kerman Province, southeast of Iran in 2016. Insecticide susceptibility status of adult female Cx. quinquefasciatus against DDT (4%, deltamethrin (0.05%, malathion 5%, and bendiocarb (0.1% were determined using WHO stand­ard insecticide susceptibility test. Additional test was carried out to determine the susceptibility status of larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus to temephos. Bioassay data were analyzed by Probit program.Results: Cx. quinquefasciatus adults showed resistance to all four groups of the tested insecticides according to the WHO criteria for resistance evaluation. The lethal concentrations for 50% mortality (LC50 and 90% mortality (LC90 of temephos against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were 0.18mg/l and 0.78mg/l, respectively. This finding also con­firms resistance to temephos based on the WHO recommended instructions for resistance evaluation.Conclusion: Resistance to all groups of the tested insecticides should be considered for future vector control investi­gations in the study area.

  11. In vitro evaluation of the effect of botanical formulations used in the control of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae on liver enzymes.

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    Karla Rejane de Andrade Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Dengue fever is a viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypti Linn. (1792 (Diptera: Culicidae mosquito, which is endemic in several regions of Brazil. Alternative methods for the control of the vector include botanical insecticides, which offer advantages such as lower environmental contamination levels and less likelihood of resistant populations. Thus, in this study, the ability of botanical insecticide formulations to inhibit the activity of the liver enzymes serum cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase was evaluated. METHODS: Inhibition profiles were assessed using in vitro assays for cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase activity and quantitated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy at 410nm to 340nm. RESULTS Insecticide products formulated from cashew nutshell liquid [A] and ricinoleic acid [B] showed cholinesterase activity levels of 6.26IU/mL and 6.61IU/mL, respectively, while the control level for cholinesterase was 5-12IU/mL. The products did not affect the level of 0.44IU/mL established for malate dehydrogenase, as the levels produced by [A] and [B] were 0.43IU/mL and 0.45IU/mL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our findings show that in vitro testing of the formulated products at concentrations lethal to A. aegypti did not affect the activity of cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase, indicating the safety of these products.

  12. In vitro evaluation of the effect of botanical formulations used in the control of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) on liver enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Karla Rejane de Andrade; Motti, Priscilla Rezende; Machado, Alexandre Alves; Roel, Antonia Railda

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is a viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypti Linn. (1792) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito, which is endemic in several regions of Brazil. Alternative methods for the control of the vector include botanical insecticides, which offer advantages such as lower environmental contamination levels and less likelihood of resistant populations. Thus, in this study, the ability of botanical insecticide formulations to inhibit the activity of the liver enzymes serum cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase was evaluated. Inhibition profiles were assessed using in vitro assays for cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase activity and quantitated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy at 410nm to 340nm. Insecticide products formulated from cashew nutshell liquid [A] and ricinoleic acid [B] showed cholinesterase activity levels of 6.26IU/mL and 6.61IU/mL, respectively, while the control level for cholinesterase was 5-12IU/mL. The products did not affect the level of 0.44IU/mL established for malate dehydrogenase, as the levels produced by [A] and [B] were 0.43IU/mL and 0.45IU/mL, respectively. Our findings show that in vitro testing of the formulated products at concentrations lethal to A. aegypti did not affect the activity of cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase, indicating the safety of these products.

  13. Biotin/avidin sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Culicidae mosquito blood meal identification

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    A. M. Marassá

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of mosquitoes Culicidae host feeding patterns is basic to understand the roles of different species and to indicate their importance in the epidemiology of arthropod-borne diseases. A laboratory assay was developed aiming at standardizing the biotin-avidin sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which was unprecedented for mosquito blood meal identification. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA activity was evaluated by the detection of titers on each sample of the 28 blood-fed Culex quinquefasciatus. In light of the high sensitivity that the technique permits, by means of small quantities of specific antibodies commercially provided and phosphatase substrate which reinforces additional dilutions, human and rat blood meals were readily identified in all laboratory-raised Culex quinquefasciatus tested. The assay was effective to detect human blood meal dilutions up to 1:4,096, which enables the technique to be applied in field studies. Additionally, the present results indicate a significant difference between the detection patterns recorded from human blood meal which corroborate the results of host feeding patterns.

  14. Population Dynamics and Plasmodium falciparum (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) Infectivity Rates for the Malaria Vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) at Mamfene, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandalo, Leonard C; Brooke, Basil D; Munhenga, Givemore; Lobb, Leanne N; Zikhali, Jabulani; Ngxongo, Sifiso P; Zikhali, Phineas M; Msimang, Sipho; Wood, Oliver R; Mofokeng, Mohlominyana; Misiani, Eunice; Chirwa, Tobias; Koekemoer, Lizette L

    2017-11-07

    Anopheles arabiensis (Patton; Diptera: Culicidae) is a major malaria vector in the southern African region. In South Africa, effective control of this species using indoor-based interventions is reduced owing to its tendency to rest outdoors. As South Africa moves towards malaria elimination there is a need for complementary vector control strategies. One of the methods under consideration is the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Key to the successful implementation of an SIT programme is prior knowledge of the size and spatial distribution of the target population. Understanding mosquito population dynamics for both males and females is critical for efficient programme implementation. It is thus necessary to use outdoor-based population monitoring tools capable of sampling both sexes of the target population. In this project mosquito surveillance and evaluation of tools capable of collecting both genders were carried out at Mamfene in northern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, during the period January 2014 to December 2015. Outdoor- and indoor-resting Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled in three sections of Mamfene over the 2-yr sampling period using modified plastic buckets, clay pots and window exit traps. Morphological and molecular techniques were used for species identifications of all samples. Wild-caught adult females were tested for Plasmodium falciparum (Welch; Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) infectivity. Out of 1,705 mosquitoes collected, 1,259 (73.8%) and 255 (15%) were identified as members of either the Anopheles gambiae complex or Anopheles funestus group respectively. An. arabiensis was the most abundant species contributing 78.8% of identified specimens. Mosquito density was highest in summer and lowest during winter. Clay pots yielded 16.3 mosquitoes per trap compared to 10.5 for modified plastic buckets over the 2-yr sampling period. P. falciparum infection rates for An. arabiensis were 0.7% and 0.5% for 2014 and 2015, respectively

  15. Multiple blood meals in Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Caroline Dantas; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Abdalla, Fábio Camargo; Paolucci Pimenta, Paulo Filemon; Marinotti, Osvaldo

    2012-12-01

    Anopheles darlingi is an important vector of human malaria in the Amazon. Adult females of this mosquito species require a blood meal to develop eggs, preferring humans to other blood sources. Although gonotrophic concordance has been described as the norm for An. darlingi, here we report An. darlingi female mosquitoes taking two or more blood meals within their first gonotrophic cycle. Only half of field-captured adult females fed one blood meal developed follicles to Christophers' stage V. This outcome is dependent on larval nutrition, as 88% of laboratory-raised well-nourished females completed the first gonotrophic cycle with only one blood meal, while less nourished females needed additional blood meals. Half of the field-captured blood-seeking An. darlingi females had follicles in intermediate (IIIa and IIIb) and final (V) stages of the gonotrophic cycle, supporting the conclusion that An. darlingi blood feed more than once during a gonotrophic cycle. Additionally, we observed females attempting to blood feed a second time during the same day. Additional studies of An. darlingi biting behavior are necessary to accurately estimate Plasmodium sp. entomologic inoculation rates throughout the An. darlingi vast geographical distribution. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  16. Seasonal Synchronization of Diapause Phases in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Guillaume; Chanaud, Lionel; L'Ambert, Grégory; Hance, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    In temperate areas, population dynamics of the invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus are strongly affected by winter. The work we present here analyzes the adaptive synchronization of the diapause process in the wintry generation of A. albopictus, where the egg stage is exposed to adverse winter conditions. The seasonal pattern of egg laying activity of a French Mediterranean population of the Asian tiger mosquito was monitored weekly for 2 years with ovitraps. The field diapause incidence and the critical photoperiod (CPP, i.e. the maternal day length inducing diapause in 50% of the eggs), were determined by hatching experiments on the collected eggs. The period of diapause termination was estimated by a field survey of the first hatchings for both years. The CPP is equal to 13.5 hours of light and occurs in the field on the 25th of August. Thus, it is on September 11th, 17 days after the CPP, that 50% of the eggs are in a prediapause stage in the field. The egg diapause rate increases rapidly during September, whereas the mean number of eggs laid decreases sharply after mid-September. Surprisingly, after having reached a peak of 95% at the end of September, from mid-October the diapause incidence declined and stayed below 50%. Indeed, both years the diapause initiates before the rapid decrease of the environmental temperature. This leaves a sufficient period of time to the complete development of one generation of A. albopictus with effective induction of diapause in the laid eggs. The very first larvae hatched were sampled both years in the first half of March. With 20 to 26 weeks in the egg stage and about 7 weeks in the larval stages, the first annual generation spends a long time in immature stages. On a practical point of view, this long development time represents a wide window for eggs and larvae control in early spring.

  17. Toxicity and synergistic activities of Chalcones against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquito-borne illnesses are of great concern throughout the world, and chemical insecticides are commonly employed to decrease mosquito populations. However, the developmental insecticide pipeline for vector control has primarily been filled by repurposed agricultural products, and is hampered by t...

  18. The response of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, to two components of human sweat, ammonia and L-lactic acid, in an olfactometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braks, M.A.H.; Meijerink, J.; Takken, W.

    2001-01-01

    In an olfactometer study on the response of the anthropophilic malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera, Culicidae) to human sweat it was found that freshly collected sweat, mostly of eccrine origin, was attractive, but that incubated sweat was significantly more attractive than fresh sweat.

  19. Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Gerson A. Müller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil. Human-attracted mosquitoes were collected for one hour, around sunset time (half hour before and half after, from April to December 2006, in two environments (riparian forest and near houses, in Tibagi river basin, Palmeira municipality, State of Paraná. Seven-hundred forty-nine mosquitoes, belonging to 13 species, were collected. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42.86% and Psorophora discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40.59% were the most frequent species. No significant differences between quantities of Ps. champerico (t = -0.792; d.f. = 16; p = 0.43 and Ps. discrucians (t = 0.689; d.f. = 16; p = 0.49 obtained in riparian forest and near houses were observed, indicating similar conditions for crepuscular activity of these species in both environments. Psorophora champerico and Ps. discrucians responded (haematophagic activity to environmental stimuli associated with the twilight hours differently in distinct habitats studied. The former species is registered for the first time in the Atlantic forest biome.Atividade crepuscular de culicídeos (Diptera, Culicidae no peridomicílio e remanescentes de matas ciliares do Rio Tibagi. Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Mosquitos atraídos por humanos foram coletados por uma hora em torno do crepúsculo vespertino (meia hora antes e meia hora depois, de abril a dezembro de 2006, em dois locais (mata ciliar e peridomicílio na bacia do Rio Tibagi, município de Palmeira, Estado do Paraná. Foram capturados 749 mosquitos distribuídos em 13 espécies. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42,86% e Ps. discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40,59% foram as espécies mais freqüentes. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas entre as médias de indivíduos capturados entre os pontos de mata ciliar e peridomicílio para Ps. champerico (t = -0,792; g.l. = 16; p = 0

  20. Physical characteristics and reproductive performance in Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae

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    H. Dieng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Body size is a physical factor of crucial importance underlying important traits of the reproductive dynamics of both sexes in mosquitoes. Most studies on the influence of body size in mating success of dengue vectors addressed sperm transfer to females and did not consider egg production, a prerequisite for population maintenance; male body size impact on reproduction has attracted little research interest with respect to sterile insect technique. In experiments involving differently sized adults, we examined whether the body size of the mates is a source of variation in reproductive outcome in Aedes aegypti. In the absence of male partners, large females (LF showed better fecundity than small females (SF. In intraclass mating trials, egg production was much greater in largesized than smallsized pairs. There were comparable fecundities in large females mated with small males and large pairs. [SF•SM] and [SF•LM] pairs showed equivalent fecundity. Nonmating did not result in the production of viable eggs by either small or large females. We also observed that eggs produced by largesized females mated with small males had better hatching success than those from either small or large pairs. Mating between small females and large males resulted in poor egg viability.

  1. Laboratory and field evaluation of an oviposition trap for Culex quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae

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    Rosângela MR Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An ovitrap (BR-OVT based on physical and chemical stimuli for attracting gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae females was developed and evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Attractants were assayed using alternative chamber bioassays prior to being used in the BR-OVT oviposition trap. A significant preference of gravid females for sites containing conspecific egg rafts was observed, as a response to the natural oviposition pheromone, as well as for sites treated with the synthetic pheromone erythro-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide. Five- to 20-day old grass infusion was strongly attractive to gravid females for laying eggs. On the other hand, entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus (Bs did not influence the choice of an oviposition site when used in combination with grass infusion and can therefore be used as a larvicide in ovitraps. Results from field trials showed that the BR-OVT with grass infusion and with or without Bs works as a preferred oviposition site for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The BR-OVT was more effective for egg collection when placed indoors and comparison with the number of egg rafts laid in cesspits over 40 days indicates that this very simple ovitrap may be a useful tool for monitoring populations of the most important of the vectors of bancroftian filariasis.

  2. Near-infrared spectroscopy and microstructure of the scales of Sabethes ( Sabethes albiprivus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Betina Westphal-Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Near-infrared spectroscopy and microstructure of the scales of Sabethes (Sabethes albiprivus (Diptera: Culicidae. Sabethes (Sabethes albiprivus Theobald individuals vary considerably in size and color of the reflections of the scales on their thorax, abdomen, antepronotal lobes and occiput. The goal of this study was to investigate and to characterize the differences in the color of the scales among preserved specimens and to analyze the differences in the microstructures of the scales that cover their bodies using near-infrared spectroscopy, and to evaluate whether the latter is efficient in distinguishing the populations. A total of 201 adult females were analyzed for the characterization of color patterns. In addition, absorbance spectra and scanning electron microscope images were obtained from them. As a result of color analysis, two variations were identified, one represented by specimens with yellow or green scales and the other with blue or purple scales. The same two variations were corroborated using NIRS. Analysis of the microstructure of the scales lining the mesonotum, occiput and antepronotal lobes resulted in the same variations. The three methodologies, near-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and coloration of the reflections of the scales revealed two variations within Sa. albiprivus.

  3. Molecular variation and distribution of Anopheles fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae) complex in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Saied Reza; Razavi, Mohammad Reza; Bahramali, Golnaz

    2010-09-01

    Anopheles fluviatilis James (Diptera: Culicidae) is one of the known malaria vectors in south and southeastern Iran. Earlier ITS2 sequences analysis of specimens from Iran demonstrated only a single genotype that was identical to species Y in India, which is also the same as species T. We identified 2 haplotypes in the An. fluviatilis populations of Iran based on differences in nucleotide sequences of D3 domain of the 28S locus of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Comparison of sequence data from 44 Iranian specimens with those publicly available in the Genbank database showed that all of the 28S-D3 sequences from Kazeroun and Khesht regions in Fars Province were identical to the database entry representing species U in India. In other regions, all the individuals showed heterozygosity at the single nucleotide position, which identifies species U and T. It is argued that the 2 species may co-occur in some regions and hybridize; however, the heterozygosity in the 28S-D3 locus was not reflected in ITS2 sequences and this locus for all individuals was identical to species T. This study shows that in a newly diverged species, like members of An. fluviatilis complex, a single molecular marker may not be sufficiently discriminatory to identify all the taxa over a vast geographical area. In addition, other molecular markers may provide more reliable information for species discrimination.

  4. Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions

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    João Antonio C. Zequi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions. Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar, 1928 is becoming frequent and abundant in natural and artificial breeding sites in urban and rural areas of Brazil. This study contributes to the knowledge of the biology of a Brazilian strain of C. saltanensis. The development of specimens reared individually or grouped was observed. The study was conducted at a constant temperature of 27 ± 2°C, 14L:10D photoperiod and 80 ± 5% relative humidity. The immature stages were observed every 6 hours until adult emergence, which occurred in 12.29 days among individually reared specimens and in 13.12 days among group-reared specimens. Egg rafts for the experiment were obtained from the laboratory and field. Eggs hatched at a rate of 97.48 ± 2.32%. More eggs per egg raft were obtained from the field than from the laboratory. Males from individually reared specimens emerged in 12.29 ± 1.11 days and females in 13.12 ± 1.58 days. The male-female ratio was 1:1. Larval survival rate was higher than 85% for larvae reared isolated and higher than 95% for group-reared larvae. The Culex saltanensis life cycle was completed within 12 to 14 days, where larval instars I and IV took the most time to develop and the pupae, the shortest.

  5. Especificidade da armadilha Adultrap para capturar fêmeas de Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae Specificity of the Adultrap for capturing females of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Almério de Castro Gomes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A Adultrap é uma nova armadilha feita para capturar fêmeas de Aedes aegypti. Foram realizados testes para avaliar sua especificidade tendo como referência a técnica da aspiração da espécie em abrigos artificiais. A Adultrap ficou exposta por 24 horas no intradomicílio e peridomicílio de 120 casas sorteadas em dois bairros da Cidade de Foz do Iguaçu, Estado do Paraná. O teste estatístico foi o modelo log-linear de Poisson. O resultado foi a captura de 726 mosquitos Culicidae, dos quais 80 eram Aedes aegypti. A Adultrap capturou apenas fêmeas desta espécie, enquanto o aspirador os dois sexos de Aedes aegypti e mais cinco outras espécies. A Adultrap capturou Aedes aegypti dentro e fora das casas, mas a análise indicou que no peridomicílio a armadilha capturou significantemente mais fêmeas do que a aspiração. Também, ficou evidenciada a sensibilidade da Adultrap para detectar Aedes aegypti em situação de baixa freqüência.The Adultrap is a new trap built for capturing females of Aedes aegypti. Tests were carried out to evaluate the specificity of this trap in comparison with the technique of aspiration of specimens in artificial shelters. Adultraps were kept for 24 hours inside and outside 120 randomly selected homes in two districts of the city of Foz do Iguaçú, State of Paraná. The statistical test was Poisson’s log-linear model. The result was 726 mosquitoes captured, of which 80 were Aedes aegypti. The Adultrap captured only females of this species, while the aspiration method captured both sexes of Aedes aegypti and another five species. The Adultrap captured Aedes aegypti inside and outside the homes, but the analysis indicated that, outside the homes, this trap captured significantly more females than aspiration did. The sensitivity of the Adultrap for detecting females of Aedes aegypti in low-frequency situations was also demonstrated.

  6. Host-feeding patterns of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to availability of human and domestic animals in suburban landscapes of central North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Apperson, Charles S

    2006-05-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major nuisance mosquito and a potential arbovirus vector. The host-feeding patterns of Ae. albopictus were investigated during the 2002 and 2003 mosquito seasons in suburban neighborhoods in Wake County, Raleigh, NC. Hosts of blood-fed Ae. albopictus (n = 1,094) were identified with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, by using antisera made in New Zealand White rabbits to the sera of animals that would commonly occur in peridomestic habitats. Ae. albopictus fed predominantly on mammalian hosts (83%). Common mammalian hosts included humans (24%), cats (21%), and dogs (14%). However, a notable proportion (7%) of bloodmeals also was taken from avian hosts. Some bloodmeals taken from birds were identified to species by a polymerase chain reaction-heteroduplex assay (PCR-HDA). Ae. albopictus fed predominantly on chickens and a northern cardinal. PCR-HDA failed to produce detectable products for 29 (58%) of 50 bloodmeals for which DNA had been amplified, indicating that these mosquitoes took mixed bloodmeals from avian and nonavian hosts. Ae. albopictus preference for humans, dogs, and cats was determined by calculating host-feeding indices for the three host pairs based on the proportion of host specific blood-fed mosquitoes collected in relation to the number of specific hosts per residence as established by a door-to-door survey conducted in 2003. Estimates of the average amount of time that residents and their pets (cats and dogs) spent out of doors were obtained. Host-feeding indices based only on host abundance indicated that Ae. albopictus was more likely to feed on domestic animals. However, when feeding indices were time-weighted, Ae. albopictus fed preferentially upon humans. Ae. albopictus blood feeding on humans was investigated using a STR/PCR-DNA profiling technique that involved amplification of three short tandem repeats loci. Of 40 human bloodmeals, 32 (80%) were from a single human, whereas

  7. Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Udaiyan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Nicoletti, Marcello; Barnard, Donald R; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandramohan, Balamurugan

    2015-04-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, causing millions of deaths every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Recently, transmission has strongly increased in urban and semiurban areas, becoming a major international public health concern. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of dengue. The use of synthetic insecticides to control Aedes mosquitoes lead to high operational costs and adverse nontarget effects. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools are a priority. We proposed a novel method to synthesize silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Phyllanthus niruri, a cheap and nontoxic material. The UV-vis spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanostructures showed a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance band of nanoparticles. SEM analyses of the synthesized nanoparticles showed a mean size of 30-60 nm. EDX spectrum showed the chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles. XRD highlighted that the nanoparticles are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of nanoparticles exhibited prominent peaks 3,327.63, 2,125.87, 1,637.89, 644.35, 597.41, and 554.63 cm(-1). In laboratory assays, the aqueous extract of P. niruri was toxic against larval instars (I-IV) and pupae of A. aegypti. LC50 was 158.24 ppm (I), 183.20 ppm (II), 210.53 ppm (III), 210.53 ppm (IV), and 358.08 ppm (pupae). P. niruri-synthesized nanoparticles were highly effective against A. aegypti, with LC50 of 3.90 ppm (I), 5.01 ppm (II), 6.2 ppm (III), 8.9 ppm (IV), and 13.04 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of silver nanoparticles (10 × LC50) lead to A. aegypti larval reduction of 47.6%, 76.7% and 100%, after 24, 48, and 72 h, while the P. niruri extract lead to 39.9%, 69.2 % and 100 % of reduction, respectively. In adulticidal experiments, P. niruri extract

  8. The Citizen Science Project 'Mueckenatlas' Helps Monitor the Distribution and Spread of Invasive Mosquito Species in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

    2017-11-07

    The citizen science project 'Mueckenatlas' (mosquito atlas) was implemented in early 2012 to improve mosquito surveillance in Germany. Citizens are asked to support the spatiotemporal mapping of culicids by submitting mosquito specimens collected in their private surroundings. The Mueckenatlas has developed into an efficient tool for data collection with close to 30,000 mosquitoes submitted by the end of 2015. While the vast majority of submissions included native mosquito species, a small percentage represented invasive species. The discovery of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes koreicus (Edwards) (Diptera: Culicidae) specimens via the Mueckenatlas project prompted targeted monitoring activities in the field which produced additional information on the distribution of these species in Germany. Among others, Mueckenatlas submissions led to the detection of three populations of Ae. j. japonicus in West, North and Southeast Germany in 2012, 2013, and 2015, respectively. As demonstrated by on-site monitoring, the origins of Ae. j. japonicus specimens submitted to the Mueckenatlas mirror the distribution areas of the four presently known German populations as found by active field sampling (the fourth population already reported prior to the launch of the Mueckenatlas). The data suggest that a citizen science project such as the Mueckenatlas may aid in detecting changes in the mosquito fauna and can therefore be used to guide the design of more targeted field surveillance activities. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  9. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Afrotropical Region. 1. The Africanus Group of Species (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 26, Number 1, 1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    BANGOURA and A. LORAND. 1979. Isolements d’arbovirus au Senegal oriental a partir de moustiques (1972-1977) et notes sur l’epidemiologie des virus...Dengue 2 au Senegal oriental: Une poussee epizootioque en milieu selvatique; isolements du virus a partir de moustiques et d’un singe et...neoafticanus une nouvelle espece de moustique capturee au Senegal Oriental (Diptera: Culicidae). Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M. Ser. Entomol. Med. Parasitol. 16

  10. Description and Comparison of Morphological Structures of the Eggs of Anopheles Hyrcanus Group and Related Species (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-20

    major vector of malaria in China ; however, its vectorial capacity is unknown in the ROK. The other remaining four Anopheles species are not considered to...morphometry and morphology of Anopheles aconitus Form B and C eggs under scanning electron microscope. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo...and its genetic identity with An. (Ano.) anthropophagus from China (Diptera: Culicidae). Zootaxa, 378, 1–14. RUEDA ET AL.40 · Zootaxa 2268 © 2009

  11. Exploring New Thermal Fog and Ultra-Low Volume Technologies to Improve Indoor Control of the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) JAMES F. HARWOOD,1,2 MUHAMMAD FAROOQ,1 ALEC G. RICHARDSON,1 CARL W. DOUD,1 JOHN L. PUTNAM,3 DANIEL E...vector, Aedes aegypti (L.), inside human habitations must be performed quickly and efÞciently to reduce the risk of transmission during dengue...immediate knockdown of vector populations that may lower the risk of infection and allow other suppression strategies to be implemented. KEY WORDS Aedes

  12. Lista das espécies de Culicidae (Diptera depositadas na Coleção de Entomologia Pe. J. S. Moure Species list of the Culicidae (Diptera deposited at the Entomological Collection "Pe. J. S. Moure"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Tissot

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A Coleção de Entomologia do Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade Federal do Paraná (DZUP abriga cerca de 5.000.000 de exemplares de insetos. A coleção de Diptera está representada por aproximadamente 2.000.000 de exemplares, sendo Muscidae; Culicidae e Syrphidae as famílias mais representativas. A ordem Diptera possui cerca de 150.000 espécies descritas e a coleção conta com cerca de 103.000 exemplares representantes de 78 famílias. A lista das espécies pertencentes à família Culicidae conta com 9.579 exemplares, distribuídos em 2 subfamílias, 7 tribos, 17 gêneros, 26 subgêneros e 85 espécies. A maioria dos exemplares foi coletado em remanescentes de mata localizados em áreas urbanas e rurais, ambientes silvestres e urbanos de regiões litorâneas ou áreas urbanas pertencentes a diferentes cidades do Estado do Paraná, e algumas espécies incluídas foram capturadas nos Estados de São Paulo, Mato Grosso, Santa Catarina e no Distrito Federal. As informações específicas de cada exemplar, como local de coleta, latitude, longitude, coletor, data de coleta, método de coleta e nome do pesquisador que identificou, e também informações taxonômicas como ordem, tribo, gênero, subgênero e espécie, foram informatizados em um banco de dados.The Entomological Collection of Departamento de Zoologia of Universidade Federal do Paraná (DZUP accommodates about 5,000,000 insect specimens. The collection of Diptera is represented by approximately 2,000,000 specimens, being Muscidae, Culicidae and Syrphidae the most representative families. The Diptera order consists of approximately 150,000 described species and in the Collection about 103,000 specimens within 78 families are registered. The list of species of the family Culicidae presents 9,579 specimens within 2 subfamilies, 7 tribes, 17 genera, 26 subgenera and 85 species. Most specimens were captured in forest remnants in urban and rural areas, wild and urban environments in

  13. Urbanization impact on mosquito community and the transmission potential of filarial infection in central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čabanová, V.; Miterpáková, M.; Valentová, D.; Blažejová, Hana; Rudolf, Ivo; Stloukal, E.; Hurníková, Z.; Dzidová, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2018), č. článku 261. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Culex pipiens complex * West Nile virus * Diptera Culicidae * Anopheles hyrcanus * Dirofilaria immitis * Aedes albopictus * endemic area * 1st record * Slovakia * vector * Dirofilaria * mosquito-borne diseases * Anopheles maculipennis complex * xenomonitoring Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  14. Spatial clustering and longitudinal variation of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in a river of the Amazon: the importance of the forest fringe and of obstructions to flow in frontier malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, F S M; Arruda, M E; Gurgel, H C; Honório, N A

    2011-12-01

    Deforestation has been linked to a rise in malaria prevalence. In this paper, we studied longitudinally 20 spots, including forested and deforested portions of a temporary river in a malarigenous frontier zone. Larval habitat parameters influencing distribution of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae were studied. We observed that larvae were clustered in forested-deforested transitions. For the first time in the literature, it was verified that parameters determining larval distribution varied from deforested to forested areas. The proximity to human dwellings was also a significant factor determining distribution, but larvae was most importantly associated with a previously undescribed parameter, the presence of small obstructions to river flow, such as tree trunks within the river channel, which caused pooling of water during the dry season ('microdams'). In deforested areas, the most important factor determining distribution of larvae was shade (reduced luminance). Larvae were absent in the entire studied area during the wet season and present in most sites during the dry season. During the wet-dry transition, larvae were found sooner in areas with microdams, than in other areas, suggesting that flow obstruction prolongs the breeding season of An. darlingi. Adult mosquito densities and malaria incidence were higher during the dry season. Our data correlate well with the published literature, including the distribution of malaria cases near the forest fringes, and has permitted the creation of a model of An. darlingi breeding, where preference for sites with reduced luminance, human presence and microdams would interact to determine larval distribution.

  15. Ecological characterisation and infection of Anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae) of the Atlantic Forest in the southeast of Brazil over a 10 year period: has the behaviour of the autochthonous malaria vector changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buery, Julyana Cerqueira; Rezende, Helder Ricas; Natal, Licia; Silva, Leonardo Santana da; Menezes, Regiane Maria Tironi de; Fux, Blima; Malafronte, Rosely Dos Santos; Falqueto, Aloisio; Cerutti Junior, Crispim

    2018-02-01

    BACKGROUND In southeastern Brazil, autochthonous cases of malaria can be found near Atlantic Forest fragments. Because the transmission cycle has not been completely clarified, the behaviour of the possible vectors in those regions must be observed. A study concerning the entomological aspects and natural infection of anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae) captured in the municipalities of the mountainous region of Espírito Santo state was performed in 2004 and 2005. Similarly, between 2014 and 2015, 12 monthly collections were performed at the same area of the study mentioned above. METHODS Center for Disease Control (CDC) light traps with CO2 were set in open areas, at the edge and inside of the forest (canopy and ground), whereas Shannon traps were set on the edge. FINDINGS A total of 1,414 anophelines were collected from 13 species. Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii Dyar and Knab remained the most frequently captured species in the CDC traps set in the forest canopy, as well as being the vector with the highest prevalence of Plasmodium vivax/simium infection, according to molecular polymerase chain reaction techniques. CONCLUSIONS P. vivax/simium was found only in abdomens of the mosquitoes of the subgenus Nyssorhynchus, weakening the hypothesis that this subgenus also plays a role in malaria transmission in this specific region.

  16. Diapause and quiescence: dormancy mechanisms that contribute to the geographical expansion of mosquitoes and their evolutionary success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Diego Felipe Araujo; de Albuquerque, Cleide Maria Ribeiro; Oliva, Luciana Oliveira; de Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; Ayres, Constância Flávia Junqueira

    2017-06-26

    Mosquitoes are insects belonging to the order Diptera and family Culicidae. They are distributed worldwide and include approximately 3500 species, of which about 300 have medical and veterinary importance. The evolutionary success of mosquitoes, in both tropical and temperate regions, is due to the various survival strategies these insects have developed throughout their life histories. Of the many adaptive mechanisms, diapause and quiescence, two different types of dormancy, likely contribute to the establishment, maintenance and spread of natural mosquito populations. This review seeks to objectively and coherently describe the terms diapause and quiescence, which can be confused in the literature because the phenotypic effects of these mechanisms are often similar.

  17. Using remote sensing to map larval and adult populations of Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae a potential malaria vector in Southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger François

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although malaria disappeared from southern France more than 60 years ago, suspicions of recent autochthonous transmission in the French Mediterranean coast support the idea that the area could still be subject to malaria transmission. The main potential vector of malaria in the Camargue area, the largest river delta in southern France, is the mosquito Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae. In the context of recent climatic and landscape changes, the evaluation of the risk of emergence or re-emergence of such a major disease is of great importance in Europe. When assessing the risk of emergence of vector-borne diseases, it is crucial to be able to characterize the arthropod vector's spatial distribution. Given that remote sensing techniques can describe some of the environmental parameters which drive this distribution, satellite imagery or aerial photographs could be used for vector mapping. Results In this study, we propose a method to map larval and adult populations of An. hyrcanus based on environmental indices derived from high spatial resolution imagery. The analysis of the link between entomological field data on An. hyrcanus larvae and environmental indices (biotopes, distance to the nearest main productive breeding sites of this species i.e., rice fields led to the definition of a larval index, defined as the probability of observing An. hyrcanus larvae in a given site at least once over a year. Independent accuracy assessments showed a good agreement between observed and predicted values (sensitivity and specificity of the logistic regression model being 0.76 and 0.78, respectively. An adult index was derived from the larval index by averaging the larval index within a buffer around the trap location. This index was highly correlated with observed adult abundance values (Pearson r = 0.97, p An. hyrcanus larval and adult populations from the landscape indices. Conclusion This work shows that it is possible to use

  18. Spatial variation in host feeding patterns of Culex tarsalis and the Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, T C; Lemenager, D A; Kluh, S; Carroll, B D; Lothrop, H D; Reisen, W K

    2012-07-01

    West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) is now endemic in California across a variety of ecological regions that support a wide diversity of potential avian and mammalian host species. Because different avian hosts have varying competence for WNV, determining the blood-feeding patterns of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors is a key component in understanding the maintenance and amplification of the virus as well as tangential transmission to humans and horses. We investigated the blood-feeding patterns of Culex tarsalis Coquillett and members of the Culex pipiens L. complex from southern to northern California. Nearly 100 different host species were identified from 1,487 bloodmeals, by using the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI). Cx. tarsalis fed on a higher diversity of hosts and more frequently on nonhuman mammals than did the Cx. pipiens complex. Several WNV-competent host species, including house finch and house sparrow, were common bloodmeal sources for both vector species across several biomes and could account for WNV maintenance and amplification in these areas. Highly competent American crow, western scrub-jay and yellow-billed magpie also were fed upon often when available and are likely important as amplifying hosts for WNV in some areas. Neither species fed frequently on humans (Cx. pipiens complex [0.4%], Cx. tarsalis [0.2%]), but with high abundance, both species could serve as both enzootic and bridge vectors for WNV.

  19. Patterns of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) infestation and container productivity measured using pupal and Stegomyia indices in northern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garelli, F M; Espinosa, M O; Weinberg, D; Coto, H D; Gaspe, M S; Gürtler, R E

    2009-09-01

    A citywide control program of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) mainly based on the use of larvicides reduced infestations but failed to achieve the desired target levels in Clorinda, northeastern Argentina, over 5 yr of interventions. To understand the underlying causes of persistent infestations and to develop new control tactics adapted to the local context, we conducted two pupal surveys in a large neighborhood with approximately 2,500 houses and recorded several variables for every container inspected in fall and spring 2007. In total, 4,076 lots and 4,267 containers were inspected over both surveys, and 8,391 Ae. aegypti pupae were collected. Large tanks used for potable water storage were the most abundant and the most productive type of container, accounting for 65-84% of all the pupae collected. Therefore, large tanks were key containers and candidates for improved targeted interventions. Multivariate analysis showed that containers located in the yard, at low sun exposure, unlidded, filled with rain water, and holding polluted water were all more likely to be infested by larvae or pupae. When only infested containers were considered, productivity of pupae was most closely associated with large tanks and rain water. A stochastic simulation model was developed to calculate the expected correlations between pupal and Stegomyia indices according to the characteristics of the distribution of larvae and pupae per container and the spatial scale at which the indices were computed. The correlation between pupal and Stegomyia indices is expected to increase as infestation levels decline.

  20. Evidence to support a conspecific nature of allopatric cytological races of Anopheles nitidus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsawatkiat, Siripan; Baimai, Visut; Thongsahuan, Sorawat; Otsuka, Yasushi; Taai, Kritsana; Hempolchom, Chayanit; Srisuka, Wichai; Poolphol, Petchaboon; Choochote, Wej; Saeung, Atiporn

    2014-01-01

    Metaphase karyotype investigation on two allopatric strains of Anopheles nitidus Harrison, Scanlon, and Reid (Diptera: Culicidae) was conducted in Thailand during 2011-2012. Five karyotypic forms, i.e., Form A (X1, Y1), Form B (X1, Y2), Form C (X2, Y3), Form D (X1, X3, Y4), and Form E (X1, X2, X3, Y5) were obtained from a total of 21 isofemale lines. Forms A, B, and C were confined to Phang Nga Province, southern Thailand, whereas Forms D and E were restricted to Ubon Ratchathani Province, northeastern Thailand. Cross-mating experiments among the five isofemale lines, which were representative of five karyotypic forms of An. nitidus, revealed genetic compatibility by providing viable progenies and synaptic salivary gland polytene chromosomes through F2 generations. The results suggest that the forms are conspecific, and An. nitidus comprises five cytological races. The very low intraspecific sequence variations (average genetic distances = 0.002-0.008) of the nucleotide sequences in ribosomal DNA (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and II) among the five karyotypic forms were very good supportive evidence. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  1. Evaluation of temephos and chlorpyrifos-methyl against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in septic tanks in Antalya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, H; Yanikoglu, A; Kocak, O; Cilek, J E

    2006-11-01

    The larvicidal activity of chlorpyrifos-methyl and temephos was evaluated against Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) in septic tanks in Antalya, Turkey. Chlorpyrifos-methyl (Pyrifos MT 25 emulsifiable concentrate [EC] ) was evaluated at application rates of 0.04, 0.08, and 0.12 mg active ingredient (AI)/liter, and temephos (Temeguard 50 EC) was evaluated at 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 mg (AI)/liter during a 21-d study. Generally, overall larval reduction in septic tanks from single- and multifamily dwellings treated with either larvicide was significantly greater than pretreatment levels and control tanks for the duration of the study. At 14 d posttreatment, duration of control was greatest in multifamily tanks treated with chlorpyrifos-methyl at the highest application rate with similar levels of control through 21 d for single-family dwellings (range 97-100%). Septic tanks from both types of family dwellings treated at the highest application rate of temephos resulted in >90% reduction through day 21 (range 91-100%). Laboratory bioassays of septic tank water treated at field application rates, without daily dilution, revealed that complete larval mortality was achieved for 21 d at each application rate and formulation. It is thought that daily addition of water and organic matter to the septic tanks in the single and multifamily dwellings influenced the duration of effectiveness of the larvicides.

  2. Nuevos registros y distribución de mosquitos de la Argentina (Diptera: Culicidae New records and distribution of mosquitoes from Argentina (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C. Rossi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan 21 nuevos registros de especies y se amplía la distribución de otras 12 especies de los géneros Anopheles Meigen, Coquillettidia Dyar, Culex L., Haemagogus Williston, Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribalzaga, Onirion Harbach y Peyton, Orthopodomyia Theobald, Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, Sabethes Robineau-Desvoidy, Stegomyia Theobald, Toxorhynchites Theobald. Se incluyen comentarios y cambios de estatus para especies de Howardina Theobald, Ochlerotatus y Lutzia (Theobald. Actualmente, en la Argentina se hallan presentes 226 especies distribuidas en 23 géneros.Twenty one new records and 12 new distributional records of species of the genus Anopheles Meigen, Coquillettidia Dyar, Culex L., Haemagogus Williston, Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribalzaga, Onirion Harbach & Peyton, Orthopodomyia Theobald, Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, Sabethes Robineau-Desvoidy, Stegomyia Theobald, Toxorhynchites Theobald are reported. Comments and changes in the status of species of Howardina Theobald, Ochelrotatus and Lutzia Theobald are included. Currently, in Argentina are present 226 species distributed in 23 genera.

  3. Polymer nanoparticles containing essential oils: new options for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdin González, Jorge Omar; Jesser, Emiliano Nicolás; Yeguerman, Cristhian Alan; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia; Fernández Band, Beatriz

    2017-07-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of important parasites and pathogens causing death, poverty and social disability worldwide. The overuse of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors lead to resistance, adverse environmental effects and high operational costs. Therefore, the development of eco-friendly control tools is an important public health challenge. In this study, two different essential oils (EO) (geranium, Geranium maculatum, and bergamot, Citrus bergamia) loaded polymeric nanoparticle (PN) were elaborated using polyethylene glycol (PEG) and chitosan (Qx) as the polymeric matrix/coating. In addition, the mosquito larvicidal acute and residual activity of the PN was evaluated on Culex pipiens pipiens. The physicochemical characterization of PN revealed that PEG-PN had sizes nanoparticles containing essential oil are a promising source of eco-friendly mosquito larvicidal products.

  4. Transcriptional Analysis of Four Family 4 P450s in a Puerto Rico Strain of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Compared With an Orlando Strain and Their Possible Functional Roles in Permethrin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    MOLECULAR BIOLOGY/GENOMICS Transcriptional Analysis of Four Family 4 P450s in a Puerto Rico Strain of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Compared...10.1603/ME13228 ABSTRACT A Þeld strain of Aedes aegypti (L.) was collected from Puerto Rico in October 2008. Based onLD50 values by topical application...important role in cytochrome P450-mediated resistance to permethrin. KEY WORDS Aedes aegytpi, permethrin, resistance, cytochrome P450, detoxiÞcation The

  5. Preferencia de hospedadores de Culicidae (Diptera recolectados en el centro de la Argentina Host preference of Culicidae (Diptera collected in central Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R. Almirón

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de estudiar la preferencia de hospedadores vertebrados por mosquitos hembras, durante 2 períodos octubre-abril (primavera-verano, se realizaron muestreos cada 15 días en Córdoba y Cosquín (Argentina. Se utilizaron trampas de latón con cebo animal: anfibios (sapos, aves (pollos, mamíferos (conejos y reptiles (tortugas. El 92,9% de los especímenes recolectados pertenecen al género Culex, mientras que un 7,0% corresponde a Aedes y el 0,02% restante a Psorophora ciliata, única especie que se capturó de ese género. En trampas con pollo se recolectó el mayor número de hembras (68,7%, siguiendo en orden las trampas con conejos (29,9%, con tortugas (0,8% y con sapos (0,5%, por lo tanto, la mayoría de los mosquitos entraron en las trampas con hospedadores homeotermos. Culex dolosus se alimentó sobre todos los cebos, mientras que Cx. acharistus, Cx. chidesteri y Cx. quinquefasciatus se alimentaron sobre pollos, conejos y tortugas; Ae. albifasciatus, Ae. scapularis, Cx. bidens y Cx. coronator lo hicieron sobre ambos hospedadores homeotermos; Cx. apicinus, Cx. maxi, Cx. saltanensis y Cx. spinosus se alimentaron solamente sobre pollos y Ps. ciliata sobre conejos.Com o propósito de estudar a preferência de mosquitos fêmeas por hospedeiros vertebrados, realizaram-se amostragens quinzenais nas cidades de Córdoba e Cosquín (Argentina, durante o período de outubro a abril (primavera-verão, por dois anos consecutivos. Utilizaram-se armadilhas com iscas animais: anfíbios, aves, mamíferos e répteis. Dos espécimes coletados, 92,9% pertenciam ao gênero Culex, 7,0% a Aedes e 0,02% a Psorophora ciliata, única espécie coletada desse gênero. A maior proporçãoo de fêmeas (68,7% foi capturada em armadilhas iscadas com galinhas, seguindo-se em ordem as armadilhas com coelhos (29,9%, com tartarugas (0,8% e com anfíbios (0,05%. Assim, a maioria dos mosquitos foi coletada em armadilhas com hospedeiros homeotermos. Culex

  6. Two Species Previously Confused Under the Concept of Sabethes Tarsopus in Central America (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    2 pl. 1966. Mosquitos de Venezuela. Vol. 1. Galindo, P. 1973. Experiencias epidemiolo- Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social, gicas en el Proyecto ...Heinemann, S.J. and J.N. Belkin. 1977b. Col- Facultad de Ciencias Biologia. Universidad lection records of the project "Mosquitoes Nacional Autonoma de

  7. The Effect of Parasitism and Interpopulation Hybridization on Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Michelle

    2017-09-01

    Recent research in mosquito population genetics suggests that interpopulation hybridization has likely contributed to the rapid spread of the container-breeding mosquitoes. Here, I used laboratory experiments to investigate whether interpopulation Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) F1 and F2 hybrids exhibit higher fitness than parental populations, and whether hybrid mosquito performance is related to infection by the coevolved protozoan parasite Ascogregarina taiwanensis (Lien and Levine). Overall, there were significant differences in development time, wing length, and survival between the two parental mosquito populations, but no difference in per capita growth rate r. Hybrid mosquitoes were generally intermediate in phenotype to the parentals, except that F2 females were significantly larger than the midparent average. In addition, As. taiwanensis parasites produced fewest oocysts when they were reared in hosts of hybrid origin. These data suggest that hybridization between previously isolated mosquito populations can result in slight increases in potential mosquito reproductive success, via increased hybrid body size, and via the temporary escape from coevolved parasites. These findings are significant because studies have shown that even slight hybrid vigor can have positive fitness consequences for population persistence. Although this was a laboratory experiment extending only to the F2 generation, many other invasive insects also carry coevolved parasites, and thus the patterns seen in this mosquito system may be broadly relevant. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Ovicidal efficacy of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the...

  9. Contribution of midgut bacteria to blood digestion and egg production in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenta Paulo FP

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insect gut harbors a variety of microorganisms that probably exceed the number of cells in insects themselves. These microorganisms can live and multiply in the insect, contributing to digestion, nutrition, and development of their host. Recent studies have shown that midgut bacteria appear to strengthen the mosquito's immune system and indirectly enhance protection from invading pathogens. Nevertheless, the physiological significance of these bacteria for mosquitoes has not been established to date. In this study, oral administration of antibiotics was employed in order to examine the contribution of gut bacteria to blood digestion and fecundity in Aedes aegypti. Results The antibiotics carbenicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, gentamycin and kanamycin, were individually offered to female mosquitoes. Treatment of female mosquitoes with antibiotics affected the lysis of red blood cells (RBCs, retarded the digestion of blood proteins and reduced egg production. In addition, antibiotics did not affect the survival of mosquitoes. Mosquito fertility was restored in the second gonotrophic cycle after suspension of the antibiotic treatment, showing that the negative effects of antibiotics in blood digestion and egg production in the first gonotrophic cycle were reversible. Conclusions The reduction of bacteria affected RBC lysis, subsequently retarded protein digestion, deprived mosquito from essential nutrients and, finally, oocyte maturation was affected, resulting in the production of fewer viable eggs. These results indicate that Ae. aegypti and its midgut bacteria work in synergism to digest a blood meal. Our findings open new possibilities to investigate Ae. aegypti-associated bacteria as targets for mosquito control strategies.

  10. Socio-Ecological Mechanisms Supporting High Densities of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Baltimore, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, E; Biehler, D; Leisnham, P T; Jordan, R; Wilson, S; LaDeau, S L

    2017-09-01

    Social, ecological, and climatic factors interact creating a heterogeneous matrix that determines the spatiotemporal distribution of mosquitoes and human risks of exposure to the diseases they transmit. We explore linkages between the social and institutional processes behind residential abandonment, urban ecology, and the interactions of socio-ecological processes with abiotic drivers of mosquito production. Specifically, we test the relative roles of infrastructure degradation and vegetation for explaining the presence of Aedes albopictus Skuse 1894 to better predict spatial heterogeneity in mosquito exposure risk within urban environments. We further examine how precipitation interacts with these socially underpinned biophysical variables. We use a hierarchical statistical modeling approach to assess how environmental and climatic conditions over 3 years influence mosquito ecology across a socioeconomic gradient in Baltimore, MD. We show that decaying infrastructure and vegetation are important determinants of Ae. albopictus infestation. We demonstrate that both precipitation and vegetation influence mosquito production in ways that are mediated by the level of infrastructural decay on a given block. Mosquitoes were more common on blocks with greater abandonment, but when precipitation was low, mosquitoes were more likely to be found in higher-income neighborhoods with managed container habitat. Likewise, although increased vegetation was a negative predictor of mosquito infestation, more vegetation on blocks with high abandonment was associated with the largest mosquito populations. These findings indicate that fine spatial scale modeling of mosquito habitat within urban areas is needed to more accurately target vector control. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Influência do período de quiescência dos ovos sobre o ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Heloisa Helena Garcia da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência do período de quiescência dos ovos no ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório, na busca de informações que possam melhorar o direcionamento das ações de controle, pois sabe-se que o ovo é a forma mais resistente do ciclo biológico, possibilitando ao mosquito ampla sobrevida, devido à resistência às adversidades climáticas. Os experimentos foram realizados numa câmara biológica, mantida à temperatura de 28 ± 1oC, com umidade relativa de 80 ± 5% e fotofase de 12 horas. Apresentam-se os dados da influência de diferentes períodos de quiescência sobre a eclosão das larvas, desenvolvimento larval e pupal, ciclo evolutivo. Verificou-se o efeito altamente significativo do período de quiescência na eclosão das larvas. O período de quiescência não influenciou nas durações dos períodos de incubação, larval e pupal. Constatou-se que ovos de um mesmo período de quiescência apresentaram períodos de incubação estatisticamente diferentes entre si. As larvas eclodiam em grupos, definidos pela incubação, e este efeito de grupo foi significativo na duração do ciclo. Pode-se afirmar que, em 99,8% dos ciclos, a variação foi determinada pela incubação.

  12. Evaluation of Isotope 32P Method to Mark Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae in a Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongxing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the current study was to develop a marking technique as an internal marker to mark post blood meal mosquitoes by using stable phosphate isotope 32P and determine the optimal concentration of it.Methods: An isotonic physiological saline solution, containing different concentration of radioactive isotope 32P-labeled disodium phosphate (Na2H32PO4 was injected into rabbits via the jugular vein in the laboratory. Emerged Cx. pipiens were marked after feeding on rabbit. At the same time, the labeled conditions of emerged Cx. pipiens were also measured by placing feces of No. 6 rabbit into containers with mosquito larvae and pupae inside.Results: According to the label condition of Cx. pipiens after taking blood and the effect of different dosage Na2H32PO4 on rabbit health, the optimal concentration of radioactive isotope was determined, that is, 0.1211 mCi/kg. By placing feces of No. 6 rabbit into containers with mosquito larvae and pupae inside, the emerged mosquitoes were also labeled. Therefore, feeding mosquitoes on the animal injected with radioactive Na2H32PO4 was more prac­tical for detecting and tracing mosquitoes.Conclusion: The method was less time-consuming, more sensitive and safer. This marking method will facilitate post-bloodmeal studies of mosquitoes and other blood-sucking insects.

  13. Different blood and sugar feeding regimes affect the productivity of Anopheles arabiensis colonies (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiens, D; Soliban, S M; Balestrino, F; Alsir, R; Vreysen, M J B; Gilles, J R L

    2013-03-01

    The success of the sterile insect technique for the management of mosquito populations depends on the release of large numbers of competitive sterile male insects. Sustainable mosquito production can only be obtained when proper mass-rearing equipment and adequate methods are available, including those to feed blood to the female mosquitoes. The blood feeding apparatus Hemotek consists of a small aluminum plate to which a collagen membrane is fixed and filled with blood kept warm by an electric heating element. A larger aluminum plate was developed to feed a larger number of female mosquitoes with blood that is kept at a constant temperature. The effect of different blood feeding regimes (feeding frequency and time the blood is kept in the Hemotek) and sugar deprivation before blood feeding on egg production of female Anopheles arabiensis Patton was tested. Egg production was higher when blood was offered to the mosquitoes every day as compared with every 2 or 4 d. Sugar deprivation for 7 h before blood feeding enhanced egg production by 50% compared with female mosquitoes that had continuous access to sugar. Neither male nor female survival was impaired. Finally, we showed that the same blood could be kept warm and used over several hours to feed mosquitoes in multiple cages without any impact on egg production or hatch rate. Being able to use the same blood over extended periods would save considerable time, handling, and funds.

  14. Ecology of Anopheline (Diptera, Culicidae, malaria vectors around the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, State of Goiás, Brazil: 1 - Frequency and climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    Full Text Available The ecology of anopheline species (Diptera, Culicidae was studied in the vicinity of the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, State of Goiás, Brazil. Climatic factors and frequency of anopheline populations were analyzed. Bimonthly human-bait and Shannon trap captures were conducted for 36 consecutive months (January 1997 through December 1999. A total of 5,205 adult anophelines belonging to five species were collected. Anopheles darlingi was the most frequently collected anopheline (61.4%, followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (35.4%, An. triannulatus. (2.5%, An. oswaldoi (0.4%, and An. evansae (0.2%. The water level and vegetation along the banks of the reservoir were crucial to the frequency of the various anopheline species. Climatic factors had a secondary influence. The reservoir's water-level stability, increased frequency of An. darlingi, and the arrival of gold prospectors were responsible for the increase in malaria cases.

  15. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum majorana (Lamiaceae) cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fouad El-Akhal; Abdelhakim El Ouali Lalami; Yassine Ez Zoubi; Hassane Greche; Raja Guemmouh

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum majorana (Lamiaceae) cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens (Diptera:Culicidae). Methods: The analysis and the identification of the various constituents of essential oil were carried out by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Biological test was performed according to a standard methodology inspired by the World Health Organization protocol with slight modification. Results:This oil mainly consisted of monoterpene and sesquiterpenes. The majority compounds are 4-terpinene (28.96%), γ-terpinene (18.57%), α-terpinene (12.72%) and sabinene (8.02%). The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) measured for the essential oil Origanum majorana, were respectively of the order of 258.71 mg/L and 580.49 mg/L.

  16. Multiple blood feeding and host-seeking behavior in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjana, Thahsin; Tuno, Nobuko

    2013-07-01

    The body size of mosquitoes can influence a number of bionomic factors, such as their blood-feeding ability, host attack rate, and fecundity. All of these traits are important determinants of their potential to transmit diseases. Among abiotic and biotic factors, high temperature and low nutrition in the developing stages of mosquitoes generally result in small adults. We studied the relationship between body size and multiple feeding in a gonotrophic cycle and some fecundity attributes by using three strains of two competent vector species, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse). We raised small and large mosquitoes under low and high food conditions in the laboratory to measure parameters of fecundity and blood-feeding behavior. Fecundity was positively correlated with body size in both species, whereas the number of bloodmeals, the frequency of host-seeking behavior, and egg retention were negatively correlated with body size in the Ae. albopictus Nagasaki strain. We found that multiple feeding and host-seeking behavior were negatively correlated with body size, i.e., small mosquitoes tended to have more contact with hosts. We found that two mechanisms that inhibit engorged mosquitoes from seeking out hosts, distension-induced and oocyte-induced inhibition, were not strong enough to limit host-seeking behavior, and multiple feeding increased fecundity. Size-dependent multiple feeding and host-seeking behavior affect contact frequency with hosts and should be considered when predicting how changes in mosquito body size affect disease transmission.

  17. A simple and affordable membrane-feeding method for Aedes aegpyti and Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Catherine; Saingamsook, Jassada; Somboon, Pradya

    2015-12-01

    This study developed an artificial feeding (AF) method to replace direct host feeding (DHF) for the maintenance of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus mosquito colonies. The procedure can be adopted by all laboratories due to its simple and affordable materials and design. The apparatus consists of heparinized cow blood contained in a 5cm diameter glass petri dish with 5cm(2) Parafilm M (Bemis(®)) stretched thinly over the top, with a pre-heated bag of vegetable oil placed underneath to keep the blood warm. Both parts are contained within an insulated Styrofoam™ box with a hole in the lid for mosquitoes to access the membrane. Mosquitoes are fed by AF for 15min at a time. Feeding rate and fecundity of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes feeding on the AF device were compared to those feeding on a live rat (DHF(r)), and of Anopheles minimus mosquitoes feeding on the AF device compared to those feeding on a human arm (DHF(h)). Aedes aegypti mosquitoes fed by AF or DHF(r) had similar feeding rates (38.2±21.5% and 35.7±18.2%, respectively) and overall egg production (1.5% difference). Anopheles minimus mosquitoes fed by the AF method had a lower feeding rate (52.0±1.0% for AF compared to 70.7±20.2% for DHF(h)) and overall egg production (40% reduction compared to DHF(h)). However, the number of eggs produced by AF-fed mosquitoes (1808 eggs per 100 mosquitoes) was still sufficient for colony maintenance, and with increased feeding time both parameters are expected to increase. Reduced feeding rate and overall egg production was observed when Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were fed on blood refrigerated for over two weeks. In conclusion, an AF device has been developed which can replace DHF for Ae. aegypti and An. minimus colony maintenance when using blood refrigerated for a maximum of two weeks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dinámica poblacional de los estadios inmaduros del vector del dengue Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae: un estudio longitudinal (1996-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V Micieli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de la variación estacional de una población de estadios inmaduros de A. aegypti en La Plata, Argentina, durante cuatro años. Se colocaron 36 recipientes plásticos con 700 ml de agua declorinada y se agregó, en cada uno, una tira de papel de filtro rodeando el perímetro interno como sitio para la ovipostura. Los huevos, larvas y pupas se cuantificaron semanalmente desde septiembre de 1996 hasta agosto de 2000. Tras cuantificar el número de huevos, los papeles fueron sumergidos en cada recipiente para facilitar la eclosión y se agregó un nuevo papel. La presencia de estados inmaduros de A. aegypti fue registrada desde diciembre-enero hasta junio durante los cuatro años de estudio. En 1997 se registraron 13 105 huevos, 7 978 larvas y 1 476 pupas con un 54.7 % de recipientes positivos; en 1998, 8 194 huevos, 668 larvas y 142 pupas y un 28.3 % de recipientes positivos para este mosquito. En 1999 se obtuvieron 13 510 huevos, 3 690 larvas y 743 pupas y un 56.7 % de recipientes con A. aegypti. Para el año 2000 se registraron 16 327 huevos, 4 669 larvas y 715 pupas y un porcentaje de recipientes positivos de 59.3 %. El número de huevos y el porcentaje de eclosión se redujo drásticamente en 1998 donde las temperaturas durante el período diciembre-mayo fueron entre uno y 2.5 ºC más bajas que durante los otros tres años de estudio. Estas temperaturas menores fueron consecuencia del fenómeno climático corriente El Niño.Population dynamics of the immature stages of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae, vector of dengue: a longitudinal study (1996-2000. A four year study was conducted on a natural population of immature stages of Aedes aegypti after the re-invasion of Argentina by this vector in 1987. Thirty six plastic containers with 700 ml of dechlorinated water were placed in the La Plata Zoological Garden, La Plata, Argentina. A strip of filter paper around each container was added to facilitate egg counting. Eggs

  19. Genetics and morphology of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in septic tanks in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Gerard; Brown, Julia E; Barrera, Roberto; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2011-11-01

    Dengue viruses, primarily transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), affect an estimated 50-100 million people yearly. Traditional approaches to control mosquito population numbers, such as the use of pesticides, have had only limited success. Atypical mosquito behavior may be one reason why current vector control efforts have been less efficacious than expected. In Puerto Rico, for example, adult Ae. aegypti have been observed emerging from septic tanks. Interestingly, adults emerging from septic tanks are larger on average than adults collected from surface containers. To determine whether adults colonizing septic tanks constitute a separate Ae. aegypti population, we used 12 previously validated microsatellite loci to examine adult mosquitoes collected from both septic tanks and surface containers, but found no evidence to suggest genetic differentiation. Size differences between septic tank and surface mosquitoes were reduced when nutrient levels were held constant across experimental groups. Despite the absence of evidence suggesting a genetic difference between experimental groups in this study, Ae. aegypti emerging from septic tanks may still represent a more dangerous phenotype and should be given special consideration when developing vector control programs and designing public health interventions in the future.

  20. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus deaneorum: a new species in the albitarsis complex (Diptera: culicidae Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus deaneorum: uma nova espécie no complexo albitarsis (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goreti Rosa-Freitas

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus deaneorum sp. n. is described from specimens collected in Guajará-Mirim, Rondônia state and Rio Branco, Acre state, Brazil, on human and animal baits, inside dwellings and from the progenies of engorged females. A detailed description of the shape of egg, external appearance of adult female and male, genitalias, female cibarial armature and complete chaetotaxy of pupa and larva show that it can be distinguished from Anopheles albitarsis from the type-locality and other areas by the paler general external appearance of the adult, the posterolateral tufts of scales, on the female abdominal terga and the branching of the outer anterior clypeal seta (3-C of the fourth instar larva (as shown in illustrations. If species can also be distinguished from An. albitarsis from the type locality by the allele frequencies at 11 enzymic loci as represented by Nei's Genetic Distance.Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus deaneorum sp. n. é descrito a partir de exemplares coletados em capturas comparativas no intradomicílio e no peridomicílio usando isca humana e animal e progênies de fêmeas ingurgitadas, em Guarajá-Mirim, Rondônia e Rio Branco, Acre. A descrição detalhada do ovo, dos adultos fêmea e macho, inclusive cibário da fêmea, genitália, quetotaxia da pupa e da larva e seu perfil isoenzimático, mostram que esse mosquito pode ser distinguido do Anopheles albitarsis na fase adulta pelo aspecto geral mais claro, pela presença de tufos laterais de escamas escuras somente a partir do quarto ou quinto tergitos abdominais, enquanto em albitarsis começam no terceiro e, na fase larvária, pela ramificação das cerdas clipeais anteriores externas, que em albitarsis são aciculadas (como mostram as ilustrações, bem como pelo padrão isoenzimático.

  1. La Crosse virus infection alters blood feeding behavior in Aedes triseriatus and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bryan T; Brewster, Carlyle C; Paulson, Sally L

    2012-11-01

    The effects of La Crosse virus (LACV) infection on blood feeding behavior in Aedes triseriatus (Say) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were investigated in the laboratory by measuring the size of the bloodmeal imbibed and the extent of refeeding by virus-infected and uninfected mosquitoes. LACV-infected Ae. triseriatus and Ae. albopictus took significantly less blood compared with uninfected mosquitoes. Twice as many virus-infected Ae. triseriatus mosquitoes refed compared with uninfected individuals (18 vs. 9%; P < 0.05); however, virus infection had no significant effect on the refeeding rate of Ae. albopictus. Reduction in bloodmeal size followed by an increased avidity for refeeding may lead to enhanced horizontal transmission of the LACV by its principal vector, Ae. triseriatus.

  2. Natural infection of Culex theileri (Diptera: Culicidae) with Dirofilaria immitis (Nematoda: Filarioidea) on Madeira Island, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Ana, Marta; Khadem, Manhaz; Capela, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were performed to verify whether Culex theileri Theobald functions as a natural vector of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy) on Madeira Island, Portugal. CO2-baited light traps (EVS traps) were use to sample mosquitoes monthly basis between February 2002 and February 2003 in the area of Quebradas (Funchal). Three mosquito species were captured, including 58 Culex pipiens L., 790 Cx. theileri, and three Culiseta longiareolata (Macquart). Only C. theileri tested positive for D. immitis. The presence of this filarial worm was detected by direct observation, infectivity assay dissection technique, and polymerase chain reaction methods. Infected mosquitoes were recovered in October and December 2002 and January 2003. These data provide evidence that Cx. theileri could be the main vector of D. immitis in Funchal, Madeira.

  3. Ciclo de vida de Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1826 (Diptera: Culicidae bajo condiciones no controladas en Bogotá.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Janeth Salazar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar varios aspectos del crecimiento y el desarrollo de los estadios inmaduros de Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1826 (Diptera: Culicidae, especie antropofílica frecuentemente encontrada en Bogotá. Con este fin, se realizaron dos experimentos en diferentes épocas del año 2001 (enero-febrero y septiembre-octubre, bajo condiciones no controladas (luz, temperatura y humedad relativa. Se colocaron recipientes plásticos transparentes con agua de charca a la que se le adicionó concentrado para perro; se tomaron cuatro balsas al azar para estudiar el ciclo de vida utilizando los parámetros de la tabla de vida: mortalidad y supervivencia. Las hembras ovipositaron entre cinco y ocho días después de la ingestión de sangre. El número de huevos por balsa varió entre 152 y 203. La eclosión de larvas L1 fue de 50% en el primer experimento y de 75% en el segundo. Se destacó la naturaleza no sincrónica de la eclosión de las L1, la menor duración proporcional del estadio de pupa (11% del tiempo del desarrollo total y la eficiencia del cambio pupa-adulto (98,61%. Se reporta una menor duración del ciclo de lo informado previamente. Además, los altos porcentajes de eclosión (83,58%, pupación (86,63% y emergencia (98,61% con las condiciones presentes para estos experimentos (temperatura media 14,8°C y 15,1°C y humedad relativa del 72,5% y 74,1%, respectivamente indican el alto grado de adaptación de C. quinquefasciatus al ambiente bogotano. Estas características, más la capacidad vectorial y la resistencia a los insecticidas, hacen de esta especie un problema de salud pública.

  4. Evidence for Arbovirus Dissemination Conduits from the Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Midgut

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romoser, William

    2004-01-01

    .... Experiments using Venezuelan equine encephalitis viral replicon particles, which express the green fluorescent protein gene in cells, indicate the operation of tissue conduits, possibly involving...

  5. Impact of invasive aquatic macrophytes on the population and behavioral ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field survey, three outdoor cage enclosure experiments, and laboratory studies were conducted to elucidate the impact of the invasive aquatic weeds Eichhornia crassipes (floating water hyacinth), Ludwigia hexapetala (emergent water yellow-primrose), and Egeria densa (submersed Brazilian waterweed)...

  6. Third Supplement to ’A Catalog of the Mosquitoes of the World’ (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    and Green 1987:256). maculosa James and Liston. 19I 1. Rattanarithikul and Green 1987:256 (lectotype 9 desig.- BM). Subgenus Nyssorhynchus Blanchard...1990:39 (2 syntypes, BM). campiorhynchus (Thomson) annulipes Taylor, 1914. Townsend 1990:42 (?3 syntypes; BM). detritus (Haliday) maculosa Theobald, 1905...Skuse, 195 misionensis Duret. 199 macu/at us Theobald. 181 moenensis Iyengar, 2 10 maculosa James and Liston, 183 mojuensis Duret and Damasceno. 200

  7. Potential for Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) From Florida to Transmit Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    signiÞcant disease and economic disruption. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), whichhasbeen responsible fornumerousoutbreaksof severe disease in ruminants and...is predominately a disease of domestic ruminants (cattle, goats, and sheep), where infection in pregnant animals usually results in abortion, and...www.cdc.gov/EID/ content /13/8/e1.htm). Britch, S.C.,K. J.Linthicum,A.Anyamba,C. J.Tucker,E.W. Pak, F. A. Maloney, K. Cobb, E. Stanwix, J. Humphries, A

  8. Larvicidal efficiency of the mushroom Amanitamuscaria (Agaricales, Amanitaceae against the mosquito Culexquinquefasciatus (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcial Corrêa Cárcamo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: We report the larvicidal activity of two formulations from Amanita muscariaagainst Culex quinquefasciatus, as well as the viability of the aqueous extract after storage. METHODS The larvicidal activity of aqueous extract and powder from A. muscaria, and the viability of the aqueous extract after storage, were evaluated. RESULTS The aqueous extract caused larval deaths, which varied from 16.4% to 88.4%. The efficiency of the powder varied from 29.2% to 82.8%. Storage did not interfere with the larvicidal efficiency of the aqueous extract of A. muscaria. CONCLUSIONS These results show the potential of A. muscariato control C. quinquefasciatus.

  9. Olfactory memory in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, P J; Eaton, G

    2001-06-01

    The cosmotropical urban mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) uses chemical cues to locate suitable water pools for oviposition. Although gravid females are innately attracted to or repelled by certain compounds, this study found that an individual mosquito's preferences for these odours could be altered greatly by prior experience. Mosquitoes reared in water containing skatole, at a level normally repellent to ovipositing females, preferred to oviposit in water containing that compound rather than in water with an otherwise attractive odour compound (P-cresol). This behaviour occurred regardless of whether mosquitoes were tested individually or in groups of up to 50 per cage. The F1 progeny of conditioned mosquitoes did not exhibit the parental preference, but were as susceptible to conditioning as their parents. Moreover, rearing mosquitoes in infusions of hay or animal (guinea-pig) faeces produced a similar although less dramatic change, such that the innate propensity for hay infusion could be cancelled by rearing in guinea-pig faeces infusion. The results demonstrated a change in odour preference by Cx. quinquefasciatus following exposure to the odour during development or pupal eclosion, suggesting that some form of larval conditioning or early adult imprinting occurred. Precisely when that conditioning occurred remains to be determined.

  10. Larvicidal activity of extracts from Ammi visnaga Linn. (Apiaceae) seeds against Culex quinquefasciatus Say. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 165, mar (2016), s. 51-57 ISSN 0014-4894 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : botanical larvicide * Furanochromenes * Visnagin * Khellin * Sublethal effect * Mosquito Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy Impact factor: 1.724, year: 2016

  11. Role of Anopheles (Kerteszia bellator as malaria vector in Southeastern Brazil (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available New research concerning Anopheles bellator in the southeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, are reported. Adult females of this mosquito showed remarkable endophily and endophagy which was even greater than An. cruzii. The epidemiological role of this anopheline as a malaria vector is discussed.

  12. High Resolution Spatial Analysis of Habitat Preference of Aedes Albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Urban Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cianci, D.; Hartemink, N.; Zeimes, C.B.; Vanwambeke, S.O.; Ienco, A.; Caputo, B.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895)) has emerged in many countries, and it has colonized new environments, including urban areas. The species is a nuisance and a potential vector of several human pathogens, and a better understanding of the habitat

  13. Feeding behavior of Mimomyia (Etorleptiomyia) luzonensis (Ludlow, 1905) (Diptera, Culicidae) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braima, Kamil A; Muslimin, M; M Ghazali, Amir-Ridhwan; Wan-Nor, F; Wilson, J J; Jeffery, J; Abdul-Aziz, N M

    2017-07-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of various human diseases in the tropics including yellow fever, dengue, malaria and West Nile virus. Mosquitoes can act as vectors between wildlife and humans, which is particularly important for diseases where wild animals serve as reservoirs of parasites in the absence of human infections. Research has mainly focused on the medical impacts of Anopheles, Aedes, Mansonia and Culex, however, very little attention has been directed towards other mosquito genera, especially those which act as vectors of diseases of wildlife. We have observed adults of Mimomyia (Etorleptiomyia) luzonensis (Ludlow, 1905) feeding on a toad, Ingerophrynus parvus, near an oil palm plantation settlement in Setia Alam, Selangor state, Peninsular Malaysia. Mimomyia is known to feed on reptiles and amphibians, and is a documented vector of several arboviruses, including West Nile virus. The observation of Mimomyia feeding on a common toad near a human settlement highlights a need to understand the relationships between mosquitoes, toads and humans from an ecological perspective. We report on-site observations of the feeding habit of Mimomyia; the first records from Malaysia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cryptic species Anopheles daciae (Diptera: Culicidae) found in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blažejová, Hana; Šebesta, Oldřich; Rettich, F.; Mendel, Jan; Čabanová, V.; Miterpáková, M.; Betášová, Lenka; Peško, Juraj; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Kampen, H.; Rudolf, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 1 (2018), s. 315-321 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-20054S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Anophelinae * Maculipennis complex * Anopheles daciae * Mosquitoes * Cryptic species * Vector-borne diseases Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016

  15. Effects of fungal infection on feeding and survival of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) on plant sugars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondiaka, S.N.; Masinde, E.W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.; Mukabana, W.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae shows great promise for the control of adult malaria vectors. A promising strategy for infection of mosquitoes is supplying the fungus at plant feeding sites. Methods We evaluated the survival of fungus-exposed Anopheles gambiae

  16. Comparative analysis of gut microbiota of Culex restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) females from different parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for gut microbiota to impede or enhance pathogen transmission is well-documented but the factors that shape this microbiota in mosquito vectors are poorly understood. We characterized and compared the gut microbiota of adult females of Culex restuans Theobald from different parents. Cu...

  17. Toxicity of (Burseraceae Leaf Fractions against Immature Stages of (Giles and (Say (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lame Younoussa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are vectors of several human pathogens, and great attention has recently been placed on insecticides from plant-derived products, in search for mosquito control agents. This study, thus, investigated the potency of Boswellia dalzielii methanol leaf extract and its four fractions as mosquito ovicide, larvicide, and pupicide against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus . The plant products were tested at the following concentrations: 125, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 ppm on eggs and 312.5, 625, 1250, and 2500 ppm on the larvae and pupae of the mosquitoes. For results, hatchability of A. gambiae eggs was reduced to 5% with n -hexane fraction at 2000 ppm. Among the plant products tested, n -hexane fraction was most toxic against A. gambiae (LC 50 = 385.9 ppm and C. quinquefasciatus (LC 50 = 3394.9 ppm. The n -hexane fraction of B. dalzielii might be used as a mosquitocidal agent in the breeding sites of A. gambiae and C. quinquefasciatus .

  18. Survivorship of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae in relation with malaria incidence in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Saito Monteiro de Barros

    Full Text Available We performed a longitudinal study of adult survival of Anopheles darlingi, the most important vector in the Amazon, in a malarigenous frontier zone of Brazil. Survival rates were determined from both parous rates and multiparous dissections. Anopheles darlingi human biting rates, daily survival rates and expectation of life where higher in the dry season, as compared to the rainy season, and were correlated with malaria incidence. The biting density of mosquitoes that had survived long enough for completing at least one sporogonic cycle was related with the number of malaria cases by linear regression. Survival rates were the limiting factor explaining longitudinal variations in Plasmodium vivax malaria incidence and the association between adult mosquito survival and malaria was statistically significant by logistic regression (P<0.05. Survival rates were better correlated with malaria incidence than adult mosquito biting density. Mathematical modeling showed that P. falciparum and P. malariae were more vulnerable to changes in mosquito survival rates because of longer sporogonic cycle duration, as compared to P. vivax, which could account for the low prevalence of the former parasites observed in the study area. Population modeling also showed that the observed decreases in human biting rates in the wet season could be entirely explained by decreases in survival rates, suggesting that decreased breeding did not occur in the wet season, at the sites where adult mosquitoes were collected. For the first time in the literature, multivariate methods detected a statistically significant inverse relation (P<0.05 between the number of rainy days per month and daily survival rates, suggesting that rainfall may cause adult mortality.

  19. Review of semiochemicals that mediate the oviposition of mosquitoes: a possible sustainable tool for the control and monitoring of Culicidae Revisão dos semioquímicos que mediam a oviposição em mosquitos: uma possível ferramenta sustentável para o monitoramento e controle de Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Navarro-Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice for suitable places for female mosquitoes to lay eggs is a key-factor for the survival of immature stages (eggs and larvae. This knowledge stands out in importance concerning the control of disease vectors. The selection of a place for oviposition requires a set of chemical, visual, olfactory and tactile cues that interact with the female before laying eggs, helping the localization of adequate sites for oviposition. The present paper presents a bibliographic revision on the main aspects of semiochemicals in regard to mosquitoes' oviposition, aiding the comprehension of their mechanisms and estimation of their potential as a tool for the monitoring and control of the Culicidae.A seleção de locais adequados pelas fêmeas de mosquitos para depositarem seus ovos é um fator chave para a sobrevivência de seus imaturos (ovos e larvas. O conhecimento das relações ecológicas implicadas neste processo é de grande importância quando se refere a vetores de agentes patogênicos. A determinação do local de oviposição pelas fêmeas grávidas envolve uma rede de mensagens químicas, visuais, olfativas e táteis que facilitam a localização de lugares adequados para depositarem seus ovos. Neste trabalho é apresentada uma revisão bibliográfica dos principais aspectos relacionados com semioquímicos presentes na oviposição dos mosquitos auxiliando no entendimento dos mecanismos de atuação dos mesmos e potencializando a aplicação destes semioquímicos como uma possível ferramenta de monitoramento e controle de Culicidae.

  20. Mapping insecticide resistance and characterization of resistance mechanisms in Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Eba; Asale, Abebe; Eba, Kasahun; Getahun, Kefelegn; Tushune, Kora; Bryon, Astrid; Morou, Evangelia; Vontas, John; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Duchateau, Luc; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2017-09-02

    The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance in the major African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and An. arabiensis may compromise the current vector control interventions and threatens the global malaria control and elimination efforts. Insecticide resistance was monitored in several study sites in Ethiopia from 2013 to 2015 using papers impregnated with discriminating concentrations of DDT, deltamethrin, bendiocarb, propoxur, malathion, fenitrothion and pirimiphos-methyl, following the WHO insecticide susceptibility test procedure. Mosquitoes sampled from different localities for WHO bioassay were morphologically identified as An. gambiae (s.l.) using standard taxonomic keys. Samples were identified to species using species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and screened for the presence of target site mutations L1014F, L1014S and N1575Y in the voltage gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene and G119S in the acethylcholinesterase (AChE) gene using allele-specific PCR. Biochemical assays were performed to assess elevated levels of acetylcholinesterases, carboxylcholinesterases, glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome P450s monooxygenases in wild populations of An. arabiensis, compared to the fully susceptible Sekoru An. arabiensis laboratory strain. Populations of An. arabiensis were resistant to DDT and deltamethrin but were susceptible to fenitrothion in all the study sites. Reduced susceptibility to malathion, pirimiphos-methyl, propoxur and bendiocarb was observed in some of the study sites. Knockdown resistance (kdr L1014F) was detected in all mosquito populations with allele frequency ranging from 42 to 91%. Elevated levels of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) were detected in some of the mosquito populations. However, no elevated levels of monooxygenases and esterases were detected in any of the populations assessed. Anopheles arabiensis populations from all surveyed sites in Ethiopia exhibited resistance against DDT and pyrethroids

  1. Environmental and biological factors influencing Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) vector competence for West Nile Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Lord, Cynthia C; Pesko, Kendra N; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2010-07-01

    Interactions between environmental and biological factors affect the vector competence of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus for West Nile virus. Three age cohorts from two Cx. p. quinquefasciatus colonies were fed blood containing a low- or high-virus dose, and each group was held at two different extrinsic incubation temperatures (EIT) for 13 days. The colonies differed in the way that they responded to the effects of the environment on vector competence. The effects of mosquito age on aspects of vector competence were dependent on the EIT and dose, and they changed depending on the colony. Complex interactions must be considered in laboratory studies of vector competence, because the extent of the genetic and environmental variation controlling vector competence in nature is largely unknown. Differences in the environmental (EIT and dose) and biological (mosquito age and colony) effects from previous studies of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus vector competence for St. Louis encephalitis virus are discussed.

  2. Associative learning of odor with food- or blood-meal by Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Rains, Glen C.; Allan, Sandy A.; Sanford, Michelle R.; Lewis, W. Joe

    2006-11-01

    The ability of many insects to learn has been documented. However, a limited number of studies examining associative learning in medically important arthropods has been published. Investigations into the associative learning capabilities of Culex quinquefasciatus Say were conducted by adapting methods commonly used in experiments involving Hymenoptera. Male and female mosquitoes were able to learn a conditioned stimulus that consisted of an odor not normally encountered in nature (synthetic strawberry or vanilla extracts) in association with an unconditioned stimulus consisting of either a sugar (males and females) or blood (females) meal. Such information could lead to a better understanding of the ability of mosquitoes to locate and select host and food resources in nature.

  3. Notes on the blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera : Culicidae) in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Kamgang, Basile; Nchoutpouen, Elysée; Simard, Frédéric; Paupy, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus is often considered a poor vector of human pathogens, owing to its catholic feeding behavior. However, it was recently incriminated as a major vector in several Chikungunya epidemics, outside of its native range. Here we assessed two key elements of feeding behavior by Ae. albopictus females in Yaoundé, Cameroon, Central Africa. Host preference was explored and the human-biting activity of females was monitored over 24 h to determine ...

  4. Effects of temperature on development, mortality, mating and blood feeding behavior of Culiseta incidens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, T; Mulla, M S

    2001-06-01

    Culiseta incidens Thomson is distributed over most of the western USA and Canada northward to Alaska. Because this mosquito is difficult to colonize, its biology has not been well investigated. We colonized this species in 1998 and studied the effects of temperature on various aspects of its life cycle. The time required for egg melanization and the duration of the egg stage were negatively correlated with temperature. The proportion of fertile egg rafts was temperature-independent. An inverse relationship existed between temperature and egg hatch. Molting and stadium duration after hatching were temperature-dependent, with higher temperature accelerating development and molting. Larvae and pupae experienced lower mortality and higher molting success at lower temperatures. Survivorship of adult mosquitoes fed on sugar solution was inversely proportional to temperature, lethal times for 50% mortality (LT50) were greater at the lower temperature than at the higher temperature. Females survived longer than did males at all test temperatures. Because this species is eurygamous, mating only occurred in large cages. Mating success was also affected by temperature. At the test temperatures, 20 degrees C, 25 degrees C and 30 degrees C, mating started from 3-5 days after emergence and reached a peak on days 13-15 after emergence. Maximum mating rates at 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C were higher than at 30 degrees C. Blood feeding, as indicated by cumulative feeding rates, was affected by cage size, mosquito age and temperature. Mosquitoes in large cages exhibited a much higher feeding rate than in small cages. With age, the cumulative blood feeding rate increased, with the highest rate at 25 degrees C, followed by 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C. At all temperatures tested, most of the blood fed females were mated.

  5. A Study on the Bionomics of Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) in Belize, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Mosquitoes of medical importance. U.S. Dep. Agric. Agric. Handb. 152. Forattini, O.P. 1962. Entomologia medica vol. I. Faculdade de Higiene e Saude Publica...meridional do Brasil. Rev. Saude Publ., S. Paulo. 21: 291-304. Forattini, O.P. 1962. Entomologia medica vol. I. Faculdade de Higiene e Saude...152. Forattini, O.P. 1962. Entomologia medica vol. I. Faculdade de Higiene e Saude Publica, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 662 pp. Grieco, J.P. 2001. The

  6. Invasion of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) into central Africa: what consequences for emerging diseases?

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoagouni, Carine; Kamgang, Basile; Nakoun?, Emmanuel; Paupy, Chistophe; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2015-01-01

    Aedes albopictus, a mosquito native to Asia, has invaded all five continents during the past three decades. It was reported in central Africa in the 2000s, first in Cameroon, and, since then, has colonised almost all countries of the region. The species, originally considered a secondary vector of dengue viruses, has been showed to play a major role in transmission of chikungunya virus in numerous countries, including in the central African region. We review the current spread of Ae. albopict...

  7. Mark-release-recapture studies with Aedes dorsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in coastal northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, V L; Carper, E R; Beesley, C; Reisen, W K

    1995-05-01

    Two mark-release-recapture studies were conducted along the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta in northern California to describe the population ecology and dispersal pattern of Aedes dorsalis (Meigen). Immature Ae. dorsalis were collected from saline tidal marshes, reared to adults, marked, and released. Recapture grids during the July and September studies were within 8.0 and 2.4 km of the release sites, and recapture rates were 0.1 and 1.2%, respectively. The longest recorded flight was 5.8 km, and mosquitoes were recaptured up to 15 d after release. In September, 84% of the marked mosquitoes were recaptured within 2.0 km of the release site, and the mean dispersal distance was 1.9 km. Marked mosquitoes flew predominantly downwind to the east. There was no evidence that Ae. dorsalis traversed the 1.6-km-wide river from Contra Costa to Solano County. Temporal and spatial recapture patterns indicated a possible short-range migration pattern from oviposition sites to upland host-seeking areas. Changes in the recapture rate with cohort age delineated a 7-d gonotrophic cycle during September.

  8. The Ecological Aspects of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae in Central Iran.

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    Hossein Dehghan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to survey the specific factors, which cause to decrease blood feeding of mosquitoes important to succeed vector control.Larval collection was carried out from fixed and variable breeding places of Yazd County, central Iran in 2009. Autogeny-Anautogeny, Stenogamy-Eurygamy, and blood preference of Culex pipiens were studied using standard mosquito cages blood meal source for Cx. pipiens females considered as the chickens and human and fed females were kept in insectary condition (16:8 L: D, 27±3 °C and 70±10% RH. The data were analyzed using SPSS Ver. 11.5 soft ware.Totally, 96 females' mosquitoes were tested for Stenogamy versus Eurygamy and 122 for blood preference assay. In the small cages (20 × 20 × 20cm and large cage (60 × 40 × 60cm, the ability of mating and insemination rates were 60.0 and 67.0%, respectively. In spite of Cx. pipiens fed from sucrose 5%, none of them laying eggs in 60 × 40 × 60 cages during the study. This finding indicated the Anautogeny behavior of this species. This species was found of low tendency to human blood and almost 4 fold fed on chicken.The occurrence of Steno-Eurygamy, Anautogeny, and Ornithophilic behaviors of Cx. Pipiens was noted. More studies need to be carried out about the bionomics of this species to gain more data about the ecophysiological and behavioral characteristics in other parts of Iran.

  9. Culex annulirostris (Diptera: Culicidae) host feeding patterns and Japanese encephalitis virus ecology in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Jansen, Cassie C; Cheah, Wai Yuen; Montgomery, Brian L; Hall, Roy A; Ritchie, Scott A; Van den Hurk, Andrew F

    2012-03-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) transmission in northern Australia has, in the past, been facilitated by Culex annulirostris Skuse feeding on domestic pigs, the primary amplifying hosts of the virus. To further characterize mosquito feeding behavior in northern Australia, 1,128 bloodmeals from Cx. annulirostris were analyzed using a double-antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, Cx. annulirostris obtained > 94% of blood meals from mammals, comprising marsupials (37%), pigs (20%), dogs (16%), and cows (11%), although the proportion feeding on each of these host types varied between study locations. Where JEV activity was detected, feeding rates on pigs were relatively high. At the location that yielded the first Australian mainland isolate of JEV from mosquitoes, feral pigs (in the absence of domestic pigs) accounted for 82% of bloodmeals identified, representing the first occasion that feeding on feral pigs has been associated with JEV transmission in Australia. Interestingly, blood meals identified, or infected mosquitoes immigrating from areas where domestic pigs are housed, may have contributed to transmission at this location. Because Cx. annulirostris is both an opportunistic feeder and the primary JEV vector in the region, environmental characteristics and host presence can determine JEV transmission dynamics in northern Australia.

  10. The Role of Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae in Virus Transmission in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A. Brugman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, a range of mosquito-borne viruses that threaten public and veterinary health have emerged or re-emerged in Europe. Mosquito surveillance activities have highlighted the Culex pipiens species complex as being critical for the maintenance of a number of these viruses. This species complex contains morphologically similar forms that exhibit variation in phenotypes that can influence the probability of virus transmission. Critical amongst these is the choice of host on which to feed, with different forms showing different feeding preferences. This influences the ability of the mosquito to vector viruses and facilitate transmission of viruses to humans and domestic animals. Biases towards blood-feeding on avian or mammalian hosts have been demonstrated for different Cx. pipiens ecoforms and emerging evidence of hybrid populations across Europe adds another level of complexity to virus transmission. A range of molecular methods based on DNA have been developed to enable discrimination between morphologically indistinguishable forms, although this remains an active area of research. This review provides a comprehensive overview of developments in the understanding of the ecology, behaviour and genetics of Cx. pipiens in Europe, and how this influences arbovirus transmission.

  11. The bionomics of Anopheles merus (Diptera: Culicidae along the Kenyan coast

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    Kipyab Pamela C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles merus, a sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae complex occurs along the East African coast but its biology and role in malaria transmission in this region is poorly understood. We evaluated the blood feeding pattern and the role of this species in malaria transmission in Malindi district, Coastal Kenya. Methods Adult mosquitoes were collected indoors by CDC light traps and Pyrethrum Spray Catch and outdoors by CDC light traps. Anopheles females were identified to species by morphological characteristics and sibling species of An. gambiae complex distinguished by rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Screening for host blood meal sources and presence or absence of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite proteins was achieved by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA. Results Anopheles merus comprised 77.8% of the 387 Anopheles gambiae s.l adults that were collected. Other sibling species of Anopheles gambiae s.l identified in the study site included An. arabiensis(3.6%, and An. gambiae s.s. (8%. The human blood index for An. merus was 0.12, while the sporozoite rate was 0.3%. Conclusion These findings suggest that An. merus can play a minor role in malaria transmission along the Kenyan Coast and should be a target for vector control which in turn could be applied in designing and implementing mosquito control programmes targeting marsh-breeding mosquitoes; with the ultimate goal being to reduce the transmission of malaria associated with these vectors.

  12. The Role of Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Virus Transmission in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Triana, Luis M.; Medlock, Jolyon M.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Carpenter, Simon; Johnson, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Over the past three decades, a range of mosquito-borne viruses that threaten public and veterinary health have emerged or re-emerged in Europe. Mosquito surveillance activities have highlighted the Culex pipiens species complex as being critical for the maintenance of a number of these viruses. This species complex contains morphologically similar forms that exhibit variation in phenotypes that can influence the probability of virus transmission. Critical amongst these is the choice of host on which to feed, with different forms showing different feeding preferences. This influences the ability of the mosquito to vector viruses and facilitate transmission of viruses to humans and domestic animals. Biases towards blood-feeding on avian or mammalian hosts have been demonstrated for different Cx. pipiens ecoforms and emerging evidence of hybrid populations across Europe adds another level of complexity to virus transmission. A range of molecular methods based on DNA have been developed to enable discrimination between morphologically indistinguishable forms, although this remains an active area of research. This review provides a comprehensive overview of developments in the understanding of the ecology, behaviour and genetics of Cx. pipiens in Europe, and how this influences arbovirus transmission. PMID:29473903

  13. Dynamics of breeding containers formation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny E. Duque L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos la construcción y la simulación de un modelo matemático, del tipo SIRS (Susceptible–Infeccioso– Removido-Susceptible. Se utilizaron cuatro ecuaciones diferenciales para mostrar los parámetros más relevantes que deben ser seguidos en lucha contra vectores del dengue: θ (tasa de control cultural y ϕ (tasa de protección de los criaderos con la aplicación de tratamiento biológico o químico por un tiempo determinado, dentro del control de criaderos que influencian directamente el número de mosquitos que está relacionado con los aspectos ambientales representados por la función Sen2. Intengrando el control cultural y el tratamiento convencional, se puede mantener el número de criaderos en niveles bajos y con ello, la población de mosquitos. Debe utilizarse un control integrado para disminuir el número de criaderos de mosquitos y así reducir la cantidad de los mismos

  14. Larvicidal activity of Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae flower extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raveen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Culex quinquefasciatus is the vector responsible for serious disease filariasis among human beings. Plant derived products have received increased attention from scientists as they serve as a rich source for novel natural substances possessing insecticidal properties which are safe to human and ecosystem. During the last decade, various studies on natural plant products against vector mosquito indicate them as possible alternatives to chemical and synthetic insecticides for mosquito control. In the present study, the crude hexane and aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers were reported for larvicidal activity against the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Mortality was observed for 24 and 48 hours. Hexane flower extract exhibited highest larvicidal activity with a LC50 value of 102.54 ppm and 61.11ppm after 24 and 48 hours respectively. Further investigations are needed to elucidate this activity against a wide range of all stages of mosquito species and also the active ingredient(s of the extract responsible for larvicidal activity should be identified.

  15. Cryptic species Anopheles daciae (Diptera: Culicidae) found in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blažejová, Hana; Šebesta, Oldřich; Rettich, František; Mendel, Jan; Čabanová, Viktória; Miterpáková, Martina; Betášová, Lenka; Peško, Juraj; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Kampen, Helge; Rudolf, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    We report the distribution of mosquitoes of the maculipennis complex in two distinct areas of the Czech Republic (Bohemia and South Moravia) and in one locality of neighbouring Slovakia with emphasis on the detection of the newly described cryptic species Anopheles daciae (Linton, Nicolescu & Harbach, 2004). A total of 691 mosquitoes were analysed using a species-specific multiplex PCR assay to differentiate between the members of the maculipennis complex. In the Czech Republic, we found Anopheles maculipennis (with a prevalence rate of 1.4%), Anopheles messeae (49.0%) and Anopheles daciae (49.6%). In Slovakia, only An. messeae (52.1%) and An. daciae (47.9%) were detected. In this study, An. daciae was documented for the first time in the two countries where it represented a markedly higher proportion of maculipennis complex species (with an overall prevalence almost reaching 50%) in comparison to previous reports from Germany, Romania and Poland. The determination of the differential distribution of maculipennis complex species will contribute to assessing risks of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria or dirofilariasis.

  16. Bio-Pesticides: New Tool for the Control of Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Culicidae: Diptera in Pakistan

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    Hazrat Bilal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Application of plant extracts as mosquito control strategy was practiced from centuries. These are easily available, non-toxic, biodegradable and exhibit broad-spectrum target specific activities against larval stages of mosquitoes.Method: Different potential parts of locally grown plants, seeds of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans, peel of musambi (Citrus sinensis, leaves of babuna (Matricaria chamomilla, mint (Mentha spicata and ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale selected and evaluated for their larvicidal properties against Aedes (Stegomyis albopictus. Oils were ex­tracted through steam distillation process and extracts were evaluated as per WHO 2005 guidelines for testing of insecticides against larvae of mosquitoes.Result: Among the five plant extracts, C. sinensis had the lowest LC50 (400.81ppm while M. fragrans had the high­est LC50 value (710.30ppm respectively after 24h of exposure. In terms of % age mortality, a series of con­centra­tions (300–800ppm gave high % mortality in case of C. sinensis while M. fragrans gave low % age mortality.Conclusion: All the five plant species have larvicidal effects to certain extant and C. sinensis had great potential. Further small-scale field trials with the extracts of the most promising one (C. sinensis shall be conducted to deter­mine operational feasibility.    

  17. Culicidae (Diptera em área sob influência de construção de represa no Estado de São Paulo Culicidae (Diptera in a dam construction area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Marcia Bicudo de Paula

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a fauna Culicidae em área sob impacto da modificação ambiental causada pela construção de represa. MÉTODOS: Foi estudada a área onde estava sendo construída a Represa Porto Primavera no município de Presidente Epitácio, SP. As capturas dos culicídeos foram realizadas mensalmente, em seis pontos exploratórios antes do seu enchimento e em um ponto fixo, um ano antes (1997-1998 e outro depois do primeiro enchimento (1999-2000. Mosquitos adultos foram capturados com aspirador, no período matutino, e com armadilhas de Shannon e CDC, no período crepuscular vespertino. Os imaturos foram coletados por meio de conchadas nos criadouros maiores e com pipeta, nos menores. RESULTADOS: No período anterior ao enchimento da represa foram coletados 944 exemplares de culicídeos imaturos, distribuídos em dez gêneros. O total de adultos foi de 14.932, dos quais 7.031 mosquitos (em dez gêneros foram capturados nos pontos exploratórios e 7.901 espécimes, distribuídos em oito gêneros, no ponto fixo. Após a primeira etapa de enchimento da represa, o total de imaturos foi de 1.201 exemplares, distribuídos em quatro gêneros, e o total de mosquitos capturados foi de 5.912, distribuídos em nove gêneros. Houve redução populacional de espécies dos gêneros Aedes e Psorophora e aumento no número de espécimes dos gêneros Aedeomyia, Anopheles, Culex (Melanoconion, Mansonia e Uranotaenia. CONCLUSÕES: As mudanças ambientais decorrentes da construção da Represa Porto Primavera favoreceram o aumento da densidade de algumas populações de culicídeos vetores e que geram incômodo, com riscos potenciais de transmissão de patógenos para humanos.OBJECTIVE: To describe the culicidae fauna in an area impacted by environmental changes caused by the construction of a dam. METHODS: The studied area was the Porto Primavera dam construction site in Southeastern Brazil. Monthly culicidae samples were taken in six exploratory sites in

  18. Mosquitoes and other aquatic insects in fallow field biotopes and rice paddy fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, S Y; Matsuo, T; Takagi, M

    2013-03-01

    Fallow field biotopes that develop from abandoned rice fields are man-made wetlands that provide new habitats for various aquatic animals. Although consideration of such biotopes generally focuses on their positive aspects, this study evaluated the negative aspects of establishing fallow field biotopes with regard to mosquito breeding sites. To determine whether fallow field biotopes become breeding habitats for vector mosquitoes, we evaluated mosquito fauna in fallow field biotopes and adjacent rice fields. We found larvae of Anopheles lesteri, Anopheles sinensis and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (all: Diptera: Culicidae) in the biotopes. Although abundances of mosquito larvae in the biotopes and rice fields were statistically similar, mosquito abundances in rice fields increased dramatically in August when the water level reduced after the rainy season. The abundance and variety of the mosquitoes' natural predators were greater in biotopes than in rice fields because the former are a permanent and stable aquatic environment. A generalized linear mixed model showed a negative effect of predator diversity on mosquito larvae abundance in both habitats. Although fallow field biotopes become breeding habitats for vector mosquitoes, establishing biotopes from fallow fields in order to protect various aquatic animals, including mosquito insect predators, may help to control mosquito breeding. © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  19. Nepenthes ampullaria (Nepenthaceae) Pitchers Are Unattractive to Gravid Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Lee Yiung; Dykes, Gary A; Wilson, Robyn F; Clarke, Charles M

    2016-02-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants are colonized by a variety of specialized arthropods. As Aedes mosquitoes are container breeders, Nepenthes pitchers are a potential candidate oviposition site for vector species, such as Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse). However, Aedes spp. are not commonly encountered in Nepenthes pitchers, and the environment inside the pitchers of some species is lethal to them. One exception is Nepenthes ampullaria Jack, whose pitchers are known to be colonized by Ae. albopictus on very rare occasions. Given that Ae. albopictus larvae can survive in N. ampullaria pitcher fluids, we sought to determine why pitcher colonization is rare, testing the hypothesis that gravid Aedes mosquitoes are deterred from ovipositing into container habitats that have similar characteristics to N. ampullaria pitchers. Using plastic ovitraps of different sizes, colors, and with different types of fluids (based on the characteristics of N. ampullaria pitchers), we compared oviposition rates by Aedes mosquitoes in urban and rural areas within the geographical range of N. ampullaria near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ovitraps that were black and large (>250-ml capacity) accumulated significantly more eggs than ovitraps that were smaller, or green in color. In terms of size and color, small, green ovitraps are analogous to N. ampullaria pitchers, indicating that these pitchers are not particularly attractive to gravid Ae. albopictus. Although Aedes spp. are capable of colonizing N. ampullaria pitchers, the pitchers are relatively unattractive to gravid females and do not represent a significant habitat for larvae of dengue vectors at present. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Potential of a Northern Population of Aedes vexans (Diptera: Culicidae) to Transmit Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Kyle L; Bixby, Mckenzie A; Morin, Kelsey J; Bradley, David S; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2017-09-01

    Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus of humans in the western hemisphere. With its potential spread into new geographical areas, it is important to define the vector competence of native mosquito species. We tested the vector competency of Aedes vexans (Meigen) from the Lake Agassiz Plain of northwestern Minnesota and northeastern North Dakota. Aedes aegypti (L.) was used as a positive control for comparison. Mosquitoes were fed blood containing Zika virus and 2 wk later were tested for viral infection and dissemination. Aedes vexans (n = 60) were susceptible to midgut infection (28% infection rate) but displayed a fairly restrictive midgut escape barrier (3% dissemination rate). Cofed Ae. aegypti (n = 22) displayed significantly higher rates of midgut infection (61%) and dissemination (22%). To test virus transmission, mosquitoes were inoculated with virus and 16-17 d later, tested for their ability to transmit virus into fluid-filled capillary tubes. Unexpectedly, the transmission rate was significantly higher for Ae. vexans (34%, n = 47) than for Ae. aegypti (5%, n = 22). The overall transmission potential for Ae. vexans to transmit Zika virus was 1%. Because of its wide geographic distribution, often extreme abundance, and aggressive human biting activity, Ae. vexans could serve as a potential vector for Zika virus in northern latitudes where the conventional vectors, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus Skuse, cannot survive. However, Zika virus is a primate virus and humans are the only amplifying host species in northern latitudes. To serve as a vector of Zika virus, Ae. vexans must feed repeatedly on humans. Defining the propensity of Ae. vexans to feed repeatedly on humans will be key to understanding its role as a potential vector of Zika virus. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effect of phenobarbital on inducing insecticide tolerance and esterase changes in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Rita de Cássia Sousa-Polezzi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of phenobarbital (PB on the induction of tolerance to the organophosphorous insecticide temephos (TE was investigated in Aedes aegypti L4 larvae submitted to two different PB-treatments:(1 continuous treatment from the egg to the larval L4 stage and (2 discontinuous treatment in which L4 larvae were exposed for 30 h. Mosquitoes from two Brazilian cities were studied: São José do Rio Preto (SJ in São Paulo State and Goiânia (GO in Goiás State. According to criterions established by World Health Organization (WHO mosquitoes from SJ are organophosphate-susceptible while mosquitoes from GO are organophosphate-resistant. For both SJ and GO larvae the two different PB-treatments resulted in significantly increased tolerance (measured by reduced mortality to 0.01mg/L TE while for larvae exposed to 0.02 mg/L TE only continuous PB-treatment resulted in significantly increased TE-tolerance. The reduction of mortality rate was greater in SJ larvae than in GO larvae, confirming data from other organisms indicating that the effect of PB is more pronounced in susceptible strains. To test if oxidase enzymes were involved in PB-induced tolerance we treated PB-pretreated SJ and GO larvae with the oxidase inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO before exposure to TE and observed increased (rather than decreased tolerance, suggesting that oxidases are not involved in the tolerance process and that PB and PBO can act in concert or synergistically. Esterase patterns of PB-pretreated larvae indicated that the cholinesterases EST-13 and EST-14 are involved in the PB-induced TE- tolerance, reinforcing a previous study carried out in our laboratory which suggested that increased esterase synthesis is the mechanism responsible for the development of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti.

  2. Essential Oils of Satureja Species: Insecticidal Effect on Culex pipiens Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Nikos G. Chorianopoulos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oils of the wild growing plants of Greek S. spinosa L., S. parnassica subsp. parnassica Heldr.& Sart ex Boiss., S. thymbra and S. montana were determined by GC and GC/MS analysis. The larvicidal activities of the essential oils were assayed against Culex pipiens biotype molestus. The analytical data indicated that various monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic monoterpenes constitute the major constituents of the oils, but their concentration varied greatly among the oils examined. The bioassay results indicated that the oils possess significant larvicidal activities and represent an inexpensive source of natural substances mixture that exhibit potentials for use to control the mosquito larvae.

  3. Effects of Larval Nutrition on Wolbachia-Based Dengue Virus Interference in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Elise A; Hugo, Leon E; Lu, Guangjin; Smith, David D; Kay, Brian H

    2016-07-01

    In order to assess the broad-scale applicability of field releases of Wolbachia for the biological control of insect-transmitted diseases, we determined the relationship between the larval diet of Aedes aegypti L. mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia strains and their susceptibility to dengue virus (DENV) infection via intrathoracic injection and oral inoculation. Larvae were reared on diets that varied in the quantity of food which had the effect of modifying development time and adult body size. Wolbachia wMel infection was associated with highly significant reductions in dengue serotype 2 (DENV-2) infection rates of between 80 and 97.5% following intrathoracic injection of adults emerging from three diet levels. Reductions were 100% in two diet level treatments following oral inoculation. Similarly, wMelPop infection was associated with highly significant reductions in DENV-2 infection rates of between 95 and 100% for intrathoracic injection and 97.5 and 100% for oral inoculation across diet level treatments. Larval diet level had no significant effect on DENV-2 infection rates in the presence of Wolbachia infection in mosquitoes that were intrathoracically injected with the virus. This indicates that the effectiveness of Wolbachia on vector competence disruption within Ae. aegypti is unlikely to be compromised by variable larval nutrition in field settings. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Differentiation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes notoscriptus (Diptera: Culicidae) eggs using scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faull, Katherine J; Williams, Craig R

    2016-05-01

    Aedes notoscriptus and Aedes aegypti are both peri-domestic, invasive container-breeding mosquitoes. While the two potential arboviral vectors are bionomically similar, their sympatric distribution in Australia is limited. In this study, analyses of Ae. aegypti and Ae. notoscriptus eggs were enabled using scanning electron microscopy. Significant variations in egg length to width ratio and outer chorionic cell field morphology between Ae. aegypti and Ae. notoscriptus enabled distinction of the two species. Intraspecific variations in cell field morphology also enabled differentiation of the separate populations of both species, highlighting regional and global variation. Our study provides a comprehensive comparative analysis of inter- and intraspecific egg morphological and morphometric variation between two invasive container-breeding mosquitoes. The results indicate a high degree of intraspecific variation in Ae. notoscriptus egg morphology when compared to the eggs of Ae. aegypti. Comparative morphological analyses of Ae. aegypti and Ae. notoscriptus egg attributes using SEM allows differentiation of the species and may be helpful in understanding egg biology in relation to biotope of origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The spatial distribution of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae in Mali

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    N. Sogoba

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the biology and ecology and the high level of genetic polymorphism of malaria vectors in Africa highlight the value of mapping their spatial distribution to enhance successful implementation of integrated vector management. The objective of this study was to collate data on the relative frequencies of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes in Mali, to assess their association with climate and environmental covariates, and to produce maps of their spatial distribution. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models were fitted to identify environmental determinants of the relative frequencies of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis species and to produce smooth maps of their geographical distribution. The frequency of An. arabiensis was positively associated with the normalized difference vegetation index, the soil water storage index, the maximum temperature and the distance to water bodies. It was negatively associated with the minimum temperature and rainfall. The predicted map suggests that, in West Africa, An. arabiensis is concentrated in the drier savannah areas, while An. gambiae s.s. prefers the southern savannah and land along the rivers, particularly the inner delta of Niger. Because the insecticide knockdown resistance (kdr gene is reported only in An. gambiae s.s. in Mali, the maps provide valuable information for vector control. They may also be useful for planning future implementation of malaria control by genetically manipulated mosquitoes.

  6. Genetic analysis of Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) reveals a deep divergence in the original regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiling, Zhang; Tongkai, Liu; Zhendong, Huang; Guifen, Zhuang; Dezhen, Ma; Zhong, Zhang

    2018-05-02

    Aedes albopictus has been described as one of the 100 worst invasive species in the world. This mosquito originated from southeastern Asia and currently has a widespread presence in every continent except Antarctica. The rapid global expansion of Ae. albopictus has increased public health concerns about arbovirus-related disease threats. Adaptation, adaption to novel areas is a biological challenge for invasive species, and the underlying processes can be studied at the molecular level. In this study, genetic analysis was performed using mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5), based on both native and invasive populations. Altogether, 38 haplotypes were detected with H1 being the dominant and widely distributed in 21 countries. Both phylogenetic and network analyses supported the existence of five clades, with only clade I being involved in the subsequent global spread of Asian tiger mosquito. The other four clades (II, III, IV and V) were restricted to their original regions, which could be ancestral populations that had diverged from clade I in the early stages of evolution. Neutrality tests suggested that most of the populations had experienced recent expansion. Analysis of molecular variance and the population-pair statistic F ST revealed that most populations lacked genetic structure, while high variability was detected within populations. Multiple and independent human-mediated introductions may explain the present results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pyrethroid Susceptibility Has Been Maintained in the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endersby-Harshman, Nancy M; Wuliandari, Juli Rochmijati; Harshman, Lawrence G; Frohn, Verena; Johnson, Brian J; Ritchie, Scott A; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2017-11-07

    Although pesticide resistance is common in insect vectors of human diseases, the evolution of resistance might be delayed if management practices are adopted that limit selection of resistance alleles. Outbreaks of dengue fever have occurred in Queensland, Australia, since the late 1800s, leading to ongoing attempts to control the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti (L.). Since the 1990s, pyrethroid insecticides have been used for this purpose, but have been applied in a strategic manner with a variety of delivery methods including indoor residual spraying, lethal ovitraps, and use of insect growth regulators as larvicides. Separate selection experiments on mosquitoes from Queensland using Type I and Type II pyrethroids did not produce resistant lines of Ae. aegypti, and bioassays of field material from Queensland showed only weak tolerance in comparison with a susceptible line. There was no evidence of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations in Ae. aegypti from Queensland, in stark contrast to the situation in nearby southeast Asia. We suspect that careful management of pyrethroid insecticide use combined with surveillance and interception of exotic incursions has helped to maintain pyrethroid (and particularly kdr-based) susceptibility in Ae. aegypti in Australia. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition Preference as Influenced by Container Size and Buddleja davidii Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy J; Kline, Daniel L; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2016-03-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is a container-breeding mosquito commonly found in residential areas of its range in the United States. Mosquitoes are known to utilize flowering plants for sugar acquisition. Limited information is known about the influences on oviposition site selection, outside of container size. Residential areas are often landscaped with a variety of flowering plants and are known to provide numerous sizes of potential larval developmental sites for container-breeding mosqutioes. Through screened enclosure and field studies, the oviposition preference of Ae. albopictus for containers of three selected sizes (473, 946 and 1,892 ml) and the influence of flowering butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii Franchett cultivar 'Guinevere') plants were examined. Our results document that significantly more eggs were oviposited in the largest containers. Additionally, significantly more eggs were oviposited in containers adjacent to flowering butterfly bushes than in those without a flowering butterfly bush. Finally, our results document that flowering butterfly bushes exerted greater influence over Ae. albopictus oviposition decisions than did container size. Our findings can be applied to several aspects of Ae. albopictus surveillance and control.

  9. Preferencia de hospedadores de Culicidae (Diptera recolectados en el centro de la Argentina

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    Almirón Walter R.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de estudiar la preferencia de hospedadores vertebrados por mosquitos hembras, durante 2 períodos octubre-abril (primavera-verano, se realizaron muestreos cada 15 días en Córdoba y Cosquín (Argentina. Se utilizaron trampas de latón con cebo animal: anfibios (sapos, aves (pollos, mamíferos (conejos y reptiles (tortugas. El 92,9% de los especímenes recolectados pertenecen al género Culex, mientras que un 7,0% corresponde a Aedes y el 0,02% restante a Psorophora ciliata, única especie que se capturó de ese género. En trampas con pollo se recolectó el mayor número de hembras (68,7%, siguiendo en orden las trampas con conejos (29,9%, con tortugas (0,8% y con sapos (0,5%, por lo tanto, la mayoría de los mosquitos entraron en las trampas con hospedadores homeotermos. Culex dolosus se alimentó sobre todos los cebos, mientras que Cx. acharistus, Cx. chidesteri y Cx. quinquefasciatus se alimentaron sobre pollos, conejos y tortugas; Ae. albifasciatus, Ae. scapularis, Cx. bidens y Cx. coronator lo hicieron sobre ambos hospedadores homeotermos; Cx. apicinus, Cx. maxi, Cx. saltanensis y Cx. spinosus se alimentaron solamente sobre pollos y Ps. ciliata sobre conejos.

  10. Host-Feeding Patterns of Culex stigmatosoma (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhatter, Lee P; Su, Tianyun; Williams, Greg; Cheng, Min-Lee; Dhillon, Major; Gerry, Alec C

    2017-11-07

    Knowledge of the blood-feeding patterns exhibited by arthropod vectors is essential for understanding the complex dynamics of vector-borne disease transmission. Some species of mosquitoes belonging to the genus Culex have been implicated as having major roles in the transmission of arboviruses such as West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, and Western equine encephalitis virus. Although the host-feeding patterns for many of these Culex species are well studied, the host-feeding patterns of Culex stigmatosoma Dyar are relatively poorly studied, even though this species is suspected to be an important maintenance vector for West Nile virus and other arboviruses. In the current study, bloodmeals from 976 blood-engorged Cx. stigmatosoma, collected from 30 sites in southern California from 2009-2012, were processed for vertebrate host identification by nucleotide sequencing following polymerase chain reaction to amplify portions of the cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome b genes of vertebrate animals. Vertebrate DNA was amplified, sequenced, and identified from a total of 647 Cx. stigmatosoma bloodmeals, revealing that 98.6% of bloodmeals were from birds, 1.2% from three mammal species, and a single bloodmeal was from a reptile species. In total, 40 different host species were identified. The greatest number of bloodmeals identified was from domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus L.) (38% of bloodmeals), house sparrow (Passer domesticus L.) (23%), house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus Müller) (17%), American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos L.) (4%), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura L.) (3%). However, chicken bloodmeals were identified almost entirely from a single site where mosquito collection devices were placed in the near vicinity of confined domestic chickens. The strongly ornithophilic feeding behavior shown in this study for Cx. stigmatosoma supports the hypothesis that this mosquito species may be an important maintenance (or endemic) vector for

  11. Molecular comparison of topotypic specimens confirms Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus dunhami Causey (Diptera: Culicidae in the Colombian Amazon

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    Freddy Ruiz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus dunhami Causey in Colombia (Department of Amazonas is confirmed for the first time through direct comparison of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase I (COI barcodes and nuclear rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 sequences with topotypic specimens of An. dunhami from Tefé, Brazil. An. dunhami was identified through retrospective correlation of DNA sequences following misidentification as Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. using available morphological keys for Colombian mosquitoes. That An. dunhami occurs in Colombia and also possibly throughout the Amazon Basin, is of importance to vector control programs, as this non-vector species is morphologically similar to known malaria vectors including An. nuneztovari, Anopheles oswaldoi and Anopheles trinkae. Species identification of An. dunhami and differentiation from these closely related species are highly robust using either DNA ITS2 sequences or COI DNA barcode. DNA methods are advocated for future differentiation of these often sympatric taxa in South America.

  12. Impact of dams and irrigation schemes in Anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae bionomics and malaria epidemiology

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    Jordi Sanchez-Ribas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation schemes and dams have posed a great concern on public health systems of several countries, mainly in the tropics. The focus of the present review is to elucidate the different ways how these human interventions may have an effect on population dynamics of anopheline mosquitoes and hence, how local malaria transmission patterns may be changed. We discuss different studies within the three main tropical and sub-tropical regions (namely Africa, Asia and the Pacific and the Americas. Factors such as pre-human impact malaria epidemiological patterns, control measures, demographic movements, human behaviour and local Anopheles bionomics would determine if the implementation of an irrigation scheme or a dam will have negative effects on human health. Some examples of successful implementation of control measures in such settings are presented. The use of Geographic Information System as a powerful tool to assist on the study and control of malaria in these scenarios is also highlighted.

  13. Oral susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Senegal for dengue serotypes 1 and 3 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaye, Alioune; Faye, Oumar; Diagne, Cheikh T; Faye, Ousmane; Diallo, Diawo; Weaver, Scott C; Sall, Amadou A; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the potential for domestic and wild populations of Aedes aegypti from Dakar and Kedougou to develop a disseminated infection after exposure to DENV-3 and DENV-1. We have exposed sylvatic and urban population of Ae. aegypti from Senegal to bloomeals containing dengue serotype 1 and 3. At different incubation period, individual mosquito legs/wings and bodies were tested for virus presence using real time RT-PCR to estimate the infection and dissemination rates. The data indicated low susceptibility to DENV-3 (infection: 2.4-15.2%, and dissemination rates: 0-8.3%) and higher susceptibility to DENV-1 (infection and dissemination rates up to 50%). Aedes aegypti from Senegal seem able to develop a disseminated infection of DENV-1 and DENV-3. Further studies are needed to test their ability to transmit the two serotypes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Occurrence of Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab) in oviposition trap of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honorio, Nildimar A.

    2007-01-01

    Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab), a poorly known mosquito species, was observed preying upon Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae, in an oviposition trap placed for routine dengue entomological surveillance, during 2003-2004 in the urban area of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. This is the first report for Tx. guadeloupensis using Ae. aegypti oviposition traps as breeding places. This finding may have important consequences in the epidemiology and local dengue control since Ae. aegypti density is a basic variable in dengue prediction. Whether predation of Ae aegypti by Tx. guadeloupensis in the Amazon is of significance, is a question to be examined. Also, larval predation may be a cause for underestimation of the actual Ae aegypti numbers. Together these hypotheses need to be better investigated as they are directly related to dengue epidemiology, to the success of any outbreak prediction and surveillance program. (author)

  15. Occurrence of Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab) in oviposition trap of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honorio, Nildimar A. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia. Lab. de Transmissores de Hematozoarios; Barros, Fabio S.M. de [Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Nucleo Avancado de Vetores; Tsouris, Pantelis; Rosa-Freitas, Maria G. [Freitas and Tsouris Consultants, Spata-Attikis (Greece)]. E-mail: maria@freitas-tsouris.com

    2007-09-15

    Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab), a poorly known mosquito species, was observed preying upon Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae, in an oviposition trap placed for routine dengue entomological surveillance, during 2003-2004 in the urban area of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. This is the first report for Tx. guadeloupensis using Ae. aegypti oviposition traps as breeding places. This finding may have important consequences in the epidemiology and local dengue control since Ae. aegypti density is a basic variable in dengue prediction. Whether predation of Ae aegypti by Tx. guadeloupensis in the Amazon is of significance, is a question to be examined. Also, larval predation may be a cause for underestimation of the actual Ae aegypti numbers. Together these hypotheses need to be better investigated as they are directly related to dengue epidemiology, to the success of any outbreak prediction and surveillance program. (author)

  16. Invasion of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) into central Africa: what consequences for emerging diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoagouni, Carine; Kamgang, Basile; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Paupy, Chistophe; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2015-03-31

    Aedes albopictus, a mosquito native to Asia, has invaded all five continents during the past three decades. It was reported in central Africa in the 2000s, first in Cameroon, and, since then, has colonised almost all countries of the region. The species, originally considered a secondary vector of dengue viruses, has been showed to play a major role in transmission of chikungunya virus in numerous countries, including in the central African region. We review the current spread of Ae. albopictus in central Africa, its larval ecology and its impact on indigenous species such as Ae. aegypti. We explore the potential of Ae. albopictus to affect the epidemiology of emerging or re-emerging arboviruses and discuss the conventional means for its control, while emphasizing the importance of data on its susceptibility to insecticides to cope with potential outbreaks.

  17. Greek Pinus essential oils: larvicidal activity and repellency against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsaviti, Katerina; Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Pitarokili, Danae; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Michaelakis, Antonios; Tzakou, Olga

    2015-02-01

    The needle volatiles metabolites of seven Pinus spp.: Pinus nigra (3 samples), Pinus stankewiczii, Pinus brutia, Pinus halepensis, Pinus canariensis, Pinus pinaster and Pinus strobus from Greece were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. P. nigra and P. canariensis essential oils were dominated by α-pinene (24.9-28.9 % and 15 %, respectively) and germacrene D (20.3-31.9 % and 55.8 %, respectively), whereas P. brutia and P. strobus by α-pinene (20.6 % and 31.4 %, respectively) and β-pinene (31.7 % and 33.6 %, respectively). P. halepensis and P. pinaster oils were characterized by β-caryophyllene (28.5 % and 22.5 %, respectively). Finally, β-pinene (31.4 %), germacrene D (23.3 %) and α-pinene (17.5 %) were the most abundant compounds in the needle oil of P. stankewiczii. Additionally the larvicidal and repellent properties of their essential oils were evaluated against Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of great ecological and medical importance. The results of bioassays revealed that repellent abilities of the tested essential oils were more potent than their larvicidal activities. The essential oils of P. brutia, P. halepensis and P. stankewiczii presented considerable larvicidal activity (LC50 values 67.04 mgL(-1) and 70.21 mgL(-1), respectively), while the others were weak to inactive against larvae. The essential oils of P. halepensis, P. brutia, and P. stankewiczii presented a high repellent activity, even at the dose of 0.2 μL cm(-2), while in the dose of 0.4 μL cm(-2), almost all the tested EOs displayed protection against the mosquito.

  18. Dengue-1 virus and vector competence of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) populations from New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvez, Elodie; Guillaumot, Laurent; Girault, Dominique; Richard, Vaea; O'Connor, Olivia; Paoaafaite, Tuterarii; Teurlai, Magali; Pocquet, Nicolas; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle

    2017-08-09

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the arbovirus with the highest incidence in New Caledonia and in the South Pacific region. In 2012-2014, a major DENV-1 outbreak occurred in New Caledonia. The only known vector of DENV in New Caledonia is Aedes aegypti but no study has yet evaluated the competence of New Caledonia Ae. aegypti populations to transmit DENV. This study compared the ability of field-collected Ae. aegypti from different locations in New Caledonia to transmit the DENV-1 responsible for the 2012-2014 outbreak. This study also aimed to compare the New Caledonia results with the vector competence of Ae. aegypti from French Polynesia as these two French countries have close links, including arbovirus circulation. Three wild Ae. aegypti populations were collected in New Caledonia and one in French Polynesia. Female mosquitoes were orally exposed to DENV-1 (10 6 FFU/ml). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination, transmission rates and transmission efficiency, at 7, 14 and 21 days post-infection (dpi), respectively. DENV-1 infection rates were heterogeneous, but dissemination rates were high and homogenous among the three Ae. aegypti populations from New Caledonia. Despite this high DENV-1 dissemination rate, the transmission rate, and therefore the transmission efficiency, observed were low. Aedes aegypti population from New Caledonia was less susceptible to infection and had lower ability to transmit DENV-1 than Ae. aegypti populations from French Polynesia. This study suggests that even if susceptible to infection, the New Caledonian Ae. aegypti populations were moderately competent vectors for DENV-1 strain from the 2012-2014 outbreak. These results strongly suggest that other factors might have contributed to the spread of this DENV-1 strain in New Caledonia and in the Pacific region.

  19. Chemical Constituents and Combined Larvicidal Effects of Selected Essential Oils against Anopheles cracens (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Jitrawadee Intirach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study on larvicidal activity against laboratory-colonized Anopheles cracens mosquitos revealed that five of ten plant oils at concentration of 100 ppm showed 95–100% larval mortality. The essential oils of five plants, including Piper sarmentosum, Foeniculum vulgare, Curcuma longa, Myristica fragrans, and Zanthoxylum piperitum, were then selected for chemical analysis, dose-response larvicidal experiments, and combination-based bioassays. Chemical compositions analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry demonstrated that the main component in the oil derived from P. sarmentosum, F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum was croweacin (71.01%, anethole (63.00%, ar-turmerone (30.19%, safrole (46.60%, and 1,8-cineole (21.27%, respectively. For larvicidal bioassay, all five essential oils exerted promising efficacy in a dose-dependent manner and different performances on A. cracens after 24 hours of exposure. The strongest larvicidal potential was established from P. sarmentosum, followed by F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum, with LC50 values of 16.03, 32.77, 33.61, 40.00, and 63.17 ppm, respectively. Binary mixtures between P. sarmentosum, the most effective oil, and the others at the highest ratio were proved to be highly efficacious with a cotoxicity coefficient value greater than 100, indicating synergistic activity. Results of mixed formulations of different essential oils generating synergistic effects may prove helpful in developing effective, economical, and ecofriendly larvicides, as favorable alternatives for mosquito management.

  20. Survivorship of adult Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) feeding on indoor ornamental plants with no inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui De; Beier, John C; Müller, Günter C

    2013-06-01

    The international trade of lucky bamboo (Dracaena sanderiana [Asparagaceae]) is responsible for certain introductions of the exotic species Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in California and the Netherlands. Understanding the association of this species with lucky bamboo and other ornamental plants is important from a public health standpoint. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of indoor ornamental plants as sugar sources for adult A. albopictus. If exposed to D. sanderiana, bromeliad (Guzmania spp. hybrid [Bromeliaceae]), Moses-in-the-cradle (Rhoeo spathacea [Commelinaceae]), 10 % sucrose solution, and a negative water control as the only nutrient source, adult female A. albopictus mean survival time was 12, 7, 6, 15, and 4 days, respectively. Mean survival times for adult males were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the females and were 10, 7, 6, 14, and 3 days, respectively. Combined male and female survival times were not significantly different on lucky bamboo compared to survival times on a 10 % sucrose control. Based on our findings, A. albopictus can readily survive long enough to complete a gonotrophic cycle and potentially complete the extrinsic incubation period for many arboviruses when only provided access to lucky bamboo plants or possibly other common ornamentals. Vector control professionals should be aware of potential in-home infestations and public health concerns associated with mosquito breeding and plant tissue feeding on ornamental plants.

  1. Detection of Plasmodium sp.-infested Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Austria, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bernhard; Silbermayr, Katja; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Indra, Alexander; Nowotny, Norbert; Allerberger, Franz

    2013-03-01

    On July 15, 2012, adult Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) mosquitoes were caught next to a farm barn near Rust, Burgenland, close to Lake Neusiedl National Park in eastern Austria. Six weeks later, adults of this invasive species were also found in a sheep shelter outside the village of Oggau and another 2 weeks later, in a horse barn in Mörbisch. The morphological typing was confirmed genetically by amplification and sequencing of a 1,404-bp-long fragment within the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer 2, and the 28S ribosomal RNA gene. Out of two A. hyrcanus pools analyzed, one was found positive for Plasmodium sp. A 460-bp-long sequence within the mitochondrial cytochrome b region revealed 100 % identity to a sequence of a Plasmodium parasite identified in a New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura). The Austrian finding sites are close to the Hungarian border. In Hungary, the occurrence of A. hyrcanus was already reported in 1963. A. hyrcanus is considered the most important potential vector of malaria in southern France today. In Austria, sporadic autochthonous malaria cases could emerge, caused by immigration from malaria-endemic countries and heavy tourism. However, the broad population coverage of the Austrian health care system makes the reestablishment of endemic areas for malaria unlikely.

  2. Isolation and characterization of halotolerant bacteria associated with the midgut of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2013-11-01

    We show for the first time that the midgut of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) mosquito larvae harbors halotolerant bacteria. The midgut from field collected Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were dissected under aseptic conditions, homogenized and plated on LB agar medium with 2% (w/v) NaCl. Two different colonies were successfully isolated and bacterial isolates were identified by 16S rRNA sequences. The halotolerant bacterial isolates were: Halobacillus litoralis (CxH1) and Staphylococcus cohnii (CxH2). The gene sequence of these isolates has been deposited in GenBank (JN016804 and JN183986). These halotolerant bacteria grew in the absence of salt (0%) as well as in the presence of relatively high salt concentrations in culture medium (20%), and grew best in the presence of 8-10% (w/v) NaCl. H. litoralis and S. cohnii showed growth up to 18 and 20% (w/v) NaCl, respectively. Optimum growth temperatures for both the bacteria were between 30-37 degrees C. H. litoralis was resistant to the antibiotics oxacillin, penicillin, polymixin and S. cohnii was resistant to the antibiotic oxacillin.

  3. Entomopathogenic fungi and their potential for the management of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae in the Americas

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    Harry C Evans

    Full Text Available Classical biological control has been used extensively for the management of exotic weeds and agricultural pests, but never for alien insect vectors of medical importance. This simple but elegant control strategy involves the introduction of coevolved natural enemies from the centre of origin of the target alien species. Aedes aegypti - the primary vector of the dengue, yellow fever and Zika flaviviruses - is just such an invasive alien in the Americas where it arrived accidentally from its West African home during the slave trade. Here, we introduce the concept of exploiting entomopathogenic fungi from Africa for the classical biological control of Ae. aegypti in the Americas. Fungal pathogens attacking arthropods are ubiquitous in tropical forests and are important components in the natural balance of arthropod populations. They can produce a range of specialised spore forms, as well as inducing a variety of bizarre behaviours in their hosts, in order to maximise infection. The fungal groups recorded as specialised pathogens of mosquito hosts worldwide are described and discussed. We opine that similar fungal pathogens will be found attacking and manipulating Ae. aegypti in African forests and that these could be employed for an economic, environmentally-safe and long-term solution to the flavivirus pandemics in the Americas.

  4. Effects of blood meal source on the reproduction of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Anderson, Sheri L; Yost, Samantha A

    2012-06-01

    Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were fed blood meals from a live chicken (LC), chicken blood in Alsever's (AC) solution, defibrinated bovine blood (DB), or bovine blood in citrate (CB) and incubated at 28° C. The effects of different blood meal sources were evaluated with respect to rates of blood feeding and reproduction (i.e., fecundity and fertility) over two gonotrophic cycles. Mosquitoes that fed on the first blood meal were subjected to a second blood meal as follows (first blood meal / second blood meal): LC/LC, LC/DB, DB/DB, CB/CB, AC/AC. Fecundity and fertility of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus were significantly (P blood; however, fecundity and fertility in different treatment groups varied by gonotrophic cycle. These results contribute to our understanding of the impact of blood meal source on feeding and reproduction in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus. The potential impacts of blood meal source on virus transmission experiments are discussed. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  5. Seasonal abundance and blood feeding activity of Anopheles minimus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Bangs, Michael J; Aum-Aung, Boonserm

    2003-11-01

    Anopheline mosquito larvae and adults were sampled at Ban Pu Teuy, Tri-Yok District, Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand, from January 2000 to December 2001. Over the period of 2 yr, Anopheles minimus sensu lato was the most commonly collected species, followed by Anopheles swadiwongporni and Anopheles dirus sensu lato; all three species are important vectors of malaria in Thailand. Attempted blood feeding by An. minimus occurred throughout the night, with two distinct feeding peaks: strong activity immediately after sunset (1800-2100 hours), followed by a second, less pronounced, rise before sunrise (0300-0600 hours). Anopheles minimus were more abundant during the wet season compared with the dry and hot seasons, although nocturnal adult feeding patterns were similar. Anopheles minimus fed readily on humans inside and outside of houses, showing a slight preference for exophagy. The human-biting peak of An. minimus in our study area differed from other localities sampled in Thailand, indicating the possible existence of site-specific populations of An. minimus exhibiting different host-seeking behavior. These results underscore the importance of conducting site-specific studies to accurately determine vector larval habitats and adult activity patterns and linking their importance in malaria transmission in a given area.

  6. Seasonal blood-feeding behavior of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Weld County, Colorado, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Rebekah; Juliusson, Lara; Weissmann, Michael; Evans, Sara; Komar, Nicholas

    2009-03-01

    Studies on Culex tarsalis Coquillett in Colorado have shown marked seasonal variation in the proportion of blood meals from birds and mammals. However, limitations in the specificity of antibodies used in the precipitin test and lack of vertebrate host availability data warrant revisiting Cx. tarsalis blood feeding behavior in the context of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission. We characterized the host preference of Cx. tarsalis during peak WNV transmission season in eastern Colorado and estimated the relative contribution of different avian species to WNV transmission. Cx. tarsalis preferred birds to mammals each month, although the proportion of blood meals from mammals increased in July and August. The distribution of blood meals differed significantly across months, in part because of changes in the proportion of blood meals from American robins, a preferred host. The estimated proportion of WNV-infectious vectors derived from American robins declined from 60 to 1% between June and August. The majority of avian blood meals came from doves, preferred hosts that contributed 25-40% of the WNV-infectious mosquitoes each month. Active WNV transmission was observed in association with a large house sparrow communal roost. These data show how seasonal patterns in Cx. tarsalis blood feeding behavior relate to WNV transmission in eastern Colorado, with the American robin contributing greatly to early-season virus transmission and a communal roost of sparrows serving as a focus for late-season amplification.

  7. Notes on the blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in Cameroon

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    Kamgang Basile

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus is often considered a poor vector of human pathogens, owing to its catholic feeding behavior. However, it was recently incriminated as a major vector in several Chikungunya epidemics, outside of its native range. Here we assessed two key elements of feeding behavior by Ae. albopictus females in Yaoundé, Cameroon, Central Africa. Host preference was explored and the human-biting activity of females was monitored over 24 h to determine periods of maximum bite exposure. Findings Analysis of ingested blood in outdoor-resting females showed that Ae. albopictus preferentially fed on humans rather than on available domestic animals (95% of the blood meals contained human blood. Our results further showed that Ae. albopictus is a day-biting species in Yaoundé, with a main peak of activity in the late afternoon. Conclusion This is the first report on the feeding behavior of Ae. albopictus in Central Africa. The species is highly aggressive to humans and might therefore be involved in human-human virus transmission in this setting.

  8. Notes on the blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, Basile; Nchoutpouen, Elysée; Simard, Frédéric; Paupy, Christophe

    2012-03-21

    The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus is often considered a poor vector of human pathogens, owing to its catholic feeding behavior. However, it was recently incriminated as a major vector in several Chikungunya epidemics, outside of its native range. Here we assessed two key elements of feeding behavior by Ae. albopictus females in Yaoundé, Cameroon, Central Africa. Host preference was explored and the human-biting activity of females was monitored over 24 h to determine periods of maximum bite exposure. Analysis of ingested blood in outdoor-resting females showed that Ae. albopictus preferentially fed on humans rather than on available domestic animals (95% of the blood meals contained human blood). Our results further showed that Ae. albopictus is a day-biting species in Yaoundé, with a main peak of activity in the late afternoon. This is the first report on the feeding behavior of Ae. albopictus in Central Africa. The species is highly aggressive to humans and might therefore be involved in human-human virus transmission in this setting.

  9. Structure and formation of egg membranes in Aedes aegypti. (L. ) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, G; Rai, K S

    1975-01-01

    An ultrastructural study of mosquito ovarioles reveals that both the vitelline membrane and the endochorion are secreted by the follicular epithelium. The presecretory phase is characterized by the hypertrophy of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex in the follicle cells. Synthesis of vitelline membrane precursors begins immediately after yolk protein uptake by micropinocytosis. Secretory droplets are budded off Golgi cisternae and released into the follicle cell--oocyte interface by exocytosis. The vitelline membrane first appears as dense plaques which eventually fuse to form a single homogeneous layer. Two types of secretory material are identified in the follicle cells prior to the formation of the endochorion. Golgi cisternae bud off small droplets similar in size and appearance to the precursors of the vitelline membrane. These migrate to the apical surface and accumulate between surface folds in the plasma membrane. The second type is a fibrous material formed in endoplasmic reticulum. When fully secreted, the endochorion is a 2-layered structure. The lower layer is comprised of pillar-like structures alternating with fibrous mesh-like areas. The pillars are formed by the coalescence of droplets released from Golgi, while the mesh-like areas presumably arise from the fibrous material. The outer layer is also fibrous. The follicle cells degenerate once the endochorion is laid down. endochorion is laid down.

  10. Eclosion rate, development and survivorship of Aedes albopictus (Skuse)(Diptera: Culicidae) under different water temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Laura C.C.; Souza, Jose R.B. de; Albuquerque, Cleide M.R. de

    2007-01-01

    In tropical areas, where vector insects populations are particularly numerous, temperature usually range between 25 de C and 35 deg C. Considering the importance of such temperature variation in determining mosquitoes population dynamics, in this work the developmental, eclosion and survival rates of the immature stages of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were compared under constant 25, 30 and 35 deg C (using acclimatized chambers) and environmental (25 deg C to 29 deg C) temperatures. The hatching rate was considered as total number of larvae recovered after 24h. The development period as well as larval and pupal survival rate were evaluated daily. Eclosion rate was significantly higher under environmental temperature than under the studied constant temperatures, suggesting that temperature variation may be an eclosion-stimulating factor. The mean eclosion time increased with the temperature, ranging from 2.8 h (25 deg C) to 5.2 h (35 deg C). The larval period was greatly variable inside each group, although it did not differ significantly amongst groups (11.0 +- 4.19 days), with individuals showing longer larval stages in water at 35 deg C (12.0 +- 4.95 days) and environmental temperature (13.6 +- 5.98 days). Oppositely, survival was strongly affected by the higher temperature, where only one individual lived through to adult phase. The results suggest that population of Ae. albopictus from Recife may be adapting to increasing of environmental temperatures and that the limiting temperature to larval development is around 35 deg C. (author)

  11. [Detection of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the city of Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuéllar-Jiménez, María Elena; Velásquez-Escobar, Olga Lucía; González-Obando, Ranulfo; Morales-Reichmann, Carlos Andrés

    2007-06-01

    Aedes albopictus is the second most important dengue virus vector in the Asian southeast after Aedes aegypti. Its entrance into the Americas occurred in 1985, and laboratory studies performed show its potential as a vector in this continent as well. In Colombia, this species has been reported in Leticia (Amazonas) in 1998 and Buenaventura (Valle del Cauca) in 2001. The latest discoveries show that this mosquito continues to advance toward the country's interior. To inform that the presence of A. albopictus is documented in the city of Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Since 2002, weekly sampling has been performed using larval traps located at seventeen stations. The identification of the A. albopictus species, was carried out in the Unidad de Entomología, Laboratorio de Salud Pública Departamental. These identifications were confirmed in the Entomology Laboratory at Universidad del Valle and the National Institute of Health in Bogotá. From April to June of 2006, larvae of A. albopictus were found in six sampling stations located between northwest and northeast of Cali, one of them in the suburban area of the Yumbo city. The control of A. aegypti and A. albopictus must be integrated into a single program. The surveillance in the cities and nearest departments must be intensified with the objective of limiting the advancement of A. albopictus.

  12. Patterns of sugar feeding and host plant preferences in adult males of An. gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouagna, Louis-Clément; Poueme, Rodrigue S; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Fontenille, Didier; Simard, Frédéric

    2010-12-01

    Sugar feeding by male mosquitoes is critical for their success in mating competition. However, the facets of sugar source finding under natural conditions remain unknown. Here, evidence obtained in Western Burkina Faso indicated that the distribution of An. gambiae s.s. (M and S molecular forms) males across different peri-domestic habitats is dependent on the availability of potential sugar sources from which they obtain more favorable sites for feeding or resting. Among field-collected anophelines, a higher proportion of specimens containing fructose were found on flowering Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), Dolonix regia (Fabaceae), Thevetia neriifolia (Apocynaceae), Senna siamea, and Cassia sieberiana (both Fabaceae) compared to that recorded on other nearby plants, suggesting that some plants are favored for use as a sugar source over others. Y-tube olfactometer assays with newly-emerged An. gambiae s.s. exposed to odors from individual plants and some combinations thereof showed that males use odor cues to guide their preference. The number of sugar-positive males was variable in a no-choice cage assay, consistent with the olfactory response patterns towards corresponding odor stimuli. These experiments provide the first evidence both in field and laboratory conditions for previously unstudied interactions between males of An. gambiae and natural sugar sources. © 2010 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  13. The biology of Aedes (Ochlerotatus albifasciatus Macquart, 1838 (Diptera: Culicidae in Central Argentina

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    Francisco F. Ludueña Almeida

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albifasciatus is a flood water mosquito ocurring in the southern countries of South America. It is a competent vector of the Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE and causes important losses on milk and beef production in central Argentina. Field work was carried out from December 1990 to March 1993, on a monthly basis during the dry season and biweekly during the rainy season. Larvae were collected using the 'dipping' technique and females with CDC traps baited with CO2. Field collected larvae were used to build laboratory cohorts, from which basic population parameters were estimated. Eggs survived up to six months on dry soil, although there was a linear decrease of viability with time. At 23ºC, larval development time was around nine days, and all adults emerged within one week. The estimation of larval development in the laboratory seems to be very near the development on the field, as larvae have been collected on average eight days after a rainfall. Egg to adult survival was 83%, with the highest mortality on fourth larval instar (6%. In the laboratory studies, sex proportion among the adults was 1:1, females lived longer than males (median 13 and five days, respectively, and adult survival pattern showed a constant number of individuals dying per unit time. Field collected females layed an average of 84 eggs per batch, and completing up to five gonotrophic cycles, suggesting an estimated survival of up to 35-50 days.

  14. Efficacy of agnique (mmf) monomolecular surface film against immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis patton and Culex spp (diptera: culicidae) in Khartoum, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Al; Hassan, A Abu; Salmah, M R Che; Rahman, W A

    2008-03-01

    The efficacy of the larvicidal and pupicidal agent (Agnique) MMF was evaluated against larvae of An. arabiensis and Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) under field conditions in Bahary Locality, Khartoum, Sudan. At an applied dosage of 0.25 ml/m2, MMF resulted in 89.4, 79.8 and 88.2% reductions in L3-L4 instars An. arabiensis and 63.5% in Culex larvae (all stages) 24 to 72 hours post-treatment. Pupae were completely eliminated (100%) within 24 hours posttreatment. The earlier instars (L1-L2) of An. arabiensis were more tolerant with a 62.5% reduction at 72 hours post-treatment compared to (L3-L4) instars and pupae. At 7-days post-treatment Agnique gave a 57.5% reduction in L1-L2 and 92.6% in L3-L4 instar larvae of An. arabiensis and 57.3% and 86.4% in Culex larvae and pupae, respectively. We conclude that Agnique can perform effectively against L3-L4 instars and pupae of An. arabiensis for only 1 week, and 3 to 4 days against L1-L2 instars of Culex spp.

  15. Bioefficacy of ecbolin A and ecbolin B isolated from Ecbolium viride (Forsk. Alston on dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Appadurai Daniel Reegan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecbolin A and ecbolin B were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Ecbolium viride (Forsk. Alston root and evaluated for larvicidal and growth disturbance activities against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae. For larvicidal activity, the third instar larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations viz., 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 ppm for each compound. Among the two compounds screened, ecbolin B recorded highest larvicidal activity with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.70 and 1.42 ppm, respectively. In control, the larval behaviour was normal. The active compound ecbolin B was tested for growth disruption activity at sub lethal concentrations viz., 0.5, 1.0 ppm and observed for malformation like larval gut elongation, larval longevity, intermediates, malformed adults, failed adult emergence and compared with methoprene. The results showed significant level of larva–pupa intermediates, pupa–adult intermediates, malformed adult emergence and less adult formation against A. aegypti. The histopathological results revealed a severe damage on the midgut epithelial columnar cells (CC and cuboidal cells (CU in ecbolin B treated larvae of A. aegypti. Similarly peritrophic membrane (pM was also observed to be damaged in the treated larvae. The present results suggest that, ecbolin B could be used as a larvicidal agent against dengue vector A. aegypti.

  16. The Climate Range Expansion of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Asia Inferred From the Distribution of Albopictus Subgroup Species of Aedes (Stegomyia).

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    Mogi, M; Armbruster, P A; Tuno, N; Aranda, C; Yong, H S

    2017-11-07

    We compared climatic distribution ranges between Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) and the five wild (nondomesticated) species of Albopictus Subgroup of Scutellaris Group of Aedes (Stegomyia) in southern Asia. Distribution sites of the wild species concentrate in seasonal forest and savannah climate zones in India, Indochina, and southern China. The distribution of Ae. albopictus is broader than the wild species under 1) tropical rain-forest climate, 2) steppe and temperate savannah climate, and 3) continental climate with large seasonal temperature variation (hot summer and cold winter) at temperate lowlands (northernmost sites 40°N in Ae. albopictus vs 32°N in the wild species). However, the distribution of Ae. albopictus is more limited at tropical and subtropical highlands where the climate is cool but less continental (small seasonal variation, mild summer, and winter). We discuss a possibility that the broader climate ranges of Ae. albopictus are ecological or eco-evolutionary consequences of adaptation to human habitats. We also propose a general scenario for the origin, dispersal, and adaptation of Ae. albopictus in Asia as a hypothesis for future research. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Evaluation of the naturally-derived insecticide spinosad against Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in septic tank water in Antalya, Turkey.

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    Cetin, Huseyin; Yanikoglu, Atila; Cilek, James E

    2005-06-01

    The naturally-derived insecticide spinosad (Conserve SC) was evaluated against larval Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory and field conditions in Antalya, Turkey. Laboratory bioassays showed that the 24 h LC50 and LC90 against late 3rd and early 4th instars were estimated at 0.027 and 0.111 parts per million, respectively, while adult emergence was eliminated at concentrations above 0.06 ppm. Larval mortality from septic tanks that were treated with spinosad at rates of 25, 50, 100, and 200 g ai/ha ranged between 22 to 78% 1 day after application. At 7 days post-treatment, larval mortality ranged from 2 to 50% and at 14 days mortality was septic tanks treated at 100 and 200 g ai/ha resulted in an elimination of Cx. pipiens larvae 7 days after treatment. After this time, larval reduction declined to 79 and 83%, respectively, 14 days after treatment. Larval reduction in septic tanks treated at the two lowest rates (i.e. 25 and 50 g ai/ha) ranged from 14 to 74% during the 14-day study. These results indicated that spinosad can be considered an effective larvicide for treatment of septic tanks against Cx. pipiens.

  18. Resistance Status and Resistance Mechanisms in a Strain of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) From Puerto Rico.

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    Estep, Alden S; Sanscrainte, Neil D; Waits, Christy M; Louton, Jessica E; Becnel, James J

    2017-11-07

    Puerto Rico (PR) has a long history of vector-borne disease and insecticide-resistant Aedes aegypti (L.). Defining contributing mechanisms behind phenotypic resistance is critical for effective vector control intervention. However, previous studies from PR have each focused on only one mechanism of pyrethroid resistance. This study examines the contribution of P450-mediated enzymatic detoxification and sodium channel target site changes to the overall resistance phenotype of Ae. aegypti collected from San Juan, PR, in 2012. Screening of a panel of toxicants found broad resistance relative to the lab susceptible Orlando (ORL1952) strain. We identified significant resistance to representative Type I, Type II, and nonester pyrethroids, a sodium channel blocker, and a sodium channel blocking inhibitor, all of which interact with the sodium channel. Testing of fipronil, a chloride channel agonist, also showed low but significant levels of resistance. In contrast, the PR and ORL1952 strains were equally susceptible to chlorfenapyr, which has been suggested as an alternative public health insecticide. Molecular characterization of the strain indicated that two common sodium channel mutations were fixed in the population. Topical bioassay with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) indicated cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification accounts for approximately half of the resistance profile. Transcript expression screening of cytochrome P450s and glutathione-S-transferases identified the presence of overexpressed transcripts. This study of Puerto Rican Ae. aegypti with significant contributions from both genetic changes and enzymatic detoxification highlights the necessity of monitoring for resistance but also defining the multiple resistance mechanisms to inform effective mosquito control. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Laboratory evolution of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against Anopheles stephensi larvae (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Rahele Veys-Behbahani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine Beauveria bassiana (B. bassiana fungus bioassay against the larval stages of Anopheles stephensi in Iran. Methods: The fungal suspension by the concentrations of 1伊1 09, 5伊1 08, 1 08, 5伊1 07 and 1伊 107 conidia per milliliter have been prepared in different volumes (2, 4 and 6 mL and each concentration were added to containers containing 25 Anopheles larva instars 1 and 2. The mortality of the dead larvae with abnormal symptoms was recorded as a result of the fungal infection after 24, 48 and 72 h. Results: Comparison between the mean mortality rate of Anopheles stephensi larva at different concentrations of B. bassiana strain Iran 429C at 2, 4 and 6 mL showed that there was no significant relation of the mean mortality rate of larvae at concentrations of 1伊109 and 5伊108, and after 48 h resulted in 100% mortality rate of the larvae populations. In addition, there is no significant differences in the amounts of lethal times (LT (LT50 and LT90 as LT90 values calculated at a concentration of 5伊108 and in volumes 2, 4 and 6 mL were 1.46, 1.36 and 1.08 d, respectively. Conclusions: B. bassiana strain Iran 429C in 2 mL of 5伊108 concentration or the concentration of a 1伊109 mL per 100 mL of water is recommended as the optimal concentration for the control of Anopheles larvae. The development of suitable formulations of entomopathogenic fungi may be a promising prospect in the mosquito control programs.

  20. Evaluation of the insecticidal activity of essential oils and their mixtures against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Natalia Ríos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The search for new insecticides to control dengue fever, chikungunya, and Zika vectors has gained relevance in the past decades. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal action of essential oils (EOs from Thymus vulgaris, Salvia officinalis, Lippia origanoides, Eucalyptus globulus, Cymbopogon nardus, Cymbopogon martinii, Lippia alba, Pelargonium graveolens, Turnera diffusa, and Swinglea glutinosa on Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti. The EOs were extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The chemical components of the EOs were identified by linear retention indices and mass spectra. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95 were determined by probit analysis using larvae of Ae. aegypti between the third and the fourth instars. All EOs achieved larvicidal activity at LC50 values lower than 115 mg/L. The lowest LC50 value (45.73 mg/L corresponded to T. vulgaris EO, whereas C. martinii EO showed the highest LC50 (LC50 = 114.65 mg/L. Some EO mixtures showed lower LC50 than oils used individually, such as the mixtures of L. origanoides + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 38.40 mg/L, T. diffusa + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 63.71 mg/L, and L. alba + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 48.87 mg/L. The main compounds of the EOs with highest larvicidal activity were thymol (42% and p-cymene (26.4%. Keywords: Essential oil, Larvicidal activity, Mosquito control

  1. Molecular identification of two Culex (Culex species of the neotropical region (Diptera: Culicidae.

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    Magdalena Laurito

    Full Text Available Culex bidens and C. interfor, implicated in arbovirus transmission in Argentina, are sister species, only distinguishable by feature of the male genitalia; however, intermediate specimens of the species in sympatry have been found. Fourth-instar larvae and females of both species share apomorphic features, and this lack of clear distinction creates problems for specific identification. Geometric morphometric traits of these life stages also do not distinguish the species. The aim of the present study was to assess the taxonomic status of C. bidens and C. interfor using two mitochondrial genes and to determine the degree of their reproductive isolation using microsatellite loci. Sequences of the ND4 and COI genes were concatenated in a matrix of 993 nucleotides and used for phylogenetic and distance analyses. Bayesian and maximum parsimony inferences showed a well resolved and supported topology, enclosing sequences of individuals of C. bidens (0.83 BPP, 73 BSV and C. interfor (0.98 BPP, 97 BSV in a strong sister relationship. The mean K2P distance within C. bidens and C. interfor was 0.3% and 0.2%, respectively, and the interspecific variation was 2.3%. Bayesian clustering also showed two distinct mitochondrial lineages. All sequenced mosquitoes were successfully identified in accordance with the best close match algorithm. The low genetic distance values obtained indicate that the species diverged quite recently. Most morphologically intermediate specimens of C. bidens from Córdoba were heterozygous for the microsatellite locus GT51; the significant heterozygote excess observed suggests incomplete reproductive isolation. However, C. bidens and C. interfor should be considered good species: the ventral arm of the phallosome of the male genitalia and the ND4 and COI sequences are diagnostic characters.

  2. Delayed egg hatching of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) pending water agitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Babak; Shakibi, Sanam; Foster, Woodbridge A

    2014-05-01

    Mosquito eggs laid on water surfaces typically hatch spontaneously soon after the embryos within them become fully formed first-instar larvae. However, we have found that Anopheles gambiae Giles, an important vector of malaria in Africa, exhibits delayed hatching until the water surface is agitated, a feature overlooked in most laboratory colonies. Agitation within 24 h postoviposition, before embryonation was complete, failed to stimulate delayed postembryonic hatching of isolated eggs on the following day (day 2), when < 1% had hatched spontaneously. However, 5 min of water agitation of these dormant pharate first-instar larvae on day 2 resulted in an almost immediate hatch of 63.3 versus 0% of nonagitated controls, plus another 3.9 versus 0.3%, respectively, during the following 24 h. With daily agitation, installment hatching occurred mainly during 2-6 d postoviposition. The mean cumulative hatch after 7 d of daily agitation was 83.1 versus 1.1% of nonagitated eggs. Experiments with eggs in groups demonstrated that egg density and activity of already-hatched larvae had no stimulatory effect. Eggs stored 1-4 wk at 25.5 or at 15.5 degrees C, and then agitated daily for 6 d at 25.5 degrees C, showed a gradual decline in viability. Viability was sustained longer at the lower temperature. Implications of agitation-induced egg hatching for rainy-season and dry-season ecology of An. gambiae are discussed. Suspended hatching and cool storage already are proving convenient for efficient mass rearing and accurate modeling of weather-based population dynamics.

  3. Raw sewage as breeding site to Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera, culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitolina, R F; Anjos, F A; Lima, T S; Castro, E A; Costa-Ribeiro, M C V

    2016-12-01

    The selection of oviposition sites by females of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti is a key factor for the larval survival and egg dispersion and has a direct influence in vector control programs. In this study, we evaluated the aspects of reproductive physiology of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes tested in the presence of raw sewage. Ae. aegypti females were used in oviposition bioassays according to two methodologies: (i) choice assay, in which three oviposition substrates were offered in the same cage: treatment (raw sewage), positive control (distilled water) and negative control (1% sodium hypochlorite) and; (ii) no choice assay, in which only one substrate was available. The physicochemical and microbiological analysis of the raw sewage used in this study indicated virtually no levels of chlorine, low levels of dissolved oxygen and high levels of nitrogenous compounds as well as the presence of Escherichia coli and total fecal coliforms. After 72h of oviposition, the eggs were counted and there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the oviposition rate between raw sewage and positive control in both methodologies. In addition, females were dissected to evaluate egg-retention and also there were no appreciable differences in egg retention even when raw sewage was the only substrate offered. The data also showed that egg hatching and larvae development occurred normally in the raw sewage. Therefore, the present study suggests that Ae. aegypti can adapt to new sites and lay eggs in polluted water, such as the raw sewage. These findings are of particular importance for the control and surveillance programs against Ae. aegypti in countries where the conditions of poor infrastructure and lack of basic sanitation are still an issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Temperature, larval diet, and density effects on development rate and survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae.

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    Jannelle Couret

    Full Text Available Many environmental factors, biotic and abiotic interact to influence organismal development. Given the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector of human pathogens including dengue and yellow fever, understanding the impact of environmental factors such as temperature, resource availability, and intraspecific competition during development is critical for population control purposes. Despite known associations between developmental traits and factors of diet and density, temperature has been considered the primary driver of development rate and survival. To determine the relative importance of these critical factors, wide gradients of conditions must be considered. We hypothesize that 1 diet and density, as well as temperature influence the variation in development rate and survival, 2 that these factors interact, and this interaction is also necessary to understand variation in developmental traits. Temperature, diet, density, and their two-way interactions are significant factors in explaining development rate variation of the larval stages of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. These factors as well as two and three-way interactions are significantly associated with the development rate from hatch to emergence. Temperature, but not diet or density, significantly impacted juvenile mortality. Development time was heteroskedastic with the highest variation occurring at the extremes of diet and density conditions. All three factors significantly impacted survival curves of experimental larvae that died during development. Complex interactions may contribute to variation in development rate. To better predict variation in development rate and survival in Ae. aegypti, factors of resource availability and intraspecific density must be considered in addition, but never to the exclusion of temperature.

  5. Evaluation of Alternative Killing Agents for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringer, Laila; Johnson, Brian J; Fikrig, Kara; Oliveira, Bruna A; Silva, Richard D; Townsend, Michael; Barrera, Roberto; Eiras, Álvaro E; Ritchie, Scott A

    2016-07-01

    The Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) uses visual and olfactory cues to attract gravid Aedes aegypti (L.) that are then captured when knocked down by a residual pyrethroid surface spray. However, the use of surface sprays can be compromised by poor availability of the spray and pesticide resistance in the target mosquito. We investigated several "alternative" insecticide and insecticide-free killing agents for use in the GAT. This included long-lasting insecticide-impregnated nets (LLINs), vapor-active synthetic pyrethroids (metofluthrin), canola oil, and two types of dry adhesive sticky card. During bench top assays LLINs, metofluthrin, and dry sticky cards had 24-h knockdown (KD) percentages >80% (91.2 ± 7.2%, 84.2 ± 6.8%, and 83.4 ± 6.1%, respectively), whereas the 24-h KD for canola oil was 70 ± 7.7%, which improved to 90.0 ± 3.7% over 48 h. Importantly, there were no significant differences in the number of Ae. aegypti collected per week or the number of traps positive for Ae. aegypti between the sticky card and canola oil treatments compared with the surface spray and LLIN treatments in semifield and field trials. These results demonstrate that the use of inexpensive and widely available insecticide-free agents such as those described in this study are effective alternatives to pyrethroids in regions with insecticide-resistant populations. The use of such environmentally friendly insecticide-free alternatives will also be attractive in areas where there is substantial resistance to insecticide use due to environmental and public health concerns. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Asymmetrical Competition between Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae Coexisting in Breeding Sites

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    Juan C. Santana-Martínez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus are mosquito vectors for several tropical diseases that represent a current public health problem. The ecological requirements for each species are different, however, both species show high biological adaptability, which promotes their coexistence in the same breeding sites. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of larval association between Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus under different laboratory conditions of food supply and temperature, and under field simulated conditions like peridomestic containers. Our findings showed that under field simulated conditions there was no asymmetrical competition in mixed cultures with the different Cx. quinquefasciatus/Ae. aegypti ratios tested. However, under laboratory conditions in which different doses of food supply were evaluated, it was observed that competition between the two species takes place. Larval coexistence under food scarcity conditions (0.95 mg/larva showed that Ae. aegypti had a greater adult emergence than Cx. quinquefasciatus and was capable of depriving Cx. quinquefasciatus of the food needed to complete metamorphosis. In an intermediate dose of food (1.9 mg/larva, the dry weight of Cx. quinquefasciatus adults decreased, and their larval development time increased when Cx. quinquefasciatus/Ae. aegypti ratio was low. Also, a temperature effect was assessed demonstrating that Cx. quinquefasciatus was more vulnerable to changes in temperature. We suggest that Ae. aegypti is more successful in exploiting microhabitats when food is scarce, due to its scrape active feeding habitats and fast larval development times. Therefore, in conditions of food paucity both species will compete, and Ae. aegypti larvae will prevail.

  7. Molecular phylogeny of Anopheles hyrcanus group (Diptera: Culicidae) based on mtDNA COI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Shi, Wen-Qi; Zhang, Yi

    2017-05-08

    The Anopheles hyrcanus group, which includes at least 25 species, is widely distributed in the Oriental and Palearctic regions. Some group members have been incriminated as vectors of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. It is difficult to identify Hyrcanus Group members by morphological features. Thus, molecular phylogeny has been proposed as an important complementary method to traditional morphological taxonomy. Based on the GenBank database and our original study data, we used 466 mitochondrial DNA COI sequences belonging to 18 species to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the Hyrcanus Group across its worldwide geographic range. The results are as follows. 1) The average conspecific K2P divergence was 0.008 (range 0.002-0.017), whereas sequence divergence between congroup species averaged 0.064 (range 0.026-0.108). 2) The topology of COI tree of the Hyrcanus Group was generally consistent with classical morphological taxonomy in terms of species classification, but disagreed in subgroup division. In the COI tree, the group was divided into at least three main clusters. The first cluster contained An. nimpe; the second was composed of the Nigerrimus Subgroup and An. argyropus; and the third cluster was comprised of the Lesteri Subgroup and other unassociated species. 3) Phylogenetic analysis of COI indicated that ancient hybridizations probably occurred among the three closely related species, An. sinensis, An. belenrae, and An. kleini. 4) The results supported An. paraliae as a probable synonym of An. lesteri, and it was possible that An. pseudopictus and An. hyrcanus were the same species, as evident from their extremely low interspecific genetic divergence (0.020 and 0.007, respectively) and their phylogenetic positions. In summary, we reconstructed the molecular phylogeny and analysed genetic divergence of the Hyrcanus Group using mitochondrial COI sequences. Our results suggest that in the future of malaria surveillance, we should not only pay

  8. Blood-feeding ecology of mosquitoes in zoos.

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    Tuten, H C; Bridges, W C; Paul, K S; Adler, P H

    2012-12-01

    To determine if the unique host assemblages in zoos influence blood-feeding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), a sampling programme was conducted in Greenville and Riverbanks Zoos, South Carolina, U.S.A., from April 2009 to October 2010. A total of 4355 female mosquitoes of 14 species were collected, of which 106 individuals of nine species were blood-fed. The most common taxa were Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes triseriatus (Say), Anopheles punctipennis (Say), Culex erraticus (Dyar & Knab), Culex pipiens complex (L.) and Culex restuans (Theobald). Molecular analyses (cytochrome b) of bloodmeals revealed that mosquitoes fed on captive animals, humans and wildlife, and took mixed bloodmeals. Host species included one amphibian, 16 birds, 10 mammals (including humans) and two reptiles. Minimum dispersal distances after feeding on captive hosts ranged from 15.5 m to 327.0 m. Mosquito-host associations generally conformed to previous accounts, indicating that mosquito behaviour inside zoos reflects that outside zoos. However, novel variation in host use, including new, exotic host records, warrants further investigation. Zoos, thus, can be used as experiment environments in which to study mosquito behaviour, and the findings extrapolated to non-zoo areas, while providing medical and veterinary benefits to zoo animals, employees and patrons. © 2012 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  9. Culicidae (Insecta: Diptera em área de Floresta Atlântica, no Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Culicidae (Insecta: Diptera in areas of Atlantic Forest, Paraná State, Brazil

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    Adriana Félix do Anjos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A alteração da paisagem natural pode gerar mudanças que favorecem odesenvolvimento e proliferação de determinadas espécies de Culicidae, em detrimento de outras que se deslocam para outros locais ou são extintas. Baseando-se nestas mudanças, algumas espécies podem ser utilizadas como bioindicadores do grau de degradação ambiental. O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar a composição e riqueza deCulicidae, em dois ambientes em área de Floresta Atlântica, e avaliar se as espécies encontradas indicam o grau de preservação dos fragmentos estudados. As coletas foram realizadas em dois ambientes, denominados Carvalho e Trilha, em área de Floresta Atlântica(Mananciais da Serra, no Estado do Paraná - Brasil, nos meses de dezembro/2002 a maio/2003, utilizando-se um aspirador elétrico manual. Foram identificadas 48 espécies de 636 espécimes de Culicidae. A composição taxonômica e riqueza das espécies de Culicidaediferenciaram-se entre os ambientes estudados, provavelmente, influenciadas pelo estado de preservação dos fragmentos florestais. Os maiores valores de riqueza observados no Carvalho, assim como o predomínio das espécies da tribo Sabethini e Kerteszia sugeremreduzida ação antrópica neste fragmento florestal. De modo contrário, a composição das espécies e os menores valores de riqueza observadas na Trilha indicam grau alto de degradação ambiental.Modifications in the landscape can lead to the development and proliferation of some Culicidae species, in detriment of others. As a result, some species may be forced to move to other places or become locally extinct. Based on these changes, some species can beused as bioindicators of environmental degradation. The aim of this study was to assess Culicidae composition and richness in two Atlantic Forest sites (Carvalho and Trilha; State of Paraná, Brazil, and to evaluate whether they can be used as indicators of environmental degradation of these sites

  10. Intra-instar larval cannibalism in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Crasta, Graziano; Bellini, Romeo; Comandatore, Francesco; Rossi, Paolo; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio; Urbanelli, Sandra

    2016-11-02

    cannibalistic behavior and the factors affecting it is of utmost importance for malaria vectors, as nutrition during larval development can strongly affect the fitness of adult female mosquitoes and ultimately their vector ability.

  11. Intra-instar larval cannibalism in Anopheles gambiae (s.s. and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Daniele Porretta

    2016-11-01

    and lower cannibalism rate. The understanding of cannibalistic behavior and the factors affecting it is of utmost importance for malaria vectors, as nutrition during larval development can strongly affect the fitness of adult female mosquitoes and ultimately their vector ability.

  12. Perbedaan respon Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae, terhadap paparan anti nyamuk bakar dan bunga keluwih (Artocarpus camansi, Blanco

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    Nur Endah Wahyuningsih

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The control of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF it is important to control the vector, i.e. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus and Ae. albopictus (Skuse. Usually, controls of these vectors are done using chemical insecticides. Research on mosquito resistance has been done, but the impact of mosquitoes that survive after synthetic (chemical insecticides application has not been studied. The aim of this research was to analyze the differences of fecundity, fertility and vitality rate of mosquitoes that were exposed to natural insecticides i.e with burned breadnut flowers and mosquito coils containing transflutrin and d-aletrin. Mosquito samples were taken from field eggs which were exposed with synthetic and natural insecticides. Mosquitoes that remainder alive after 24 hours exposure were mated and each group were put in 2 cages, each repetition were repeated 3 times. The mosquito eggs were observed until adult mosquitoes die. Then, the fecundity, fertility and vitality rate were compared. Based on our analysis, there were no differences on fecundity rate, between control and mosquitoes that were exposed to natural insecticides, but there were significant differences between the control and the synthetic insecticides. Natural insecticides do not increase the rate of fecundity but synthetic insecticides may increase the rate of fecundity and number of mosquitoes and causes the mosquito lifespan longer than the control and natural insecticide treatment.

  13. The influence of dengue virus serotype-2 infection on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae motivation and avidity to blood feed.

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    Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV is transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a species that lives in close association with human dwellings. The behavior of DENV-infected mosquitoes needs further investigation, especially regarding the potential influence of DENV on mosquito biting motivation and avidity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We orally challenged 4-5 day-old Ae. aegypti females with a low passage DENV serotype -2 (DENV-2 to test whether the virus influences motivation to feed (the likelihood that a mosquito obtains a blood-meal and the size of its blood meal and avidity (the likelihood to re-feed after an interrupted first blood-meal. To assay motivation, we offered mosquitoes an anesthetized mouse for 2, 3, 4 or 5 minutes 7 or 14 days after the initial blood meals and measured the time they started feeding. 60.5% of the unexposed mosquitoes fed on the mouse, but only 40.5% of the positive ones did. Exposed but negative mosquitoes behaved similarly to unexposed ones (55.0% feeding. Thus DENV-2 infection decreased the mosquitoes' motivation to feed. To assay avidity, we offered the same mosquitoes a mouse two hours after the first round of feeding, and we measured the time at which they started probing. The exposed (positive or negative mosquitoes were more likely to re-feed than the unexposed ones and, in particular, the size of the previous blood-meal that kept mosquitoes from re-feeding was larger in the exposed than in the unexposed mosquitoes. Thus, DENV-2 infection increased mosquito avidity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: DENV-2 significantly decreased the mosquitoes' motivation to feed, but increased their avidity (even after taking account the amount of blood previously imbibed. As these are important components of transmission, we expect that the changes of the blood-feeding behaviour impact the vectorial capacity Ae. aegypti for dengue.

  14. The influence of dengue virus serotype-2 infection on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) motivation and avidity to blood feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Sylvestre, Gabriel; Gandini, Mariana; Koella, Jacob C

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a species that lives in close association with human dwellings. The behavior of DENV-infected mosquitoes needs further investigation, especially regarding the potential influence of DENV on mosquito biting motivation and avidity. We orally challenged 4-5 day-old Ae. aegypti females with a low passage DENV serotype -2 (DENV-2) to test whether the virus influences motivation to feed (the likelihood that a mosquito obtains a blood-meal and the size of its blood meal) and avidity (the likelihood to re-feed after an interrupted first blood-meal). To assay motivation, we offered mosquitoes an anesthetized mouse for 2, 3, 4 or 5 minutes 7 or 14 days after the initial blood meals and measured the time they started feeding. 60.5% of the unexposed mosquitoes fed on the mouse, but only 40.5% of the positive ones did. Exposed but negative mosquitoes behaved similarly to unexposed ones (55.0% feeding). Thus DENV-2 infection decreased the mosquitoes' motivation to feed. To assay avidity, we offered the same mosquitoes a mouse two hours after the first round of feeding, and we measured the time at which they started probing. The exposed (positive or negative) mosquitoes were more likely to re-feed than the unexposed ones and, in particular, the size of the previous blood-meal that kept mosquitoes from re-feeding was larger in the exposed than in the unexposed mosquitoes. Thus, DENV-2 infection increased mosquito avidity. DENV-2 significantly decreased the mosquitoes' motivation to feed, but increased their avidity (even after taking account the amount of blood previously imbibed). As these are important components of transmission, we expect that the changes of the blood-feeding behaviour impact the vectorial capacity Ae. aegypti for dengue.

  15. Perbedaan respon Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), terhadap paparan anti nyamuk bakar dan bunga keluwih (Artocarpus camansi, Blanco)

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Endah Wahyuningsih; Ramauli Agustina Sihit

    2015-01-01

    The control of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) it is important to control the vector, i.e. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Ae. albopictus (Skuse). Usually, controls of these vectors are done using chemical insecticides. Research on mosquito resistance has been done, but the impact of mosquitoes that survive after synthetic (chemical) insecticides application has not been studied. The aim of this research was to analyze the differences of fecundity, fertility and vitality rate of mosquitoes that w...

  16. West Nile virus infection rates in Culex nigripalpus (Diptera: Culicidae) do not reflect transmission rates in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, C Roxanne; Day, Jonathan F; Lord, Cynthia C; Stark, Lillian M; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2003-05-01

    We describe the first documented field transmission of West Nile (WN) virus by a North American mosquito. WN was first detected in northern Florida in 2001. An intensive mosquito trapping and surveillance program was conducted in this region for four nights to assess mosquito transmission of WN. Four mosquito traps, each with a single sentinel chicken, were placed at five different locations on each of four nights. A total of 11,948 mosquitoes was collected, and 14 mosquito pools were found to contain WN, giving a minimum infection rate between 1.08 and 7.54 per 1,000. Only one of the 80 sentinel chickens seroconverted to WN, demonstrating a single mosquito transmission event during the study and a mosquito transmission rate of between 0.8 and 1 per 1,000. Culex nigripalpus Theobald was responsible for WN transmission to the sentinel chicken, although both Cx. nigripalpus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say were found infected with WN. Mosquito transmission rates are reported in this study for the first time for a WN outbreak. This information is essential to determine risk of human and animal infection.

  17. Encontro de Haemagogus (Conopostegus leucocelaenus (Diptera: Culicidae, no Município de Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Finding of Haemagogus (Conopostegus leucocelaenus (Diptera: Culicidae, in the municipality of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul

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    Almério de Castro Gomes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Em novembro de 2006, foi realizada uma investigação entomológica numa mata nativa do município de Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O resultado foi a captura de várias espécies Culicidae, incluindo o primeiro registro da presença de Haemagogus leucocelaenus na localidade. Esta espécie é considerada vetora do vírus da febre amarela em alguns municípios do Estado, motivando esta comunicação para alertar sobre o potencial da área para circulação do agente etiológico desta doença.In November 2006, an entomological investigation was carried out in a native forest in the municipality of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The result was the capture of several Culicidae species, including the first recording of the presence of Haemagogus leucocelaenus in this locality. This species is considered to be a vector for the yellow fever virus in some municipalities of this State, and this was the motivation for the present communication, in order to warn regarding the potential of this area for circulation of the etiological agent for this disease.

  18. Biocontrol of larval mosquitoes by Acilius sulcatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae

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    Banerjee Siddhartha S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problems associated with resistant mosquitoes and the effects on non-target species by chemicals, evoke a reason to find alternative methods to control mosquitoes, like the use of natural predators. In this regard, aquatic coleopterans have been explored less compared to other insect predators. In the present study, an evaluation of the role of the larvae of Acilius sulcatus Linnaeus 1758 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae as predator of mosquito immatures was made in the laboratory. Its efficacy under field condition was also determined to emphasize its potential as bio-control agent of mosquitoes. Methods In the laboratory, the predation potential of the larvae of A. sulcatus was assessed using the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae as prey at varying predator and prey densities and available space. Under field conditions, the effectiveness of the larvae of A. sulcatus was evaluated through augmentative release in ten cemented tanks hosting immatures of different mosquito species at varying density. The dip density changes in the mosquito immatures were used as indicator for the effectiveness of A. sulcatus larvae. Results A single larva of A. sulcatus consumed on an average 34 IV instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus in a 24 h period. It was observed that feeding rate of A. sulcatus did not differ between the light-on (6 a.m. – 6 p.m., and dark (6 p.m. – 6 a.m. phases, but decreased with the volume of water i.e., space availability. The prey consumption of the larvae of A. sulcatus differed significantly (P A. sulcatus larvae, while with the withdrawal, a significant increase (p A. sulcatus in regulating mosquito immatures. In the control tanks, mean larval density did not differ (p > 0.05 throughout the study period. Conclusion the larvae of the dytiscid beetle A. sulcatus proved to be an efficient predator of mosquito immatures and may be useful in biocontrol of medically important mosquitoes.

  19. Estudos ecológicos sobre mosquitos Culicidae no sistema da Serra do Mar, Brasil: 1 - Observações no ambiente extradomiciliar Ecologic studies on Culicidae mosquitoes in the Serra do Mar System, Brazil: 1 - Observations in the outdoor environment

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se os resultados das coletas extradomiciliares de mosquitos Culicidae no Vale do Ribeira, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As observações foram levadas a efeito visando obter informações que esclareçam o mecanismo de transmissão de encefalite por vírus ocorrida em caráter epidêmico na região. Com o emprego de várias técnicas, foram feitas coletas em áreas com aspectos variáveis em relação à conservação do ambiente. Fundamentalmente, a diferenciação baseou-se em áreas alteradas, com matas residuais e ocorrência de casos de encefalite, e áreas conservadas, com matas primárias e sem a presença da doença, até o momento. Foram obtidos dados que sugerem possível associação entre a ocorrência da virose e o comportamento de Aedes serratus, Aedes scapularis e Culex (Melanoconion sp. Admite-se também a possível participação de representantes de Limatus e Psorophora, embora provavelmente de maneira variável e menos intensa do que a dos anteriores. A possível ocorrência de ciclos prolongados de baixa densidade daqueles mosquitos na zona florestal da escarpa serrana, poderá explicar o possível papel de barreira que a Serra de Paranapiacaba e do Mar desempenham para a propagação da epidemia em direção ao planalto do Estado de São Paulo.This paper presents the results of out door catches of Culicidae mosquitoes performed in the Ribeira Valley, State of S. Paulo, Brazil, where an outbreak of encephalits occurred in 1976 and 1977. These entomological investigations were made using several techniques for collecting mosquitoes, including human bait. Several places were chosen considering the environmental aspects related to human activities. In regions where high agricultural activities predominate and the primary forest was reduced to remaining spots, large numbers of Aedes serratus, Aedes scapularis and Culex (Melanoconion sp. were caught. These mosquitoes were scarcely found in primary forest regions where

  20. The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culidae of Seychelles: taxonomy, ecology, vectorial importance, and identification keys

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    Le Goff Gilbert

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During recent periods, the islands of the Republic of Seychelles experienced many diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, Bancroft’s filaria and malaria. Mosquitoes transmit the agents that cause these diseases. Published information on mosquitoes in the Seychelles is notably dispersed in the literature. The maximum number of species obtained on a single field survey does not exceed 14 species. Methods We performed a comprehensive bibliographic review using mosquito and Seychelles as the key words, as well as conducted a mosquito field survey for larval and adult stages during the rainy season in December 2008. Sixteen sites were sampled on four granitic islands (Mahé, Praslin, La Digue and Aride and six sites on coralline atolls in the extreme southwest of the country (Aldabra group. Results We found published references to 21 mosquito species identified at least on one occasion in the Seychelles. Our collections comprised 18 species of mosquitoes, all of them from the subfamily Culicinae; no Anophelinae was found. We also confirm that Aedes seychellensis is a junior synonym of Ae. (Aedimorphus albocephalus. The first records for Culex antennatus and Cx. sunyaniensis are presented from the country, specifically from Aldabra and Praslin, respectively. Based on a comparison of the taxa occurring on the granitic versus coralline islands, only three species, Ae. albocephalus, Cx. scottii and Cx. simpsoni are shared. Aedes albopictus appeared to exclude largely Ae. aegypti on the granitic islands; however, Ae. aegypti was common on Aldabra, where Ae. albopictus has not been recorded. The notable aggressiveness of mosquitoes towards humans on coralline islands was mainly due to two species, the females of which are difficult to distinguish: Ae. fryeri and Ae. (Aedimorphus sp. A. The number of mosquito species collected at least once in the Seychelles is now 22, among which five species (Ae. (Adm sp. A, Cx. stellatus, Uranotaenia

  1. The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culidae) of Seychelles: taxonomy, ecology, vectorial importance, and identification keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Gilbert; Boussès, Philippe; Julienne, Simon; Brengues, Cécile; Rahola, Nil; Rocamora, Gérard; Robert, Vincent

    2012-09-21

    During recent periods, the islands of the Republic of Seychelles experienced many diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, Bancroft's filaria and malaria. Mosquitoes transmit the agents that cause these diseases. Published information on mosquitoes in the Seychelles is notably dispersed in the literature. The maximum number of species obtained on a single field survey does not exceed 14 species. We performed a comprehensive bibliographic review using mosquito and Seychelles as the key words, as well as conducted a mosquito field survey for larval and adult stages during the rainy season in December 2008. Sixteen sites were sampled on four granitic islands (Mahé, Praslin, La Digue and Aride) and six sites on coralline atolls in the extreme southwest of the country (Aldabra group). We found published references to 21 mosquito species identified at least on one occasion in the Seychelles. Our collections comprised 18 species of mosquitoes, all of them from the subfamily Culicinae; no Anophelinae was found. We also confirm that Aedes seychellensis is a junior synonym of Ae. (Aedimorphus) albocephalus. The first records for Culex antennatus and Cx. sunyaniensis are presented from the country, specifically from Aldabra and Praslin, respectively. Based on a comparison of the taxa occurring on the granitic versus coralline islands, only three species, Ae. albocephalus, Cx. scottii and Cx. simpsoni are shared. Aedes albopictus appeared to exclude largely Ae. aegypti on the granitic islands; however, Ae. aegypti was common on Aldabra, where Ae. albopictus has not been recorded. The notable aggressiveness of mosquitoes towards humans on coralline islands was mainly due to two species, the females of which are difficult to distinguish: Ae. fryeri and Ae. (Aedimorphus) sp. A. The number of mosquito species collected at least once in the Seychelles is now 22, among which five species (Ae. (Adm) sp. A, Cx. stellatus, Uranotaenia browni. Ur. nepenthes and Ur. pandani) and one

  2. Potential for sublethal insecticide exposure to impact vector competence of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae for dengue and Zika viruses

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    Richards SL

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie L Richards, Avian V White, Jo Anne G Balanay Department of Health Education and Promotion, College of Health and Human Performance, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA Abstract: Chikungunya, dengue, and Zika viruses (CHIKV, family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus; DENV and ZIKV, family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus are arboviruses that cause human epidemics. Due to the lack of vaccines for many mosquito-borne diseases, there is a need for mosquito control. In the US and other regions, residual barrier insecticide sprays are applied to foliage where female mosquitoes rest and/or sugar feed between blood meals. Residual sprays are an important control method for anthropogenic day-active sylvan mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus (vector of CHIKV, DENV, and ZIKV that are difficult to control using ultralow-volume sprays applied only at dusk or dawn when these mosquitoes are not active. In this exploratory study, we analyzed the extent to which ingestion of a sublethal dose of the active ingredient bifenthrin affected vector competence (i.e., infection, dissemination, and transmission of Ae. albopictus for DENV and ZIKV. Two incubation periods (IPs; 7 and 14 d were tested at 28°C for insecticide-fed and sugar-fed mosquitoes. We show that mosquitoes that were fed bifenthrin (0.128 µg/mL mixed with sucrose solution exhibited significantly lower DENV infection rates and body titers after a 14-d IP. During the 7-d IP, one mosquito (sugar group transmitted ZIKV. During the 14-d IP, 100% of mosquitoes showed body and leg ZIKV infections, and one mosquito (sugar+bifenthrin group transmitted ZIKV. This is a preliminary communication, and more studies will be required to further investigate these findings. We expect the findings of this small-scale study to spur larger-scale investigations of the impacts of insecticides on mechanisms regulating vector competence, and exposure to other active ingredients, and aid in development of new

  3. Effects of Blood Coagulate Removal Method on Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Life Table Characteristics and Vector Competence for Dengue Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dodewaard, Caitlin A M; Richards, Stephanie L; Harris, Jonathan W

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available blood can be used as an alternative to live animals to maintain mosquito colonies and deliver infectious bloodmeals during research studies. We analyzed the extent to which two methods for blood coagulate removal (defibrination or addition of sodium citrate) affected life table characteristics (i.e., fecundity, fertility, hatch rate, and adult survival) and vector competence (infection, dissemination, and transmission) of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) for dengue virus (DENV). Two types of bovine blood were tested at two extrinsic incubation temperatures (27 or 30°C) for DENV-infected and uninfected mosquitoes. Fully engorged mosquitoes were transferred to individual cages containing an oviposition cup and a substrate. Eggs (fecundity) and hatched larvae (fertility) were counted. At 14 and 21 d post feeding on a DENV-infected bloodmeal, 15 mosquitoes were sampled from each group, and vector competence was analyzed (bodies [infection], legs [dissemination], and saliva [transmission]). Differences in life table characteristics and vector competence were analyzed for mosquitoes fed blood processed using different methods for removal of coagulates. The method for removal of coagulates significantly impacted fecundity, fertility, and hatch time in the uninfected group, but not DENV-infected group. Infected mosquitoes showed significantly higher fecundity and faster hatch time than uninfected mosquitoes. We show no significant differences in infection or dissemination rates between groups; however, horizontal transmission rate was significantly higher in mosquitoes fed DENV-infected citrated compared with defibrinated blood. We expect the findings of this study to inform research using artificial blood delivery methods to assess vector competence. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The Influence of Dengue Virus Serotype-2 Infection on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Motivation and Avidity to Blood Feed

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Sylvestre, Gabriel; Gandini, Mariana; Koella, Jacob C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a species that lives in close association with human dwellings. The behavior of DENV-infected mosquitoes needs further investigation, especially regarding the potential influence of DENV on mosquito biting motivation and avidity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We orally challenged 4-5 day-old Ae. aegypti females with a low passage DENV serotype -2 (DENV-2) to test whether the virus influences motivation to feed (the likelihood ...

  5. Adulticidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Family: Fabaceae) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan Rajeswary; Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the toxicity of mosquito adulticidal activity of different solvent leaf and seed extracts of Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Methods: Adulticidal efficacy of the crude leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce with five different solvents like benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform was tested against the five to six day old adult female mosquitoes of Ae. aegypti. The adult mortality was observed...

  6. Exploring Mosquito Fauna of Majuro Atoll (Republic of Marshall Islands) in the Context of Zika Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Jérôme; Perera, Devika; Garstang, Helentina; Bossin, Herve C; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2018-04-09

    First autochthonous Zika clinical case was reported in the Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI) on Majuro Atoll in February 2016. An entomological survey of mosquito larvae and adult populations was carried out in four areas of Majuro, the most populated atoll of RMI encompassing different habitats (forest, rural, or urban) including some with confirmed clinical Zika cases to evaluate which mosquito species could be involved in the Zika transmission. A total of 2,367 immature and adult mosquito specimens were collected and identified to the species level. In total, five mosquito species were detected, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes marshallensis (Stone and Bohart), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say), and Culex annulirostris (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), a first record for RMI. The most abundant species was Ae. aegypti presumed to be the main vector of Zika virus followed by Ae. albopictus. Improved management of breeding containers through better public awareness and community engagement, mosquito surveillance and innovative mosquito control strategies using the sterile insect technique (SIT) and/or the incompatible insect technique (IIT) could help prevent outbreaks of arboviruses in the RMI.

  7. Capacity of the terrestrial entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema rarum (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae to parasite Culex apicinus larvae (Diptera: Culicidae Capacidad del nemátodo terrestre entomopatógeno Steinernema rarum (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae de parasitar larvas de Culex apicinus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Susana R. Cagnolo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes can be considered effective agents for biocontrol, resulting innocuous for humans. Larvaeof Culex apicinus Philippi were exposed to infective juveniles of Steinernema rarum (OLI strain under laboratory conditions, testing six doses (1:1, 5:1, 10:1, 15:1, 100:1, 400:1. An increasing percentage of mosquito larvae mortality was recorded with an increased dose. The highest percentage of mosquito larvae mortality (75% was obtained with the dose 400:1. This is the first report of parasitism of an isolated of S. rarum from Córdoba against larvae of C. apicinus, with promising results. Therefore, further studies must be carried out to determine if these nematodes would be effective as autochthonous agents for the control of Culex Linnaeus and other mosquitoes of sanitary interest in the country.Los nemátodos entomopatógenos son considerados eficientes agentes de control de insectos plaga e inocuos para los humanos. Larvas de Culex apicinus Philippi fueron expuestas a seis dosis (1:1, 5:1, 10:1, 15:1, 100:1, 400:1 de juveniles infectivos de Steinernema rarum (aislado OLI. Se registró un incremento en la mortalidad de las larvas del mosquito con el aumento de la dosis del nematodo. El mayor porcentaje de mortalidad de larvas del mosquito (75% se obtuvo con la dosis 400:1. Este es el primer reporte de parasitismo de un aislado de S. rarum de Córdoba, en larvas de C. apicinus con resultados promisorios. Por lo tanto, se debería profundizar su estudio para determinar si pueden resultar efectivos como agentes autóctonos para el control biológico de mosquitos Culex Linnaeus, y otros de interés sanitario en el país.

  8. Community analysis of the abundance and diversity of mosquito species (Diptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohlmann, Tim W.R.; Wennergren, Uno; Tälle, Malin; Favia, Guido; Damiani, Claudia; Bracchetti, Luca; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Studies on mosquito species diversity in Europe often focus on a specific habitat, region or country. Moreover, different trap types are used for these sampling studies, making it difficult to compare and validate results across Europe. To facilitate comparisons of trapping sites and

  9. Tree hole mosquito species composition and relative abundances differ between urban and adjacent forest habitats in northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangudo, C; Aparicio, J P; Rossi, G C; Gleiser, R M

    2018-04-01

    Water-holding tree holes are main larval habitats for many pathogen vectors, especially mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Along 3 years, the diversity and composition of mosquito species in tree holes of two neighbouring but completely different environments, a city and its adjacent forest, were compared using generalized linear mixed models, PERMANOVA, SIMPER and species association indexes. The city area (Northwest Argentina) is highly relevant epidemiologically due to the presence of Aedes aegypti L. (main dengue vector) and occurrence of dengue outbreaks; the Yungas rainforests are highly biologically diverse. In total seven mosquito species were recorded, in descending order of abundance: Ae. aegypti, Haemagogus spegazzinii Brèthes, Sabethes purpureus (Theobald), Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis Dyar and Knab, Aedes terrens Walker, Haemagogus leucocelaenus Dyar & Shannon and Sabethes petrocchiae (Shannon and Del Ponte). The seven mosquito species were recorded in both city sites and forested areas; however, their mosquito communities significantly diverged because of marked differences in the frequency and relative abundance of some species: Tx. guadeloupensis and Ae. aegypti were significantly more abundant in forest and urban areas, respectively. Positive significant associations were detected between Ae. aegypti, Hg. spegazzinii and Hg. leucocelaenus. The combined presence of Ae. aegypti, Haemagogus and Sabethes in the area also highlight a potential risk of yellow fever epidemics. Overall results show an impoverished tree hole mosquito fauna in urban environments, reflecting negative effects of urbanization on mosquito diversity.

  10. Avian Plasmodium in Eastern Austrian mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoener, Ellen; Uebleis, Sarah Susanne; Butter, Julia; Nawratil, Michaela; Cuk, Claudia; Flechl, Eva; Kothmayer, Michael; Obwaller, Adelheid G; Zechmeister, Thomas; Rubel, Franz; Lebl, Karin; Zittra, Carina; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2017-09-29

    Insect vectors, namely mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), are compulsory for malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) to complete their life cycle. Despite this, little is known about vector competence of different mosquito species for the transmission of avian malaria parasites. In this study, nested PCR was used to determine Plasmodium spp. occurrence in pools of whole individuals, as well as the diversity of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences in wild-caught mosquitoes sampled across Eastern Austria in 2013-2015. A total of 45,749 mosquitoes in 2628 pools were collected, of which 169 pools (6.43%) comprising 9 mosquito species were positive for avian Plasmodium, with the majority of positives in mosquitoes of Culex pipiens s.l./Culex torrentium. Six different avian Plasmodium lineages were found, the most common were Plasmodium vaughani SYAT05, Plasmodium sp. Linn1 and Plasmodium relictum SGS1. In 2014, mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex were genetically identified and Culex pipiens f. pipiens presented with the highest number of avian Plasmodium positives (n = 37; 16.74%). Despite this, the minimum infection rate (MIR) was highest in Culex torrentium (5.36%) and Culex pipiens f. pipiens/f. molestus hybrids (5.26%). During 2014 and 2015, seasonal and annual changes in Plasmodium lineage distribution were also observed. In both years P. vaughani SYAT05 dominated at the beginning of the sampling period to be replaced later in the year by P. relictum SGS1 (2014) and Plasmodium sp. Linn1 (2015). This is the first large-scale study of avian Plasmodium parasites in Austrian mosquitoes. These results are of special interest, because molecular identification of the taxa of the Cx. pipiens complex and Cx. torrentium enabled the determination of Plasmodium prevalence in the different mosquito taxa and hybrids of this complex. Since pools of whole insects were used, it is not possible to assert any vector competence in any of the examined mosquitoes, but the results

  11. Preferências alimentares de mosquitos Culicidae no Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil Feeding preferences of Culicidae mosquitoes in the Ribeira Valley, S.Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados obtidos na identificação do sangue ingerido por culicídeos ingurgitados coletados em vários ambientes rurais de cinco localidades do Vale do Ribeira, Estado de São Paulo (Brasil. O maior rendimento, que representou a quase totalidade dos espécimens coletados, foi obtido mediante o emprego da aspiração e das redes manuais. Foi possível identificar a origem de 1.444 repastos sangüíneos. Os Aedes apresentaram predominância de positividade para mamíferos. Ae. scapularis mostrou preferência por hospedeiros de grande porte representados por bovinos e eqüinos. Ae. serratus alimentou-se também em aves. Com exceção da elevada antropofilia de Cx. quinquefasciatus, os demais representantes de Cx. (Culex revelaram-se apreciavelmente ornitófilos. Em conjunto, Cx. (Melanoconion mostrou o mais amplo espectro de hematofagia, que incluiu anfíbio, ave, mamíferos e réptil. Cx. ribeirensis e Cx. sacchettae apresentaram resultados que sugerem alguma preferência por mamíferos. A antropofilia distribuiu-se por várias espécies destacando-se Ae. scapularis, Cx. sacchettae e Cx. ribeirensis que a apresentaram nas coletas efetuadas no intradomicílio. A influência da densidade de hospedeiros no ambiente modificado fez-se sentir em relação à primeira dessas três espécies, para as quais as evidências obtidas sugerem que estejam evoluindo no sentido da domiciliação.Results of blood-meal identification for mosquitoes collected in 5 different Ribeira Valley (S.Paulo State, Brazil environments are presented. Precipitin tests identified the sources of 1444 blood-meals. Aedes mosquitoes fed chiefly on mammals. Ae. scapularis showed a preference for cattle and horses. Ae. serratus also obtained meals from avian hosts. Leaving aside the anthropophilic Cx.quinquefasciatus, the other Culex (Culex mosquitoes showed feeding pattern directed to avian hosts. On the whole Culex (Melanoconion showed a largely eclectic

  12. Aedes nigrinus (Eckstein, 1918 (Diptera, Culicidae, a new country record for England, contrasted with Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838

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    Ralph E. Harbach

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the discovery of Aedes nigrinus (Eckstein, 1918 in the New Forest of southern England, bringing to 36 the number of mosquito species recorded in Britain. Because it seems that this species has been misidentified previously in Britain as the morphologically similar Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838, the two species are contrasted and distinguished based on distinctive differences exhibited in the adult and larval stages. The pupa of Ae. nigrinus is unknown, but the pupa of Ae. sticticus is distinguished from the pupae of other species of Aedes by modification of the most recent key to British mosquitoes. The history of the mosquito fauna recorded in the UK is summarized and bionomical information is provided for the two species.

  13. First report of Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46 pathogenicity in adult Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis (Diptera; Culicidae

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    Lyimo Issa N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae isolate IP 46, originating from a soil sample collected in 2001 in the Cerrado of Central Brazil, was tested for its ability to reduce the survival of adult male and female Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes. A 6-h exposure to the fungus coated on test paper at a concentration of 3.3 × 106 conidia cm-2 reduced the daily survival of both mosquito species (HR = 3.14, p An. gambiae s.s relative to An. arabiensis (HR = 1.38, p 95% of mosquito cadavers in the treatment groups. The results indicate that M. anisopliae IP 46 has the potential to be a bio-control agent for African malaria vector species, and is a suitable candidate for further research and development.

  14. More than one rabbit out of the hat: Radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based approaches for sustainable management of mosquito and tsetse fly populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourtzis, K.; Lees, R.S.; Hendrichs, J.; Vreysen, M.J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) are bloodsucking vectors of human and animal pathogens. Mosquito-borne diseases (malaria, filariasis, dengue, chikungunya and Zika) cause severe mortality and morbidity annually, and tsetse fly-borne diseases (African trypanosomes causing sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock) cost Sub-Saharan Africa an estimated US$ 4750 million annually. Current reliance on insecticides for vector control is unsustainable: due to increasing insecticide resistance and growing concerns about health and environmental impacts of chemical control there is a growing need for novel, effective and safe biologically- based methods that are more sustainable. The integration of the sterile insect technique has proven successful to manage crop pests and disease vectors, particularly tsetse flies, and is likely to prove effective against mosquito vectors, particularly once sexseparation methods are improved. Transgenic and symbiont-based approaches are in development, and more advanced in (particularly Aedes) mosquitoes than in tsetse flies; however, issues around stability, sustainability and biosecurity have to be addressed, especially when considering population replacement approaches. Regulatory issues and those relating to intellectual property and economic cost of application must also be overcome. Standardised methods to assess insect quality are required to compare and predict efficacy of the different approaches. Different combinations of these three approaches could be integrated to maximise their benefits, and all have the potential to be used in tsetse and mosquito area-wide integrated pest management programmes. (author)

  15. Mosquitoes of Middle America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-30

    data on bionomics and disease relations. 0. P. Forattini’s treatment of the Culicidae in “ Entomologia Medica” (Sao Paulo , Faculdade de Higiene e Saude...Canal Zone and U.S.A. Casal. Osvaldo H., Depart amento de Entomologia Sanitaria , Instituto de Microbio logi a, Buenos Aires, Argen tina.— Mosquitoes...976 17 Garcia , M iguel, Departamento de Entomologia Sanitaria , Instituto de Microbiologia , Buenos Aires, Argentina . — Mosquitoes from Argentina

  16. Morphology of the larvae, male genitalia and DNA sequences of Anopheles (Kerteszia pholidotus (Diptera: Culicidae from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Eduardo Escovar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1984, Anopheles (Kerteszia lepidotus has been considered a mosquito species that is involved in the transmission of malaria in Colombia, after having been incriminated as such with epidemiological evidence from a malaria outbreak in Cunday-Villarrica, Tolima. Subsequent morphological analyses of females captured in the same place and at the time of the outbreak showed that the species responsible for the transmission was not An. lepidotus, but rather Anopheles pholidotus. However, the associated morphological stages and DNA sequences of An. pholidotus from the foci of Cunday-Villarrica had not been analysed. Using samples that were caught recently from the outbreak region, the purpose of this study was to provide updated and additional information by analysing the morphology of female mosquitoes, the genitalia of male mosquitoes and fourth instar larvae of An. pholidotus, which was confirmed with DNA sequences of cytochrome oxidase I and rDNA internal transcribed spacer. A total of 1,596 adult females were collected in addition to 37 larval collections in bromeliads. Furthermore, 141 adult females, which were captured from the same area in the years 1981-1982, were analysed morphologically. Ninety-five DNA sequences were analysed for this study. Morphological and molecular analyses showed that the species present in this region corresponds to An. pholidotus. Given the absence of An. lepidotus, even in recent years, we consider that the species of mosquitoes that was previously incriminated as the malaria vector during the outbreak was indeed An. pholidotus, thus ending the controversy.

  17. Laboratory and semi-field evaluations of two (Transfluthrin) spatial repellent devices against Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two transfluthrin-based spatial repellent products (Raid Dual Action Insect Repellent and Home Freshener and Raid Shield (currently not commercially available), SC Johnson, Racine WI) were evaluated for spatial repellent effects against female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes underlaboratory (wind tunn...

  18. Toxicity of Boswellia dalzielii (Burseraceae) Leaf Fractions Against Immature Stages of Anopheles gambiae (Giles) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younoussa, Lame; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of several human pathogens, and great attention has recently been placed on insecticides from plant-derived products, in search for mosquito control agents. This study, thus, investigated the potency of Boswellia dalzielii methanol leaf extract and its four fractions as mosquito ovicide, larvicide, and pupicide against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. The plant products were tested at the following concentrations: 125, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 ppm on eggs and 312.5, 625, 1250, and 2500 ppm on the larvae and pupae of the mosquitoes. For results, hatchability of A. gambiae eggs was reduced to 5% with n-hexane fraction at 2000 ppm. Among the plant products tested, n-hexane fraction was most toxic against A. gambiae (LC50 = 385.9 ppm) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 3394.9 ppm). The n-hexane fraction of B. dalzielii might be used as a mosquitocidal agent in the breeding sites of A. gambiae and C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:27279752

  19. Vapor toxicity of five volatile pyrethroids against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbs, Christopher S; Tsikolia, Maia; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R; Bernier, Ulrich R; Xue, Rui-De; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2018-05-25

    Mosquito mortality has been documented in numerous studies of spatial repellents but the concentration-dependent toxicity of spatial repellent vapors has not been documented. To address this issue, prallethrin, flumethrin, metofluthrin, transfluthrin, and meperfluthrin were selected for comparative study against Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Ae. aegypti (L.), Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. Mosquito were exposed to vapors of each chemical for 2h, 4h, and 24h with mortality recorded at each time point. A second experiment involved exposing mosquitoes to vapors for 2h, then transferring them to untreated holding containers and held for 24h. For these mosquitoes, readings were only taken after 24h to allow for metabolic detoxification and recovery. The LC 50 and LC 90 data indicated that transfluthrin and meperfluthrin had the greatest toxicity across all species, followed by metofluthrin, prallethrin, and flumethrin. Our findings, through the direct comparison of these compounds, suggest that transfluthrin, meperfluthrin, and metofluthrin be considered for further development. The vapor toxicity for the aforementioned compounds significantly exceeds prallethrin, which is currently market available as an adulticidal active ingredient in public health pest control. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Man-biting activity of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus albimanus and An. (Kerteszia neivai (Diptera: Culicidae in the Pacific Lowlands of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yezid Solarte

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available The daily man-biting activity of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus albimanus and An. (Kerteszia neivai was determined in four ecologically distinct settlements of the Naya River, Department of Valle, Colombia. Differences were found among the settlements with respect to the mosquito species present, intradomiciliary and extradomiciliary biting activity and population densities.

  1. The distribution of potential West Nile virus vectors, Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Badillo, Alvaro; Bolling, Bethany G; Perez-Ramirez, Gerardo; Moore, Chester G; Martinez-Munoz, Jorge P; Padilla-Viveros, America A; Camacho-Nuez, Minerva; Diaz-Perez, Alfonso; Beaty, Barry J; Munoz, Maria de Lourdes

    2011-05-09

    Culex spp. mosquitoes are considered to be the most important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) detected in at least 34 species of mosquitoes in the United States. In North America, Culex pipiens pipiens, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, and Culex tarsalis are all competent vectors of WNV, which is considered to be enzootic in the United States and has also been detected in equines and birds in many states of Mexico and in humans in Nuevo Leon. There is potential for WNV to be introduced into Mexico City by various means including infected mosquitoes on airplanes, migrating birds, ground transportation and infected humans. Little is known of the geographic distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and hybrids in Mexico City. Culex pipiens pipiens preferentially feed on avian hosts; Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus have historically been considered to prefer mammalian hosts; and hybrids of these two species could theoretically serve as bridge vectors to transmit WNV from avian hosts to humans and other mammalian hosts. In order to address the potential of WNV being introduced into Mexico City, we have determined the identity and spatial distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and their hybrids. Mosquito larvae collected from 103 sites throughout Mexico City during 2004-2005 were identified as Culex, Culiseta or Ochlerotatus by morphological analysis. Within the genus Culex, specimens were further identified as Culex tarsalis or as belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. Members of the Culex pipiens complex were separated by measuring the ratio of the dorsal and ventral arms (DV/D ratio) of the male genitalia and also by using diagnostic primers designed for the Ace.2 gene. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus was the most abundant form collected. Important WNV vectors species, Cx. p. pipiens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis, are all present in Mexico City. Hybrids of Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus were also collected and identified. The

  2. The distribution of potential West Nile virus vectors, Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae, in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz-Perez Alfonso

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culex spp. mosquitoes are considered to be the most important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV detected in at least 34 species of mosquitoes in the United States. In North America, Culex pipiens pipiens, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, and Culex tarsalis are all competent vectors of WNV, which is considered to be enzootic in the United States and has also been detected in equines and birds in many states of Mexico and in humans in Nuevo Leon. There is potential for WNV to be introduced into Mexico City by various means including infected mosquitoes on airplanes, migrating birds, ground transportation and infected humans. Little is known of the geographic distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and hybrids in Mexico City. Culex pipiens pipiens preferentially feed on avian hosts; Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus have historically been considered to prefer mammalian hosts; and hybrids of these two species could theoretically serve as bridge vectors to transmit WNV from avian hosts to humans and other mammalian hosts. In order to address the potential of WNV being introduced into Mexico City, we have determined the identity and spatial distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and their hybrids. Results Mosquito larvae collected from 103 sites throughout Mexico City during 2004-2005 were identified as Culex, Culiseta or Ochlerotatus by morphological analysis. Within the genus Culex, specimens were further identified as Culex tarsalis or as belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. Members of the Culex pipiens complex were separated by measuring the ratio of the dorsal and ventral arms (DV/D ratio of the male genitalia and also by using diagnostic primers designed for the Ace.2 gene. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus was the most abundant form collected. Conclusions Important WNV vectors species, Cx. p. pipiens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis, are all present in Mexico City. Hybrids of Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. p

  3. Effect of diet composition on the development of the floodwater Mosquito Ochlerotatus (Ochletotatus) albifasciatus (Macquart) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sy, Victoria E.; Campos, Raul E.

    2008-01-01

    One important step for the colonization of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Macquart) is to determine the optimal conditions for larval rearing, which makes possible the development of experiments comprising larval rearing in the laboratory. In this research the effect of diet composition on the development of O. albifasciatus was studied. For this purpose, cohorts of 20 fi rst instars were reared using fi ve diets: 1:1 mix of yeast and TetraMin R , 1:1 mix of fi ne and coarse organic matter, grass cuts soaked in water for 1 h or 24 h before larvae incorporation, and 1:1:1 mix of grass cuts, fi ne organic matter and coarse organic matter. Survival was recorded for each cohort, while development time from first instar to pupa, and adult wing length were recorded for each individual. The effects of the diet on the observed traits were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Both survival and wing length were affected by diet, being significantly higher (79-100% and ∼ 4.46 mm) on diets consisting of organic matter or organic matter plus grass than on those consisting of yeast plus TetraMin R or grass. Development time was not affected by the diet, although the shortest time (8.1 to 8.3 days) and lower variation between replicates were recorded when larvae were reared using organic matter or organic matter plus grass. Thus, it is concluded that the diets consisting of organic matter or a mix of it and grass are the most effective for O. albifasciatus rearing. (author)

  4. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of the Lower Dyje River Basin (Podyjí) at the Czech–Austrian border

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebesta, Oldřich; Gelbič, Ivan; Minář, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2012), s. 288-298 ISSN 1895-104X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Aedes vexans * Aedes sticticus * Culex modestus * Culex pipiens Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.818, year: 2012

  5. Feeding Behavior and Spatial Distribution of Culex Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Wetland Areas of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rádrová, J.; Šeblová, V.; Votýpka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2013), s. 1097-1104 ISSN 0022-2585 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Culex * spatial distribution * WNV * Rabensburg virus * feeding preference Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.815, year: 2013

  6. Effect of diet composition on the development of the floodwater Mosquito Ochlerotatus (Ochletotatus) albifasciatus (Macquart) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy, Victoria E.; Campos, Raul E. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Inst. de Limnologia Dr. Raul A. Ringuelet]. E-mails: victoriasy9@yahoo.com.ar; rcampos@ilpla.edu.ar

    2008-11-15

    One important step for the colonization of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Macquart) is to determine the optimal conditions for larval rearing, which makes possible the development of experiments comprising larval rearing in the laboratory. In this research the effect of diet composition on the development of O. albifasciatus was studied. For this purpose, cohorts of 20 fi rst instars were reared using fi ve diets: 1:1 mix of yeast and TetraMin{sup R}, 1:1 mix of fi ne and coarse organic matter, grass cuts soaked in water for 1 h or 24 h before larvae incorporation, and 1:1:1 mix of grass cuts, fi ne organic matter and coarse organic matter. Survival was recorded for each cohort, while development time from first instar to pupa, and adult wing length were recorded for each individual. The effects of the diet on the observed traits were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Both survival and wing length were affected by diet, being significantly higher (79-100% and {approx} 4.46 mm) on diets consisting of organic matter or organic matter plus grass than on those consisting of yeast plus TetraMin{sup R} or grass. Development time was not affected by the diet, although the shortest time (8.1 to 8.3 days) and lower variation between replicates were recorded when larvae were reared using organic matter or organic matter plus grass. Thus, it is concluded that the diets consisting of organic matter or a mix of it and grass are the most effective for O. albifasciatus rearing. (author)

  7. Electrophysiological responses of gustatory receptor neurons on the labella of the common malaria mosquito Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We recorded electrical responses from sensory cells associated with gustatory sensilla on the labella of female Anopheles quadrimaculatus to salt, sucrose, quinine (a feeding deterrent) and the insect repellent, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). A salt-sensitive cell responded to increasing con...

  8. Light Color Attraction and Dietary Sugar Composition for Several Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Species Found in North Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-02

    Osten Sacken), 2,841 chaoborids (Corethrella spp.), and 26 Lutzomyia shannon: (Dyar) were collected respectively. Proportions of trap collections...for Cx. (melanoconion) spp. Although female Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar), were collected, no significant color differences were observed given the small

  9. Environmental and biological factors influencing Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) vector competence for Saint Louis encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Lord, Cynthia C; Pesko, Kendra; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2009-08-01

    Complex interactions between environmental and biological factors influence the susceptibility of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus to St. Louis encephalitis virus and could affect the epidemiology of virus transmission. Similar interactions could have epidemiologic implications for other vector-virus systems. We conducted an experiment to examine four such factors in combination: mosquito age, extrinsic incubation temperature (EIT), virus dose, and colony. The proportion of mosquitoes with body infections or disseminated infections varied between colonies, and was dependant on age, EIT, and dose. We also show that the probability of a body or leg infection interacted in complex ways between colonies, ages, EITs, and doses. The complex interactive effects of environmental and biological factors must be taken into account for studies of vector competence and epidemiology, especially when laboratory studies are used to generalize to natural transmission dynamics where the extent of variation is largely unknown.

  10. Effects of in vivo exposure to DEET on blood feeding behavior and fecundity in Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rui-De; Ali, Arshad; Barnard, Donald R

    2007-07-01

    This study determined the effects of contact with DEET on guinea pig skin on mortality, probing time, blood feeding rate, engorgement time, and fecundity responses in female Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. Exposure, in this manner, to 10% DEET (in ethanol) for 5 min, resulted in 98% mortality in mosquitoes after 24h. The median probing time (PT(50)) required by females, when exposed to 0.1%, 1.0%, and 10% DEET, was significantly (Pblood feeding rates in populations of females exposed to 1.0% DEET for feeding on the control guinea pigs (105.9s). The mean number of mature oöcytes per female (fecundity) in treatment (1.0% DEET) and control mosquitoes was not significantly different. The responses to DEET observed in this study suggest that repeated exposure of female A. quadrimaculatus populations to this repellent, in laboratory bioassays, could result in confounding of toxicant and repellent effects and inaccurate estimates of DEET repellency.

  11. Medical Entomology Studies - XI. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Oriental Region with Keys to the Species (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Dengue l-4 viruses Saigon area, Vietnam Dengue 3 virus Rangoon, Burma Zika virus Bentong, Malaysia 2 5 isolations Smith et al. from 88 pools...and A. RUDNICK. 1969. Isolation of Zika virus from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Malaysia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 18: 411-5. MATSUO, K., YOSHIDA, Y...number of virus diseases. It is one of the most dominant subgenera of the genus Aedes Meigen in the Oriental region, as indicated by the number of

  12. Neem oil increases the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for the control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Simone A.; Paula, Adriano R.; Ribeiro, Anderson; Moraes, Catia O. P.; Santos, Jonathan W. A. B.; Silva, Carlos P.; Samuels, Richard I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for use in integrated vector management and many isolates are compatible with synthetic and natural insecticides. Neem oil was tested separately and in combination with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larvae of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Our aim was to increase the effectiveness of the fungus for the control of larval mosquito populations. Methods Commercially available neem oil was used at concentrati...

  13. SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF MALARIA VECTORS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE IN RURAL LOCALITIES OF PORTO VELHO, RONDÔNIA, BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Herman Soares GIL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a survey of the malaria vectors in an area where a power line had been constructed, between the municipalities of Porto Velho and Rio Branco, in the states of Rondônia and Acre, respectively. The present paper relates to the results of the survey of Anopheles fauna conducted in the state of Rondônia. Mosquito field collections were performed in six villages along the federal highway BR 364 in the municipality of Porto Velho, namely Porto Velho, Jaci Paraná, Mutum Paraná, Vila Abunã, Vista Alegre do Abunã, and Extrema. Mosquito captures were performed at three distinct sites in each locality during the months of February, July, and October 2011 using a protected human-landing catch method; outdoor and indoor captures were conducted simultaneously at each site for six hours. In the six sampled areas, we captured 2,185 mosquitoes belonging to seven Anopheles species. Of these specimens, 95.1% consisted of Anopheles darlingi, 1.8% An. triannulatus l.s., 1.7% An. deaneorum, 0.8% An. konderi l.s., 0.4 An. braziliensis, 0.1% An. albitarsis l.s., and 0.1% An. benarrochi. An. darlingi was the only species found in all localities; the remaining species occurred in sites with specific characteristics.

  14. Oviposition site selection in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): are the effects of predation risk and food level independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserberg, Gideon; White, L; Bullard, A; King, J; Maxwell, R

    2013-09-01

    For organisms lacking parental care and where larval dispersal is limited, oviposition site selection decisions are critical fitness-enhancing choices. However, studies usually do not consider the interdependence of the two. In this study, we evaluated the effect of food level on the oviposition behavior of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in the presence or the absence of a nonlethal predator (caged dragonfly nymph). We also attempted to quantify the perceived cost of predation to ovipositioning mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were presented with oviposition cups containing four levels of larval food (fermented leaf infusion) with or without a caged libellulid nymph. By titrating larval food, we estimated the amount of food needed to attract the female mosquito to oviposit in the riskier habitat. As expected, oviposition rate increased with food level and decreased in the presence of a predator. However, the effect of food level did not differ between predator treatments. By calculating the difference in the amount of food for points of equal oviposition rate in the predator-present and predator-absent regression lines, we estimated the cost of predation risk to be 1950 colony-forming-units per milliliter. Our study demonstrated the importance of considering the possible interdependence of predation risk and food abundance for oviposition-site-seeking insects. This study also quantified the perceived cost of predation and found it to be relatively low, a fact with positive implications for biological control.

  15. Green chemistry focus on optimization of silver nanoparticles using response surface methodology (RSM) and mosquitocidal activity: Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondari Nyakundi, Erick; Padmanabhan, M Nalini

    2015-01-01

    There is an exigent necessity for development of environmental friendly bio-control agent(s) for elimination of mosquito due to increased resistance resurgence against synthetic control agents. Mosquito control strategy will lay a strong foundation to malaria exclusion or it can be curbed to certain level especially in the developing nations. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by green chemistry approach using Tridax procumbens leaf extract as a reducing agent. The reaction medium involved in the synthesis process was optimized by statistical experimental design using response surface methodology to obtain better yield, uniform size, shape and stability. Further, these synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed through UV-Visible, FT-IR spectroscopy, PSA and SEM Subsequently, the bioefficacy of these particles were investigated on Anopheles stephensi for larvicidal and pupicidal activity. Interestingly, time period of 90 min, temperature of 76±2 °C, pH 7.2±2, 2 mM silver nitrate (AgNO3), 3mM PEG and 2mM PVP showed excellent parameters for bioprocess design for large scale production of stabilized nanoparticles. A concentration of 5 ppm of PVP stabilized nanoparticles exhibited 100% mortality. Thus, the obtained results clearly suggest that silver nanoparticles stabilized by PEG and PVP may have important function as stabilizers, dispersants as well as larvicides for mosquito control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PERESKIA BLEO (KUNTH) DC. (CACTACEAE) FRUIT ENDOCARP CRUDE AND FRACTIONATED EXTRACTS AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongwat, Damrongpan; Ganranoo, Lucksagoon; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn

    2014-11-01

    The use of insecticides can cause adverse effects in vector control, a plant bio-insecticide is an advantageous substitute. Currently, the promising mosquito larvicidal activity from plant extracts has been reported worldwide, including Thailand. In this study, the endocarp of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. fruit was extracted with distilled water and ethanol. Crudes and fractionated groups of the extracts were evaluated for their larvicidal efficacy against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. At 48 hours of exposure, it was found that the activities of the extracts were higher than 24-hour's. The ethanolic extracts showed stronger activities than the aqueous ones, indicating the lower LC50 values of both crude and fractionated group extracts. The most toxic activity was found in a fractionated group of the ethanolic extract, E-Gr3, with significantly lowest LC50 values of 707.94 and 223.12 ppm for 24- and 48-hour detection times, respectively. The bioassay results indicated the larvicidal property against the Ae. aegypti mosquito of the P. bleo plant extracts. A safety for non-target organisms or an action on other mosquito vectors of this plant, should be further investigated.

  17. Adulticidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. (Family: Fabaceae against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Rajeswary

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the toxicity of mosquito adulticidal activity of different solvent leaf and seed extracts of Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti. Methods: Adulticidal efficacy of the crude leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce with five different solvents like benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform was tested against the five to six day old adult female mosquitoes of Ae. aegypti. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h under the laboratory conditions. Results: Among the tested solvents the maximum efficacy was observed in the leaf and seed methanol extract. The LC 50 and LC90 values of P. dulce leaf and seed extract against adults of Ae. aegypti were 218.64, 257.99 mg/L and 426.05, 507.73 mg/L, respectively. No mortality was observed in controls. The Chi-square values were significant at P<0.05 level. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of P. dulce leaf and seed was an excellent potential for controlling dengue vector mosquito, Ae. aegypti.

  18. Spread of Zika virus:The key role of mosquito vector control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Benelli

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a key threat for millions of humans and ani-mals worldwide, since they act as vectors for important parasites and pathogens, including malaria, filariasis and a wide number of arboviruses. The recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections occurring in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean, represent the most recent four arrivals of important arboviruses in the western hemi-sphere, over the last 20 years, namely dengue, West Nile virus, and chikungunya. Since there are no specific treatments for Zika virus and the other arboviruses mentioned above, it should be highlighted that the eco-friendly and effective control of mosquito vectors is of pivotal importance. Besides radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in presence of ultra-low quantities of green-synthesized nano-particles, which magnify their predation efficiency. Furthermore, behaviour-based control tools relying on the employ of swarming behaviour manipulation (i.e. the“lure and kill”approach), pheromone traps, sound traps need further research attention. In particular, detailed basic information on the physical and chemical cues routing mosquito swarming and mating dynamics is urgently required.

  19. Spread of Zika virus:The key role of mosquito vector control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Benelli

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes(Diptera: Culicidae) represent a key threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for important parasites and pathogens,including malaria, filariasis and a wide number of arboviruses. The recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections occurring in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean,represent the most recent four arrivals of important arboviruses in the western hemisphere, over the last 20 years, namely dengue, West Nile virus, and chikungunya. Since there are no specific treatments for Zika virus and the other arboviruses mentioned above,it should be highlighted that the eco-friendly and effective control of mosquito vectors is of pivotal importance. Besides radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in presence of ultra-low quantities of green-synthesized nanoparticles, which magnify their predation efficiency. Furthermore, behaviour-based control tools relying on the employ of swarming behaviour manipulation(i.e. the "lure and kill"approach), pheromone traps, sound traps need further research attention. In particular,detailed basic information on the physical and chemical cues routing mosquito swarming and mating dynamics is urgently required.

  20. Spread of Zika virus: The key role of mosquito vector control

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    Giovanni Benelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae represent a key threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for important parasites and pathogens, including malaria, filariasis and a wide number of arboviruses. The recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections occurring in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean, represent the most recent four arrivals of important arboviruses in the western hemisphere, over the last 20 years, namely dengue, West Nile virus, and chikungunya. Since there are no specific treatments for Zika virus and the other arboviruses mentioned above, it should be highlighted that the eco-friendly and effective control of mosquito vectors is of pivotal importance. Besides radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in presence of ultra-low quantities of green-synthesized nanoparticles, which magnify their predation efficiency. Furthermore, behaviour-based control tools relying on the employ of swarming behaviour manipulation (i.e. the “lure and kill” approach, pheromone traps, sound traps need further research attention. In particular, detailed basic information on the physical and chemical cues routing mosquito swarming and mating dynamics is urgently required.

  1. Larval habitats of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae influences vector competence to Plasmodium falciparum parasites

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    Gouagna Louis C

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of highly competent malaria vectors has been linked to productive larval habitats in the field, but there isn't solid quantitative or qualitative data to support it. To test this, the effect of larval habitat soil substrates on larval development time, pupation rates and vector competence of Anopheles gambiae to Plasmodium falciparum were examined. Methods Soils were collected from active larval habitats with sandy and clay substrates from field sites and their total organic matter estimated. An. gambiae larvae were reared on these soil substrates and the larval development time and pupation rates monitored. The emerging adult mosquitoes were then artificially fed blood with infectious P. falciparum gametocytes from human volunteers and their midguts examined for oocyst infection after seven days. The wing sizes of the mosquitoes were also measured. The effect of autoclaving the soil substrates was also evaluated. Results The total organic matter was significantly different between clay and sandy soils after autoclaving (P = 0.022. A generalized liner model (GLM analysis identified habitat type (clay soil, sandy soil, or lake water and autoclaving (that reduces presence of microbes as significant factors affecting larval development time and oocyst infection intensities in adults. Autoclaving the soils resulted in the production of significantly smaller sized mosquitoes (P = 0.008. Autoclaving clay soils resulted in a significant reduction in Plasmodium falciparum oocyst intensities (P = 0.041 in clay soils (unautoclaved clay soils (4.28 ± 0.18 oocysts/midgut; autoclaved clay soils = 1.17 ± 0.55 oocysts/midgut although no difference (P = 0.480 in infection rates was observed between clay soils (10.4%, sandy soils (5.3% or lake water (7.9%. Conclusion This study suggests an important nutritional role for organic matter and microbial fauna on mosquito fitness and vector competence. It shows that the quality of

  2. Estacionalidad poblacional de los estados inmaduros de Aedes albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Juan José García

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albifasciatus es un mosquito neotropical ampliamente distribuído en Argentina. Presenta una biología típica de mosquitos de inundación. Sus estadíos larvales se desarrollan en zonas deprimidas que se inundan temporariamente. Durante dos años se realizó un estudio de una población de A. albifasciatus en un área cercana a la Plata, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Se realizaron muestreos semanales entre mayo de 1996 y abril de 1998. En cada fecha de muestreo se tomaron 100 cucharones de 300 cc. Las eclosiones de mosquitos numéricamente elevadas se produjeron cuando las precipitaciones inundaron el ambiente entre un 90 y 100 % de su capacidad luego de permanecer seco varios días o semanas. En el período estival, las larvas requirieron entre seis y ocho días para alcanzar el estado adulto (temperatura media 24.6 °C en enero y 21.3 °C en febrero. En otoño-invierno, 43 días (temperatura media: 10.6 °C y en primavera 22 días con una temperatura media de 15.5 °C.Aedes albifasciatus, a floodwater mosquito, is widely distributed in freshwater habitats in Argentina. At high population densities it is an important pest in urban areas. A two year study was conducted in a natural population of A. albifasciatus around La Plata area, Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The breeding site was weekly sampled from May, 1996 to April, 1998. Immature stages of A. albifasciatus were collected with a standard 300 ml dipper. Each sample unit consisted of 100 dipper. Highest densities of mosquito larvae occurred when the breeding site was flooded among 90 and 100 % of its capacity after remaining dry for several days or weeks. The larvae required between six and eight days to become adult in summer (temperature mean 24.6 °C in January and 21.3 °C in February. In autumn-winter, 43 days (temperature mean 10.6 °C and in spring 22 days (temperature mean 15.5 °C.

  3. The Distribution of Culex spp (Diptera: Culicidae in Selected Endemic Lymphatic Filariasis Villages in Bandung District West Java Indonesia

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    Endang Puji Astuti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Data entomologis terkait aspek bionomik dan distribusi nyamuk vektor lymphatic filariasis di Kabupaten Bandung masih sangat sedikit meskipun kabupaten ini sudah mengimplementasikan POPM Filariasis dari tahun 2009. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengindentifikasi spesies nyamuk potensial penular lymphatic filariasis dan habitatnya di wilayah endemis filariasis yaitu Kecamatan Majalaya, Kabupaten Bandung. Survei dilaksanakan selama 2 bulan yaitu September – Oktober 2013 di dua desa Kecamatan Majalaya. Kegiatannya adalah pencidukan larva (termasuk plotting habitat, salinitas, temperatur air, pH, penangkapan nyamuk dewasa menggunakan metode human landing (dalam dan luar rumah serta resting (dinding rumah dan kandang ternak. Hasil penangkapan nyamuk memperoleh enam spesies yang berhasil diidentifikasi. Culex quinquefasciatus dan Cx. tritaeniorhynchus adalah nyamuk yang dominan tertangkap dengan puncak gigitan antara jam 21.00-01.00 WIB. Terdapat lima tempat perkembangbiakan potensial yang teramati disekitar desa tersebut yang terdiri dari kolam ikan yang terbengkalai dan persawahan dengan salinitas 0‰, temperatur air 28,5-29°C, pH 6-7. Meskipun MHD dan MBR vektor filariasis yaitu Cx. quinquefasciatus di wilayah tersebut relatif rendah, penularan masih dapat terjadi karena didukung dengan kondisi lingkungan dan keberadaan nyamuk vektor tersebut di wilayah iniKata kunci: lymphatic filariasis; tempat perkembangbiakan; Cx. quinquefasciatus; kepadatan, BandungAbstract. Bandung district has been implemented mass drug administration (MDA program since 2009, but little is known about entomological data especially about bionomic aspects and distribution of lymphatic filariasis (LF mosquito vectors. This study was aimed to identify potential LF mosquito species and its potential breeding sites in two LF endemic villages in Majalaya, Bandung district. The observational study was conducted in September-October 2013. Mosquito larvae were collected by a

  4. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes

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    Yvonne-Marie Linton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase ( COI I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n = 179 is presented for the first time in 60 years.

  5. MalariaSphere: A greenhouse-enclosed simulation of a natural Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae ecosystem in western Kenya

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    Mukabana Wolfgang R

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development and implementation of innovative vector control strategies for malaria control in Africa requires in-depth ecological studies in contained semi-field environments. This particularly applies to the development and release of genetically-engineered vectors that are refractory to Plasmodium infection. Here we describe a modified greenhouse, designed to simulate a natural Anopheles gambiae Giles ecosystem, and the first successful trials to complete the life-cycle of this mosquito vector therein. Methods We constructed a local house, planted crops and created breeding sites to simulate the natural ecosystem of this vector in a screen-walled greenhouse, exposed to ambient climate conditions, in western Kenya. Using three different starting points for release (blood-fed females, virgin females and males, or eggs, we allowed subsequent stages of the life-cycle to proceed under close observation until one cycle was completed. Results Completion of the life-cycle was observed in all three trials, indicating that the major life-history behaviours (mating, sugar feeding, oviposition and host seeking occurred successfully. Conclusion The system described can be used to study the behavioural ecology of laboratory-reared and wild mosquitoes, and lends itself to contained studies on the stability of transgenes, fitness effects and phenotypic characteristics of genetically-engineered disease vectors. The extension of this approach, to enable continuous maintenance of successive and overlapping insect generations, should be prioritised. Semi-field systems represent a promising means to significantly enhance our understanding of the behavioural and evolutionary ecology of African malaria vectors and our ability to develop and evaluate innovative control strategies. With regard to genetically-modified mosquitoes, development of such systems is an essential prerequisite to full field releases.

  6. Larvicidal potential of some plants from West Africa against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azokou, Alain; Koné, Mamidou W; Koudou, Benjamin G; Tra Bi, Honora F

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes increased resistance to insecticides, and environmental concerns about the use of insecticides, pose a major challenge in the search for new molecules to deplete and incapacitate mosquito populations. Plants are the valuable source as practices consisting in exploiting plant materials as repellents, and are still in wide use throughout developing countries. The aim of the present study was to screen plants from Cτte d'Ivoire for larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. Resistant and sensitive larvae (III and IV instar) of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were exposed to crude ethanol extracts (90%) of 45 plants and viability observed after 30 min, 6, 12 and 24 h postincubation. After partition of active extracts, each fraction (hexane and chloroform washed with NaCl 1%, tannins and aqueous) was tested using the same protocol at various concentrations (1000- 31.2 ppm). Of 49 extracts tested, 7 exhibited high potential (LC50 = 80 to 370 ppm) against resistant and sensitive III and IV instar larvae of An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus. These extracts were from Cissus populnea, Cochlospermum planchonii, Heliotropium indicum, Phyllanthus amarus, Vitex grandifolia and Alchornea cordifolia. However, three most active plant species (LC50 = 80- 180 ppm) were Cs. populnea, Cm. planchonii and P. amarus Their hexane and chloroform fractions showed high larvicidal activity. This study demonstrated that plants from Cτte d'Ivoire have a real potential for malaria, yellow fever, filarial and dengue vector control. Those could be used as sources or provide lead compounds for the development of safe plant-based biocides.

  7. Surveillance, insecticide resistance and control of an invasive Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae population in California [version 3; referees: 2 approved

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    Anthony J. Cornel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The invasion and subsequent establishment in California of Aedes aegypti in 2013 has created new challenges for local mosquito abatement and vector control districts. Studies were undertaken to identify effective and economical strategies to monitor the abundance and spread of this mosquito species as well as for its control. Overall, BG Sentinel (BGS traps were found to be the most sensitive trap type to measure abundance and spread into new locations. Autocidal-Gravid-Ovitraps (AGO-B, when placed at a site for a week, performed equally to BGS in detecting the presence of female Ae. aegypti. Considering operational cost and our findings, we recommend use of BGS traps for surveillance in response to service requests especially in locations outside the known infestation area. We recommend AGO-Bs be placed at fixed sites, cleared and processed once a week to monitor mosquito abundance within a known infestation area. Long-term high density placements of AGO-Bs were found to show promise as an environmentally friendly trap-kill control strategy. California Ae. aegypti were found to be homozygous for the V1016I mutation in the voltage gated sodium channel gene, which is implicated to be involved in insecticide resistance. This strain originating from Clovis, California was resistant to some pyrethroids but not to deltamethrin in bottle bio-assays. Sentinel cage ultra-low-volume (ULV trials using a new formulation of deltamethrin (DeltaGard® demonstrated that it provided some control (average of 56% death in sentinel cages in a 91.4 m spray swath after a single truck mounted aerial ULV application in residential areas.

  8. Comparison of the Insecticidal Characteristics of Commercially Available Plant Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Edmund J; Gross, Aaron D; Dunphy, Brendan M; Bessette, Steven; Bartholomay, Lyric; Coats, Joel R

    2015-09-01

    Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae are two mosquito species that represent significant threats to global public health as vectors of Dengue virus and malaria parasites, respectively. Although mosquito populations have been effectively controlled through the use of synthetic insecticides, the emergence of widespread insecticide-resistance in wild mosquito populations is a strong motivation to explore new insecticidal chemistries. For these studies, Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae were treated with commercially available plant essential oils via topical application. The relative toxicity of each essential oil was determined, as measured by the 24-h LD(50) and percentage knockdown at 1 h, as compared with a variety of synthetic pyrethroids. For Ae. aegypti, the most toxic essential oil (patchouli oil) was ∼1,700-times less toxic than the least toxic synthetic pyrethroid, bifenthrin. For An. gambiae, the most toxic essential oil (patchouli oil) was ∼685-times less toxic than the least toxic synthetic pyrethroid. A wide variety of toxicities were observed among the essential oils screened. Also, plant essential oils were analyzed via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the major components in each of the samples screened in this study. While the toxicities of these plant essential oils were demonstrated to be lower than those of the synthetic pyrethroids tested, the large amount of GC/MS data and bioactivity data for each essential oil presented in this study will serve as a valuable resource for future studies exploring the insecticidal quality of plant essential oils. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Updated distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Spain: new findings in the mainland Spanish Levante, 2013

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    Alarcón-Elbal, Pedro María; Estrella, Sarah Delacour; Arrondo, Ignacio Ruiz; Collantes, Francisco; Iniesta, Juan Antonio Delgado; Morales-Bueno, José; Sánchez-López, Pedro Francisco; Amela, Carmen; Sierra-Moros, María José; Molina, Ricardo; Lucientes, Javier

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) was observed for the first time in Catalonia, northeastern Spain. A decade later, it has spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean region of the country and the Balearic Islands. Framed within a national surveillance project, we present the results of monitoring in 2013 in the autonomous communities of the mainland Levante. The current study reveals a remarkable increase in the spread of the invasive mosquito in relation to results from 2012; the species was present and well-established in 48 municipalities, most of which were along the Mediterranean coastline from the Valencian Community to the Region of Murcia. PMID:25317706

  10. Molecular characterization of Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae of Easter Island based on analysis of the mitochondrial ND4 gene

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    Claudia Andrea Núñez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the main vector of viruses Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya. Shortly after the first report of the dengue vector Ae. aegypti in Easter Island (Rapa Nui in late 2000, the first disease outbreak dengue occurred. Viral serotyping during the 2002 outbreak revealed a close relationship with Pacific DENV-1 genotype IV viruses, supporting the idea that the virus most likely originated in Tahiti. Mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4 DNA sequences generated from 68 specimens of Ae. aegypti from Easter Island reporting a unique finding of a single maternal lineage of Ae. aegypti on Easter Island.

  11. Anopheline (Diptera:Culicidae) breeding in a traditional tank-based village ecosystem in north central Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F; Fonseka, K T

    1997-01-01

    A 13-mo survey of immature anopheline mosquitoes breeding in surface water habitats was done at Mahameegaswewa village within the Huruluwewa watershed in north central Sri Lanka as part of a multidisciplinary study on malaria epidemiology. The watershed is representative of the ancient small tank......-based irrigation network that still forms an important component of the rice production system in the low elevation dry zone. In total, 3,818 immatures representing 12 species were obtained from 2,940 samples taken from 5 larval habitats within the village ecosystem. Anopheles varuna Iyengar and An. culicifacies...

  12. Asymmetric effects of native and exotic invasive shrubs on ecology of the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Allison M; Allan, Brian F; Frisbie, Lauren A; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2015-06-16

    Exotic invasive plants alter the structure and function of native ecosystems and may influence the distribution and abundance of arthropod disease vectors by modifying habitat quality. This study investigated how invasive plants alter the ecology of Culex pipiens, an important vector of West Nile virus (WNV) in northeastern and midwestern regions of the United States. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that three native leaf species (Rubus allegheniensis, blackberry; Sambucus canadensis, elderberry; and Amelanchier laevis, serviceberry), and three exotic invasive leaf species (Lonicera maackii, Amur honeysuckle; Elaeagnus umbellata, autumn olive; and Rosa multiflora, multiflora rose) alter Cx. pipiens oviposition site selection, emergence rates, development time, and adult body size. The relative abundance of seven bacterial phyla in infusions of the six leaf species also was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to test the hypothesis that variation in emergence, development, and oviposition site selection is correlated to differences in the diversity and abundance of bacteria associated with different leaf species, important determinants of nutrient quality and availability for mosquito larvae. Leaf detritus from invasive honeysuckle and autumn olive yielded significantly higher adult emergence rates compared to detritus from the remaining leaf species and honeysuckle alleviated the negative effects of intraspecific competition on adult emergence. Conversely, leaves of native blackberry acted as an ecological trap, generating high oviposition but low emergence rates. Variation in bacterial flora associated with different leaf species may explain this asymmetrical production of mosquitoes: emergence rates and oviposition rates were positively correlated to bacterial abundance and diversity, respectively. We conclude that the displacement of native understory plant species by certain invasive shrubs

  13. A new strategy for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) control with community participation using a new fumigant formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harburguer, Laura; Beltrán, Gaston; Goldberg, Lucila; Goldberg, Laura; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana; Masuh, Héctor

    2011-05-01

    Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are mosquito-borne viral diseases that coincide with the distribution of Aedes aegypti (L.), the primary vector in the tropical and semitropical world. With no available vaccine, controlling the dengue vector is essential to avoid epidemics. This study evaluates the efficacy of a new smoke-generating formulation containing pyriproxyfen and permethrin in Puerto Libertad, Misiones, Argentina. A fumigant tablet (FT) was applied inside the houses by the community members and compared with a professional application. A treatment combining the application of fumigant tablets indoors and ultralow volume fumigation outdoors was also assessed. The community perceptions and practices about dengue disease and the acceptance of this new nonprofessional FT were evaluated through surveys. Results show >90% adult emergence inhibition and 100% adult mortality with these treatments. More than 80% of the residents applied the FT and preferred participating in a vector control program by using a nonprofessional mosquito control tool, instead of attending meetings and workshops promoting cultural changes.

  14. Distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae in southwestern Pacific countries, with a first report from the Kingdom of Tonga

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    Guillaumot Laurent

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus is currently one of the most notorious globally invasive mosquito species. Its medical importance is well documented, and its fast expansion throughout most continents is being monitored with concern. It is generally assumed that its expansion through the Western Pacific island countries has not progressed since its establishment in Fiji in 1989. However, the current status of Ae. albopictus in the Pacific region is largely unknown. Findings According to data from the literature and our own observations, Ae. albopictus is currently present in the following countries of the southern Pacific region: Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Fiji, and the Kingdom of Tonga, where it was first detected in July 2011. It is absent from New Caledonia and French Polynesia where routine entomological surveillance is carried out, and was not detected during entomological work in 2007, either on the Cook Islands or on the Wallis and Futuna Islands. The species was not reported from American Samoa in 2004, but it is mentioned as probably present in Vanuatu. This is the first report of Ae. albopictus in Tonga. Conclusions The introduction and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Tonga was expected due to the geographical proximity of this country to Fiji where the species is strongly established. The pathway of introduction is unknown. The expansion of Ae. albopictus in the Pacific region poses an increasing threat to public health given the role this mosquito plays as primary vector of emerging infectious diseases such as Chikungunya fever.

  15. Essential oils of leaves of Piper species display larvicidal activity against the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    HT. SANTANA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the vector of the dengue virus, an endemic arbovirus from tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The increasing resistance of mosquitoes to commercial insecticides impairs regular control programs; therefore, chemical prospecting originating from the Amazonian flora is promising for potential new insecticides. Several Piper species are, notably, rich in phenylpropanoids and terpenoids, substances with proven insecticidal activity. The composition and the larvicidal activity of three Piper species against A. aegypti were evaluated. Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. The major components found in Piper arboreum were germacrene D (31.83% and bicyclogermacrene (21.40%; in Piper marginatum: (E-methyl isoeugenol (27.08%, (E-anethole (23.98% and (Z-methyl isoeugenol (12.01%; and in Piper aduncum: (E-isocroweacin (29.52% and apiole (28.62% and elemicin (7.82%. Essential oils from the Piperaceae species studied resulted in Lethal Concentrations (LC50 of 34-55 ppm, while LC90 was higher than 100 ppm, except for P. marginatum (85 ppm.

  16. Field evaluation of effectiveness of the BG-Sentinel, a new trap for capturing adult Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of new tools to gather field information about vector ecological parameters has increased. This report evaluated the BG-Sentinel Trap (BGS-Trap, a promising new attempt to improve collection of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. The efficacy of the BGS-Trap was compared with the CDC backpack aspirator, one of the commonest used methods for capturing adult mosquitoes. BGS-Traps captured significantly more Ae. aegypti males (chi2 = 21.774, df = 1, P < 0.05 and females (chi2 = 56.007, df = 1, P < 0.05 than CDC aspirator during all days of field collection. However, CDC aspirator was significantly more efficient to capture Culex quinquefasciatus males (chi2 = 5.681, df = 1, P < 0.05 and females (chi2 = 6.553, df = 1, P < 0.05. BGS-Traps captured host-seeking females (varying between 68.75 to 89.8% in detriment of females in other behavioral and physiological stages. BGS-Traps proved to be efficient and can be used for monitoring adult mosquito populations.

  17. Essential oil composition, adult repellency and larvicidal activity of eight Cupressaceae species from Greece against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Pitarokili, Danae; Papaioannou, Fotini; Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Koliopoulos, George; Emmanouel, Nickolaos; Tzakou, Olga; Michaelakis, Antonios

    2013-03-01

    The present study evaluated leaf essential oils from eight Cupresaceae species; Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus benthamii, Cupressus macrocarpa, Cupressus sempervirens, Cupressus torulosa, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata for their larvicidal and repellent properties against Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of great ecological and medical importance. Based on the LC(50) values, C. benthamii essential oil was the most active (LC(50) = 37.5 mg/L) while the other tested Cupressaceae essential oils provided rather moderate toxicity against larvae (LC(50) = 47.9 to 70.6 mg/L). Under the used laboratory conditions, three of the essential oils (C. benthamii, C. lawsoniana, and C. macrocarpa) provided sufficient protection against mosquito adults, equivalent to the standard repellent "Deet" in the 0.2 mg/cm(2) dose, while C. macrocarpa assigned as the superior repellent oil in the 0.08 mg/cm(2) dose. Chemical analysis of the essential oils using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 125 components.

  18. Impact of West Nile virus dose and incubation period on vector competence of Culex nigripalpus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Anderson, Sheri L; Lord, Cynthia C; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2011-11-01

    Female Culex nigripalpus were fed blood containing a low dose (6.3±0.01 logs plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL) or high dose (7.3±0.1 logs PFU/mL) of West Nile virus (WNV) and maintained at 28°C for incubation periods (IPs) of 6 or 12 days. Vector competence was measured using rates of infection (% with WNV-positive bodies), dissemination (% infected with WNV-positive legs), and transmission (% infected with WNV-positive saliva). Infection rates were not influenced by dose or IP. Dissemination rates were significantly higher at the high dose, and this was dependent on IP. Despite 100% infection and 90% dissemination in the most permissive treatment of high dose and 12 days, only 11% transmission was observed. Virus titers in body and leg tissues were significantly lower at the low dose and the titers were not influenced by IP. We show that not all mosquitoes with infections and/or disseminated infections transmit WNV under the conditions of this test. Therefore, characterizing the transmission ability of a vector population using infection or dissemination as indicators of transmission may provide inaccurate information. The complex relationships between infection, dissemination, and transmission must be evaluated under a variety of biological and environmental conditions to begin to assess the epidemiological risk of natural mosquito populations.

  19. Feeding patterns of molestus and pipiens forms of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in a region of high hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Bruno; Sousa, Carla A; Vicente, José L; Pinho, Leonor; Calderón, Isabel; Arez, Eliane; Almeida, António Pg; Donnelly, Martin J; Pinto, João

    2013-04-11

    Two biological forms of the mosquito Culex pipiens s.s., denoted pipiens and molestus, display behavioural differences that may affect their role as vectors of arboviruses. In this study, the feeding patterns of molestus and pipiens forms were investigated in Comporta (Portugal), where high levels of inter-form admixture have been recorded. Indoor and outdoor mosquito collections were performed in the summer of 2010. Collected Cx. pipiens s.l. females were molecularly identified to species and form by PCR and genotyped for six microsatellites. The source of the blood meal in post-fed females was determined by ELISA and mitochondrial DNA sequencing. The distribution of the forms differed according to the collection method. The molestus form was present only in indoor collections, whereas pipiens and admixed individuals were sampled both indoors and outdoors. In both forms, over 90% of blood meals were made on avian hosts. These included blood meals taken from Passeriformes (Passer domesticus and Turdus merula) by females caught resting inside domestic shelters. Genetic structure and blood meal analyses suggest the presence of a bird biting molestus population in the study area. Both forms were found to rest indoors, mainly in avian shelters, but at least a proportion of females of the pipiens form may bite outdoors in sylvan habitats and then search for anthropogenic resting sites to complete their gonotrophic cycle. This behaviour may potentiate the accidental transmission of arboviruses to humans in the region.

  20. Body size, blood feeding activity, and fecundity of Psorophora howardii, Psorophora ciliata, and Psorophora ferox (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Fulcher, Ali; Hossain, Tanjim; Davidson, Claudia; Beier, John C; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-03-01

    Field-collected female Psorophora howardii (Coquillett), Psorophora ciliate (F.), and Psorophora ferox (Humboltd) mosquitoes were tested in laboratory conditions to measure body size, blood engorgement duration, bloodmeal size, fecundity, and egg morphology. Mean bloodmeal size was significantly different among the three species of mosquitoes, whereas there was no difference in blood engorgement duration. Mean body weights and wing lengths of Ps. howardii and Ps. ciliata were significantly greater than Ps.ferox. Seven days after bloodmeals, oviposition rates for Ps. howardii, Ps. ciliata, and Ps.ferox were 18.8, 56.2, and 0%, respectively. The mean number of total eggs produced per female for the three species was 59, 81, and 73, respectively. Mean egg lengths of Ps. howardii and Ps. ciliata were significantly greater than Ps.ferox, and egg diameters for each of the three species were significantly different from one another. Length per diameter ratios of Ps. howardii and Ps. ciliata were significantly smaller than Ps. ferox. Bloodmeal size was positively related to body weight, but not related to blood engorgement duration, and the total egg number was positively related to bloodmeal size.

  1. Host-feeding patterns of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in urban and rural contexts within Rome province, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Laura; Marini, Francesca; Bongiorno, Gioia; Facchinelli, Luca; Pombi, Marco; Caputo, Beniamino; Maroli, Michele; Della Torre, Alessandra

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the frequency of contact between a mosquito species and its different hosts is essential to understand the role of each vector species in the transmission of diseases to humans and/or animals. However, no data are so far available on the feeding habits of Aedes albopictus in Italy or in other recently colonized temperate regions of Europe, due to difficulties in collecting blood-fed females of this diurnal and exophilic species. We analyzed Ae. albopictus host-feeding patterns in two urban and two rural sites within the area of Rome (Italy). Ae. albopictus was collected using sticky-traps and the blood-meal origin of 303 females was determined by direct dot-ELISA. The blood-fed sample, although representing only 4% of the total Ae. albopictus collected, demonstrates the useful application of sticky-trap in studying the feeding behavior of the species. The human blood index was significantly different among sites, ranging from 79-96% in urban sites to 23-55% in rural sites, where horses and bovines represented the most bitten hosts. The results obtained confirm the plastic feeding behavior shown by Ae. albopictus in its original range of distribution and highlights the high potential of this species as a vector of human pathogens in urban areas of Italy, where both humans and the mosquito itself may reach very high densities.

  2. Repellency of 29 Synthetic and Natural Commercial Topical Insect Repellents Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuri-Morales, Pablo A; Correa-Morales, Fabián; González-Acosta, Cassandra; Sánchez-Tejeda, Gustavo; Moreno-Garcia, Miguel; Dávalos-Becerril, Eduardo; Juárez-Franco, Marissa F; Benitez-Alva, José Ismael; González-Roldán, Jesús F

    2017-09-01

    In Mexico, the use of repellents to prevent insects from landing and biting is a common practice. However, variation in the efficiency of natural and synthetic repellents has been observed. In this study, we evaluated the repellency and protection time of 16 synthetic and 13 natural-based commercial products against Aedes aegypti (L.) from an endemic dengue area (Jojutla, Morelos) in Central Mexico. The "arm exposure" cage test was used to assess the efficacy of the repellents. Tests were conducted by three adult volunteers. Results showed that DEET (N, N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) repellents provided the highest protection and duration times against Ae. aegypti. However, low repellency and short-time protection was observed (when compared with the manufacturers' protection times). Natural-based products did not repel (either landing or biting) mosquitoes for >30 min. These results show that most of the repellent products did not provide satisfactory levels of personal protection against mosquito bites. Frequent reapplication of repellents (synthetic and natural-based) may compensate for their short duration of action. Repellent efficacy data must be integrated into the decision-making process for an optimal response to the local (or specific region) situation. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Species composition and natural infectivity of anthropophilic Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Córdoba and Antioquia states in northwestern Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Lina A; González, John J; Gómez, Giovan F; Castro, Martha I; Rosero, Doris A; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E; Correa, Margarita M

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a serious health problem in Córdoba and Antioquia states in northwestern Colombia, where 64.4% of the total Colombian cases were reported in 2007. Because little entomological information is available in this region, the aim of this work was to identify the Anopheles species composition and natural infectivity of mosquitoes distributed in seven localities with the highest malaria transmission. A total of 1,768 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches from March 2007 to July 2008. Ten species were identified; overall, An. nuneztovari s.l. was the most widespread (62%) and showed the highest average human biting rates. There were six other species of the Nyssorhynchus subgenus: An. albimanus (11.6%), An. darlingi (9.8%), An. braziliensis (6.6%), An. triannulatus s.l. (3.5%), An. albitarsis s.l. and An. oswaldoi s.l. at <1%; and three of the Anopheles subgenus: An. punctimacula, An. pseudopunctipennis s.l. and An. neomaculipalpus at <1% each. Two species from Córdoba, An. nuneztovari and An. darlingi, were detected naturally infected by Plasmodium vivax VK247 using ELISA and confirmed by nested PCR. All species were active indoors and outdoors. These results provide basic information for targeted vector control strategies in these localities. PMID:20140372

  4. Comparative Studies on the Stenogamous and Eurygamous Behavior of Eight Anopheles Species of the Hyrcanus Group (Diptera: Culicidae in Thailand

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    Adulsak Wijit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of laboratory colony is essential for mosquito-borne-disease research. Mating behavior of stenogamous Anopheles peditaeniatus and seven eurygamous species (Anopheles argyropus, Anopheles crawfordi, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles nitidus, Anopheles paraliae (=An. lesteri, Anopheles pursati and Anopheles sinensis, were investigated and compared in this study. The self-mating success of adult mosquitoes in different size cages at two density resting surface (DRS values, 3.6 and 7.2, was statistically significant between stenogamous and eurygamous species. The results obtained from comparative measurements of specific characters in adult females (maxillary palpomere and antennal sensilla characters and males (wing and genitalia indicate those characters might influence the mating success of An. peditaeniatus in a small cage. The gonostylus of An. peditaeniatus was shorter than the eurygamous species. Additionally, the lower frequency of clasper movement and shorter mating time could be important mechanisms that control the stenogamous behavior of An. peditaeniatus. Interestingly, for the first time, a cluster of large sensilla coeloconica was recorded on the antenna of An. argyropus and An. peditaeniatus females. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean number per female of those large antennal sensilla coeloconica among six of the eurygamous species.

  5. Additions to the aquatic diptera (Chaoboridae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Tabanidae, Tipulidae) fauna of the White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chordas, Stephen W.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Chapman, Eric G.

    2004-01-01

    The dipteran fauna of Arkansas is generally poorly known. A previous study of the Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the White River National Wildlife Refuge, the largest refuge in Arkansas, reported only 12 diptera taxa out of 219 taxa collected (Chordas et al., 1996). Most of the dipterans from this study were identified only to the family level. The family Chironomidae is a large, diverse group and was predicted to be much more diverse in the refuge than indicated by previous studies. In this study, Chironomidae were targeted, with other aquatic or semiaquatic dipterans also retained, in collections designed to better define the dipteran fauna of the White River National Wildlife Refuge. Adult dipterans were collected from 22 sites within the refuge using sweep-nets, two types of blacklight traps, and lighted fan traps in June of 2001. Specimens from previous studies were retrieved and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 4,917 specimens representing 122 taxa was collected. The 122 taxa were comprised of the following: two chaoborids, 83 chironomids, 15 culicids, nine tabanids, and 13 tipulids. Of these, 46 species are new state records for Arkansas. Nine undescribed species of chironomids were collected, and eight species records represent significant range extensions.

  6. Micro x-ray absorption spectroscopic analysis of arsenic localization and biotransformation in Chironomus riparius Meigen (Diptera: Chironomidae) and Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Culicidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogren, Christina L.; Webb, Samuel M.; Walton, William E.; Trumble, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution and speciation of arsenic (As) were analyzed in individuals of various life stages of a midge, Chironomus riparius, and the mosquito Culex tarsalis exposed to 1000 μg/l arsenate. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) revealed that C. riparius larvae accumulate As in their midgut, with inorganic arsenate [As(V)] being the predominant form, followed by arsenite [As(III)] and an As-thiol. Reduced concentrations of As in pupal and adult stages of C. riparius indicate excretion of As between the larval and pupal stages. In adults, As was limited to the thorax, and the predominant form was an As-thiol. In Cx. tarsalis, As was not found in high enough concentrations to determine As speciation, but the element was distributed throughout the larva. In adults, As was concentrated in the thorax and eyes of adults. These results have implications for understanding the biotransformation of As and its movement from aquatic to terrestrial environments. -- Highlights: •C. riparius larvae reduced arsenate to arsenite in the midgut. •C. riparius larvae accumulated As in the midgut, with 27% as a transformed As-thiol. •C. riparius adults retained As in the thorax, with 53% as As-thiol. •Larvae of Cx. tarsalis did not have a specific site of As accumulation. •Low concentrations of As in adults suggest reduced terrestrial transfer potential. -- Arsenic accumulation and biotransformation in aquatic insects is variable, but the location and speciation of As provides insight into the detoxification mechanisms of aquatic Diptera

  7. Comportamento de Aedes albopictus e de Ae. scapularis adultos (Diptera: Culicidae no Sudeste do Brasil Adults Aedes albopictus and Ae. scapularis behavior (Diptera: Culidae in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Observar e comparar o comportamento das espécies de Aedes albopictus e de Ae. scapularis, na localidade de Pedrinhas, litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: As observações foram feitas de outubro de 1996 a janeiro de 2000. Foram realizadas coletas sistemáticas de formas adultas mediante a utilização de isca humana, aspirações ambientais e armadilha tipo Shannon. A domiciliação foi estimada pelo índice de Nuorteva e pela razão de sinantropia. RESULTADOS: Foram feitas 87 coletas diurnas, com a obtenção de 872 adultos fêmeas. As médias de Williams', multiplicadas por 100, foram de 118 e 21 para Ae. albopictus nos horários de 7h às 18h e de 18h às 20h, respectivamente. Quanto a Ae. scapularis, foram de 100 e 106 nos mesmos períodos. Esse último revelou pico de atividade crepuscular vespertina. Na aspiração de abrigos, obteve-se o total de 1.124 espécimens, dos quais 226 Ae. albopictus e 898 Ae. scapularis. O período de janeiro a maio correspondeu ao de maior rendimento para ambos os mosquitos. Quanto à armadilha de Shannon, as coletas realizadas na mata revelaram a ausência de Ae. albopictus. No que concerne à domiciliação, esse último mostrou os maiores valores de índices, enquanto Ae. scapularis revelou comportamento de tipo ubiquista. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados confirmam outras observações, permitindo levantar hipóteses. Em relação a Ae. scapularis, sugere-se que possa existir fenômeno de diapausa das fêmeas no período verão-outono, a qual cessaria no inverno-primavera quando então a atividade seria retomada. Quanto a Ae. albopictus, os dados sugerem que se trata de população em processo adaptativo ao novo ambiente.OBJECTIVE: Aedes albopictus and Ae. scapularis were found living together in the Pedrinhas Village, Southeastern of São Paulo State, Brazil. This finding was a good opportunity to make observations about the mosquitoes' behavior. METHODS: From October 1996 to

  8. Breeding of Anopheles mosquitoes in irrigated areas of South Punjab, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrel, N; Amerasinghe, F P; Ensink, J

    2001-01-01

    As part of investigations on potential linkages between irrigation and malaria transmission, all surface water bodies in and around three villages along an irrigation distributary in South Punjab, Pakistan, were surveyed for anopheline mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) from April 1999 to March.......6%), An. pulcherrimus Theobald (1.8%), An. peditaeniatus Leicester (0.3%) and An. nigerrimus Giles (0.1%). The four most abundant species were significantly associated with waterlogged fields and communal village drinking-water tanks. Habitat characteristics most correlated with occurrence of anophelines...... 2000. Samples were characterized according to exposure to sunlight, substratum, presence of vegetation, fauna, inorganic matter and physical water condition (clear/turbid/foul). Also water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), electroconductivity (EC) and pH of sites were recorded. A total of 37982...

  9. Variations in the male genitalia of Aedes (Stegomyia Albopictus (Skuse from Chandigarh and its surrounding areas (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Sagandeep Kaur

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is the most dominant species of subgenus Stegomyia and is medically important from the standpoint of transmitting wide range of human pathogens of deadly diseases like dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya. During present investigations, it has been observed that IX tergum in the male genitalia of Aedes albopictus varies greatly. It shows variations with respect to the presence or absence of lateral projections on the IX tergum, as well as in the shape and size of median and lateral projections. The shape of IX tergum in the male genitalia of Aedes species is of great taxonomic importance as it is a diagnostic character of the species. These variations have been observed both in natural populations collected from various breeding sites as well as in the adults reared in laboratory. The observed differences have not been noticed by any of the previous workers.

  10. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles marajoara (Diptera: Culicidae susceptibility to pyrethroids in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Allan Kardec Ribeiro Galardo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of Anopheles darlingi Root (1926 and Anopheles marajoara Galvão & Damasceno (1942 to pyrethroids used by the National Malaria Control Program in Brazil. METHODS: Mosquitoes from Amapá, Brazilian Amazon, were assessed for resistance to cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and alpha-cypermethrin. Insecticide-impregnated bottles were used as suggested by the CDC/Atlanta. RESULTS: Diagnostic dose for Anopheles darlingi was 12.5µg/bottle during 30 min of exposure. Concentrations for Anopheles marajoara were 20µg/bottle of cypermethrin and deltamethrin and 12.5µg/bottle of alpha-cypermethrin. CONCLUSIONS : No resistance was recorded for Anopheles darlingi , but Anopheles marajoara requires attention.

  11. Updated Reported Distribution of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the United States, 1995-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Micah B; Eisen, Lars; McAllister, Janet; Savage, Harry M; Mutebi, John-Paul; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2017-09-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) are potential vectors of Zika, dengue, and chikungunya viruses in the United States. A Zika virus outbreak in Florida in the summer of 2016, driven by Ae. aegypti and resulting in > 200 locally acquired cases of human illness, underscored the need for up-to-date information on the geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the United States. In early 2016, we conducted a survey and literature review to compile county records for presence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the United States from 1995 to 2016. Surveillance for these vectors was intensified across the United States during the summer and fall of 2016. At the end of 2016, we therefore conducted a follow-up survey of mosquito control agencies, university researchers, and state and local health departments to document new collection records for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The repeated survey at the end of the year added Ae. aegypti collection records from 38 new counties and Ae. albopictus collection records from 127 new counties, representing a 21 and 10 percent increase, respectively, in the number of counties with reported presence of these mosquitoes compared with the previous report. Moreover, through our updated survey, 40 and 183 counties, respectively, added additional years of collection records for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from 1995 to 2016. Our findings underscore the continued need for systematic surveillance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Container Type Influences the Relative Abundance, Body Size, and Susceptibility of Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae) to La Crosse Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Jeffrey J; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2015-05-01

    Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say), the primary vector of La Crosse virus (LAC), develops in a variety of natural and artificial aquatic containers where it often co-occurs with larvae of other mosquito species. We conducted a field study at two woodlots (South Farms and Trelease Woods) in Urbana, IL, to examine how container type influences vector abundance, body size, and susceptibility to LAC. Mosquito pupae were collected from tree holes, plastic bins, and waste tires, and eclosing adults were identified to species morphologically. Oc. triseriatus and Ochlerotatus japonicus (Theobald) females were orally challenged with LAC and midgut infection rate, disseminated infection rate, and body titer were determined by reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR. Oc. triseriatus was the dominant species collected in tree holes while Oc. japonicus and Culex restuans (Theobald) were mostly dominant in artificial containers. Female Oc. triseriatus and Oc. japonicus collected from plastic bins were significantly larger than those collected from tree holes or waste tires. Oc. japonicus females from South Farms were also significantly larger than those from Trelease Woods. Oc. triseriatus females collected from plastic bins and waste tires were significantly more susceptible to LAC infection relative to females collected from tree holes. In addition, Oc. triseriatus females from waste tires had significantly higher LAC titer relative to Oc. triseriatus from tree holes. For each container type and study site, wing length was not correlated to infection or dissemination rates. These findings suggest that the container type in which Oc.triseriatus develop may contribute to the spatial and temporal dynamics of LAC transmission. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Impact of small variations in temperature and humidity on the reproductive activity and survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae); Impacto de pequenas variacoes de temperatura e umidade na atividade reprodutiva e sobrevivencia de Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Ethiene Arruda Pedrosa de Almeida; Santos, Eloina Maria de Mendonca; Correia, Juliana Cavalcanti; Albuquerque, Cleide Maria Ribeiro de, E-mail: cleide.ufpe@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia

    2010-07-01

    In short space of time increase in temperature and rainfall can affect vector populations and, consequently, the diseases for them transmitted. The present study analyzed the effect of small temperature and humidity variations on the fecundity, fertility and survival of Aedes aegypti. These parameters were analyzed using individual females at temperatures ranging from 23 to 27 deg C (mean 25 deg C); 28 to 32 deg C (mean 30 deg C) and 33 to 37 deg C (mean 35 deg C) associated to 60 +- 8% and 80 +- 6% relative humidity. Females responded to an increase in temperature by reducing egg production, oviposition time and changing oviposition patterns. At 25 deg C and 80% relative humidity, females survived two-fold more and produced 40% more eggs when compared to those kept at 35 deg C and 80% relative humidity. However, in 45% of females kept at 35 deg C and 60% relative humidity oviposition was inhibited and only 15% females laid more than 100 eggs, suggesting that the intensity of the temperature effect was influenced by humidity. Gradual reductions in egg fertility at 60% relative humidity were observed with the increase in temperature, although such effect was not found in the 80% relative humidity at 25 deg C and 30 deg C. These results suggest that the reduction in population densities recorded in tropical areas during seasons when temperatures reach over 35 deg C is likely to be strongly influenced by temperature and humidity, with a negative effect on several aspects of mosquito biology. (author)

  14. Lutzomyia spp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) response to olfactory attractant- and light emitting diode-modified Mosquito Magnet X (MM-X) traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Rajinder S; Kaufman, Phillip E; Butler, Jerry F

    2009-09-01

    Mosquito Magnet-X traps were modified for use with blue, green, red, and blue-green-red light-emitting diodes and olfactory attractants to determine the response of Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar) and Lutzomyia vexator (Coquillett) (Diptera: Psychodidae) field populations to these attractants. Red and blue-green-red-baited traps captured the highest numbers of Lu. shannoni and Lu. vexator, respectively, although, there were no significant differences between the colors. Baiting the traps with CO, attracted significantly higher numbers of Lu. shannoni but showed no effect on Lu. vexator capture. In comparison with CO, alone, Lu. shannoni preferred 1-octen-3-ol and 1-hexen-3-ol (0.05 g per trap) in combination with CO.

  15. Effects of larval crowding on development time, survival and weight at metamorphosis in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae Efectos del hacinamiento larval en el tiempo de desarrollo, la supervivencia y el peso en la metamorfosis de Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Maciá

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of larval crowding on survival, weight at metamorphosis and development time were assessed in the dengue mosquito, Aedes aegypti L., under a controlled environment. Larval cohorts were bred at 7 different densities (4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 and 256 larvae / 175 ml pot, while keeping constant water volume and food amount and quality, under controlled temperature and photoperiod. Natural detritus, mainly leaves, obtained from containers naturally colonized by A. aegypti, were used as a source of nutrients for larvae. Development time, mortality, mass at metamorphosis, and total biomass were recorded for each density. Development time ranged from 4 to 23 days in males, and from 5 to 24 in females, whereby larvae took longer to develop at 64 (females and 128 (males larvae per recipient. At high densities there was a male-biased sex proportion. At densities equal to or higher than 0.4 larvae/ml (0.32 larvae/cm² there was an increase of mortality. An inverse relationship between larval density and pupal weight was detected. Biomass per individual reached asymptotic values of about 1 mg/individual at a density of 128 individuals/pot (0.64 larvae/cm². This experiment shows that this southern strain of A. aegypti is sensitive to crowding in small containers.Los efectos del hacinamiento larval sobre el tiempo de desarrollo, la supervivencia y el peso en la metamorfosis fueron estudiados en el mosquito del dengue, Aedes aegypti L., en el laboratorio. Se criaron cohortes de larvas en 7 densidades (4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 y 256 larvas/ recipiente de 175 ml mientras se mantuvo constante el volumen de agua y la calidad y cantidad de alimento, bajo fotoperíodo y temperatura controlados. Se usaron detritos naturales, principalmente hojas, obtenidos de contenedores colonizados naturalmente por A. aegypti como fuente de nutrientes para las larvas. En cada densidad se registraron el tiempo de desarrollo, la mortalidad, el peso en la metamorfosis y la

  16. Identification and Geographical Distribution of the Mosquitoes of North America, North of Mexico,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    caribous dans 1’hemiarctiques, un type seculaire de biotope a larves de moustiques (Culicidae). Can. Entomol. 112:1007-1012. Harbach, R. E. and K. L. Knight...Leprince. 1980. Inventaire des moustiques (Diptera: Culicidae) du sud du Qu6bec, 1973-1978. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Quebec 25:195-206. 1981. Historique...des listes de moustiques (Diptera: Culicidae) du Qu6bec. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Quebec 26:3-8. (List of 51 species.) Heaps, J. W. 1980. Occurrence of

  17. Infection dynamics of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus in four strains of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae: an immunocytochemical study

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    Neira Oviedo MV

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Marco V Neira Oviedo1,2, William S Romoser1, Calvin BL James1, Farida Mahmood3, William K Reisen31Tropical Disease Institute, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA; 2Oxitec Inc, Oxford, England; 3Center for Vectorborne Diseases, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USABackground: Vector competence describes the efficiency with which vector arthropods become infected with and transmit pathogens and depends on interactions between pathogen and arthropod genetics as well as environmental factors. For arbovirus transmission, the female mosquito ingests viremic blood, the virus infects and replicates in midgut cells, escapes from the midgut, and disseminates to other tissues, including the salivary glands. Virus-laden saliva is then injected into a new host. For transmission to occur, the virus must overcome several "barriers", including barriers to midgut infection and/or escape and salivary infection and/or escape. By examining the spatial/temporal infection dynamics of Culex tarsalis strains infected with western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV, we identified tissue tropisms and potential tissue barriers, and evaluated the effects of viral dose and time postingestion.Methods: Using immuno-stained paraffin sections, WEEV antigens were tracked in four Cx. tarsalis strains: two recently colonized California field strains – Coachella Valley, Riverside County (COAV and Kern National Wildlife Refuge (KNWR; and two laboratory strains selected for WEEV susceptibility (high viremia producer, HVP, and WEEV resistance (WR.Results and conclusions: Tissues susceptible to WEEV infection included midgut epithelium, neural ganglia, trachea, chorionated eggs, and salivary glands. Neuroendocrine cells in the retrocerebral complex were occasionally infected, indicating the potential for behavioral effects. The HVP and COAV strains vigorously supported viral growth

  18. Eleutherococcus senticosus (Araliaceae) Leaf Morpho-Anatomy, Essential Oil Composition, and Its Biological Activity Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Chunmei; Wang, Mei; Raman, Vijayasankar; Rehman, Junaid U; Meng, Yonghai; Zhao, Jianping; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Zhenkun; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2017-05-01

    The roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim., a well-known medicinal plant from Eastern Asia, are used worldwide for their known beneficial medicinal properties. Recently, the leaves have been used as an alternative to the roots. The present study was aimed at exploring the leaf essential oil as a potential source of compounds for mosquito management. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the leaf essential oil revealed 87 compounds, constituting 95.2% of the oil. α-Bisabolol (26.46%), β-caryophyllene (7.45%), germacrene D (6.87%), β-bisabolene (4.95%), and α-humulene (3.50%) were five of the major constituents. The essential oil was subjected to biting deterrence and repellent activity against mosquito Aedes aegypti. The biting deterrence of the oil produced a proportion not biting (PNB) value of 0.62 at 10 µg/cm2 as compared with 0.86 of control DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) at a standard dose of 25 nmol/cm2. Among individually selected compounds present in the oil (α-bisabolol, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and caryophyllene oxide), only α-bisabolol produced a PNB value of 0.80, equivalent to DEET at 25 nmol/cm2, whereas the others were not repellent. The artificial mixture (AMES-1) of these four selected compounds produced a relatively high PNB value of 0.80. The repellent activity measured by minimum effective dosage (MED) for α-bisabolol and α-humulene produced MED values of 0.094 and 0.104 mg/cm2, respectively, as compared with 0.023 mg/cm2 of DEET. The leaf essential oil, the artificial mixture (AMES-1), and other binary and tertiary combinations of major compounds showed no repellent activity. In addition, morpho-anatomical features of the leaf are provided for correct identification of the species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Susceptibility of adult female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is modified following blood feeding

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    Samuels Richard I

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue fever, is a target for control by entomopathogenic fungi. Recent studies by our group have shown the susceptibility of adult A. aegypti to fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae. This fungus is currently being tested under field conditions. However, it is unknown whether blood-fed A. aegypti females are equally susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic fungi as sucrose fed females. Insect populations will be composed of females in a range of nutritional states. The fungus should be equally efficient at reducing survival of insects that rest on fungus impregnated surfaces following a blood meal as those coming into contact with fungi before host feeding. This could be an important factor when considering the behavior of A. aegypti females that can blood feed on multiple hosts over a short time period. Methods Female A. aegypti of the Rockefeller strain and a wild strain were infected with two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae (LPP 133 and ESALQ 818 using an indirect contact bioassay at different times following blood feeding. Survival rates were monitored on a daily basis and one-way analysis of variance combined with Duncan's post-hoc test or Log-rank survival curve analysis were used for statistical comparisons of susceptibility to infection. Results Blood feeding rapidly reduced susceptibility to infection, determined by the difference in survival rates and survival curves, when females were exposed to either of the two M. anisopliae isolates. Following a time lag which probably coincided with digestion of the blood meal (96-120 h post-feeding, host susceptibility to infection returned to pre-blood fed (sucrose fed levels. Conclusions Reduced susceptibility of A. aegypti to fungi following a blood meal is of concern. Furthermore, engorged females seeking out intra-domicile resting places post-blood feeding, would be predicted to rest for prolonged

  20. Susceptibility of adult female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is modified following blood feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Adriano R; Carolino, Aline T; Silva, Carlos P; Samuels, Richard I

    2011-05-26

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue fever, is a target for control by entomopathogenic fungi. Recent studies by our group have shown the susceptibility of adult A. aegypti to fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae. This fungus is currently being tested under field conditions. However, it is unknown whether blood-fed A. aegypti females are equally susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic fungi as sucrose fed females. Insect populations will be composed of females in a range of nutritional states. The fungus should be equally efficient at reducing survival of insects that rest on fungus impregnated surfaces following a blood meal as those coming into contact with fungi before host feeding. This could be an important factor when considering the behavior of A. aegypti females that can blood feed on multiple hosts over a short time period. Female A. aegypti of the Rockefeller strain and a wild strain were infected with two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae (LPP 133 and ESALQ 818) using an indirect contact bioassay at different times following blood feeding. Survival rates were monitored on a daily basis and one-way analysis of variance combined with Duncan's post-hoc test or Log-rank survival curve analysis were used for statistical comparisons of susceptibility to infection. Blood feeding rapidly reduced susceptibility to infection, determined by the difference in survival rates and survival curves, when females were exposed to either of the two M. anisopliae isolates. Following a time lag which probably coincided with digestion of the blood meal (96-120 h post-feeding), host susceptibility to infection returned to pre-blood fed (sucrose fed) levels. Reduced susceptibility of A. aegypti to fungi following a blood meal is of concern. Furthermore, engorged females seeking out intra-domicile resting places post-blood feeding, would be predicted to rest for prolonged periods on fungus impregnated black cloths, thus optimizing infection

  1. Detection of West Nile virus-specific antibodies and nucleic acid in horses and mosquitoes, respectively, in Nuevo Leon State, northern Mexico, 2006-2007.

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    Ibarra-Juarez, L; Eisen, L; Bolling, B G; Beaty, B J; Blitvich, B J; Sanchez-Casas, R M; Ayala-Sulca, Y O; Fernandez-Salas, I

    2012-09-01

    In the last 5 years, there has been only one reported human case of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in northern Mexico. To determine if the virus was still circulating in this region, equine and entomological surveillance for WNV was conducted in the state of Nuevo Leon in northern Mexico in 2006 and 2007. A total of 203 horses were serologically assayed for antibodies to WNV using an epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA). Seroprevalences for WNV in horses sampled in 2006 and 2007 were 26% and 45%, respectively. Mosquito collections in 2007 produced 7365 specimens representing 15 species. Culex mosquitoes were screened for WNV RNA and other genera (Mansonia, Anopheles, Aedes, Psorophora and Uranotaenia) were screened for flaviviruses using reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR. Two pools consisting of Culex spp. mosquitoes contained WNV RNA. Molecular species identification revealed that neither pool included Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera:Culicidae) complex mosquitoes. No evidence of flaviviruses was found in the other mosquito genera examined. These data provide evidence that WNV is currently circulating in northern Mexico and that non-Cx. quinquefasciatus spp. mosquitoes may be participating in the WNV transmission cycle in this region. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Facile fabrication of eco-friendly nano-mosquitocides: Biophysical characterization and effectiveness on neglected tropical mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Hoti, S L; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors are solely responsible for transmitting important diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis and Zika virus. Eco-friendly control tools of Culicidae vectors are a priority. In this study, we proposed a facile fabrication process of poly-disperse and stable silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using a cheap leaf extract of Ichnocarpus frutescens (Apocyanaceae). Bio-reduced Ag NPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The acute toxicity of I. frutescens leaf extract and green-synthesized Ag NPs was evaluated against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, Ag NPs showed higher toxicity against A. subpictus, A. albopictus, and C. tritaeniorhynchus with LC 50 values of 14.22, 15.84 and 17.26μg/mL, respectively. Ag NPs were found safer to non-target mosquito predators Anisops bouvieri, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC 50 values ranging from 636.61 to 2098.61μg/mL. Overall, this research firstly shed light on the mosquitocidal potential of I. frutescens, a potential bio-resource for rapid, cheap and effective synthesis of poly-disperse and highly stable silver nanocrystals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Identifying the main mosquito species in China based on DNA barcoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Wang

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are insects of the Diptera, Nematocera, and Culicidae families, some species of which are important disease vectors. Identifying mosquito species based on morphological characteristics is difficult, particularly the identification of specimens collected in the field as part of disease surveillance programs. Because of this difficulty, we constructed DNA barcodes of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, the COI gene, for the more common mosquito species in China, including the major disease vectors. A total of 404 mosquito specimens were collected and assigned to 15 genera and 122 species and subspecies on the basis of morphological characteristics. Individuals of the same species grouped closely together in a Neighborhood-Joining tree based on COI sequence similarity, regardless of collection site. COI gene sequence divergence was approximately 30 times higher for species in the same genus than for members of the same species. Divergence in over 98% of congeneric species ranged from 2.3% to 21.8%, whereas divergence in conspecific individuals ranged from 0% to 1.67%. Cryptic species may be common and a few pseudogenes were detected.

  4. Ultra-low-volume space sprays in mosquito control: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, J A S

    2012-06-01

    The availability of tools to control mosquito (Diptera:Culicidae) vectors that transmit disease is often limited by a variety of economic, environmental and social issues. In emergency conditions (epidemics, hurricanes, floods etc.), the application of pesticides as space sprays (either by ground or air) is the common method of choice in order to rapidly limit adult local mosquito production in the affected area. Space spray application now employs ultra-low-volume technology for the control of adult mosquitoes. However, the use of space sprays often raises social and environmental concerns by the general public that is served. This review will define and illustrate modern ultra-low-volume technology for the purpose of application as a space spray, as well as describing the engineering controls that have been developed to minimize the environmental impact. The primary social concern is validity and efficacy of application. To address this point, the review will attempt to synthesize the global literature to address the effectiveness of space sprays to significantly impact mosquito vectors in relation to human disease. © 2012 The Author. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. Larvicidal effect of disinfectant soap on Anopheles gambiae s.s (Diptera: Culicidae) in laboratory and semifield environs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdoe, France P; Nkwengulila, Gamba; Chobu, Mariam; Lyaruu, Lucile; Gyunda, Israel L; Mbepera, Saada; Xue, Rui-De; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2014-05-03

    Mosquito larval control using chemicals and biological agents is of paramount importance in vector population and disease incidence reduction. A commercial synthetic disinfectant soap was evaluated against larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s. in both laboratory and semi field conditions. Five concentrations of commercial synthetic disinfectant soap (0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1%) were prepared and evaluated against third instar larvae in laboratory and semi field environments. Mortality was scored at 12, 24, 48, and 72 hrs. Each dosage had 6 replicates, having twenty 3rd instar larvae of An.gambiae s.s. In the laboratory phase, all dosages had significantly higher larval mortalities than in controls, while in semi field conditions, the dosages of 0.0001, 0.001 and 0.01% had lower mortalities than laboratory trials. In the comparison between semi field and laboratory trials, only 0.1 and 1% dosage had significant difference with more mortality in semifield conditions. Proportions of larvae that died during mortality monitoring intervals in laboratory and semi field had significant differences only at 12 hrs and 72 hrs. The findings of this study have demonstrated that the mortality of larvae caused by commercial synthetic disinfectant soap is worth further studies in open water bodies. More studies are necessary to find out the effect of sunlight on the chemistry of the synthetic disinfectant and other variables in small scale full field trials.

  6. The influence of a light and dark cycle on the egg laying activity of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera