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Sample records for mosquito larvicidal activities

  1. LARVICIDAL POTENTIAL AND MOSQUITO REPELLENT ACTIVITY OF CASSIA MIMOSOIDES EXTRACTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayo, M A; Femi-Oyewo, M N; Bakre, L G; Fashina, A O

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to investigate larvicidal activities of extracts of Cassia mimosoides leaves and pods as a potential agent in vector control of malaria and to evaluate repellent effect against Anopheles gambiae mosquito of the extract formulated in an aqueous cream base. Petroleum spirit, ethanol, water and dichloromethane extracts were tested against third and fourth instar Anopheles gambiae larvae. The petroleum extract was formulated in an aqueous cream base and repellency determined using N-N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) as control. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, steroids, and flavonoids but absence of cardiac glycosides and alkaloids in powdered C. mimosoides. A dose related response was observed in the mortality rate of the extracts, with 2 mg/ml petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts achieving 100 % mortality. Larvicidal activity of extracts based on LC50 values was petroleum ether > dichloromethane > ethanol > water. The formulated petroleum ether extract cream had a characteristic odor, hard and smooth texture, skin feeling of smoothness, ease of application by rubbing, easy removal using soap and water, non-irritating effect on skin and an acceptable pH value. The cream containing 2%-6% (w/w) extract and control achieved 100% repellency against mosquitoes after an exposure time of 5 minutes. There was a linear relationship between percent concentration of plant extract in the cream samples and repellent activity. These results suggest that crude extracts of C. mimosoides can be developed as eco-friendly larvicide and mosquito repellent and encourage further effort to investigate the bioactive compounds in the extracts.

  2. Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica formulation against mosquitoes

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    Dua Virendra K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the larvicidal activity of neem-based biopesticide for the control of mosquitoes. Methods Larvicidal efficacy of an emulsified concentrate of neem oil formulation (neem oil with polyoxyethylene ether, sorbitan dioleate and epichlorohydrin developed by BMR & Company, Pune, India, was evaluated against late 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of different genera of mosquitoes. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations (0.5–5.0 ppm of the formulation along with untreated control. Larvicidal activity of the formulation was also evaluated in field against Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes. The formulation was diluted with equal volumes of water and applied @ 140 mg a.i./m2 to different mosquito breeding sites with the help of pre calibrated knapsack sprayer. Larval density was determined at pre and post application of the formulation using a standard dipper. Results Median lethal concentration (LC50 of the formulation against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was found to be 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7 ppm respectively. LC50 values of the formulation stored at 26°C, 40°C and 45°C for 48 hours against Ae. aegypti were 1.7, 1.7, 1.8 ppm while LC90 values were 3.7, 3.7 and 3.8 ppm respectively. Further no significant difference in LC50 and LC90 values of the formulation was observed against Ae. aegypti during 18 months storage period at room temperature. An application of the formulation at the rate of 140 mg a.i./m2 in different breeding

  3. Mosquito larvicidal activity of Solanum nigrum berry extracts.

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    Rawani, Anjali; Chowdhury, Nandita; Ghosh, Anupam; Laskar, Subrata; Chandra, Goutam

    2013-05-01

    Phytochemicals are widely used as biocontrol agent against vector mosquitoes. The present study was undertaken to isolate and evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of various extracts of berries of S. nigrum against Culex quinquefasciatus. Crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extracts of fresh, mature, green berries of S. nigrum were tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The lethal concentration was determined and the chemical nature of the active substance was evaluated. A qualitative phytochemical analysis of chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extract was performed in search of the active ingredient. The appropriate lethal concentrations at 24 h for chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extract was also studied on non-target organisms. In a 72 h bioassay experiment with crude extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 3 per cent extract. In the chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) solvent extract, the maximum mortality was recorded at a concentration of 120 μg/ml. The log probit analysis (95% confidence level) recorded lowest LC 50 value at 72 h of exposure. Both crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extracts showed good larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The isolated active ingredient may be tested as a potential larvicide after determination of its structure.

  4. Mosquito larvicidal activity of active constituent derived from Chamaecyparis obtusa leaves against 3 mosquito species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young-Su; Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2005-12-01

    Mosqutio larvicidal activity of Chamaecyparis obtusa leaf-derived materials against the 4th-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti (L.), Ochlerotatus togoi (Theobald), and Culex pipiens pallens (Coquillett) was examined in the laboratory. A crude methanol extract of C. obtusa leaves was found to be active (percent mortality rough) against the 3 species larvae; the hexane fraction of the methanol extract showed a strong larvicidal activity (100% mortality) at 100 ppm. The bioactive component in the C. obtusa leaf extract was characterized as beta-thujaplicin by spectroscopic analyses. The LC50 value of beta-thujaplicin was 2.91, 2.60, and 1.33 ppm against Ae. aegypti, Oc. togoi, and Cx. pipiens pallens larvae. This naturally occurring C. obtusa leaves-derived compound merits further study as a potential mosquito larval control agent or lead compound.

  5. Larvicidal activity of endocarp and seed crude extracts of Dracaena loureiri Gagnep against Aedes aegypti (L. mosquito

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    Damrongpan Thongwat

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The ethanolic endocarp extract of D. loureiri demonstrated effective larvicidal activity. It is an alternative source for developing a novel larvicide for controlling this mosquito species.

  6. Chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal activity of essential oils from leaves of different Cinnamomum osmophloeum provenances.

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    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2004-07-14

    Chemical compositions of leaf essential oils from eight provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) were compared. According to GC-MS and cluster analyses, the leaf essential oils of the eight provenances and their relative contents were classified into five chemotypes-cinnamaldehyde type, linalool type, camphor type, cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type, and mixed type. The larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from the five chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon trees were evaluated by mosquito larvicidal assay. Results of larvicidal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The LC(50) values for cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type against A. aegypti larvae in 24 h were 36 ppm (LC(90) = 79 ppm) and 44 ppm (LC(90) = 85 ppm), respectively. Results of the 24-h mosquito larvicidal assays also showed that the effective constituents in leaf essential oils were cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, anethole, and cinnamyl acetate and that the LC(50) values of these constituents against A. aegypti larvae were <50 ppm. Cinnamaldehyde had the best mosquito larvicidal activity, with an LC(50) of 29 ppm (LC(90) = 48 ppm) against A. aegypti. Comparisons of mosquito larvicidal activity of cinnamaldehyde congeners revealed that cinnamaldehyde exhibited the strongest mosquito larvicidal activity.

  7. The biological activity of a-mangostin, a larvicidal botanic mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha-mangostin derived from mangosteen was identified as a mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 inhibitor via high throughput insecticide screening. Alpha-mangostin was tested for its larvicidal activity against 3rd instar larvae of six mosquito species and the LC50 values range from 0.84 to 2.90 ppm....

  8. Mosquito larvicidal and antimicrobial activity of protein of Solanum villosum leaves

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    Chandra Goutam

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes are associated with the transmission of malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, filariasis and other viral diseases throughout the globe, apart from being a nuisance pest. Biological control alone or as a part of integrated vector management stands to be a better alternative to the chemical controls aimed against pest mosquitoes. At the same time it is necessary to control bacteria by synthetic or natural means (plant products. Hence the present study was designed to screen the effect of mosquito larvicidal and antimicrobial activitiy of protein isolated from matured leaves of Solanum villosum against mosquito immatures and some pathogenic bacteria. Methods Aqueous solvent extract of fresh mature leaves of S. villosum was tested against 3rd instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Stegomyia aegypti mosquitoes and against four pathogenic bacteria. The protein fraction was isolated and tested for mosquitocidal and antibacterial activities. Amino acid analysis was performed on isolated protein using PICO.TAG amino acid system. SDS-PAGE was also done to detect the bands of amino acid on the basis of their molecular weights. Results Proteins isolated from mature leaves of S. villosum were found to have larvicidal and antimicrobial properties. Analysis of the isolated protein identified fifteen amino acids of which eight were essential amino acids. SDS-PAGE detected seven bands corresponding to different molecular weights in the range of 69–109 KDa. Conclusion Proteins of mature leaves of S. villosum exhibited moderate larvicidal and antimicrobial activities. The study provides considerable scope in exploiting local indigenous resources for isolation of antimicrobial and mosquito larvicidal proteins.

  9. Screening of selected ethnomedicinal plants from South Africa for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maharaj, R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was initiated to establish whether any South African ethnomedicinal plants (indigenous or exotic), that have been reported to be used traditionally to repel or kill mosquitoes, exhibit effective mosquito larvicidal properties....

  10. Mosquito larvicidal activity of Solanum nigrum berry extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Rawani, Anjali; Chowdhury, Nandita; Ghosh, Anupam; Laskar, Subrata; Chandra, Goutam

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemicals are widely used as biocontrol agent against vector mosquitoes. The present study was undertaken to isolate and evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of various extracts of berries of S. nigrum against Culex quinquefasciatus. Crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extracts of fresh, mature, green berries of S. nigrum were tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The lethal concentration was determined and the chemical nature of the active substance was evaluated. A qualitative phyt...

  11. Screening of selected ethnomedicinal plants from South Africa for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis

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    Maharaj Rajendra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was initiated to establish whether any South African ethnomedicinal plants (indigenous or exotic, that have been reported to be used traditionally to repel or kill mosquitoes, exhibit effective mosquito larvicidal properties. Methods Extracts of a selection of plant taxa sourced in South Africa were tested for larvicidal properties in an applicable assay. Thirty 3rd instar Anopheles arabiensis larvae were exposed to various extract types (dichloromethane, dichloromethane/methanol (1:1, methanol and purified water of each species investigated. Mortality was evaluated relative to the positive control Temephos (Mostop; Agrivo, an effective emulsifiable concentrate larvicide. Results Preliminary screening of crude extracts revealed substantial variation in toxicity with 24 of the 381 samples displaying 100% larval mortality within the seven day exposure period. Four of the high activity plants were selected and subjected to bioassay guided fractionation. The results of the testing of the fractions generated identified one fraction of the plant, Toddalia asiatica as being very potent against the An. arabiensis larvae. Conclusion The present study has successfully identified a plant with superior larvicidal activity at both the crude and semi pure fractions generated through bio-assay guided fractionation. These results have initiated further research into isolating the active compound and developing a malaria vector control tool.

  12. Botanicals as Mosquito Larvicides

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    D.R. Nath,

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Methanol extracts of 19 indigenous plants were evaluated as mosquito larvicide. Amongthese, pericarp of Zanthoxylum limonella was found to have the most promising larvicidalproperties against Aedes(s albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus with LC90 values at 0.47 ppmand 0.73 ppm, respectively. The extract of Piper nigrum was also found very effective (LC90on the larvae of both the species at 6.8 ppm and 8.4 ppm, respectively. The extracts of theremaining plant parts showed LC90 values at above 100 ppm concentration. Extract of Calotropisgigantea was found to be the least effective ( LC90 values at 962.8 ppm and 1091.8 ppm againstthe larvae of both the species. However, plant extracts were found more effective against Aedes(salbopictus larvae than against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

  13. Larvicidal activity of few select indigenous plants of North East India against disease vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohutia, C; Bhattacharyya, D R; Sharma, S K; Mohapatra, P K; Bhattacharjee, K; Gogoi, K; Gogoi, P; Mahanta, J; Prakash, A

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes are the vectors of several life threatening diseases like dengue, malaria, Japanese encephalitis and lymphatic filariasis, which are widely present in the north-eastern states of India. Investigations on five local plants of north-east India, selected on the basis of their use by indigenous communities as fish poison, were carried out to study their mosquito larvicidal potential against Anopheles stephensi (malaria vector), Stegomyia aegypti (dengue vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus (lymphatic filariasis vector) mosquitoes. Crude Petroleum ether extracts of the roots of three plants viz. Derris elliptica, Linostoma decandrum and Croton tiglium were found to have remarkable larvicidal activity; D. elliptica extract was the most effective and with LC50 value of 0.307 μg/ml its activity was superior to propoxur, the standard synthetic larvicide. Half-life of larvicidal activity of D. elliptica and L. decandrum extracts ranged from 2-4 days.

  14. Larvicidal activity of synthetic disinfectants and antibacterial soaps against mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Xue, Rui-De; Qualls, Whitney A

    2013-01-01

    Seven commercial synthetic disinfectant and antibacterial soap products were evaluated as mosquito larvicides against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in the laboratory. Three aerosol disinfectant products, at 0.01% concentration resulted in 58-76% mortality of laboratory-reared fourth instar mosquito larvae at 24 h posttreatment. Four antibacterial soap products at 0.0001% concentration resulted in 88-100% larval mortality at 24 h posttreatment. The active ingredient of the antibacterial soap products, triclosan (0.1%) resulted in 74% larval mortality. One of the antibacterial soap products, Equate caused the highest mosquito larval mortality in the laboratory. Equate antibacterial soap at the application rate of 0.000053 ppm resulted in 90% mortality of the introduced fourth instar larvae of Cx. quinquesfasicatus in the outdoor pools. In laboratory and field bioassays, the antibacterial soap resulted in significant larval mosquito mortality.

  15. Larvicidal and mosquito repellent activities of Pine (Pinus longifolia, Family: Pinaceae oil

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    M.A. Ansari, P.K. Mittal, R.K. Razdan & U. Sreehari

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Various plant-based products are safe and biodegradable alternatives tosynthetic chemicals for use against mosquitoes. Oil of Pinus longifolia is traditionally used forprotection against mosquitoes in some rural areas but there is no documented report of its use againstmosquitoes. The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the activity of Pine oilagainst mosquitoes.Methods: The oil was procured from the market and its contents were chemically analysed. Larvicidalactivity of oil was tested in laboratory bioassays, while repellent action was studied during wholenight bait collections in field by direct application on the skin and after its impregnation on mats.Results: Results showed varying degree of larvicidal activity of Pine oil against mosquitoes with LC50values ranging between 82 and 112 ppm. The Pine oil had strong repellent action against mosquitoesas it provided 100% protection against Anopheles culicifacies for 11 h and 97% protection againstCulex quinquefasciatus for nine hours respectively. Electrically heated mats prepared from Pine oilprovided, 94 and 88% protection against An. culicifacies and Cx. quinquefasciatus for 10 and sevenhours respectively.Interpretaion & conclusion: Pine oil is effective against mosquito larvae at very higher doses whichare not of any practical utility. However, Pine oil showed strong repellent action against An. culicifacies(malaria vector and Cx. quinquefasciatus (pest mosquito. Thus its use could be popularised asmosquito repellent.

  16. Adult repellency and larvicidal activity of five plant essential oils against mosquitoes.

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    Zhu, Junwei; Zeng, Xiaopeng; Yanma; Liu, Ting; Qian, Kuen; Han, Yuhua; Xue, Suqin; Tucker, Brad; Schultz, Gretchen; Coats, Joel; Rowley, Wayne; Zhang, Aijun

    2006-09-01

    The larvicidal activity and repellency of 5 plant essential oils--thyme oil, catnip oil, amyris oil, eucalyptus oil, and cinnamon oil--were tested against 3 mosquito species: Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex pipiens pallens. Larvicidal activity of these essentials oils was evaluated in the laboratory against 4th instars of each of the 3 mosquito species, and amyris oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect with LC50 values in 24 h of 58 microg/ml (LC90 = 72 microg/ml) for Ae. aegypti, 78 microg/ml (LC90 = 130 microg/ml) for Ae. albopictus, and 77 microg/ml (LC90 = 123 microg/ml) for Cx. p. pallens. The topical repellency of these selected essential oils and deet against laboratory-reared female blood-starved Ae. albopictus was examined. Catnip oil seemed to be the most effective and provided 6-h protection at both concentrations tested (23 and 468 microg/ cm2). Thyme oil had the highest effectiveness in repelling this species, but the repellency duration was only 2 h. The applications using these natural product essential oils in mosquito control are discussed.

  17. Larvicidal and IGR activity of extract of Tanzanian plants against malaria vector mosquitoes

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    Erich Kleinpeter

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: This paper reports the larvicidal activity of seventeen Tanzanian plantspecies against the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles larvae. Some of the plants are usedtraditionally as sources of insecticidal materials.Methods: The crude extracts from the leaves, stem and root barks of the investigated plants wereobtained by solvent extraction and then bio-assayed following WHO protocols showed LC50 values10 to 400 ppm after 24 h exposure. The structures were determined on interpretation of spectroscopicdata.Results: The most active extracts were those from the stem and root barks of Annona squamosa,Uvaria faulknerae, U. kirkii and Uvariodendron pycnophyllum, all of which had LC50 values between10 and 100 ppm. Long-term exposure beyond 24 h also showed more susceptibility of the larvae tothe extracts. Larvae deformities by forming tail-like structures were observed for the methanolextracts of Tessmannia martiniana var pauloi.Interpretation & conclusion: The results suggest that the investigated plant extracts are promisingas larvicides against An. gambiae s.s. Giles mosquitoes and could be useful leads in the search fornew and biodegradable plant derived larvicide products.

  18. Larvicidal and Adulticidal Activity of Chroman and Chromene Analogues against Susceptible and Permethrin-Resistant Mosquito Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meepagala, Kumudini M; Estep, Alden S; Becnel, James J

    2016-06-22

    Mosquitoes play a major role as vectors that transmit parasitic and viral diseases worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical countries. Mosquito borne diseases not only affect humans but they also affect livestock in many parts of the world. They carry diseases that are lethal to dogs and horses. Dog heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic disease spread through mosquitoes. This disease is not limited to dogs, but it can affect other animals and humans as well. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and West Nile virus (WNV) are also mosquito borne diseases that affect the central nervous system of horses and cause severe complications and death. Emergence of resistance among mosquitoes to current pesticides has increased the importance of the search for alternate compounds that are effective and environmentally benign with diverse modes of actions than those that are commercially available. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the primary vector for transmission of Zika viral fever, yellow fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Mosquito control is currently the best strategy to prevent mosquito borne diseases. There are numerous approaches for control of potentially dangerous mosquito populations. These approaches include the use of adulticides (insecticides), larvicides, and, to a limited extent, the use of repellents. Our previous studies have shown the mosquito repellent activity of chromenes. In the present study, we demonstrate larvicidal and adulticidal activity of chroman and chromene analogues against a permethrin susceptible laboratory strain as well as activity against a permethrin-resistant strain of Aedes aegypti.

  19. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of Pongamia pinnata extracts against three mosquito vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guna Ranjan Kolli; Balakrishnan; Vijayan; Raja Sundararajan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mosquito larvicidal activity of Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) extracts against three mosquito vectors.Methods:The larval mortality was found in both methanol and hydroalcohol extracts of P. pinnata against fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. The mortality was observed 24 h and 48 h after treatment, data was subjected to probit analysis to determine lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 percent of treated larvae of tested species.Results:The methanol and hydroalcohol extracts of bark part of P. pinnata L were tested against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with LC50 values of 84.8, 118.2 and 151.7 ppm; 97.7, 128.3 and 513 ppm. The highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of P. pinnata when comparable to the hydroalcohol extract.Conclusions:These results suggest that both methanol and hyrdoalcohol extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of disease vectors. This could lead to isolation of novel natural larvicidal compounds.

  20. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of Pongamia pinnata extracts against three mosquito vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolli, Guna Ranjan; Balakrishnan; Vijayan; Sundararajan, Raja

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the mosquito larvicidal activity of Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) extracts against three mosquito vectors. Methods The methanol and hydroalcohol extracts of bark part of P. pinnata L were tested against fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. The mortality was observed 24 h and 48 h after treatment, data was subjected to probit analysis to determine lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 percent of treated larvae of tested species. Results The larval mortality was found in both methanol and hydroalcohol extracts of P. pinnata against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with LC50 values of 84.8, 118.2 and 151.7 ppm; 97.7, 128.3 and 513 ppm. The highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of P. pinnata when comparable to the hydroalcohol extract. Conclusions These results suggest that both methanol and hyrdoalcohol extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of disease vectors. This could lead to isolation of novel natural larvicidal compounds.

  1. Larvicidal Activities of Indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates and Nematode Symbiotic Bacterial Toxins against the Mosquito Vector, Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Ashraf M Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases and the resistance of mosquitoes to conventional pesticides have recently caused a panic to the authorities in the endemic countries. This study was conducted to identify native larvicidal biopesticides against Culex pipiens for utilization in the battle against mosquito-borne diseases.Methods: Larvicidal activities of new indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis isolates and crude toxin complexes (TCs of two nematode bacterial-symbionts, Photorhabdus luminescens akhurstii (HRM1 and Ph. luminescens akhurstii (HS1 that tested against Cx. pipiens. B. thuringiensis isolates were recovered from different environmental samples in Saudi Arabia, and the entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis indica (HRM1 and He. sp (HS1 were iso­lated from Egypt. Larvicidal activities (LC50 and LC95 of the potentially active B. thuringiensis strains or TCs were then evaluated at 24 and 48h post-treatment.Results: Three B. thuringiensis isolates were almost as active as the reference B. thuringiensis israelensis (Bti-H14, and seven isolates were 1.6–5.4 times more toxic than Bti-H14. On the other hand, the TCs of the bacterial sym­bionts, HRM1 and HS1, showed promising larvicidal activities. HS1 showed LC50 of 2.54 folds that of HRM1 at 24h post-treatment. Moreover, histopathological examinations of the HS1-treated larvae showed deformations in midgut epithelial cells at 24h post-treatment.Conclusion: Synergistic activity and molecular characterization of these potentially active biocontrol agents are currently being investigated. These results may lead to the identification of eco-friend mosquito larvicidal product(s that could contribute to the battle against mosquito-borne diseases.

  2. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of biogenic nanoparticles against filariasis causing Culex mosquito vector

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    Dhanasekaran, Dharumadurai; Thangaraj, Ramasamy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the larvicidal activity of biogenic nanoparticles against filariasis causing Culex mosquito vector. Methods The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis. spectrum, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of synthesized AgNPs for 10 min. The different concentrations of 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625 and 0.312 mg/L silver nanoparticles were tested against the Culex larvae. Results The mortality rate of Agaricus bisporus biogenic nanoparticles against Culex larvae are 5 mg/L (100%), 2.5 mg/L (81%), 1.25 mg/L (62%), 0.625 mg/L (28%) and 0.312 mg/L (11%). Conclusions These results suggest that the synthesized biogenic AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for controlling Culex larvae.

  3. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of biogenic nanoparticles against filariasis causing Culex mosquito vector

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    Dharumadurai Dhanasekaran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of biogenic nanoparticles against filariasis causing Culex mosquito vector. Methods: The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UVvis. spectrum, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of synthesized AgNPs for 10 min. The different concentrations of 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625 and 0.312 mg/L silver nanoparticles were tested against the Culex larvae. Results: The mortality rate of Agaricus bisporus biogenic nanoparticles against Culex larvae are 5 mg/L (100%, 2.5 mg/L (81%, 1.25 mg/L (62%, 0.625 mg/L (28% and 0.312 mg/L (11%. Conclusions: These results suggest that the synthesized biogenic AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for controlling Culex larvae.

  4. Mosquito larvicidal activity of Rauvolfia serpentina L. seeds against Culex quinquefasciatus Say

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dipanwita Das; Goutam Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To establish the larvicidal activities, if any of solvent extracts of Rauvolfia serpentina (R. serpentina) L. seeds against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) Say, 1823 as target species. Methods:Seeds of R. serpentina were extracted with five solvents graded according to the polarity [viz. petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and absolute alcohol] continuing one after another with the same seeds. Results:Mortality rate with petroleum ether extract was significantly higher than other extracts. The mortality rates of late 3rd instar larvae were 50.33±5.51, 10.00±1.00, 0.00±0.00, 21.33±1.53 and 0.00±0.00 in 100 ppm concentration of petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and absolute alcohol respectively, after 24 h of exposure period. Conclusions:Results of this study show that petroleum ether extract of R. serpentina seed may be considered as a potent source of mosquito larvicidal agent.

  5. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against three mosquito vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Bagavan; A Abdul Rahuman

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mosquito larvicidal activity of plant extracts. Methods: The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf, flower and seed extracts of Abrusprecatorius (A. precatorius), Croton bonplandianum (C. bonplandianum), Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon), Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) were tested against fourth instar larvae of Anopheles vagus (An. vagus), Armigeres subalbatus(Ar. subalbatus) and Culex vishnui (Cx. vishnui). Results: The highest larval mortality was found in seed ethyl acetate extracts of A. precatorius and leaf extracts of C. bonplandianum, flower chloroform and methanol extracts of M. paradisiaca, and flower bud hexane extract of S. aromaticum against An. vagus with LC50 values of 19.31, 39.96, 35.18, 79.90 and 85.90 μg/mL; leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of C. dactylon, flower methanol extract of M. paradisiaca, flower bud methanol extract of S. aromaticum against Ar. subalbatus with LC50 values of 21.67, 32.62, 48.90 and 78.28 μg/mL, and seed methanol of A. precatorius, flower methanol extract ofM. paradisiaca , flower bud hexane extract of S. aromaticum against Cx. vishnui with LC50 values of 136.84, 103.36 and 149.56 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: These results suggest that the effective plant crude extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of disease vectors. This study provides the first report on the larvicidal activity of crude solvent extracts of different mosquitoes.

  6. Larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities of four plant extracts against three mosquito species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathibha, K P; Raghavendra, B S; Vijayan, V A

    2014-05-01

    In mosquito control programs, insecticides of botanical origin have the potential to eliminate eggs, larvae, and adults. So, the larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Eugenia jambolana, Solidago canadensis, Euodia ridleyi, and Spilanthes mauritiana were assayed against the three vector mosquito species, namely Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval bioassay was conducted following the World Health Organization method. The maximum larval mortality was found with ethyl acetate extract of S. mauritiana against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with LC50 values of 11.51, 28.1, 14.10 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed at 48-h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was found to be inversely proportional to the concentration of the extract and directly proportional to the number of eggs. The flower head extract of S. mauritiana gave 100% mortality followed by E. ridleyi, S. canadensis, and E. jambolana against the eggs of the three mosquito vectors. For oviposition-deterrent effect, out of the five concentrations tested (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 ppm), the concentration of 100 ppm showed a significant egg laying-deterrent capacity. The oviposition activity index value of E. jambolana, E. ridleyi, S. canadensis, and S. mauritiana against A. aegypti, A. stephensi, C. quinquefasciatus at 100 ppm were -0.71, -0.71, -0.90, -0.93, -0.85, -0.91, -1, -1, -0.71, -0.85, -1, and -1, respectively. These results suggest that the leaf/flower extracts of certain local plants have the potential to be developed as possible eco-friendly means for the control of mosquitoes.

  7. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Mentha spicata (Linn.) against three mosquito species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R; Rajeswari, M; Yogalakshmi, K

    2012-05-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Mentha spicata, an edible and medicinal plant, is chiefly distributed in Southeast Asia and South Asia. In the present study, the toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil (EO) and their major chemical constituents from Mentha spicata against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The chemical composition of the leaf EO was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GC-MS revealed that the EO of M. spicata contained 18 compounds. The major chemical components identified were carvone (48.60%), cis-carveol (21.30%), and limonene (11.30%). The EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A. stephensi with LC(50) values of 62.62, 56.08, and 49.71 ppm and LC(90) values of 118.70, 110.28, and 100.99 ppm, respectively. The three major pure constituents extracted from the M. spicata leaf EO were also tested individually against three mosquito larvae. The LC(50) values of carvone, cis-carveol, and limonene appeared to be most effective against A. stephensi (LC(50) 19.33, 28.50, and 8.83 ppm) followed by A. aegypti (LC(50) 23.69, 32.88, and 12.01 ppm), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) 25.47, 35.20, and 14.07 ppm). The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural larvicidal agents against C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A

  8. Phytochemical composition, mosquito larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activity of Calotropis procera against Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus

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    Gaurav Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Focus of this study was to determine the phytochemical composition and mosquito controlling potential of aqueous extract of Calotropis procera (Ait. R.Br. leaves using in vitro methods. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extract showed the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides and phytosterols as major phytochemical groups. Aqueous extract of C. procera leaves (1,000 ppm exhibited 100% larvicidal activity against fourth instar larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. gelidus. Extract treatment (1,000 ppm of both mosquitoes’ eggs resulted in to 100% ovicidal activity. At 1,000 ppm, extract provided complete protection from mosquito bite for 240 min against both mosquitoes; however at lower doses the protection time was less. The findings of the current study emphasise the potentiality of C. procera leaves for controlling the mosquito population and their possible way in the developing the natural insecticide for the control of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. gelidus mosquitoes.

  9. Larvicidal activity of the leaf extracts of Spondias mombin Linn. (Anacardiaceae) from various solvents against malarial, dengue and filarial vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Elijah Ajaegbu Eze; Simon Pierre Yinyang Danga; Festus Basden Chiedu Okoye

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus are vector mosquitoes of dengue, malaria, and filariasis, respectively. Since no vaccine is available to treat these diseases, the control of the main mosquito vectors is essential. As conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be alternative larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of methanol cru...

  10. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

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    Deepak Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million. The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn. has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control.

  11. Larvicidal Activity of Nerium oleander against Larvae West Nile Vector Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Akhal, Fouad; Guemmouh, Raja; Ez Zoubi, Yassine; El Ouali Lalami, Abdelhakim

    2015-01-01

    Background. Outbreaks of the West Nile virus infection were reported in Morocco in 1996, 2003, and 2010. Culex pipiens was strongly suspected as the vector responsible for transmission. In the North center of Morocco, this species has developed resistance to synthetic insecticides. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to the insecticides as natural biocides. Objective. In this work, the insecticidal activity of the extract of the local plant Nerium oleander, which has never been tested before in the North center of Morocco, was studied on larval stages 3 and 4 of Culex pipiens. Methods. Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The mortality values were determined after 24 h of exposure and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. Results. The extract had toxic effects on the larvae of culicid mosquitoes. The ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander applied against the larvae of Culex pipiens has given the lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 in the order of 57.57 mg/mL and 166.35 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. This investigation indicates that N. oleander could serve as a potential larvicidal, effective natural biocide against mosquito larvae, particularly Culex pipiens. PMID:26640701

  12. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. PMID:24688786

  13. Larvicidal Activity of Nerium oleander against Larvae West Nile Vector Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad El-Akhal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Outbreaks of the West Nile virus infection were reported in Morocco in 1996, 2003, and 2010. Culex pipiens was strongly suspected as the vector responsible for transmission. In the North center of Morocco, this species has developed resistance to synthetic insecticides. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to the insecticides as natural biocides. Objective. In this work, the insecticidal activity of the extract of the local plant Nerium oleander, which has never been tested before in the North center of Morocco, was studied on larval stages 3 and 4 of Culex pipiens. Methods. Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The mortality values were determined after 24 h of exposure and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. Results. The extract had toxic effects on the larvae of culicid mosquitoes. The ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander applied against the larvae of Culex pipiens has given the lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 in the order of 57.57 mg/mL and 166.35 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. This investigation indicates that N. oleander could serve as a potential larvicidal, effective natural biocide against mosquito larvae, particularly Culex pipiens.

  14. Neem cake: chemical composition and larvicidal activity on Asian tiger mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Marcello; Mariani, Susanna; Maccioni, Oliviero; Coccioletti, Tiziana; Murugan, Kardaray

    2012-07-01

    New pesticides based on natural products are urgently needed, in consideration of their environmental care and lower collateral effects. Neem oil, the main product obtained from Azadiractha indica A. Juss, commonly known as neem tree, is mainly used in medical devices, cosmetics and soaps, as well as important insecticide. Manufacturing of neem oil first includes the collection of the neem seeds as raw material used for the extraction. Neem cake is the waste by-product remaining after extraction processes. The quality of the oil, as that of the cake, strictly depends from the quality of seeds as well as from the type of extraction processes used, which strongly influences the chemical composition of the product. Currently, the different types of commercial neem cake on the market are roughly identified as oiled and deoiled cake, but several other differences can be detected. The differences are relevant and must be determined, to obtain the necessary correlation between chemical constitution and larvicidal activities. Six different batches of neem cake, marketed by several Indian and European companies, were analyzed by HPLC and HPTLC, and their fingerprints compared, obtaining information about the different compositions, focusing in particular on nortriterpenes, considered as the main active components of neem oil. Therefore, the chemical composition of each cake was connected with the biological activitiy, i.e., the effects of the extracts of the six neem cakes were tested on eggs and larvae of Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) (Diptera: Culicidae), commonly known as Asian tiger mosquito. The results confirmed the previously reported larvicide effects of neem cake that, however, can now be related to the chemical composition, in particular with nortriterpenes, allowing in that way to discriminate between the quality of the various marketed products, as potential domestic insecticides.

  15. Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anupam; Chowdhury, Nandita; Chandra, Goutam

    2012-01-01

    Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya ferver, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM), emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain and adverse effects on environmental quality and non target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are non-toxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In this article, the current state of knowledge on phytochemical sources and mosquitocidal activity, their mechanism of action on target population, variation of their larvicidal activity according to mosquito species, instar specificity, polarity of solvents used during extraction, nature of active ingredient and promising advances made in biological control of mosquitoes by plant derived secondary metabolites have been reviewed. PMID:22771587

  16. Larvicidal and repellent activities ofSida acuta Burm. F. (Family:Malvaceae) against three important vector mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the larvicidal and repellent activities ofSida acuta Burm. F. (Family: Malvaceae)extract against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Methods: Twenty five late III instar larve of three mosquito species were exposed to various concentrations (15-90 mg/L) and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol ofWHO 2005; the24 h LC50 values of theSida acuta leaf extract was determined following Probit analysis. The repellent efficacy was determined against three mosquito species at three concentrations viz.,1.0, 2.5 and5.0mg/cm2 under the laboratory conditions.Results:Results showed varying degree of larvicidal activity of crude extract of Sida acuta against three important mosquitoes withLC50values ranging between38 to48 mg/L. The crude extract had strong repellent action against three species of mosquitoes as it provided100%protection againstAnopheles stephensi for 180min followed byAedes aegypti (150 min) andCulex quinquefasciatus (120 min).Conclusions:From the results it can be concluded the crude extract ofSida acuta was an excellent potential for controllingCulex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti andAnopleles stephensi mosquitoes.

  17. SCREENING FOR MOSQUITO LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF THAI MUSHROOM EXTRACTS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO STECCHERINUM SP AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongwat, Damrongpan; Pimolsri, Urat; Somboon, Pradya

    2015-07-01

    For over 50 years, biological control of mosquito larvae has depended mainly on plant extracts, fish, bacteria, protozoa, filamentous fungi, viruses or nematodes. In this study, we screened 143 mushroom samples from 44 confirmed species in Thailand for their mosquito larvicidal activity. One g% (w/v) aqueous extracts of dried powdered mushroom samples were tested against 3rd stage Aedes aegypti larvae. Four mushroom species, namely, Thaeogyroporus porentosus, Xylaria nigripes, Chlorophyllum sp and Steccherinum sp, and two unidentified species showed larvicidal mortality ranging from 10%-70% and 18%-90% for 24- and 48-hour exposure time, respectively. Steccherinum sp aqueous crude extract, after 48-hour exposure, did not show any larvicidal activity at 1,000 ppm, whereas that from ethanol, after 24-hour exposure, had 50% and 90% lethal concentration of 203 ppm and 412 ppm, respectively, with higher levels of mortality after 48- hour exposure. This is the first report of mosquito larvicidal properties of Thai mushroom extracts.

  18. Mosquito larvicidal activity of Aloe vera (Family: Liliaceae) leaf extract and Bacillus sphaericus, against Chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Jayapal; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Walton, William

    2012-01-01

    The bio-efficacy of Aloe vera leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus sphaericus larvicidal activity was assessed against the first to fourth instars larvae of Aedes aegypti, under the laboratory conditions. The plant material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. A. vera and B. sphaericus show varied degrees of larvicidal activity against various instars larvae of A. aegypti. The LC50 of A. vera against the first to fourth instars larvae were 162.74, 201.43, 253.30 and 300.05 ppm and the LC90 442.98, 518.86, 563.18 and 612.96 ppm, respectively. B. sphaericus against the first to fourth instars larvae the LC50 values were 68.21, 79.13, 93.48, and 107.05 ppm and the LC90 values 149.15, 164.67, 183.84, and 201.09 ppm, respectively. However, the combined treatment of A. vera + B. sphaericus (1:2) material shows highest larvicidal activity of the LC50 values 54.80, 63.11, 74.66 and 95.10 ppm; The LC90 values of 145.29, 160.14, 179.74 and 209.98 ppm, against A. aegypti in all the tested concentrations than the individuals and clearly established that there is a substantial amount of synergist act. The present investigation clearly exhibits that both A. vera and B. sphaericus materials could serve as a potential larvicidal agent. Since, A. aegypti is a container breeder vector mosquito this user and eco-friendly and low-cost vector control strategy could be a viable solution to the existing dengue disease burden. Therefore, this study provides first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity the combined effect of A. vera leaf extract and B. sphaericus against as target species of A. aegypti. PMID:23961212

  19. Evaluation of Tribulus terrestris Linn (Zygophyllaceae) acetone extract for larvicidal and repellence activity against mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S P; Raghavendra, K; Singh, R K; Mohanty, S S; Dash, A P

    2008-12-01

    Acetone extracts of leaves and seeds from the Tribulus terrestris (Zygophyllaceae) were tested against mature and immature different mosquito vectors under laboratory condition. The extract showed strong larvicidal, properties 100 per cent mortality in the 3rd-instar larvae was observed in the bioassays with An. culicifacies Giles species A, An. stephensi Liston, Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti Linn, against 200 ppm of the leaf acetone extract and 100 ppm seed acetone extract. The LC50 values of leaf acetone extract estimated for 3rd-instars An. culicifacies species A, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti after 24 hour of exposure were 117, 124, 168 and 185 ppm respectively. The LC50 values of seed acetone extract estimated for 3rd-instars An. culicifacies species A, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti after 24 hour of exposure were 100, 72, 91 and 91 ppm respectively. It is confirmed from the LC50 values that the seed acetone extract of T. terrestris is more effective compared to leaf extracts. A significant (P<0.004) higher concentration of acetone extract leaf was required to kill equal number of larvae i.e. against acetone extract of seed. The seed acetone extract showed strong repellent activity against adults mosquitoes. Per cent protection obtained against Anopheles culicifacies species A 100% repellency in 1 h, 6 h; Anopheles stephensi 100% repellency in 0 h, 4 h, 6 h; and Culex quinquefasciatus 100% repellency in 0 h, 2 h, 4 h, at 10% concentration respectively. Against Deet- 2.5% An. culicifacies Giles species A has shown 100% repellency in 1 h, 2 h, 6 h, An. stephensi Liston 99% repellency in 4 h, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say has shown 100% repellency in 1 h, 2 h.

  20. Mosquito larvicidal activities of Solanum villosum berry extract against the dengue vector Stegomyia aegypti

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    Chandra Goutam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Although several plants have been reported for mosquitocidal activity, only a few botanicals have moved from the laboratory to field use, because they are poorly characterized, in most cases active principals are not determined and most of the works are restricted to preliminary screening. Solanum villosum is a common weed distributed in many parts of India with medicinal properties, but the larvicidal activity of this plant has not been reported so far. Methods Aqueous and polar/non-polar solvent extract of fresh, mature, green berries of S. villosum was tested against Stegomyia aegypti, a common vector of dengue fever. A phytochemical analysis of chloroform:methanol extract was performed to search for the active toxic ingredient. The lethal concentration was determined (log probit analysis and compared with Malathion. The chemical nature of the active substance was also evaluated following ultraviolet-visual (UV-Vis and infrared (IR analysis. Results In a 72 hour bioassay experiment with the aqueous extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 0.5% extract. When the mortality of different solvent extracts was compared, the maximum (p p Y was positively correlated with the period of exposure (X and the log probit analysis (95% confidence level recorded lowest value (5.97 ppm at 72 hours of exposure. Phytochemical analysis of the chlororm:methanol extract reported the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals. Two toxic compounds were detected having Rf = 0.82 (70% and 73.33% mortality in 24 and 48 hours, respectively and Rf = 0.95 (40% and 50% mortality in 24 and 48 hours, respectively. IR analysis provided preliminary information about the steroidal nature of the active ingredient. Conclusion S. villosum offers promise as

  1. Biosynthesis of 130-kilodalton mosquito larvicide in the cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum PR-6.

    OpenAIRE

    Angsuthanasombat, C; Panyim, S

    1989-01-01

    The 130-kilodalton mosquito larvicidal gene, cloned from Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, was introduced into the cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum PR-6 by plasmid transformation. Transformed cells synthesized 130-kilodalton delta-endotoxin protein and showed mosquito larvicidal activity. Results demonstrate a potential use of a cyanobacterium for biological control of mosquitoes.

  2. Biosynthesis of 130-kilodalton mosquito larvicide in the cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum PR-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angsuthanasombat, C; Panyim, S

    1989-09-01

    The 130-kilodalton mosquito larvicidal gene, cloned from Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, was introduced into the cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum PR-6 by plasmid transformation. Transformed cells synthesized 130-kilodalton delta-endotoxin protein and showed mosquito larvicidal activity. Results demonstrate a potential use of a cyanobacterium for biological control of mosquitoes.

  3. Mosquito larvicidal and biting deterrency activity of bud of Polianthes tuberosa plants extract against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjali, Rawani; Atanu, Banerjee; Goutam, Chandra

    2012-06-01

    Mosquito control by phytochemicals is an alternative method to synthetic insecticides, as it is biodegradable and non resistant to vector mosquito. Polianthes tuberosa is a perennial plant distributed in many parts of India. The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the larvicide and biting deterrency activity of bud of Polianthes tuberosa against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi. Crude and solvent extract [ethyl acetate, chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v), acetone] of fresh, mature, bud of P. tuberosa was tested against (ex. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi. The repellent activity tested by chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) solvent extract against both mosquito species. The appropriate lethal concentrations at 24h for chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extract was also studied on non target organisms such as Toxorhynchites larvae, Diplonychus annulatum and Chironomus circumdatus. In a 72 hour bioassay experiment, 0.5% crude extract showed the highest mortality and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) solvent extract showed the highest mortality, the maximum (p larvicide agent. There is no changes in the activity non-target organism so, it is safe to use.

  4. Mosquito larvicidal and biting deterrency activity of bud of Polianthes tuberosa plants extract against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Rawani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the larvicide and biting deterrency activity of bud of Polianthes tuberosa (P. tuberosa against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi. Methods: Crude and solvent extract [ethyl acetate, chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v, acetone] of fresh, mature, bud of P. tuberosa was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi. The repellent activity tested by chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v solvent extract against both mosquito species. The appropriate lethal concentrations at 24 h for chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v extract was also studied on non target organisms such as Toxorhynchites larvae, Diplonychus annulatum and Chironomus circumdatus. Results: In a 72 h bioassay experiment, 0.5 % crude extract showed the highest mortality and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v solvent extract showed the highest mortality, the maximum (P < 0.05 mortality was recorded at a concentration of 60 mg/L. The chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v solvent extract provide 4 h protection against Cx. quinquefasciatus and 5 h against An. stephensi from biting. Conclusions: Both crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v extract showed efficient activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus, so it could be used as a mosquito larvicide agent. There is no change in the activity of non-target organism so, it is safe to use.

  5. Mosquito larvicidal activity of some common spices and vegetable waste onCulex quinquefasciatus andAnopheles stephensi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Someshwar Singha; Goutam Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal activities of crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extracts of some common spices (Cuminum cyminum, Allium sativum, Zingiber offinale, Curcuma longa) and vegetable waste (Solanum tuberosum germinated tuber) againstAnopheles stephensiandCulex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae.Methods:Larval mortality of above mosquito species were observed after 24, 48 and72 h of exposure to five concentrations of aqueous extract (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4% and0.5%) and four concentrations (25, 50, 75 ppm) of chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extract. The lethal concentration of individual spices or vegetable waste was determined by log-probit analysis (at95%confidence level) and effect of crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extracts were recorded on non target organisms.Results:Relative mortality rate of both larval mosquito species were recorded in the following sequences:Cuminum cyminum>Allium sativum>Zingiber offinale, Curcuma longa > Solanum tuberosum germinated tuber for crude extract, and efficacy of chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extract were as follows:Curcuma longa > Zingiber offinale > Solanum tuberosum germinated tuber >Cuminum cyminum>Allium sativum.Conclusions: Crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extract of Cuminum cyminum, Allium sativum, Zingiber offinale, Curcuma longa andSolanum tuberosum germinated tuber can be recommended effectively in mosquito control programmes at very low concentrations. No mortality and other abnormalities were noticed on non target organisms and further studies are needed to investigate the chemical structure of active principal which are responsible for larvicidal activity.

  6. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Blumea densiflora essential oils against Anopheles anthropophagus: a malarial vector mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang; Tian, Yingjuan

    2011-11-01

    Blumea densiflora, an edible and medicinal plant, is chiefly distributed in Southeast Asia and South Asia. Essential oils extracted by steam distillation from B. densiflora were investigated for their chemical composition and larvicidal activity against Anopheles anthropophagus, the primary vector of malaria in China and other East Asian countries. Totally, 46 compounds were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. The major chemical compounds identified were borneol (11.43%), germacrene D (8.66%), β-caryophyllene (6.68%), γ-terpinene (4.35%), sabinene (4.34%), and β-bisabolene (4.24%). A series of concentrations of essential oil (that ranged from 6.25 to 150 ppm) were tested against A. anthropophagus fourth-instar larvae according to WHO recommendation. In general, larval mortality increased as concentration and exposure time increased, indicating a dose-dependent effect, and high insecticidal activity showed that 100% mortality occurred within 6 h at 150 ppm, 10 h at 100 ppm, 30 h at 50 ppm, and 30 h at 25 ppm essential oil concentration. The LC(50) values were 22.32 (after 12 h) and 10.55 ppm (after 24 h), and the LC(90) values were 54.04 (after 12 h) and 33.56 ppm (after 24 h). Pylarvex, the reference standard, had better larvicidal activity, causing 100% mortality within 2 h at 150 ppm and within 6 h at 6.25 ppm. The results clearly reveal that the essential oil of B. densiflora served as a potential, eco-friendly mosquito larvicide against the malarial vector mosquito A. anthropophagus.

  7. Larvicidal and ovicidal activity of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract against filarial and malarial vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, M; Jebanesan, A; Pushpanathan, T

    2008-01-01

    Methanolic leaf extract of Cassia fistula was tested for larvicidal and ovicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi. The extract was found to be more lethal to the larvae of A. stephensi than C. quinquefasciatus with LC(50) values of 17.97 and 20.57 mg/l, respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 120 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. The egg raft of C. quinquefasciatus was found to be more hatchable than A. stephensi. The results show that the leaf extract of C. fistula is promising as a larvicidal and ovicidal agent against C. quinquefasciatus and A. stephensi.

  8. Larvicidal and IGR activity of extract of Tanzanian plants against malaria vector mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Erich Kleinpeter; Matthias Heydenreich; Magesa, Stephen M; Ahmed Hassanali; Joseph, Cosam C.; Nkunya, Mayunga H. H.; Charles Kihampa

    2009-01-01

    Background & objectives: This paper reports the larvicidal activity of seventeen Tanzanian plantspecies against the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles larvae. Some of the plants are usedtraditionally as sources of insecticidal materials.Methods: The crude extracts from the leaves, stem and root barks of the investigated plants wereobtained by solvent extraction and then bio-assayed following WHO protocols showed LC50 values10 to 400 ppm after 24 h exposure. The structures were deter...

  9. Mosquito larvicidal potential of four common medicinal plants of India

    OpenAIRE

    Anjali Rawani; Anupam Ghosh; Goutam Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human health diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Plants may be sources of alternative mosquito control agents. The present study was carried out to assess the role of larvicidal activities of the crude extracts of four plants viz. Alternanthera sessilis L. (Amaranthaceae), Trema orientalis L. (Cannabaceae), Gardenia carinata Smith. (Rubiaceae) and Ruellia tuberosa L. (Acanthaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in laborator...

  10. Larvicidal efficacy of Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extracts against vector mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arivoli S; Samuel T

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the larvicidal activity of Cleistanthus collinus (C. collinus) leaf extracts against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods:The larvicidal activity was determined against three vector mosquito species at concentrations of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm. Larval mortality was assessed after 24 hours. Results:The leaf extracts of C. collinus was found to exhibit a larvicidal activity against the larvae of An. stephensi with a LC50 value of 399.72 ppm. Conclusions:The results indicate moderate level of larvicidal activity against vector mosquitoes.

  11. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Delphinium denudatum root extract exhibits antibacterial and mosquito larvicidal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Gopal; Gunasekar, Poosali Hariharan; Kokila, Dhanasegaran; Prabhu, Durai; Dinesh, Devadoss; Ravichandran, Nagaiya; Ramesh, Balasubramanian; Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Vijaiyan Siva, Ganesan

    2014-06-05

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous root extract of Delphinium denudatum (Dd) by reduction of Ag(+) ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. The synthesized DdAgNPs were characterized by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The prepared DdAgNPs showed maximum absorbance at 416nm and particles were polydispersed in nature, spherical in shape and the size of the particle obtained was⩽85nm. The DdAgNPs exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Bacillus cereus NCIM 2106, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. The DdAgNPs showed potent larvicidal activity against second instar larvae of dengue vector Aedes aegypti with a LC50 value of 9.6ppm.

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Delphinium denudatum root extract exhibits antibacterial and mosquito larvicidal activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Gopal; Gunasekar, Poosali Hariharan; Kokila, Dhanasegaran; Prabhu, Durai; Dinesh, Devadoss; Ravichandran, Nagaiya; Ramesh, Balasubramanian; Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Vijaiyan Siva, Ganesan

    2014-06-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous root extract of Delphinium denudatum (Dd) by reduction of Ag+ ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. The synthesized DdAgNPs were characterized by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The prepared DdAgNPs showed maximum absorbance at 416 nm and particles were polydispersed in nature, spherical in shape and the size of the particle obtained was ⩽85 nm. The DdAgNPs exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Bacillus cereus NCIM 2106, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. The DdAgNPs showed potent larvicidal activity against second instar larvae of dengue vector Aedes aegypti with a LC50 value of 9.6 ppm.

  13. Variations in the mosquito larvicidal activities of toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno-Ayayo, Zachariah Ngalo; Zaritsky, Arieh; Wirth, Margaret C; Manasherob, Robert; Khasdan, Vadim; Cahan, Rivka; Ben-Dov, Eitan

    2008-09-01

    Comparing activities of purified toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis against larvae of seven mosquito species (vectors of tropical diseases) that belong to three genera, gleaned from the literature, disclosed highly significant variations in the levels of LC(50) as well as in the hierarchy of susceptibilities. Similar toxicity comparisons were performed between nine transgenic Gram-negative species, four of which are cyanobacterial, expressing various combinations of cry genes, cyt1Aa and p20, against larvae of four mosquito species as potential agents for biological control. Reasons for inconsistencies are listed and discussed. Standard conditions for toxin isolation and presentation to larvae are sought. A set of lyophilized powders prepared identically from six Escherichia coli clones expressing combinations of four genes displayed toxicities against larvae of three mosquito species, with levels that differed between them but with identical hierarchy.

  14. In vitro Mosquito Larvicidal Activity of Marine Algae Against the Human Vectors, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Idhayadhulla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of twenty marine algae were collected from the rocky intertidal and subtidal regions of the southwest coast of India and extracted in methanol. The extracts were evaluated for larvicidal activity against the second and third instar larvae of the human vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae. Analysis on the activity profile of the above marine algae indicated that the early stage larvae were very sensitive to seven seaweed extracts that had been tested. Among the seven marine algae, Lobophora variegata was highly potential, showing LD50 value of 70.38 and 79.43 g mL-1 on the 2nd instar larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus respectively. The rank of larvicidal potency in highly active algae in the descending order is as follows: Lobophora variegata (Dictyotaceae>Spatoglossum asperum (Dictyotaceae>Stoechospermum marginatum (Dictyotaceae>Sargassum wightii (Sargassaceae >Acrosiphonia orientalis (Acrosiphoniaceae>Centroceras clavulatum (Ceramiacea>Padina tetrastromatica (Dictyotaceae. This is the first report that envisaged the mosquito larvicidal efficacy of L. variegata from the Indian coast. Therefore, this marine alga could be recognized as a potential resource of natural insecticide and can be developed to replace synthetic insecticides in future.

  15. Larvicidal and adulticidal activity chroman and chromene analogues against susceptible and permethrin-resistant mosquito strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes play a major role as vectors for the transmission of parasitic and viral diseases such as dengue hemorrhagic fever, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, malaria, schistosomiasis, and yellow fever worldwide. Mosquito borne diseases are presently among the greatest human health problems in th...

  16. Larvicidal activity of selected plant hydrodistillate extracts against the house mosquito, Culex pipiens, a West Nile virus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Huseyin; Yanikoglu, Atila; Cilek, James E

    2011-04-01

    The larvicidal activity of hydrodistillate extracts from Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Hypericum scabrum L., Pistacia terebinthus L. subsp. palaestina (Boiss.) Engler, and Vitex agnus castus L. was investigated against the West Nile vector, Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Yield and identification of the major essential oils from each distillation was determined by GC-MS analyses. The major essential oil component for each plant species was as follows: α-pinene for P. terebinthus palaestina, and H. scabrum (45.3% and 42.3%, respectively), trans-β-caryophyllene for V. agnus castus (22.1%), and borneol for C. coronarium (20.9%). A series of distillate concentrations from these plants (that ranged from 1 ppm to 500 ppm, depending on plant species) were assessed against late third to early fourth C. pipiens larvae at 1, 6, and 24 h posttreatment. In general, larval mortality to water treated with a distillate increased as concentration and exposure time increased. H. scabrum and P. terebinthus palaestina were most effective against the mosquito larvae and both produced 100% mortality at 250 ppm at 24-h continuous exposure compared with the other plant species. Larval toxicity of the distillates at 24 h (LC(50) from most toxic to less toxic) was as follows: P. terebinthus palaestina (59.2 ppm) > H. scabrum (82.2 ppm) > V. agnus castus (83.3 ppm) > C. coronarium (311.2 ppm). But when LC(90) values were compared, relative toxicity ranking changed as follows: H. scabrum (185.9 ppm) > V. agnus castus (220.7 ppm) > P. terebinthus palaestina (260.7 ppm) > C. coronarium (496.3 ppm). Extracts of native Turkish plants continue to provide a wealth of potential sources for biologically active agents that may be applied against arthropod pests of man and animals.

  17. Evaluation of Solanum xanthocarpum extracts as mosquito larvicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Lalit; Sharma, Preeti; Srivastava, C N

    2005-06-01

    Mosquito larvicidal activity of crude carbon-tetra-chloride, methanol and petroleum ether extracts of Solanum xanthocarpum fruits was examined against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the extracts tested, carbon-tetra-chloride extract was the most effective with LC50 values of 5.11 ppm after 24 hours and 1.27 ppm after 48 hours of treatment against An. stephensi. In the case of Cx. quinquefasciatus the petroleum ether extract was observed as most toxic with LC50 values of 62.62 ppm after 24 hours and 59.45 ppm after 48 hours of exposure period respectively. It is, therefore, suggested that S. xanthocarpum can be applied as an ideal potential larvicide against An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  18. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on bird eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Albers, P.H.; Melancon, M.J.; Miles, A.K

    2004-02-01

    Golden Bear Oil (GB-1111; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate used in the United States and other countries as a mosquito larvicide. As part of an evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, fertile eggs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) were incubated in the laboratory, and treated on day 4 of incubation with external applications equivalent to either 0, 1/3, 1, 3 or 10 times the maximum rate (X) of 47 l/ha (5 gal/A) of field application of GB-1111. Hatching success was significantly reduced in mallards treated at 3 and 10 times the maximum field application, with a calculated approximate LD{sub 50} of 1.9 times the maximum field application. Most mortality occurred within a week of treatment. Hepatic P450-associated monooxygenase activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase; EROD) was negatively related to dose. In the 3X group there was a significant increase in the concentration of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) but a decrease in protein-bound thiols (PBSH). Hatching success of bobwhite was marginally reduced at the highest level of treatment (10X). Other effects at this level in bobwhite included a significant increase in incidence of abnormal embryos or hatchlings, lower body and liver weights, and a two-fold increase in hepatic microsomal EROD activity in hatchlings. The recommended maximum rate of field application of GB-1111 is unlikely to impair the survival or development of bobwhite embryos but is potentially toxic to mallard embryos under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap. - Mosquito larvicide GB-1111 is unlikely to harm bobwhite embryos when applied according to product label guidance, but could pose a potential risk to mallard embryos under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap.

  19. The Biological Activity of alpha-Mangostin, a Larvicidal Botanic Mosquito Sterol Carrier Protein-2 Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    insects rely on dietary sources of cholesterol (Clark and Bloch 1959). Therefore, the inhibitionof cholesterol uptake and transport has con- sequential...deionized water, left overnight, and transferred to a plastic tray containing distilled water. A powdered diet (2:1 pot belly pig chow:brewerÕs yeast...between protein from dietary sources in the midgut andprotein from the insect body.-Mangostinmaybe a feeding deterrent for mosquito larvae and could

  20. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil from Clausena anisata (Willd.)Hook. f. exBenth (Rutaceae) against three mosquito species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil and their chemical constituents fromClausena anisata(C. anisata) (Willd.) Hook. f. ex Benth. against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti andAnopheles Stephensi.Methods:Essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and the chemical composition of the leaf essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mosquitoes were reared in the vector control laboratory and twenty late III instar larvae of three mosquito species were exposed to based on the wide range and narrow range tests, essential oil was tested at50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ppm and each compound was tested at various concentration (5-75 ppm) and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol ofWHO 2005; the 24 hLC50 values of theC. anisata leaf essential oil and their major compounds were determined following Probit analysis.Results:The oil contained were mainly β-pinene (32.8%), sabinene(28.3%), germacrene-D (12.7%), estragole (6.4%) and linalool(5.9%). The essential oil from the leaves ofC. anisataexhibited significant larvicidal activity, with24 hLC50 values of140.96, 130.19 and119.59ppm, respectively. The five pure constituents extracted from theC. anisata leaf essential oil were also tested individually against three mosquito larvae. The LC50values of β-pinene, sabinene, germacrene-D, estragole and linalool appeared to be most effective againstAnopheles stephensi(LC50-23.17, 19.67, 16.95, 11.01, 35.17ppm) followed byAedes aegypti (LC50-27.69, 21.20,18.76, 12.70, 38.64 ppm) and Culex quinquefasciatus(LC50-32.23, 25.01, 21.28, 14.01, 42.28).Conclusions:The essential oil of C. anisata contains five major compounds and has remarkable larvicidal properties, which may be considered as a potent source for the production of natural larvicides.

  1. Sterculia guttata seeds extractives--an effective mosquito larvicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katade, Sushama R; Pawar, Pushpa V; Wakharkar, Radhika D; Deshpande, Nirmala R

    2006-08-01

    The larvicidal activity of ethanol, chloroform and hexane soxhlet extracts obtained from S. guttata seeds was investigated against the IVth instar larvae of Dengue fever vector, Aedes aegypti and filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. All extracts including fractions of ethanol extract exhibited 100% larval kill within 24 hr exposure period at 500 ppm concentration. Fraction A1 of ethanol was found to be most promising; its LC50 was 21.552 and 35.520 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti respectively. Naturally occurring S. guttata seed derived fractions merit further study as potential mosquito larval control agents or lead compounds.

  2. Aromatic plant-derived essential oil: an alternative larvicide for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitasawat, B; Champakaew, D; Choochote, W; Jitpakdi, A; Chaithong, U; Kanjanapothi, D; Rattanachanpichai, E; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Tuetun, B; Chaiyasit, D

    2007-04-01

    Five aromatic plants, Carum carvi (caraway), Apium graveolens (celery), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Zanthoxylum limonella (mullilam) and Curcuma zedoaria (zedoary) were selected for investigating larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors. Two laboratory-reared mosquito species, Anopheles dirus, the major malaria vector in Thailand, and Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in urban areas, were used. All of the volatile oils exerted significant larvicidal activity against the two mosquito species after 24-h exposure. Essential oil from mullilam was the most effective against the larvae of A. aegypti, while A. dirus larvae showed the highest susceptibility to zedoary oil.

  3. Spatial and temporal distribution of mosquito larvicidal compounds in mangroves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Syed Ali

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the larvicidal activity of the mangrove plant extracts. Methods: Parts (bark, root, leaf and flower of mangrove plants, Avicennia marina (A. marina, Acanthus ilicifolius, Bruguiera cylindrica and Excoecaria agallocha (E. agallocha, were dissolved in DMSO to prepare a graded series of concentration. Batches of 25 early 4th instars larvae of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti were transferred to a 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts (0.01-0.10 mg. Each experiment was conducted with three replicates and a concurrent control group. A control group consisted of 1 mL of DMSO and 199 mL of distilled water only. After 24 h, the percentage of mortality was determined. Results: The bark extract of A. marina showed maximum larvicidal activity against the 4th instars larvae of Ae. aegypti, followed by the leaf extract of E. agallocha. The presence of flavonoids, terpinoids and sponins in the ethanolic extracts of A. marina might be responsible for the larvicidal activity. Conclusions: It is concluded from the present study that the mosquitocidal toxins of A. marina might be a prospective alternative in mosquito control programme involving mangrove biopesticides.

  4. Larvicidal activity and GC-MS analysis of flavonoids of Vitex negundo and Andrographis paniculata against two vector mosquitoes Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerti Gautam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Development of insect resistance to synthetic pesticides, high operational cost and environmental pollution have created the need for developing alternative approaches to control vector-borne diseases. In the present study, larvicidal activity of flavonoid extracts of different parts of Vitex negundo (Linnaeus and Andrographis paniculata (Nees have been studied against the late III or early IV instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Liston. Methods: Flavonoids were extracted from different parts of the selected plants using standard method. Bioassay test was carried out by WHO method for determination of larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. Different compounds of the most active extract were identified by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Results: Flavonoid extract of whole aerial part of A. paniculata was found to be inactive against the selected larvae of Ae. aegypti even at the concentration of 600 ppm, whereas it caused 70% mortality in An. stephensi at the concentration of 200 ppm. Flavonoid extract of flower-buds produced highest mortality (100% at the concentration of 600 ppm for the late III or early IV instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and at the concentration of 200 ppm for the larvae of An. stephensi. GC-MS analysis of the most active flavonoid extract from flower-buds of Vitex showed 81 peaks. Phenol (26.83% area, naphthalene (4.95% area, 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (6.79% area, Phenol-2,4-Bis (1,1-dimethyl (4.49% area, flavones 4'-OH,5-OH,7-di-O-glucoside (0.25% area and 5-hydroxy- 3,6,7,3',4'-pentamethoxy flavones (0.80% area were present in major amount. Conclusion: Flavonoid extracts from different parts of two selected plants possess larvicidal activity against two selected mosquito species, hence, could be utilized for developing flavonoid-based, ecofriendly insecticide as an alternative to synthetic insecticides.

  5. Mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Family:Euphorbiaceae) andBacillus sphaericus against Anopheles stephensiListon. (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C Panneerselvam; K Murugan; K Kovendan; P Mahesh Kumar; J Subramaniam

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the larvicidal and pupicidal activity ofEuphorbia hirta (E. hirta)leaf extract andBacillus sphaericus (B. sphaericus) against the malarial vector,Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi).Methods:The larvicidal and pupicidal activity was assayed againstAn. stephensiat various concentrations ranging from (75-375 ppm) under the laboratory as well as field conditions. TheLC50 andLC90value of theE. hirta leaf extract was determined by probit analysis.Results:The plant extract showed larvicidal effects after24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval mortality was found in the methanol extract ofE. hirta against the first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of valuesLC50=137.40,172.65,217.81,269.37 and332.39 ppm;B. sphaericusagainst the first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of valuesLC50=44.29,55.83,68.51,82.19 and95.55 ppm, respectively. Moreover, combined treatment of values ofLC50=79.13,80.42,86.01,93.00 and98.12 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control.Conclusions:These results suggest methanol leaf extracts ofE. hirta andB. sphaericus have potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the malarial vector,An. stephensi as target species of vector control programs. This study provides the first report on the combined mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of this plant crude extract and bacterial toxin againstAn. stephensimosquitoes.

  6. Evaluation of some Moroccan medicinal plant extracts for larvicidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markouk, M; Bekkouche, K; Larhsini, M; Bousaid, M; Lazrek, H B; Jana, M

    2000-11-01

    The larvicidal properties of 16 extracts of four Moroccan medicinal plants: Calotropis procera (Wild.), Cotula cinerea (L.), Solanum sodomaeum (L.) and Solanum elaeagnifolium (CAV.) were tested against Anopheles labranchiae mosquito larvae. Among the extracts tested, nine exhibited high larvicidal activity with LC(50) (24 h) ranging from 28 to 325 ppm.

  7. Mosquito larvicidal and antimicrobial activity of synthesized nano-crystalline silver particles using leaves and green berry extract of Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae: Solanales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawani, Anjali; Ghosh, Anupam; Chandra, Goutam

    2013-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) that are synthesized by using aqueous extracts of Solanum nigrum L., is a simple, non-toxic and ecofriendly green material. The present study is based on assessments of the larvicidal and antimicrobial activities of the synthesized AgNPs from fresh leaves, dry leaves and green berries of S. nigrum against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi and four human pathogenic and five fish pathogenic bacteria respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized with UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The nanoparticles are spherical to polyhedral in shape with size of 50-100nm (average size of 56.6nm). In larvicidal bioassay with synthesized AgNPs, highest mortality are observed at 10ppm against An. stephensi with LC50 values of 1.33, 1.59, 1.56ppm and LC90 values of 3.97, 7.31, 4.76ppm for dry leaves, fresh leaves and berries respectively. Antibacterial activity test reveals better results against fish pathogenic bacteria than human pathogenic bacteria. Non target organism like Toxorhynchites larvae (mosquito predator), Diplonychus annulatum (predatory water-bug) and Chironomus circumdatus larvae (chironomid) are also exposed to respective lethal concentrations (to mosquito larvae) of dry nanoparticles and no abnormality in the non target organisms are recorded. These results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs of S. nigrum have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly compound for the control of the mosquito larvae and harmful bacteria.

  8. Exploration of larvicidal and adult emergence inhibition activities of Ricinus communis seed extract against three potential mosquito vectors in Kolkata, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamapada Mandal

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the larvicidal and adult emergence inhibition activities of castor (Ricinus communis) seed extract against three potential mosquito vectorsAnopheles stephensi (An. stephensi), Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) andAedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus) in India.Methods: TheR. communis seed extract was tested, employingWHO procedure, against fourth larval instars of the three mosquito species for 24 h and larval mortalities were recorded at various concentrations (2-64 μg/mL); the 24 hLC50 values of theR. communis seed extract were determined following Probit analysis. The larval killing, antipupation and adult emergence inhibition rates of the test extract, using a single concentration of2μLC50, were studied at different time periods (24-72 h); the extract toxicity was tested against a fish,Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus).Results: TheR. communis seed extract exhibited larvicidal effects with 100 % killing activities at concentrations32-64 μg/mL, and withLC50values 7.10, 11.64 and 16.84μg/mL forCx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensiand Ae. albopictuslarvae, respectively. When the larvae were treated with the extract at a single concentration of2×LC50, significant differences were observed, compared to control groups, in rate of pupation (P<0.001) as well as in adult formation (P<0.001).Conclusions: The present findings suggest that theR. communis seed extract provided an excellent potential for controllingAn. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus andAe. albopictus mosquito vectors.

  9. Bioactivity guided isolation of mosquito larvicide fromPiper longum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madhu SK; Vijayan VA; Shaukath AK

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To isolate the larvicidal component from the fruits ofPiper longum (P. longum) against the filariasis vector,Culex quinquefasciatus (C. quinquefasciatus).Methods: Pulverized fruits ofP. longum were subjected to soxhlet extraction using series of organic solvents of increasing polarity. All the solvent extracts were verified for their larvicidal efficacy against 4th instar larvae ofC. quinquefasciatus employing standardWHOprocedure. Bioassay-guided fractionation through column chromatography lead to the isolation of a bioactive amide, pipyahyine from the petroleum ether extract.Results: Petroleum ether extract was found to be the most active fraction among all the extracts tested with LC50 andLC90being1.03 and2.04ppm respectively. Whereas, pipyahyine, an isolated component of the same fraction was found to be even more effective than the parent extract in terms ofLC50being0.58 and1.88 ppm respectively. Conclusions: From the results, it is evident thatP. longum can be considered as a powerful arsenal for the control of mosquito population.

  10. Combining Attractants and Larvicides in Biodegradable Matrices for Sustainable Mosquito Vector Control.

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    Dirk Louis P Schorkopf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a global need for cost-effective and environmentally friendly tools for control of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases. One potential way to achieve this is to combine already available tools to gain synergistic effects to reduce vector mosquito populations. Another possible way to improve mosquito control is to extend the active period of a given control agent, enabling less frequent applications and consequently, more efficient and longer lasting vector population suppression.We investigated the potential of biodegradable wax emulsions to improve the performance of semiochemical attractants for gravid female culicine vectors of disease, as well as to achieve more effective control of their aquatic larval offspring. As an attractant for gravid females, we selected acetoxy hexadecanolide (AHD, the Culex oviposition pheromone. As toxicant for mosquito larvae, we chose the biological larvicides Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti and Bacillus sphaericus (Bs. These attractant and larvicidal agents were incorporated, separately and in combination, into a biodegradable wax emulsion, a commercially available product called SPLAT (Specialized Pheromone & Lure Application Technology and SPLATbac, which contains 8.33% Bti and 8.33% Bs. Wax emulsions were applied to water surfaces as buoyant pellets of 20 mg each. Dose-mortality analyses of Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae demonstrated that a single 20 mg pellet of a 10-1 dilution of SPLATbac in a larval tray containing 1 L of water caused 100% mortality of neonate (1st instar larvae for at least five weeks after application. Mortality of 3rd instar larvae remained equally high with SPLATbac dilutions down to 10-2 for over two weeks post application. Subsequently, AHD was added to SPLAT (emulsion only, without Bs or Bti to attract gravid females (SPLATahd, or together with biological larvicides to attract ovipositing females and kill emerging larvae (SPLATbacAHD, 10-1 dilution in both

  11. Mosquito larvicidal potential of four common medicinal plants of India

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    Anjali Rawani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human health diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Plants may be sources of alternative mosquito control agents. The present study was carried out to assess the role of larvicidal activities of the crude extracts of four plants viz. Alternanthera sessilis L. (Amaranthaceae, Trema orientalis L. (Cannabaceae, Gardenia carinata Smith. (Rubiaceae and Ruellia tuberosa L. (Acanthaceae against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in laboratory bioassay. Methods: Selective concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5% of crude extract of all four plant leaves were tested against I st to IV th instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Log probit analysis (at 95% confidence level revealed the LC 50 values. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analyses of crude extracts were also done. The lethal concentrations (% of crude extracts at 24 h against III rd instar larvae were also studied on non-target organisms. Result: In a 72 h bioassay experiment with crude extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 1.5 per cent extract. A. sessilis showed the highest mortality (76.7 % at 1.5 per cent crude extract against II nd instar larvae having LC 50 value of 0.35 per cent, followed by R. tuberosa (LC 50 =1.84%, G. carinata (LC 50 = 2.11 and T. orientalis (LC 50 = 2.95%. The regression equation showed a dose-dependent mortality, as the rate of mortality (Y was positively correlated with the concentration (X. Phytochemical analysis of the crude extract showed the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals such as steroids, alkaloids, terpenes, saponins, etc. No changes in the swimming behaviour and survivality of non-target organism were noticed at the studied concentrations. Interpretation & conclusions: Crude extract of the four selected plants showed larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The extracts at the studied concentrations did not produce any harmful effect on non-target organisms.

  12. Preliminary evaluation of mosquito larvicidal efficacy of plant extracts

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    N.G. Das, D. Goswami & B. Rabha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are the most important single group ofinsects in terms of public health importance, whichtransmit a number of diseases, such as malaria, filariasis,dengue, Japanese encephalitis, etc. causing millionsof deaths every year. Repeated use of syntheticinsecticides for mosquito control has disrupted naturalbiological control systems and led to resurgencesin mosquito populations. It has also resulted in thedevelopment of resistance1, undesirable effects onnon-target organisms and fostered environmental andhuman health concern2, which initiated a search foralternative control measures. Plants are considered asa rich source of bioactive chemicals3 and they may bean alternative source of mosquito control agents.Natural products of plant origin with insecticidalproperties have been tried in the recent past for controlof variety of insect pests and vectors. Essentialoils of leaf and bark of Cryptomeria japonica demonstratedhigh larvicidal activity against Aedesaegypti (Diptera: Culicidae larvae4. Insecticidalactivity of plant essential oils has been well-describedby Isman5. Azadiractin, the active ingredient of neemhas long been recognised for its mosquito larvicidalcapability. The extracts of Murraya koenigii, Coriandrumsativam, Ferula asafetida and Trigonella foenumgraceum were found to be effective and showedencouraging results against Ae. aegypti6 and Culex(Diptera: Culicidae mosquito larvae7. It is also reportedthat many compounds with insecticidal potentialhave been isolated from the genus Piper—Pipercide,isolated from Piper negrum (black piper hasbeen found to be just as active against adjuki beanweevils as the pyrethroides8. Phytochemicals derivedfrom plant sources can act as larvicide, insect growthregulators, repellent and ovipositor attractant andhave different activities observed by many researchers9–11. However, insecticides of plant origin havebeen extensively used on agricultural pests and to avery limited extent, against

  13. Curcuma Raktakanda is a Potential Larvicide for Mosquito Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, C; Ammini, J

    2000-01-01

    The leaves and tuber of Curcuma raktakanda were investigated as a mosquito larvicide against the early fourth instar larvae of four mosquito species, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus , Culex sitiens , Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi . The petroleum ether extract of the leaves and tuber exhibited toxicity towards all the test species. The LC 90 values of leaf extract for Cx. quinquefasciatus , Cx. sitiens , Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi were 46.77, 27.45, 58.75 and 45.81 mg/l,respectively. The LC 90 values of crude extract of tuber were 44.88, 29.11, 48.08 and 37.49 mg/l for Cx. quinquefasciatus , Cx. sitiens , Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi , respectively. The crude extract of the tuber was fractionated using column chromatography and the activity of the fractions was studied against the test species. The LC 90 values of the biologically active fraction for Cx. quinquefasciatus , Cx. sitiens , Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi were 18.50, 12.82, 19.95 and 18.19 mg/l, respectively. The extracts were active after storage for one year.

  14. Green Synthesis of Ag/Ag₂O Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Leaf Extract of Eupatorium odoratum and Its Antimicrobial and Mosquito Larvicidal Activities.

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    Elemike, Elias E; Onwudiwe, Damian C; Ekennia, Anthony C; Sonde, Christopher U; Ehiri, Richard C

    2017-04-28

    The health challenges associated with pathogens and ectoparasites highlight the need for effective control approaches. Metal nanoparticles have been proposed as highly effective tools towards combatting different microbial organisms and parasites. The present work reports the antimicrobial and larvicidal potential of biosynthesized Ag/Ag₂O nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Eupatorium odoratum (EO). The constituents of the leaf extract act as both reducing and stabilizing agents. The UV-VIS spectra of the nanoparticles showed surface plasmon resonance. The particle size and shape of the nanoparticles was analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The larvicidal study was carried out using third and fourth instar Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The mosquito larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extract (EO) and the synthesized nanoparticles, and their percentage of mortality was accounted for at different time intervals of 12 h and 24 h periods of exposure. The nanoparticles were more lethal against third and fourth instars of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae at the 24 h period of exposure with lower lethal concentration values (LC50 = 95.9 ppm; LC90 = 337.5 ppm) and (LC50 = 166.4 ppm; LC90 = 438.7 ppm) compared to the plant extract (LC50 = 396.8 ppm; LC90 = 716.8 ppm and LC50 = 448.3 ppm; LC90 = 803.9 ppm, respectively). The antimicrobial properties of the nanoparticles were established against different clinically-isolated microbial strains and compared to that of the plant extract (EO) and standard antimicrobial drugs. The nanoparticles were generally more active than the plant extract against the selected microbial organisms. The Gram-negative bacterial strains Escheerichua coli and Salmonella typhi were more susceptible towards the nanoparticles compared to the Gram-positive strains and the fungal organism.

  15. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Anopheles stephensi: a malarial vector mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Annadurai; Venkatesalu, Venugopalan

    2010-10-01

    Essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus was studied for its chemical composition and larvicidal potential against the malarial vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Totally 26 compounds were identified by GC and GC-MS. The major chemical compounds were carvacrol (28.65%) followed by thymol (21.66%), α-humulene (9.67%), undecanal (8.29%), γ-terpinene (7.76%), ρ-cymene (6.46%), caryophyllene oxide (5.85%), α-terpineol (3.28%) and β-selinene (2.01%). The larvicidal assay was conducted to record the LC(50) and LC(90) values and the larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The LC(50) values of the oil were 33.54 (after 12 h) and 28.37 ppm (after 24 h). The LC(90) values of the oil were 70.27 (after 12 h) and 59.38 ppm (after 24 h). The results of the present study showed that the essential oil of P. amboinicus is one of the inexpensive and eco-friendly sources of natural mosquito larvicidal agent to control/reduce the population of malarial vector mosquito.

  16. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on bird eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J; Albers, P H; Melancon, M J; Miles, A K

    2004-01-01

    Golden Bear Oil (GB-1111; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate used in the United States and other countries as a mosquito larvicide. As part of an evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, fertile eggs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) were incubated in the laboratory, and treated on day 4 of incubation with external applications equivalent to either 0, 1/3, 1, 3 or 10 times the maximum rate (X) of 47 l/ha (5 gal/A) of field application of GB-1111. Hatching success was significantly reduced in mallards treated at 3 and 10 times the maximum field application, with a calculated approximate LD50 of 1.9 times the maximum field application. Most mortality occurred within a week of treatment. Hepatic P450-associated monooxygenase activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase; EROD) was negatively related to dose. In the 3X group there was a significant increase in the concentration of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) but a decrease in protein-bound thiols (PBSH). Hatching success of bobwhite was marginally reduced at the highest level of treatment (10X). Other effects at this level in bobwhite included a significant increase in incidence of abnormal embryos or hatchlings, lower body and liver weights, and a two-fold increase in hepatic microsomal EROD activity in hatchlings. The recommended maximum rate of field application of GB-1111 is unlikely to impair the survival or development of bobwhite embryos but is potentially toxic to mallard embryos under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap.

  17. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes of essential oils extracted from three spontaneous plants of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassolé, I H N; Guelbeogo, W M; Nébié, R; Costantini, C; Sagnon, N; Kabore, Z I; Traoré, S A

    2003-03-01

    Essential oils extracted from dried leaves of three spontaneous plants naturally growing in Burkina Faso, i.e. Cymbopogon proximus, Lippia multiflora and Ocimum canum, exhibited larvicidal activity by the WHO standard protocol against 3rd and 4th instar F1-larvae of field-collected mosquitoes vectors of human disease, namely Aedes aegypti and members of the Anopheles gambiae complex, An. arabiensis and An. gambiae. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae s.l. larvae ranged between 53.5-258.5 ppm and 61.9-301.6 ppm, respectively. The LC90 estimates ranged 74.8-334.8 ppm for Ae. aegypti, and 121.6-582.9 ppm for An. gambiae s.l. Ovicidal activity against eggs of An. gambiae s.l. was also demonstrated. The LC50 values for An. gambiae s.l. eggs ranged between 17.1-188.7 ppm, while LC90 values ranged between 33.5-488 ppm. Lippia multiflora showed the highest activity against An. gambiae s.l. eggs and Ae. aegypti larvae, whereas no difference was found among C. proximus and L. multiflora in their activity against An. gambiae s.l. larvae. Of the three plants, essential oils from O. canum had the lowest activity against both eggs and larvae. Eggs were more susceptible than larvae. Ae. aegypti larvae were more susceptible than larvae of An. gambiae s.l.

  18. Larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activities of Cymbopogan citratus Stapf (Graminae) essential oil against the filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera : Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpanathan, T; Jebanesan, A; Govindarajan, M

    2006-12-01

    Essential oils extracted by steam distillation from Cymbopogan citratus were evaluated for larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activities against the filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 hours treatment. The LC(50) values calculated for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instar were 144.54 +/- 2.3, 165.70 +/- 1.2 and 184.18 +/- 0.8 ppm respectively. Hundred percent ovicidal activity was observed at 300 ppm. Skin repellent test at 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/cm(2) concentration of C. citratus gave 100% protection up to 3.00, 4.00 and 5.00 hours respectively. The total percentage of protection of this essential oil was 49.64% at 1.0 mg/cm(2), 62.19% at 2.5 mg/cm(2) and 74.03% at 5.0 mg/cm(2) for 12 hours.

  19. Spinosad: a biorational mosquito larvicide for use in car tires in southern Mexico

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    Marina Carlos F

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Car tires are important habitats for mosquito development because of the high density populations they can harbor and their presence in urban settings. Water in experimental tires was treated with one of three insecticides or an untreated control. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled at weekly intervals. Eggs, larval and pupal samples were laboratory-reared to estimate seasonal fluctuations in Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus abundance. Results Spinosad treatments at 1 or 5 ppm (mg a.i./liter provided 6–8 weeks of effective control of Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Culex quinquefasiatus and Cx. coronator larvae, both in the dry season and the rainy season when mosquito populations increased markedly in southern Mexico. Spinosad continued to provide partial control of larvae for several weeks after initial recolonization of treated tires. The larvicidal performance of VectoBac 12AS (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis was relatively poor with one week of complete control of Aedes spp. larvae and no discernible control of Culex spp., whereas the duration of larvicidal activity of 1% temephos mineral-based granules was intermediate between those of VectoBac and spinosad treatments. Populations of chironomids, ostracods and Toxorhynchites theobaldi were generally reduced in spinosad and temephos treatments, but were similar in control and VectoBac treatments. Conclusion The present study is the first to report spinosad as an effective larvicide against Cx. coronator, which is currently invading the southern United States. These results substantiate the use of spinosad as a highly effective mosquito larvicide, even in habitats such as unused car tires that can represent prolific sources of adult mosquitoes.

  20. Combining Attractants and Larvicides in Biodegradable Matrices for Sustainable Mosquito Vector Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P.; Spanoudis, Christos G.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Ignell, Rickard; Dekker, Teun

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a global need for cost-effective and environmentally friendly tools for control of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases. One potential way to achieve this is to combine already available tools to gain synergistic effects to reduce vector mosquito populations. Another possible way to improve mosquito control is to extend the active period of a given control agent, enabling less frequent applications and consequently, more efficient and longer lasting vector population suppression. Methodology/principal findings We investigated the potential of biodegradable wax emulsions to improve the performance of semiochemical attractants for gravid female culicine vectors of disease, as well as to achieve more effective control of their aquatic larval offspring. As an attractant for gravid females, we selected acetoxy hexadecanolide (AHD), the Culex oviposition pheromone. As toxicant for mosquito larvae, we chose the biological larvicides Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) and Bacillus sphaericus (Bs). These attractant and larvicidal agents were incorporated, separately and in combination, into a biodegradable wax emulsion, a commercially available product called SPLAT (Specialized Pheromone & Lure Application Technology) and SPLATbac, which contains 8.33% Bti and 8.33% Bs. Wax emulsions were applied to water surfaces as buoyant pellets of 20 mg each. Dose-mortality analyses of Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae demonstrated that a single 20 mg pellet of a 10−1 dilution of SPLATbac in a larval tray containing 1 L of water caused 100% mortality of neonate (1st instar) larvae for at least five weeks after application. Mortality of 3rd instar larvae remained equally high with SPLATbac dilutions down to 10−2 for over two weeks post application. Subsequently, AHD was added to SPLAT (emulsion only, without Bs or Bti) to attract gravid females (SPLATahd), or together with biological larvicides to attract ovipositing females and kill emerging larvae

  1. Mosquito larvicidal constituents from Lantana viburnoides sp viburnoides var kisi (A. rich Verdc (Verbenaceae

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    Mayunga H.H. Nkunya

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Lantana viburnoides sp viburnoides var kisi is used in Tanzania ethnobotanically to repel mosquitoes as well as in traditional medicine for stomach ache relief. Bioassay-guided fractionation and subtraction bioassays of the dichloromethane extract of the root barks were carried out in order to identify the bioactive components for controlling Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquito larvae. Methods: Twenty late III or early IV instar larvae of An. gambiae s.s. were exposed to various concentrations of the plant extracts, fractions, blends and pure compounds, and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO 1996. Mean mortalities were compared using Dunnett’s test (p<0.05 and lethal concentration calculated by Lackfit Inversel of the SAS programme. Results: The crude extract (LC50 = 7.70 ppm in 72 h and fractions exhibited different level of mosquito larvicidal activity with subtraction of some fractions resulting in activity enhancement. The active fractions contained furanonaphthaquinones regio-isomers (LC50 = 5.48–5.70 ppm in 72 h and the lantadene triterpenoid camaric acid (LC50 = 6.19 ppm in 72 h as active principles while the lupane triterpenoid betulinic acid (LC50 < 10 ppm in 72 h was obtained from the least active fraction. Interpretation & conclusion: Crude extracts and some fractions had higher or comparable larvicidal activity to the pure compounds. These results demonstrate that L. viburnoides sp viburnoides var kisi extracts may serve as larvicides for managing various mosquito habitats even in their semi-purified form. The isolated compounds can be used as distinct markers in the active extracts or plant materials belonging to the genus Lantana.

  2. Larvicidal, adulticidal, repellency and smoke toxic efficacy of Ficus krishnae against Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex vishnui group mosquitoes

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    Koyel Mallick Haldar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the plant Ficus krishnae as potential antimosquito agent. Methods: Larvicidal and adulticidal efficacy of ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of leaves of Ficus krishnae were evaluated against 3rd instar larvae and adults of Anopheles stephensi and Culex vishnui group mosquito for 24 h. Smoke toxicity test along with test for repellency on adult forms of the two mosquitoes were performed by the methanol extract. Results: The mortality rate varies in a dose dependent characteristic. The tests for larvicidal and adulticidal activity with both the solvent extracts showed significant efficiencies against the mosquitoes studied. The outcome of smoke toxicity test and repellency test were impressive. Conclusion: The study reveals that the solvent extracts of Ficus krishnae could be an effective natural alternative to get control over the mosquito population.

  3. Larvicidal activity of ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ) and Peru balsam ( Myroxylon pereira ) oils and blends of their constituents against mosquito, Aedes aegypti , acute toxicity on water flea, Daphnia magna , and aqueous residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Hye-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-06-13

    This study evaluated the larvicidal activity of 20 plant essential oils and components from ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ) and Peru balsam ( Myroxylon pereira ) oils against the mosquito, Aedes aegypti . Of the 20 plant essential oils, ajowan and Peru balsam oils at 0.1 mg/mL exhibited 100 and 97.5% larval mortality, respectively. At this same concentration, the individual constituents, (+)-camphene, benzoic acid, thymol, carvacrol, benzyl benzonate, and benzyl trans-cinnamate, caused 100% mortality. The toxicity of blends of constituents identified in two active oils indicated that thymol and benzyl benzoate were major contributors to the larvicidal activity of the artificial blend. This study also tested the acute toxicity of these two active oils and their major constituents against the water flea, Daphnia magna . Peru balsam oil and benzyl trans-cinnamate were the most toxic to D. magna. Two days after the treatment, residues of ajowan and Peru balsalm oils in water were 36.2 and 85.1%, respectively. Less than 50% of benzyl trans-cinnamate and thymol were detected in the water at 2 days after treatment. The results show that the essential oils of ajowan and Peru balsam and some of their constituents have potential as botanical insecticides against Ae. aegypti mosquito larvae.

  4. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal activity of puffer fish extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samidurai, Kaliyaperumal; Mathew, Nisha

    2013-03-01

    The extracts of liver (LE), ovary (OE), skin (SE) and muscle (ME) tissues of four species of puffer fishes viz., Arothron hispidus, Lagocephalus inermis, Lagocephalus scleratus and Chelonodon patoca were evaluated against larvae and eggs of three mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The LC50 values were 1194.26, 1382.73 (LE); 1421.42, 1982.73 (OE); 7116.86, 15038.98 (ME) and 10817.8 ppm (SE) for An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus respectively for A. hispidus. In the case of L. inermis, the LC50 values were 1163.83, 1556.1 and 2426.38 (LE); 1653.53, 2734.74 (OE); 6067.47 (ME) and 10283.04 ppm (SE) for An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti respectively. The LC50 values were 1509.98, 1608.69 (LE) and 1414.9, 2278.69 ppm (OE) for An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus respectively for the extracts of L. scleratus. In the case C. patoca extracts the LC50 values were 1182.29, 1543.00, 2441.03 (LE) and 1076.13, 2582.11 ppm (OE) for An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti respectively. OE and LE of all puffer fishes exhibited zero percent egg hatchability from 600 to 1000 ppm against eggs of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. This study shows that puffer toxins are effective in killing the larvae and eggs of mosquitoes.

  5. Larvicidal potentiality, longevity and fecundity inhibitory activities of Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV on vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

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    Arjunan Nareshkumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intervention measures to control the transmission of vector-borne diseases include control of the vector population. In mosquito control, synthetic insecticides used against both the larvae (larvicides and adults (adulticides create numerous problems, such as environmental pollution, insecticide resistance and toxic hazards to humans. In the present study, a bacterial pesticide, Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV, was used to control the dengue and filarial vectors, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV was very effective against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, showing significant larval mortality. Evaluated lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90 were age-dependent, with early instars requiring a lower concentration compared with later stages of mosquitoes. Culex quinquefasciatus was more susceptible to Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV than was Aedes aegypti. Fecundity rate was highly reduced after treatment with different concentrations of Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV. Larval and pupal longevity both decreased after treatment with Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV, total number of days was lower in the B. sphaericus treatments compared with the control. Our results show the bacterial pesticide Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV to be an effective mosquito control agent that can be used for more integrated pest management programs.

  6. Larvicidal activity of some Labiatae (Lamiaceae) plant extracts from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Huseyin; Cinbilgel, Ilker; Yanikoglu, Atila; Gokceoglu, Mustafa

    2006-12-01

    Ethanol extracts of the aerial parts from five Labiatae (Lamiaceae) species, obtained from Antalya, Turkey, were tested for larvicidal activity against the house mosquito Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Third and fourth instar mortality from six concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm) of each plant extract were compared against the organophosphorus insecticide, temephos which is currently used for larval control. All plant extracts showed high larvicidal activity in 24 h exposure tests. Teucrium divaricatum Sieber was the most toxic, followed by Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds., Melissa officinalis L., Salvia sclarea L. and Mentha pulegium L. with LC(50) values of 18.6, 26.8, 39.1, 62.7 and 81.0 ppm, respectively. This study is the first to report on the larvicidal activity of ethanol extracts of these five plant species against C. pipiens.

  7. Larvicidal and phytochemical properties of Callistemon rigidus R. Br. (Myrtaceae leaf solvent extracts against three vector mosquitoes

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    Danga Yinyang Simon Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Due to ever-growing insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors and environmental contamination by synthetic insecticides, plants may be a source of alternative agents for mosquito control. Therefore, the present investigation involved the determination of larvicidal and phytochemical properties of Callistemon rigidus leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods: The standard protocol of WHO was used for larval tests. Twenty five IV instar larvae were exposed to various concentrations from 125-1000 ppm for methanol crude extract (MCE, hexane (HF, chloroform (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF and methanol (MF fractions, from 250-2000 ppm for aqueous extract (AE and 2500 ppm for Diclorvos. The mortality was observed 24 h post-exposure. The LC50 and LC90 values were determined by Probit analysis. Results: The phytochemical analysis revealed that the presence of alkaloids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids, tannins and phenolic compounds, lipids, fats and fixed oils in MCE; terpenoids, steroids, lipids, fats and fixed oils in HF; terpenoids in CF; tannins and phenolic compounds in EAF and alkaloids, tannins, saponins and phenolic compounds in MF. Against Ae. aegypti, HF was the most active fraction with LC50 of 56.25 ppm. Against An. gambiae, HF demonstrated its potential mosquito larvicide killing relatively all exposed larvae at all concentrations with LC50 of 17.11 ppm. Against Cx. quinquefasciatus, only MCE and HF exhibited larvicidal activity with LC50 of 447.38 and 721.95 ppm, respectively. Interpretation & conclusion: Callistemon rigidus exhibited some promising larvicidal activity against medically important vector mosquitoes. Studies are indicated to identify the active compounds from this plant for developing mosquito larvicides

  8. Mosquito larvicidal potential of potash alum against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston)

    OpenAIRE

    Preet, Shabad; Seema, K. C.

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito larviciding may prove to be an effective tool for incorporating into integrated vector management strategies for reducing malaria transmission. Here, we report the potential of potash alum, a traditionally known salt in Indian Ayurveda and Chinese medicine system, in malaria vector control by evaluating its aqueous suspension as larvicide and growth disruptor of Anopheles stephensi, under laboratory conditions. Immature stages of the mosquito were tested using WHO guidelines. 50 and ...

  9. Mosquito larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles synthesised using actinobacterium, Streptomyces sp. M25 against Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, T; Balagurunathan, R

    2015-12-01

    The present work reports the larvicidal potential of microbially synthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using an actinobacterium, Streptomyces sp. M25 isolated from Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The biomass of Streptomyces sp. was exposed to 1 mM silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution. The synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed by visual inspection followed by instrumental analysis such as UV-vis spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction. Based on the TEM and XRD analysis, the average size of the AgNPs was determined to be 10-35 nm. The biosynthesised AgNPs exhibited significant larvicidal activity against malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus (LC50 51.34 mg/L and χ (2) value of 8.228), filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (LC50 48.98 mg/L and χ (2) value of 14.307) and dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (LC50 60.23 mg/L and χ (2) value of 4.042), respectively. Similarly, AgNO3 had larvicidal activity against malarial vector, A. subpictus (LC50 42.544 mg/L and χ (2) value of 2.561), filarial vector, C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 44.922 mg/L and χ (2) value of 1.693) and dengue vector, A. aegypti (LC50 39.664 mg/L and χ (2) value of 5.724), respectively. The current study is a rapid, cost effective, eco-friendly and single step approach. The Streptomyces sp. M25 is a newly added source for the synthesis of AgNPs with improved larvicidal activity.

  10. Larvicidal activity of Ottonia anisum metabolites against Aedes aegypti: A potential natural alternative source for mosquito vector control in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, André M; Velozo, Leosvaldo S; Carvalho, Michelle A; Serdeiro, Michele T; Honório, Nildimar A; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C; Maleck, Marise

    2017-01-01

    Aedes aegypti mosquito is the principal vector of the viruses responsible for urban yellow fever, dengue, dengue haemorrhagic fever, as well as Zika and chikungunya in Brazil. The present study was aimed to investigate the insecticidal potential of the extract and fractions of Ottonia anisum, along with special metabolites isolated from it, as natural alternatives against larvae (L3) of Ae. aegypti, vector of potentially deadly tropical infections in Brazil. The plant species O. anisum was collected in March 2015, at Xerιm area, in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil. Crude extracts and the isolated pure compounds were screened for toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae (L3). Bioassays were performed on 20 larvae (L3) of Ae. aegypti in triplicate. The samples were dissolved in a mixture of acetone and DMSO at final concentrations of 1-200 μg/ml. The toxicity of the solutions was evaluated towards the growth and development of Ae. aegypti larvae till emergence of adults. The crude hexane extract showed 100% larval mortality 24 h after treatment at a concentration of 200 μg/ml. The bioassays using 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene revealed 100% mortality among L3 larvae, 24 h afterthe treatment at a concentration of 30 μg/ml, the LC recorded was 1.6 μg/ml. At concentration of 10 μg/ml, the L3 larval mortality recorded was 92%. The metabolite 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene showed potent toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae. This arylbutanoid agent could be used as a natural alternative adjuvant pesticide, in new compositions that would be environmentally safer.

  11. Biting deterrence, repellency, and larvicidal activity of Ruta chalepensis (Sapindales: Rutaceae) essential oil and its major individual constituents against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Demirci, Betul; Kiyan, Hulya Tuba; Bernier, Ulrich R; Tsikolia, Maia; Wedge, David E; Khan, Ikhlas A; Başer, Kemal Husnu Can; Tabanca, Nurhayat

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil from aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae) was obtained by hydrodistillation, and its chemical profile was identified using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compounds, 2-undecanone (43.2%), 2-nonanone (27.9%), and 2-nonyl acetate (10.6%) were the major constituents of the oil. Biting deterrent activity of R. chalepensis essential oil at 10 and 50 microg/cm2, 2-undecanone at 8.5 microg/cm2, 2-nonanone at 9 microg/cm2, and 2-nonyl acetate at 9.3 microg/cm2 was similar to DEET (N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) at 4.8 microg/cm2, against Aedes aegypti L. Biting deterrent activity of R. chalepensis oil at 50 microg/cm2 against Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say was statistically similar to DEET at 4.8 microg/cm2, whereas the activity was lower in the other compounds tested. In cloth patch assay, R. chalepensis essential oil was effective at 187 microg/cm2, whereas 2-undecanone was effective at 108.9 microg/cm2 against Ae. aegypti. In larval bioassays, 2-undecanone showed similar toxicity whereas toxicity of R. chalepensis essential oil and 2-nonanone was higher at 24-h posttreatment at the LD50 in An. quadrimaculatus than Ae. aegypti. This study revealed that R. chalepensis essential oil and its major compounds were active biting deterrents against Ae. aegypti at higher application rates whereas only the essential oil showed activity similar to DEET against An. quadrimaculatus. 2-undecanone was the most active compound in in vivo repellency bioassay against Ae. aegypti. Chemical composition of R. chalepensis essential oil varies because of plant production and harvest practices, and the activity level of the essential oil may depend on the source of the sample.

  12. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from mangrove plant (Avicennia marina) extract and their potential mosquito larvicidal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Srinivasan; Srinivasan, Muthukumarasamy; Mohanraj, Jeyaraj

    2016-09-01

    To identify the larvicidal activities of silver nanoparticles synthesised with Avicennia marina leaf extract against the larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheleus stephensi, in vitro larvicidal activities such as LC50 and LC90 were assessed. Further, characterisation such as UV and FTIR analysis were carried out for the synthesised silver nanoparticles. The LC50 value of the synthesised silver nanoparticles was identified as 4.374 and 7.406 mg/L for An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti larvae respectively. Further, the LC90 values are also identified as 4.928 and 9.865 mg/L for An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti species respectively. The synthesised silver nanoparticles have maximum absorption at 420 nm with the average size of 60-95 nm. The FTIR data showed prominent peaks in (3940.57, 3929.00, 3803.63, 3712.97, 2918.30, 2231.64, 1610.50, 1377.17, 1257.59, 1041.59, 1041.56, 775.38, 667.37 and 503.21) different ranges. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles with leaf aqueous extract of A. marina provides potential source for the larvicidal activity against mosquito borne diseases. The present study proved the mosquitocidal properties of silver nanoparticles synthesised from mangroves of Vellar estuary. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the vector control programs.

  13. Inhibition and Larvicidal Activity of Phenylpropanoids from Piper sarmentosum on Acetylcholinesterase against Mosquito Vectors and Their Binding Mode of Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshia Hematpoor

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus are vectors of dengue fever and West Nile virus diseases. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity, mechanism of action and the binding interaction of three active phenylpropanoids from Piper sarmentosum (Piperaceae toward late 3rd or early 4th larvae of above vectors. A bioassay guided-fractionation on the hexane extract from the roots of Piper sarmentosum led to the isolation and identification of three active phenylpropanoids; asaricin 1, isoasarone 2 and trans-asarone 3. The current study involved evaluation of the toxicity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition of these compounds against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 were highly potent against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae causing up to 100% mortality at ≤ 15 μg/mL concentration. The ovicidal activity of asaricin 1, isoasarone 2 and trans-asarone 3 were evaluated through egg hatching. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 showed potent ovicidal activity. Ovicidal activity for both compounds was up to 95% at 25μg/mL. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 showed strong inhibition on acetylcholinesterase with relative IC50 values of 0.73 to 1.87 μg/mL respectively. These findings coupled with the high AChE inhibition may suggest that asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 are neuron toxic compounds toward Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Further computational docking with Autodock Vina elaborates the possible interaction of asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 with three possible binding sites of AChE which includes catalytic triads (CAS: S238, E367, H480, the peripheral sites (PAS: E72, W271 and anionic binding site (W83. The binding affinity of asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 were relatively strong with asaricin 1 showed a higher binding affinity in the anionic pocket.

  14. Inhibition and Larvicidal Activity of Phenylpropanoids from Piper sarmentosum on Acetylcholinesterase against Mosquito Vectors and Their Binding Mode of Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hematpoor, Arshia; Liew, Sook Yee; Chong, Wei Lim; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus are vectors of dengue fever and West Nile virus diseases. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity, mechanism of action and the binding interaction of three active phenylpropanoids from Piper sarmentosum (Piperaceae) toward late 3rd or early 4th larvae of above vectors. A bioassay guided-fractionation on the hexane extract from the roots of Piper sarmentosum led to the isolation and identification of three active phenylpropanoids; asaricin 1, isoasarone 2 and trans-asarone 3. The current study involved evaluation of the toxicity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition of these compounds against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 were highly potent against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae causing up to 100% mortality at ≤ 15 μg/mL concentration. The ovicidal activity of asaricin 1, isoasarone 2 and trans-asarone 3 were evaluated through egg hatching. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 showed potent ovicidal activity. Ovicidal activity for both compounds was up to 95% at 25μg/mL. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 showed strong inhibition on acetylcholinesterase with relative IC50 values of 0.73 to 1.87 μg/mL respectively. These findings coupled with the high AChE inhibition may suggest that asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 are neuron toxic compounds toward Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Further computational docking with Autodock Vina elaborates the possible interaction of asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 with three possible binding sites of AChE which includes catalytic triads (CAS: S238, E367, H480), the peripheral sites (PAS: E72, W271) and anionic binding site (W83). The binding affinity of asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 were relatively strong with asaricin 1 showed a higher binding affinity in the anionic pocket.

  15. Inhibition and Larvicidal Activity of Phenylpropanoids from Piper sarmentosum on Acetylcholinesterase against Mosquito Vectors and Their Binding Mode of Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hematpoor, Arshia; Liew, Sook Yee; Chong, Wei Lim; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus are vectors of dengue fever and West Nile virus diseases. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity, mechanism of action and the binding interaction of three active phenylpropanoids from Piper sarmentosum (Piperaceae) toward late 3rd or early 4th larvae of above vectors. A bioassay guided-fractionation on the hexane extract from the roots of Piper sarmentosum led to the isolation and identification of three active phenylpropanoids; asaricin 1, isoasarone 2 and trans-asarone 3. The current study involved evaluation of the toxicity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition of these compounds against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 were highly potent against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae causing up to 100% mortality at ≤ 15 μg/mL concentration. The ovicidal activity of asaricin 1, isoasarone 2 and trans-asarone 3 were evaluated through egg hatching. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 showed potent ovicidal activity. Ovicidal activity for both compounds was up to 95% at 25μg/mL. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 showed strong inhibition on acetylcholinesterase with relative IC50 values of 0.73 to 1.87 μg/mL respectively. These findings coupled with the high AChE inhibition may suggest that asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 are neuron toxic compounds toward Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Further computational docking with Autodock Vina elaborates the possible interaction of asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 with three possible binding sites of AChE which includes catalytic triads (CAS: S238, E367, H480), the peripheral sites (PAS: E72, W271) and anionic binding site (W83). The binding affinity of asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 were relatively strong with asaricin 1 showed a higher binding affinity in the anionic pocket. PMID:27152416

  16. Biting Deterrence, Repellency, and Larvicidal Activity of Ruta chalepensis (Sapindales: Rutaceae) Essential Oil and Its Major Individual Constituents Against Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    and the activity level of the essential oil may depend on the source of the sample. KEY WORDS Ruta chalepensis, biting deterrent, repellent... pupae were maintained in the laboratory for adult emergence. Experiments were conducted by using 5- to 9-d-old females that were selected from the...corroborate the Þndings of Barton (2003) and Roe(2004)who reported repellencyof 2-undecanone against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Ae. aegypti. 2

  17. Enduring toxicity of transgenic Anabaena PCC 7120 expressing mosquito larvicidal genes from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasherob, Robert; Otieno-Ayayo, Zachariah Ngalo; Ben-Dov, Eitan; Miaskovsky, Rina; Boussiba, Sammy; Zaritsky, Arieh

    2003-10-01

    Persistence of biological control agents against mosquito larvae was tested under simulated field conditions. Mosquito larvicidal activity of transgenic Anabaena PCC 7120 expressing cry4Aa, cry11Aa and p20 from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis was greater than B. thuringiensis ssp. israelensis primary powder (fun 89C06D) or wettable powder (WP) (Bactimos products) when either mixed with silt or exposed to sunlight outdoors. Reduction of Bactimos primary powder toxicity was at least 10-fold higher than Anabaena's after mixing with silt. In outdoors experiments, Bactimos WP remained toxic (over 30% mortality of 3rd instar Aedes aegypti larvae) for 2-4 days only, while transgenic Anabaena's toxicity endured 8-21 days.

  18. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on red-winged blackbird embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, P.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Buscemi, D.M.; Melancon, M.J

    2003-10-01

    Mosquito larvicide GB-1111 poses a minimal risk to red-winged blackbird embryos when applied according to product label guidance. - Golden Bear Oil (GB-1111; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate that is used in the United States and other countries as a larvicide for mosquito suppression. As part of a multi-species evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, red-winged blackbird eggs were collected, artificially incubated, and treated with one of five amounts of GB-1111 varying from 0 to 10 times the expected exposure from a spray application of the maximum recommended amount (X=47 l/ha, 5 gal/ac). The application of 10 X caused a significant reduction in hatching success. A dose-related reduction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity (EROD) was detected. Among body weights, skeletal measurements, and age at death, only crownrump length was different among experimental groups. Overall, the potential hazard to embryos of a representative wetland passerine appears minimal until the application rate exceeds 3 X.

  19. Mosquito larvicidal potential of potash alum against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preet, Shabad; Seema, K C

    2010-10-01

    Mosquito larviciding may prove to be an effective tool for incorporating into integrated vector management strategies for reducing malaria transmission. Here, we report the potential of potash alum, a traditionally known salt in Indian Ayurveda and Chinese medicine system, in malaria vector control by evaluating its aqueous suspension as larvicide and growth disruptor of Anopheles stephensi, under laboratory conditions. Immature stages of the mosquito were tested using WHO guidelines. 50 and 90% lethal concentrations among various larvae ranged between 2.1 to 48.74 ppm and 15.78 to 93.11 ppm, respectively. The results indicated that larvicidal effects of potash alum were comparable to various biological and chemical insecticides. The study provides considerable scope in exploiting local indigenous resources for the control of nuisance mosquito vectors.

  20. Mosquito larvicidal properties of Orthosiphon thymiflorus (Roth) Sleesen. (Family: Labiatae) against mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovendan, K; Murugan, K; Vincent, S; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-04-01

    To determine the mosquito larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol leaf extract of Orthosiphon thymiflorus (O. thymiflorus) against Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi), Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) and Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). The larvicidal activity was assayed against three mosquito species at various concentrations ranging from (50-450 ppm) under the laboratory conditions. The LC(50) and LC(90) value of the O. thymiflorus leaf extract was determined by Probit analysis. The LC(50) values of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract of O. thymiflorus third instar larvae of An. stephensi were LC(50)= 201.39, 178.76, 158.06, 139.22 and 118.74 ppm; Cx. quinquefasciatus were LC(50)=228.13, 209.72, 183.35, 163.55 and 149.96 ppm and Ae. aegypti were LC(50)=215.65, 197.91, 175.05, 154.80 and 137.26 ppm, respectively. Maximum larvicidal activity was observed in the methanolic extract followed by acetone, ethyl acetate chloroform and hexane extract. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. No mortality was observed in control. The present results suggest that the effective plant crude extracts have potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquito vectors. This study provides the first report on the larvicidal activity of this plant crude solvent extract of against An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of larvicidal activity and brine shrimp toxicity of rhizome extracts of Zingiber zerumbet (L. Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Bucker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In this study, we used dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of the Zingiber zerumbet rhizome to evaluate brine shrimp lethality and larvicidal activity on Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari mosquitoes. Methods Bioassays were performed by exposing third-instar larvae of each mosquito species to the DCM or MeOH extracts. Results Probit analysis with DCM and MeOH extracts demonstrated efficient larvicidal activity against A. aegypti and A. nuneztovari larvae. Conclusions The DCM and MeOH extracts showed higher activity against A. nuneztovari larvae than against A. aegypti larvae, suggesting that the extracts have species-specific activity.

  2. Evaluation of some aromatic plant extracts for mosquito larvicidal potential against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, M; Senthilkumar, A; Venkatesalu, V

    2015-04-01

    In the present investigation, larvicidal potential of hexane, choloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of seven aromatic plants, viz., Blumea mollis, Chloroxylon swietenia, Clausena anisata, Feronia limnonia, Lantana camera, Plectranthus amboinicus, and Tagetes erecta were screened against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The results revealed that all the extracts showed varied levels of larvicidal activity against the mosquito species tested. However, the ethyl acetate extract of Chloroxylon swietenia showed the remarkable larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi. After 12 h of exposure period, the larvicidal activity was LC50 = 194.22 and LC90 = 458.83 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), LC50 = 173.04 and LC90 = 442.73 ppm (Ae. aegypti), and LC50 = 167.28 and LC90 = 433.07 ppm (An. stephensi), and the larvicidal activity after 24-h exposure period was LC50 = 94.12 and LC90 = 249.83 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), LC50 = 80.58 and LC90 = 200.96 ppm (Ae. aegypti), and LC50 = 76.24 and LC90 = 194.51 ppm (An. stephensi). The larvicidal potential of other plant extracts were in order of ethyl acetate extract of Clausena anisata > methanol extract of P. amboinicus > acetone extract of F. limonia > methanol extract of T. erecta > methanol extract of B. mollis > and methanol extract of L. camera. The results of the present study offer a possible way for further investigations to find out the active molecule responsible for the activity.

  3. Mosquito larvicidal properties ofOrthosiphon thymiflorus(Roth) Sleesen. (Family:Labiatae) against mosquito vectors,Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K Kovendan; K Murugan; S Vincent; Donald R Barnard

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To determine the mosquito larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol leaf extract ofOrthosiphon thymiflorus (O. thymiflorus) againstAnopheles stephensi (An. stephensi), Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) andAedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti).Methods: The larvicidal activity was assayed against three mosquito species at various concentrations ranging from (50-450 ppm) under the laboratory conditions. TheLC50and LC90value of theO. thymiflorus leaf extract was determined by Probit analysis.Results: The LC50values of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract ofO. thymiflorus third instar larvae ofAn. stephensiwereLC50= 201.39, 178.76, 158.06, 139.22 and118.74 ppm;Cx. quinquefasciatus were LC50=228.13, 209.72, 183.35, 163.55 and149.96 ppm andAe. aegyptiwere LC50=215.65, 197.91, 175.05, 154.80 and137.26 ppm, respectively. Maximum larvicidal activity was observed in the methanolic extract followed by acetone, ethyl acetate chloroform and hexane extract. The larval mortality was observed after24h exposure. No mortality was observed in control.Conclusions:The present results suggest that the effective plant crude extracts have potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquito vectors. This study provides the first report on the larvicidal activity of this plant crude solvent extract of againstAn. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus andAe. aegyptimosquitoes.

  4. Screening of twenty five plant extracts for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel Tennyson; K John Ravindran; S Arivoli

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the larvicidal activity of twenty five plant extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: The larvicidal activity was determined against the third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus at 1 000 ppm concentration. Larval mortality was assessed after 24 and 48 h. Results: The hexane extracts of Cleistanthus collinus (C. collinus) and Murraya koeingii (M. koeingii) plants showed 100 percent mortality at 24 h bioassay followed by diethyl ether, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts of C. collinus, Leucas aspera (L. aspera), Hydrocotyle javanica (H. javanica), M. koeingii, Sphaeranthus indicus (S. indicus) and Zanthoxylum limonella (Z. limonella) after 48 h exposure. Conclusions: The results indicate larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus and further investigations are needed to elucidate this activity against a wide range of all stages of mosquito species and also the active ingredients of the extract responsible for larvicidal activity should be identified.

  5. Larvicidal property of green synthesized silver nanoparticles against vector mosquitoes (Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti)

    OpenAIRE

    Rajamani Bhuvaneswari; Raju John Xavier; Manickam Arumugam

    2016-01-01

    Mosquito vectors spread severe human diseases which lead to millions of deaths every year. Vector management is ultimately aimed to develop the health of every individual’s life by reducing the mosquito diversity. Control of vectors in growing counties is an important issue with various aspects. The advancement of green nanotechnology will attribute the solution for vector controlling policy. To identify the larvicidal property of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Belosynapsis kewensis (B. k...

  6. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on red-winged blackbird embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P H; Hoffman, D J; Buscemi, D M; Melancon, M J

    2003-01-01

    Golden Bear Oil (GB-1111; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate that is used in the United States and other countries as a larvicide for mosquito suppression. As part of a multi-species evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, red-winged blackbird eggs were collected, artificially incubated, and treated with one of five amounts of GB-1111 varying from 0 to 10 times the expected exposure from a spray application of the maximum recommended amount (X=47 l/ha, 5 gal/ac). The application of 10 X caused a significant reduction in hatching success. A dose-related reduction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity (EROD) was detected. Among body weights, skeletal measurements, and age at death, only crownrump length was different among experimental groups. Overall, the potential hazard to embryos of a representative wetland passerine appears minimal until the application rate exceeds 3 X.

  7. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on mallard and bobwhite embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    Golden Bear Oil or GB-1111 is a petroleum distillate that is used throughout the United States as a larvicide for mosquito pupae. The oil forms a barrier at the air-water interface, which suffocates air-breathing insects. There are few published studies on non-target effects of GB-1111 but the product label warns that ?GB-1111 is toxic to fish and other aquatic organisms.? Fertile eggs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) were incubated in the laboratory, and treated on days 4 or 11 of incubation with external applications equivalent to either 0, 1/3, 1, 3, or 10 times the maximum rate (5 gal/A) of field application of GB-1111. Hatching success was significantly reduced in mallards treated on day 4 or day 11 at 3 and 10 times the maximum field application, with a calculated approximate LD50 of 1.9 times the maximum field application. Most mortality occurred within a week of treatment. Hatching success of bobwhite was only reduced at the highest level of treatment. Other effects at this level in bobwhite included a significant increase in incidence of abnormal embryos/ hatchlings, lower body and liver weights of hatchlings and a two-fold increase in hepatic microsomal P450-associated monooxygenase activity (EROD) in hatchlings. Recommended rates of field application of GB-1111 are potentially toxic to mallard embryos, especially under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap, but unlikely to impair the survival or development of bobwhite embryos.

  8. Synthesis and Larvicidal and Adult Topical Activity of Some Hydrazide-Hydrazone Derivatives Against Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Aedes aegypti . The proposed structures of all the synthesized compounds were confirmed using elemental analysis, UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass...4b) showed noteworthy larvacidal activity against Aedes aegypti . Dose-response data of compound 4b showed LC50 and LC90 values of 30.5 (15.4 – 22.7...10000 and 1000 ppm. Keywords: Hydrazide-hydrazone, mosquito control, Aedes aegypti , larvicidal activity, adult topical activity INTRODUCTION Mosquitoes

  9. Mosquito larvicidal and silver nanoparticles synthesis potential of plant latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Borase

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were synthesized from the latex of the medicinally important plants Euphorbia milii, Euphorbia hirta, Ficus racemosa and Jatropha curcas. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, particle size, and zeta potential analysis. Potency of latex and latex-synthesized AgNPs was evaluated against the 2nd and 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. The lowest lethal concentration 50 (LC50 value among the different types of plant latex studied was observed for latex of E. milii (281.28±23.30 and 178.97±37.82 ppm, respectively against 2nd instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. E. milii latex-synthesised AgNPs showed a high reduction in LC50 compared with its latex; i.e., 8.76±0.46 and 8.67±0.47 ppm, respectively, for 2nd instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. LC50 values of AgNPs synthesized using the latex of E. hirta, F. racemosa and J. curcas were lower than those of the latex of the respective plants; i.e., 10.77±0.53, 9.81±0.52, 12.06±0.60 and 8.79±0.51, 9.83±0.52, 9.60±0.51 ppm, respectively, for 2nd instars of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti. Similarly, as compared with the plant latex, lower LC50 values were reported for latex-synthesized AgNPs against 4th instars of Ae. aegypt and An. stephensi. Results showed that all the types of plant latex investigated have the potential to convert silver nitrate into AgNPs showing a spectrum of potent mosquito larvicidal effects, indicating the possibility of further exploration of the bioefficacy of latex and latex-synthesized AgNPs against vectors of public health concerns.

  10. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oil from the Fruits of Daucus carota against Mosquitoes%野胡萝卜果实精油对蚊幼虫的毒杀活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦巧慧; 彭映辉; 何建国; 熊国红; 扶巧梅

    2011-01-01

    Insecticidal activity of essential oil extracted from fruits of Daucus carota against Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus was investigated by immersion method and the main compounds of the essential oil were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.LC50 values of the essential oil against the 4th instar larvae of A.albopictus and C.pipiens quinquefasciatus at 24 h were 67.87 μg·mL-1 and 34.12 μg·mL-1,respectively.Thirty-four compounds were identified in the essential oil,including the main component α-Pinene(54.72%),followed by β-bisabolene(11.35%) and β-asarone(10.14%).Six active compounds were quantitatively determined,including α-pinene(up to 577.46 mg·mL-1 in the oil),myrcene(80.26 mg·mL-1),limonene(28.95 mg·mL-1),β-caryophyllene(24.38 mg·mL-1),β-pinene(11.59 mg·mL-1) and γ-terpinen(2.33 mg·mL-1).The results indicated that the essential oil showed higher larvicidal activity against mosquitoes than many other plant essential oils which have been documented.It might be considered as a potential source for production of efficient and environment-friendly mosquito larvicide.%采用浸液法研究了野胡萝卜Daucus carota果实精油对白纹伊蚊Aedes albopictus和致倦库蚊Culexpipiens quinquefasciatus幼虫的毒杀活性;利用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)对精油的主要成分进行了定性、定量分析。结果发现,野胡萝卜果实精油毒杀白纹伊蚊和致倦库蚊4龄幼虫的24h LC50值分别为67.87μg.mL-1和34.12μg.mL-1;精油中共含有34种化合物,相对含量最高的是α-蒎烯(54.72%),其次为β-红没药烯(11.35%)和β-细辛脑(1

  11. Mosquito larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent properties of botanical extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, M; Mathivanan, T; Elumalai, K; Krishnappa, K; Anandan, A

    2011-08-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as eggs, larvae, and adult. The larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent activities of crude benzene and ethyl acetate extracts of leaf of Ervatamia coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in benzene extract of E. coronaria against the larvae of Anopheles Stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus with the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 79.08, 89.59, and 96.15 ppm and 150.47, 166.04, and 174.10 ppm, respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 48 h posttreatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. The leaf extract of E. coronaria was found to be most effective than Caesalpinia pulcherrima against eggs/egg rafts of three vector mosquitoes. For E. coronaria, the benzene extract exerted 300, 250, and 200 ppm against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of benzene and ethyl acetate extract of E. coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of fore arm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the

  12. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. (Fabaceae against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindarajan Marimuthu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant, Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: Twenty five early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO (2005. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. The ovicidal activity was determined against Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito eggs to various concentrations ranging from 100-750 mg/L under the laboratory conditions. Results: The methanol extract of the leaves and seed of P. dulce was the most effective against the larvae with LC 50 and LC90 values 164.12 mg/L, 214.29 mg/L, 289.34 mg/L and 410.18 mg/L being observed after 24 h of exposure. The efficacy of methanol was followed by that of the ethyl acetate, chloroform, benzene and hexane extracts. The mean percent hatchability of the egg rafts were observed after 48 h of treatment. About 100% mortality was observed at 500 mg/L for leaf and 750 mg/L for seed methanol extracts of P. dulce. Conclusions: From the results, it can be concluded that the larvicidal and ovicidal effect of P. dulce against Cx. quinquefasciatus make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs.

  13. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govindarajan Marimuthu; Rajeswary Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant, Pithecellobiumdulce (P. dulce) against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: Twenty five early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO (2005). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. The ovicidal activity was determined against Cx.quinquefasciatus mosquito eggs to various concentrations ranging from 100-750 mg/L under the laboratory conditions.Results:The methanol extract of the leaves and seed of P. dulce was the most effective against the larvae with LC50 and LC90 values 164.12 mg/L, 214.29 mg/L, 289.34 mg/L and 410.18 mg/L being observed after 24 h of exposure. The efficacy of methanol was followed by that of the ethyl acetate, chloroform, benzene and hexane extracts. The mean percent hatchability of the egg rafts were observed after 48 h of treatment. About 100% mortality was observed at 500 mg/L for leaf and 750 mg/L for seed methanol extracts of P. dulce.Conclusions:From the results, it can be concluded that the larvicidal and ovicidal effect of P. dulce against Cx. quinquefasciatus make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of mosquito larvicidal efficacy of plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    N.G. Das, D. Goswami & B. Rabha

    2007-01-01

    Mosquitoes are the most important single group ofinsects in terms of public health importance, whichtransmit a number of diseases, such as malaria, filariasis,dengue, Japanese encephalitis, etc. causing millionsof deaths every year. Repeated use of syntheticinsecticides for mosquito control has disrupted naturalbiological control systems and led to resurgencesin mosquito populations. It has also resulted in thedevelopment of resistance1, undesirable effects onnon-target organisms and fostered...

  15. Larvicidal efficiency of the mushroom Amanitamuscaria (Agaricales, Amanitaceae against the mosquito Culexquinquefasciatus (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcial Corrêa Cárcamo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: We report the larvicidal activity of two formulations from Amanita muscariaagainst Culex quinquefasciatus, as well as the viability of the aqueous extract after storage. METHODS The larvicidal activity of aqueous extract and powder from A. muscaria, and the viability of the aqueous extract after storage, were evaluated. RESULTS The aqueous extract caused larval deaths, which varied from 16.4% to 88.4%. The efficiency of the powder varied from 29.2% to 82.8%. Storage did not interfere with the larvicidal efficiency of the aqueous extract of A. muscaria. CONCLUSIONS These results show the potential of A. muscariato control C. quinquefasciatus.

  16. Larvicidal activities of chinaberry, neem and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti to an insecticide resistant population of Anopheles arabiensis from Tolay, Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assalif Demissew

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Neem, chinaberry and Bti showed potent larvicidal and pupicidal activities. However, in the area, high level of mosquito resistance to pyrethroids and dichloro-diphenyl-tricgloroethane was seen which will pose serious challenge to vector control in the future. Therefore, using integrated approach including these botanical larvicides is warranted to manage insecticide resistance.

  17. Mosquito larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles synthesised using actinobacterium, Streptomyces sp. M25 against Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    T. Shanmugasundaram; R. Balagurunathan

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports the larvicidal potential of microbially synthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using an actinobacterium, Streptomyces sp. M25 isolated from Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The biomass of Streptomyces sp. was exposed to 1 mM silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution. The synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed by visual inspection followed by instrumental analysis such as UV–vis spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-r...

  18. Effectiveness of seven mosquito larvicides against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens (L. in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazem Abdullah Mahyoub

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effects of different chemical larvicides, bioinsecticides and insect growth regulators against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae (Cx. pipiens in Saudi Arabia. Methods: We tested seven commercial mosquito larvicides, including classic cyfluthrin, diazinon and propoxur, bioinsecticides Bactilarvae and Tracer 24%, and insect growth regulators Baycidal and Sumilarv. LC50 and LC90 values were calculated in laboratory conditions using probit analysis. Results: Concerning chemical insecticides, the highest larval mortality was observed for diazinon, with LC50 = 0.352 3 mg/L, followed by propoxur and cyfluthrin. The bacterial insecticide Tracer was more effective than Bactilarvae (LC50 = 0.008 7 mg/L and 0.011 7 mg/L, respectively by 1.37 folds. Furthermore, Cx. pipiens larvae were more susceptible to insect growth regulators Baycidal (IC50 = 0.0004 mg/L if compared to Sumilarv (IC50 = 0.0029 mg/L by 7.25 folds. Conclusions: Overall, this research added basic knowledge about the effectiveness of seven mosquito larvicides with different mechanisms of action as potential candidates for the control programs of Cx. pipiens mosquito populations in Saudi Arabia.

  19. Larvicidal and repellent properties of Adansonia digitata against medically important human malarial vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Krishnappa , K. Elumalai , S. Dhanasekaran & J. Gokulakrishnan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Development of plant-based alternative compounds for mosquito control has gainedimportance now-a-days, in view of increasing resistance in mosquito vectors to existing insecticides. The larvicidaland repellent activities of benzene, chloroform, hexane and methanol leaf extracts of Indian medicinal plant,Adansonia digitata were investigated against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi.Methods: In all, 25 III instar larvae of An. stephensi were exposed to various concentrations (30–180 mg/l in thelaboratory by using the standard protocol described by WHO (2005. The larvae were exposed for 24 h andmortalities were subjected to log-probit analysis. Repellent activity of crude leaf extract at the dosages of 2, 4and 6 mg/cm2 was evaluated in a net cage (45 × 30 × 45 cm containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes ofAn. stephensi using the protocol of WHO (1996.Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis of A. digitata showed the presence of triterpenoids and saponins.The LC50 and LC90 values of hexane, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of A. digitata against An.stephensi larvae in 24 h were 111.32, 97.13, 88.55, 78.18 and 178.63, 176.19, 168.14, 155.42 mg/l, respectively.The repellent activity of methanol extract was found to be most effective and at higher concentration of 6mg/cm2 benzene, chloroform hexane and methanol extracts provided 100% protection up to 150, 180, 120 and210 min against An. stephensi, respectively.Conclusion: The preliminary study indicated that A. digitata showed larvicidal and repellent activities againstAn. stephensi and could be used for controlling mosquitoes. Further studies are indicated to purify the activecompounds from these plants for developing larvicide and repellents.

  20. Mosquito larvicidal properties of Impatiens balsamina (Balsaminaceae against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the larvicidal potential of the crude benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts of the medicinal plant Impatiens balsamina against Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: Twenty five third instar larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol recommended by WHO. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. Results: Among extracts tested, the highest larvicidal activity was observed in leaf methanol extract of Impatiens balsamina against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values 98.04, 119.68, 125.06 and 172.93, 210.14, 220.60 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded that the larvicidal effect of Impatiens balsamina against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs.

  1. Mosquito larvicidal properties of Impatiens balsamina (Balsaminaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marimuthu Govindarajan; Mohan Rajeswary

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the larvicidal potential of the crude benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts of the medicinal plant Impatiens balsamina against Anopheles stephensi(An. stephensi), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: Twenty five third instar larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol recommended by WHO. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. Results: Among extracts tested, the highest larvicidal activity was observed in leaf methanol extract of Impatiens balsamina against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values 98.04, 119.68, 125.06 and 172.93, 210.14, 220.60 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions:From the results it can be concluded that the larvicidal effect of Impatiens balsamina against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs.

  2. Larvicidal property of green synthesized silver nanoparticles against vector mosquitoes (Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamani Bhuvaneswari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito vectors spread severe human diseases which lead to millions of deaths every year. Vector management is ultimately aimed to develop the health of every individual’s life by reducing the mosquito diversity. Control of vectors in growing counties is an important issue with various aspects. The advancement of green nanotechnology will attribute the solution for vector controlling policy. To identify the larvicidal property of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Belosynapsis kewensis (B. kewensis leaf extract against the Anopheles stephensi (A. stephensi and Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti in vitro study (LC50 and LC90 was analyzed. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV–vis. (Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy, TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy, and XRD (X-ray Diffraction. Green AgNPs have a maximum absorption at 411 nm. The FTIR spectrum showed prominent peaks in (3863.55, 3759.02, 3361.01, 2926.81, 1575.12, 1388.16, 1034.79, 821.96, 717.07, 590.92, 534.32 and 472.42 cm−1 in the region of 4000–400 cm−1. The XRD peaks shown at 27.4°, 35.90°, 37.20°, 51.23° and 71.10° correspond to (311, (100, (101, (104 and (006 planes for face centered cubic (FCC. The TEM image showed the NPs with an average size of 24 ± 1.6 nm. In vitro larvicidal activity of AgNPs was used against the fourth instar of A. stephensi and A. aegypti. The LC50 and LC90 values of AgNPs showed to be effective against A. stephensi (LC50 = 78.4; LC90 = 144.7 ppm followed by A. aegypti (LC50 = 84.2; LC90 = 117.3 ppm. These results recommend that the green synthesized AgNPs have a potential to be used as a candidate for the control of A. stephensi and A. aegypti through eco-friendly and cost effective approach.

  3. Mosquito Larvicidal Potential of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton Leaves Extracts against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar D Patil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to extract the ingredients from leaves of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton using different solvents and evaluate for potential use to control different larval stages of mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay.LC50 values of water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts for Ae. aegypti were 211.73±21.49, 241.64±19.92, 358.07±32.43, 401.03±36.19 and 232.56±26.00, 298.54±21.78, 366.50±30.59, 387.19±31.82 for 4(th instar of An. stephensi, respectively. The water extract displayed lowest LC50 value followed by ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane. Owing to the comparatively better activity of water extract, its efficacy was further evaluated for mosquito larvicidal activity, which exhibited LC50 values of 133.95±12.79, 167.65±11.34 against 2(nd and 3(rd instars of Ae. aegypti and 145.48±11.76, 188.10±12.92 against 2(nd and 3(rd instars of An. stephensi, respectively. Crude protein from the water extract was precipitated using acetone and tested against 2(nd, 3(rd and 4(th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. It revealed further decrease in LC50 values as 105.72±25.84, 138.23±23.18, 126.19±25.65, 134.04±04 and 137.88±17.59, 154.25±16.98 for 2(nd, 3(rd and 4(th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively.Leaves extracts of Go. hirsutum (Bt is potential mosquito larvicide and can be used as a potent alternative to chemical insecticides in integrated pest management.

  4. Larvicidal efficacies and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus sylvestris and Syzygium aromaticum against mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kehinde Adenike Fayemiwo; Monsuru Adebayo Adeleke; Ovie Princewill Okoro; Shola Hezekiah Awojide; Ilias Olufemi Awoniyi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To assess the chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal potentials of essential oils of locally sourced Pinus sylvestris (P. sylvestris) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (C. quinquefasciatus). Method:The chemical composition of the essential oils of both plants was determined using GC-MS while the larvicidal bioassay was carried out using different concentrations of the oils against the larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus in accordance with the standard protocol. Results:The results as determined by GC-MS showed that oil of S. aromaticum has eugenol (80.5%) as its principal constituent while P. sylvestris has 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, .alpha., .alpha.4-trimethyl (27.1%) as its dominant constituent. Both oils achieved over 85%larval mortality within 24 h. The larvae of A. aegypti were more susceptible to the oils [LC50 (S. aromaticum)=92.56 mg/L, LC50(P. sylvestris)=100.39 mg/L] than C. quinquefasciatus [LC50(S. aromaticum)=124.42 mg/L;LC50(P. sylvestris)=128.00 mg/L]. S. aromaticum oil was more toxic to the mosquito larvae than oil of P. sylvestris but the difference in lethal concentrations was insignificant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The results justify the larvicidal potentials of both essential oils and the need to incorporate them in vector management and control.

  5. Mosquito Larvicidal Potential of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) Leaves Extracts against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae.

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Hemant P Borase; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Rahul K Suryawanshi; Narkhade, Chandrakant P; Salunke, Bipinchandra K.; Satish V Patil

    2014-01-01

    Background: We aimed to extract the ingredients from leaves of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) using different solvents and evaluate for potential use to control different larval stages of mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt) plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay. Results: LC50 values of water, etha...

  6. Synthesis and Larvicidal Activity of Novel Thenoylhydrazide Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gao-Peng; Hu, De-Kun; Tian, Hao; Li, Ya-Sheng; Cao, Yun-Shen; Jin, Hong-Wei; Cui, Zi-Ning

    2016-03-10

    A pair of chemical isomeric structures of novel N-tert-butylphenyl thenoylhydrazide compounds I and II were designed and synthesized. Their structures were characterized by MS, IR, (1)H NMR, elemental analysis and X-ray single crystal diffraction. The regioselectivity of the Meerwein arylation reaction and the electrophilic substitution reaction of N-tert-butyl hydrazine were studied by density functional theory (DFT) quantum chemical method. The larvicidal tests revealed that some compounds I had excellent larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens pallens. As the candidates of insect growth regulators (IGRs), the larval growth inhibition and regulation against Culex pipiens pallens were examined for some compounds, especially I1 and I7. Compounds I1 and I7 were further indicated as an ecdysteroid agonist by reporter gene assay on the Spodoptera frugiperda cell line (Sf9 cells). Finally, a molecular docking study of compound I7 was conducted, which was not only beneficial to understand the structure-activity relationship, but also useful for development of new IGRs for the control of mosquitos.

  7. Synthesis and Larvicidal Activity of Novel Thenoylhydrazide Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gao-Peng; Hu, De-Kun; Tian, Hao; Li, Ya-Sheng; Cao, Yun-Shen; Jin, Hong-Wei; Cui, Zi-Ning

    2016-01-01

    A pair of chemical isomeric structures of novel N-tert-butylphenyl thenoylhydrazide compounds I and II were designed and synthesized. Their structures were characterized by MS, IR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis and X-ray single crystal diffraction. The regioselectivity of the Meerwein arylation reaction and the electrophilic substitution reaction of N-tert-butyl hydrazine were studied by density functional theory (DFT) quantum chemical method. The larvicidal tests revealed that some compounds I had excellent larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens pallens. As the candidates of insect growth regulators (IGRs), the larval growth inhibition and regulation against Culex pipiens pallens were examined for some compounds, especially I1 and I7. Compounds I1 and I7 were further indicated as an ecdysteroid agonist by reporter gene assay on the Spodoptera frugiperda cell line (Sf9 cells). Finally, a molecular docking study of compound I7 was conducted, which was not only beneficial to understand the structure-activity relationship, but also useful for development of new IGRs for the control of mosquitos. PMID:26960713

  8. Larvicidal and pupicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Leucas aspera leaf extract against mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sivapriyajothi; P. Mahesh Kumar; K. Kovendan; Subramaniam, J; K Murugan

    2014-01-01

    Mosquitoes are one of the most medically significant groups of vectors, having an ability to transmit parasites and pathogens that can have devastating impacts on humans. The development of reliable and ecofriendly processes for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step in the field of application of nanotechnology. In this study, we address the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Leucas aspera leaf extract, and evaluate its lethal concentration (LC50 and LC9...

  9. The use of bacterial larvicides in mosquito and black fly control programmes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis Lêda

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus spp. based larvides are increasingly replacing, with numerous advantages, chemical insecticides in programmes for controlling black fly and mosquito populations. Brazil was among the pioneers in adopting Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (B.t.i to control black flies. However, the major current mosquito control programme in Brazil, the Programme for Eradication of Aedes aegypti launched in 1997, only recently decided to replace temephos by B.t.i based larvicides, in the State of Rio de Janeiro. In the last decade, works developed by research groups in Brazilian institutions have generated a significant contribution to this subject through the isolation of B. sphaericus new strains, the development of new products and the implementation of field trials of Bacillus efficacy against mosquito species under different environmental conditions.

  10. Mosquito larvicidal properties of volatile oil from salt marsh mangrove plant of Sesuvium portulacastrum against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Yacoob Syed Ali; Venkatraman Anuradha; SyedAbudhair Sirajudeen; Prathasarathy Vijaya; Nagarajan Yogananth; Ramachandran Rajan; Peer Mohamed Kalitha Parveen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify the larvicidal activity of the volatile oil from Sesuvium portulacastrum (S.portulacastrum ) against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Methods: Volatile oil extract of S. portulacastrum was prepared in a graded series of concentration. The test for the larvicidal effect of volatile oil against mosquitos larvae was conducted in accordance with the WHO standard method. Batches of 25 early 4th instar larvae of two mosquitoes were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts. Each experiment was conducted with triplicate with concurrent a control group.Results:Volatile oil extract of S. portulacastrum showed toxicity against 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with equivalent LC50 value [(63±7.8) µL/mL, LCL-UCL=55.2-64.0] and LC90 value [(94.2±3.9) µL/mL)] in maximum activity with minimum concentration (200 µL/mL) of volatile oil and followed by maximum activity of 250 µL concentration showed LC50 value=(68.0±8.2) µL/mL, LCL-UCL=66.26-69.2 and LC50 value of (55.2±2.8) µL/mL, LCL-UCL=53.7-56.9, LC90=(95.2±1.25) µL/mL and followed by 250 µL of oil extract against 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti respectively.Conclusions:It is inferred from the present study that, the extracts from salt marsh mangrove plan of S. portulacastum are identified as a potential source of safe and efficacious mosquito control agents for the management of vector borne diseases of malaria and dengue.

  11. Diffusion Model On The Efficacy Of Larvicide In Antilarval Operation Of Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basker, P.; Kumar, T. Ramesh; Prabu, S. Milton; Hemalatha, S.; Elango, S.; Padmanabhan, P.; Asokan, R.

    2008-01-01

    Mosquito control is being performed under chemical, biological and genetic and altogether it is called integrated vector control. In developing countries like India, chemical control has been given priority. Chemicals used as adulticide is becoming resistance among mosquitoes compared to larvicide. Further, the destruction of immature (larvae) stages of mosquitoes is as effective as its distribution is limited whereas adult mosquitoes turned to terrestrial mode of life and its distribution is based on its flight range, habitat, aggregation of man and animals. In this research paper, selective spray treatment over larvae of mosquitoes of a semi-infinite pool is analyzed using diffusion model. Spray chemical is conceived to spread on the surface with time and in space. A critical concentration of spray chemical is envisaged for assumed death of mosquito larvae. Diffusion is modeled Fick' law. Spray losses are lumped into a first order term. Analytical solution of the resulting partial differential equation for various values of diffusivity and loss rate constant are plotted and interpreted. The model would be useful to appraise beforehand how far and for how long spray would be effective and how much of spray chemical is required for effectiveness within specified distance and time.

  12. Effect of repeated application of fenthion as a mosquito larvicide on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) inhabiting selected water canals in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasundara, Viranga K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2008-04-01

    Health status of feral Nile tilapia following repeated applications of fenthion as a mosquito larvicide to selected water canals in Sri Lanka was assessed. With three spray applications of fenthion to the study sites at weekly intervals at the concentration recommended for mosquito control, condition factor and brain acetylcholinesterase activity of the fish were depressed in a time dependent manner. Prominent histopathological alterations displayed were gill hyperplasia and telangiectasis and vacoulation of hepatocytes. Observed ill health effects of fenthion on the fish demonstrate probable ecological risk to the fish populations inhabiting the water canals which receive repeated inputs of fenthion.

  13. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk (Asteraceae) against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Govindarajan; P Karuppannan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study deals with the investigation of larvicidal and ovicidal activities of benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform leaf extract of Eclipta alba (E. alba) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. Aegypti). Methods: Twenty five early III instar larvae of Ae. aegypti was exposed to various concentrations (50-300 ppm) and was assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO 2005; the 24 h LC50 values of the E. alba leaf extract was determined by Probit analysis. For ovicidal activity, slightly modified method of Su and Mulla was performed. The ovicidal activity was determined against Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100-350 ppm under the laboratory conditions. The egg hatch rates were assessed 48 h post treatment. Results: The LC50 values of benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform extract of E. alba against early third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were 151.38, 165.10, 154.88, 127.64 and 146.28 ppm, respectively. Maximum larvicidal activity was observed in the methanol extract followed by chloroform, benzene, ethyl acetate and hexane extract. No mortality was observed in control. Among five solvent tested the methanol extract was found to be most effective for ovicidal activity against Ae. aegypti. The methanol extracts exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 300 ppm. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of E. alba was an excellent potential for controlling Ae. aegypti mosquito.

  14. Smoke repellency and mosquito larvicidal potentiality of Mesua ferra L. leaf extract against filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Someshwar Singha; Utpal Adhikari; Goutam Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Present study was made to evaluate the smoke repellent potentiality and mosquito larvicidal activity of Mesua ferra (M. ferra) leaves against filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx.quinquefasciatus ). Methods: Crude, petroleum-ether, chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) and ethyl acetate extracts of mature plant leaves were investigated to establish its biocontrol potentiality under laboratory condition against larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus at different concentrations i.e. 25 ppm, 50 ppm and 75 ppm. Mosquito coil prepared from M. ferra leaves powder were tested for smoke toxicity effect against Cx. quinquefasciatus adult mosquitoes. Results: The mortality rates of crude extract at 0.5% concentration were higher than all other concentrations tested against the first, second, third and fourth instars larvae at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of exposure. Larval mortality rate in chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extract was significantly higher (P<0.05) than other extracts. LC50 value of petroleum ether, chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) and ethyl acetate extracts were 195.33 ppm, 27.28 ppm and 74.19 ppm respectively, after 48 h of exposure. Smoke exposed gravid females oviposited fewer eggs when compared to non exposed female mosquitoes. Conclusions:In conclusion M. ferra crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1) extract can be used effectively against mosquito control programmes. Smoke from M. ferra can play an important role in the interruption of transmission of those diseases where mosquitoes act as vector at the individual level.

  15. Larvicidal activity of the essential oil from Lippia sidoides cham. against Aedes aegypti linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Ana Fontenele Urano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Lippia sidoides essential oil against Aedes aegypti larvae. The essential oil and its hydrolate (saturated solution of essential oil in water were obtained by vapor extraction and their chemical composition determined by GL-chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy. Bioassays were run with the essential oil, pure and diluted hydrolate and with their main constituents thymol and carvacrol. The results obtained showed that L. sidoides essential oil and its hydrolate have larvicidal action against the mosquito A. aegypti, causing an almost instantaneous mortality. Thymol, an alkylated phenol derivative and one of the major components of L. sidoides essential oil, was identified as the active principle responsible for the larvicidal action, causing 100% larval mortality at the lowest tested concentration of 0.017% (w/v. These results suggest that the essential oil of L. sidoides is promising as larvicide against A. aegypti and could be useful in the search of newer, more selective, and biodegradable larvicidal natural compounds to be used in official combat programs and at home.

  16. Larvicidal and pupicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Leucas aspera leaf extract against mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sivapriyajothi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are one of the most medically significant groups of vectors, having an ability to transmit parasites and pathogens that can have devastating impacts on humans. The development of reliable and ecofriendly processes for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step in the field of application of nanotechnology. In this study, we address the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Leucas aspera leaf extract, and evaluate its lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90 values against first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of the mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy analysis. Larvae and pupae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extracts of synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The maximum mortality was observed from synthesized AgNPs, with LC50 values for I-IV instars and pupae ranging from 13.06 to 25.54, and LC90 values ranging from 24.11 to 47.34 for A. aegypti; for A. stephensi, the corresponding LC50 values ranged from 12.45 to 22.26, and the LC90 values ranged from 23.50 to 42.95. With methanol leaf extract of L. aspera against A. aegypti, the LC50 values ranged from 174.89 to 462.96 and the LC90 values ranged from 488.16 to 963.74; for A. stephensi, the corresponding LC50 values ranged from 148.93 to 417.07 and the LC90 values ranged from 449.72 to 912.94. The study suggests that nanoparticles could be a preferred alternative to the most hazardous existing chemical pesticides, contributing to a more healthy environment by providing an ideal ecological and user-friendly vector control strategy for managing malaria and dengue, and contributing to their eventual elimination in the near future.

  17. Larvicidal and irritant activities of hexane leaf extracts of Citrus sinensis against dengue vector Aedes aegypti L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Warikoo

    2012-02-01

    Conclusions: The hexane extracts from C. sinensis leaves are proved to be reasonably larvicidal but remarkably irritant against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of extract as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the extract could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control.

  18. Ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal properties of Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) (Family: Asparagaceae) root extracts against filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus), dengue (Aedes aegypti) and malaria (Anopheles stephensi) vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2014-04-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present investigation was undertaken to study the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extracts of root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of Asparagus racemosus against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed 99-100% hatchability. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of root of Asparagus racemosus against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with the LC50 and LC90 values were 115.13, 97.71 and 90.97 ppm and 210.96, 179.92, and 168.82 ppm, respectively. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in

  19. Larvicidal properties of two asclepiadaceous plant species against the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Elsayed Edriss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain mosquito species are important vectors of fatal human diseases, among which Anopheles arabiensis is known to be associated with malaria transmission in different tropical and subtropical areas. Since chemical control of mosquitoes was linked with numerous drawbacks, like resistance development, the search for effective environmentally sound alternatives is urgently needed. Therefore, it was aimed by this study to evaluate some extracts prepared from two asclepiadaceous plants, viz., Solenostemma argel “Hargel” (seeds and leaves and Calotropis procera “Usher” (leaves and flowers, as natural larvicides against An. arabiensis. The main parameters included bioassays of treatments for knockdown and residual effects, besides phytochemical analysis of the tested extracts. The results revealed variable groups of secondary metabolites in the two plants, with S. argel seemed to be the richest one. Hence, S. argel extracts caused higher larval mortalities than those of C. procera. This could be ascribed to some potent secondary metabolites in the former plant, which needs further studies. Almost all the high concentrations of S. argel extracts exerted the highest knockdown effect (90% mortality after 24 h, which were comparable with those obtained by two standard insecticides. The highest doses of petroleum ether and water extracts of this plant also manifested significantly higher residual effects than the other extracts after three days following treatments, but were surpassed by the chemical insecticides thereafter. However, S. argel seed petroleum ether extract at 0.5% was the most effective of all botanicals up to three weeks of exposure. This extract needs to be evaluated under field conditions for proper exploitation as mosquito larvicide.

  20. Chemical composition, toxicity and non-target effects of Pinus kesiya essential oil: An eco-friendly and novel larvicide against malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of important parasites and pathogens causing death, poverty and social disability worldwide, with special reference to tropical and subtropical countries. The overuse of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors lead to resistance, adverse environmental effects and high operational costs. Therefore, the development of eco-friendly control tools is an important public health challenge. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Pinus kesiya leaf essential oil (EO) was evaluated against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the P. kesiya EO contained 18 compounds. Major constituents were α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene and germacrene D. In acute toxicity assays, the EO showed significant toxicity against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with LC50 values of 52, 57, and 62µg/ml, respectively. Notably, the EO was safer towards several aquatic non-target organisms Anisops bouvieri, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 values ranging from 4135 to 8390µg/ml. Overall, this research adds basic knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides from Pinaceae plants against malaria, dengue and filariasis mosquito vectors.

  1. Composition, mosquito larvicidal, biting deterrent and antifungal activity of essential oils of different plant parts of Cupressus arizonica var. glabra ('Carolina Sapphire').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Baser, K Husnu Can; Ellis, Jane; Gray, Sandra; Lackey, Brett R; Murphy, Christine; Khan, Ikhlas A; Wedge, David E

    2013-02-01

    Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of female cones (FC), male cones (MC), needle-twigs (NT) and wood-bark (WB) of 'Carolina Sapphire' [Cupressus arizonica var glabra (Sudw.) Little] were analyzed simultaneously by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main constituents of the investigated essential oils were as follows: FC: alpha-pinene 68.5% and myrcene 11.9%; MC: alpha-pinene 22.5%, epi-zonarene 9.9%, zonarene 6.9%, limonene 6.8% and cadina-3,5-diene 6.1%; NT: alpha-pinene 20.7%, epi-zonarene 10.4%, zonarene 7.6%, limonene 5.9% umbellulone 5.8% and cadina-3,5-diene 5.8%; WB: alpha-pinene 40.7%, limonene 3.2% and umbellulone 2.9%. Essential oils were evaluated for antifungal activity against the strawberry anthracnose causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. Only WB essential oil showed moderate activity when compared with the commercial antifungal standards. Carolina Sapphire essential oils exhibited biting deterrent activity at 10 microg/cm2 with Biting Deterrence Index (BDI) values of 0.64, 0.59, 0.65 and 0.72, for FC, MC, NT and WB, respectively, and were significantly lower (P < or = 0.05) than the synthetic insect repellent, DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide), at 25 nmol/cm2 against Aedes aegypti. The biting deterrence of NT and WB oils at 100 microg/cm2 with BDI values of 1.04 and 1.01, respectively, were similar, whereas the activity of MC (BDI = 0.88) and FC (BDI = 0.62) essential oils was lower than DEET at 25 nmol/cm2. Essential oil from FC with LD50 of 33.7 ppm was most toxic against 1-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae at 24-h post treatment. Female cone essential oil was significantly more toxic than MC (LD50 = 53.6 ppm), NT (LD50 = 55.5 ppm) and WB (LD50 = 44.6 ppm) essential oils.

  2. Larvicidal activity of Cestrum nocturnum on Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Jawale

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is a vector parasite of the Dengue. New method to control the population of this insect is necessary. In the present work we evaluated the potential of extract from Cestrum nocturnum as larvicide. Methanol extract outstand as highly active larvicide, achieving 100 % larval mortality in 24 hours when tested in the concentration of 45 µg/mL (soxhlet and 25 µg/mL (percolation. Any extract exhibiting significant larvicide activity was further fractioned and the fraction tested according to the WHO protocol. One fraction derived from methanol extract present remarkable LC100 at 12 µg/mL. LC50 of methanol extract and active fraction were found 14 µg/mL and 6 µg/mL respectively. These fractions will be submitted to further fractions aiming to identify the molecules responsible for the larvicide activity.

  3. Larvicidal activity of some marine macrophytes against Artemia salina

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    and Microdictyon pseudohapteron, seagrasses (Halophila ovalis and Syringodium isoetifolium and lichens (Umbilicaria arpina) were tested for larvicidal activity using Artemia salina nauplii. The LC50 values for the PE-fraction of M. pseudohapteron and A. muscoides...

  4. Physical influence on larvicidal and pupicidal activity of the silicone-based monomolecular film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngrenngarmlert, Warunee; Sukkanon, Chutipong; Yaicharoen, Rapeeporn; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2016-10-01

    Although silicone-based monomolecular film (MMF) has been accepted as larvicide in several countries, its mosquito control potential has never been investigated in Thailand. Laboratory assessment in this study was conducted to determine the MMF efficacy against Aedes aegypti. At the recommended dosage (1mL/m(2) of water surface), mortality of pupae (99.17±0.83%) was significantly greater than mortality of old and young larvae (73.33±9.13, 11.67±3.47%; respectively). Pupicidal activity was rapidly exhibited within hours while larvicidal activity took at least one day. Interestingly, among the survived mosquitoes after MMF exposure, larval length (3.6±0.18mm), pupation (0%) and adult emergence (0%) were significantly less than the control group. Gravid females also avoided laying eggs in MMF-treated oviposition cups. There was no influence of physical factors on MMF efficacy and no toxic effects on fish and plants. These results indicated the MMF is promising to provide not only larvicidal and pupicidal activity but also inhibition of larval development as indicated by both larval length and stage transformation.

  5. Larvicidal activity of leguminous seeds and grains against Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young-Su; Baek, Bong-Rae; Yang, Young-Cheol; Kim, Moo-Key; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2002-09-01

    Larvicidal activity of methanol extracts of 26 leguminous seeds and 20 grains against early 4th-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens was examined. At 200 ppm of the extracts from Cassia obtusifolia, Cassia tora, and Vicia tetrasperma, more than 90% mortality was obtained in larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens. Extract of C. tora gave 86.7 and 100% mortality in the larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens at 40 ppm but 59.2 and 78.3% mortality against larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens at 20 ppm, respectively. At 40 ppm, extract of C. obtusifolia caused 51.4 and 68.5% mortality of the 4th-stage larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens, respectively. Larvicidal activity of extract of C obtusifolia was significantly reduced when used at 20 ppm. Further studies of these plants as possible agents for mosquito control are warranted.

  6. Efficacy, fate, and potential effects on salmonids of mosquito larvicides in catch basins in Seattle, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Morgan; Grue, Christian; Conquest, Loveday; Grassley, James; King, Kerensa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy, fate, and potential for direct effects on salmonids of 4 common mosquito larvicides (Mosquito Dunks® and Bits® (AI: Bacillis thuringiensis var. israelensis, [Bti]), VectoLex® WSP (AI: Bacillus sphaericus [Bs], VectoLex CG [AI: Bs], and Altosid® Briquets [AI: s-methoprene]) in Seattle, WA, during 3 summers. During efficacy trials in 2006, all treatments resulted in a rapid reduction in number of mosquito pupae (Mosquito Dunks and Bits and VectoLex WSP) or emergence success (Altosid Briquets). VectoLex CG was chosen for city-wide application in 2007 and 2008. The average counts of pupae within round-top basins remained significantly below the control average for 11 wk in 2007, whereas efficacy in grated-top basins was short-lived. In 2008 the average counts of pupae within grated-top basins remained significantly below the control average for 10 wk. Altosid XR was also effective in reducing adult emergence within grated basins in 2008. In 2007 and 2008, frequent precipitation events made the evaluation of efficacy difficult due to reductions in pupae across control and treated basins. Four separate analyses of VectoLex products revealed that the product was a combination of Bs and Bti. Both Bs and Bti were detected in 3 urban creeks connected to treated basins in 2007 and 2008. Laboratory toxicity test results suggest that concentrations of Bs and Bti detected in each of the watersheds pose little direct hazard to juvenile salmonids.

  7. Larvicidal and cytotoxic activities of extracts from 11 native plants from northeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre Rodriguez, Yael C; Martínez Estrada, Francisco Ricardo; Flores Suarez, Adriana Elizabeth; Waksman de Torres, Noemí; Salazar Aranda, Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    Of all mosquito-borne viral diseases, dengue is spreading most rapidly worldwide. Conventional chemical insecticides (e.g., organophosphates and carbamates) effectively kill mosquitoes at their larval stage, but are toxic to humans. Natural product-based insecticides may be highly specific. Herein, we report the insecticidal activities of 11 native Mexican plants against Aedes aegypti (L). Ether extracts of Ambrosia confertiflora De Candolle, Thymus vulgaris (L.), and Zanthoxylum fagara (L.), and both ether and methanol extracts of Ruta chalepensis L. were significantly larvicidal toward the dengue mosquito after 24 h of exposure. Of them, only the ether extract of A. confertiflora was toxic to Vero cells. In conclusion, the ether extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Z. fagara, and both ether and methanol extracts of Ruta chalepensis L., could be considered as potential bioinsecticides.

  8. Larvicidal activity of oak Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) gall extracts against Anopheles stephensi Liston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aivazi, Ali-Ashraf; Vijayan, V A

    2009-06-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of botanical insecticides to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides in order to avoid environmental side effects. Anopheles stephensi is the primary vector of urban malaria, an endemic disease in India. So, an effort to assay An. stephensi larvae with gall extracts of Quercus infectoria was made under laboratory conditions at Mysore. Ethyl-acetate extract was found to be the most effective of all the five extracts tested for larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae, with LC(50) of 116.92 ppm followed by gallotannin, n-butanol, acetone, and methanol with LC(50) values of 124.62, 174.76, 299.26, and 364.61 ppm, respectively. The efficacy in killing mosquito larvae may make this plant promising for the development of new botanical larvicide.

  9. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Rollinia leptopetala (Annonaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitosa, Edinilza M.A.; Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Oliveira, M. Conceicao F. de; Vasnconcelos, Jackson Nunes e; Lima, Jefferson Q.; Malcher, Grazielle T. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: angelamcarriaga@yahoo.com.br; Santiago, Gilvandete M.P. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Nascimento, Ronaldo F. do [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2009-07-01

    The aim of present study was to describe the chemical composition of the essential oils from the leaf and stem of Rollinia leptopetala R. E. Fries (Annonaceae) and to evaluate the larvicidal activities of these essential oils, of the methanol extract from roots of this plant and of the oxoaporphine alkaloid, liriodenine (1) against the third-instar of Aedes aegypti larvae. The methanol extract from the roots showed larvicidal activity with LC{sub 50} 64.6 {+-} 1.5 ppm. Higher activity was observed for the isolated alkaloid liriodenine (1), LC{sub 50} 3.6 {+-} 0.4 ppm. The essential oils from the leaves and stems, also exhibited larvicidal activity with LC{sub 50} 104.7 {+-} 0.2 and 34.7 {+-} 0.3 ppm, respectively. These results suggest R. leptopetala as a source of natural larvicidal compounds. This is the first report about the chemical composition and larvicidal activity of the leaf and stem essential oils of R. leptopetala. (author)

  10. Larvicidal activity of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oils and their antagonistic effects with temephos in resistant populations of Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Adriana Faraco de Oliveira; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu; de Deus, Juliana Telles; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Nunes, Rogéria de Souza; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça

    2016-01-01

    Environmentally friendly botanical larvicides are commonly considered as an alternative to synthetic larvicides against Aedes aegypti Linn. In addition, mosquito resistance to currently used larvicides has motivated research to find new compounds acting via different mechanisms of action, with the goal of controlling the spread of mosquitos. Essential oils have been widely studied for this purpose. This work aims to evaluate the larvicidal potential of Syzygium aromaticum and Citrus sinensis essential oils, either alone or in combination with temephos, on Ae. aegypti populations having different levels of organophosphate resistance. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of the essential oils alone and in combination with temephos and the influence of essential oils on vector oviposition were evaluated. The results revealed that essential oils exhibited similar larvicidal activity in resistant populations and susceptible populations. However, S. aromaticum and C. sinensis essential oils in combination with temephos did not decrease resistance profiles. The presence of the evaluated essential oils in oviposition sites significantly decreased the number of eggs compared to sites with tap water. Therefore, the evaluated essential oils are suitable for use in mosquito resistance management, whereas their combinations with temephos are not recommended. Additionally, repellency should be considered during formulation development to avoid mosquito deterrence. PMID:27384083

  11. Larvicidal activity of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr and Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck essential oils and their antagonistic effects with temephos in resistant populations of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Faraco de Oliveira Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly botanical larvicides are commonly considered as an alternative to synthetic larvicides against Aedes aegypti Linn. In addition, mosquito resistance to currently used larvicides has motivated research to find new compounds acting via different mechanisms of action, with the goal of controlling the spread of mosquitos. Essential oils have been widely studied for this purpose. This work aims to evaluate the larvicidal potential of Syzygium aromaticum and Citrus sinensis essential oils, either alone or in combination with temephos, on Ae. aegypti populations having different levels of organophosphate resistance. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50 of the essential oils alone and in combination with temephos and the influence of essential oils on vector oviposition were evaluated. The results revealed that essential oils exhibited similar larvicidal activity in resistant populations and susceptible populations. However, S. aromaticum and C. sinensis essential oils in combination with temephos did not decrease resistance profiles. The presence of the evaluated essential oils in oviposition sites significantly decreased the number of eggs compared to sites with tap water. Therefore, the evaluated essential oils are suitable for use in mosquito resistance management, whereas their combinations with temephos are not recommended. Additionally, repellency should be considered during formulation development to avoid mosquito deterrence.

  12. Effects of a botanical larvicide derived from Azadirachta indica (the neem tree) on oviposition behaviour in Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, A.F.V.; Adongo, E.A.; Vulule, J.; Githure, J.

    2011-01-01

    More focus is given to mosquito larval control due to the necessity to use several control techniques together in integrated vector management programmes. Botanical products are thought to be able to provide effective, sustainable and cheap mosquito larval control tools. However, bio-larvicides like

  13. Effects of a botanical larvicide derived from Azadirachta indica (the neem tree) on oviposition behaviour in Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, A.F.V.; Adongo, E.A.; Vulule, J.; Githure, J.

    2011-01-01

    More focus is given to mosquito larval control due to the necessity to use several control techniques together in integrated vector management programmes. Botanical products are thought to be able to provide effective, sustainable and cheap mosquito larval control tools. However, bio-larvicides like

  14. Larvicidal activity of a toxin from the seeds of Jatropha curcas Linn. against Aedes aegypti Linn. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthakan, Nuchsuk; Nuanchawee, Wetprasit; Sittiruk, Roytrakul; Sunanta, Ratanapo

    2012-06-01

    The larvicidal effects of the crude protein extract and purified toxin, Jc-SCRIP, from the seed coat of Jatropha curcas Linn. against the third instar larvae of mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti Linn. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say, were investigated. This test compared the effects of the purified toxin with crude protein extracts from seed kernels of J. curcas and Ricinus communis. At various concentrations of purified toxin and crude protein extract, the larval mortality of both Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were positively correlated with increased exposure time. The larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were more susceptible to the toxin and both extracts than the larvae of Ae. aegypti. After 24 hours of exposure, the extract showed larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with (LC50) values of 3.89 mg/ml and 0.0575 mg/ml, respectively. The toxin, Jc-SCRIP, showed larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with (LC50) values of 1.44 mg/ml and 0.0303 mg/ ml, respectively. These results indicated that the crude protein extract and Jc-SCRIP were more toxic to the third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus than that of Ae. aegypti. The potent larvicidal activities of the seed coat extract and the Jc-SCRIP toxin from J. curcas suggest that they may be used as bioactive agents to control the mosquito population.

  15. Larvicidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. and Croton macrostachyus Del. against Anopheles arabiensis Patton, a potent malaria vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunamoorthi, K; Ilango, K

    2010-01-01

    Methanol leaf extracts of two Ethiopian traditional medicinal plants viz., Lomisar [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. (Poaceae)] and Bisana [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Croton macrostachyus Del. (Euphorbiaceae)] were screened for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis Patton, a potent malaria vector in Ethiopia. The larval mortality was observed 24 h of post treatment. Both plant extracts demonstrated varying degrees of larvicidal activity against Anopheles arabiensis. Cymbopogon citratus extract has exhibited potent larvicidal activity than Croton macrostachyus at lower concentrations. The LC50 and LC90 values of Cymbopogon citratus were 74.02 and 158.20 ppm, respectively. From this data, a chi-square value 2.760 is significant at the P < 0.05 level. While, the LC50 and LC90 values of Croton macrostachyus were 89.25 and 224.98 ppm, respectively and the chi-square value 1.035 is significant at the P < 0.05 level. The present investigation establishes that these plant extracts could serve as potent mosquito larvicidal agents against Anopheles arabiensis. However, their mode of actions and larvicidal efficiency under the field conditions should be scrutinized and determined in the near future.

  16. LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PERESKIA BLEO (KUNTH) DC. (CACTACEAE) FRUIT ENDOCARP CRUDE AND FRACTIONATED EXTRACTS AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongwat, Damrongpan; Ganranoo, Lucksagoon; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn

    2014-11-01

    The use of insecticides can cause adverse effects in vector control, a plant bio-insecticide is an advantageous substitute. Currently, the promising mosquito larvicidal activity from plant extracts has been reported worldwide, including Thailand. In this study, the endocarp of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. fruit was extracted with distilled water and ethanol. Crudes and fractionated groups of the extracts were evaluated for their larvicidal efficacy against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. At 48 hours of exposure, it was found that the activities of the extracts were higher than 24-hour's. The ethanolic extracts showed stronger activities than the aqueous ones, indicating the lower LC50 values of both crude and fractionated group extracts. The most toxic activity was found in a fractionated group of the ethanolic extract, E-Gr3, with significantly lowest LC50 values of 707.94 and 223.12 ppm for 24- and 48-hour detection times, respectively. The bioassay results indicated the larvicidal property against the Ae. aegypti mosquito of the P. bleo plant extracts. A safety for non-target organisms or an action on other mosquito vectors of this plant, should be further investigated.

  17. 球形芽孢杆菌杀蚊毒素蛋白及其遗传操作研究进展%MOSQUITO-LARVICIDAL TOXINS OF BACILLUS SPHAERICUS AND THEIR GENETIC MANIPULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁志明; 张用梅

    1999-01-01

    Bacillus sphaericus is an ubiquitous, cosmopolitan, aerobic, spore-forming bacteria. Nine serotype strains among them are pathogenic for mosquito larvae. The most active strains produce a crystal toxin which is composed of two proteins of 51.4 and 41.9kD during sporulation. After larvae ingest the spore/crystal complex, the crystal toxin is hydrolyzed into active toxins and bind to a specific receptor on midgut brush-border membranes. The resulting damage of the midgut cells leads to the death of mosquitoes. During the vegetative growth, the low toxic and some high toxic strains synthesize mosquito-larvicidal proteins of 100, 31.5 and 35.8kD(Mtx toxins). It is proved that these toxins have no homology with the crystal toxin and other insecticidal toxins. For better control of mosquito larvae, cloning and expressing of the crystal and Mtx toxin genes in different hosts have been studied. In this paper, the recent progress and development on mosquito-larvicidal toxins of B.sphaericus and their genetic manipulation for mosquito control are reviewed.

  18. Larvicidal, repellent, and ovicidal activity of marine actinobacteria extracts against Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, L; Gaurav, K; Rao, K V Bhaskara; Rajakumar, G; Rahuman, A Abdul

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of crude extracts of marine actinobacteria on larvicidal, repellent, and ovicidal activities against Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus (Diptera: Culicidae). The early fourth instar larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus and C. gelidus, reared in the laboratory, were used for larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent assay with crude extracts of actinobacteria. Saccharomonospora spp. (LK-1), Streptomyces roseiscleroticus (LK-2), and Streptomyces gedanensis (LK-3) were identified as potential biocide producers. Based on the antimicrobial activity, three strains were chosen for larvicidal activity. The marine actinobacterial extracts showed moderate to high larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm and the highest larval mortality was found in extract of LK-3 (LC(50) = 108.08 ppm and LC(90) = 609.15 ppm) against the larvae of C. gelidus and (LC(50) = 146.24 ppm and LC(90) = 762.69 ppm) against the larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus. Complete protections for 240 min were found in crude extract of LK-2 and LK-3 at 1,000 ppm, against mosquito bites of C. tritaeniorhynchus and C. gelidus, respectively. After 24-h treatment, mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Crude extracts of LK-1 and LK-3 showed no hatchability at 1,000 ppm against C. tritaeniorhynchus and C. gelidus, respectively. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of Japanese encephalitis vectors, C. tritaeniorhynchus and C. gelidus.

  19. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of pacharin from Bauhinia acuruana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Góis, Roberto Wagner; de Sousa, Leôncio Mesquita; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Romero, Nirla Rodrigues; Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes; Arriaga, Angela Martha Campos; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of pacharin isolated from the ethanol extract from roots of Bauhinia acuruana on third-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae). The crude ethanol extract showed larvicidal activity at the concentration of 500 μg/mL. Given this larvicidal activity, this extract was submitted to chromatographic fractionation on a silica gel column eluted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol in order to isolate the active compound(s). Pacharin, obtained in pure form from fraction eluted with ethyl ether, was evaluated for their larvicidal effects against A. aegypti. In these bioassays, the larvae were exposed at concentrations of 500, 250, 100, 50, and 25 μg/mL of the crude ethanol extract or pacharin. After 24 h, the number of dead larvae was counted and the LC₅₀ values for larval mortality were calculated. Pacharin showed LC50 value of 78.9 ± 1.8 μg/mL. The structure of isolated compound was identified on the basis of their spectral data (IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR) and by comparison with literature spectral data. The results indicate pacharin as a potential natural larvicide.

  20. Larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Eclipta prostrata leaf extract against filariasis and malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, G; Abdul Rahuman, A

    2011-06-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In this study, larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) utilizing aqueous extract from Eclipta prostrata, a member of the Asteraceae was investigated against fourth instar larvae of filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus say and malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The synthesized AgNPs characterized by UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM analyses of the synthesized AgNPs were clearly distinguishable measured 35-60 nm in size. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of synthesized AgNPs for 24h. The maximum efficacy was observed in crude aqueous, and synthesized AgNPs against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50)=27.49 and 4.56 mg/L; LC(90)=70.38 and 13.14 mg/L), and against A. subpictus (LC(50)=27.85 and 5.14 mg/L; LC(90)=71.45 and 25.68 mg/L) respectively. The chi-square value were significant at pmosquito larvicidal activity of synthesized AgNPs against vectors.

  1. A piperidine amide extracted from Piper longum L. fruit shows activity against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Young-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Guei; Lee, Hee-Kwon; Kim, Moo-Key; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2002-06-19

    Mosquito larvicidal activity of Piper longum fruit-derived materials against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti was examined. A crude methanol extract of P. longum fruits was found to be active against the larvae, and the hexane fraction of the methanol extract showed a strong larvicidal activity of 100% mortality. The biologically active component of P. longum fruits was characterized as pipernonaline by spectroscopic analyses. The LC(50) value of pipernonaline was 0.25 mg/L. The toxicity of pipernonaline is comparable to that of pirimiphos-methyl as a mosquito larvicide. In tests with available components derived from P. longum, no activity was observed with piperettine, piperine, or piperlongumine.

  2. Mosquito larvicidal properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan

    2014-06-01

    Mosquitoes transmit dreadful diseases to human beings wherein biological control of these vectors using plant-derived molecules would be an alternative to reduce mosquito population. In the present study activity of aqueous leaf extract and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Helitropium indicum plant leaves against late third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The range of varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 μg/mL) were tested against the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The synthesized AgNPs from H. indicum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and histogram. The synthesized AgNPs showed larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of H. indicum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of H. indicum aqueous leaf extract appeared to be effective against A. stephensi (LC50, 68.73 μg/mL; LC90, 121.07 μg/mL) followed by A. aegypti (LC50, 72.72 μg/mL; LC90, 126.86 μg/mL) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50, 78.74 μg/mL; LC90, 134.39 μg/mL). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90 values: A. stephensi had LC50 and LC90 values of 18.40 and 32.45 μg/mL, A. aegypti had LC50 and LC90 values of 20.10 and 35.97 μg/mL, and C. quinquefasciatus had LC50 and LC90 values of 21.84 and 38.10 μg/mL. No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the leaf aqueous extracts of H. indicum and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the

  3. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Allium macrostemon Bunge and its selected major constituent compounds against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin Chao; Liu, Qiyong; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhi Long

    2014-04-15

    During the screening programme for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and local wild plants, the essential oil of dried bulbs of Allium macrostemon Bunge (Liliaceae) was found to possess larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. The aim of this research was to determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil and its major constituent compounds against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito, Aedes albopictus. Essential oil of A. macrostemon was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromaotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The activity of the essential oil and its two major constituents were evaluated, using World Health Organization (WHO) procedures, against the fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus for 24 h and larval mortalities were recorded at various essential oil/compound concentrations ranging from 9.0 - 150 μg/ml. The essential oil of A. macrostemon exhibited larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus with an LC₅₀ value of 72.86 μg/ml. The two constituent compounds, dimethyl trisulfide and methyl propyl disulfide possessed strong larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus with LC50 values of 36.36 μg/ml and 86.16 μg/ml, respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. macrostemon and its major constituents have good potential as a source for natural larvicides.

  4. Larvicidal and pupicidal activity of spinosad against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kolanthasamy Prabhu; Kadarkarai Murugan; Arjunan Nareshkumar; Subramanian Bragadeeswaran

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of spinosad againstAnopheles stephensi Listen.Methods: Spinosad from the actinomycete,Saccharopolyspora spinosa was tested againstAnopheles stephensi at different concentrations (0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and0.08ppm.), and against first to fourth instar larvae and pupae.Results: The larval mortality ranged from36.1±1.7 in (0.01 ppm) to 79.3±1.8 (0.08 ppm) the first instar larva. The LC50andLC90values of first, second, third and fourth instar larva were0.001, 0.031, 0.034, 0.036and0.0113, 0.102, 0.111, 0.113, respectively. The pupal mortality ranged from33.0±2.0 (0.01 ppm) to 80.0±0.9 (0.08 ppm). The LC50 andLC90values were0.028 and 0.1020, respectively. The reduction percentage ofAnopheles larvae was82.7%, 91.4% and96.0% after 24, 48, 72 hours, respectively, while more than80% reduction was observed after3 weeks.Conclusions:In the present study spinosad effectively caused mortality of mosquito larvae in both the laboratory and field trial. It is predicted that spinosad is likely to be an effective larvicide for treatment of mosquito breeding sites.

  5. Synthesis, spectral characterization and larvicidal activity of acridin-1(2H)-one analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subashini, R.; Bharathi, A.; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rajakumar, G.; Abdul Rahuman, A.; Gullanki, Pavan Kumar

    Acridin-1(2H)-one analogue of 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-2-[(pyridine-2yl) methylene] acridin-1(2H)-one, 5 was prepared by using 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenylacridin-1(2H)-one, 3 and picolinaldehyde, 4 in the presence of KOH at room temperature. These compounds were characterized by analytical and spectral analyses. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of larvicidal and repellent activity of synthesized 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues such as compounds 3 and 5 against the early fourth instar larvae of filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex gelidus (Diptera: Culicidae). The compound exhibited high larvicidal effects at 50 mg/L against both the mosquitoes with LC50 values of 25.02 mg/L (r2 = 0.998) and 26.40 mg/L (r2 = 0.988) against C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus, respectively. The 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues that are reported for the first time to our best of knowledge can be better explored for the control of mosquito population. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of Japanese encephalitis vectors, C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus.

  6. Mosquito larvicidal efficacy of seaweed extracts against dengue vector of Aedes aegypti

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravikumar S; M Syed Ali; J Margaret Beula

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To identify the larvicidal activity of the seaweed extracts. Methods:Seaweed extracts of Enteromorpha intestinalis (E. intestinalis), Dictyota dichotoma (D. dichotoma) and Acanthopora spicifera (A. spicifera) were dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) to prepare a graded series of concentration. Batches of 25 early 4th instars larvae of Aedes aegypti were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts (0.01-0.1 mg). Each experiment was conducted in three replicates. A control group consisted of 1 mL of DMSO and 99 mL of distilled water only. After 24 h, the percentage of mortality was identified with the formula: %of mortality=[(%of test mortality-%of control mortality)/(100-%of control mortality)]×100. Results:The extract of D. dichotoma showed minimum level of LC50 value (0.068 3±0.008 4 μg/mL) and LC90 value was 0.140 1. The regression equations of D. dichotoma and E. intestinalis for 4th instar larvae were Y=0.333 + 0.684x (R2=0.946) and Y=0.600 + 0.781x (R2=0.812), respectively. The results of the preliminary phytochemical constituents showed the presence of saponin, steroids, terpenoid, phenols, protein and sugars. Conclusions:It can be concluded from the present study that, the ethanolic extracts of seaweed of D. dichotoma possess active compounds for development of larvicidal ativity.

  7. Larvicidal activity of some Cerrado plant extracts against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, A M S; De Paula, J E; Degallier, N; Molez, J E; Espindola, L S

    2006-06-01

    One hundred ninety hexanic and ethanolic extract from 27 plant species from the Cerrado biome of Brazil were tested for larvicidal activity against 3rd-stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 500 microg/ml. Fourteen extracts from 7 species showed activity (>65% mortality) against the larvae. Of these Dugeutia furfuracea, Piptocarpha rotundifolia, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua, Serjania lethalis, and Xylopia aromatica were active at 56.6, 162.31, 232.4, 285.76, and 384.37 microg/ml, respectively. Annona crassiflora and Cybistax antisyphilitica showed activity at 23.06 and 27.61 microg/ml. The larvicidal properties of these species are described for the first time, and may prove to be promising in active chemical compound isolation.

  8. Larvicidal activity of Cyclamen (Myrsinaceae) extracts against the larvae of West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens L. (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emre Oz; Samed Koc; Olcay Dinc Dusen; Ramazan Mammadov; Huseyin Cetin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of the tuber extracts isolated from two species of Cyclamen (Cyclamen mirabile Hildebr. and Cyclamen alpinum Dammann ex. Sprenger) against Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Twenty young (first-second) or older (third-fourth) instars of the Culex pipiens were exposed to various concentrations (100 to 1 000 ppm) of the extracts. Mortality was recorded after 12-, 24-, 48-, 72- and 96-h of exposure. Results: We determined that the young larval stages were more susceptible to the extracts in comparison with the older larval stages. A comparison of LC50 and LC90 values has shown that Cyclamen mirabile was more active than Cyclamen alpinum. Conclusions: This study is the first to report on the larvicidal activity of the extracts of Cyclamen species against Culex pipiens. More studies are needed to isolate and identify the active components involved, their mode of action, and effects on other mosquito and pest species.

  9. Larvicidal activity and click synthesis of 2-alkoxyl-2-(1,2,3-triazole-1- yl)acetamide library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Na-Na; Xiong, Li-Xia; Yu, Shu-Jing; Zhang, Xiao; Cui, Can; Li, Zheng-Ming; Zhao, Wei-Guang

    2013-07-01

    Heterogeneous copper-in-charcoal-catalyzed click synthesis in 96-well polypropylene filter plates is an efficient method for the rapid generation of sufficient pure 2-alkoxyl-2-(1,2,3-triazole-1-yl) acetamide derivatives library by simple filtration, which directly assay the products for larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. In this procedure, copper nanoparticles on charcoal were arrayed into each well on a 96-well plate, reagents were delivered using a pipette gun, and a constant temperature shaker bath was used to complete the click reaction in 24-72 hours under temperature-controlled conditions. The results of bioassays indicated that the target compounds possessed excellent larvacidal activities against mosquitoes. In particular, the larvacidal activities against mosquitoes of compounds 8[2,3] and 8[7,1] at 2 µg.mL⁻¹ were 100% and 73% respectively.

  10. Distribution of mosquito larvae within the paddy and its implication in larvicidal application in Mwea rice irrigation scheme, Central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangangi, Joseph M; Muturi, Ephantus J; Shililu, Josephat I; Jacob, Benjamin; Kabiru, Ephantus W; Mbogo, Charles M; Githure, John I; Novak, Robert J

    2008-03-01

    Distribution of mosquito larvae in inundated rice fields is poorly known despite its profound implications in implementation of vector control programs. Based on oviposition behavior of gravid females and biotic and abiotic conditions of the rice field, distribution of mosquito larvae within the paddy may vary greatly. As a guide to implementation of mosquito vector control program targeting the aquatic stages in the rice fields in Mwea, studies were conducted to determine the distribution of mosquito larvae within the paddy. Twenty-eight cages measuring 50 cm3 were distributed randomly within the paddy during the transplanting stage of the rice growth cycle, and were examined twice per week up to the flowering stage to determine mosquito oviposition pattern. A total of 17,218 mosquito larvae were collected at the periphery and a further 17,570 at the center of the paddy. These comprised 7,461 larvae from the genus Anopheles and 27,327 from genus Culex. The number of pupae collected at the periphery was 1,004 and 1.5 times greater than the number collected at the center. Significantly higher counts of Anopheles larvae were collected at the center (1.00 +/- 0.11) than at the periphery (0.55 +/- 0.05) of the paddy during transplanting stage, but the difference was not significant during the tillering stage. In contrast, significantly higher numbers of Culex larvae were collected from the periphery (3.09 +/- 0.39) than at the center (2.81 +/- 0.24) of the paddy. More pupae were also collected at the center than at the periphery of the paddy. These findings indicate the distribution of Anopheles and Culex larvae in rice fields to be nonrandom; however, for successful achievement of an integrated vector control program targeting the diverse mosquito fauna occurring in rice fields, there is need to target the whole paddy for larvicidal application.

  11. Screening of Asteraceae (Compositae Plant Extracts for Larvicidal Activity against Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macêdo Maria E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts of 83 plants species belonging to the Asteraceae (Compositae family, collected in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis - Diptera: Culicidae. The extract from Tagetes minuta was the most active with a LC90 of 1.5 mg/l and LC50 of 1.0 mg/l. This plant has been the object of several studies by other groups and its active components have already been identified as thiophene derivatives, a class of compounds present in many Asteraceae species. The extract of Eclipta paniculata was also significantly active, with a LC90 of 17.2 mg/l and LC50 of 3.3 mg/l and no previous studies on its larvicidal activity or chemical composition could be found in the literature. Extracts of Achryrocline satureoides, Gnaphalium spicatum, Senecio brasiliensis, Trixis vauthieri, Tagetes patula and Vernonia ammophila were less active, killing more than 50% of the larvae only at the higher dose tested (100 mg/l.

  12. Mosquito larvicidal potential of potash alum against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preet, Shabad; Seema, K C

    2010-01-01

    .... Here, we report the potential of potash alum, a traditionally known salt in Indian Ayurveda and Chinese medicine system, in malaria vector control by evaluating its aqueous suspension as larvicide...

  13. Isolation and distribution of mosquito-larvicidal cry genes in Bacillus thuringiensis strains native to Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-kersh, T A; Al-akeel, R A; Al-sheikh, Y A; Alharbi, S A

    2014-12-01

    A total of 157 environmental samples were collected from 11 ecological regions across Saudi Arabia to isolate native Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains. Bt isolates (n=103) were recovered by the 50% (v/v) ethanol treatment method with Bt index range of 0.01 to 0.4. Most of Bt isolates showed spherical crystals (54%), while, irregular, bi-pyramidal, and spore-attached crystal constituted 27, 16 and 3% respectively. PCR analysis with eight general and specific dipteran primers of Cry and Cyt genes, revealed positive amplification for cry4 & cyt1, and cry4A, cry4B and cyt2, and cry 10 and cry 11 genes in 28%, 26%, 22%, and 25% of tested strains respectively; whereas cry2 gene was not detected except with the reference Bt kurstaki HD-1 strain. Bioassays against Aedes caspuis and Culex pipiens larvae indicated that 11 strains displayed better larvicidal activity compared with Bacillus thuringiensis H14 (Bti) reference (LC50 0.6 μg/ml) strain against Ae. caspuis, but only two strains (620A & 633R1, LC50 of 0.09 μg/ml & 0.064 μg/ml) that gave significant enhancement. Additionally, one strain (633R1) showed LC50 similar to that of Bti H14 (LC50 0.064 μg/ml) against Cx. pipiens. With the exception of cyt primers, sequenced DNA of all positive primers amplicons revealed 95 to 99% identity in GenBank with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis plasmid pBtoxis and also correlated with its SDS-PAGE expressed protein profiles analysis. It is hoped that our wild bio-insecticide Bt strains can be explored in future in the control of mosquito-vector borne diseases in Saudi Arabia.

  14. In-vitro anti-inflammatory and mosquito larvicidal efficacy of nickel nanoparticles phytofabricated from aqueous leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos Correa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angajala, Gangadhara; Ramya, R; Subashini, R

    2014-07-01

    In recent years there is a tremendous growth in the interdisciplinary world of nanotechnology across the globe and emergence of its potential applications remains as a big revolution to the industry. Fusion of green nanotechnology and medicine represents one of the major breakthroughs of modern science with the aim of developing nanomaterials for diagnosis, treatment, prevention of various diseases and overall improving health for the beneficial of mankind. In the present study phytofabrication of nickel nanoparticles (nickel NPs) was carried out by using indigenous Aegle marmelos Correa aqueous leaf extracts as a reducing, stabilizing and capping agents. Nickel NPs were characterized by UV-spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, SEM, AFM and TGA studies. Phytosynthesis of nickel NPs was monitored both at room temperature (25°C) and at 60°C for 5h. The green synthesis of triangular shape nickel NPs phytofabricated from A. marmelos Correa aqueous leaf extracts having face centered cubic structure showing an average particle size of 80-100nm which is in consistent with the particle size calculated by XRD Scherer equation. We further explored and compared nickel NPs of A. marmelos Correa with crude leaf extracts of A. marmelos Correa for its in-vitro anti-inflammatory and mosquito larvicidal efficacy against three blood feeding parasites. The results obtained clearly gives an idea that nickel NPs of A. marmelos Correa (NiNPs of AmC) possess an enhanced anti-inflammatory and larvicidal activity when compared to crude leaf extracts of A. marmelos Correa.

  15. Mosquito larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Chomelia asiatica (Rubiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Mosquito control is to enhance the health and quality of life of county residents and visitors through the reduction of mosquito populations. Mosquito control is a serious concern in developing countries like India due to the lack of general awareness, development of resistance, and socioeconomic reasons. Today, nanotechnology is a promising research domain which has a wide ranging application in vector control programs. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In the present study, larvicidal activity of aqueous leaf extract and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using C. asiatica plant leaves against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The range of varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 μg/mL) were tested against the larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The synthesized AgNPs from C. asiatica were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX). Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of C. asiatica for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of C. asiatica aqueous leaf extract appeared to be effective against An. stephensi (LC50, 90.17 μg/mL; LC90, 165.18 μg/mL) followed by Ae. aegypti (LC50, 96.59 μg/mL; LC90, 173.83 μg/mL) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50, 103.08 μg/mL; LC90, 183.16 μg/mL). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90

  16. Larvicidal activity of plant extracts on Aedes Aegypti L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anitha Rajasekaran; Geethapriya Duraikannan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of plant extracts on Aedes aegypti. Methods:Petroleum ether, Chloroform and aqueous extracts obtained from Acalypha indica, Aerva lanata,Boerhaavia diffusa, Commelina benghalensis, Gompherna sps, Datura stramonium, Euphorpia hirta, Cynodon dactylon, Lantana camara and Tridax procumbens were used for larvicidal activity at concentration of 1000μg/ml and the mortality rate was calculated after 24 and 48hrs . The LC50 for the extracts were also estimated after 24 hrs. Results: The petroleum ether extract ofLantana camara, Tridax procumbens and Datura stramonium showed 100% mortality after 48hrs of incubation. Tridax procumbens petroleum ether extract had the least LC50 of 219 μg/ml followed by Lantana and Datura with 251and 288 μg/ml respectively. A combination of petroleum ether extracts of Aerva lanata and Cynodon dactylon, Boerhaavia diffusa and Commelina benghalensis exhibited 100% mortality of larvae. Formulation-1 inhibited the metamorphosis of the larvae by retaining 60% in its larval stage. Petroleum ether extracts of Lantana, Tridax, Datura and a combination of extracts were effective larvicide. The formulations proved to be effective in inhibiting the metamorphosis. Alkaloids and flavonoids were present in datura petroleum ether extract . Conclusions: Either the crude extracts of Datura stramonium, Lantana camara and Tridax procumbens or its phytochemicals can be used as effective vector control agents individually or in combination.

  17. Larvicidal activity of Acacia nilotica extracts and isolation of D-pinitol--a bioactive carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubal, Rohini; Pawar, Pushpa V; Hebbalkar, Geeta D; Tungikar, Vijay B; Puranik, Vedavati G; Deshpande, Vishnu H; Deshpande, Nirmala R

    2005-05-01

    A low-molecular-weight, sugar-like compound other than glucose, fructose, sucrose, or myo-inositol showing lipophilic nature was isolated from the EtOH extract of Acacia nilotica. The structure of the compound was determined by spectral methods. This alicyclic polyalcohol was found to be D-pinitol (= 3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol; 1). The configuration of the compound was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The compound 1 is known from Soybean, Australian mangroves, Fagonia indica, Arachis hypogaea, etc., but we have isolated this compound for the first time from the aerial parts of A. nilotica. Very few references have been cited for compound 1 for its entomological activity, and there are no reports on mosquitoes. Therefore, the crude extracts of A. nilotica were tested for its biological activity against mosquito larvae. Acetone extract at 500-ppm concentration showed chronic toxicity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus IVth instar mosquito larvae. Such a biological activity has been observed for the first time for this plant. This study could be a stepping stone to a solution for destroying larval species as well as consumption of such a widely grown, problem weed, A. nilotica. This larvicidal agent, since it is derived from plant, is eco-friendly, cost effective, non-hazardous to non-target organisms and would be safe unlike commercially available insecticides.

  18. Repellent and Larvicidal Activity of the Essential Oil From Eucalyptus nitens Against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Costa, Agustín; Naspi, Cecilia V; Lucia, Alejandro; Masuh, Héctor M

    2017-05-01

    Dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever are important vector-borne diseases transmitted by female mosquitoes when they feed on humans. The use of repellents based on natural products is an alternative for personal protection against these diseases. Application of chemicals with larvicidal activity is another strategy for controlling the mosquito population. The repellent and larvicidal activities of the essential oil from Eucalyptus nitens were tested against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the main vectors of these arboviruses. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of Eucalyptus nitens essential oil were found to be terpenes such as 1,8-cineole and p-cymene, followed by β-triketones and alkyl esters. The repellent activity of the essential oil against both species was significantly higher when compared with the main component, 1,8-cineole, alone. These results indicate that the repellent effect of E. nitens is not due only to the main component, 1,8-cineole, but also that other compounds may be responsible. Aedes aegypti was found to be more tolerant to the essential oil larvicidal effects than Ae. albopictus (Ae. aegypti LC50 = 52.83 ppm, Ae. albopictus LC 50 = 28.19 ppm). The repellent and larvicidal activity could be associated to the presence of cyclic β-triketones such as flavesone, leptospermone, and isoleptospermone. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Larvicidal activity of Mentha x villosa Hudson essential oil, rotundifolone and derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Tamires Cardoso; da Silva, Tayane Kayne Mariano; Silva, Fabiana Lima; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Marques, Márcia Ortiz Mayo; Santos, Roseli La Corte; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of Mentha x villosa essential oil (MVEO) and its major constituent, rotundifolone, against larvae of Aedes aegypti. Additionally, a set of 15 analogues of the rotundifolone were evaluated to identify the molecular characteristics which contribute to the larvicidal effect. The results from the present study showed that the MVEO exhibited outstanding toxic effects against Ae. aegypti larvae (LC50=45.0ppm). Rotundifolone exhibited reasonable larvicidal activity (LC50=62.5ppm). With respect to comparative study of rotundifolone and its analogues, all tested compounds were less potent than rotundifolone, except (-)-limonene. In general, replacement of C-C double bonds by epoxides groups decreases the larvicidal potency. The presence of α,β-unsaturated carbonyls contributes to the larvicidal toxicity. The addition of hydroxyl groups in the chemical structure resulted in less potent compounds. Furthermore, the enantioselectivity seems to play an important role for the larvicidal toxicity.

  20. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes Albopictus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecti­cides therefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to sup­press mosquito larval population.Methods: World Health Organization recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis was the best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulate with LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC­­50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 µg/ml and 21.19 µg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 µg/ml and 3.89 µg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required

  1. Fate and persistence of Bacillus sphaericus used as a mosquito larvicide in dairy wastewater lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanmi, B A; Federici, B A; Mulla, M S

    1990-09-01

    The fate and persistence of the mosquitocidal bacterium, Bacillus sphaericus, in dairy wastewater lagoons was evaluated in conjunction with trials of its larvicidal efficacy against Culex stigmatosoma. Two commercial formulations, BSP-2 (at 4.48 kg/ha) and ABG-6184 (at 2.24 kg/ha) gave about 90% reduction for up to 4 weeks, although surface water lost its insecticidal activity by 3 days posttreatment. Spores settled to the bottom within 3 days of treatment, but could be recovered in surface water after reflooding. Spore concentrations in bottom water varied widely, yet insecticidal activity remained high for from 3 days (BSP-2 at 4.48 kg/ha) to 2 weeks (ABG-6184 at 2.24 kg/ha). Spores persisted in the mud throughout the study period. These results indicate the extended control obtained was due primarily to the ingestion of spores from bottom water and mud by larvae, which routinely inhabit the shallow areas toward the edge of the pond and browse at the pond bottom.

  2. Larvicidal and Growth-Inhibitory Activity of Entomopathogenic Bacteria Culture Fluids Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, João Luiz Rosa; Undurraga Schwalm, Fernanda; Eugênio Silva, Carlos; da Costa, Marisa; Heermann, Ralf; Santos da Silva, Onilda

    2017-01-06

    Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika are important vector-borne diseases, and Aedes aegypti L. is their main transmitter. As the disease management is mainly based on mosquito control strategies, the search for alternative and cost-effective approaches is ongoing. The Gram-negative bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus luminescens are symbiotically associated with entomopathogenic nematodes and are highly pathogenic for insect larvae. After we have recently confirmed the toxicity of these bacteria in Ae. aegypti larvae, we here evaluated the toxic activity of culture fluids on the development of this mosquito species. Larval susceptibility was assessed by exposing larvae to different concentrations of P. luminescens or X. nematophila culture fluids to confirm whether secondary metabolites might cause the mosquitos' death. Xenorhabdus nematophila culture fluid was more effective and stable during the mosquito pathogenicity bioassays compared to that of P. luminescens Larval mortality started a few hours after exposure of the insects to the fluids. Furthermore, the residual effect of larvicidal activity of X. nematophila fluid persisted at full efficiency for 4 d. Particularly, larval mortality was still higher than 50% for up to 8 d. Exposure of larvae to a sublethal dose of X. nematophila fluid delayed pupation as well as emergence of adult mosquitoes and caused cumulative larval mortality higher than 90% by day 14. Here, we describe for the first time the use of stable culture fluids and therefore secondary metabolites of P. luminescens and X. nematophila as a promising basis for the use as biopesticide for control of Ae. aegypti in the future.

  3. Larvicidal activity of metabolites from the endophytic Podospora sp. against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matasyoh, Josphat C; Dittrich, Birger; Schueffler, Anja; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2011-03-01

    In a screening for natural products with mosquito larvicidal activities, the endophytic fungus Podospora sp. isolated from the plant Laggera alata (Asteraceae) was conspicuous. Two xanthones, sterigmatocystin (1) and secosterigmatocystin (2), and an anthraquinone derivative (3) 13-hydroxyversicolorin B were isolated after fermentation on M(2) medium. These compounds were characterised using spectroscopic and X-ray analysis and examined against third instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae. The results demonstrated that compound 1 was the most potent one with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 13.3 and 73.5 ppm, respectively. Over 95% mortality was observed at a concentration 100 ppm after 24 h. These results compared farvorably with the commercial larvicide pylarvex® that showed 100% mortality at the same concentration. Compound 3 was less potent and had an LC(50) of 294.5 ppm and over 95% mortality was achieved at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. Secosterigmatocystin (2) revealed relatively weak activity and therefore LC values were not determined.

  4. Larvicidal and ovicidal properties of leaf and seed extracts of Delonix elata (L.) Gamble (family: Fabaceae) against malaria (Anopheles stephensi Liston) and dengue (Aedes aegypti Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae) vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, Govindarajan; Rajamohan, Sivakumar; Mohan, Rajeswari; Krishnamoorthy, Yogalakshmi

    2012-07-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents because they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use to control mosquitoes. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Delonix elata against the medically important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of D. elata against the larvae of A. stephensi and A. aegypti with the LC(50) and LC(90) values being 93.59 and 111.83, and 163.69 and 202.77 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against two mosquitoes with the LC(50) and LC(90) values being 115.28 and 139.04, and 225.07 and 273.03 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 300 ppm for leaf methanol extract and 500 ppm for seed

  5. Toxicity and Larvicidal Activity of Podophyllum-Based Lignans Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleck, Marise; Hollanda, Priscila de Oliveira; Serdeiro, Michele Teixeira; Soares, Renata Oliveira de Araújo; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Silva, Cláudia Gontijo

    2017-01-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a mosquito species that has adapted to urban environments and is the main vector of dengue viruses. Because of the increasing incidence of dengue, a more environmentally acceptable insecticide needs to be found. Natural products have been and continue to be an important source of leading compounds that can be modified in order to develop new drugs. The lignan family of natural products includes compounds with a diverse spectrum of biological activity. Podophyllotoxin and its related lignans represent an exciting class of natural products that can be targeted at different types of biological activity and are therefore worth exploring further. This study had the aim of evaluating the larvicidal activity of an ethanolic extract from the rhizomes and roots of Podophyllum hexandrum (PM-3) and its isolated lignans, podophyllotoxone (1) and desoxypodophyllotoxin (2), on the larvae of the mosquito vector Ae. aegypti. The PM-3 extract and the compounds (1) and (2) were dissolved in a mixture of acetone and dimethylsulfoxide at final concentrations of 1, 10, 30, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml. After dilution, the solutions were applied (μg/ml) to the larvae-rearing medium. Overall, the ethanolic extract from the rhizomes and roots of P. hexandrum and the compounds (1) and (2) showed larvicidal activity against the larvae of Ae. aegypti According to the results from this study, it can be concluded that podophyllotoxone (1) and desoxypodophyllotoxin (2) exhibited significant toxicity toward Ae. aegypti larvae. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Larvicidal and irritant activities of hexane leaf extracts of Citrus sinensis against dengue vector Aedes aegypti L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radhika Warikoo; Ankita Ray; Jasdeep Kaur Sandhu; Roopa Samal; Naim Wahab; Sarita Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To assess the larvicidal and irritant activities of the hexane extracts of leaves of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) against the early fourth instars and female adults of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Methods: The larvicidal potential of the prepared leaf extract was evaluated against early fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti using WHO protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 h and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The efficacy of extract as mosquito irritant was assessed by contact irritancy assays. Extract-impregnated paper was placed on a glass plate over which a perspex funnel with a hole on the top was kept inverted. Single female adult, 3-day old unfed/blood-fed, was released inside the funnel. After 3 min of acclimatization time, the time taken for the first take-off and total number of flights undertaken during 15 min were scored. Results: The citrus leaf extracts from hexane possessed moderate larvicidal efficiency against dengue vector. The bioassays resulted in an LC50 and LC90 value of 446.84 and 1 370.96 ppm, respectively after 24 h of exposure. However, the extracts were proved to be remarkable irritant against adults Ae. aegypti, more pronounced effects being observed on blood-fed females than unfed females. The extract-impregnated paper was thus proved to be 7-11 times more irritable as compared with the control paper. Conclusions:The hexane extracts from C. sinensis leaves are proved to be reasonably larvicidal but remarkably irritant against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of extract as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the extract could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control.

  7. Adulticidal & larvicidal efficacy of three neonicotinoids against insecticide susceptible & resistant mosquito strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreehari Uragayala

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The present study indicated that insecticide resistant strains of mosquito species tested showed more susceptibility to the three neonicotinoids tested, and the possibility of using neonicotinoids for the control of resistant mosquitoes should be explored.

  8. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus & Culex tritaeniorhynchus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, C.; Bagavan, A.; Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Rajakumar, G.; Marimuthu, S.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. Plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the role of larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and bark extracts of Annona squamosa L., Chrysanthemum indicum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against the fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activities of three medicinal plant extracts were studied in the range of 4.69 to 1000 mg/l in the laboratory bioassays against early 4th instar larvae of An. subpictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the respective species. Results: All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest toxic effect of bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate extract of C. indicum and leaf acetone extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of An. subpictus (LC50 = 93.80, 39.98 and 51.57 mg/l) and bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf methanol extract of C. indicum and leaf ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 =104.94, 42.29 and 69.16 mg/l) respectively. Interpretation & Conclusions: Our data suggest that the bark ethyl acetate and methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. indicum, acetone and ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens have the potential to be used as an ecofriendly approach for the control of the An. subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:21808141

  9. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of Foeniculum vulgare essential oils from Portugal and Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Diara Kady; Matosc, Olivia; Novoa, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Delgado, Manuel; Moiteiro, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal mosquito-borne infection with 50 million cases per year and 2.5 billion people vulnerable to the disease. This major public health problem has recurrent epidemics in Latin America and occurred recently in Cape Verde and Madeira Island. The lack of anti-viral treatment or vaccine makes the control of mosquito vectors a high option to prevent virus transmission. Essential oil (EO) constituents can affect insect's behaviour, being potentially effective in pest control. The present study evaluated the potential use of Foenicultm vulgare (fennel) EO in the control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. EOs isolated from fennel aerial parts collected in Cape Verde and from a commercial fennel EO of Portugal were analysed by NMR, GC and GC-MS. trans-Anethole (32 and 30%, respectively), limonene (28 and 18%, respectively) and fenchone (10% in both cases) were the main compounds identified in the EOs isolated from fennel from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. The larvicidal activity of the EOs and its major constituents were evaluated, using WHO procedures, against third instar larvae ofAe. aegypti for 24 h. Pure compounds, such as limonene isomers, were also assayed. The lethal concentrations LC50, C90 and LC99 were determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. A 99% mortality of Ae. aegypti larvae was estimated at 37.1 and 52.4 µL L-1 of fennel EOs from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. Bioassays showed that fennel EOs from both countries displayed strong larvicidal effect against Ae. aegypti, the Cape Verde EO being as active as one of its major constituents, (-)-limonene.

  10. Larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of railway creeper, Ipomoea cairica Extract Against Dengue Vector Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    AhbiRami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran

    2014-01-01

    Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F=5.71, df=2, Paegypti with LC50 of 101.94 ppm followed by Ae. albopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F=8.83, df=1, Pinsecticide for the control of Aedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract, providing information on lethal concentration that may have potential for a more eco-friendly Aedes mosquito control program.

  11. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Pemphis acidula Frost. (Lythraceae) against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles and Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Samidurai

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude methanol, benzene and acetone solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pemphis acidula (Pe. acidula) against the medically important mosquito vectors, Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus) and Anopheles subpictus (An. subpictus) were exposed to various concentrations and (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Twenty five late third instar of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO 2005. The larval mortality was observed 24 h of treatment. Hundred eggs of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of Su and Mulla 1998. The ovicidal activity was observed 48 h of treatment. Results: The LC50 and LC90 values being 10.81and 20.64 and 22.10 and 43.71 ppm and hundred percent of egg mortality was observed at 350 and 400 ppm methanol extract of Pe. acidula against Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus, respectively. Conclusion: These results suggest that the leaf extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  12. Screening for larvicidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected plants against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae

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    Michael Russelle Alvarez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen for larvicidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (95% ethanol from Selaginella elmeri, Christella dentata, Elatostema sinnatum, Curculigo capitulata, Euphorbia hirta, Murraya koenigii (M. koenigii, Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus globulus (E. globulus, Jatropha curcas (J. curcas, Psidium guajava, Gliricidia sepium, Ixora coccinea and Capsicum frutescens (C. frutescens against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti and Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae. Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for larvicidal activity by exposing the A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae (15 larvae per trial, triplicates for 48 h, counting the mortalities every 24 h. Additionally, phytochemical screening for flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, coumarins, indoles and steroids were performed on active extracts using spray tests. Results: Against A. aegypti, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (100% after 24 and 48 h, J. curcas ethanolic (84.44% after 24 h and 88.89% after 48 h and M. koenigii ethanolic (53.33% after 24 h and 71.11% after 48 h. On the other hand, against A. albopictus, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (93.33% after 24 h and 100% after 48 h, J. curcas ethanolic (77.78% after 24 h and 82.22% after 48 h and E. globulus ethanolic (64.44% after 24 h and 73.33% after 48 h. Phytochemical screening was also performed on the active extracts, revealing alkaloids, tannins, indoles and steroids. Conclusios: The results demonstrate the larvicidal activities of ethanolic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia hirta, Ixora coccinea, Gliricidia sepium, M. koenigii, E. globulus, J. curcas and C. frutescens against A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae. These could be used as potential larvicidal agents for the control of these mosquitoes.

  13. Screening for larvicidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected plants against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael RusselleAlvarez; Francisco Heralde III; Noel Quiming

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To screen for larvicidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (95% ethanol) from Selaginella elmeri, Christella dentata, Elatostema sinnatum, Curculigo capitulata, Euphorbia hirta, Murraya koenigii (M. koenigii), Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus globulus (E. globulus), Jatropha curcas (J. curcas), Psidium guajava, Gliricidia sepium, Ixora coccinea and Capsicum frutescens (C. frutescens) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus) 3rd instar larvae. Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for larvicidal activity by exposing the A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae (15 larvae per trial, triplicates) for 48 h, counting the mortalities every 24 h. Additionally, phytochemical screening for flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, coumarins, indoles and steroids were performed on active extracts using spray tests. Results: Against A. aegypti, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (100%after 24 and 48 h), J. curcas ethanolic (84.44% after 24 h and 88.89% after 48 h) and M. koenigii ethanolic (53.33% after 24 h and 71.11% after 48 h). On the other hand, against A. albopictus, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (93.33% after 24 h and 100% after 48 h), J. curcas ethanolic (77.78% after 24 h and 82.22% after 48 h) and E. globulus ethanolic (64.44% after 24 h and 73.33% after 48 h). Phytochemical screening was also performed on the active extracts, revealing alkaloids, tannins, indoles and steroids. Conclusios: The results demonstrate the larvicidal activities of ethanolic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia hirta, Ixora coccinea, Gliricidia sepium, M. koenigii, E. globulus, J. curcas and C. frutescens against A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae. These could be used as potential larvicidal agents for the control of these mosquitoes.

  14. Evaluation of silver nanoparticles toxicity of Arachis hypogaea peel extracts and its larvicidal activity against malaria and dengue vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velu, Kuppan; Elumalai, Devan; Hemalatha, Periaswamy; Janaki, Arumugam; Babu, Muthu; Hemavathi, Maduraiveeran; Kaleena, Patheri Kunyil

    2015-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully synthesised from aqueous silver nitrate using the extracts of Arachis hypogaea peels. The synthesised SNPs were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy analysis and high-resonance scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. AgNPs were well defined and measured 20 to 50 nm in size. The nanoparticles were crystallized with a face-centered cubic structure. Larvicidal activity of synthesised AgNPs from A. hypogaea peels was tested for their larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever), Anopheles stephensi (Human malaria). The results suggest that the synthesised AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly resource for the control of A. aegypti and A. stephensi. This study provides the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of synthesised AgNPs from A. hypogaea peels against vectors of malaria and dengue.

  15. Larvicidal and pupicidal activity of extracts and fractionates of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, P; Lalitha, P; Aarthi, N

    2012-11-01

    Petroleum ether, acetone, ethyl acetate, aqueous extract, methanol and ethanol fractionate of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms was tested for their larvicidal efficacy against the different instars (I, II, III and IV) and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of the treatment. The extracts showed a dose-dependent toxicity to larvae. The toxicity of the extracts decreased with increase in larval stage. Ethanol fractionate of E. crassipes showed the highest larvicidal and pupicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus compared to other solvent extracts and fractionates with LC(50) 71.43, 94.68,120.42, 152.15 and 173.35 ppm for I, II, III, IV and pupae, respectively. Presence of metabolites like flavonoids, alkaloids, anthroquinones and anthocyanins in the tested extracts might be the reason for the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of the plant extracts and fractionates of waterhyacinth. Mosquito-repellent activity was not exhibited by these extracts at the tested concentrations. The results demonstrated the potential of the aquatic plant E. crassipes in the successful control of the filarial vector C. quinquefasciatus.

  16. Larvicidal potential of wild mustard (Cleome viscosa) and gokhru (Tribulus terrestris) against mosquito vectors in the semi-arid region of Western Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, S K; Singh, Karam V; Sharma, Sapna

    2014-03-01

    Cleome viscosa L. (Family: Capparaceae) commonly known as Tickweed or wild mustard and Tribulus terrestris L. (Family: Zygophyllaceae) commonly known as Gokhru, growing wildly in the desert areas in the monsoon and post monsoon season, are of great medicinal importance. Comparative larvicidal efficacy of the extracts from seeds of C. viscosa and fruits and leaves of T. terrestris was evaluated against 3rd or early 4th stage larvae of Anopheles stephensi (Liston), Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) in different organic solvents. 24 and 48 hr LC50 and LC90 values along with their 95% fiducial limits, regression equation, chi-square (chi2)/ heterogeneity of the response was determined by log probit regression analysis. The 24 hr LC50 values as determined for seeds of C. viscosa were 144.1, 99.5 and 127.1 (methanol); 106.3, 138.9 and 118.5 (acetone) and 166.4, 162.5 and 301.9 mg l(-1) (petroleum ether extracts) for all the three mosquito species respectively showing that methanol and acetone extracts were a little bit more effective than the petroleum ether extracts. Experiments were carried out with fruits and leaves of T. terrestris with all the solvents and mosquito species. The 24 hr LC50 values, as determined for fruits of T. terrestris were 70.8, 103.4 and 268.2 (methanol); 74.0,120.5 and 132.0 (acetone) and 73.8,113.5 and 137.4 mg l(-1) (petroleum ether extracts) while the 24 hr LC50 values for leaves were 124.3, 196.8 and 246.5 (methanol); 163.4, 196.9 and 224.3 (acetone) and 135.8, 176.8 and 185.9 mg l(-1) (petroleum ether extracts) for all the three mosquito species respectively. The results clearly indicate that fruit extracts of T. terrestris were more effective as compared to leaves extracts in the three solvents tested. Larvae of An. stephensi were found more sensitive to both fruit and leaves extracts of T. terrestris followed by larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Extracts from the seeds of C. viscosa were found less

  17. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes albopictus Larvae

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    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecticidestherefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to suppressmosquito larval population.Methods: WHO recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis wasthe best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulatewith LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 μg/ml and 21.19 μg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 μg/ml and 3.89 μg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required.

  18. Larvicidal and repellent activity of essential oils from wild and cultivated Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) against Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae), an arbovirus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Barbara; Leonardi, Michele; Pistelli, Luisa; Profeti, Raffaele; Ouerghemmi, Ines; Benelli, Giovanni

    2013-03-01

    Rutaceae are widely recognized for their toxic and repellent activity exerted against mosquitoes. In our research, the essential oils extracted from fresh leaves of wild and cultivated plants of Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) were evaluated for larvicidal and repellent activity against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae), currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. In this research, gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the essential oils from wild and cultivated plants showed only quantitative differences, in particular relatively to the amounts of ketone derivatives, while the qualitative profile evidenced a similar chemical composition. Both essential oils from wild and cultivated R. chalepensis plants were able to exert a very good toxic activity against A. albopictus larvae (wild plants, LC(50) = 35.66 ppm; cultivated plants, LC(50) = 33.18 ppm), and mortality was dosage dependent. These data are the first evidence of the toxicity of R. chalepensis against mosquitoes. Furthermore, the R. chalepensis essential oil from wild plants was an effective repellent against A. albopictus, also at lower dosages: RD(50) was 0.000215 μL/cm(2) of skin, while RD(90) was 0.007613 μL/cm(2). Our results clearly evidenced that the larvicidal and repellent activity of R. chalepensis essential oil could be used for the development of new and safer products against the Asian tiger mosquito.

  19. Cyclopaldic acid, seiridin, and sphaeropsidin A as fungal phytotoxins, and larvicidal and biting deterrents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Avolio, Fabiana; Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Khan, Ikhlas A; Evidente, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. is the major vector of the arboviruses responsible for dengue fever, one of the most devastating human diseases. From a preliminary screening of fungal phytotoxins, cyclopaldic acid (1), seiridin (2), sphaeropsidin A (4), and papyracillic acid (5) were evaluated for their biting deterrent and larvicidal activities against Ae. aegypti L. Because compounds 1, 2, 4, and 5 exhibited mosquito biting deterrent activities and 1 and 4 demonstrated larvicidal activities, further structureactivity relationship studies were initiated on these toxins. In biting-deterrence bioassays, 1, 2, 4, and 5, 3,8-didansylhydrazone of cyclopaldic acid, 1F, 5-azidopentanoate of cyclopaldic acid A, 1G, the reduced derivative of cyclopaldic acid, 1 H, isoseiridin (3), 2'-O-acetylseiridin (2A), 2'-oxoseiridin (2C), 6-O-acetylsphaeropsidin A (4A), 8,14-methylensphaeropsidin A methyl ester (4B), and sphaeropsidin B (4C) showed activities higher than the solvent control. Sphaeropsidin B (4C) was the most active compound followed by 2A, while the other compounds were less active. Biting-deterrence activity of compound 4C was statistically similar to DEET. In the larvicidal screening bioassays, only compounds 1 and 4 demonstrated larvicidal activities. Based on LD50 values, compound 4 (LD50 36.8 ppm) was significantly more active than compound 1 (LD50 58.2 ppm). However, the activity of these compounds was significantly lower than permethrin.

  20. Controle de mosquitos com base em larvicidas no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: a escolha do agente de controle Mosquito control based on larvicides in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: choice of the control agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio L. Ruas-Neto

    1994-06-01

    . Locally produced B.thuringiensis israelensis, formulations also yielded good results. Among chemical larvicides, pyrethroid compounds Pirisa and K-Othrine yielded better results than the organophosphates Lebaycid and Abate. These last formulations yielded responses ten weaker than predicted in other studies. Under field conditions, a dose of 1250 mg/m² for biological formulations was considered adequate for routine application because at this level it is possible to overcome physical influences on results. Only B.sphaericus preparations caused important disruption of mosquito colonization in active breeding sites. Up to 39 weeks were tabulated without complete colonization in natural conditions and one month in artificially colonized tanks. This study suggests that biological alternatives should be considered in mosquito control programs. They may be a solution to such problems as resistance to larvicides, elimination of natural enemies, and short-lasting effects of applications.

  1. Larvicidal activity of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) (Family: Rubiaceae) leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Shanthakumar, Shanmugam Perumal; Vincent, Savariar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2012-10-01

    Morinda citrifolia leaf extract was tested for larvicidal activity against three medically important mosquito vectors such as malarial vector Anopheles stephensi, dengue vector Aedes aegypti, and filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The plant material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. From the leaf, 1-kg powder was macerated with 3.0 L of hexane, chloroform, acetone, methanol, and water sequentially for a period of 72 h each and filtered. The yield of extracts was hexane (13.56 g), chloroform (15.21 g), acetone (12.85 g), methanol (14.76 g), and water (12.92 g), respectively. The extracts were concentrated at reduced temperature on a rotary vacuum evaporator and stored at a temperature of 4°C. The M. citrifolia leaf extract at 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 ppm caused a significant mortality of three mosquito species. Hexane, chloroform, acetone, and water caused moderate considerable mortality; however, the highest larval mortality was methanolic extract, observed in three mosquito vectors. The larval mortality was observed after 24-h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The third larvae of Anopheles stephensi had values of LC(50) = 345.10, 324.26, 299.97, 261.96, and 284.59 ppm and LC(90) = 653.00, 626.58, 571.89, 505.06, and 549.51 ppm, respectively. The Aedes aegypti had values of LC(50) = 361.75, 343.22, 315.40, 277.92, and 306.98 ppm and LC(90) = 687.39, 659.02, 611.35, 568.18, and 613.25 ppm, respectively. The Culex quinquefasciatus had values of LC(50) = 382.96, 369.85, 344.34, 330.42, and 324.64 ppm and LC(90) = 726.18, 706.57, 669.28, 619.63, and 644.47 ppm, respectively. The results of the leaf extract of M. citrifolia are promising as good larvicidal activity against the mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. This is a new eco-friendly approach for the control of vector control programs. Therefore, this study provides first report on the larvicidal activities against three

  2. Evaluation of fifteen local plants as larvicidal agents against an Indian strain of dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita eKumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of chemical insecticides-based intervention measures for the control of mosquito vectors have received wide public apprehension because of several problems like insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, toxic hazards to humans and non-target organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and development of alternative strategies using eco-friendly, environmentally safe, bio-degradable plant products which are non-toxic to non target organisms too. In view of this, fifteen plants were collected from local areas in New Delhi, India. Different parts of these plants were separated, dried, mechanically grinded and sieved to get fine powder. The 200 g of each part was soaked in 1000 mL of different solvents separately and the crude extracts, thus formed, were concentrated using a vacuum evaporator at 45ºC under low pressure. Each extract was screened to explore its potential as a mosquito larvicidal agent against early fourth instars of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti using WHO protocol. The preliminary screening showed that only ten plants possessed larvicidal potential as they could result in 100% mortality at 1000 ppm. Further evaluation of the potential larvicidal extracts established the hexane leaf extracts of Lantana camara to be most effective extracts exhibiting a significant LC50 value of 30.71 ppm while the Phyllanthus emblica fruit extracts were found to be least effective with an LC50 value of 298.93 ppm. The extracts made from different parts of other five plants; Achyranthes aspera, Zingiber officinalis, Ricinus communis, Trachyspermun ammi and Cassia occidentalis also possessed significant larvicidal potential with LC¬50 values ranging from 55.0 to 74.67 ppm. Other three extracts showed moderate toxicity against Aedes aegypti larvae. Further investigations would be needed to isolate and identify the primary component responsible for the larvicidal efficiency of the

  3. Insecticidal and repellent activity of Hiptage benghalensis L. Kruz (Malpighiaceae) against mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalrotluanga; Ngente, Lalchawimawii; Nachimuthu, Senthil Kumar; Guruswami, Gurusubramanian

    2012-09-01

    Plant-based insecticides for vector control are urgently needed for Anopheles barbirostris, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes albopictus which are the primary vectors of malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue, respectively, in India and other South East Asian countries. In the present study, larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activities of acetone root bark extract of Hiptage benghalensis were tested against the larvae and adults of the three mosquito vectors. The acetone root bark extracts of H. benghalensis was more effective as larvicides with low LC(50) (11.15-16.78 ppm) and LT50 (1.25-4.84 h at 200 and 400 ppm) values. Results of log probit analysis (at 95 % confidence level) and regression analysis of crude acetone root bark extract of H. benghalensis revealed that lethal concentration (LC(50)) values gradually decreased with the exposure periods; lethal time (LT(50)) decreased with the concentration, and the mortality is positively correlated with the concentration. The order of susceptibility of the three mosquito species was as follows: A. albopictus > A. barbirostris > C. quinquefascitus. Biochemical changes were also evidenced in third instar larvae of three mosquito species following a sublethal exposure for 24 h. The level of sugar, glycogen, lipids, and proteins was significantly (P larvicide against A. albopictus, A. barbirostris, and C. quinquefascitus, which can be recommended to control these mosquito species on its breeding site. However, further investigations are needed to confirm the lethal effects of H. benghalensis in field conditions and its impact on the nontarget organisms.

  4. Larvicidal and repellent activity of tetradecanoic acid againstAedes aegypti (Linn.) andCulex quinquefasciatus (Say.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sivakumar R; Jebanesan A; Govindarajan M; Rajasekar P

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal and repellent efficacy of tetradecanoic acid against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) L. andCulex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) Say (Diptera: Culicidae).Methods: Larvicidal efficacy of tetradecanoic acid was tested at various concentrations against the early third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti andCx. quinquefasciatus. The repellent activity was determined against two mosquito species at three concentrations viz.,1.0,2.5 and5.0 ppm under the laboratory conditions.Results: The tetradecanoic acid was found to be more effective againstCx. quinquefasciatus thanAe. aegypti larvae. TheLC50values were14.08 ppm and25.10 ppm, respectively. Tetradecanoic acid showed lesser repellency againstAe. aegypti andCx. quinquefasciatus. The highest repellency was observed in higher concentration of5.0 mg/cm2provided100% protection up to60 and 90 min againstAe. aegypti andCx. quinquefasciatusrespectively.Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded the tetradecanoic acid is a potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus andAe. aegypti mosquitoes.

  5. Collagen Extract from Marine Finfish Scales as a Potential Mosquito Larvicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthumari, K; Anand, M; Maruthupandy, M

    2016-12-01

    Collagen is a peptide being utilized in medical, health care, nutrient and decorative industry. Marine fish scales are one of the good sources of collagen, which is extracted using the advanced enzymatic digestion method. Scales of Sardinella longiceps (Oil Sardine) have a high proportion of collagen. This product is well absorbed with broad adaptive values that encourage the inclusion of nutriments. In this paper, we have performed the isolation and characterization of collagen from S. longiceps fish scales. The unnecessary proteins on the surface of fish scales was removed by demineralization process. The fish scale collagen was extracted in two different methods: acid (acetic acid) and enzymatic (pepsin) technique. The molecular mass of the extracted collagen was determined using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The absorption spectra of the extracted collagen was measured to estimate its amino acid (tyrosine) content. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum showed the existence of bands corresponding to the collagen extracted from S. longiceps fish scale and the crystallinity of extracted collagen was obtained using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The morphological micrograph was also analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The anti-larval effect of the collagen extract was determined using mosquito larvae of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and the activity was statistically significant.

  6. Larvicidal and repellent properties of Adansonia digitata against medically important human malarial vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    K. Krishnappa , K. Elumalai , S. Dhanasekaran & J. Gokulakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Development of plant-based alternative compounds for mosquito control has gainedimportance now-a-days, in view of increasing resistance in mosquito vectors to existing insecticides. The larvicidaland repellent activities of benzene, chloroform, hexane and methanol leaf extracts of Indian medicinal plant,Adansonia digitata were investigated against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi.Methods: In all, 25 III instar larvae of An. stephensi were exposed to various concen...

  7. Laboratory observations on the larvicidal efficacy of three plant species against mosquito vectors of malaria, dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) and lymphatic filariasis in the semi-arid desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, S K; Singh, Karam V; Sharma, Sapna; Sherwani, M R K

    2012-05-01

    Comparative larvicidal efficacy of aqueous and organic solvent extracts from seeds, leaves and flowers of three desert plants viz. Calotropis procera (Aiton), Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. and Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. was evaluated against Anopheles stephensi (Liston), Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). For this purpose larvae of all the three mosquito species were reared in the laboratory and studies carried out on late 3rd or early 4th instars using standard WHO technique. Based on concentration mortality data 24 and 48 hr LC50and LC90 values along with their 95% fiducial limits, regression equation, chi-square (chi2)/ heterogeneity of the response were determined by log probit regression analysis. Experiments were carried out with different solvent extracts of seeds of C. procera which revealed that methanol (24 hr LC50: 127.2, 194.8, 361.0) and acetone (229.9, 368.1,193.0 mg l(-1)) extracts were more effective with the three mosquito species, respectively. Petroleum ether extract was effective only on An. stephensi while aqueous extracts were not effective at all with any of the mosquito species (mortality purpurea and leaves of P. juliflora were 74.9, 63.2 and 47.0 and 96.2,128.1 and 118.8 mg l(-1) for the above three mosquito species, respectively. Experiments carried out up to 500 mg l-(1) with leaves (T. purpurea) and seeds (P. juliflora) extracts show only up to 10-30% mortality indicating that active larvicidal principle may be present only in the seeds of Tephrosia and leaves of Prosopis. In general, anophelines were found more susceptible than the culicines to the plant derived derivatives. More studies are being carried outon some other desert plants found in this arid region. The study would be of great importance while formulating vector control strategy based on alternative plant based insecticides in this semi-arid region.

  8. Larvicidal and repellent effect of some Tribulus terrestris L., (Zygophyllaceae extracts against the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Tarek M.Y. El-Sheikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti transmits etiologic agents of yellow fever and dengue. Vaccine for dengue virus is not available and vector control is essential to minimize dengue incidence. The larvicidal and repellent effect of the crude ethanol, acetone and petroleum ether extract leaves of Tribulus terrestris, against 3rd instar larvae and adults of mosquito, Ae. aegypti the vector of dengue fever was evaluated. The efficacy of petroleum ether extract seemed to be more effective with LC50 64.6 ppm followed by acetone extract with LC50 173.2 ppm and finally ethanolic extract with LC50 376.4 ppm. Moreover, the acetone and petroleum ether extracts exerted a highly delayed toxic effect on the pupae and adults resulted from treated larvae, where the pupal mortality was 57.1% and 100% at concentrations 400 and 100 ppm, respectively. Also, the petroleum ether and acetone extracts showed reduction effects on adult emergence. The repellent action of the plant extracts tested was varied depending on the solvent used in extraction and the dose of the extract. The most effective plant extract that evoked 100% repellency or biting deterrence was petroleum ether extract at a dose of 1.5 mg/cm2 compared with 100% repellency for commercial formulation, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET at the same dose. Hence, these extracts can be used as an effective alternative to the existing synthetic pesticides for the control of Ae. aegypti.

  9. Evaluation of Mosquito Repellent Activity of Isolated Oleic Acid, Eicosyl Ester from Thalictrum javanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Abinaya; Senguttuvan, Jamuna; Paulsamy, S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the traditional use, the mosquito repellent property of Thalictrum javanicum and to confirm the predicted larvicidal activity of the isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from its aerial parts by PASS software, the present study was carried out using 4th instar stage larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (dengue vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus (filarial vector). Insecticidal susceptibility tests were conducted and the mortality rate was observed after 24 h exposure. The chitinase activity of isolated compound was assessed by using purified β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (chitinase). Ecdysone 20-monooxygenase assay (radioimmuno assay) was made using the same larval stage of A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus. The results were compared with the crude methanol extract of the whole plant. The isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester was found to be the most effective larvicide against A. aegypti (LC50/24 h -8.51 ppm) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50/24 h - 12.5 ppm) than the crude methanol extract (LC50/24 h - 257.03 ppm and LC50/24 h - 281.83 ppm, respectively). The impact of oleic acid, eicosyl ester on reducing the activity of chitinase and ecdysone 20-monooxygenase was most prominent in both the target species, A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus than the control. The results therefore suggest that the compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from Thalictrum javanicum may be considered as a potent source of mosquito larvicidal property.

  10. Evaluation of mosquito repellent activity of isolated oleic acid, eicosyl ester from Thalictrum javanicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinaya Gurunathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the traditional use, the mosquito repellent property of Thalictrum javanicumand to confirm the predicted larvicidal activity of the isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from its aerial parts by PASS software, the present study was carried out using 4th instar stage larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti(dengue vector and Culex quinquefasciatus(filarial vector. Insecticidal susceptibility tests were conducted and the mortality rate was observed after 24 h exposure. The chitinase activity of isolated compound was assessed by using purified β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (chitinase. Ecdysone 20-monooxygenase assay (radioimmuno assay was made using the same larval stage of A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus. The results were compared with the crude methanol extract of the whole plant. The isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester was found to be the most effective larvicide against A. aegypti (LC50/24 h -8.51 ppm and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50/24 h - 12.5 ppm than the crude methanol extract (LC50/24 h - 257.03 ppm and LC50/24 h - 281.83 ppm, respectively. The impact of oleic acid, eicosyl ester on reducing the activity of chitinase and ecdysone 20-monooxygenase was most prominent in both the target species, A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatusthan the control. The results therefore suggest that the compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from Thalictrum javanicummay be considered as a potent source of mosquito larvicidal property.

  11. Evaluation of Mosquito Repellent Activity of Isolated Oleic Acid, Eicosyl Ester from Thalictrum javanicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Abinaya; Senguttuvan, Jamuna; Paulsamy, S.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the traditional use, the mosquito repellent property of Thalictrum javanicum and to confirm the predicted larvicidal activity of the isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from its aerial parts by PASS software, the present study was carried out using 4th instar stage larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (dengue vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus (filarial vector). Insecticidal susceptibility tests were conducted and the mortality rate was observed after 24 h exposure. The chitinase activity of isolated compound was assessed by using purified β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (chitinase). Ecdysone 20-monooxygenase assay (radioimmuno assay) was made using the same larval stage of A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus. The results were compared with the crude methanol extract of the whole plant. The isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester was found to be the most effective larvicide against A. aegypti (LC50/24 h -8.51 ppm) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50/24 h - 12.5 ppm) than the crude methanol extract (LC50/24 h - 257.03 ppm and LC50/24 h - 281.83 ppm, respectively). The impact of oleic acid, eicosyl ester on reducing the activity of chitinase and ecdysone 20-monooxygenase was most prominent in both the target species, A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus than the control. The results therefore suggest that the compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from Thalictrum javanicum may be considered as a potent source of mosquito larvicidal property. PMID:27168688

  12. The Identification of Suberosin from Prangos pabularia Essential Oil and Its Mosquito Activity against Aedes aegypti

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    Nurhayat Tabanca

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of Prangos pabularia Lindl. (Apiaceae fruit oil was performed by gas chromatography (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Bicyclogermacrene (21%, (Z- b -ocimene (19%, a -humulene (8%, a -pinene (8% and spathulenol (6% were the main constituents of the oil. One compound with 1.8% at RI 3420 remained unidentified or tentatively identified as suberosin from the Wiley GC-MS Library. T he assumed compound, suberosin was synthesized in two steps and its structure was confirmed by 1D NMR and GC- MS analyses. As part of our continued research to discover new chemicals for use in mosquito control agents as repellents and larvicides, suberosin and its parent compound coumarin were investigated for the mosquito biting deterrent and larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Both suberosin and coumarin showed biting deterrent activity but the activity was lower than the positive control, DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide. In larval bioassays, suberosin with LC 50 value of 8.1 ppm was significantly more toxic than c oumarin (LC 50 = 49.6 ppm at 24-h post treatment. These results indicate that suberosin may be useful for use as mosquito larvicidal agent .

  13. Spinosad: a biorational mosquito larvicide for use in car tires in southern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Carlos F; Bond J; Muñoz José; Valle Javier; Chirino Nelva; Williams Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Car tires are important habitats for mosquito development because of the high density populations they can harbor and their presence in urban settings. Water in experimental tires was treated with one of three insecticides or an untreated control. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled at weekly intervals. Eggs, larval and pupal samples were laboratory-reared to estimate seasonal fluctuations in Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus abundance. Results Spinosad treatments at 1 or 5 ...

  14. Ovicidal and larvicidal activities of some plant extracts against Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Rajiv Gandhi Munusamy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the ovicidal and larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of Gymnema sylvestre, Scilla peruvina, Rubia cordifolia (R. cordifolia and Elytraria acaulis roots against the eggs and larvae of Aedes aegypti L. (Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Cx. quinquefasciatus at different concentrations of 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mg/L. Methods: The plant materials were shade dried in the laboratory for one week and then coarsely powdered. The root powder of each plant (500 g was sequentially soaked in hexane, chloroform and methanol for 96 h with intermittent shaking. After 96 h, the solution was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure by using rotary vacuum evaporator. All the crude extracts thus obtained were stored in air tight glass vials and Petri dishes. Results: The ovicidal activity results showed that the methanol extract of R. cordifolia root was the most potent compared to other with 82.40% and 70.40% activity against the eggs of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively, at 500 mg/L concentration similarly, methanol extract of R. cordifolia root also recorded the highest larvicidal activity with LC50 and LC90 values of 95.69, 347.96 mg/L against Cx. quinquefasciatus and 102.23, 350.20 mg/L against Ae. aegypti larvae, respectively. Conculsions: Hence, methanol extract of R. cordifolia root can be probed further for effective biological control of mosquitoes.

  15. Larvicidal activity of essential extract of Rosmarinus officinalis against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Liu, Xiang-Yi; Yang, Bin; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Feng, Zi-Liang; Wang, Chen-Zhu; Fan, Quan-Shui

    2013-03-01

    Constituents in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) have been shown to have larvicidal activity against invertebrates. In order to explore the properties of crude extract of rosemary further, we studied the chemical composition and its activity against dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The major components of R. officinalis were found to be eucalyptol and camphor, with relative percentages of 10.93% and 5.51%, respectively. Minor constituents included limonene, (+)-4-carene, isoborneol, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclohexene, and pinene. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values of the essential oil of R. officinalis against DDT-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were 30.6, 26.4, and 38.3 mg/liter, respectively. The single median lethal dose (LD50) in Kunming mice was 4752 mg/kg. Essential oils from R. officinalis may, therefore, provide an effective natural plant product for use in mosquito prevention and control.

  16. Laboratory and Simulated Field Bioassays to Evaluate Larvicidal Activity of Pinus densiflora Hydrodistillate, Its Constituents and Structurally Related Compounds against Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens in Relation to Their Inhibitory Effects on Acetylcholinesterase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joon Ahn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of Pinus densiflora (red pine hydrodistillate, its 19 constituents and 28 structurally related compounds against early third-instar larvae of Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti and Culex pipiens palles (Cx. p. pallens was examined using direct-contact bioassays. The efficacy of active compounds was further evaluated in semi-field bioassays using field-collected larval Cx. p. pallens. Results were compared with those of two synthetic larvicides, temephos and fenthion. In laboratory bioassays, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate was found to have 24 h LC50 values of 20.33, 21.01 and 22.36 mg/L against larval Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. p. pallens respectively. Among the identified compounds, thymol, δ-3-carene and (+-limonene exhibited the highest toxicity against all three mosquito species. These active compounds were found to be nearly equally effective in field trials as well. In vitro bioassays were conducted to examine the acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory activity of 10 selected compounds. Results showed that there is a noticeable correlation between larvicidal activity and AChE inhibitory activity. In light of global efforts to find alternatives for currently used insecticides against disease vector mosquitoes, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate and its constituents merit further research as potential mosquito larvicides.

  17. Laboratory and Simulated Field Bioassays to Evaluate Larvicidal Activity of Pinus densiflora Hydrodistillate, Its Constituents and Structurally Related Compounds against Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens in Relation to Their Inhibitory Effects on Acetylcholinesterase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Chan; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2013-05-30

    The toxicity of Pinus densiflora (red pine) hydrodistillate, its 19 constituents and 28 structurally related compounds against early third-instar larvae of Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Culex pipiens palles (Cx. p. pallens) was examined using direct-contact bioassays. The efficacy of active compounds was further evaluated in semi-field bioassays using field-collected larval Cx. p. pallens. Results were compared with those of two synthetic larvicides, temephos and fenthion. In laboratory bioassays, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate was found to have 24 h LC50 values of 20.33, 21.01 and 22.36 mg/L against larval Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. p. pallens respectively. Among the identified compounds, thymol, δ-3-carene and (+)-limonene exhibited the highest toxicity against all three mosquito species. These active compounds were found to be nearly equally effective in field trials as well. In vitro bioassays were conducted to examine the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of 10 selected compounds. Results showed that there is a noticeable correlation between larvicidal activity and AChE inhibitory activity. In light of global efforts to find alternatives for currently used insecticides against disease vector mosquitoes, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate and its constituents merit further research as potential mosquito larvicides.

  18. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, Antimicrobial, and Larvicidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Ramos, Ryan; Rodrigues, Alex Bruno Lobato; Farias, Ana Luzia Ferreira; Simões, Ranggel Carvalho; Pinheiro, Mayara Tânia; Ferreira, Ricardo Marcelo Dos Anjos; Costa Barbosa, Ledayane Mayana; Picanço Souto, Raimundo Nonato; Fernandes, João Batista; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva; de Almeida, Sheylla Susan Moreira da Silva

    2017-01-01

    The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and the identification and quantification of components were achieved with the use of GC-MS analysis. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the method of sequestration of DPPH. Essential oils were used for study the cytotoxic front larvae of Artemia salina. In the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of essential oils, we employed the disk-diffusion method. The potential larvicide in mosquito larvae of the third stage of development of Aedes aegypti to different concentrations of essential oils was evaluated. The major compounds found in the essential oils of M. piperita were linalool (51.8%) and epoxyocimene (19.3%). The percentage of antioxidant activity was 79.9 ± 1.6%. The essential oil showed LC50 = 414.6 μg/mL front of A. saline and is considered highly toxic. It shows sensitivity and halos significant inhibition against E. coli. The essential possessed partial larvicidal efficiency against A. aegypti.

  19. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, Antimicrobial, and Larvicidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae

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    Ryan da Silva Ramos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and the identification and quantification of components were achieved with the use of GC-MS analysis. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the method of sequestration of DPPH. Essential oils were used for study the cytotoxic front larvae of Artemia salina. In the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of essential oils, we employed the disk-diffusion method. The potential larvicide in mosquito larvae of the third stage of development of Aedes aegypti to different concentrations of essential oils was evaluated. The major compounds found in the essential oils of M. piperita were linalool (51.8% and epoxyocimene (19.3%. The percentage of antioxidant activity was 79.9±1.6%. The essential oil showed LC50 = 414.6 μg/mL front of A. saline and is considered highly toxic. It shows sensitivity and halos significant inhibition against E. coli. The essential possessed partial larvicidal efficiency against A. aegypti.

  20. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, Antimicrobial, and Larvicidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Ramos, Ryan; Rodrigues, Alex Bruno Lobato; Farias, Ana Luzia Ferreira; Simões, Ranggel Carvalho; Pinheiro, Mayara Tânia; Ferreira, Ricardo Marcelo dos Anjos; Costa Barbosa, Ledayane Mayana; Picanço Souto, Raimundo Nonato; Fernandes, João Batista

    2017-01-01

    The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and the identification and quantification of components were achieved with the use of GC-MS analysis. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the method of sequestration of DPPH. Essential oils were used for study the cytotoxic front larvae of Artemia salina. In the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of essential oils, we employed the disk-diffusion method. The potential larvicide in mosquito larvae of the third stage of development of Aedes aegypti to different concentrations of essential oils was evaluated. The major compounds found in the essential oils of M. piperita were linalool (51.8%) and epoxyocimene (19.3%). The percentage of antioxidant activity was 79.9 ± 1.6%. The essential oil showed LC50 = 414.6 μg/mL front of A. saline and is considered highly toxic. It shows sensitivity and halos significant inhibition against E. coli. The essential possessed partial larvicidal efficiency against A. aegypti. PMID:28116346

  1. Novel synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Artemisia vulgaris L. leaf extract and their efficacy of larvicidal activity against dengue fever vector Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, B; Ranjitha Kumari, B D

    2017-03-18

    The Aedes aegypti L. mosquito transmits dengue and yellow fever, which cause millions of death every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that has rapidly spread worldwide particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates areas. The present study denotes a simple and eco-friendly biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Artemisia vulgaris L. leaf extract as reducing agent. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Zeta Potential (ZP), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). Solid state (13)C NMR was utilized to confirm the presence of larvicidal compound Beta caryophyllene in the synthesized AuNPs. Larvicidal activity of the synthesized AuNPs was measured against A. aegypti over 12 and 24h exposure periods and compared with essential oil in various concentrations (25ppm, 50ppm, 100ppm, 200ppm and 400ppm). After a 12h exposure period, the larvicidal activity of 3(rd) instar larva by AuNPs showed LC50=156.55ppm and LC90=2506.21ppm, while and essential oil displayed LC50=128.99ppm and LC90=1477.08ppm. Larvicidal activity of 4(th) instar larva by AuNPs showed LC50=97.90ppm and LC90=1677.36ppm, while essential oil displayed LC50=136.15ppm and LC90=2223.55ppm. After a 24h of exposure period, larvicidal activity of 3(rd) instar larva by AuNPs showed LC50=62.47ppm and LC90=430.16ppm and essential oil showed LC50=111.15ppm and LC90=1441.51ppm. The larvicidal activity of 4(th) instar larva and AuNPs displayed LC50=43.01ppm and LC90=376.70ppm and for essential oil LC50=74.42ppm, LC90=858.36ppm. Histopathology of A. aegypti with AuNPs for 3(rd)and 4(th) stage larvae after 24h exposure at the highest mortality concentration (400ppm) showed that the area of the midgut, epithelial cells and cortex were highly affected. The present findings demonstrate that the

  2. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Ocimum basilicum (L.) against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus and Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R; Rajeswary, M; Yogalakshmi, K

    2013-05-01

    The toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil and their major chemical constituents from Ocimum basilicum were evaluated against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus and Anopheles subpictus. The chemical composition of the leaf essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the essential oil of O. basilicum contained 20 compounds. The major chemical components identified were linalool (52.42%), methyl eugenol (18.74%) and 1, 8-cineol (5.61%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against late third-stage larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Ae. albopictus and An. subpictus with an LC(50) values of 14.01, 11.97 and 9.75 ppm and an LC(90) values of 23.44, 21.17 and 18.56 ppm, respectively. The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural larvicidal agents against Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Ae. albopictus and An. subpictus.

  3. Larvicidal activity of Brazilian plant essential oils against Coenagrionidae larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D T; Silva, L L; Amaral, L P; Pinheiro, C G; Pires, M M; Schindler, B; Garlet, Q I; Benovit, S C; Baldisserotto, B; Longhi, S J; Kotzian, C B; Heinzmann, B M

    2014-08-01

    Odonate larvae can be serious pests that attack fish larvae, postlarvae, and fingerlings in fish culture tanks, causing significant loss in the supply and production of juveniles. This study reports a screen of the essential oils (EOs) of Nectandra megapotamica (Sprengel) Mez, Nectandra grandiflora Nees, Hesperozygis ringens (Bentham) Epling, Ocimum gratissimum L., Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hooker) Troncoso, and Lippia sidoides Chamisso against Coenagrionidae larvae. In addition, the most effective EO and its 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and chemical analysis are described. The larvae of Acanthagrion Selys, Homeoura Kennedy, Ischnura Charpentier, and Oxyagrion Selys were used to assess the EO effects. EO obtained from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed the highest larvicidal effects at 19 h of treatment. The major constituents of the EO of H. ringens include pulegone and limonene, while eugenol and Z-beta-ocimene predominate in the EO of O. gratissimum, and carvacrol and rho-cymene were the major compounds of the EO of L. sidoides. Leaf EOs from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed activity against Coenagrionidae larvae at similar concentrations with LC50s of 62.92, 75.05, and 51.65 microl liter(-1), respectively, and these were considered the most promising treatments.

  4. Application of copper-based ovitraps in local houses in West Sumatra, Indonesia: a field test of a simple and affordable larvicide for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Mohamad; Ilmiawati, Cimi; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The application of oviposition traps (ovitraps) is one of the currently available rational methods used in mosquito control campaigns because it eliminates the larval stage. However, the use of current larvicides is hampered by their cost and applicability. Therefore, a more economical and practical alternative is urgently needed. We previously reported that copper in liquid form is a promising candidate due to its potent larvicide properties in a laboratory setting, affordability, and availability. In the present study, a field test was performed by randomly placing copper-filled plastic pots with a concentration of 10 ppm in 21 local houses in Painan City, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Three of these pots including a control were placed inside, while another two were placed outside each of the houses. After 14 days, a large number of dead first and second instar larvae of Aedes spp. were observed in the copper-filled pots. Larvae in the control pots were all viable and thriving. Unhatched eggs and pupae were detected in several pots in the copper-treated group but were excluded from the analysis. Our field data confirmed that copper is a potential larvicide for ovitraps, particularly in under-resourced areas.

  5. Toxicity and effects of mosquito larvicides methoprene and surface film (Agnique® MMF) on the development and fecundity of the tadpole shrimp Triops newberryi (Packard) (Notostraca: Triopsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianyun; Jiang, Yonxing; Mulla, Mir S

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the interactions of tadpole shrimp, a mosquito biological control agent, with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene and a monomolecular surface film. In laboratory assays, the tadpole shrimp (TPS) Triops newberryi (Packard) was able to tolerate high concentrations of methoprene without negative impacts on its growth, longevity, and fecundity when exposed to 1 to 10 mg/liter, or 90-900 fold, of the IE(90) levels against a laboratory colony of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The same held true in field trials when the habitats were treated with Altosid(®) Liquid Larvicide (Altosid(®) LL, 5% methoprene) at 0.3-1.2 liters/ha. or 1-4 fold of the label rates for mosquito control. However, some significant impacts on the TPS occurred when they were exposed to Agnique(®) Monomolecular Film (Agnique(®) MMF) at the label rates for mosquito control ranging from 1.89-9.45 liters/ha. under laboratory and field conditions. To avoid the negative impact of Agnique MMF on tadpole shrimp, it appears that 1.89 liters/ha. would be the maximum rate when Agnique MMF is used to control mosquitoes in the habitats where the TPS is employed as a biological control agent, or prevailing in the aquatic habitats with potential for suppressing mosquito larval populations.

  6. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against malaria and filariasis vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Marimuthu, Sampath; Bagavan, Asokan; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal potential of the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, and aqueous leaf extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaeaceae) and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. The results recorded from UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared support the biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized silver nanoparticles for 24 h. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the maximum efficacy was observed in crude methanol, aqueous, and synthesized silver nanoparticles against the larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50) = 8.89, 11.82, and 0.69 ppm; LC(90) = 28.65, 36.06, and 2.15 ppm) and against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) = 9.51, 13.65, and 1.10 ppm; LC(90) = 28.13, 35.83, and 3.59 ppm), respectively. These results suggest that the leaf methanol, aqueous extracts of N. nucifera, and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the plant extracts and synthesized nanoparticles.

  7. Single-step biological fabrication of colloidal silver nanoparticles using Hugonia mystax: larvicidal potential against Zika virus, dengue, and malaria vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-09-09

    Mosquito control is facing key challenges, including outbreaks of new arbovirus threats. We proposed an eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) employing a low-cost extract of Hugonia mystax. AgNPs were specified by UV, XRD, FTIR and EDX spectroscopy, SEM and TEM. AgNPs were more toxic to Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae (LC50: 14.45, 15.86, and 17.46 μg/mL) if compared to aquatic biocontrol organisms Gambusia affinis, Diplonychus indicus, and Anisops bouvieri (LC50: 2567.15, 1075.16, and 829.63 μg/ml). Overall, we shed light on the mosquito larvicidal efficacy of H. mystax, a possible biological resource for low-cost fabrication of AgNPs.

  8. Repellency and Larvicidal Activity of Essential oils from Xylopia laevigata, Xylopia frutescens, Lippia pedunculosa, and Their Individual Compounds against Aedes aegypti Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, A M D; Maia, T D S; Soares, T E S; Menezes, L R A; Scher, R; Costa, E V; Cavalcanti, S C H; La Corte, R

    2017-04-01

    In order to find new alternatives for vector control and personal protection, we evaluated the larvicidal and repellent activity of essentials oils from plants found in the Northeast of Brazil against Aedes aegypti Linnaeus mosquitoes. The plants tested include Xylopia laevigata, Xylopia frutescens, and Lippia pedunculosa and their major compounds, piperitenone oxide, and (R)-limonene. The essential oil of L. pedunculosa and its major volatile compounds were shown to be toxic for Ae. aegypti larvae with a LC50 lower than 60 ppm. The essential oil of plants from the Xylopia genus, on the other hand, showed no activity against Ae. aegypti, proving to be toxic to mosquito larvae only when concentrations were higher than 1000 ppm. All plants tested provided some degree of protection against mosquitoes landing, but only the essential oil of L. pedunculosa and the volatile compound piperitenone oxide suppressed 100% of mosquitoes landing on human skin, in concentrations lower than 1%. Among the plants studied, the essential oil of L. pedunculosa and its volatiles compounds have shown the potential for the development of safe alternative for mosquito larvae control and protection against Ae. aegypti mosquito bites.

  9. Larvicidal activity of essential oil and methanol extract of Nepeta menthoides against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khanavi Mahnaz; Fallah Alireza; Vatandoost Hassan; Sedaghat Mahdi; Abai Mohammad Reza; Hadjiakhoondi Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the larvicidal activity of essential oil and methanol extract of theNepeta menthoides (N. menthoides) against main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). Methods: The essential oil of plant was obtained by Clevenger type apparatus and the methanol extract was supplied with Percolation method. Larvicidal activity was tested by WHO method. Twenty five fourth-instar larvae of An. stephensi were used in the larvicidal assay and four replicates were tested for each concentration. Five different concentrations of the oil and extract were tested for calculation of LC50 and LC90 values. Results: The LC50 and LC90 values were determined by probit analysis. LC50 was 69.5 and 234.3 ppm and LC90 was 175.5 and 419.9 ppm for the extract and essential oil respectively. Conclusions: According to the results of this study methanolic extract of plant exhibited more larvicidal activity than essential oil. This could be useful for investigation of new natural larvicidal compounds.

  10. Phytochemistry and larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensisagainst malaria vector,Anopheles stephensi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sedaghat Mohamad Medhi; SaneiAli Reza; Khnavi Mahnaz; Abai Mohammad Reza; Hadjiakhoondi Abbas; MohtaramiFatemeh; VatandoostHassan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine phytochemistry and larvicidal activity ofEucalyptus camaldulensis againstAnopheles stephensi.Methods:The chemical compositions of the leaf essential oils were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The larvicidal activity of essential oils and extract of leaf were tested against 4th instar larvae of laboratory-rearedAnopheles stephensi.Results:GC/MS analyses identified the presence of28 compounds corresponding to 99.60%of the total oil. The main constituents in the leaf essential oil were1,8-cineole(69.46%), γ-Terpinene(15.10%), α-Pinene(5.47%)and Globulol(2%). The leaf extract and volatile oil exerted significant larvicidal activity withLC50 values of89.85 and397.75ppm, respectively. Clear dose-response relationships were established with the highest dose of320 ppm essential oil extract resulted almost100% mortality in the population.Conclusions:The larvicidal properties suggest that the essential oil of plant is a potential source of valuable larvicidal compounds against malaria vector and can be used as an alternative to synthetic insecticides.

  11. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils of Apiaceae Plants Against Malaria Vector, Anopheles Stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Salim Abadi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant extracts and oils may act as alternatives to conventional pesticides for malaria vector control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oils of three plants of Apiaceae family against Anophe­les stephensi, the main malaria vector in Iran. Methods: Essential oils from Heracleum persicum, Foeniculum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum seeds were hydro distil­lated, then their larvicidal activity were evaluated against laboratory-reared larvae of An. stephensi according to stan­dard method of WHO. After susceptibility test, results were analysis using Probit program.Results: Essential oils were separated from H. persicum, F. vulgare and C. sativum plants and their larvicidal activi­ties were tested. Result of this study showed that F. vulgare oil was the most effective against An. stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 20.10 and 44.51 ppm, respectively.Conclusion: All three plants essential oil can serve as a natural larvicide against An. stephensi. F. vulgare oil exhib­ited more larvicidal properties.

  12. A study of the larvicidal activity of two Croton species from northeastern Brazil against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dória, Grace A A; Silva, Wellington J; Carvalho, Gilcia A; Alves, Péricles B; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C H

    2010-06-01

    The essential oils of Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth (Euphorbiaceae) and Croton pulegiodorus Baill. were selected for larvicidal evaluation against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) and studied qualitatively and quantitatively by GC and GC-MS. Sixty-one compounds representing 92.03% (C. heliotropiifolius) and 85.68% (C. pulegiodorus) of the essential oils, respectively, have been identified. The major components of C. heliotropiifolius essential oil were identified as beta-caryophyllene (35.82%), bicyclogermacrene (19.98%), and germacrene-D (11.85%). The major components in C. pulegiodorus essential oil were identified as beta-caryophyllene (20.96%), bicyclogermacrene (16.89%), germacrene-D (10.55%), tau-cadinol (4.56%), and beta-copaen-4-alpha-ol (4.35%). The essential oil of C. pulegiodorus (LC50 159 ppm) was more effective against Ae. aegypti than that of C. heliotropiifolius (LC50 544 ppm). In order to verify whether the major compound of both essential oils is the active principle responsible for the larvicidal activity, beta-caryophyllene was purchased and its larvicidal potential was further evaluated. However, beta-caryophyllene (LC50 1038 ppm) showed weak larvicidal potency. Results of larvicidal evaluation suggest the existence of a synergistic effect of minor components in the essential oils.

  13. Identification of Larvicidal Constituents of the  Essential Oil of Echinops grijsii Roots against the  Three Species of Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Ping Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The screening of Chinese medicinal herbs for insecticidal principles showed that the essential oil of Echinops grijsii Hance roots possessed significant larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. The essential oil was extracted via hydrodistillation and its constituents were determined by gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS analysis. GC‐MS analyses revealed the presence of 31 components, with 5‐(3‐buten‐1‐yn‐1‐yl‐2,2′‐bithiophene (5‐BBT, 27.63%, αterthienyl (α‐T, 14.95%,1,8‐cineole (5.56% and cis‐β‐ocimene (5.01% being the four major constituents. Based bioactivity‐directed chromatographic separation of the essential oil led to the isolation of 5‐BBT, 5‐(4‐isovaleroyloxybut‐1‐ynyl‐2,2′‐bithiophene (5‐IBT and αT as active compounds. The essential oil of E. grijsii exhibited larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis and Culex pipiens pallens with LC50 values of 2.65 μg/mL, 3.43 μg/mL and 1.47 μg/mL, respectively. The isolated thiophenes, 5‐BBT and 5‐IBT, possessed strong larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus(LC50 = 0.34 μg/mL and 0.45 μg/mL, respectively and An. sinensis(LC50 = 1.36 μg/mL and 5.36 μg/mL, respectively. The two isolated thiophenes also had LC50 values against the fourth instar larvae of C. pipiens pallens of 0.12 μg/mL and 0.33 μg/mL, respectively. The findings indicated that the essential oil of E. grijsii roots and the isolated thiophenes have an excellent potential for use in the control of Ae.albopictus, An. sinensis and C. pipiens pallens larvae and could be used in the search for new, safer and more effective natural compounds as larvicides.

  14. Eco-friendly larvicides from Indian plants: Effectiveness of lavandulyl acetate and bicyclogermacrene on malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating pathogens and parasites, including malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, filiariasis and Zika virus. Mosquito young instars are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and the environment and induce resistance in a number of vectors. In this scenario, newer and safer tools have been recently implemented to enhance mosquito control. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for entomological and parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as recently elucidated by the Y. Tu's example. Here we investigated the toxicity of Heracleum sprengelianum (Apiaceae) leaf essential oil and its major compounds toward third instar larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. GC-MS analysis showed that EO major components were lavandulyl acetate (17.8%) and bicyclogermacrene (12.9%). The EO was toxic to A. subpictus, A. albopictus, and C. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 of 33.4, 37.5 and 40.9µg/ml, respectively. Lavandulyl acetate was more toxic to mosquito larvae if compared to bicyclogermacrene. Their LC50 were 4.17 and 10.3µg/ml for A. subpictus, 4.60 and 11.1µg/ml for A. albopictus, 5.11 and 12.5µg/ml for C. tritaeniorhynchus. Notably, the EO and its major compounds were safer to three non-target mosquito predators, Anisops bouvieri, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 ranging from 206 to 4219µg/ml. Overall, this study highlights that H. sprengelianum EO is a promising source of eco-friendly larvicides against three important mosquito vectors with moderate toxicity against non-target aquatic

  15. Larvicidal activity of Lawsonia inermis and Murraya exotica leaves extract on filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dass

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of synthetic and chemical insecticides to control mosquitoes result in environment hazards and development of resistance in vector species. This research work is about an alternative mosquito control method that is considered as safe to environment and non-target species and also bio-degradable. Hence an attempt was made to study the larvicidal effect of the extract of Lawsonia inermis and Murraya exotica leaves on III and IV instar larva and pupa of Culex quinquefasciatus. The LC50 value of Murraya exotica for III and IV instar larvae and pupae is 135.539 ppm, 154.361 ppm and 178.571 ppm respectively. Likewise for Lawsonia inermis it is 139.057 for III instar, 163.630 for IV instar and 188.151 for the pupa. Of these, two plants Murraya exotica plant extract is more effective than the Lawsonia inermis.

  16. Synthesis and Larvicidal Activity of Novel Thenoylhydrazide Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Gao-Peng Song; De-Kun Hu; Hao Tian; Ya-Sheng Li; Yun-Shen Cao; Hong-Wei Jin; Zi-Ning Cui

    2016-01-01

    A pair of chemical isomeric structures of novel N-tert-butylphenyl thenoylhydrazide compounds I and II were designed and synthesized. Their structures were characterized by MS, IR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis and X-ray single crystal diffraction. The regioselectivity of the Meerwein arylation reaction and the electrophilic substitution reaction of N-tert-butyl hydrazine were studied by density functional theory (DFT) quantum chemical method. The larvicidal tests revealed that some compounds I ...

  17. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Cupressus arizonica E.L. Greene against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using botanical insecticides as an alternative biocontrol technique for vector control is considered by some scientists. Materials and Methods: Chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. In addition, the mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil of Cupressus arizonica was investigated against fourth instar larvae of laboratory-reared An. stephensi according to the method of the World Health Organization. Results: Of 46 constituents in the oil, limonene (14.44%, umbellulone (13.25% and α-pinene (11% were determined as the main constituents. Cupressus arizonica volatile oil showed significant larvicidal activity against An. stephensi with LC 50 and LC 90 values 79.30 ppm and 238.89 ppm respectively. Clear dose-response relationships were established with the highest dose of 160 ppm essential oil with almost 100% mortality. Discussion: The results from this study revealed that C. arizonica essential oil could be considered as a natural larvicide against An. stephensi. However, the field evaluation of the formulation is necessary.

  18. Rotenoids from Tephrosia toxicaria with larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Nunes e Vasconcelos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the search for new larvicides from plants, we have investigated the potential activity of the rotenoids deguelin (1, 12a-hydroxy-α-toxicarol (2 and tephrosin (3, isolated from the bioactive ethanol extract of roots of Tephrosia toxicaria Pers., against Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue. The absolute configuration of these compounds was determined by circular dichroism (CD spectra. The LC50 values of the compounds evaluated justify the potential of T. toxicaria as a new natural larvicide.

  19. Controlling Mosquitoes at the Larval Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larvicides target larvae in the breeding habitat before they can mature into adult mosquitoes and disperse. Larvicide treatment of breeding habitats help reduce the adult mosquito population in nearby areas.

  20. Essential oils of leaves of Piper species display larvicidal activity against the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HT. SANTANA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the vector of the dengue virus, an endemic arbovirus from tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The increasing resistance of mosquitoes to commercial insecticides impairs regular control programs; therefore, chemical prospecting originating from the Amazonian flora is promising for potential new insecticides. Several Piper species are, notably, rich in phenylpropanoids and terpenoids, substances with proven insecticidal activity. The composition and the larvicidal activity of three Piper species against A. aegypti were evaluated. Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. The major components found in Piper arboreum were germacrene D (31.83% and bicyclogermacrene (21.40%; in Piper marginatum: (E-methyl isoeugenol (27.08%, (E-anethole (23.98% and (Z-methyl isoeugenol (12.01%; and in Piper aduncum: (E-isocroweacin (29.52% and apiole (28.62% and elemicin (7.82%. Essential oils from the Piperaceae species studied resulted in Lethal Concentrations (LC50 of 34-55 ppm, while LC90 was higher than 100 ppm, except for P. marginatum (85 ppm.

  1. Larvicidal and repellent activity of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) fruits against the filariasis vector Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Flamini, Guido; Fiore, Giulia; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Conti, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    The essential oils of many Apiaceae species have been already studied for their insecticidal and repellent properties against insect pests. In this research, the essential oil (EO) extracted from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) was evaluated for the first time for its larvicidal and repellent activities against the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of C. sativum EO was investigated by gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometry analysis. Coriander EO was mainly composed by monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes, with linalool (83.6 %) as the major constituent. C. sativum EO exerted toxic activity against A. albopictus larvae: LC(50) was 421 ppm, while LC(90) was 531.7 ppm. Repellence trials highlighted that C. sativum EO was a good repellent against A. albopictus, also at lower dosages: RD(50) was 0.0001565 μL/cm(2) of skin, while RD(90) was 0.002004 μL/cm(2). At the highest dosage (0.2 μL/cm(2) of skin), the protection time achieved with C. sativum essential oil was higher than 60 min. This study adds knowledge about the chemical composition of C. sativum EO as well as to the larvicidal and repellent activity exerted by this EO against A. albopictus. On this basis, we believe that our findings could be useful for the development of new and safer products against the Asian tiger mosquito.

  2. Larvicidal activities of hydro-ethanolic extracts of three Cameroonian medicinal plants against Aedes albopictus

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    Tankeu Nzufo Francine

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The present study shows that the hydro-ethanolic extracts of S. guineense, Monodora myristica and Z. heitzii tested have significant larvicidal activity. These preliminary results are of great interest and some of these plant species can be proposed for the formulation of new bioinsecticides to control Ae. albopictus populations.

  3. Photomediated Larvicidal Activity of Pheophorbide a against Cercaria Larvae of Fasciola gigantica

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    Divya Jyoti Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a parasitic disease caused by Fasciola gigantica. The freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata is the intermediate host of F. gigantica which cause endemic fasciolosis in the northern part of India. To investigate larvicidal activity of pure and laboratory extracted pheophorbide a (Pa against cercaria larvae of F. gigantica, data were analyzed in different spectra of visible light, sunlight, and laboratory conditions. Photostimulation of chlorophyll derivative pheophorbide a (Pa caused time and concentration dependent larvicidal activity against cercaria larvae of F. gigantica. Larvicidal activity of pure Pa under 650 nm and 400–650 nm (8 h LC50 0.006 mg/10 mL was more pronounced than extracted Pa under same irradiations (650 nm LC50 0.12 mg/10 mL, 400–650 nm LC50 0.14 mg/10 mL. Lowest toxicity of pure (8 h LC50 0.14 mg/10 mL and extracted Pa (8 h LC50 1.25 mg/10 mL was noted under 400 nm. Pa was found to be toxic in laboratory conditions also. The results presented in this paper indicate that pheophorbide a possess potential larvicidal activity against Fasciola gigantica larvae in different wavelengths of visible light, sunlight, and laboratory conditions.

  4. Photomediated Larvicidal Activity of Pheophorbide a against Cercaria Larvae of Fasciola gigantica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Divya Jyoti; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a parasitic disease caused by Fasciola gigantica. The freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata is the intermediate host of F. gigantica which cause endemic fasciolosis in the northern part of India. To investigate larvicidal activity of pure and laboratory extracted pheophorbide a (Pa) against cercaria larvae of F. gigantica, data were analyzed in different spectra of visible light, sunlight, and laboratory conditions. Photostimulation of chlorophyll derivative pheophorbide a (Pa) caused time and concentration dependent larvicidal activity against cercaria larvae of F. gigantica. Larvicidal activity of pure Pa under 650 nm and 400–650 nm (8 h LC50 0.006 mg/10 mL) was more pronounced than extracted Pa under same irradiations (650 nm LC50 0.12 mg/10 mL, 400–650 nm LC50 0.14 mg/10 mL). Lowest toxicity of pure (8 h LC50 0.14 mg/10 mL) and extracted Pa (8 h LC50 1.25 mg/10 mL) was noted under 400 nm. Pa was found to be toxic in laboratory conditions also. The results presented in this paper indicate that pheophorbide a possess potential larvicidal activity against Fasciola gigantica larvae in different wavelengths of visible light, sunlight, and laboratory conditions. PMID:28127494

  5. Synthesis and larvicidal and adult topical activity of some hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives against Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of novel hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their larvicidal and adult topical activity against Aedes aegypti. The proposed structures of all the synthesized compounds were confirmed using elemental analysis, UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectroscopy. Com...

  6. Fipronil as a larvicide against container-inhabiting mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the laboratory, Fipronil was tested against laboratory-reared and field-collected early 4th instar Aedes albopictus larvae. The insecticide was also bioassayed for activity against natural field populations of Ae. albopictus inhabiting one-liter capacity stone-made containers in a cemetery, St. A...

  7. Synthesis and Larvicidal Activity against Culex pipiens pallens of New Triazole Derivatives of Phrymarolin from Phryma leptostachya L.

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    Ji-Wen Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Twelve new triazole derivatives of Phrymarolin were prepared from Phrymarolin I and the structures of all the derivatives were fully characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS spectral data analyses. Larvicidal activities against 4rd instar larvae of Culex pipiens pallens of these Phrymarolin analogues were assayed. Although the triazole derivatives of Phrymarolin showed certain larvicidal activity, they showed lower activity than Phrymarolin I. The typical non-natural groups triazole substituents reduced the larvicidal activity of Phrymarolin derivatives.

  8. Essential oil composition, adult repellency and larvicidal activity of eight Cupressaceae species from Greece against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Pitarokili, Danae; Papaioannou, Fotini; Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Koliopoulos, George; Emmanouel, Nickolaos; Tzakou, Olga; Michaelakis, Antonios

    2013-03-01

    The present study evaluated leaf essential oils from eight Cupresaceae species; Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus benthamii, Cupressus macrocarpa, Cupressus sempervirens, Cupressus torulosa, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata for their larvicidal and repellent properties against Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of great ecological and medical importance. Based on the LC(50) values, C. benthamii essential oil was the most active (LC(50) = 37.5 mg/L) while the other tested Cupressaceae essential oils provided rather moderate toxicity against larvae (LC(50) = 47.9 to 70.6 mg/L). Under the used laboratory conditions, three of the essential oils (C. benthamii, C. lawsoniana, and C. macrocarpa) provided sufficient protection against mosquito adults, equivalent to the standard repellent "Deet" in the 0.2 mg/cm(2) dose, while C. macrocarpa assigned as the superior repellent oil in the 0.08 mg/cm(2) dose. Chemical analysis of the essential oils using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 125 components.

  9. Spectral and HRTEM analyses of Annona muricata leaf extract mediated silver nanoparticles and its Larvicidal efficacy against three mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Shanthi Bhupathi; Ragavendran, Chinnasamy; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes transmit various diseases which mainly affect the human beings and every year cause millions of deaths globally. Currently available chemical and synthetic mosquitocidal agents pose severe side effects, pollute the environment vigorously, and become resistance. There is an urgent need to identify and develop the cost effective, compatible and eco-friendly product for mosquito control. The present study was aimed to find out the larvicidal potential of aqueous crude extract and green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Annona muricata leaves were tested against fourth instar larvae of three important mosquitoes i.e. Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti using different concentrations of AgNPs (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm) and the aqueous leaf extract (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm) for 24 and 48 h. The maximum mortality was noticed in AgNPs than aqueous leaf extract of A. muricata against tested mosquitoes with least LC50 values of 37.70, 31.29, and 20.65 ppm (24h) and 546.7, 516.2, and 618.4 ppm (48 h), respectively. All tested concentrations of AgNps exhibited 100% mortality in A. aegypti larvae at 48 hour observation. In addition, the plant mediated AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size analyser, X-ray diffraction, high resonance transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis for confirmation of nanoparticle synthesis. Based on the findings of the study suggests that the use of A. muricata plant mediated AgNPs can act as an alternate insecticidal agents for controlling target mosquitoes.

  10. Larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activities of marine spongeCliona celata (Grant) extracts againstAnopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Appadurai Daniel Reegan; Arokia Valan Kinsalin; Michael Gabriel Paulraj; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent properties of solvent extracts of marine spongeCliona celata(C. celata)(Grant) against the malarial vectorAnopheles stephensi(An. stephensi)Liston.Methods:Marine spongeC. celata was thoroughly washed with distilled water and shade dried for48 h.Then the sponges were homogenized and extracted sequentially with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol.Larvicidal and ovicidal activities were tested at four different concentrationsviz.,62.5,125.0,250.0 and500.0 ppm.For repellent study extracts were taken in three different concentrationsviz.,5.0,2.5,1.0 mg/cm2 at.Results:Among the three solvent extracts ofC. celata, methanol extract showed the highest larvicidal activity at500 ppm against the fourth instar larvae ofAn. stephensi.TheLC50andLC90 values ofC. celata methanol extract were recorded as80.61 and220.81 ppm againstAn. stephensi larvae respectively.High ovicidal activity of91.2% was recorded at500 ppm concentration of methanol extract.The haxane extract was found to be the most effective protectant against the adult female mosquitoes ofAn. stephensi. The mean protection time recorded in hexane extract was up to245 min at5 mg/cm2 dosage againstAn. stephensi adults.Conclusions:The screening results suggest that the hexane and methanol extracts ofC. celata are promising in mosquito control.Considering these bioactivities,C. celata could be probed further to obtain some novel pesticidal molecules.

  11. Fipronil as a larvicide against the container-inhabiting mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rui-De; Pridgeon, Julia W; Becnel, James J; Ali, Arshad

    2009-06-01

    In the laboratory, fipronil was tested against laboratory-reared and field-collected early 4th-instars of Aedes albopictus. The insecticide was also bioassayed for activity against natural field populations of Ae. albopictus inhabiting 1-liter-capacity stone-made containers in a cemetery in St. Augustine, FL. The cemetery containers also were utilized to study initial efficacy and activity persistence of fipronil against natural populations of Ae. albopictus. The laboratory-reared larvae were 2-fold more susceptible than field-collected larvae as indicated by the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 2.6 and 6 parts per billion (ppb) for laboratory-reared and field-collected larvae, respectively. In the field bioassay, in stone-made containers, the LC50 value of Ae. albopictus larvae amounted to 57.5 ppb. In the cemetery containers, fipronil applied at 3.2 and 32 ppb gave 100% control of Ae. albopictus larvae with either rate of application for at least up to 8 wk posttreatment.

  12. Point-Source and Area-Wide Field Studies of Pyriproxyfen Autodissemination Against Urban Container-Inhabiting Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-05

    3702. WHO [World Health Organization], 2005. Guidelines for laboratory and field evaluation of mosquito larvicides. WHO communicable disease ...with diurnal and exophagic activity (Hawley, 1988) that reduces the outdoor activities of children (Worobey et al., 2013). Similar to Ae. aegypti

  13. Evaluation of target specific larvicidal activity of the leaf extract of Typhonium trilobatum against Culex quinquefasciatus Say

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koyel Mallick Haldar; Papiya Ghosh; Goutam Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the target specific larvicidal potential of an edible herb Typhonium trilobatum (T. trilobatum) (L.) Schott against mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) Say. Methods: Different concentrations of crude and methanol extract of T. trilobatum mature leaves were treated against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. LC50 concentration of crude extract on mosquito 3rd instar larvae was tested on Chironomus circumdatus and Diplonychus annulatum larvae. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was performed in search of plant’s secondary metabolites. Results:100%mortality of 1st instar mosquito larvae was recorded at 0.4%concentration after 72 h of exposure of crude extract. At 72 h 0.5%concentration produced 100%, 89.99%and 79.99%mortality of 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae respectively. 50 ppm methanol extract showed 73.67%mortality of 3rd instar mosquito larvae at 72 h. 400 ppm concentration was responsible for 100%mortality in 24 h. Application of LC50 concentration (of 3rd instar mosquito larva) against non target organisms like C. circumdatus and D. annulatum larvae produced no significant mortality among them. Secondary metabolites like terpenoids and free glycoside bound anthraquinones were found. Conclusions:This experimental study was a pioneer attempt to establish T. trilobatum as a valuable resource of effective target specific mosquito larvicide.

  14. Synthesis, Polymorphism, and Insecticidal Activity of Methyl 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-iodo-2-methyl-6-oxo-1,6-dihydro-4H-pyrimido[2,1-b]quinazoline-3-Carboxylate Against Anopheles arabiensis Mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopala, Katharigatta N; Nayak, Susanta K; Gleiser, Raquel M; Sanchez-Borzone, Mariela E; Garcia, Daniel A; Odhav, Bharti

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes are the major vectors of pathogens and parasites including those causing malaria, the most deadly vector-borne disease. The negative environmental effects of most synthetic compounds combined with widespread development of insecticide resistance encourage an interest in finding and developing alternative products against mosquitoes. In this study, pyrimido[2,1-b]quinazoline derivative DHPM3 has been synthesized by three-step chemical reaction and screened for larvicide, adulticide, and repellent properties against Anopheles arabiensis, one of the dominant vectors of malaria in Africa. The title compound emerged as potential larvicide agent for further research and development, because it exerted 100% mortality, while adulticide activity was considered moderate.

  15. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Elíca Amara Cecília; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flávia de Barros; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzebio

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (11.1460 μg·mL−1 and 25.8689 μg·mL−1, resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (29.018 μg·mL−1 and 17.230 μg·mL−1, resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277 μg·mL−1 and 706.990 μg·mL−1) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. PMID:24688787

  16. Functional characterizations of residues Arg-158 and Tyr-170 of the mosquito-larvicidal Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leetachewa, Somphob; Moonsom, Saengduen; Chaisri, Urai; Khomkhum, Narumol; Yoonim, Nonglak; Wang, Ping; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan

    2014-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins involves toxin stabilization, oligomerization, passage across the peritrophic membrane (PM), binding to midgut receptors and pore-formation. The residues Arg-158 and Tyr-170 have been shown to be crucial for the toxicity of Bt Cry4Ba. We characterized the biological function of these residues. In mosquito larvae, the mutants R158A/E/Q (R158) could hardly penetrate the PM due to a significantly reduced ability to alter PM permeability; the mutant Y170A, however, could pass through the PM, but degraded in the space between the PM and the midgut epithelium. Further characterization by oligomerization demonstrated that Arg-158 mutants failed to form correctly sized high-molecular weight oligomers. This is the first report that Arg-158 plays a role in the formation of Cry4Ba oligomers, which are essential for toxin passage across the PM. Tyr-170, meanwhile, is involved in toxin stabilization in the toxic mechanism of Cry4Ba in mosquito larvae. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(10): 546-551] PMID:24286331

  17. Antioxidant, larvicidal and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of cashew nut shell liquid constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Micheline Soares Costa; Morais, Selene Maia de; Magalhães, Davi Varela; Batista, Williams Pereira; Vieira, Icaro Gusmão Pinto; Craveiro, Afrânio Aragão; de Manezes, Jane Eire Silva Alencar; Carvalho, Ana Fontenelle Urano; de Lima, Glauber Pacelli Gomes

    2011-03-01

    Anacardic acid, cardanol and cardol, the main constituents of natural cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), were obtained by solvent extraction and assayed for antioxidant, larvicidal and antiacetylcholinesterase activity. Their relative percent composition was obtained by HPLC analysis. Antioxidant activity was assessed using the DPPH and ABTS(+) tests, which showed cardanol as the most active, followed by cardol and anacardic acid. The three CNSL components demonstrated good larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti (LC(50)=12.40 for anacardic acid, 10.22 for cardol and 14.45 for cardanol) and exhibited inhibition zones for acetylcholinesterase enzymes in the TLC test similar to carbachol, which was used as standard. Based on the results, these multipotent compounds represent promising agents in the control of Ae. aegypti, the main dengue vector in Brazil.

  18. Chemical composition and larvicidal evaluation of Mentha, Salvia, and Melissa essential oils against the West Nile virus mosquito Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliopoulos, George; Pitarokili, Danae; Kioulos, Elias; Michaelakis, Antonios; Tzakou, Olga

    2010-07-01

    The volatile metabolites of wild-growing Mentha spicata, M. longifolia, M. suaveolens, Melissa officinalis, Salvia fruticosa, S. pomifera subsp. calycina, and S. pomifera subsp. pomifera from Greece were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The insecticidal properties of the analyzed essential oils were screened on Culex pipiens larvae. Additionally two of the main components of the essential oils, piperitenone oxide and 1,8-cineole were assayed against C. pipiens in order to define the affiliation between them and the larvicidal properties of the oils. The most effective oils were M. suaveolens (major constituent piperitenone oxide, 62.4%), M. spicata (piperitenone oxide, 35.7% and 1,8-cineole, 14.5%) and M. longifolia--Central Greece (piperitenone oxide, 33.4%; 1,8-cineole, 24.5% and trans-piperitone epoxide, 17.4%), which exhibited LC(50) values ranging from 47.88 to 59.33 mg l(-1). Medium activity revealed the oils of M. officinalis (terpin-4-ol, 15.8%; caryophyllene oxide, 13.2%; sabinene, 12.9%; beta-pinene, 12.1%; and trans-caryophyllene, 10.2%), M. longifolia--Southern Greece (carvone, 54.7% and limonene 20.0%), S. pomifera subsp. pomifera (trans-caryophyllene, 22.5% and trans-thujone, 21.0%), S. pomifera subsp. calycina--West Southern Greece (trans-thujone, 56.1% and 1,8-cineole, 10.4%), and S. fruticosa--population 2 (camphor, 23.1%; alpha-pinene, 12.7%; and borneol, 12.6%), with LC(50) values ranging from 78.28 to 91.45 mg l(-1). S. pomifera subsp. calycina (Central Greece) essential oil (trans-thujone, 26.5% and cis-thujone, 12.0%) presented rather low activity (LC(50) values 140.42 mg l(-1)), while S. fruticosa--population 1 (1,8-cineole, 31.4% and camphor, 22.6%) was the only inactive oil. Additionally, the constituent piperitenone oxide was found to be highly active (LC(50) values 9.95 mg l(-1)), whereas 1,8-cineole revealed no toxicity.

  19. Larvicidal activity of extracts of Ginkgo biloba exocarp for three different strains of Culex pipiens pallens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lixin; Dong, Huiqin; Guo, Chongxia; Qian, Jin; Sun, Jing; Ma, Lei; Zhu, Changliang

    2006-03-01

    Ethanolic extracts from the Ginkgo biloba L. exocarp from the Chinese ginkgo were assayed against larvae of three strains of Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett. The chemical compositions were detected using a Hewlett-Packard 6890/5973 mass spectrometric detector. The larvicidal bioassay was carried out according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. The analysis of the essential oil of ginkgo exocarp showed that its major components are ginkgo acid (85.3%) and ginkgo phenolic (5.69%). The larvicidal bioassay showed that extracts of ginkgo exocarp have LC50 of 18.6, 12.7, and 25.0 mg/liter for deltamethrin-susceptible, deltamethrin-resistant, and field strains, respectively. The acute toxicity concentrations of the ginkgo extracts that killed 50% (LD50) of Wistar rats within 2 wk and young carp within 96 h were 4947.2 mg/kg and 557.9 mg/liter, respectively. These results are promising in creating new, effective, and affordable approaches to mosquito control.

  20. Larvicidal, pupicidal and insecticidal activities of Cosmos bipinnatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... University of Free State, Qwaqwa campus, Private Bag X 13, Phuthaditjhaba, 9866, ... mosquito adults within 12 h with LD99 = 0.25 g/air, while the leaves of C. .... Solvents % Yield Alk. Tan . Phl. Sap. Fla. Ste. Ter. Car. Cosmos bipinnatus.

  1. Larvicidal activities of hydro-ethanolic extracts of three Cameroonian medicinal plants against Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tankeu Nzufo Francine; Biapa Nya Prosper Cabral; Pieme Constant Anatole; Moukette Moukette Bruno; Nanfack Pauline; Ngogang Yonkeu Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the larvicidal activity of Syzygium guineense (Myrtaceae) (S. guineense), Monodora myristica and Zanthoxylum heitzii (Rutaceae) (Z. heitzii) ex-tracts against Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus). Methods: The larvicidal activity of the hydro-ethanolic extracts from these plant species was assessed at three different concentrations (50, 100 and 200 mg/L) on first-instar of Ae. albopictus larvae in comparison with untreated controls. Mortality rate was recorded daily for a period of 12 days. The values of LC50 and lethal time killing 50%of the tested individuals (LT50) were calculated using the log-probit analysis. Results: The root extract of S. guineense exhibited the best activity with 100%mortality after 8 days of treatment at 200 mg/L, followed by the fruit extract of Z. heitzii with 83.33%mortality at the same concentration. Nonetheless, larvae were most susceptible to the fruit extract of Z. heitzii both in terms of LC50 (39.89 mg/L) and LT50 (145.68 h). A statistically significant difference between the control and the group treated at 200 mg/L was noticed in all the extracts. Conclusions: The present study shows that the hydro-ethanolic extracts of S. guineense, Monodora myristica and Z. heitzii tested have significant larvicidal activity. These pre-liminary results are of great interest and some of these plant species can be proposed for the formulation of new bioinsecticides to control Ae. albopictus populations.

  2. Larvicidal activity of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii leaf fractions against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Younoussa Lame; Elias Nchiwan Nukenine; Danga Yinyang Simon Pierre; Charles Okechukwu Esimone

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of leaf fractions of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were exposed for 24 hours to various concentrations (312.5-2500 mg/L) of methanolic crude extract and its fractions obtained with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate and methanol solvents, following WHO method. The mortalities recorded were subjected to ANOVA test for mean co...

  3. Larvicidal activity of marine algae, Sargassum swartzii and Chondria dasyphylla, against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Khanavi , Pouyan Bagheri Toulabi , Mohammad Reza Abai , Nargess Sadati , Farzaneh Hadjiakhoondi , Abbas Hadjiakhoondi & Hassan Vatandoost

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate larvicidal activity of native marine algae against mainmalaria vector Anopheles stephensi.Study design: The total 70% methanol (MeOH extract and partition fractions of chloroform (CHCl3, ethylacetate(EtOAc, and MeOH from two algae, Sargassum swartzii and Chondria dasyphylla were investigated for larvicidalactivities against late III and early IV instar larvae of malaria vector An. stephensi.Results: Among all the fractions tested against larvae, EtOAc fraction of S. swartzii and C. dasyphylla, showedmortality rate of 96 and 95%, respectively. Probit analysis of logarithmic concentration from regression lineexhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 11.75 and 53.47 ppm respectively for S. swartzii and 10.62 and 56.39 ppmrespectively for C. dasyphylla.Conclusion: This is the first report of larvicidal activities of two native algae against An. stephensi. We proposethat the larvicidal activity of EtOAc fraction is related to the presence of semi-polar compounds. Further isolationand purification could lead to identify more potent compounds.

  4. Larvicidal activity of indigenous plant extracts on the rural malarial vector, Anopheles culicifacies Giles. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kovendan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vector control is one of the most important components in combating vector-borne diseases throughout the world. Application of insecticides is a widely known and popular vector control strategy. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts of Abutilon indicum, Hyptis suaveolens and Leucas aspera against third-stage larvae of Anopheles culicifiacies. The results clearly suggest that all three selected plant extracts exhibited moderate larvicidal activity after 24, 48 and 72 h at 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm; the lethal concentrations (LC at 50% and 90% of A. indicum, H. suaveolens against third instar larvae at 24, 48 and 72 h (hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and acetone were as follows: A. indicum, LC50=1031.65, 949.18, 833.58 and 673.68 ppm; LC90=2215.87, 2234.39, 2152.97 and 2455.10 ppm; H. suaveolens, LC50=423.00, 347.50, 236.58 and 217.24 ppm; LC90=1431.91, 1292.15, 1138.49 and 1049.27 ppm and L. aspera, LC50=559.77, 401.56, 299.71 and 263.01 ppm; LC90=1400.80, 1549.31, 1157.96 and 1108.72 ppm at 24 h, respectively. Overall, the highest larvicidal activity was observed with H. suaveolens extract followed by L. aspera and A. indicum at various concentrations at 48 and 72 h, respectively. The objective of this investigation was an attempt to search for a user- and eco-friendly vector control agent. The study proved that the selected plant leaf extracts could serve as potent larvicidal agents against A. culicifacies in vector control programs.

  5. Characterization and bioassay for larvicidal activity of Anacardium occidentale (cashew) shell waste fractions against dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosalinda C; Garbo, Alicia G; Walde, Rikkamae Zinca Marie L

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies regarding the harmful effects of synthetic larvicides initiated the need to investigate for unconventional measures that are environmentally safe and target-specific against Aedes aegypti larvae. Thus, the main objectives of the study are to evaluate the larvicidal toxicity of the solvent fractions of Anacardium occidentale shell wastes against the third and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti and to compare the results with the commercial larvicide product. The shell wastes were extracted with 95% EtOH followed by polarity-based fractionation. The fractions were tested for larvicidal activity according to the World Health Organization bioassay method. These were then characterized by quantitative thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) fingerprinting. The hexane fraction gave the strongest activity among the fractions with an LC50 of 4.01 mg/L and LC90 of 11.29 mg/L highly comparable to the commercial larvicide, which exhibited an LC50 of 1.71 mg/L and LC90 of 8.41 mg/L. The dichloromethane fraction exhibited 9.70 mg/L LC50 and 18.44 mg/L LC90. The remarkable toxicity effects exhibited by these fractions indicate their potential to provide core structures from which sustainable and environmentally safe plant-based larvicidal agents can be synthesized.

  6. Essential oils of indigenous in Greece six Juniperus taxa: chemical composition and larvicidal activity against the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourlioti-Arapi, F; Michaelakis, A; Evergetis, E; Koliopoulos, G; Haroutounian, S A

    2012-05-01

    The chemical composition of 14 essential oils (EOs), obtained from various parts (leaves, fruits, wood) of the six indigenous in Greece Juniperus family taxa, was determined by GC and GC/MS analysis. The insecticidal properties of these EOs were evaluated against Culex pipiens L. larvae of 3rd and early 4th instars, in order to delineate the relationship between the phytochemical content of the EOs and their larvicidal activities. The analytical data indicated that the EOs mainly consisted of monoterpenes, mostly cyclic and only occasionally aliphatic, and to a lesser percent, of diterpenes. The larvicidal bioassays against C. pipiens larvae revealed that the most active EO was derived from the wood of Juniperus drupacea and contains mainly non-oxygenated monoterpenes and a significant amount of diterpenes, displaying the highest chemodiversity. Its initial LC(50) value was 26.47 mg L(-1). On the contrary, the EO isolated from J. phoenicea berries, which consisted of monoterpenes (non-oxygenated, cyclic), was the less active displaying an LC(50) value of 96.69 mg L(-1). In respect to the contained phytochemicals, myrcene was assayed as the most toxic, displaying an LC(50) value of 33.83 mg L(-1), while the four isomers of pinene abundant in all EOs were less active exhibiting LC(50) values ranging from 70.40 to 94.88 mg L(-1). Results herein reveal that the EOs isolated from the studied Juniperus family taxa represent an inexpensive source of natural mosquito control mixtures.

  7. Larvicidal activity of Myrtaceae essential oils and their components against Aedes aegypti, acute toxicity on Daphnia magna, and aqueous residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Kim, Byung-Seok; Yang, Yu-Jung; Kim, Gil-Hah; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

    2011-03-01

    The larvicidal activity of 11 Myrtaceae essential oils and their constituents was evaluated against Aedes aegypti L. Of the 11, Melaleuca linariifolia Sm., Melaleuca dissitiflora F. Muell., Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S. T. Blake, and Eucalyptus globulus Labill oils at 0.1 mg/ml exhibited > or = 80% larval mortality. At this same concentration, the individual constituents tested, allyl isothiocyanate, alpha-terpinene, p-cymene, (+)-limonene, (-)-limonene, gamma-terpinene, and (E)-nerolidol, resulted in > or = 95% mortality. We also tested the acute toxicity of these four active oils earlier mentioned and their constituents against Daphnia magna Straus. M. linariifolia and allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic to D. magna. Twodays after treatment, residues of M. dissitiflora, M. linariifolia, M. quinquenervia, and E. globulus oils in water were 55.4, 46.6, 32.4, and 14.8%, respectively. Less than 10% of allyl isothiocyanate, alpha-terpinene, p-cymene, (-)-limonene, (+)-limonene, and gamma-terpinene was detected in the water at 2 d after treatment. Our results indicated that oils and their constituents could easily volatilize in water within a few days after application, thus minimizing their effect on the aqueous ecosystem. Therefore, Myrtaceae essential oils and their constituents could be developed as control agents against mosquito larvae.

  8. Larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Plumeria rubra plant latex against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Satish V; Borase, Hemant P; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Salunkhe, Rahul B

    2012-05-01

    In the present study activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Plumeria rubra plant latex against second and fourth larval instar of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi was determined. Range of concentrations of synthesized AgNps (10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, 0.3125 ppm) and aqueous crude latex (1,000, 500, 250, 125, 62.50, 31.25 ppm) were tested against larvae of A. aegypti and A. Stephensi. The synthesized AgNps from P. rubra latex were highly toxic than crude latex extract in both mosquito species. The LC(50) values for second and fourth larval instars after 24 h of crude latex exposure were 1.49, 1.82 ppm against A. aegypti and 1.10, 1.74 ppm against A. stephensi respectively. These figures were 181.67, 287.49 ppm against A. aegypti and 143.69, 170.58 ppm against A. stephensi respectively for crude latex extract. The mortality rates were positively correlated with the concentration of AgNPs. The characterization studies of synthesized AgNPs by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Particle size analysis (PSA) and zeta potential confirmed the spherical shape and size (32-200 nm) of silver nanoparticles along with stability. Toxicity studies carried out against non-target fish species Poecilia reticulata, the most common organism in the habitats of A. aegypti and A. stephensi showed no toxicity at LC(50) and LC(90) doses of the AgNPs. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of latex synthesized nanoparticles.

  9. Larvicidal, Ovicidal, and Repellent Activities of Marine Sponge Cliona celata (Grant) Extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Kinsalin, Arokia Valan; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu,Savarimuthu

    2013-01-01

    Solvent extracts of marine sponge Cliona celata (Grant) were screened for larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent properties against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say and dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. Larvicidal and ovicidal activities of hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts were tested in four different concentrations ranging as 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 ppm. Among the three solvent extracts of C. celata, methanol extract showed the highest larvicidal activity at 500 ppm agai...

  10. Nontarget Effects of the Mosquito Larvicides, Temephos and Methoprene, at Bombay Hook and Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is currently evaluating the environmental hazards associated with mosquito management on National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs). The...

  11. Some environmental and biological factors influencing the activity of entomopathogenic Bacillus on mosquito larvae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. G. B Consoli

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environmental and biological factors on the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis and B. sphaericus as mosquito larvicides are reviewed. The importance of strain dependence, cultivating media/methods, mosquito species/specificity, formulations and their relation to mosquito feeding habits, as well as temperature, solar exposure, larval density and concomitant presence of other aquatic organisms are addressed with reference to the present status of knowledge in Brazil.

  12. Efficacy of neem chippings for mosquito larval control under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Imbahale, Susan S; Mukabana, Wolfgang R

    2015-01-01

    Background An in depth understanding of mosquito breeding biology and factors regulating population sizes is fundamental for vector population control. This paper presents results from a survey of mosquito breeding habitats and the efficacy of neem chippings as a potential larvicide that can be integrated in mosquito control on Nyabondo Plateau in western Kenya. Results Six main mosquito habitat types namely artificial ponds, abandoned fish ponds, active fish ponds, open drains, temporary poo...

  13. Larvicidal activity of some Euphorbiaceae plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Venkatesan, P; Geetha, Kannappan

    2008-04-01

    Larvicidal activity of ethyl acetate, butanol, and petroleum ether extracts of five species of Euphorbiaceae plants, Jatropha curcas, Pedilanthus tithymaloides, Phyllanthus amarus, Euphorbia hirta, and Euphorbia tirucalli, were tested against the early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed low larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract. The LC50 value of petroleum ether extracts of J. curcas, P. tithymaloides, P. amarus, E. hirta, and E. tirucalli were 8.79, 55.26, 90.92, 272.36, and 4.25 ppm, respectively, against A. aegypti and 11.34, 76.61, 113.40, 424.94, and 5.52 ppm, respectively, against C quinquefasciatus. Of the various ratios tested, the petroleum ether extracts of J. curcas and E. tirucalli were observed to be more efficient than the other plant extracts. It is, therefore, suggested that E. tirucalli can be applied as an ideal potential larvicide against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the dengue vector, A. aegypti, and the lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus.

  14. Acaricidal, pediculicidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using Momordica charantia leaf extract against blood feeding parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, P Rajiv; Jayaseelan, C; Mary, R Regina; Mathivanan, D; Suseem, S R

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acaricidal, pediculicidal and larvicidal effect of synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using Momordica charantia leaf extract against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, adult of Pediculus humanus capitis, and the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus. The ZnO NPs were characterized by using UV, XRD, FTIR and SEM-EDX. The SEM image confirms that the synthesized nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size of 21.32 nm. The results of GC-MS analysis indicates the presence of the major compound of Nonacosane (C29H60) in the M. charantia leaf extract. Cattle tick, head lice and mosquito larvae were exposed to a varying concentrations of the synthesized ZnO NPs and M. charantia leaf extract for 24 h. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized ZnO NPs showed higher toxicity against R. microplus, P. humanus capitis, An. stephensi, and Cx. Quinquefasciatus with the LC50 values of 6.87, 14.38, 5.42, and 4.87 mg/L, respectively. The findings revealed that synthesized ZnO NPs possess excellent anti-parasitic activity. These results suggest that the green synthesized ZnO NPs has the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of R. microplus, P. humanus capitis and the mosquito larvae of An. Stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of larvicidal activity and ecotoxicity of linalool, methyl cinnamate and methyl cinnamate/linalool in combination against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Gislene M; Annies, Vinícius; de Oliveira, Camila F; Lara, Ricardo A; Gabriel, Maria M; Betim, Fernando C M; Nadal, Jéssica M; Farago, Paulo V; Dias, Josiane F G; Miguel, Obdulio G; Miguel, Marilis D; Marques, Francisco A; Zanin, Sandra M W

    2017-05-01

    The frequent use of synthetic pesticides to control Aedes aegypti population can lead to environmental and/or human contamination and the emergence of resistant insects. Linalool and methyl cinnamate are presented as an alternative to the synthetic pesticides, since they can exhibit larvicidal, repellent and/or insecticidal activity and are considered safe for use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of methyl cinnamate, linalool and methyl cinnamate/linalool in combination (MC-L) (1:4 ratio, respectively) against Aedes aegypti. The in vitro preliminary toxicity through brine shrimp lethality assay and hemolytic activity, and the phytotoxic potential were also investigated to assess the safety of their use as larvicide. Methyl cinnamate showed significant larvicidal activity when compared to linalool (LC50 values of 35.4µg/mL and 275.2µg/mL, respectively) and to MC-L (LC50 138.0µg/mL). Larvae morphological changes subjected to the specified treatments were observed, as the flooding of tracheal system and midgut damage, hindering the larval development and survival. Preliminary in vitro toxicity through brine shrimp showed the high bioactivity of the substances (methyl cinnamate LC50 35.5µg/mL; linalool LC50 96.1µg/mL) and the mixture (MC-L LC50 57.7µg/mL). The results showed that, despite the higher larvicidal activity of methyl cinnamate, the use of MC-L as a larvicide seems to be more appropriate due to its significant larvicidal activity and low toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The enzyme 3-hydroxykynurenine transaminase as potential target for 1,2,4-oxadiazoles with larvicide activity against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Vanessa S; Pimenteira, Cecília; da Silva-Alves, Diana C B; Leal, Laylla L L; Neves-Filho, Ricardo A W; Navarro, Daniela M A F; Santos, Geanne K N; Dutra, Kamilla A; dos Anjos, Janaína V; Soares, Thereza A

    2013-11-15

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the vector agent responsible for the transmission of yellow fever and dengue fever viruses to over 80 million people in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Exhaustive efforts have lead to a vaccine candidate with only 30% effectiveness against the dengue virus and failure to protect patients against the serotype 2. Hence, vector control remains the most viable route to dengue fever control programs. We have synthesized a class of 1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives whose most biologically active compounds exhibit potent activity against Aedes aegypti larvae (ca. of 15 ppm) and low toxicity in mammals. Exposure to these larvicides results in larvae pigmentation in a manner correlated with the LC50 measurements. Structural comparisons of the 1,2,4-oxadiazole nucleus against known inhibitors of insect enzymes allowed the identification of 3-hydroxykynurenine transaminase as a potential target for these synthetic larvicides. Molecular docking calculations indicate that 1,2,4-oxadiazole compounds can bind to 3-hydroxykynurenine transaminase with similar conformation and binding energies as its crystallographic inhibitor 4-(2-aminophenyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid.

  17. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts and lignan identified in Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica roots against housefly (Musca domestica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-05-01

    Medicinal plant extracts from 27 plant species in 20 families were tested for their larvicidal activity against housefly, Musca domestica (L.). Responses varied with plant material and concentration. Among plant species tested, Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica showed 100% larvicidal activity against M. domestica at 10 mg/g concentration. Larvicidal activities of Atractylodes japonica, Saussurea lappa, Asiasarum sieboldi, and Gleditsia japonica var. koraiensis were 89.3%, 85.3%, 93.3%, and 96.6% at 10 mg/g concentration, respectively. Extracts of Prunus persica, Curcuma longa, and Paeonia moutan produced moderate activity. Larvicidal activity of other plant extracts was less than 50%. Among test plant species, P. leptostachya var. asiatica showed the most potent larvicidal activity. The active constituent of P. leptostachya var. asiatica roots was identified as the leptostachyol acetate by spectroscopic analysis. The LC(50) values of leptostachyol acetate against M. domestica larvae were 0.039 mg/g. Naturally occurring medicinal plant extracts and P. leptostachya var. asiatica root-derived compounds merit further study as potential housefly larval control agents or lead compounds.

  18. In vitro larvicidal activity of geraniol and citronellal against Contracaecum sp (Nematoda: Anisakidae

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    L.A. Barros

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Human infection with fish parasites can result from the ingestion of incompletely cooked or raw fish, giving origin to parasitic diseases such as anisakiasis, caused by parasites of the Anisakidae family. The present study assessed the in vitro larvicidal effect of two monoterpene compounds, geraniol and citronellal, against Contracaecum sp (Nematoda: Anisakidae. Four hundred live larvae of Contracaecum sp obtained from "traíra" fish (Hoplias malabaricus, Bloch, 1974 were analyzed on 40 Petri dishes (10 larvae each with the compounds to be tested. The final concentrations tested for each compound were 250, 125, 62.5, and 31.2 µg/mL and the evaluation was carried out at five different times (2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 h. The larvicidal action of geraniol and citronellal was statistically superior (P < 0.005 to the control (1% ethanol at concentrations of 250 and 31.2 µg/mL (geraniol and 250, 125, and 62.5 μg/mL (citronellal. However, no larvicidal activity was observed at concentrations of 125 and 62.5 µg/mL for geraniol and 31.2 µg/mL for citronellal. When the larvicidal action of geraniol was compared to that of citronellal, the former was found to be statistically superior (P < 0.05 to the latter at concentrations of 250 and 31.2 μg/mL. On the other hand, citronellal was statistically superior (P < 0.005 to geraniol at concentrations of 125 and 62.5 μg/mL. The larval mortality rate in terms of time (hours was higher for geraniol with the passing of time at the 250 μg/mL concentration. At this concentration (in 48 h the best larvicidal effect was observed with 90% lethality. The larvae were considered to be dead using no motility and loss of structural integrity as parameters. The data indicate that natural terpene compounds should be more explored for antihelminthic activity and can be useful for other studies about anisakiasis treatment.

  19. Larvicidal activity of essential oil of Peumus boldus Molina and its ascaridole-enriched fraction against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Débora Silva Borges; da Silva, Denise Brentan; Tibúrcio, Jacqueline Domingues; Sobral, Marcos Eduardo Guerra; Ferraz, Vany; Taranto, Alex Gutterres; Serrão, José Eduardo; de Siqueira, João Máximo; Alves, Stênio Nunes

    2016-12-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), known as the domestic mosquito, is a common and abundant species throughout the world, and a cosmopolitan species. The adults of this mosquito are important in terms of public and animal health since they display adaptability to different hosts. In humans, they are responsible for the transmission of various diseases. One manner of control of this vector is the use of insecticidal or larvicidal products, which may have the drawback of toxicity to mammals and can be harmful to the environment. The present work evaluated the larvicidal potential of the essential oil (EO) and ascaridole-enriched fraction (EF4-5) obtained from the leaves of Peumus boldus Molina (boldo). The EO, obtained by steam distillation, was analyzed by GC/MS and fractionated on silica gel. EO and EF4-5, containing 31.4% and 89.5% ascaridole, respectively, were evaluated against C. quinquefasciatus at concentrations of 100, 50 and 25 μg/ml on the third and fourth instars. They showed lethal concentrations (LC50) of 82.14 and 41.85 μg/ml, respectively. Larvae treated with the EF4-5 showed morphological changes in the midgut, with cells possessing a cytoplasm that contained small vacuole-like structures, as well as a nucleus with decondensed chromatin and a cell apex with a short brush border. The cells of the fat body showed larger protein granules, which were acidophilic relative to the larvae of the control group. Moreover, the enriched fraction at a dose of 50 μg/ml showed a residual larvicidal effect according to exposure time on C. quinquefasciatus. This residual effect deserves consideration, since a long-term larvicidal product may be a useful tool for vector control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Larvicidal and repellent activity of medicinal plant extracts from Eastern Ghats of South India against malaria and filariasis vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Asokan Bagavan; Gandhi Elango; Abdul Abduz Zahir; Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal and repellent activities of ethyl acetate and methanol extracts ofAcacia concinna (A. concinna),Cassia siamea(C. siamea),Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum),Cuminum cyminum(C. cyminum),Lantana camara (L. camara),Nelumbo nucifera (N. nucifera)Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus),Piper nigrum (P. nigrum) andTrachyspermum ammi(T. ammi) againstAnopheles stephensi(An. stephensi) andCulex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus).Methods:The larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts were tested against early fourth-instar larvae of malaria and filariasis vectors. The mortality was observed 24 h and48 h after treatment, data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 andLC90) to kill50 and 90per cent of the treated larvae of the tested species. The repellent efficacy was determined against two mosquito species at five concentrations (31.25, 62.50, 125.00, 250.00, and 500.00 ppm) under the laboratory conditions.Results: All plant extracts showed moderate effects after24h and 48h of exposure; however, the highest activity was observed after24h in the leaf methanol extract ofN. nucifera, seed ethyl acetate and methanol extract ofP. nigrumagainst the larvae of An. stephensi(LC50 =34.76, 24.54 and30.20 ppm) and againstCx. quinquefasciatus (LC50= 37.49, 43.94 and57.39ppm), respectively. The toxic effect of leaf methanol extract ofC. siamea, seed methanol extract ofC. cyminum, leaf ethyl acetate extract ofN. nucifera, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract ofP. amarusand seed methanol extract ofT. ammiwere showed100% mortality againstAn. stephensi andCx. quinquefasciatus after48 h exposer. The maximum repellent activity was observed at500 ppm in methanol extracts ofN. nucifera, ethyl acetate and methanol extract ofP. nigrum and methanol extract ofT. ammi and the mean complete protection time ranged from30 to150 min with the different extracts tested. Conclusions:These results suggest that the leaf and seed

  1. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Machado, Fernanda Lacerda da Silva; Samuels, Richard Ian; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Moraes, Jorge Luiz da Cunha; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flávia Borges; Silva, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (−)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (−)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (−)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H2DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound. PMID:26821032

  2. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Machado, Fernanda Lacerda da Silva; Samuels, Richard Ian; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Moraes, Jorge Luiz da Cunha; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flávia Borges; Silva, José Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (-)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (-)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (-)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H₂DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound.

  3. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae, against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Salvador-Neto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (−-elatol and (+-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (−-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (−-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H2DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound.

  4. A search for mosquito larvicidal compounds by blocking the sterol carrying protein, AeSCP-2, through computational screening and docking strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Barani Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sterol is a very vital compound for most of the insects and mosquitoes to complete their life cycle. Unfortunately mosquitoes cannot synthesize the sterol, it depends on mammals for the same. Mosquitoes take the sterol from the plant decays during their larval stage in the form of phytosterol, which is then converted to cholesterol for further growth and reproduction. This conversion occurs with the help of the sterol carrier protein 2(SCP2. Methods: Mosquito populations are controlled by plant-based inhibitors, which inhibit sterol carrier protein (SCPI-Sterol carrier protein inhibitor activity. In this article, we explain the methods of inhibiting Aedes aegypti SCP2 by insilico methods including natural inhibitor selection and filtrations by virtual screening and interaction studies. Results: In this study protein-ligand interactions were carried out with various phytochemicals, as a result of virtual screening Alpha-mangostin and Panthenol were found to be good analogs, and were allowed to dock with the mosquito cholesterol carrier protein AeSCP-2. Conclusion: Computational selections of SCPIs are highly reliable and novel methods for discovering new and more effective compounds to control mosquitoes.

  5. Larvicidal efficacy of monoterpenes against the larvae of Anopheles gambiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eliningaya J.Kweka; Tamires Cardoso Lima; Chrian M.Marciale; Dami?o Pergentino de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of eight volatile components of essential oils against 3rd instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s.Methods:Larvicidal effects of each compound were evaluated in both laboratory and semi-field trials.Stock solution was prepared and serial dilutions were made in six concentrations for each compound.A total of 20 larvae were exposed to larvicides for each replicate and monitored at intervals of 12,24,48 and 72 h.Larvae monitoring was done on basis of dead and live larvae in all intervals.Results:All assayed compounds were larvicides and presented varying degrees of larval toxicity,with LC50 values ranging from 1.28 to 1 938.92 mg/L depending on the treatment time(12,24,48 or 72 h).(-)-Perillyl alcohol presented the strongest larvicidal activity towards Anopheles gambiae larvae,with LC50 values of 73.60,18.36,1.72 and1.28 mg/L after 12,24,48 and 72 h of exposure,respectively.The next strongest were(-)-isopulegol(LC50= 135.10,49.39,34.39 and 20.22 mg/L) and(-)-carvone epoxide(LC50= 168.86,124.74,80.84 and 23.46 mg/L).After 12,24 and 48 h of treatment,hydroxydihydrocarvone was the least toxic compound,with LC50 values of 1 938.92,1 172.18 and 401.03 mg/L,respectively.Conclusions:The data obtained in this study suggest that all evaluated monoterpenes,especially(-)-perillyl alcohol,have remarkable larvicidal effects and may be considered as potential sources for the development of suitable natural larvicides for mosquito management programs.Further small-scale field trials should be conducted.

  6. Effect of inorganic salts, soaps and detergents on dissolution and larvicidal activity of alginate formulation of Bacillus sphaericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, V; Balaraman, K

    1995-03-01

    Various inorganic salts and commonly used soaps and detergents were tested in the laboratory for their effect on the dissolution and larvicidal residual activity of a slow-release alginate encapsulated granular formation of Bacillus sphaericus. Fluoride, chloride and sulphate salts and a detergent powder affected the residual activity of this formulation drastically by rupturing it but did not effect its larvicidal activity. Nitrates and phosphates of sodium and potassium also had the same effect but to a moderate level. The safest concentration of these water impurities for effective functioning of the alginate encapsulated B. sphaericus formulation have been determined.

  7. Larvicidal activities of chinaberry, neem and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) to an insecticide resistant population of Anopheles arabiensis from Tolay, Southwest Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Assalif Demissew; Meshesha Balkew; Melaku Girma

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the larvicidal potency of neem, chinaberry and Bacillus thur-ingiensis israelensis (Bti) to larvae of Anopheles arabiensis under semi-field condition and adult susceptibility/resistance to the conventionally used insecticides in Tolay, Southwestern Ethiopia. Methods: Wild collected 3rd and 4th stage larvae were exposed to neem, and chinaberry seed powder dissolved in water and Bti in artificial containers at three treatment levels:0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/m2 and controls were free of treatments. Larval and pupal mortalities were monitored daily and residual activities were determined. The experiments were replicated three times. The World Health Organization tube test for all classes of in-secticides was conducted on adult Anopheles arabiensis reared from field collected larvae and pupae. Data were analyzed using STATA software version 11. Results: In the first application, neem powder caused 88.9%, 87.9%and 79.4%larval and pupal mortality at 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/m2 after 4.3, 6.0 and 5.7 days, respectively. The cor-responding killing effect of chinaberry was 80.3%, 62.1%and 30.3%after 7.0, 7.7 and 8.3 days respectively. Bti at all treatments killed 100%after 24 h except 2.7 days for 0.05 g/m2. Adult mosquitoes were susceptible only for fenitrothion and pirimiphos-methyl with 100%mortality while resistant to deltamethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, etofenprox and dichloro-diphenyl-tricgloroethane with only 9.0%, 3.0%, 5.1%and 2.0%mortalities respectively. Conclusions: Neem, chinaberry and Bti showed potent larvicidal and pupicidal activ-ities. However, in the area, high level of mosquito resistance to pyrethroids and dichloro-diphenyl-tricgloroethane was seen which will pose serious challenge to vector control in the future. Therefore, using integrated approach including these botanical larvicides is warranted to manage insecticide resistance.

  8. Evaluations of larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts to Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and other effects on a non target fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUWANNEE PROMSIRI; AMARA NAKSATHIT; MALEEYA KRUATRACHUE; USAVADEE THAVARA

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the effects of the extracts of 112 medicinal plant species, collected from the southern part of Thailand, on Aedes aegypti. Studies on larvicidal properties of plant extracts against the fourth instar larvae revealed that extracts of 14 species showed evidence of larvicidal activity. Eight out of the 14 plant species showed 100% mosquito larvae mortality. The LC50 values were less than 100μg/mL (4.1μg/ mL-89.4μg/mL). Six plant species were comparatively more effective against the fourth instar larvae at very low concentrations. These extracts demonstrated no or very low toxicity to guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata), which was selected to represent most common non-target organism found in habitats of Ae. aegypti, at concentrations active to mosquito larvae. Three medicinal plants with promising larvicidal activity, having LC50 and LC90 values being 4.1 and 16.4μg/mL for Mammea siamensis, 20.2 and 34.7μg/mL for Anethum graveolens and 67.4 and 110.3 μg/mL for Annona muricata, respectively, were used to study the impact of the extracts on the life cycle of Ae. aegypti. These plants affected pupal and adult mortality and also affected the reproductive potential of surviving adults by reducing the number of eggs laid and the percentage of egg hatchability. When each larval stage was treated with successive extracts at the LC50 value, the first instar larvae were found to be very susceptible to A. muricata and the second instar larvae were found to be susceptible to A. graveolens, while the third and fourth instar larvae were found to be susceptible to M. siamensis. These extracts delayed larval development and inhibited adult emergence and had no adverse effects on P.reticulata at LC50 and LC90 values, except for the M. siamensis extract at its LC50 value.

  9. Evaluation of antifungal, antimycobacterial and larvicide activity of the Duroia macrophylla and D. saccifera

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    Ana Júlia Reis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bachground and objective: The wide Amazonian biodiversity has been identified as a source of natural product candidates to various pharmacological activities, particularly in combating infectious diseases. Some species, such as the genus Duroia, belonging to the Rubiaceae family, has been characterized by the production of secondary metabolites with important biological properties, but there are few studies with species of this genus. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the antimycobacterial, antifungal and antiparasitic activity of D. macrophylla and D. saccifera extracts by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum larvicide concentration. Methods: Were collected plant materials of the D. macrophylla and D. saccifera in Forest Reserve A. Ducke in Manaus AM, from which were prepared dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous extracts and determined the minimum inhibitory concentration and larvicidal concentration. Results: With regard to D. saccifera¸ extracts the dichloromethane extract of the branches was the most active against the fungal species and mycobacterial strains evaluated. On the other hand, the methanol and dichloromethane extract of the D. macrophylla leaves, were most active against Candida sp. and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively, but none of the six evaluated extracts showed antiparasitic activity against Toxocara canis. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the antimicrobial properties of these Amazonian plants for the development of new therapies in the treatment of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and candidiasis.

  10. Larvicidal activities of chinaberry,neem and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis(Bti) to an insecticide resistant population of Anopheles arabiensis from Tolay,Southwest Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Assalif Demissew; Meshesha Balkew; Melaku Girma

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To elucidate the larvicidal potency of neem, chinaberry and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis(Bti) to larvae of Anopheles arabiensis under semi-field condition and adult susceptibility/resistance to the conventionally used insecticides in Tolay,Southwestern Ethiopia.Methods: Wild collected 3rd and 4th stage larvae were exposed to neem, and chinaberry seed powder dissolved in water and Bti in artificial containers at three treatment levels:0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/m~2 and controls were free of treatments. Larval and pupal mortalities were monitored daily and residual activities were determined. The experiments were replicated three times. The World Health Organization tube test for all classes of insecticides was conducted on adult Anopheles arabiensis reared from field collected larvae and pupae. Data were analyzed using STATA software version 11.Results: In the first application, neem powder caused 88.9%, 87.9% and 79.4% larval and pupal mortality at 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/m~2 after 4.3, 6.0 and 5.7 days, respectively. The corresponding killing effect of chinaberry was 80.3%, 62.1% and 30.3% after 7.0, 7.7 and 8.3days respectively. Bti at all treatments killed 100% after 24 h except 2.7 days for 0.05 g/m~2.Adult mosquitoes were susceptible only for fenitrothion and pirimiphos-methyl with 100%mortality while resistant to deltamethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, etofenprox and dichlorodiphenyl-tricgloroethane with only 9.0%, 3.0%, 5.1% and 2.0% mortalities respectively.Conclusions: Neem, chinaberry and Bti showed potent larvicidal and pupicidal activities. However, in the area, high level of mosquito resistance to pyrethroids and dichlorodiphenyl-tricgloroethane was seen which will pose serious challenge to vector control in the future. Therefore, using integrated approach including these botanical larvicides is warranted to manage insecticide resistance.

  11. High prevalence of bacterial spore-formers active against mosquito larvae in temporary monsoon flooded sites in Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Regalin; Raina, Vishakha; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Luethy, Peter

    2011-06-01

    Different ecosystems were probed in the vicinity of the city of Bhubaneswar in the Indian state of Orissa for the presence of bacterial spore-formers with activity against mosquito larvae. The most productive sites were places that were flooded during the monsoon season, including roadside ditches and shorelines of ponds. Among 630 isolates screened, 44 (7%) showed larvicidal activity against larvae of Aedes aegypti. The specific activity of the bacterial spore-formers varied greatly. Isolates were found with specific activities superior to the Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis reference strain of the Pasteur Institute. All mosquitocidal strains produced crystal proteins, and based on the biochemical analyses could be classified into the species B. thuringiensis. Such strains possess the potential for the development of new microbial products for mosquito control in India.

  12. Larvicidal Activity of Centaurea bruguierana ssp. belangerana Against Anopheles stephensi Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Rajabi, Afsaneh; Behzad, Masoud; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abaee, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the total 80% of MeOH extract and also petroleum ether, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and the remaining MeOH fractions obtained by solvent-solvent fractionation of the whole flowering samples of Centaurea bruguierana (DC.) Hand.-Mzt. ssp. belangerana (DC.) Bornm. (Asteraceae), namely "Baad-Avard", collected from Borazjan in Bushehr Province (Bushehr, Iran) were investigated for larvicidal activity against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, according to WHO methods. The mortality rate of total extract and petroleum ether fraction in concentration of 40 ppm were 28% and 86% respectively and the other fractions were inactive. The probit regression analysis for the dose-response to petroleum ether fraction treatment of larvae exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 15.7 ppm and 48.3 ppm, respectively. As results showed, the larvicidal activity of the petroleum ether fraction would be due to the nonpolar compounds in the plant which further isolation and purification would obtain the more active compounds in lower concentrations useful for preparation of biological insecticides.

  13. Larvicidal, ovicidal and pupicidal activities ofGliricidia sepium (Jacq.) (Leguminosae) against the malarial vector,Anopheles stephensiListon (Culicidae:Diptera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaliyamoorthy Krishnappa; Shanmugam Dhanasekaran; Kuppusamy Elumalai

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the potentiality of mosquitocidal activity ofGliricidia sepium(G. sepium) (Jacq.)(Leguminosae).Methods:Twenty five early third instar larvae ofAnopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) were exposed to various concentrations(50-250 ppm) and the24 hLC50 values of theG. sepium extract was determined by probit analysis.The ovicidal activity was determined againstAn. stephensi to various concentrations ranging from25-100 ppm under laboratory conditions.The eggs hatchability was assessed48 h post treatment.The pupicidal activity was determined againstAn. stephensi to various concentrations ranging from25-100 ppm.Mortality of each pupa was recorded after24 h of exposure to the extract.Results:Results pertaining to the experiment clearly revealed that ethanol extract showed significant larvicidal, ovicidal and pupicidal activity against theAn. stephensi.Larvicidal activityof ethanol extracts ofG. sepium showed maximum mortality in250 ppm concentration(96.0±2.4)%.Furthermore, theLC50 was found to be121.79 and theLC90value was recorded to be231.98 ppm.Ovicidal activity of ethanol extract was assessed by assessing the egg hatchability.Highest concentration of both solvent extracts exhibited100% ovicidal activity.Similarly, pupae exposed to different concentrations of ethanol extract were found dead with58.10% adult emergence when it was treated with25 ppm concentration.Similarly,18.36(n=30;61.20%);21.28(70.93) and27.33(91.10) pupal mortality was recorded from the experimental pupae treated with50,75 and100 ppm concentration of extracts. Three fractions have been tested for their larvicidal activity of which theFraction3 showed the LC50 andLC90 values of23.23 and40.39 ppm.With regard to the ovicidal effect fraction3 showed highest ovicidal activities than the other two fractions.Furthermore, there were no hatchability was recorded above50 ppm(100% egg mortality) in the experimental group.Statistically significant pupicidal activity was recorded from75 ppm

  14. Duration of activity of the microbial larvicide VectoLex CG (Bacillus sphaericus) in Illinois catch basins and waste tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, J P; Novak, R J

    1999-09-01

    The duration of activity of a formulation of Bacillus sphaericus, VectoLex CG, for control of Culex species was evaluated in 338 catch basins in Urbana, IL, and compared to Altosid in 346 catch basins in Champaign, IL. The activity of VectoLex in car and truck waste tires was evaluated in a tire dump located in Pembroke Township, IL. In catch basins, 1 g of VectoLex per catch basin gave the same control as one Altosid briquet. Both larvicides were effective against Culex sp. in catch basins for 1 month, and the duration of control with VectoLex lasted 44 days in one catch basin. VectoLex was considerably cheaper to apply than Altosid briquets, at 0.64 cents per catch basin compared to 90.75 cents, respectively. However, the Altosid briquets were judged to be easier to apply from a vehicle than VectoLex granules. VectoLex (22.6 kg) was used to treat approximately 6,000 car and truck tires; some of the tires were in direct sunlight whereas others were shaded. Aedes triseriatus was the dominant species in these tires. Tires treated with VectoLex contained significantly fewer mosquitoes than control tires, and even 65 days after application, control tires were 16.7 times more likely to contain larvae. We conclude that VectoLex was effective when used in Illinois catch basins and tire dumps, and emphasize that it is more appropriate to base tire treatment rates on the total number of tires present than on a kilogram per hectare basis.

  15. Chemical study and larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of essential oil of Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gisele L; Cardoso, Sheila K; Lara, Célio R; Vieira, Thallyta M; Guimarães, Elsie F; Figueiredo, Lourdes S; Martins, Ernane R; Moreira, Davyson L; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C

    2013-01-01

    Piper aduncum L. is used in folk medicine to treat respiratory and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the essential oil from leaves of P. aduncum collected in the Brazilian Cerrado, North of Minas Gerais, as well as to evaluate the larvicidal activity of this oil and of its major constituent. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry that allowed characterizing 23 compounds (monoterpenes: 90.4%; sesquiterpenes: 7.0%). The major component was 1,8-cineole (53.9%). This oil showed to be very different from those obtained from the same species. Larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations of the essential oil and 1,8-cineole. The mortality rate of 100% was obtained after 24 h of treatment with the oil at concentrations of 500 and 1,000 ppm. After 48 h of treatment, the mortality rate was 80% and 50% for concentrations of 250 and 100 ppm, respectively. The LC₅₀ obtained after 24h was estimated in 289.9 ppm and after 48 h was 134.1 ppm. The major compound 1,8-cineole showed no larvicidal activity.

  16. Chemical study and larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of essential oil of Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GISELE L. OLIVEIRA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Piper aduncum L. is used in folk medicine to treat respiratory and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the essential oil from leaves of P. aduncum collected in the Brazilian Cerrado, North of Minas Gerais, as well as to evaluate the larvicidal activity of this oil and of its major constituent. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry that allowed characterizing 23 compounds (monoterpenes: 90.4%; sesquiterpenes: 7.0%. The major component was 1,8-cineole (53.9%. This oil showed to be very different from those obtained from the same species. Larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations of the essential oil and 1,8-cineole. The mortality rate of 100% was obtained after 24h of treatment with the oil at concentrations of 500 and 1,000 ppm. After 48h of treatment, the mortality rate was 80% and 50% for concentrations of 250 and 100 ppm, respectively. The LC50 obtained after 24h was estimated in 289.9 ppm and after 48h was 134.1 ppm. The major compound 1,8-cineole showed no larvicidal activity.

  17. Chemical Composition, Larvicidal and Cytotoxic Activities of the Essential Oils from two Bauhinia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leôncio M. de Sousa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils obtained by hydrodistilation from leaves of Bauhinia pulchella Benth. and Bauhinia ungulata L. were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components of B. pulchella essential oil were identified as a -pinene (23.9%, caryophyllene oxide (22.4% and b -pinene (12.2%, while in the B. ungulata essential oil were caryophyllene oxide (23.0%, (E-caryophyllene (14.5% and a -copaene (7.2%. The essential oils were subsequently evaluated for their larvicidal and cytotoxic activities. Larval bioassay against Aedes aegypti of B. pulchella and B. ungulata essential oils showed LC 50 values of 105.9 ± 1.5 and 75.1 ± 2.8 m g/mL, respectively. The essential oils were evaluated against four human cancer cells lines: HL-60 (pro-myelocytic leukemia, MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma, NCI-H292 (lung carcinoma and HEP-2 ( cervical adenocarcinoma, showing IC 50 values in the range of 9.9 to 53.1 m g/mL. This is the first report on chemical composition of essential from leaves of B. pulchella and on larvicidal and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils.

  18. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti Larvae of Essential Oils from Four Guarea Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselaine Facanali

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of four Guarea species collected at Manaus (Amazonas, Brazil were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Except for one diterpene detected, the compounds identified in the essential oils were hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The major sesquiterpenes were α-santalene (26.26% and α-copaene (14.61% from G. convergens branches; caryophyllene epoxide (40.91% and humulene epoxide II (14.43% from G. humaitensis branches; cis-caryophyllene (33.37% and α-trans-bergamotene (11.88% from G. scabra leaves; caryophyllene epoxide (36.54% in leaves and spathulenol (14.34% in branches from G. silvatica. The diterpene kaurene (15.61% was found in G. silvatica leaves. Larvicidal activity assay of essential oils against third-instar Aedes aegypti larvae revealed that at higher concentrations (500 and 250 μg/mL, all the essential oils caused 100% mortality after 24 h of exposure. The most active essential oils were those of G. humaitensis branches (LC50 48.6 μg/mL, G. scabra leaves (LC50 98.6 μg/mL and G. silvatica (LC50 117.9 μg/mL. The differences in the toxicity of essential oils of Guarea species on A. aegypti are due to qualitative and quantitative variations of the components, therefore the larvicidal effect may be due to higher amount of the sesquiterpenes with caryophyllane skeleton.

  19. Susceptibility of the leaf-eating beetle, Galerucella calmariensis, a biological control agent for purple loosestrife (Lythrum salcaria), to three mosquito control larvicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, T.P.; Hershberger, T.D.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the susceptibility of Galerucella calmariensis, a species used to control purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), to three mosquito control larvicides. Larvae and adults were fed loosestrife cuttings dipped in Abate? (3.75 g?L-1) was reduced significantly and survival was significantly lower among larvae and adults eating cuttings dipped in Abate (>0.17 g?L-1 and >2.27 g?L-1, respectively). Hatching success of eggs dipped in Altosid (>2.52 g?L-1) was reduced significantly. With exposure to Altosid, larval survival to pupation and adult emergence was reduced significantly at concentrations of >2.92 g?L-1 and >0.63 g?L-1, respectively. Altosid (>0.23 g?L-1) also delayed the onset of pupation and adult emergence among larvae that survived to pupate. Larvae that survived with exposure to Altosid (>1.72 g?L-1) grew to 70% larger than those exposed to lower concentrations. Pupal survival was unaffected with exposure to Abate and Altosid and adult survival was unaffected with exposure to Altosid. Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis did not adversely affect any life stage of G. calmariensis. The mean Abate concentration on cuttings exposed to operational spraying was in the range that reduced egg hatchability and adult survival but was higher than concentrations that caused complete mortality of larvae. The mean Altosid concentration on cuttings exposed to operational spraying was in the range that reduced hatching success in eggs and delayed pupation and adult emergence of larvae.

  20. Aedes aegypti larvicide from the ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum black peppercorns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Viviene S; Alvero, Rita Grace; Villaseñor, Irene M

    2015-01-01

    Due to unavailability of a vaccine and a specific cure to dengue, the focus nowadays is to develop an effective vector control method against the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. This study aims to determine the larvicidal fractions from Piper nigrum ethanolic extracts (PnPcmE) and to elucidate the identity of the bioactive compounds that comprise these larvicidal fractions. Larvicidal assay was performed by subjecting 3rd to 4th A. aegypti instar larvae to PnPcmE of P. nigrum. The PnPcmE exhibited potential larvicidal activity having an LC50 of 7.1246 ± 0.1304 ppm (mean ± Std error). Normal phase vacuum liquid chromatography of the PnPcmE was employed which resulted in five fractions, two of which showed larvicidal activity. The most active of the PnPcmE fractions is PnPcmE-1A, with an LC50 and LC90 of 1.7101 ± 0.0491 ppm and 3.7078 ppm, respectively. Subsequent purification of PnPcmE-1A allowed the identification of the larvicidal compound as oleic acid.

  1. In vitro larvicidal potential against Anopheles stephensi and antioxidative enzyme activities of Ginkgo biloba, Stevia rebaudiana and Parthenium hysterophorous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisar Ahmad; Hina Fazal; Bilal H Abbasi; Mazhar Iqbal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in vitro larvicidal and antioxidant enzymes potential of the medicinal plants Ginkgo biloba (G. biloba), Stevia rebaudiana (S. rebaudiana) and Parthenium hysterophorous (P. hysterophorous) against Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) 4th instars larvae. Methods:For evaluation of larvicidal potential, the ethanolic, methanolic and dichloromethane leaves extracts of three different plants were used in dose-dependent experiments in two media, while the antioxidant enzymes activities were investigated using four different methods viz., superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, ascorbate and catalase. Results:An. stephensi has developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. The comparative performance of ethanolic extracts (65%-90%) was found better than the methanolic extract (70%-87%) and dichloromethane extract (60%-70%). Among the three plants extracts tested in two media, S. rebaudiana exhibited higher larvicidal activity with LC50 (24 h) in methanolic extract than P. hysterophorous and G. biloba. G. biloba and P. hysterophorous exhibited the strongest antioxidative enzymes activity and S. rebaudiana were less active and no significant difference was observed. Conclusions:These three plants exhibit larvicidal potential and can be further used for vector control alternative to synthetic insecticide due to eco-friendly and diseases control, furthermore these plant species have potent antioxidative enzyme activities, therefore, making them strong natural candidate particularly for diseases which are caused due to free radicals.

  2. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of a nanoemulsion of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas L. Duarte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanotechnology has emerged as a promising area for innovative products, including insecticides. Dengue is a tropical disease which is considered a critical health problem in developing countries, due to negative impacts to the environment caused by synthetic chemicals used for vector control (Aedes aegypti. Thus, developing of natural products based insecticidal are considered very promising. On this context, the aim of the present study was to obtain an O/W nanoemulsion containing Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lamiaceae, essential oil and evaluate its larvicidal activity against A. aegypti. Low energy method was employed, allowing achievement of small droplets. The nanoemulsion also presented low polydispersity and mean droplet below 200 nm, even after 30 days of storage. Potential mortality levels were observed after 24 h (80 ± 10% and 48 h (90 ± 10% in A. aegypti larvae at final concentration of 250 ppm, related to R. officinalis essential oil. This study contributes to nanobiotechnology of natural products, presenting a potential larvicidal nanoemulsion prepared with R. officinalis essential oil. Moreover, nanoemulsion production involved a non-heating procedure, describing easy technique which may be useful for integrative control programs.

  3. [Ovicidal and larvicidal activity in vitro of Eucalyptus globulus essential oils on Haemonchus contortus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Iara T F; Bevilaqua, Claudia M L; de Oliveira, Lorena M B; Camurça-Vasconcelos, Ana L F; Vieira, Luiz da S; Oliveira, Fabrício R; Queiroz-Junior, Eudson M; Portela, Bruno G; Barros, Renata S; Chagas, Ana C S

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate ovicidal and larvicidal effects of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil (EGEO) on Haemonchus contortus. The chemical composition determination of EGEO was through gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Egg hatch test (EHT) was performed in concentrations 21.75; 17.4; 8.7; 5.43 e 2.71 mg x mL(-1). In larval development test (LDT) were used the concentrations 43.5; 21.75; 10.87; 5.43 e 2.71 mg x mL(-1). Each trial was conducted by negative control with Tween 80 (3%) and positive control, 0.02 mg x mL(-1) of thiabendazole in EHT and 0.008 mg x mL(-1) of ivermectin in LDT. The maximum effectiveness of EGEO on eggs was 99.3% in concentration of 21.75 mg x mL(-1) and on larvae was 98.7% in concentration 43.5 mg x mL(-1). The concentration of EGEO that inhibits 50% of the eggs and larvae was 8.3 and 6.92 mg x mL(-1), respectively. The oil chemical analysis identified as main component the monoterpen 1,8-cineol. EGEO presented ovicidal and larvicidal activities in vitro, revealing a good potential for use in the control of sheep and goat gastrointestinal nematodes.

  4. Nematicidal and larvicidal activities of the essential oils from aerial parts of Pectis oligocephala and Pectis apodocephala Baker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rose Jane R. Albuquerque

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oils from aerial parts of Pectis apodocephala and Pectis oligocephala were analyzed by GC-MS. The essential oils of these species were predominantly constituted by monoterpenes. Geranial (42.9-44.5%, neral (32.2-34.2% and alpha-pinene (10.7-11.4% were the main constituents in the oil of P. apodocephala, while p-cymene (50.3-70.9% and thymol (24.4-44.7%, were the prevalent compounds in the oil of P. oligocephala. The essential oils were tested against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and Aedes aegypti larvae survival. The results obtained show that both essential oils exhibited significant activity and could be considered as potent natural namaticidal and larvicidal agents.A composição química dos óleos essenciais das partes aéreas de Pectis apodocephala e Pectis oligocephala foi analisada por CG-EM. Os óleos essenciais destas espécies foram predominantemente constituídos por monoterpenos. Geranial (42, 9-44, 5%, neral (32, 2-34, 2% e alfa-pineno (10, 7-11, 4% foram os constituintes majoritários no óleo de P. apodocephala, enquanto p-cimeno (50, 3-70, 9% e timol (24, 4-44, 7%, foram os compostos prevalentes no óleo de P. oligocephala. Ambos os óleos foram testados contra o nematóide Meloidogyne incognita e larvas do mosquito Aedes aegypti no terceiro estágio. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os óleos exibem significante atividade e podem, portanto, ser considerados como potenciais agentes nematicida e larvicida naturais.

  5. 大黄素衍生物的合成及灭蚊活性研究%Synthesis and mosquito activity against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes albopictus of Emodin derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎奕斌; 郑宇珊; 范继鸿; 梁倩倩; 宋高鹏

    2015-01-01

    To design and synthesize Emodin derivatives with mosquito larvicidal activity,Emodin as the lead compound was modi-fied with esterification or etherification to ameliorate the solubility and improve the mosquito larvicidal activity.Thirteen Emodin derivatives were prepared and their structures were identified by 1 HNMR and ESIMS.The mosquito larvicidal activity against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes albopictus was evaluated.The results indicate that the mosquito larvicidal activity decreases when anthraquinone Emodin is reduced to anthrone.Whereas,the etherification or esterification of all the hydroxyl groups in Emodin is helpful to improve the mosquito larvicidal activity.The introduction of Br group at C-6-Me of Emodin is able to enhance the mos-quito larvicidal activity,while the introduction of hydroxy or amino group can increase the activity.%为改善大黄素的生物利用度,提高其灭蚊效果,本文以大黄素为先导化合物,通过酯化或醚化等化学修饰设计合成了系列大黄素衍生物。以大黄素为起始原料合成了13个大黄素衍生物,其化学结构经1 HNMR、ESIMS 等确证,并测定了其对4龄白纹伊蚊幼虫的杀虫活性。构效关系研究表明:将蒽醌大黄素还原成蒽酮后灭蚊活性降低;大黄素被醚化或酯化后,灭蚊活性显著提高;大黄素的 C-6位甲基被溴代后,灭蚊活性下降,而引入羟基或氨基基团后灭蚊活性提高。

  6. Toxicities of Organophosphate and Carbamat Insecticide Against Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Endang Puji Astuti; Yuneu Yuliasih; Titin Delia; Marliah Santi

    2009-01-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito is increasing problem of public health, being the vector responsible for West Nile Virus and Filariasis. Chlorpirifos (Organofosfat) and Metonil (Carbamat) were known to posses insecticide activity against insect. The study was aimed to examine effectiveness of Klorpirifos and Metonil as larvicide against C. quinquefasciatus larval. Chlorpirifos a significantly higher larvicidal activity against 3th-4th instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus than Metonil. The lar...

  7. Laboratory study on the mosquito larvicidal properties of leaf and seed extract of the plant Agave americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmshaktu, N S; Prabhakaran, P K; Menon, P K

    1987-04-01

    Experiments on the leaf extract tested against three mosquito species led to 100% mortality of stage 4 Anopheles, Aedes and Culex larvae at a concentration of 0.08% within 24-48 h, whereas 100% mortality of stage 1 larvae occurred at lower concentrations: 0.0032% for Aedes aegypti, 0.016% for Culex quinquefasciatus and 0.08% for Anopheles stephensi, and was more rapid. At the end of 24 h, the highest dilution of the seed extract studied (1:200) produces a larval mortality of 100% for Anopheles and Aedes and 56% for Culex spp., when 4th instar larvae were exposed at room temperature. The comparative mortality in the control group was negligible. One hundred per cent mortality of Anopheles larvae took place by the end of 10 h, and of Aedes larvae by 17 h, at a dilution of 1:200 with water.

  8. Larvicidal and repellent activity of Vetiveria zizaniodes (Poaceae) essential oil against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essential oil extracted by steam distillation of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash (Poaceae) was evaluated for larvicidal and adult repellent activity against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston). Median lethal concentrations (LC50) at 24 h post treatment for instars 1-4 were, respectively,...

  9. Green Nanoparticles for Mosquito Control

    OpenAIRE

    Namita Soni; Soam Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl). Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquef...

  10. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of edible plant-derived essential oils against the pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant strains of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthanont, Nataya; Choochote, Wej; Tuetun, Benjawan; Junkum, Anuluck; Jitpakdi, Atchariya; Chaithong, Udom; Riyong, Doungrat; Pitasawat, Benjawan

    2010-06-01

    The chemical compositions and larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors of selected essential oils obtained from five edible plants were investigated in this study. Using a GC/MS, 24, 17, 20, 21, and 12 compounds were determined from essential oils of Citrus hystrix, Citrus reticulata, Zingiber zerumbet, Kaempferia galanga, and Syzygium aromaticum, respectively. The principal constituents found in peel oil of C. hystrix were beta-pinene (22.54%) and d-limonene (22.03%), followed by terpinene-4-ol (17.37%). Compounds in C. reticulata peel oil consisted mostly of d-limonene (62.39%) and gamma-terpinene (14.06%). The oils obtained from Z. zerumbet rhizome had alpha-humulene (31.93%) and zerumbone (31.67%) as major components. The most abundant compounds in K. galanga rhizome oil were 2-propeonic acid (35.54%), pentadecane (26.08%), and ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (25.96%). The main component of S. aromaticum bud oil was eugenol (77.37%), with minor amounts of trans-caryophyllene (13.66%). Assessment of larvicidal efficacy demonstrated that all essential oils were toxic against both pyrethroid-susceptible and resistant Ae. aegypti laboratory strains at LC50, LC95, and LC99 levels. In conclusion, we have documented the promising larvicidal potential of essential oils from edible herbs, which could be considered as a potentially alternative source for developing novel larvicides to be used in controlling vectors of mosquito-borne disease.

  11. Maintenance of residual activity of Bt toxin by using natural and synthetic dyes: a novel approach for sustainable mosquito vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekhar, Patil; Rahul, Suryawanshi; Hemant, Borase; Chandrakant, Narkhede; Bipinchandra, Salunke; Satish, Patil

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito control protein from Bacillus thuringiensis gets inactivated with exposure to sunlight. To address this issue, the potential of synthetic and natural dye was investigated as sunlight protectants. Bt SV2 in absence of dyes when exposed to sunlight showed reduced effectiveness against the fourth instars of mosquito larvae. Whereas acriflavin, congo red and violacein were able to maintain 86.4%, 91.6% and 82.2% mosquito larvicidal efficacy of Bt SV2 against IVth instars larvae of Anopheles stephensi Meigen after exposure to sunlight. Similarly, beetroot dye, acriflavin, congo red and violacein maintained 98.4%, 97.1%, 90.8% and 70.7% larvicidal activities against Aedes aegypti Linnaeus after sunlight exposure. Prodigiosin was found to be the best photo-protectant by simultaneously protecting and enhancing Bt activity by 6.16% and 22.16% against A. stephensi and A. aegypti, respectively. Combination of dyes with Bt formulations can be a good strategy for mosquito control programmes in tropical and sub-tropical regions.

  12. Larvicidal, antimicrobial and brine shrimp activities of extracts from Cissampelos mucronata and Tephrosia villosa from coast region, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasto Paul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The leaves and roots of Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich (Menispermaceae are widely used in the tropics and subtropics to manage various ailments such as gastro-intestinal complaints, menstrual problems, venereal diseases and malaria. In the Coast region, Tanzania, roots are used to treat wounds due to extraction of jigger. Leaves of Tephrosia villosa (L Pers (Leguminosae are reported to be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in India. In this study, extracts from the roots and aerial parts of C. mucronata and extracts from leaves, fruits, twigs and roots of T. villosa were evaluated for larvicidal activity, brine shrimps toxicity and antimicrobial activity. Methods Powdered materials from C. mucronata were extracted sequentially by dichloromethane followed by ethanol while materials from T.villosa were extracted by ethanol only. The extracts obtained were evaluated for larvicidal activity using Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae, cytotoxicity using brine shrimp larvae and antimicrobial activity using bacteria and fungi. Results Extracts from aerial parts of C. Mucronata exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus faecalis and antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. They exhibited very low toxicity to brine shrimps and had no larvicidal activity. The root extracts exhibited good larvicidal activity but weak antimicrobial activity. The root dichloromethane extracts from C. mucronata was found to be more toxic with an LC50 value of 59.608 μg/mL while ethanolic extracts from root were not toxic with LC50>100 μg/mL. Ethanol extracts from fruits and roots of T. villosa were found to be very toxic with LC50 values of 9.690 μg/mL and 4.511 μg/mL, respectively, while, ethanol extracts from leaves and twigs of T. villosa were found to be non toxic (LC50>100

  13. Larvicidal activity of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii leaf fractions against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younoussa Lame

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of leaf fractions of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were exposed for 24 hours to various concentrations (312.5-2500 mg/L of methanolic crude extract and its fractions obtained with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate and methanol solvents, following WHO method. The mortalities recorded were subjected to ANOVA test for mean comparison and Probit analysis to determine LC50. Preliminary phytochemical screening test for some components of the plants assessed were also evaluated. The phytochemical screening of the two plants revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, fats and oils in the crude extracts which, after splitting were most distributed in n-hexane and chloroform fractions. Apart from methanol fraction, all products used showed a significant (P<0.001 concentration-dependent toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae. The LC50 recorded with crude extract were 759.6 and 830.4 mg/L for A. senegalensis and B. dalzielli respectively. After fractionation, n-hexane and chloroform fractions of A. senegalensis revealed more effective activity than others with CL50 values of 379.3 and 595.2 mg/L respectively. As for B. dalzielli, n-hexane (LC50=537.1 mg/L and chloroform (LC50=585.5 mg/L fractions were also the most effective. These results suggest that the n-hexane and chloroform fractions of these plants as a promising larvicide against Ae. aegypti and can constitute the best basic and vital step in the development of a botanical insecticide source.

  14. Larvicidal activity of Dregea volubilis and Bombax malabaricum leaf extracts against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emdad Hossain; Anjali Rawani; Goutam Chandra; Subhash C Mandal; Jayanta Kumar Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the larvicidal activity of two plant leaf powder and leaf-extracts, Dregea volubilis and Bombax malabaricum against Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods: The larvicidal bioassay was done for powdered leaves of Dregea volubilis and Bombax malabaricum individually and their methanol extracts against first-, second-, third-and fourth-instar larval forms of Culex quinquefasciatus. Mortality rate was recorded after 24, 48 and 72 h of post-exposure. LC50 and LC90 values were calculated at different time intervals for third instar larvae. Results:All the graded concentration (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%) of powdered leaves showed significant (P<0.05) larval mortality. The mortality rate was higher in 50 ppm doses of methanolic extracts of both the plants against Culex quinquefaciatus. The corresponding LC50 values were 56.97 ppm and 48.85 ppm, respectively after 24 h of exposure. There is no mortality of non-target organism such as Chironomous circumdatus, Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Diplonichus annulatum within 72 h of post exposure to 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%crude powdered leaves and methanolic extracts of both the two individual plants under the laboratory condition. The results of preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis of both the plants revealed the presence of many bioactive principles such as steroids, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, saponins, etc. that may be responsible for their bio-control potentiality. Conclusions:The results have shown potential and eco-friendly use of both plant extracts against larva of Culex quinquefasciatus for the first time.

  15. Identification of chemical constituents of Zanthoxylum heitzii stem bark and their insecticidal activity against the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussavi, Nastaran; Malterud, Karl Egil; Mikolo, Bertin; Dawes, Dag; Chandre, Fabrice; Corbel, Vincent; Massamba, Daniel; Overgaard, Hans J; Wangensteen, Helle

    2015-10-01

    Zanthoxylum heitzii bark extracts have insecticidal properties and have been reported to be used against malaria in Western Africa. Previously, it has been shown that a hexane extract of the bark is toxic to adult females of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, a malaria vector. As part of our project on the control of malaria vectors using plant extracts, the phytochemistry of Z. heitzii bark hexane extract has been investigated with the aim to identify the major components with adulticidal and larvicidal effects on An. gambiae. Z. heitzii stem bark was extracted with hexane, and the extract was fractionated to isolate major components from the bark, identified by NMR spectroscopy. Isolated compounds were tested for toxicity towards adult female An. gambiae mosquitoes and for larvicidal effects towards An. gambiae. The alkaloid dihydronitidine, the sesquiterpenoid caryophyllene oxide, the amide pellitorine and the lignan sesamin were identified as the major constituents in Z. heitzii bark. Pellitorine was toxic to both adult insects (LD50 50 ng/mg insect) and larvae (LD50 13 μg/ml). None of the other compounds were toxic to adults, but caryophyllene oxide and sesamin exhibited moderate larvicidal effects (LD50 > 150 μg/ml). A mixture of the four compounds in the same ratio as in the hexane extract showed higher toxicity (LD50 34 ng/mg insect) towards adult insects than the pure compounds. The toxicity of Z. heitzii bark hexane extract to An. gambiae is mostly due to pellitorine, although interactions between pellitorine and other, inactive constituents may enhance the activity of the extract.

  16. Identification of the temperature- induced larvicidal efficacy of Agave angustifolia against Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithilesh eKajla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic insecticides are generally employed to control the mosquito population. However, their injudicious over usage and non-biodegradability are associated with many adverse effects on the environment and mosquitoes. The application of environment-friendly mosquitocidals might be an alternate to overcome these issues. In this study, we found that organic or aqueous extracts of Agave angustifolia leaves exhibited a strong larvicidal activity (LD50 28.27 µg/ml against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi larvae within a short exposure of 12h. The larvicidal activity of Agave angustifolia is inherited and independent of the plants vegetative growth. Interestingly, the plant larvicidal activity was observed exclusively during the summer season (April-August, when outside temperature is between 30oC to 50oC and it was significantly reduced during winter season (December-February, when the outside temperature falls to ~4oC or lower. Thus, we hypothesized that the larvicidal components of Agave angustifolia might be induced by the manipulation of environmental temperature and should be resistant to the hot conditions. We found that the larvicidal activity of Agave angustifolia was induced when plants were maintained at 37oC in a semi-natural environment against the controls that were growing outside in cold weather. Pre-incubation of Agave angustifolia extract at 100oC for 1h killed 60% larvae in 12h, which gradually increased to 100% mortality after 24h. In addition, the dry powder formulation of Agave angustifolia, also displayed a strong larvicidal activity after a long shelf life. Together, these findings revealed that Agave angustifolia is an excellent source of temperature induced bioactive metabolites that may assist the preparedness for vector control programs competently.

  17. MOLLUSCICIDAL AND LARVICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF Atriplex inflata AERIAL PARTS AGAINST THE MOLLUSK Galba truncatula, INTERMEDIATE HOST OF Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Néjia; Njeh, Fatma; Damak, Mohamed; Ayadi, Ali; Mezghani-Jarraya, Raoudha; Hammami, Hayet

    2015-12-01

    Fasciolosis is a widespread parasitosis of farm live-stock in many developing countries. For this reason, it is necessary to search for new substances against parasitic diseases caused by flukes. Indeed, a wide variety of terrestrial plants have been subjected to chemical and pharmacological screening in order to discover their potential for human medicinal use. The molluscicidal and larvicidal activities of Atriplex inflata were tested on Galba truncatula and Fasciola hepatica larval stages infecting this snail in Tunisia. Phytochemical tests were conducted on extracts in order to establish a meaningful relationship with molluscicidal and larvicidal activities. The molluscicidal activity was evaluated by subjecting snails to sample aqueous solutions. Accordingly, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and methanol-water (8:2, v-v) were used as extraction solvents. As a result, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts showed potent activity, according to the World Health Organization, giving LC50 = 7.59 mg/L and 6.69 mg/L for hexane extracts of leaves and fruits, respectively. Ethyl acetate extracts gave LC50 = 5.90 mg/L and 7.32 mg/L for leaves and fruits, successively. Molluscicidal activities of powders were less potent on snails, but active according to the World Health Organization. Hexane and ethyl acetate extracts from leaves and fruits gave potent larvicidal activities with a delay rate exceeding 45.50% (45.50- 98.92%). Phytochemical tests showed that these activities may be attributed to the presence of triterpenoids and/or sterols.

  18. Using Repellent Products to Protect against Mosquito-Borne Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Share Using Repellent Products to Protect against Mosquito-Borne Illnesses More Information CDC-Avoid Mosquito Bites ... safety precautions . Top of Page Finding EPA-Registered Mosquito Adulticides and Larvicides The National Pesticide Information Center's ...

  19. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  20. Polymer nanoparticles containing essential oils: new options for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdin González, Jorge Omar; Jesser, Emiliano Nicolás; Yeguerman, Cristhian Alan; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia; Fernández Band, Beatriz

    2017-07-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of important parasites and pathogens causing death, poverty and social disability worldwide. The overuse of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors lead to resistance, adverse environmental effects and high operational costs. Therefore, the development of eco-friendly control tools is an important public health challenge. In this study, two different essential oils (EO) (geranium, Geranium maculatum, and bergamot, Citrus bergamia) loaded polymeric nanoparticle (PN) were elaborated using polyethylene glycol (PEG) and chitosan (Qx) as the polymeric matrix/coating. In addition, the mosquito larvicidal acute and residual activity of the PN was evaluated on Culex pipiens pipiens. The physicochemical characterization of PN revealed that PEG-PN had sizes eco-friendly mosquito larvicidal products.

  1. Larvicidal activity of Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet and Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) King & H. Rob. plant extracts against arboviral and filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Lallianrawna; Lalrotluanga; Muthukumaran, Rajendra Bose; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami; Senthilkumar, Nachimuthu

    2014-06-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus Say, an arboviral and filarial vector, is one of the most widespread mosquitoes in the world, and insecticide-resistant populations have been reported worldwide. Due to the emergence of resistance in C. quinquefasciatus plant based products or plant extracts may be alternative sources in integrated vector management program. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal activities of crude solvent extracts prepared from flowers and leaves of Ipomoea cairica and Ageratina adenophora against third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus as target species. The plant extracts were prepared with petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol solvents using sequential extraction method to determine the best extractant for subsequent isolation and characterization of active ingredient. The total yield of plant extract in the Soxhlet extraction ranged between 0.79% and 19.35%. The qualitative phytochemical study of the plant extracts from different solvents showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, terpenes, saponins and tannins in different combinations. I. cairica and A. adenophora plant extracts were found to be effective against third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus causing 77-100% mortality at 48h. Highest mortality was observed at 500ppm and the order of larvicidal action was observed to be of methanol extract of I. cairica flower>petroleum ether extract of A. adenophora leaf>chloroform extract of I. cairica leaf. High mortality (100%) with low LC50 and LT50 were observed in methanolic flower extract (LC50 - 8.43ppm; LT50 - 2.51h at 48h) of I. cairica, and petroleum ether (LC50 - 133.56ppm; LT50 - 9.45h at 48h) leaf extract of A. adenophora. Lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) values gradually decreased with the exposure periods, lethal time (LT50 and LT90) decreased with the concentration in bioassay experiment with the crude plant extracts. There was a significant correlation (three-way factorial ANOVA) was noticed

  2. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, Antimicrobial, and Larvicidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    da Silva Ramos, Ryan; Rodrigues, Alex Bruno Lobato; Farias, Ana Luzia Ferreira; Simões, Ranggel Carvalho; Pinheiro, Mayara Tânia; Ferreira, Ricardo Marcelo dos Anjos; Costa Barbosa, Ledayane Mayana; Picanço Souto, Raimundo Nonato; Fernandes, João Batista; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva; de Almeida, Sheylla Susan Moreira da Silva

    2017-01-01

    .... The major compounds found in the essential oils of M. piperita were linalool (51.8%) and epoxyocimene (19.3%). The percentage of antioxidant activity was 79.9±1.6%. The essential oil showed LC50 = 414.6 μg/mL front of A. saline and is considered highly toxic. It shows sensitivity and halos significant inhibition against E. coli. The essential possessed partial larvicidal efficiency against A. aegypti.

  3. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of Melia azedarach extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, M V; Morais, S M; Bevilaqua, C M L; Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Costa, C T C; Castro, C M S

    2006-08-31

    Haemonchus contortus is responsible for severe economic losses in sheep and goat breeding in the Northeast of Brazil. However, the effectiveness of control is compromised due to anthelmintic resistance and misuse. In the search for natural anthelmintics, Melia azedarach L., a plant indigenous to India but now distributed throughout Brazil, was selected due to the reported anthelmintic properties of its seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the seed and leaf extracts of the Brazilian adapted plant and investigate the type of organic chemical compounds present in the most active extracts. The ovicidal and larvicidal activity of M. azedarach extracts on H. contortus was evaluated through egg hatching and larval development tests. Hexane and ethanol extracts of seeds and chloroform and ethanol extracts of leaves of M. azedarach were used in the tests. To perform the larval development test, feces of an animal free from parasites were mixed with third instar H. contortus larvae and extracts in several concentrations. The coprocultures were incubated for 7 days at 30 degrees C, then the larvae were recovered and counted. LC50 was calculated by probits using the SPSS 8.0 program. The seed ethanol extract was the most active on eggs (LC50=0.36mgmL(-1)) and the leaf ethanol extract showed the best inhibition of larval development (LC50=9.18mgmL(-1)). Phytochemical analysis of the most active extracts revealed the presence of condensed tannins, triterpenes and alkaloids.

  4. Biochemical and Functional Characterization of Parawixia bistriata Spider Venom with Potential Proteolytic and Larvicidal Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizeli S. Gimenez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxins purified from the venom of spiders have high potential to be studied pharmacologically and biochemically. These biomolecules may have biotechnological and therapeutic applications. This study aimed to evaluate the protein content of Parawixia bistriata venom and functionally characterize its proteins that have potential for biotechnological applications. The crude venom showed no phospholipase, hemorrhagic, or anti-Leishmania activities attesting to low genotoxicity and discrete antifungal activity for C. albicans. However the following activities were observed: anticoagulation, edema, myotoxicity and proteolysis on casein, azo-collagen, and fibrinogen. The chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles of the proteins revealed a predominance of acidic, neutral, and polar proteins, highlighting the presence of proteins with high molecular masses. Five fractions were collected using cation exchange chromatography, with the P4 fraction standing out as that of the highest purity. All fractions showed proteolytic activity. The crude venom and fractions P1, P2, and P3 showed larvicidal effects on A. aegypti. Fraction P4 showed the presence of a possible metalloprotease (60 kDa that has high proteolytic activity on azo-collagen and was inhibited by EDTA. The results presented in this study demonstrate the presence of proteins in the venom of P. bistriata with potential for biotechnological applications.

  5. Biochemical and functional characterization of Parawixia bistriata spider venom with potential proteolytic and larvicidal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Gizeli S; Coutinho-Neto, Antonio; Kayano, Anderson M; Simões-Silva, Rodrigo; Trindade, Frances; de Almeida e Silva, Alexandre; Marcussi, Silvana; da Silva, Saulo L; Fernandes, Carla F C; Zuliani, Juliana P; Calderon, Leonardo A; Soares, Andreimar M; Stábeli, Rodrigo G

    2014-01-01

    Toxins purified from the venom of spiders have high potential to be studied pharmacologically and biochemically. These biomolecules may have biotechnological and therapeutic applications. This study aimed to evaluate the protein content of Parawixia bistriata venom and functionally characterize its proteins that have potential for biotechnological applications. The crude venom showed no phospholipase, hemorrhagic, or anti-Leishmania activities attesting to low genotoxicity and discrete antifungal activity for C. albicans. However the following activities were observed: anticoagulation, edema, myotoxicity and proteolysis on casein, azo-collagen, and fibrinogen. The chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles of the proteins revealed a predominance of acidic, neutral, and polar proteins, highlighting the presence of proteins with high molecular masses. Five fractions were collected using cation exchange chromatography, with the P4 fraction standing out as that of the highest purity. All fractions showed proteolytic activity. The crude venom and fractions P1, P2, and P3 showed larvicidal effects on A. aegypti. Fraction P4 showed the presence of a possible metalloprotease (60 kDa) that has high proteolytic activity on azo-collagen and was inhibited by EDTA. The results presented in this study demonstrate the presence of proteins in the venom of P. bistriata with potential for biotechnological applications.

  6. Biochemical and Functional Characterization of Parawixia bistriata Spider Venom with Potential Proteolytic and Larvicidal Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Gizeli S.; Coutinho-Neto, Antonio; Kayano, Anderson M.; Simões-Silva, Rodrigo; Trindade, Frances; de Almeida e Silva, Alexandre; Marcussi, Silvana; da Silva, Saulo L.; Fernandes, Carla F. C.; Zuliani, Juliana P.; Calderon, Leonardo A.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Stábeli, Rodrigo G.

    2014-01-01

    Toxins purified from the venom of spiders have high potential to be studied pharmacologically and biochemically. These biomolecules may have biotechnological and therapeutic applications. This study aimed to evaluate the protein content of Parawixia bistriata venom and functionally characterize its proteins that have potential for biotechnological applications. The crude venom showed no phospholipase, hemorrhagic, or anti-Leishmania activities attesting to low genotoxicity and discrete antifungal activity for C. albicans. However the following activities were observed: anticoagulation, edema, myotoxicity and proteolysis on casein, azo-collagen, and fibrinogen. The chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles of the proteins revealed a predominance of acidic, neutral, and polar proteins, highlighting the presence of proteins with high molecular masses. Five fractions were collected using cation exchange chromatography, with the P4 fraction standing out as that of the highest purity. All fractions showed proteolytic activity. The crude venom and fractions P1, P2, and P3 showed larvicidal effects on A. aegypti. Fraction P4 showed the presence of a possible metalloprotease (60 kDa) that has high proteolytic activity on azo-collagen and was inhibited by EDTA. The results presented in this study demonstrate the presence of proteins in the venom of P. bistriata with potential for biotechnological applications. PMID:24895632

  7. Modelling the Active Hearing Process in Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Daniele; Homer, Martin; Jackson, Joe; Robert, Daniel; Champneys, Alan

    2011-11-01

    A simple microscopic mechanistic model is described of the active amplification within the Johnston's organ of the mosquito species Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. The model is based on the description of the antenna as a forced-damped oscillator coupled to a set of active threads (ensembles of scolopidia) that provide an impulsive force when they twitch. This twitching is in turn controlled by channels that are opened and closed if the antennal oscillation reaches a critical amplitude. The model matches both qualitatively and quantitatively with recent experiments. New results are presented using mathematical homogenization techniques to derive a mesoscopic model as a simple oscillator with nonlinear force and damping characteristics. It is shown how the results from this new model closely resemble those from the microscopic model as the number of threads approach physiologically correct values.

  8. Controlling Mosquitoes Outside

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-09

    Mosquitoes can carry viruses, like West Nile, Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. In this podcast, Mr. Hubbard will teach you and his neighbor, Laura, ways to help reduce the number of mosquitoes outside your home. Tips include eliminating areas of standing water where mosquitoes lay eggs and using larvicides to kill young mosquitoes.  Created: 8/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/9/2016.

  9. Tridentate Schiff base (ONO) transition metal complexes: Synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic and larvicidal studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUNDARAMURTHY SANTHA LAKSHMI; KANNAPPAN GEETHA; P MAHADEVI

    2016-07-01

    A series of four new Schiff base transition metal complexes [Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)] derived from N-(salicylidene)-L-alanine and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylene-1,2-diamine (tmen) were designed, synthesized and tested for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus, the southern house mosquito, which is the primary vector of St. Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus. All the complexes were characterized by physicochemical and spectral studies such as UV-Visible, FTIR, and EPR. The X-ray crystallographic analysis of Ni(II) complex revealed that, Ni(II) cation is surrounded by nitrogen and oxygen atoms from the Schiff base ligand, the oxygen atom of a water molecule, and two nitrogen atoms from tmen. Intermolecularhydrogen bonding stabilizes the Ni(II) complex. Results indicated that all the complexes exhibited higher mosquito larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus.

  10. Synthesis, Larvicidal Activities and Antifungal Activities of Novel Chlorantraniliprole Derivatives and Their Target in the Ryanodine Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qichao Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify novel chlorantraniliprole derivatives as potential insecticides or fungicides, 25 analogues of chlorantraniliprole were synthesized. The insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm and the antifungal activities against five typical fungi of these derivatives were tested. Compounds 2u, 2x and 2y exhibited good activities against oriental armyworm, especially compounds 2u and 2x which showed higher larvicidal activities than indoxacarb. Moreover, all of the tested compounds exhibited activities against five typical fungi. The Ki values of all synthesized compounds were calculated using AutoDock4. The relationship between the Ki values and the results of insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm further indicated that the membrane-spanning domain protein of the ryanodine receptor might contain chlorantraniliprole binding sites.

  11. Sarniensine, a mesembrine-type alkaloid isolated from Nerine sarniensis, an indigenous South African Amaryllidaceae, with larvicidal and adulticidal activities against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Marco; van der Westhuyzen, Alet E; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Evidente, Marco; Cimmino, Alessio; Green, Ivan R; Bernier, Ulrich R; Becnel, James J; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R; van Otterlo, Willem A L; Evidente, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    A new mesembrine-type alkaloid, named sarniensine, was isolated together with tazettine, lycorine, the main alkaloid, and 3-epimacronine from Nerine sarniensis, with the last two produced for the first time by this plant. This Amaryllidaceae, which is indigenous of South Africa, was investigated for its alkaloid content, because the organic extract of its bulbs showed strong larvicidal activity with an LC50 value of 0.008μgμL(-1) against first instar Aedes aegypti larvae and with an LD50 value 4.6μg/mosquito against adult female Ae. aegypti, which is the major vector for dengue, yellow fever and the Zika virus. The extract did not show repellency at MED value of 0.375mgcm(2) against adult Ae. aegypti. Sarniensine was characterized using spectroscopic and chiroptical methods as (3aR,4Z,6S,7aS)-6-methoxy-3a-(2'-methoxymethyl-benzo [1,3]dioxol-1'-yl)-1-methyl-2,3,3a,6,7,7a-hexahydro-1H-indole. It was less effective against larva at the lowest concentration of 0.1μgμL(-1), however it showed strong adulticidal activity with an LD50 value of 1.38±0.056μgmosquito(-1).

  12. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of crude extracts of Melia azedarach against Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Mohamed, Mohamed Jamal; Elango, Gandhi; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath

    2010-04-01

    The rapid development of anthelmintic resistance, associated with the high cost of the available anthelmintic drugs, has limited the success of gastrointestinal nematodiosis control in sheep and goats and thus created interest in studying medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The aim of this study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the leaves and seed aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) were tested for in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida). Both extracts were evaluated at five concentrations: 12.5, 6.2, 3.12, 1.56, and 0.78 mg/ml. The leaves aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts inhibited 99.4% and 100% of the egg hatching and 100% of larval development at 12.5 mg/ml, respectively. In a similar way, the leaves hydro-alcoholic extract was the most active on egg inhibition (ED (50) = 1.97 and ED ( 90 ) = 5.05 mg/ml), leaves and seed aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts showed the best inhibition of larval development (ED ( 50 ) = 3.01, 2.43, 3.17, 2.40, and ED ( 90 ) = 10.53, 8.14, 11.94, and 8.19 mg/ml), respectively. These results suggest that utilization of M. azedarach extracts is useful in the control of H. contortus.

  13. Larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oils from Piper klotzschianum (Kunth) C. DC. (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Jeferson C; David, Jorge M; Barbosa, Luiz C A; de Paula, Vanderlucia F; Demuner, Antonio J; David, Juceni P; Conserva, Lucia M; Ferreira, Jésu C; Guimarães, Elsie F

    2013-11-01

    Volatile oils from fresh roots, stems, leaves and seeds of Piper klotzschianum (Piperaceae) were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. In total, 25 components, representing more than 95% of the examined oils, were identified. The essential oils were evaluated against Artemia salina Leach nauplii and fourth-instar Aedes aegypti larvae. The major chemical constituents that were identified from various parts of this plant were 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene and 2,4,5-trimethoxy-1-propenylbenzene in the root, 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene in the stems and leaves and 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene, limonene and α-phellandrene in the seeds. The biological activities of these essential oils generally exhibited high toxicity against A. salina, with LC50 values that ranged from 7.06 to 15.43 µg mL(-1), and significant larvicidal activity against fourth-instar A. aegypti larvae was observed in the essential oils from the seeds (LC50 of 13.27 µg mL(-1)) and roots (LC50 of 10.0 µg mL(-1)) of the plant. The present study indicates that both essential oil of P. klotzsdhianum and the isolate 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene are potential resources for A. aegypti larva control. This is the first report of the biological activities of the oil and isolated compound. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Chemical Compositions of the Peel Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium and its Natural Larvicidal Activity against the Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae in Comparison with Citrus paradisi

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    Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, essential oils and extracts derived from plants have received much interest as potential bioactive agents against mosquito vectors.Methods: The essential oils extract from fresh peel of ripe fruit of Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi were tested against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae under laboratory condition. Then chemical com­position of the essential oil of C. aurantium was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS.Results: The essential oils obtained from C. aurantium, and C. paradisi showed good larviciding effect against An. stephensi with LC50 values 31.20 ppm and 35.71 ppm respectively. Clear dose response relationships were established with the highest dose of 80 ppm plant extract evoking almost 100% mortality. Twenty-one (98.62% constituents in the leaf oil were identified. The main constituent of the leaf oil was Dl-limonene (94.81.Conclusion: The results obtained from this study suggest that the limonene of peel essential oil of C. aurantium is promising as larvicide against An. stephensi larvae and could be useful in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds.

  15. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils from the Leaves and Fruits of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Anne Carolina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the larvicidal activity of essential oil (EO extracted from nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt leaves and fruits by steam distillation, and to analyze its chemical compounds. The EO yield of nutmeg leaves and fruits collected from the same tree was 0.66% and 0.30%, respectively. Larvicidal tests with the EO were carried out against Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae. The concentrations of nutmeg EO used for the larvicidal assay were 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 μg/mL. The results showed that fruit oil was more toxic than the leaf oil. LC50 values of leaf and fruit EOs were 133.8 and 110.1 µg/mL, respectively. The chromatogram of GC-MS showed that the chemical components in nutmeg leaf and fruit EOs were dominated by α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, delta-3-carene, limonene, β-phellandrene, α-terpinolene, linalool, safrole, croweacin, and myristicin.

  16. Synthesis of eco-friendly silver nanoparticles from Morinda tinctoria leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Ramesh; Nattuthurai, N; Gopinath, Ponraj; Mariappan, Tirupathi

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes are the major vector for the transmission of malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, filariasis, chikungunya and Japanese encephalitis, and they accounted for global mortality and morbidity with increased resistance to common insecticides. The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal potential of the acetone leaf extracts of Morinda tinctoria and synthesized silver nanoparticles against third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. The synthesized silver nanoparticles have also been tested against the third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. The leaf extract and the AgNPs high mortality values were 50 % lethal concentration (LC50) = 8.088 and 1.442 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results recorded from ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy support the biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles. These results suggest that the leaf extract of M. tinctoria and synthesis of AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of C. quinquefasciatus. By this approach, it is suggestive that this rapid synthesis of nanoparticles would be proper for developing a biological process for mosquito control.

  17. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of crude extracts of Maesa lanceolata and Plectranthus punctatus against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Dereje; Eguale, Tadesse; Giday, Mirutse; Mussa, Abiy

    2009-03-18

    The widespread development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of the conventional anthelmintic drugs, has limited the control of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of sheep and goats and hence led to evaluation of medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. In the current study, in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the leaves and fruits of the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Maesa lanceolata and aerial parts of Plectranthus punctatus were evaluated on the egg and larvae of Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay and larval development test. All extracts of plants tested have shown complete inhibition of egg hatching at or below 1 mg/ml. ED50 for egg hatch inhibition ranged from 0.11 to 0.29 mg/ml, for both the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Plectranthus punctatus and Maesa lanceolata. All extracts have shown dose dependent inhibition of larval development with variable results. The complete inhibition (100%) at the maximum concentration tested (50 mg/ml) was obtained only for hydro-alcoholic extract of the fruits of Maesa lanceolata and the lowest inhibition (50.33%) was recorded for the hydro-alcoholic extract of the leaves of the same plant. The overall findings of the present study has shown that Plectranthus punctatus and Maesa lanceolata contain possible anthelmintic compounds and further evaluation of different extracts and fractions of these plants should be carried out.

  18. [Larvicidal activity of Anacardium humile Saint Hill oil on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera, Culicidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Karla Rejane de Andrade; Roel, Antonia Railda; Silva, Márcia Marlene da; Coelho, Rosemary Matias; Scheleder, Eloty Justina Dias; Jeller, Alex Haroldo

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Anacardium humile (monkey nuts) against Aedes aegypti larvae. Hexane, ethanol and aqueous extracts and oil from leaves were obtained from plant material collected from the Brazilian savanna. These were tested at concentrations of 1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.125%, 0.05% and 0.0125%, diluted in 1% dimethyl sulfoxide. The dead larvae were counted 24 hours later. The Probit analysis method was used to obtain the LC(50) and the respective confidence intervals. The conclusion was that only the oil extracted from Anacardium humile leaves caused 100% mortality among fourth-instar Aedes aegypti larvae, using concentrations of up to 0.125%. This seems to indicate that the active ingredients are present in the most apolar phase. This indicates that this plant has potential use as a larvicide against Aedes aegypti. However, new tests should be carried out using other plant organs, as well as using other methods and solvents for the extraction.

  19. Comparison between diflubenzuron and a Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis- and Lysinibacillus sphaericus-based formulation for the control of mosquito larvae in urban catch basins in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Valeria; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

    2013-06-01

    A field test was conducted to evaluate a commercial biolarvicide based on Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus to control mosquitoes breeding in catch basins in southern Switzerland. The efficacy and residual activity of the microbial mosquito larvicide applied at the recommended rate of 10 g per catch basin was compared to the currently used larvicide diflubenzuron. Both products provided a very good control activity (> 97% of reduction) of late instars (3rd and 4th instars) and pupae for 4 wk. However, only the microbial formulation controlled immature stages during the whole period of the trial, with > 98% of larval reduction. A single application of the microbial larvicide applied at 10 g per catch basin significantly reduced the number of immature mosquitoes for at least 70 days. The quantity of rainfall in the 48-h period before each sampling and the water temperature did not influence the efficacy of the treatments. Under the environmental conditions encountered in southern Switzerland, the larvicide tested may be a valid alternative to diflubenzuron to control mosquitoes in urban catch basins. The long-lasting control by the microbial larvicide further reduces the number of treatments required to keep the population of mosquitoes at low levels.

  20. Structural characterization and evaluation of mosquito-larvicidal property of silver nanoparticles synthesized from the seaweed, Turbinaria ornata (Turner) J. Agardh 1848.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Paramasivam; Sowmiya, Rajamani; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Balasubramani, Govindasamy; Aiswarya, Dilipkumar; Perumal, Pachiappan

    2016-06-21

    The silver nanoparticles synthesized from Turbinaria ornata (To-AgNPs) showed spherical with crystalline nature (20-32 nm) was evaluated against fourth instar larvae of three mosquitoes. The maximum activity of To-AgNPs was recorded on Aedes aegypti followed by Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus with the following lethal concentration values (μg/ml): LC50 of 0.738, 1.134, and 1.494; and LC90 of 3.342, 17.982, and 22.475, respectively. The obtained respective values (μg/ml) vis-a-vis aqueous extract (To-AE) were: 2.767 and 40.577; 4.347 and 158.399, and 7.351 and 278.994. The findings revealed that To-AgNPs could form a base for the development of an eco-friendly, low-cost pesticide.

  1. Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado) seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, João Jaime Giffoni; Brito, Erika Helena Salles; Cordeiro, Rossana Aguiar; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Bertini, Luciana Medeiros; Morais, Selene Maia de; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2009-01-01

    The present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards Artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards Aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. In toxicity tests on Artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed LC50 values of 2.37 and 24.13 mg mL-1 respectively. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, the LC50 results obtained were 16.7 mg mL-1 for hexane extract and 8.87 mg mL-1 for methanol extract from avocado seeds. The extracts tested were also active against all the yeast strains tested in vitro, with differing results such that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the hexane extract ranged from 0.625 to 1.25mg L-(1), from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1 and from 0.031 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the methanol extract ranged from 0.125 to 0.625 mg mL-1, from 0.08 to 0.156 mg mL-1 and from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively.

  2. Larvicidal activity and in vitro effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis L. water infusion

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    Žabar, A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study green tea water infusion was tested on Drosophila melanogaster wild-type larvae in vivo, also an in vitro antihemolytic and hemolytic tests were performed. Three different concentrations were used 7.5 mg/ml, 37.5 mg/ml and 75 mg/ml, the lowest dose representing the recommended dose followed by five times and ten times higher doses. Effect of these three concentrations was monitored and tested in vivo on Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen, 1830 wt (wild type larval development and surviving. All three concentrations showed toxic effect for larvae, with toxicity being increased in dose – depended manner. The time needed for larvae to fully develop was delayed. This decrease of developmental time was in dose – dependent manner, too. Amount of hemolysis caused by the lowest concentration was very small when compared with the percent of spontaneous hemolysis. Other two higher concentrations, 37.5 mg/ml and 75 mg/ml, showed higher hemolytic effect. During the four hour incubation period percent of hemolysis grew in time – dependent manner. The highest hemolytic effect was recorded for the concentration of 37.5 mg/ml. Antihemolytic test showed that the lowest concentration had the highest inhibitory effect to H2O2 induced hemolysis. The 37.5 mg/ml and 75 mg/ml concentrations had lower inhibitory effect when compared with the dose of 7.5 mg/ml. According to our study it can be concluded that the high concentrations of green tea water infusion exhibit larvicidal activity against D. melanogaster larvae, don't have protective effect to RBC membrane and cause greater hemolysis.

  3. Larvicide and oviposition deterrent effects of fruit and leaf extracts from Melia azedarach L. on Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria, C; Almiron, W; Valladares, G; Carpinella, C; Ludueña, F; Defago, M; Palacios, S

    2008-05-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main urban vector of dengue, has developed resistance to various insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. We explored the effects of Argentine Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) fruit and senescent leaf extracts on Ae. aegypti larval development and survival, by rearing cohorts of first instar mosquitoes in water with different extract concentrations. We also analysed oviposition deterrent activity in choice tests with extract-treated ovitraps. The leaf extract showed a strong larvicide activity, with all larvae dying before pupation, and significantly delayed development time. It strongly inhibited oviposition by Ae. aegypti females. The fruit extract showed much weaker effects. This first report of highly effective larvicidal, growth regulating and oviposition deterrent activity of a senescent leaf extract of M. azedarach against Ae. aegypti, suggests that such extract could represent a promising tool in the management of this mosquito pest.

  4. Bioefficacy of Mentha piperita essential oil against dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L

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    Sarita Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Conclusions: The peppermint essential oil is proved to be efficient larvicide and repellent against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of oil as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the oil could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control.

  5. Chemical Constituents and Combined Larvicidal Effects of Selected Essential Oils against Anopheles cracens (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Jitrawadee Intirach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study on larvicidal activity against laboratory-colonized Anopheles cracens mosquitos revealed that five of ten plant oils at concentration of 100 ppm showed 95–100% larval mortality. The essential oils of five plants, including Piper sarmentosum, Foeniculum vulgare, Curcuma longa, Myristica fragrans, and Zanthoxylum piperitum, were then selected for chemical analysis, dose-response larvicidal experiments, and combination-based bioassays. Chemical compositions analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry demonstrated that the main component in the oil derived from P. sarmentosum, F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum was croweacin (71.01%, anethole (63.00%, ar-turmerone (30.19%, safrole (46.60%, and 1,8-cineole (21.27%, respectively. For larvicidal bioassay, all five essential oils exerted promising efficacy in a dose-dependent manner and different performances on A. cracens after 24 hours of exposure. The strongest larvicidal potential was established from P. sarmentosum, followed by F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum, with LC50 values of 16.03, 32.77, 33.61, 40.00, and 63.17 ppm, respectively. Binary mixtures between P. sarmentosum, the most effective oil, and the others at the highest ratio were proved to be highly efficacious with a cotoxicity coefficient value greater than 100, indicating synergistic activity. Results of mixed formulations of different essential oils generating synergistic effects may prove helpful in developing effective, economical, and ecofriendly larvicides, as favorable alternatives for mosquito management.

  6. Larvicidal activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Excoecaria agallocha L. (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil Kumar, Vundru; Ammani, Kandru; Jobina, Rajkumari; Parasuraman, Paramanandham; Siddhardha, Busi

    2016-12-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using plant extracts has been achieved by eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. The present study was conducted to evaluate the larvicidal efficacies of AgNPs synthesized using aqueous leaf extracts of Excoecaria agallocha against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. The 3(rd) and 4(th) instar larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to various concentrations of aqueous extracts of E. agallocha, synthesized AgNPs and also crude solvent extracts (methanol and chloroform) for 24 h. The formation of AgNPs using aqueous leaf extracts was observed after 30 min with a characteristic colour change. The results recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, XRD, FTIR, EDX, SEM and HR-TEM were used to characterize and confirm the biosynthesis of AgNPs. The highest larvicidal efficacy of synthesized AgNPs was observed against 3(rd) instar larvae at LC50 4.65 mg/L, LC90 14.17 mg/L and 4(th) instar larvae with a concentration of LC50 6.10 mg/L, LC90 15.64 mg/L. A significant larvicidal activity was also observed with crude methanolic extracts against 3(rd) instar larvae at a concentration LC50 41.74 mg/L, LC90 123.61 mg/L and 4(th) instar larvae at a concentration of LC50 52.06 mg/L, LC90 166.40 mg/L as compared to the chloroform extract.

  7. Larvicidal activities of Knema attenuata (Hook. f. & Thomson) Warb. (Myristicaceae) extracts against Aedes albopictus Skuse and Anopheles stephensi Liston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayachandra; Shwetha, R; Chandrashekar, K R

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, uses of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aril and kernel extracts of Knema attenuata (Hook. f. & Thomson) Warb. (Myristicaceae) on larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse and Anopheles stephensi Liston under laboratory conditions. The aril was extracted with chloroform and ethanol; the kernel was extracted with ethanol and hexane. The extracts were tested against the 3rd-4th instar larvae collected from Bunder area, Mangalore, India, which is a well-known fishing harbour, where several mosquito-borne diseases were reported. All the graded concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm) showed significant larval mortality after 24 h of observation. Chloroform extracts of aril showed 100% mortality against both larval forms of A. albopictus and A. stephensi at the concentration of 500 ppm. Among the extracts tested, chloroform extracts of aril and ethanol extracts of kernel exhibited higher toxicity against both A. albopictus (LC(50), 141 ppm and 159 ppm; LC(90), 290 ppm and 342 ppm) and A. stephensi (LC(50), 160 ppm and 162 ppm; LC90, 445 ppm and 458 ppm). Hexane extracts of kernel exhibited least toxicity against A. albopictus (LC50, 239 ppm; LC(90), 484 ppm), whereas ethanol extracts of aril showed the least toxicity against A. stephensi (LC(50), 290; LC(90), 498). A preliminary phytochemical assay revealed the presence of phenolics, tannins, steroids, terpenes, resins, and glycolipids in all the extracts. Alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins were absent. The lower LC(50) value of the chloroform extracts of K. attenuata aril indicates its potentiality as a larvicide against A. albopictus and A. stephensi mosquito larvae.

  8. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Elaeagnus indica Servett. (Elaeagnaceae plant leaf extracts against dengue and malaria vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Srinivasan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available MMosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, methanol and petroleum benzene leaf extracts of E. indica were tested against fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi and dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. Highest larval mortality was found in acetone leaf extracts against A. aegypti (LC50 and LC90 values of 2.97027and 5.9820 mg/ml and A. stephensi (LC50 and LC90 values of 3.92501 and 68.3250 mg/ml respectively. GC-MS analysis of plant extracts of acetone solvent revealed 19 compounds, of which the major compounds were -Thujone 1-Isopropyl-4-Methylbicyclo(3.1.0Hexan-3-One 1- (6.71%, 1,6- Cyclodecadiene, 1-Methyl-5-Methylene-8-(1-Methylethyl-, [S-(E,E]-Germacra-1(10,4(15,5-Trie N (3.11%, L-(+-Ascorbic Acid 2,6-Dihexadecanoate (4.06%, 2-Cyclohexylcyclohexanol [1,1'-Bicyclohexyl]-2-Ol (3.16%, Dotriacontane N- Bicetyl (58.7% and Tetrapentacontane (3.85%. E. indica offers promise as potential biocontrol agent against major dengue and malaria mosquitoes particularly in larvicidal effect. Our results shows acetone leaf extracts of E. indica have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for control of mosquito vectors.

  9. Correlation of lipophilicity with mosquito larvicidal and repellent activities of novel trifluoromethylphenyl amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a chemical to have a biological impact on an organism, the molecules must be capable of being transported across the membranes of cells. Lipophilic insecticides that can pass through lipid bilayers and penetrate the insect cuticle can lead to rapid intoxication or mortality by acting on the nerv...

  10. Antifungal, Mosquito Deterrent, and Larvicidal Activity of N-(benzylidene)-3-cyclohexylpropionic Acid Hydrazide Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    of new effective fungi- cides and insecticides in the near future. Keywords Hydrazone Fungicide Plant pathogen Phomopsis obscurans Phomopsis...Pesticides are used predominantly in agriculture and against insect vectors. In many cases, pesticides have become less effective as target organisms...have developed resistance. In addition, these pesticides are threats to human health and threats to envi- ronmental through agriculture . Increased

  11. Potential larvicidal and pupacidal activities of herbal essential oils against Culex quinquefasciatus say and Anopheles minimus (Theobald).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura

    2010-11-01

    The larvicidal and pupacidal effects of eight herbal essential oils were tested against third instar (L3), fourth instar (L4), and pupal stages of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles minimus. Probit analysis was used to analyze the data. The larval mortality was recorded at 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 minutes, and 24 hours. Pupal mortality was also recorded at 24 hours intervals for 96 hours when completed mortality was achieved. Citronella grass oil #2 (Cymbopogon nardus) proved to have the greatest toxicity against 3rd instar Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. minimus with LT50 at 1.2 and <0.2 minute, respectively. It exhibited a high level of effectiveness against 4th instar Cx. quinquefasciatus (LT50 at 5.1 minutes) and An. minimus (LT50 at 0.9 minute). Regarding pupacidal activity, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. minimus pupae were susceptible to Lemon grass oil (LT50 at 1.2 hours) and Citronella grass oil #1 (LT50 at 0.6 hour), respectively. These oils had larvicidal and pupacidal activities with 100% mortality against L3, L4 and pupal stage Cx. quinquefasciatus at 10 minutes, 30 minutes and 24 hours. They also caused 100% mortality of An. minimus at 5 minutes (L3, L4), and 24 hours (pupal stage).

  12. LARVICICAL ACTIVITY OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS H-14 (TEKNAR ON MOSQUITO LARVAE IN RICEFIELDS, SOUTHERN IRAN

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    M.Motabar

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to study the larvicidal activity of Teknar (San-402-I-Bacillus thuringiensis, serotype H-14, Sandoz, 600 ITU/mg on mosquitolarvaein Kazeroun, Fars Province, southern Iran. Five experimental plots were selected randomly in a rice field and three concentrations of Teknar: .0003, .0006 and .0012 cc/1 was used. Maximum larval mortality usually occurred during the first 24 hours of exposure. Culicinae larvae were more susceptible than the anophelines. Also, the first and second instars showed greater mortality than the third and fourth instars. The percent larval vortality were 71.8 to 81.5 in anophelines and 82.1 to 100 in culicinae at.0003 cc/1, 89.4 to 100 in anophelinae and 97.2 to 100 in culicinae at.0006 cc/1and 98.4 to 98.6 in anophelinae and 100 in culicinae at.0012 cc/1 concentrations respectively. No mortality was detected in the control plots. It was concluded that.0006 and .0003 cc/1 were the concentrations of choice for the proper mosquito larval control in the area.

  13. Just Spraying Adult Mosquitoes Won't Curb Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Just Spraying Adult Mosquitoes Won't Curb Zika: Study Lab work suggests larvicide also needed to ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Female mosquitoes can transmit the Zika virus to their eggs and offspring, and this ...

  14. Microbial larvicides for malaria control in The Gambia.

    OpenAIRE

    Green Clare; Lindsay Steven W; Majambere Silas; Kandeh Balla; Fillinger Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Mosquito larval control may prove to be an effective tool for incorporating into integrated vector management (IVM) strategies for reducing malaria transmission. Here the efficacy of microbial larvicides against Anopheles gambiae s.l. was tested in preparation for a large-scale larviciding programme in The Gambia. Methods The impact of water-dispersible (WDG) and corn granule (CG) formulations of commercial Bacillus sphaericus strain 2362 (Bs; VectoLex®) and Bacillus thuri...

  15. High Quality Bergamot Oil from Greece: Chemical Analysis Using Chiral Gas Chromatography and Larvicidal Activity against the West Nile Virus Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magiatis Prokopios

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Τhe essential oils contained in the rind of the fruit and the leaves of bergamot from Greece (Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia were studied. The bergamot trees in question were cultivated on Kefalonia Island. The plant material (leaves and fruits in different stages of maturity was collected between December and March for a two year period. The rind of the fruit was separated manually and the essential oil was obtained either by cold pressing or by hydrodistillation. The maximum yield calculated on a wet weight of fresh rinds basis was 1.8%. The essential oils were first analyzed by GC-MS with a DB-5 column and then with a β-Dex™ enantiomeric column. The main constituent of the cold pressed essential oil of the rind was (–-linalyl acetate with optical purity >99.9%. Other important constituents were (–-linalool, (+-limonene and γ-terpinene. The best value of linalool/linalyl acetate ratio was 0.38 and the maximum sum of linalool+linalyl acetate was found to be 55.8%. The larvacidal activities of the obtained essential oils and the compounds (±-linalyl acetate, (±-linalool and (–-linalool were evaluated against larvae of the mosquito species Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae, the West Nile virus vector, under laboratory conditions. The cold pressed essential oil showed an LC50 value of 58 mg/L, while the LC50 value of the corresponding essential oil obtained by hydrostillation was 106 mg/L. The essential oil of the leaves presented similar larvicidal toxicity with the cold pressed oil of the rind (LC50=68 mg/L.

  16. High quality bergamot oil from Greece: Chemical analysis using chiral gas chromatography and larvicidal activity against the West Nile virus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melliou, Eleni; Eleni, Melliou; Michaelakis, Antonios; Antonios, Michaelakis; Koliopoulos, George; George, Koliopoulos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Alexios-Leandros, Skaltsounis; Magiatis, Prokopios; Prokopios, Magiatis

    2009-02-18

    Tauhe essential oils contained in the rind of the fruit and the leaves of bergamot from Greece (Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia) were studied. The bergamot trees in question were cultivated on Kefalonia Island. The plant material (leaves and fruits in different stages of maturity) was collected between December and March for a two year period. The rind of the fruit was separated manually and the essential oil was obtained either by cold pressing or by hydrodistillation. The maximum yield calculated on a wet weight of fresh rinds basis was 1.8%. The essential oils were first analyzed by GC-MS with a DB-5 column and then with a beta-Dex enantiomeric column. The main constituent of the cold pressed essential oil of the rind was (-)-linalyl acetate with optical purity >99.9%. Other important constituents were (-)-linalool, (+)-limonene and gamma-terpinene. The best value of linalool/linalyl acetate ratio was 0.38 and the maximum sum of linalool+linalyl acetate was found to be 55.8%. The larvacidal activities of the obtained essential oils and the compounds (+/-)-linalyl acetate, (+/-)-linalool and (-)-linalool were evaluated against larvae of the mosquito species Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), the West Nile virus vector, under laboratory conditions. The cold pressed essential oil showed an LC(50) value of 58 mg/L, while the LC(50) value of the corresponding essential oil obtained by hydrostillation was 106 mg/L. The essential oil of the leaves presented similar larvicidal toxicity with the cold pressed oil of the rind (LC(50)=68 mg/L).

  17. Larvicidal effects of endophytic and basidiomycete fungus extracts on Aedes and Anopheles larvae (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Bucker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In vitro bioassays were performed to access the larvicidal activity of crude extracts from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgulata (Melanconiales, Amphisphaeriaceae and the saprophytic fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus (Basidiomycetes, Polyporaceae against the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari. Methods The extracts were tested at concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm. Ethyl acetate mycelia (EAM extracts and liquid culture media (LCM from Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus were tested against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and An. nuneztovari. Results The larvicidal activity of the EAM extracts from Pe. virgulata against Ae. aegypti had an LC50=101.8ppm, and the extract from the basidiomycete fungus Py. sanguineus had an LC50=156.8ppm against the Ae. aegypti larvae. The Pe. virgulata extract had an LC50=16.3ppm against the An. nuneztovari larvae, and the Py. sanguineus extract had an LC50=87.2ppm against these larvae. Conclusions These results highlight the larvicidal effect of EAM extracts from the endophyte Pe. virgulata against the two larval mosquitoes tested. Thus, Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus have the potential for the production of bioactive substances against larvae of these two tropical disease vectors, with An. nuneztovari being more susceptible to these extracts.

  18. Larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Pergularia daemia plant latex against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi and nontarget fish Poecillia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Borase, Hemant P; Patil, Satish V; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Salunke, Bipinchandra K

    2012-08-01

    In present study, the bioactivity of latex-producing plant Pergularia daemia as well as synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against the larval instars of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi mosquito larvae was determined. The range of concentrations of plant latex (1,000, 500, 250, 125, 62.25, and 31.25 ppm) and AgNPs (10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, and 0.3125 ppm) were prepared. The LC(50) and LC(90) values for first, second, third, and fourth instars of synthesized AgNPs-treated first, second, third, and fourth instars of A. aegypti (LC(50) = 4.39, 5.12, 5.66, 6.18; LC(90) = 9.90, 11.13, 12.40, 12.95 ppm) and A. stephensi (LC(50) = 4.41, 5.35, 5.91, 6.47; LC(90) = 10.10, 12.04, 13.05, 14.08 ppm) were found many fold lower than crude latex-treated A. aegypti (LC(50) = 55.13, 58.81, 75.66, 94.31; LC(90) = 113.00, 118.25, 156.95, 175.71 ppm) and A. stephensi (LC(50) = 81.47, 92.09, 96.07, 101.31; LC(90) = 159.51, 175.97, 180.67, 190.42 ppm). The AgNPs did not exhibit any noticeable effects on Poecillia reticulata after either 24 or 48 h of exposure at their LC(50) and LC(90) values against fourth-instar larvae of A. aegypti and A. stephensi. The UV-visible analysis shows absorbance for AgNPs at 520 nm. TEM reveals spherical shape of synthesized AgNPs. Particle size analysis revealed that the size of particles ranges from 44 to 255 nm with average size of 123.50 nm. AgNPs were clearly negatively charged (zeta potential -27.4 mV). This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity P. daemia-synthesized AgNPs.

  19. Adulticidal and larvicidal activity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae against housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), in laboratory and simulated field bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2011-06-01

    The susceptibility of the adult and larval stage of housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), to two entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sor. and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill., was evaluated under laboratory and simulated field bioassays. Bioassays on adult houseflies were carried out at different conidial concentrations ranging from 10(3) to 10(9) conidia/ml in petri plate and minichamber assays. Absolute mortality was observed within 4-5 days at all the concentrations tested. M. anisopliae was found to be more effective with LC(50) of 6.75 × 10(7) conidia/ml compared with 1.21 × 10(8) conidia/ml of B. bassiana in petri plate bioassay. Similar trend was observed in minichamber bioassay. Larvicidal activity evaluated through petri plate bioassay also indicated that M. anisopliae was more effective larvicide with LC(50) of 4.1 × 10(8) conidia/ml as against 3.31 × 10(9) conidia/ml of B. bassiana. Larvicidal activity was further evaluated in simulated field condition of decaying waste matrix using dry conidial formulations (10(8) conidia/g) of both the fungi. Larval mortality obtained in this assay was 43% (B. bassiana) and 63% (M. anisopliae). Remarkably better performance of M. anisopliae as an adulticidal and larvicidal agent over B. bassiana in laboratory bioassays as well as simulated field conditions suggests that it may have good potential to become part of an integrated housefly control program.

  20. Evaluation préliminaire de l'activité larvicide des extraits aqueux des feuilles du ricin (Ricinus communis L.) et du bois de thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast.) sur les larves de quatre moustiques culicidés : Culex pipiens (Linné), Aedes caspius (Pallas), Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken) et Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen)

    OpenAIRE

    Mahari S.; Mellouki F.; Oufara S.; Aouinty B.

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary evaluation of larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. and from wood of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. on the larvae of four mosquito species: Culex pipiens (Linné), Aedes caspius (Pallas), Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken) and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen). Aqueous extracts of Ricinus communis leaves and Tetraclinis articulata wood showed strong toxic activity against larvae of several mosquitoes. In this study, insecticide effects of these ...

  1. Identification of chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Murraya exotica L. (Rutaceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Shanmugam; Chandrasekaran, Manivachagam; Raj, Gnanaprakasam Adaikala; Jayaraman, Mahalingam; Venkatesalu, Venugopalan

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the phytochemical composition and larvicidal effect of leaf essential oil from Murraya exotica against early fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that the essential oil contained 27 components. The major chemical components identified were β-humulene (40.62%), benzyl benzoate (23.96%), β-caryophyllene (7.05%) and α-terpinene (5.66%). The larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The results revealed that essential oil showed varied levels of larvicidal activity against A. aegypti, A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus. After 12 h of exposure period, the larvicidal activities were LC₅₀ = 74.7 and LC₉₀ = 152.7 ppm (A. aegypti), LC₅₀ = 56.3 and LC₉₀ = 107.8 ppm (A. stephensi ), and LC₅₀ = 74.4 and LC₉₀ = 136.9 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus) and the larvicidal activities after 24 h of exposure period were LC₅₀ = 35.8 and LC₉₀ = 85.4 ppm (A. aegypti), LC₅₀ = 31.3 and LC₉₀ = 75.1 ppm (A. stephensi), and LC₅₀ = 43.2 and LC₉₀ = 103.2 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus). These results suggest that leaf essential oil from M. exotica is a promising and eco-friendly source of natural larvicidal agent against A. aegypti, A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus.

  2. Carbohydrate metabolism in the mosquito pathogen Bacillus sphaericus 2362.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, B L; Jelley, S A; Yousten, A A

    1989-01-01

    Bacillus sphaericus 2362 is pathogenic for mosquito larvae and is being considered for large-scale production as a larvicide. The inability of the bacteria to metabolize carbohydrates requires that they be grown on proteinaceous media. This bacterium was found to be unable to transport glucose or sucrose into the cell, and it lacked glucokinase and hexokinase activity. In addition, it lacked phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphofructokinase, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are early ...

  3. Isolation and characterization of native Bacillus thuringiensis strains from Saudi Arabia with enhanced larvicidal toxicity against the mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae (s.l.).

    OpenAIRE

    El-Kersh, TA; Ahmed, AM; Al-Sheikh, YA; Tripet, F; Ibrahim, MS; Metwalli, AAM

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, mosquito vectors are transmitting several etiological agents of important human diseases, including malaria, causing millions of deaths every year. In Saudi Arabia, as elsewhere, vector-control is based mostly on chemical insecticides which may be toxic and cause environmental deprivation. Here, to support the development of bio-pesticide alternatives, a study was conducted to identify native Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates with improved toxicity against the malari...

  4. Isolation and characterization of native Bacillus thuringiensis strains from Saudi Arabia with enhanced larvicidal toxicity against the mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae (s.l.)

    OpenAIRE

    El-kersh, Talaat A.; Ahmed, Ashraf M.; AL-SHEIKH, YAZEED A.; Tripet, Frédéric; Ibrahim, Mohamed S.; Metwalli, Ali A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Worldwide, mosquito vectors are transmitting several etiological agents of important human diseases, including malaria, causing millions of deaths every year. In Saudi Arabia, as elsewhere, vector-control is based mostly on chemical insecticides which may be toxic and cause environmental deprivation. Here, to support the development of bio-pesticide alternatives, a study was conducted to identify native Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates with improved toxicity against the malaria...

  5. Larvicidal activity of lipophilic extract of Hypericum carinatum (Clusiaceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and benzophenones determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Flavia Corvello; de Barros, Francisco Maikon Corrêa; Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; da Silva, Onilda Santos; Pereira, Thiago Nunes; de Loreto Bordignon, Sérgio A; Eifler-Lima, Vera Lucia; von Poser, Gilsane Lino

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the larvicidal activity of an enriched fraction of the major lipophilic phenolic compounds from Hypericum carinatum Griseb. (Clusiaceae) was investigated against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vector of dengue virus in Brazil. The larval mortality rate ranged 37.33 to 72.00 % at concentrations of 66-200 μg/mL. The effect demonstrated to be dose-dependent. The lethal concentration 50 % and confidence interval were 100 and 88-111 μg/mL, respectively. The results could be attributed to the presence of cariphenone A and cariphenone B in concentrations of 1.24 ± 0.04 and 0.56 ± 0.01 %, respectively, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Besides, the results reinforce the potential of genus Hypericum as source of alternative insecticides.

  6. Larvicidal and Biting Deterrent Activity of Essential Oils of Curcuma longa, Ar-turmerone, and Curcuminoids Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Culicidae: Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-09-01

    Essential oils and extract of Curcuma longa, ar-turmerone, and curcuminoids were evaluated for their larvicidal and deterrent activity against mosquitoes. Ar-turmerone and curcuminoids constituted 36.9, 24.9 and 50.6% of rhizome oil, leaf oil, and rhizome extract, respectively. Ar-turmerone was the major compound of the rhizome oil (36.9%) and leaf oil (24.9%). The ethanolic extract had 15.4% ar-turmerone with 6.6% bisdesmethoxycurcumin, 6.1% desmethoxycurcumin, and 22.6% curcumin. In in vitro studies, essential oils of the leaf (biting deterrence index [BDI] = 0.98), rhizome (BDI = 0.98), and rhizome ethanolic extract (BDI = 0.96) at 10 µg/cm(2) showed biting deterrent activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) against Aedes aegypti L. Among the pure compounds, ar-turmerone (BDI = 1.15) showed the biting deterrent activity higher than DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) whereas the activity of other compounds was lower than DEET. In Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, only ar-turmerone showed deterrent activity similar to DEET. In dose-response bioassay, ar-turmerone showed significantly higher biting deterrence than DEET at all the dosages. Ar-turmerone, at 15 nmol/cm(2), showed activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) and activity at 5 nmol/cm(2) was similar to DEET at 20 and 15 nmol/cm(2). Leaf essential oil with LC(50) values of 1.8 and 8.9 ppm against larvae of An. quadrimaculatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively, showed highest toxicity followed by rhizome oil and ethanolic extract. Among the pure compounds, ar-turmerone with LC(50) values of 2.8 and 2.5 ppm against larvae of An. quadrimaculatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively, was most toxic followed by bisdesmethoxycurcumin, curcumin, and desmethoxycurcumin.

  7. Microbial larvicides for malaria control in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Clare

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquito larval control may prove to be an effective tool for incorporating into integrated vector management (IVM strategies for reducing malaria transmission. Here the efficacy of microbial larvicides against Anopheles gambiae s.l. was tested in preparation for a large-scale larviciding programme in The Gambia. Methods The impact of water-dispersible (WDG and corn granule (CG formulations of commercial Bacillus sphaericus strain 2362 (Bs; VectoLex® and Bacillus thuringiensis var.israelensis strain AM65-52 (Bti; VectoBac® on larval development were tested under laboratory and field conditions to (1 identify the susceptibility of local vectors, (2 evaluate the residual effect and re-treatment intervals, (3 test the effectiveness of the microbials under operational application conditions and (4 develop a method for large-scale application. Results The major malaria vectors were highly susceptible to both microbials. The lethal concentration (LC to kill 95% of third instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s. after 24 hours was 0.023 mg/l (14.9 BsITU/l for Bs WDG and 0.132 mg/l (396 ITU/l for Bti WDG. In general Bs had little residual effect under field conditions even when the application rate was 200 times greater than the LC95. However, there was a residual effect up to 10 days in standardized field tests implemented during the dry season. Both microbials achieved 100% mortality of larvae 24–48 hours post-application but late instar larvae were detected 4 days after treatment. Pupae development was reduced by 94% (95% Confidence Interval = 90.8–97.5% at weekly re-treatment intervals. Field tests showed that Bs had no residual activity against anopheline larvae. Both microbials provided complete protection when applied weekly. The basic training of personnel in identification of habitats, calibration of application equipment and active larviciding proved to be successful and achieved full coverage and control of mosquito

  8. Larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using fungus Cochliobolus lunatus against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) and Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera; Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunkhe, Rahul B; Patil, Satish V; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Salunke, Bipinchandra K

    2011-09-01

    Larvicides play a vital role in controlling mosquitoes in their breeding sites. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal activities of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against vectors: Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi responsible for diseases of public health importance. The AgNPs synthesized by filamentous fungus Cochliobolus lunatus, characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The characterization studies confirmed the spherical shape and size (3-21 nm) of silver nanoparticles. The efficacy of mycosynthesized AgNPs at all the tested concentrations (10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, and 0.3125 ppm) against second, third, and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti (LC(50) 1.29, 1.48, and 1.58; LC(90) 3.08, 3.33, and 3.41 ppm) and against A. stephensi (LC(50) 1.17, 1.30, and 1.41; LC(90) 2.99, 3.13, and 3.29 ppm) were observed, respectively. The mortality rates were positively correlated with the concentration of AgNPs. Significant (P against fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti and A. stephensi. The possible larvicidal activity may be due to penetration of nanoparticles through membrane. Toxicity studies carried out against non-target fish species Poecilia reticulata, the most common organism in the habitats of A. aegypti and A. stephensi showed no toxicity at LC50 and LC90 doses of the AgNPs. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of mycosynthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of fungus C. lunatus to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach and the AgNps formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents.

  9. Eugenol, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene from Plectranthus barbatus essential oil as eco-friendly larvicides against malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L; Bhattacharyya, Atanu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Eco-friendly mosquitocides are a priority. In Ayurvedic medicine, Plectranthus species have been used to treat heart disease, convulsions, spasmodic pain and painful urination. In this research, we evaluated the acute toxicity of essential oil from Plectranthus barbatus and its major constituents, against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of P. barbatus essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Nineteen components were identified. Major constituents were eugenol (31.12%), α-pinene (19.38%) and β-caryophyllene (18.42%). Acute toxicity against early third-instar larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was investigated. The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 84.20, 87.25 and 94.34 μg/ml and 90% lethal concentration (LC90) values of 165.25, 170.56 and 179.58 μg/ml, respectively. Concerning major constituents, eugenol, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene appeared to be most effective against An. subpictus (LC50 = 25.45, 32.09 and 41.66 μg/ml, respectively), followed by Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 28.14, 34.09 and 44.77 μg/ml, respectively) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 30.80, 36.75 and 48.17 μg/ml, respectively). Overall, the chance to use metabolites from P. barbatus essential oil against mosquito vectors seems promising, since they are effective at low doses and could be an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer mosquito control tools.

  10. 苏云金杆菌以色列亚种生物杀蚊幼颗粒剂及其作用特性%Characterization of Bacillus thuringrensis var.israelesis larvicide granules to larvae of mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐健; 赵松; 刘琴; 祁建杭; 李传明; 王艳; 孙俊; 韩光杰; 马谈斌

    2013-01-01

    目的 研制苏云金杆菌以色列亚种(Bacillus thuringrensis var.israelesis,Bti)颗粒剂新剂型并测定其杀灭蚊幼虫效果.方法 分离筛选Bti菌株,采用载体湿法包衣试制成Bti颗粒剂.通过模拟现场试验、持效性试验和外环境试验分别测定该制剂对蚊幼虫杀灭效果、持效期及在外环境的稳定性.结果 野外分离的Bti菌株对库蚊、伊蚊幼虫的LC50分别为0.461 0 μl/L和1.713 3μl/L.试制的216 ITU/mg Bti颗粒剂1~3g/m2施药后淡色库蚊幼虫死亡率为83.3%~ 100%,3~5g/m2埃及伊蚊幼虫死亡率达72.7%~ 100%.0.5 g/m2颗粒剂处理的水体13d后接种3龄淡色库蚊幼虫死亡率仍高达55.3%.外环境试验中,216 ITU/mg Bti颗粒剂2~4g/m2对蚊幼虫l~3d防治效果达92.4%~ 100%,20 d达51.6%~75.7%.结论 采用分离菌株研制的Bti颗粒剂具有较好的杀灭蚊幼虫效果,在外环境中试用持效期长且稳定性好.%Objective To develop a new formulation of Bacillus thuringrensis var. israelesis (Bti) granules and assess its effect on mosquito control. Methods The Bti granule formulation was produced by coating Bti liquid on the surface of the carrier, and imitation tests, persistence tests and field tests were carried to assess its mosquito larvicidal effect, extended period and stability. Results A strain of Bti isolated from field had high toxicity to mosquito larvae and its LC50 values for larvae of Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti were 0.461 0 \\iA/L and 1.713 3 uJ/L respectively. The developed 216 ITU/mg Bti granules had a control effect of 83.3%-100% to larvae of C. pipiens pallens at the dosage of l-3g/m2, and 72.7%-100% to A. aegypti at the dosage of 3-5g/ m2. When the 3rd instar larvae of C. pipiens pallens were put in the water that was treated with the granules at the dosage of 0.5 g/m2 13 days before, the larval mortality still reached to 55.3%. The field tests showed that with the treatment of 2-4 g/m2 Bti

  11. Phytochemical constituents and larvicidal activity ofTragia involucrata Linn. (Euphorbiacea) leaf extracts against chikungunya vector,Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramar Ganasekar; Jeyasankar Alagarmalai

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine the phytochemical and larvicidal activity ofTragia involucrata (T. involucrata) leaf extracts against fourth instar larvae ofAe. aegypti. Methods:Phytochemical analysis of hexane leaf extract was performed and larvicidal activity was determined againstAe. aegypti at concentrations of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L. Larval mortality was assessed after 24 h. Results: The hexane extracts ofT. involucrata was found to be higher mortality against the larvae ofAe. aegypti with a LC50 value of 153.51 mg/L. Conclusions: These results suggested that the leaf extracts ofT. involucrata showed potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of theAe. aegypti.

  12. Chemical composition and biological activity of four salvia essential oils and individual compounds against two species of mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Blythe, Eugene K; Ali, Zulfiqar; Baser, K Husnu Can; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-21

    The chemical compositions of essential oils obtained from four species of genus Salvia were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main compounds identified from Salvia species essential oils were as follows: 1,8-cineole (71.7%), α-pinene (5.1%), camphor (4.4%), and β-pinene (3.8%) in Salvia apiana; borneol (17.4%), β-eudesmol (10.4%), bornyl acetate (5%), and guaiol (4.8%) in Salvia elegans; bornyl acetate (11.4%), β-caryophyllene (6.5%), caryophyllene oxide (13.5%), and spathulenol (7.0%) in Salvia leucantha; α-thujene (25.8%), viridiflorol (20.4%), β-thujene (5.7%), and camphor (6.4%) in Salvia officinalis. In biting-deterrent bioassays, essential oils of S. leucantha and S. elegans at 10 μg/cm(2) showed activity similar to that of DEET (97%, N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide) in two species of mosquitoes, whereas the activities of S. officinalis and S. apiana essential oils were lower than those of the other oils or DEET. Pure compounds β-eudesmol and guaiol showed biting-deterrent activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2), whereas the activity of 13-epi-manool, caryophyllene oxide, borneol, bornyl acetate, and β-caryophyllene was significantly lower than that of β-eudesmol, guaiol, or DEET. All essential oils showed larvicidal activity except that of S. apiana, which was inactive at the highest dose of 125 ppm against both mosquito species. On the basis of 95% CIs, all of the essential oils showed higher toxicity in Anopheles quadrimaculatus than in Aedes aegypti. The essential oil of S. leucantha with an LC50 value of 6.2 ppm showed highest toxicity in An. quadrimaculatus.

  13. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Lara, Ana Paula DE Souza Stori; Lorenzon, Lucas Bigolin; Vianna, Ana Muñoz; Santos, Francisco Denis Souza; Pinto, Luciano Silva; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2016-10-01

    Effective control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep production. The development of anthelmintics resistance is causing the available chemically based anthelmintics to become less effective. Biological control strategies present an alternative to this problem. In the current study, we tested the larvicidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus larvae. Bacterial suspensions [2 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 of the feces] of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were added to naturally H. contortus egg-contaminated feces. The larvae were quantified, and significant reductions of 62 and 81% (P < 0·001) were, respectively observed, compared with the control group. A 30 mL bacterial suspension (1 × 108 CFU mL-1) of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant E. coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were then orally administered to lambs naturally infected with H. contortus. Twelve hours after administration, feces were collected and submitted to coprocultures. Significant larvae reductions (P < 0·001) of 79 and 90% were observed respectively compared with the control group. The results suggest that the Cry11Aa toxin of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis is a promising new class of biological anthelmintics for treating sheep against H. contortus.

  14. Larvicidal activities of three plants against filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawani, Anjali; Haldar, Koyel Mallick; Ghosh, Anupam; Chandra, Goutam

    2009-10-01

    The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal properties of crude extracts of three plants, viz. Carica papaya, Murraya paniculata and Cleistanthus collinus against Culex quinquefasciatus as target species. The relative efficacy of the plant extracts in vector control was as follows: C. papaya seed extract > M. paniculata fruit extract > M. paniculata leaf extract > C. collinus leaf extract. Result of log-probit analysis (at 95% confidence level) revealed that LC(50) and LC(95) values gradually decreased with the exposure periods similar to the result in bioassay experiment for each of the plant extract. The results of preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis of all the plants revealed the presence of many bioactive principles such as steroids, alkaloids, terpenes, saponins, etc. that may be responsible for their biocontrol potentiality. The appropriate lethal concentrations at 24 h for each of the extracts were also studied on non-target organisms such as Diplonychus annulatum and Chironomus circumdatus, and no change in the swimming behaviour and survivality was noticed, which indicates that all the extracts are safe for the aquatic ecosystem.

  15. Larvicidal activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using bark aqueous extract of Ficus racemosa against Culex quinquefasciatus andCulex gelidus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanayairam Velayutham; Chinnadurai Siva; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Govindasamy Rajakumar; Selvaraj Mohana Roopan; Gandhi Elango; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Sampath Marimuthu; Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar; Moorthy Iyappan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) utilizing aqueous bark extract ofFicus racemosa (F. racemosa) was tested against fourth instar larvae of filariasis vector,Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) and japanese encephalitis vectors,Culex gelidus (Cx. gelidus).Methods:The synthesizedAgNPs was characterized byUV-vis spectrum,X-ray diffraction (XRD),Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) andFourier transform infrared (FTIR).The larvicidal activities were assessed for24 h against the larvae ofCx. quinquefasciatus andCx. gelidus with varying concentrations of aqueous bark extract ofF. racemosa and synthesizedAgNPs.LC50 andr2 values were calculated.Results:The maximum efficacy was observed in crude aqueous extract ofF. racemosa against the larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus andCx. gelidus (LC50=67.72 and63.70 mg/L;r2=0.995 and0.985) and the synthesizedAgNPs (LC50=12.00 and11.21 mg/L;r2=0.997 and0.990), respectively.SynthesizedAg NPs showed theXRD peaks at2θ values of27.61,29.60,35.48,43.48 and79.68were identified as (210), (121), (220), (200) and (311) reflections, respectively.TheFTIR spectra ofAgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at3425,2878,1627 and1382 in the region500-3000 cm-1.The peaks correspond to the presence of a stretching vibration of (NH)C=O group.SEM analysis showed shape in cylindrical, uniform and rod with the average size of250.60 nm.Conclusions:The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using bark aqueous extract ofF. racemosa and its larvicidal activity against the larvae of disease spreading vectors.The maximum larvicidal efficacy was observed in the synthesizedAgNPs.

  16. Toxicities of Organophosphate and Carbamat Insecticide Against Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito Larvae

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    Endang Puji Astuti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito is increasing problem of public health, being the vector responsible for West Nile Virus and Filariasis. Chlorpirifos (Organofosfat and Metonil (Carbamat were known to posses insecticide activity against insect. The study was aimed to examine effectiveness of Klorpirifos and Metonil as larvicide against C. quinquefasciatus larval. Chlorpirifos a significantly higher larvicidal activity against 3th-4th instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus than Metonil. The larval mortality was observed after 24-h exposure. The LC95 value of Chlorpirifos and Metonil were 3,139 mg/lt and 9,045 mg/lt, against C. quinquefasciatus. The mixed of both insecticide was LC95 value 2,823 mg/lt. The result of this study suggested that Chlorpirifos more effective larvicide against C. quinquefasciatus than Metonil.

  17. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum majorana(Lamiaceae) cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens(Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fouad; El-Akhal; Abdelhakim; El; Ouali; Lalami; Yassine; Ez; Zoubi; Hassane; Greche; Raja; Guemmouh

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum mtijoruna(Lamiaceae)cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens(Diptera:Culicidae).Methods:The analysis and the identification of the various constituents of essential oil were carried out by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.Biological test was performed according to a standard methodology inspired by the World Health Organization protocol with slight modification.Results:This oil mainly consisted of monoterpene and sesquiterpenes.The majority compounds are 4-terpinene(28.96%),y-terpinene(18.57%),α-terpinene(12.72%) and sabinene(8.02%).The lethal concentrations(LC50 and LC90) measured for the essential oil Origanum majorana,were respectively of the order of 258.71 mg/L and 580.49 mg/L.Conclusions:The results could be useful in search for newer,safer,and more effective natural larvicidal agents.

  18. A Study of the Essential Oils of Four Sudanese Accessions of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Against Anopheles Mosquito Larvae

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    Azhari H. Nour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Certain basil essential oils were claimed to have a larvicidal activity towards mosquito's larvae. To test this claim the essential oils of four accessions of basil grown in Sudan were selected and tested for Anopheles larvae. Malaria is the major health problem in the Sudan and the whole country is now considered endemic, with varying degrees, about 35,000 deaths every year due to malaria. Anopheles mosquito is the major vector of malaria disease in Sudan. Search for larvicidal active compound(s is one of several attempts to fine effective and affordable ways to control this mosquito. To determine the toxic effects of basil essential oils extracted by steam distillation against Anopheles larvae. Approach: For the larvicidal bioassay, three concentrations (100, 300, 500 ppm of essential oil solutions of four basil accessions were prepared; 1 mL of ethanol was used to solubilize the oil in water (999 mL. In each concentration of oil solution were inserted 20 larvae (third instars. A set of controls using 0.1% ethanol and untreated sets of larvae in (tap water, were also run for comparison. Data were evaluated through regression analysis, from the regression line; the LC50 values were read. The active ingredients were separated and/ or identified by TLC, IR and GC-MS. Results: Larvicidal activity of the essential oils is varied, lasted for about 9 h and thereafter decreased, LC50 values ranging from 190-300 ppm. Linalool, geraniol and eugenol are active components of basil essential oil against Anopheles larvae. Two accessions were caused 100% mortality at a concentration range 300-500 ppm for 3 h. Conclusion: These results indicated that basil essential oils have larvicidal activity towards Anopheles larvae. Therefore, could be affordable way to control this mosquito.

  19. Impact of larviciding with a Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis formulation, VectoBac WG, on dengue mosquito vectors in a dengue endemic site in Selangor State, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H L; Chen, C D; Masri, S Mohd; Chiang, Y F; Chooi, K H; Benjamin, S

    2008-07-01

    The field bioefficacy of a wettable granule (WG) formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), VectoBac WG (Bti strain AM65-52) against dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae albopictus; was evaluated in a suburban residential area (TST) and in a temporary settlement site (KB) in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Pre-control ovitrap surveillance of the trial sites indicated a high population of both types of Aedes mosquitoes. The populations were monitored continuously by weekly ovitrapping. Bti was sprayed biweekly at a dosage of 500 g/ha by using a mist-blower. The spray application was targeted into outdoor larval habitats. If required, Bti formulation was also applied directly into indoor water-holding containers at 8 g/1,000 l. Based on ovitrap surveillance, a significant reduction in Aedes populations was evident 4 weeks after initiating the first Bti treatment. The ovitrap index (OI) and the larvae density decreased drastically in both trial sites. In TST, the indoor OI was significantly reduced from 57.50 +/- 7.50% to 19.13 +/- 5.49% (p<0.05), while the outdoor OI decreased from 38.89 +/- 11.11% to 15.36 +/- 5.93%. In KB, similarly, the OI was significantly reduced by more than half, from 66.66 +/- 6.67% to 30.26 +/- 2.99% (p< 0.05). In all cases, the reduction in OI was paralleled by reduction in larval density.

  20. Ecology of mosquitoes of Midwestern Nigeria

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    Godwin R.A. Okogun, Jude C. Anosike, Anthony N. Okere & Bethran E.B. Nwoke

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The ecology and distribution of various mosquito species is important inthe determination of mosquito vector abundance and associated diseases prevalence. The distributionof various mosquito genera in natural and artificial habitats and their relative species abundancewas studied between August 2002 and July 2003 in three foci (Uromi, Ekpoma and Auchi comprisingthe Esan and Etsako regions of Midwestern Nigeria.Methods: Sampling was carried out by the method of Hopkins (1952 by dipping using a pipette orladle depending on container types. Pooled contents of smaller containers were sampled with a pondnet. All breeding sources of mosquito larvae were grouped into five (5 depending on their nature,constitution and the physiochemical properties. Artificial mosquito cultures were also carried out infour different container types; plastics, metal cans, earthenware pots and bamboo strips, in parts oftwo different macro habitats subdivided into area of high human activities (AHHA and areas ofderived/secondary vegetation (ADSV. Environmental temperatures, rainfall and relative humiditywere monitored during the study.Results: The present study revealed 17 mosquito species belonging to three genera (Anopheles,Culex and Aedes which are potential vectors of four human diseases in the areas surveyed. A total of736 mosquito larvae were encountered in artificial sources and 568 larvae were harvested from naturalsources. Pools, plastics and metal cans were the predominant artificial sources of mosquito larvae.Conclusion: The contribution of human activities and increasing environmental modification to thebreeding of human disease vector mosquitoes is of importance and selective vector control measuresincluding larviciding are recommended particularly before onset of rainy season

  1. Chemical composition and antioxidant, antimicrobial, and larvicidal activities of the essential oils of Annona salzmannii and A. pickelii (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; Dutra, Lívia Macedo; de Jesus, Hugo César Ramos; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Moraes, Valéria Regina de Souza; Salvador, Marcos José; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; dos Santos, Roseli La Corte; Prata, Ana Paula do Nacimento

    2011-06-01

    The essential oils from the leaves of Annona salzmannii and A. pickelii (Annonaceae) growing in Sergipe, northeastern region of Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus, and analyzed by GC/MS and GC/FID. Thirty-four compounds were identified in the essential oil of A. salzmannii and twenty-seven in that of A. pickelii; sesquiterpenes predominated in both essential oils. Bicyclogermacrene (20.3%), (E)-caryophyllene (19.9%), delta-cadinene (15.3%), alpha-copaene (10.0%), and allo-aromadendrene (5.7%) were the main components of A. salzmannii, and bicyclogermacrene (45.4%), (E)-caryophyllene (14.6%), and alpha-copaene (10.6%) of A. pickelii. The essential oils showed significant antioxidant capacity in the ORAC(FL) and DPPH assays. The antimicrobial activity of these essential oils was also evaluated against bacteria and fungi, as well as the larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae.

  2. Larvicidal potential of essential oils against Musca domestica and Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Nitin; Malik, Anushree; Sharma, Satyawati; Dhiman, R C

    2016-06-01

    The larvicidal activity of Mentha piperita, Cymbopogan citratus (lemongrass), Eucalyptus globulus and Citrus sinensis (orange) essential oils and their combinations was evaluated against Musca domestica (housefly) and Anopheles stephensi (mosquitoes) through contact toxicity assay. Among all the tested essential oils/combinations, Me. piperita was found to be the most effective larvicidal agent against Mu. domestica and An. stephensi with LC50 values of 0.66 μl/cm(2) and 44.66 ppm, respectively, after 48 h. The results clearly highlighted that the addition of mentha oil to other oils (1:1 ratio) improved their larvicidal activity. The order of effectiveness of essential oils/combinations indicated that the pattern for An. stephensi follows the trend as mentha > mentha + lemongrass > lemongrass > mentha + eucalyptus > eucalyptus > mentha + orange > orange and for Mu. domestica as mentha > mentha + lemongrass > lemongrass > mentha + orange > orange > mentha + eucalyptus > eucalyptus. The images obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated the toxic effect of Me. piperita as the treated larvae were observed to be dehydrated and deformed. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of tested essential oils/combinations against the larval stages of Mu. domestica and An. stephensi and has the potential for development of botanical formulations.

  3. In vitro PHYTOTHERAPY OF VECTOR SNAILS BY BINARY COMBINATIONS OF LARVICIDAL ACTIVE COMPONENTS IN EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF FASCIOLIASIS

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    Kumari Sunita

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY A food-borne trematode infection fascioliasis is one among common public health problems worldwide. It caused a great economic loss for the human race. Control of snail population below a certain threshold level is one of the important methods in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. The life cycle of the parasite can be interrupted by killing the snail or Fasciola larva redia and cercaria inside of the snail Lymnaea acuminata. In vitro toxicity of different binary combinations (1:1 ratio of plant-derived larvicidal active components such as citral, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, azadirachtin and allicin against Fasciola redia and cercaria were tested. The mortality of larvae was observed at 2h, 4h, 6h and 8h of treatment. In in vitro condition azadirachtin + allicin (1:1 ratio was highly toxic against redia and cercaria (8h LC50 0.006 and 0.005 mg/L. Toxicity of citral + ferulic acid was lowest against redia and cercaria larvae.

  4. In vitro PHYTOTHERAPY OF VECTOR SNAILS BY BINARY COMBINATIONS OF LARVICIDAL ACTIVE COMPONENTS IN EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF FASCIOLIASIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunita, Kumari; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY A food-borne trematode infection fascioliasis is one among common public health problems worldwide. It caused a great economic loss for the human race. Control of snail population below a certain threshold level is one of the important methods in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. The life cycle of the parasite can be interrupted by killing the snail or Fasciola larva redia and cercaria inside of the snail Lymnaea acuminata. In vitro toxicity of different binary combinations (1:1 ratio) of plant-derived larvicidal active components such as citral, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, azadirachtin and allicin against Fasciola redia and cercaria were tested. The mortality of larvae was observed at 2h, 4h, 6h and 8h of treatment. In in vitro condition azadirachtin + allicin (1:1 ratio) was highly toxic against redia and cercaria (8h LC50 0.006 and 0.005 mg/L). Toxicity of citral + ferulic acid was lowest against redia and cercaria larvae. PMID:24037283

  5. Larvicidal activity of the water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds against Aedes aegypti and its toxicity upon laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo M P; Carvalho, Ana F U; Farias, Davi F; Cariolano, Nara G; Melo, Vânia M M; Queiroz, Maria G R; Martins, Alice M C; Machado-Neto, Joaquim G

    2009-06-01

    In this work, biological effects of the water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds (WEMOS) were assessed on eggs and 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and on its toxicity upon laboratory animals (Daphnia magna, mice and rats). Crude WEMOS showed a LC50 value of 1260microg/mL, causing 99.2 +/- 2.9% larvae mortality within 24 h at 5200microg/mL, though this larvicidal activity has been lost completely at 80 masculineC/10 min. WEMOS did not demonstrate capacity to prevent egg hatching. After extensive dialyses of the crude WEMOS into watersoluble dialyzable (DF) and nondyalizable (NDF) fractions, only DF maintained its efficacy to kill larvae. Acute toxicity evaluations on daphnids (EC50 of 188.7microg/mL) and mice (LD50 of 446.5 mg/kg body weight) pointed out to low toxicity. Despite the thymus hypertrophy, WEMOS revealed to be harmless in orally and subacutelytreated rats. In conclusion, WEMOS has thermostable bioactive compounds against Ae. aegypti larvae with apparent molecular mass lower than 12 kDa and moderately toxic potential.

  6. Larvicidal potency of marine actinobacteria isolated from mangrove environment against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S; Santhanam, P; Srinivasan, M

    2017-06-01

    The marine soil samples were collected from different locations of Parangipettai mangrove ecosystem, Vellar estuary, southeast coast of India. Totally 30 different marine actinobacteria were isolated by serial dilution plate technique on starch casein agar medium. The isolated actinobacteria were investigated for their larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Streptomyces fungicidicus, S. griseus, S. albus, S. alboflavus and S. rochei were identified as potential biocide producers. Based on the antimicrobial activity, five strains were chosen for larvicidal and pupicidal activity. Among the crude extracts tested, the S. alboflavus extract showed significant activity against Ae. aegypti (LC50 1.48 ± 0.09 and LC90 3.33 ± 0.22) and An. stephensi (LC50 1.30 ± 0.09 and LC90 3.13 ± 0.21). Five isolates have shown a most significant mortality rate of the Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi mosquito larvae. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of Japanese encephalitis vectors, Ae. aegypti and malarial vector An. stephensi.

  7. LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF Bacillus sphaericus 2362 AGAINST Anopheles nuneztovari, Anopheles darlingi AND Anopheles braziliensis (DIPTERA, CULICIDAE

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    RODRIGUES Iléa Brandão

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, preliminary data was obtained regarding the mortality rate of the Amazonian anophelines, Anopheles nuneztovari, Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles braziliensis when subjected to treatment with Bacillus sphaericus strain 2362, the WHO standard strain. Initially, experiments were conducted to test the mortality rate of the three species of anopheline larvae. The third larval instar of An. nuneztovari and the second and third larval instars of An. darlingi proved to be the least susceptible. In other experiments, the same three mosquito species were tested with the standard strain 2362, An. nuneztovari was the least susceptible to this insect pathogen, while An. braziliensis was the most susceptible. This latter species showed a difference in the level of LC50 concentration, when compared to the former, of 2.4, 2.5 and 1.8 in readings taken 24, 48 and 72 hours after exposure to the bacillus.

  8. Thiosemicarbazones as Aedes aegypti larvicidal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, João Bosco P; Navarro, Daniela Maria do A F; da Silva, Aluizio G; Santos, Geanne K N; Dutra, Kamilla A; Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo; Ramos, Mozart N; Espíndola, José Wanderlan P; de Oliveira, Ana Daura T; Brondani, Dalci José; Leite, Ana Cristina L; Hernandes, Marcelo Zaldini; Pereira, Valéria R A; da Rocha, Lucas F; de Castro, Maria Carolina A B; de Oliveira, Beatriz C; Lan, Que; Merz, Kenneth M

    2015-07-15

    A set of aryl- and phenoxymethyl-(thio)semicarbazones were synthetized, characterized and biologically evaluated against the larvae of Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti), the vector responsible for diseases like Dengue and Yellow Fever. (Q)SAR studies were useful for predicting the activities of the compounds not included to create the QSAR model as well as to predict the features of a new compound with improved activity. Docking studies corroborated experimental evidence of AeSCP-2 as a potential target able to explain the larvicidal properties of its compounds. The trend observed between the in silico Docking scores and the in vitro pLC50 (equals -log LC50, at molar concentration) data indicated that the highest larvicidal compounds, or the compounds with the highest values for pLC50, are usually those with the higher docking scores (i.e., greater in silico affinity for the AeSCP-2 target). Determination of cytotoxicity for these compounds in mammal cells demonstrated that the top larvicide compounds are non-toxic.

  9. Metofluthrin: a potent new synthetic pyrethroid with high vapor activity against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujihara, Kazuya; Mori, Tatsuya; Iwasaki, Tomonori; Sugano, Masayo; Shono, Yoshinori; Matsuo, Noritada

    2004-01-01

    (1R)-trans-Norchrysanthemic acid fluorobenzyl esters are synthesized and their structure-activity relationships are discussed. These esters show outstanding insecticidal activity against mosquitoes. In particular, the 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-methoxymethylbenzyl analog (metofluthrin) exhibits the highest potency, being approximately forty times as potent as d-allethrin in a mosquito coil formulation when tested against southern house mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus). Metofluthrin also exhibits a significant vapor action at room temperature.

  10. Differential Larval Toxicity and Oviposition Altering Activity of Some Indigenous Plant Extracts against Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Aedes albopictus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruchi Yadav; Varun Tyagi; Tikar, Sachin N; Sharma, Ajay K.; Murlidhar J Mendki; Jain, Ashok K; Devanathan Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mosquitoes are well known as vectors of several disease causing pathogens. The extensive use of synthetic insecticides in the mosquito control strategies resulted to the development of pesticide resistance and fostered environmental deterioration. Hence in recent years plants become alternative source of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the larvicidal and oviposition altering activity of six different plants species-Alstonia scholaris, Callistemon viminalis, Hyp...

  11. Efficacy of neem chippings for mosquito larval control under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbahale, Susan S; Mukabana, Wolfgang R

    2015-03-08

    An in depth understanding of mosquito breeding biology and factors regulating population sizes is fundamental for vector population control. This paper presents results from a survey of mosquito breeding habitats and the efficacy of neem chippings as a potential larvicide that can be integrated in mosquito control on Nyabondo Plateau in western Kenya. Six main mosquito habitat types namely artificial ponds, abandoned fish ponds, active fish ponds, open drains, temporary pools and swamps were found in Nyabondo. Early anopheline instars were mainly recovered from temporary pools, artificial ponds and abandoned fish ponds. The mosquitoes collected were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (35%), An. coustani (46%) and Culex spp (19%). Both early and late instar larvae of anopheline and culicine mosquitoes were more abundant in the controls than in the Bti and neem treated habitats. Within treated habitats, early instar anopheline mosquitoes were recovered more from habitats provided with neem and fish compared to Bti treated habitats. All treated habitats recorded higher numbers of early instar larvae than late instars or pupae, indicating that gravid female mosquitoes still oviposited within treated habitats. Neem chippings are a good tool for mosquito larval source management under field conditions. However, more research needs to be done to quantify the contribution of this tool to the overall mosquito borne disease transmission.

  12. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of methanolic leaf extract of Manihot esculenta (cassava) on susceptible and resistant strains of Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rofaai, A; Rahman, W A; Sulaiman, S F; Yahaya, Z S

    2012-11-23

    This study aimed to represent the first report of the ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the methanolic leaf extract of Manihot esculenta (cassava) against eggs and larvae of susceptible and resistant strains of Trichostrongylus colubriformis. As well as, to determine the total tannin compounds, antioxidant activity and toxicity of the extract. The egg hatch test was used to evaluate ovicidal activity against unembryonated eggs, whereas larval feeding inhibition assay and MTT-formazan assay were used to evaluate larvicidal activity against first (L(1)) and infective (L(3)) larvae, respectively. The results showed no significant differences were detected between the sensitivities of susceptible and resistant strains of T. colubriformis to the extract. Eggs, L(1) and L(3) were significantly affected (Pactivity was evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging assay and the median inhibition concentration (IC(50)) was determined by 2.638 mg/ml. Acute oral toxicity at dose of 5,000 mg/kg, and sub-chronic oral toxicity at 500 and 1,000 mg/kg of the extract were observed in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The acute oral toxicity revealed that the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of methanolic extract of cassava leaves on SD rats was greater than 5,000 mg/kg, whereas the sub-chronic oral toxicity did not show observed adverse effects at 500 and 1,000 mg/kg per day for 28 days. In conclusion, the methanolic extract of cassava leaves has direct ovicidal and larvicidal activity against T. colubriformis strains with a safety margin for animals, and it may be potentially utilized as a source of natural antioxidants.

  13. Effect of crude extract of Solanum xanthocarpum against snails and mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changbunjong, Tanasak; Wongwit, Waranya; Leemingsawat, Somjai; Tongtokit, Yuwadee; Deesin, Vanida

    2010-03-01

    The ethanolic crude extract from Solanum xanthocarpum was investigated for its molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, and Indoplanorbis exustus, the snail vector of intestinal echinostomiasis and Schistosoma spindale, together with the larvicidal activity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti, mosquito vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever and Culex quinquefasciatus, the mosquito vector of urban bancroftian filariasis. The bioassays were carried out following the methods recommended by the World Health Organization. For molluscicidal activity, the LC50 against Bi. glabrata and I. exustus were reported at 163.85 and 198.00 mg/l while the LC90 were 219.33 and 236.80 mg/l, respectively. Regarding mosquito larvicidal activity, the LC50 against the larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 788.10 and 573.20 mg/l, while the LC90 were 1288.91 and 1066.93 mg/l, respectively. These results suggest a preparation of ingredients from this plant may be used as a biological larvicide for these vectors in the field.

  14. The larvicidal activity of Agave sisalana against L4 larvae of Aedes aegypti is mediated by internal necrosis and inhibition of nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Fabiola C; Leite, Jacqueline A; Oliveira, Louise H G; Sousa, Patrícia A P S; Menezes, Márcio C; Moraes, João P S; Mascarenhas, Sandra R; Braga, Valdir A

    2015-02-01

    Dengue is a viral disease that affects about 50 million people per year around the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal activity of Agave sisalana crude extract in order to develop a new insecticide against Aedes aegypti. In larvicidal activity assays, fourth-stage Ae. aegypti larvae were exposed to different concentrations of A. sisalana crude extract for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h for determining the LC50. Next, we explored its cytotoxic activity by flow cytometry. Furthermore, histological alterations were confirmed by histopathological analysis, and the nitric oxide (NO) production by hemocytes was checked after different periods of exposure to A. sisalana crude extract. The LC50 was 4.5 ± 0.07 mg/mL. In addition, flow cytometry revealed an increase of cellular necrosis (21 and 16.5 % after 12 and 24 h, respectively) in larvae that were exposed to A. sisalana crude extract. The histological analysis revealed cell lysis and destruction of the peritrophic membrane. Furthermore, there was a reduction in the concentration of NO in the hemolymph from larvae exposed to A. sisalana crude extract after 3, 6, and 24 h (5.3 ± 4.3 vs. 22.7 ± 5.2 μM, 4.3 ± 5.5 vs. 25.4 ± 6.6 μM, and 6 ± 1.7 vs. 37.1 ± 7.8 μM, respectively). Our findings show that A. sisalana crude extract constitutes an effective larvicidal agent against Ae. aegypti larvae due to its necrotizing activity in hemocytes and inhibition of the NO production.

  15. The use of andiroba Carapa guianensis as larvicide against Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Onilda S; Romão, Pedro R T; Blazius, Rene D; Prohiro, Josiane S

    2004-12-01

    Andiroba Carapa guianensis Aubl. Meliacea is known to possess repellent activity against many mosquito species. We evaluated the larvicidal effect of dry-scratched seed kernels of andiroba against a sylvatic F1 progeny and a laboratory-colonized population of Aedes albopictus (Skuse). The 3rd instar of F1 treated with 0.5 to 2% of C. guianensis for 24 and 48 hours, had mortality with LC50 of 0.74 (0.56-0.90%) and 0.68 (0.53-0.84%), respectively, and the 4th instar 0.66 (0.52-0.80%) and 0.55 (0.20-0.91%), respectively. For the 3rd instars of laboratory-colonized larvae, the treatment with 0.5 to 4% of C. guianensis induced mortality after 24 hours with LC50 of 1.81 (1.39-2.22%), and an LC50 of 1.82 (1.57-2.07%) to the 4th instar. This is the 1st report of the larvicidal effect of C. guianensis on mosquitoes.

  16. A comparative study of the ovicidal and larvicidal activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of pawpaw seeds Carica papaya (Caricaceae) on Heligmosomoidesbakeri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WaboPonJ; NgankamNtemahJD; BilongBilongCF; MpoameMbida

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the ovicidal and larvicidal activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of pawpaw seeds Carica papaya (Caricaceae) on the eggs and first stage larvae (L1) of Heligmosomoides bakeri. Methods:Eggs of this parasite were obtained from experimentally infested mice (Mus musculus) and larvae were from eggs after incubation at 25℃for about 72 hours. The eggs and larvae were exposed to ten different concentrations (0.125, 0.25, 0.375, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.75, 2.25 and 2.75 mg/mL) of both aqueous and ethanolic extracts respectively for 72 hours. Distilled water and 0.05%ethanol used as placebo and negative control, respectively. Results:Placebo and negative control group all showed average 92%embryonnation, 98%egg hatching and 2%larval mortality, and did not affect development and larval survival. The extracts inhibited embryonic development, egg hatching and larval survival. In general, the ovicidal and larvicidal activities increased with increasing concentration of different extracts. The aqueous extract was found to be more potent on eggs than on larvae. At 2.75 mg/mL, only 8%of eggs embryonnated and 50%hatched to L1 vs 57%embryonic development and 79%hatching occurred in the ethanolic extract. However, this later extract was more efficient in preventing larval development producing 96%mortality as against 68%with the aqueous extract. Conclusions:These results shows the ovicidal and larvicidal properties of aqueous and ethanolic pawpaw seeds extracts.

  17. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. (Fabaceae against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    M Govindarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae. Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC 50 and LC 90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  18. Larvicidal effects of Chinaberry (Melia azederach) powder on Anopheles arabiensis in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Synthetic insecticides are employed in the widely-used currently favored malaria control techniques involving indoor residual spraying and treated bednets. These methods have repeatedly proven to be highly effective at reducing malaria incidence and prevalence. However, rapidly emerging mosquito resistance to the chemicals and logistical problems in transporting supplies to remote locations threaten the long-term sustainability of these techniques. Chinaberry (Melia azederach) extracts have been shown to be effective growth-inhibiting larvicides against several insects. Because several active chemicals in the trees' seeds have insecticidal properties, the emergence of resistance is unlikely. Here, we investigate the feasibility of Chinaberry as a locally available, low-cost sustainable insecticide that can aid in controlling malaria. Chinaberry fruits were collected from Asendabo, Ethiopia. The seeds were removed from the fruits, dried and crushed into a powder. From developmental habitats in the same village, Anopheles arabiensis larvae were collected and placed into laboratory containers. Chinaberry seed powder was added to the larval containers at three treatment levels: 5 g m-2, 10 g m-2 and 20 g m-2, with 100 individual larvae in each treatment level and a control. The containers were monitored daily and larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes were counted. This experimental procedure was replicated three times. Results Chinaberry seed powder caused an inhibition of emergence of 93% at the 5 g m-2 treatment level, and 100% inhibition of emergence at the two higher treatment levels. The Chinaberry had a highly statistically significant larvicidal effect at all treatment levels (χ2 = 184, 184, and 155 for 5 g m-2, 10 g m-2 and 20 g m-2, respectively; p larvicide against the major African malaria vector An. arabiensis. The seed could provide a sustainable additional malaria vector control tool that can be used where the tree is abundant and where An

  19. Larvicidal and repellent properties of some essential oils against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles and Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the larvicidal and repellent properties of essential oils from various parts of four plant species Cymbopogan citrates, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Zingiber officinale against Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus) and Anopheles subpictus (An. subpictus). Essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation method. The mosquitoes were reared in the vector control laboratory and twenty five late third instar larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus were exposed to based on the wide range and narrow range test, essential oil tested at various concentrations ranging from 25 to 250 ppm. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h under the laboratory conditions. The repellent efficacy was determined against two mosquito species at three concentrations viz., 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/cm(2) under laboratory conditions. Results showed all the four plant essential oil produced significant larval mortality against two mosquito species. However, the highest larvicidal activity was observed in the essential oil from Zingiber officinale against Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus with the LC(50) and LC(90) values as 98.83, 57.98 ppm and 186.55, 104.23 ppm, respectively. All the four essential oil shows significant repellency against Cx. tritaeniorhynchus than An. subpictus. Among four essential oil tested the highest repellency was observed in Zingiber officinale, a higher concentration of 5.0 mg/cm(2) provided 100% protection up to 150 and 180 min against Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus, respectively. In this work, it can be concluded that four essential oils which were distilled from Cymbopogan citrates, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Zingiber officinale showed promising larvicidal and repellent agent against Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dusk to dawn activity patterns of anopheline mosquitoes in West Timor and Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoen, Ermi; Wild, Clyde; Dale, Pat; Sipe, Neil; Dale, Mike

    2011-05-01

    Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. We investigated the dusk to dawn anopheline mosquito activity patterns, host-seeking and resting locations in coastal plain, hilly and highland areas in West Timor and Java. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans or resting in houses or animal barns. Data analyzed were: mosquito night-time activities; period of peak activity; night-time activity in specific periods of time and for mosquito resting locations. Eleven species were recorded; data were sparse for some species therefore detailed analyses were performed for four species only. In Java Anopheles vagus was common, with a bimodal pattern of high activity. In West Timor, its activity peaked around midnight. Other species with peak activity around the middle of the night were An. barbirostris and An. subpictus. Most species showed no biting and resting preference for indoors or outdoors, although An. barbirostris preferred indoors in West Timor, but outdoors in Java. An. aconitus and An. annularis preferred resting in human dwellings; An. subpictus and An. vagus preferred resting in animal barns. An. barbirostris preferred resting in human dwellings in West Timor and in animal barns in Java. The information is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management. For example, where mosquito species have peak activity at night indoors, bednets and indoor residual spraying should reduce malaria risk, but where mosquitoes are most active outdoors, other options may be more effective.

  1. Evaluation of biological control agents for mosquitoes control in artificial breeding places

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salim Abadi Yaser; Vatandoost Hassan; Rassi Yavar; Abai Mohammad Reza; Sanei Dehkordi Ali Reza; Paksa Azim

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the entomological impact of chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis, andGambusia affinis on mosquitoes control in artificial breeding places.Methods:A Latin square design with 4 replicates was performed in order to evaluate the efficacy of chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis, andGambusia affinis on larva. The larvicide was applied at the dosage of 100 mg a.h/ha,Bacillus thuringiensis at the recommended dosage and 10 fishes per m2 were applied at 1í1 m2 artificial breeding sites. The larval densities for both anopheline and culicine were counted according to larvae /10 dippers prior and 24 h after application.Results:All three control agents are effective for mosquito density reduction, and the difference between the three agents and the control is significant (P<0.05). There is also significant difference among chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis andGambusia affinis.Bacillus thuringiensisexhibited more reduction on mosquito larval density than fish and larvicide (P<0.05).Conclusions:Bacillus thuringiensis in comparison with two other agents is the appropriate method for larviciding in the breeding places. Although long term assessing for biological activities as well as monitoring and mapping of resistance is required.

  2. Efficacy of larvicidal activity of green synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Mangifera indica extract against blood-feeding parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Chung, Ill-Min; Anbarasan, Karunanithi; Karthikeyan, Viswanathan

    2015-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are considered to be among the best photocatalytic materials due to their long-term thermodynamic stability, strong oxidizing power, and relative non-toxicity. Nano-preparations with TiO2 NPs are currently under investigation as novel treatments for acne vulgaris, recurrent condyloma acuminata, atopic dermatitis, hyperpigmented skin lesions, and other non-dermatologic diseases. The present study was to investigate the acaricidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) against hematophagous parasites. The anti-parasitic activity of TiO2 NPs against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acari: Ixodidae), fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) were assessed. The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by UV-Vis, FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, SEM, and TEM. The XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed the dominant peak at 2θ value of 27.81 which matched the 110 crystallographic plane of the rutile structure indicating the crystal structure. The FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,448 cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. The SEM images of TiO2 NPs displayed spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The TEM micrograph showed agglomerates, round and slight elongation with an average size of 30 ± 5 nm. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized TiO2 NPs against the larvae of R. microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, A. subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus with LC50 value of 28.56, 33.17, 23.81, 5.84, and 4.34 mg/L, respectively. In the present study, a novel

  3. Insect Repellents: Modulators of mosquito odorant receptor activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes vector numerous pathogens that cause diseases including malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever and chikungunya. DEET, IR3535, Picaridin and 2-undecanone are insect repellents that are used to prevent interactions between humans and a broad array of disease vectors including mosquitoes. While...

  4. Phenoloxidase activity acts as a mosquito innate immune response against infection with Semliki Forest virus.

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    Julio Rodriguez-Andres

    Full Text Available Several components of the mosquito immune system including the RNA interference (RNAi, JAK/STAT, Toll and IMD pathways have previously been implicated in controlling arbovirus infections. In contrast, the role of the phenoloxidase (PO cascade in mosquito antiviral immunity is unknown. Here we show that conditioned medium from the Aedes albopictus-derived U4.4 cell line contains a functional PO cascade, which is activated by the bacterium Escherichia coli and the arbovirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV (Togaviridae; Alphavirus. Production of recombinant SFV expressing the PO cascade inhibitor Egf1.0 blocked PO activity in U4.4 cell- conditioned medium, which resulted in enhanced spread of SFV. Infection of adult female Aedes aegypti by feeding mosquitoes a bloodmeal containing Egf1.0-expressing SFV increased virus replication and mosquito mortality. Collectively, these results suggest the PO cascade of mosquitoes plays an important role in immune defence against arboviruses.

  5. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of condensed tannins on gastrointestinal nematode infestations in sheep (Ovis aries

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    Eidi Yoshihara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infestations of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in sheep result in significant costs to farmers. These infestations are controlled using synthetic anthelmintic treatments, which can result in the development of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes. The use of plants rich in condensed tannins (CTs is a promising alternative for controlling infestations of harmful parasites in sheep, and could allow reduction of the chemical products used. This study investigated the in vitro effect of CTs from Acacia mearnsii extract (AE on egg hatching and motility of third-stage larvae. Egg-hatching rate was measured after incubation with extracts for 48 h at 27 °C. The egg hatch test was performed with dilutions of 0.09, 0.19, 0.39, 0.78, 1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg mL-1. Distilled water was used as the negative control. The corresponding egg hatching inhibition percentages were 22.3, 32.3, 39.2, 49.1, 56.7, 59.0, 62.3, 77.3, 92.7, 98.3, and 100%. The concentration required to inhibit egg hatching in 50% of eggs (LC50 was 2.85 mg mL-1. The inhibition achieved with the negative control was 7.06%. A larval migration inhibition test was carried out after incubation with the extracts for 48 h at 27 oC, with AE and distilled water used in dilutions of 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg mL-1. The corresponding percentages of migration inhibition were 16.5, 37.0, 56.3, 79.4, 91.8, and 97.1%. The concentration required to inhibit migration of 50% of larvae (LC50 was 12.45 mg mL-1. The inhibition achieved with the negative control was 8.53%. The in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of CTs from AE indicate the anthelmintic effect of AE, suggesting the potential of CT extracts to be used as alternatives for controlling gastrointestinal nematode infestations in small ruminants.

  6. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of Agave sisalana Perr. (sisal) on gastrointestinal nematodes of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botura, Mariana B; dos Santos, Jener David G; da Silva, Gisele D; de Lima, Hélimar G; de Oliveira, João Victor A; de Almeida, Maria Angela O; Batatinha, Maria José M; Branco, Alexsandro

    2013-02-18

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of aqueous extracts (AE), ethyl acetate extracts (EE), flavonoid fractions (FF) and saponin fractions (SF) obtained from sisal waste (Agave sisalana) against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. The activity of these extracts was evaluated by performing inhibition of egg hatch (EHA) and larval migration (LMI) assays. The EC(50) results of the EHA corresponded to 4.7, 0.1 and 0.05 mg/mL for EE, EA and FF, respectively. The SF fraction showed no ovicidal activity. The percent efficacies that were observed for the LMI were 50.3, 33.2 and 64.1% for the AE, EE and SF, respectively. The FF fraction did not show activity against the larvae. The analysis of the FF fraction indicates the presence of a homoisoflavonoid. This report suggests that the A. sisalana has activity in vitro against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. This effect is likely related to the presence of homoisoflavonoid and saponin compounds, which have different actions for specific stages of nematode development.

  7. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the crude extracts from Phytolacca icosandra against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Villegas, M M; Borges-Argáez, R; Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Méndez-Gonzalez, M; Cáceres-Farfan, M

    2011-06-30

    The development of anthelmintic resistance has impacted on the success of conventional anthelmintics (AH) for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing/browsing sheep and goats. Medicinal plants from the traditional herbolary in Mexico may provide new candidates that can be explored as alternative sources of AHs for ruminants. This study evaluated the leaf extracts derived from Phytolacca icosandra against infective L(3) larvae and eggs from Haemonchus contortus collected from sheep. Three extracts of different polarities were obtained from the leaf plants using ethanol, n-hexane and dichloromethane as the solvents. The effectiveness of the in vitro AH activity of the plant extracts was evaluated using larval migration inhibition (LMI) and egg hatch (EHA) assays. For the LMI assays, the ethanolic extract of P. icosandra showed 55.4% inhibition of larval migration at 2mg/mL (pactivity reported for P. icosandra could be attributable to the flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, coumarins and/or saponins that were present in the ethanolic and dichloromethane extracts. A combination of more than one component may also explain the observed AH activity against the H. contortus life stages that were evaluated. In conclusion, the ethanolic and dichloromethane extracts of P. icosandra showed clear in vitro AH activity against the H. contortus eggs and the L(3) larvae. However, the hexanic extract of the plant leaves failed to show any in vitro AH activity.

  8. Mosquito repellent activity of volatile oils from selected aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalthazuali; Mathew, Nisha

    2017-02-01

    Essential oils from fresh leaves of four aromatic plants viz., Ocimum sanctum, Mentha piperita, Eucalyptus globulus and Plectranthus amboinicus were extracted by hydrodistillation. The test solutions were prepared as 20% essential oil in ethanol and positive control as 20% DEET in ethanol. Essential oil blend was prepared as 5% concentration. Nulliparous, 3-5-day-old female adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were used for repellency screening as per ICMR protocol. The study showed that the repellency of 20% essential oil of O. sanctum, M. piperita and P. amboinicus were comparable with that of the standard DEET (20%) as no mosquito landing on the test was observed up to 6 h. The E. globulus oil exhibited mosquito repellency only upto 1½ h. Considerable mosquito landing and feeding was displayed in negative control. In the case of the oil blend, no landing of mosquitoes was seen up to 6 h as that of positive control. The results showed that the essential oil blend from O. sanctum, M. piperita, E. globulus and P. amboinicus could repel Ae. aegypti mosquitoes or prevent from feeding as in the case of DEET even at a lower concentration of 5%. This study demonstrates the potential of essential oils from O. sanctum, M. piperita, E. globulus and P. amboinicus and their blend as mosquito repellents against Ae. aegypti, the vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.

  9. Mosquito Control in Poland: Pro- and Anti-Environmental Activities

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    Gliniewicz Aleksandra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito control in Poland is still dominated by the use of chemicals. Although it has been 13 years since the flood of the century, only in few cities and towns (Wroclaw, Gorzow Wielkopolski and Torun various methods of mosquito control such as mapping of larvae development and setting time limits for the imagines occur-rence were developed. The problem of mosquito control is not only limited to adult insects, it is also much more a complex issue due to the use of insecticides in the environment that we would rather like to keep unchanged, with a diversity of co-existing species of plants and animals. In addition to eradication of larvae and adult insects, we should also: carry out actions modifying environment so that it becomes less friendly to mosquitoes (e.g. drying wet mead-ows as a result of land reclamation, protect places where people reside - with the use of insecticide lamps and spatial repellents, as well as catchers for aggressive female mosquitoes. Increasing the share of environmental management methods and public education on preventing to form and eliminating existing places of mosquito larvae development in urban green areas (parks, river overflow areas and drainage ditches are still an undervalued element of integrated mosquito control in Poland.

  10. Larvicidal and nematicidal activities of the leaf essential oil of Croton regelianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Maria Conceição M; Assunção, João Carlos; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria P; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Silveira, Edilberto R; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V; Bezerra, Daniel P; Marinho Filho, José Delano B; Viana, Francisco Arnaldo; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia L

    2008-12-01

    The chemical composition of the leaf essential oil of Croton regelianus collected from wild plants growing in two different sites at Ceará State (Brazil) was analyzed by GC/MS and GC-FID. Twenty monoterpenoids, representing more than 96% of the chemical composition of the oils, were identified and quantified. The oils showed similar chemical composition but considerable variation in the levels of each constituent. Ascaridole (33.9-17.0%), p-cymene (22.3-21.6%), and camphor (13.0-3.1%) were the predominant constituents. The monoterpene ascaridole was isolated and characterized by spectroscopic data. The essential oils and the isolated compounds were tested against Aedes aegypti and Artemia sp. larvae, and the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The bioassay results show that the essential oil of C. regelianus and ascaridole were moderately active against the M. incognita, but strongly effective against both A. aegypti and Artemia sp. larvae.

  11. Mosquitocidal Effect of Glycosmis pentaphylla Leaf Extracts against Three Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Karthi, Sengodan; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Suganya, Ponnusamy; Natarajan, Devarajan; Kweka, Eliningaya J; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S

    2016-01-01

    The resistance status of malaria vectors to different classes of insecticides used for public health has raised concern for vector control programmes. Alternative compounds to supplement the existing tools are important to be searched to overcome the existing resistance and persistence of pesticides in vectors and the environment respectively. The mosquitocidal effects of Glycosmis pentaphylla using different solvents of acetone, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts against three medically important mosquito vectors was conducted. Glycosmis pentaphylla plant leaves were collected from Kolli Hills, India. The WHO test procedures for larval and adult bioassays were used to evaluate extracts against mosquito vectors, and the chemical composition of extracts identified using GC-MS analysis. The larvicidal and adulticidal activity of G. pentaphylla plant extracts clearly impacted the three species of major mosquitoes vectors. Acetone extracts had the highest larvicidal effect against An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values of 0.0004, 138.54; 0.2669, 73.7413 and 0.0585, 303.746 mg/ml, respectively. The LC50 and LC90 adulticide values of G. pentaphylla leaf extracts in acetone, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate, solvents were as follows for Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi and Ae. Aegypti: 2.957, 5.458, 2.708, and 4.777, 3.449, 6.676 mg/ml respectively. The chemical composition of G. pentaphylla leaf extract has been found in 20 active compounds. The plant leaf extracts of G. pentaphylla bioactive molecules which are effective and can be developed as an eco-friendly approach for larvicides and adulticidal mosquitoes vector control. Detailed identification and characterization of mosquitocidal effect of individual bioactive molecules ingredient may result into biodegradable effective tools for the control of mosquito vectors.

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Cassia roxburghii-a most potent power for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Cassia roxburghii plant leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were determined. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extracts (60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 μg/mL) for 24 h. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Compare to aqueous extracted synthesized AgNPs showed extensive mortality rate against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values that were 26.35, 28.67, 31.27 and 48.81, 53.24, and 58.11 μg/mL, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of C. roxburghii to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach, and the AgNPs formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents. Therefore, this study proves that C. roxburghii is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis (AgNPs) and also can be used as an efficient mosquito control agent. This is the first report on the larvicidal activity of the plant extract and AgNPs.

  13. Mosquitocidal Effect of Glycosmis pentaphylla Leaf Extracts against Three Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Karthi, Sengodan; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Suganya, Ponnusamy; Natarajan, Devarajan; Kweka, Eliningaya J.; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The resistance status of malaria vectors to different classes of insecticides used for public health has raised concern for vector control programmes. Alternative compounds to supplement the existing tools are important to be searched to overcome the existing resistance and persistence of pesticides in vectors and the environment respectively. The mosquitocidal effects of Glycosmis pentaphylla using different solvents of acetone, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts against three medically important mosquito vectors was conducted. Methods Glycosmis pentaphylla plant leaves were collected from Kolli Hills, India. The WHO test procedures for larval and adult bioassays were used to evaluate extracts against mosquito vectors, and the chemical composition of extracts identified using GC-MS analysis. Results The larvicidal and adulticidal activity of G. pentaphylla plant extracts clearly impacted the three species of major mosquitoes vectors. Acetone extracts had the highest larvicidal effect against An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values of 0.0004, 138.54; 0.2669, 73.7413 and 0.0585, 303.746 mg/ml, respectively. The LC50 and LC90 adulticide values of G. pentaphylla leaf extracts in acetone, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate, solvents were as follows for Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi and Ae. Aegypti: 2.957, 5.458, 2.708, and 4.777, 3.449, 6.676 mg/ml respectively. The chemical composition of G. pentaphylla leaf extract has been found in 20 active compounds. Conclusions The plant leaf extracts of G. pentaphylla bioactive molecules which are effective and can be developed as an eco-friendly approach for larvicides and adulticidal mosquitoes vector control. Detailed identification and characterization of mosquitocidal effect of individual bioactive molecules ingredient may result into biodegradable effective tools for the control of mosquito vectors. PMID:27391146

  14. Preparative Capillary GC for Characterization of Five Dracocephalum Essential Oils from Mongolia, and their Mosquito Larvicidal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    (DF), D. moldavica L. (DM), D. fruticulosum Steph. ex Willd. (DFr) and D. peregrinum L. (DP) were evaluated. Simultaneous GC-FID and GC-MS analyses revealed in the EOs of DR, DF and DM an unidentified compound (1) ([M+122], 5.4%, 57.9% and 74.0%, respectively). Therefore, we aimed to isolate compoun...

  15. Photo-induced and phytomediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Derris trifoliata leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vundru Anil; Ammani, Kandru; Jobina, Rajkumari; Subhaswaraj, Pattnaik; Siddhardha, Busi

    2017-06-01

    Due to the increased development of resistance of vectors against synthetic insecticides and chemical drugs, plant based insecticides serve as promising biocontrol agents for effective vector control. Green approach for the synthesis of nanoparticles has been attained using environmentally safe, non-toxic plant extracts. The present study was aimed to investigate the potent larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) produced by Derris trifoliata leaf extract in relation to the various concentrations of methanol and chloroform extracts for 24h against 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. AgNPs were synthesized using D. trifoliata leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM, EDX, XRD and HRTEM. The size of AgNPs as estimated from the full width at half-maximum of (200) peak of silver was 16.13nm, the average crystalline size of the synthesized AgNPs was approximately 20nm, which was correlated with the HRTEM results (20nm). SEM and TEM images have shown the formation of polydispersed nanoparticles with an average size of 20nm. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at 2360.7, 1606.2, 1095.6 and 785.9cm(-1). The spectral peak observed at 1606.2, assigned to stretching vibration (C=O) in carbonyl compounds characterized by the presence of major constituents of flavonoids and terpenoids. The results obtained in FTIR spectroscopy correlated with the GC-MS analysis of methanol and chloroform extracts and indicates the presence of phytosteroids, flavonoids and terpenoids. The highest larvicidal activity was observed for the synthesized AgNPs against the 3rd instar larvae with LC50 values of 5.87mg/l and LC90 of 12.11mg/l, while against 4th instar larvae these values were7.00 and17.76mg/l respectively. The chloroform extracts also showed increased larvicidal activity than methanol extracts against 3rd instar larvae (LC50=54.42mg/l, LC90=140.83mg/l) and 4th

  16. Chemical constituents of Capraria biflora (Scrophulariaceae) and larvicidal activity of essential oil; Constituintes quimicos de Capraria biflora (Scrophulariaceae) e atividade larvicida de seu oleo essencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luciana Gregorio da S.; Almeida, Macia Cleane S.; Monte, Francisco Jose Q.; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria P.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Lemos, Telma Leda G. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Gomes, Clerton L.; Nascimento, Ronaldo F. do, E-mail: tlemos@dqoi.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica

    2012-07-01

    . Analysis of essential oil from fresh leaves of Capraria biflora allowed identification of fourteen essential oil constituents among which thirteen are sesquiterpene compounds, and {alpha}-humulene (43.0%) the major constituent. The essential oil was tested for larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypyti showing good activity, with LC{sub 50} 73.39 {mu}g/mL (2.27 g/mL). Chromatographic studies of extracts from roots and stems allowed the isolation of five compounds: naphthoquinone biflorin, sesquiterpene caprariolide B, the steroid {beta}-sitosterol, the carbohydrate D-mannitol and iridoid myopochlorin first reported in the species C. biflora. The structures of compounds were characterized by spectroscopic data, IR, MS, NMR{sup 13}C, NMR{sup 1}H, NOE, HSQC and HMBC. (author)

  17. [The initial activity and persistance of an experimental larvicide with a base of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and a commercial preparation containing the organophosphorus insecticide temephos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pussemier, L; De Borger, R

    1984-08-01

    The larvicide activity of the experimental preparation SAN 402 I WDC containing B. Thuringiensis var. Israelensis and that of Abate 500 E (44 % temephos) were tested on the larvae of Aedes aegypti. The studies were performed on the following media: distilled water, pure and buffered at pH 9, 7 and 4 and pond water whether or not free from materials in suspension. The activity of both preparations is not influenced by the composition of the media, exception made for the presence of materials in suspension. The persistance varies according to the kind of the media and the concentration level. It is in general rather low. Both preparations behave rather similar, the microbial insecticide however is more influenced by the presence of materials in suspension.

  18. Evaluation of the toxicity and molluscicidal and larvicidal activities of Schinopsis brasiliensis stem bark extract and its fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clisiane C.S. Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever and schistosomiasis are major public health issues for which vector control using larvicide and molluscicide substances present in plants provides a promising strategy. This study evaluated the potential toxicity of the extract of hydroethanol Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl., Anacardiaceae, stem bark and its chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate, and hydromethanol fractions against Artemia salina and Aedes Aegypti larvae and snails Biomphalaria glabrata. All of the assays were performed in triplicate and the mean mortality rates were used to determine the LC50and LC90 values using the probit method. The hydroethanol hydromethanol extract and fraction were free of toxicity towards A. salina(LC50 > 1000 µg/ml, while chloroform fraction was moderately toxic (LC50313 µg/ml; ethyl acetate and hexane fractions displayed low toxicity, with LC50 557 and 582 µg/ml, respectively. Chloroform, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions showed larvicidal potential towards A. aegypti (LC50 values of 345, 527 and 583 µg/ml, respectively, while chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions were highly toxic to B. glabrata (LC90values of 68 and 73 µg/ml, respectively. Based on these findings, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane fractions should be further investigated for their potential use against the vectors of dengue and schistosomiasis.

  19. Plasmodium activates the innate immune response of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, A M; Dimopoulos, G; Seeley, D; Kafatos, F C

    1997-01-01

    Innate immune-related gene expression in the major disease vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae has been analyzed following infection by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei. Substantially increased levels of mRNAs encoding the antibacterial peptide defensin and a putative Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein (GNBP) are observed 20-30 h after ingestion of an infected blood-meal, at a time which indicates that this induction is a response to parasite invasion of the midgut epithelium. The induction is dependent upon the ingestion of infective, sexual-stage parasites, and is not due to opportunistic co-penetration of resident gut micro-organisms into the hemocoel. The response is activated following infection both locally (in the midgut) and systemically (in remaining tissues, presumably fat body and/or hemocytes). The observation that Plasmodium can trigger a molecularly defined immune response in the vector constitutes an important advance in our understanding of parasite-vector interactions that are potentially involved in malaria transmission, and extends knowledge of the innate immune system of insects to encompass responses to protozoan parasites. PMID:9321391

  20. Larvicidal and adulticidal potential of medicinal plant extracts from south India against vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Abdul Abdul Rahuman

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the larvicidal and adulticidal activities of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Momordica charantia (M.charantia), Moringa oleifera(M. oleifera), Ocimumgratissimum (O. gratissimum), Ocimum tenuiflorum (O. tenuiflorum), Punica granatum(P. granatum) and Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) against Culex gelidus (Cx. gelidus) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: Bioassay test was carried out by WHO method for determination of larvicidal and adulticidal activity against mosquitoes. Results: All plant extracts showed moderate larvicidal and adulticidal activities, however the effective larval mortality was found in the leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of O. gratissimum and bark methanol extract of M. oleifera against Cx.gelidus with LC50 values of 39.31, 66.28, and 21.83 μg/mL respectively, and methanol extract of O. gratissimum, O. tenuiflorum and P. granatum againstCx. quinquefasciatus exposed for 1 h and mortality was recorded at 24 h recovery period. Above 90% mortality was found in the ethyl acetate and methanol extract of all experimental plants at the concentrations of 500 μg/mL. Conclusions: The present results suggest that the medicinal plant extracts provided an excellent potential for controlling Cx. gelidus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. with LC50 values of 38.47, 24.90 and 67.20 μg/mL, respectively. The adult feoxupnods eidn tfhore 1e thhy al nadc emtaotert aalnidty m weatsh arneoclo redxetrda catt o2f4 a lhl erxepcoevriemrye nptearl ipodla.n Atsb aotv teh e9 0c%on mceonrttraaltiitoyn ws aosf 500 μg/mL. Conclusions: The present results suggest that the medicinal plant extracts provided an excellent potential for controlling Cx. gelidus and Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  1. Larvicidal activity of the water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds against Aedes aegypti and its toxicity upon laboratory animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M.P. Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, biological effects of the water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds (WEMOS were assessed on eggs and 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and on its toxicity upon laboratory animals (Daphnia magna, mice and rats. Crude WEMOS showed a LC50 value of 1260µg/mL, causing 99.2 ± 2.9% larvae mortality within 24 h at 5200µg/mL, though this larvicidal activity has been lost completely at 80ºC/10 min. WEMOS did not demonstrate capacity to prevent egg hatching. After extensive dialyses of the crude WEMOS into watersoluble dialyzable (DF and nondyalizable (NDF fractions, only DF maintained its efficacy to kill larvae. Acute toxicity evaluations on daphnids (EC50 of 188.7µg/mL and mice (LD50 of 446.5 mg/kg body weight pointed out to low toxicity. Despite the thymus hypertrophy, WEMOS revealed to be harmless in orally and subacutelytreated rats. In conclusion, WEMOS has thermostable bioactive compounds against Ae. aegypti larvae with apparent molecular mass lower than 12 kDa and moderately toxic potential.Neste trabalho, o extrato aquoso das sementes de Moringaoleifera (EASMO foi avaliado quanto aos seus efeitos biológicos sobre ovos e larvas de Aedes aegypti no 3ºestágio de desenvolvimento e sua toxicidade sobre animais de laboratório(Daphnia magna, camundongos e ratos. O EASMO bruto revelou uma CL50 de 1.260 µg/mL, causando 99, 2 ± 2, 9% de mortalidade em 24 h na concentração de 5.200 µg/mL, embora o mesmo não tenha sido capaz de impedir a eclosão dos ovos. A atividade larvicida extinguiu-se após aquecimento do extrato a 80ºC/10 min. Diálises sucessivas do EASMO bruto resultaram em duas frações solúveis em água (Fração dializável, FD; Fração nãodializável, FND, dentre as quais apenas a FD mostrou ação larvicida. Testes de toxicidade aguda realizadosem dáfnias (CE50 de 188, 7 µg/mL e camundongos (DL50 de446,5 mg/kg de peso corpóreo evidenciaram baixa toxicidade. Apesar da hipertrofia tímica, o EASMO mostrou ser

  2. Larvicidal and Pupicidal Activities of Alizarin Isolated from Roots of Rubia cordifolia Against Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, M R; Reegan, A D; Ganesan, P; Sivasankaran, K; Paulraj, M G; Balakrishna, K; Ignacimuthu, S; Al-Dhabi, N A

    2016-08-01

    The mosquitocidal activities of different fractions and a compound alizarin from the methanol extract of Rubia cordifolia roots were evaluated on larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae and pupae were exposed to concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 ppm for fractions and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm for compound. After 24 h, the mortality was assessed and the LC50 and LC90 values were estimated for larvae and pupae. Among the 23 fractions screened, fraction 2 from the methanol extract of R. cordifolia showed good mosquitocidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti. LC50 and LC90 values of fraction 2 were 3.53 and 7.26 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 3.86 and 8.28 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, and 3.76 and 7.50 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 3.92 and 8.05 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. Further, the isolated compound alizarin presented good larvicidal and pupicidal activities. LC50 and LC90 values of alizarin for larvae were 0.81 and 3.86 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus and 1.31 and 6.04 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, respectively. Similarly, the LC50 and LC90 values of alizarin for pupae were 1.97 and 4.79 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 2.05 and 5.59 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. The structure of the isolated compound was identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and compared with reported spectral data. The results indicated that alizarin could be used as a potential larvicide and pupicide.

  3. Preliminary study on mosquito repellent and mosquitocidal activities of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) grown in eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparaocha, Evangeline T; Iwu, Iraneus; Ahanakuc, J E

    2010-03-01

    The study examined the mosquito-repellent and mosquitocidal activities of the volatile oil of Ocimum gratissimum at three different locations (World Bank Estate, Ihitte and Umuekunne) in Imo State, eastern Nigeria, with the purpose of sourcing for mosquito repellent that is cheap, abundant, environment and user-friendly. Four different lotions; 20% (v/v) and 30% (v/v) concentrations each of the extracted volatile oil in two natural oil bases (olive and palm kernel) were made and six volunteered human baits were used to evaluate the mosquito repellent and mosquitocidal activities of the stock materials at the three different centres from September to November 2008. Topical application of each of the four different lotions significantly (p mosquitoes in all the three locations tested. The 30% (v/v) concentration in olive oil base exhibiting highest average percentage repellencies of 97.2, 95.7 and 96.3% at World Bank Estate, Ihitte and Umuekunne centres respectively while the 20% (v/v) concentration in palm kernel oil base had the least repellency of 36.3, 41.6 and 36.3%, respectively. The other two formulations had values ranging from 67.8 to 80% in the three locations. The 30% (v/v) concentration in both olive and palm kernel oil bases afforded all night protection against mosquito bites in all the centres, and demonstrated fast knockdown and paralyzing effect on few mosquitoes at the urban centre (World Bank Estate). The study confirms that O. gratissimum grown in eastern Nigeria has mosquito-repellent and mosquitocidal potentials and the formulations could be used to reduce human-mosquito contacts and hence mosquito-borne diseases and irritations caused by their bites.

  4. Chemical constituents and larvicidal potential of Feronia limonia leaf essential oil against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, A; Jayaraman, M; Venkatesalu, V

    2013-03-01

    In the present investigation, the leaf essential oil of Feronia limonia was evaluated for chemical constituents and mosquito larvicidal activity against the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. GC and GC-MS analyses revealed that the essential oil contain 51 compounds. Estragole (34.69 %) and β-pinene(23.59 %) were identified as the major constituents followed by methyl (Z)-caryophyllene (11.05 %), eugenol (6.50 %), linalool (3.97 %), phytol (3.27 %), sabinene (2.41 %) and limonene (2.27 %). Larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The oil showed remarkable larvicidal activity against A. stephensi (LC(50) = 38.93 and LC(90) = 108.64 ppm (after 12 h); LC(50) = 15.03 and LC(90) = 36.69 ppm (after 24 h)), A. aegypti (LC(50) = 37.60 and LC(90) = 104.69 ppm (after 12 h); LC(50) = 11.59 and LC(90) = 42.95 ppm (after 24 h)) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) = 52.08 and LC(90) = 124.33 ppm (after 12 h); LC(50) = 22.49 and LC(90) = 60.90 ppm (after 24 h)). Based on the results, the essential oil of F. limonia can be considered as a new source of larvicide for the control of vector mosquitoes.

  5. Bioefficacy of Mentha piperita essential oil against dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sarita; Wahab, Naim; Warikoo, Radhika

    2011-04-01

    To assess the larvicidal and repellent potential of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of peppermint plant, Mentha piperita (M. piperita) against the larval and adult stages of Aedes aegypti (Ae. Aegypti). The larvicidal potential of peppermint oil was evaluated against early fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti using WHO protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 and 48 h, and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The efficacy of peppermint oil as mosquito repellent was assessed using the human-bait technique. The measured area of one arm of a human volunteer was applied with the oil and the other arm was applied with ethanol. The mosquito bites on both the arms were recorded for 3 min after every 15 min. The experiment continued for 3 h and the percent protection was calculated. The essential oil extracted from M. piperita possessed excellent larvicidal efficiency against dengue vector. The bioassays showed an LC50 and LC90 value of 111.9 and 295.18 ppm, respectively after 24 h of exposure. The toxicity of the oil increased 11.8% when the larvae were exposed to the oil for 48 h. The remarkable repellent properties of M. piperita essential oil were established against adults Ae. aegypti. The application of oil resulted in 100% protection till 150 min. After next 30 min, only 1-2 bites were recorded as compared with 8-9 bites on the control arm. The peppermint essential oil is proved to be efficient larvicide and repellent against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of oil as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the oil could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control.

  6. Bioefficacy of Mentha piperita essential oil against dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sarita; Wahab, Naim; Warikoo, Radhika

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the larvicidal and repellent potential of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of peppermint plant, Mentha piperita (M. piperita) against the larval and adult stages of Aedes aegypti (Ae. Aegypti). Methods The larvicidal potential of peppermint oil was evaluated against early fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti using WHO protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 and 48 h, and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The efficacy of peppermint oil as mosquito repellent was assessed using the human-bait technique. The measured area of one arm of a human volunteer was applied with the oil and the other arm was applied with ethanol. The mosquito bites on both the arms were recorded for 3 min after every 15 min. The experiment continued for 3 h and the percent protection was calculated. Results The essential oil extracted from M. piperita possessed excellent larvicidal efficiency against dengue vector. The bioassays showed an LC50 and LC90 value of 111.9 and 295.18 ppm, respectively after 24 h of exposure. The toxicity of the oil increased 11.8% when the larvae were exposed to the oil for 48 h. The remarkable repellent properties of M. piperita essential oil were established against adults Ae. aegypti. The application of oil resulted in 100% protection till 150 min. After next 30 min, only 1-2 bites were recorded as compared with 8-9 bites on the control arm. Conclusions The peppermint essential oil is proved to be efficient larvicide and repellent against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of oil as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the oil could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control. PMID:23569733

  7. Bioefficacy ofMentha piperita essential oil against dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarita Kumar; Naim Wahab; Radhika Warikoo

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the larvicidal and repellent potential of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of peppermint plant,Mentha piperita (M. piperita) against the larval and adult stages of Aedes aegypti (Ae. Aegypti).Methods: The larvicidal potential of peppermint oil was evaluated against early fourth instar larvae ofAe. aegypti usingWHO protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 and48 h, and LC50 and LC90values were calculated. The efficacy of peppermint oil as mosquito repellent was assessed using the human-bait technique. The measured area of one arm of a human volunteer was applied with the oil and the other arm was applied with ethanol. The mosquito bites on both the arms were recorded for3 min after every15 min. The experiment continued for 3 h and the percent protection was calculated.Results:The essential oil extracted fromM. piperita possessed excellent larvicidal efficiency against dengue vector. The bioassays showed an LC50 and LC90 value of111.9 and295.18 ppm, respectively after24 h of exposure. The toxicity of the oil increased11.8% when the larvae were exposed to the oil for48 h. The remarkable repellent properties ofM. piperita essential oil were established against adults Ae. aegypti. The application of oil resulted in100% protection till150 min. After next30min, only1-2 bites were recorded as compared with8-9 bites on the control arm.Conclusions:The peppermint essential oil is proved to be efficient larvicide and repellent against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of oil as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the oil could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control.

  8. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum majorana (Lamiaceae) cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fouad El-Akhal; Abdelhakim El Ouali Lalami; Yassine Ez Zoubi; Hassane Greche; Raja Guemmouh

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum majorana (Lamiaceae) cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens (Diptera:Culicidae). Methods: The analysis and the identification of the various constituents of essential oil were carried out by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Biological test was performed according to a standard methodology inspired by the World Health Organization protocol with slight modification. Results:This oil mainly consisted of monoterpene and sesquiterpenes. The majority compounds are 4-terpinene (28.96%), γ-terpinene (18.57%), α-terpinene (12.72%) and sabinene (8.02%). The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) measured for the essential oil Origanum majorana, were respectively of the order of 258.71 mg/L and 580.49 mg/L.

  9. Efficacy of larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Catharanthus roseus aqueous and solvent extracts against Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selladurai Subarani; Selvi Sabhanayakam; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Gandhi Elango; Mohamed Abdul Kadir

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal and pupicidal activities of aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) against malaria and filariasis vectors. Methods:The larvicidal and pupicidal activities of C. roseus leaf extracts were tested against the fourth instar larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). The mortality was observed after 24 and 48 h post the treatment. The data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) at which 50%and 90%of the treated larvae or pupae of the tested species were killed. Results:The larval and pupal mortality were observed after 24 and 48 h of exposure of aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of C. roseus; no mortality was observed in the control group. The LC50 values against the fourth-instar larvae of An. stephensi were 68.62 and 72.04 mg/mL for the aqueous extract, 82.47 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract, and 78.80 and 86.64 mg/mL for the methanol extract, while the aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts had LC50 values of 85.21, 76.84 and 94.20 mg/mL against the fourth-instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts had LC50 values of 118.08, 182.47 and 143.80 mg/mL against the pupae of An. stephensi and 146.20, 226.84 and 156.62 mg/mL against the pupae of Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Conclusions: The aqueous and methanol extracts of C. roseus leaves had an excellent potential to control the malarial vector An. stephensi and filariasis vector Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  10. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates from Cuba, with insecticidal activity against mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen González

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical insecticides may be toxic and cause environmental degradation. Consequently, biological control for insects represents an alternative with low ecological impact. In this work, three soil isolates (A21, A51 and C17 from different regions of the Cuban archipelago were identified, characterized and evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The new isolates were compared with reference IPS82 strain and two strains isolated from biolarvicides Bactivec and Bactoculicida, respectively. The differentiation was done by morphological, biochemical, bioassays activity and molecular methods (SDS-PAGE, plasmid profile and random amplified polymorphic analysis. All isolates were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis. The A21, A51 and C17 isolates showed higher larvicide activity than Bactivec’s isolated reference strain, against both A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. A21 isolate had a protein profile similar to IPS82 and Bactivec strain. A51 and C17 isolates produced a characteristic proteins pattern. A21 and A51 isolates had plasmid patterns similar to IPS82 standard strain, while C17 isolate had different both plasmid profile and protein bands. All the studied isolates showed a diverse RAPD patterns and were different from the strains previously used in biological control in Cuba. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1007-1016. Epub 2011 September 01.El uso prolongado de insecticidas ha conducido al desarrollo de resistencia en diferentes especies de mosquitos y al incremento de la degradación del ambiente. El control biológico de insectos ha devenido como una alternativa útil y de bajo impacto ambiental. En nuestro estudio fueron identificados, caracterizados tres aislamientos de suelos procedentes de diferentes regiones del archipiélago cubano y comparados con cepas de referencia: aisladas de los biolarvicidas Bactivec y Bactoculicida, además de IPS82. La diferenciación de los mismos se llevó a cabo mediante métodos morfol

  11. Biting Deterrence and Insecticidal Activity of Hydrazide-Hydrazones and Their Corresponding 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazoles Against Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4- oxadiazoles against Aedes aegypti Nurhayat Tabanca,a∗ Abbas Ali,a Ulrich R Bernier,b Ikhlas A Khan,a,c,d Bedia...biting deterrent and larvicidal activities against Aedes aegypti for the first time. RESULTS: The compound 3-acetyl-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-[4-(dimethylamino...larvicidal; Aedes aegypti 1 INTRODUCTION Mosquito-borne diseases are major health problems worldwide. The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti L., can be

  12. Synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Jasminum nervosum leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against filarial and arboviral vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallawmawma, H; Sathishkumar, Gnanasekar; Sarathbabu, Subburayan; Ghatak, Souvik; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaperumal; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil

    2015-11-01

    Silver and gold nanoparticles of Jasminum nervosum L. had unique optical properties such as broad absorbance band in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Characterization of the nanoparticles using UV spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the particles were silver (AgNPs) and gold (AuNPs) ranging between 4-22 and 2-20 nm with an average particles size of 9.4 and 10 nm, respectively. AgNPs and AuNPs of J. nervosum had high larvicidal activity on the filarial and arboviral vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, than the leaf aqueous extract. Observed lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95) against the third instar larvae were 57.40 and 144.36 μg/ml for AgNPs and 82.62 and 254.68 μg/ml for AuNPs after 24 h treatment, respectively. The lethal time to kill 50% of C. quinquefasciatus larvae were 2.24 and 4.51 h at 150 μg/ml of AgNPs and AuNPs, respectively, while in the case of aqueous leaf extract of J. nervosum it was 9.44 h at 500 μg/ml (F 2,14 = 397.51, P < 0.0001). The principal component analysis plot presented differential clustering of the aqueous leaf extract, AgNP and AuNPs in relation to lethal dose and lethal time. It is concluded from the present findings that the biosynthesised AgNPs and AuNPs using leaf aqueous extract of J. nervosum could be an environmentally safer nanobiopesticide, and provided potential larvicidal effect on C. quinquefasciatus larvae which could be used for prevention of several dreadful diseases.

  13. Properties for sourcing Nigerian larvicidal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebajo, Adeleke Clement; Famuyiwa, Funmilayo Gladys; Aliyu, Fatima Abosede

    2014-06-19

    Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of chikungunya, yellow and dengue fevers. Dengue fever is the major cause of child morbidity and hospitalisation in some Asian and African countries, while yellow fever is prevalent in Nigeria. The development of resistance to the available insecticides has necessitated the continued search for safer ones from plants. Eighteen plant extracts with ethnomedical claims of or demonstrated febrifuge, antimalarial, insecticidal and insect repellent biological activities were tested for activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. About 61% of the eighteen extracts demonstrated high to moderate larvicidal activity. Extracts of Piper nigrum and Abrus precatorius seeds were the most active and the larvicidal constituent(s) of the latter should be determined.

  14. Properties for Sourcing Nigerian Larvicidal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke Clement Adebajo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of chikungunya, yellow and dengue fevers. Dengue fever is the major cause of child morbidity and hospitalisation in some Asian and African countries, while yellow fever is prevalent in Nigeria. The development of resistance to the available insecticides has necessitated the continued search for safer ones from plants. Eighteen plant extracts with ethnomedical claims of or demonstrated febrifuge, antimalarial, insecticidal and insect repellent biological activities were tested for activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. About 61% of the eighteen extracts demonstrated high to moderate larvicidal activity. Extracts of Piper nigrum and Abrus precatorius seeds were the most active and the larvicidal constituent(s of the latter should be determined.

  15. Integrating the public in mosquito management: active education by community peers can lead to significant reduction in peridomestic container mosquito habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Healy

    Full Text Available Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical

  16. Integrating the public in mosquito management: active education by community peers can lead to significant reduction in peridomestic container mosquito habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  17. Green Nanoparticles for Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

    2014-01-01

    Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl). Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs). The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito. PMID:25243210

  18. Green nanoparticles for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

    2014-01-01

    Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl). Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs). The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito.

  19. Green Nanoparticles for Mosquito Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Soni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag and gold (Au nanoparticles (NPs were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl. Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM. The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs. The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito.

  20. Efficacy of leaves extract of Calotropis procera Ait. (Asclepiadaceae) in controlling Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elimam, Abdalla M; Elmalik, Khitma H; Ali, Faysal S

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate, the larvicidal, adult emergence inhibition and oviposition deterrent activity of aqueous leaves extract of Calotropis procera against Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus as natural mosquito larvicide. The larvicidal activity was monitored against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae of each mosquito species 24 h post-treatment. Adult emergence inhibition activity was tested by exposing 3rd instar larvae of each mosquito species to different concentrations of extracts (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm for An. arabiensis and 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus). Probit analysis was used to analyze data from bioassay experiments. The oviposition deterrent activity was tested by using three different concentrations of extracts (1000, 500 and 200 for An. arabiensis, and 1000, 500 and 100 for Cx. quinquefasciatus) that caused high, moderate and low larval mortality in the larvicidal experiment against 3rd instar larvae. It was found that, LC50-LC90 values calculated were 273.53-783.43, 366.44-1018.59 and 454.99-1224.62 ppm for 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars, respectively, of An. arabiensis and 187.93-433.51, 218.27-538.27 and 264.85-769.13 ppm for 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars, respectively, of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Fifty percent of adult emergence inhibition (EI50) was shown at 277.90 and 183.65 ppm for An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The pupal stage was not affected till a concentration of 5000 ppm. The extract showed oviposition deterrence and effective repellence against both mosquito species at different concentrations, with the observation on that maximal eggs were laid in low concentration of extract. These results suggest that the leaves extract of C. procera possess remarkable larvicidal, adult emergence inhibitor, repellent and oviposition deterrent effect against both An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus, and might be used as natural biocides for mosquito

  1. Multiple activities of insect repellents on odorant receptors in mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several lines of evidence suggest that insect repellent molecules reduce mosquito-host contacts by interacting with odorants and odorant receptors (ORs) ultimately affecting olfactory-driven behaviors. We describe the molecular effects of ten insect repellents and a pyrethroid insecticide with known...

  2. Essential oil based polymeric patch development and evaluating its repellent activity against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Dhiman, Sunil; Borah, Somi; Rabha, Bipul; Chaurasia, Aashwin Kumar; Veer, Vijay

    2015-07-01

    Essential oil based insect repellents are environment friendly and provide dependable personal protection against the bites of mosquitoes and other blood-sucking insects. In the present study, optimized mixture of three essential oils was embedded into the ethylcellulose (EC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K-30) polymers to develop essential oils based patch type mosquito repellent formulation. The developed formulation was characterized for various physico-chemical properties, oil release efficiency and essential oil-polymer interaction. Repellent activity of the formulation was evaluated against Ae. (S) albopictus mosquitoes and compared with commercially available synthetic insecticide based mosquito repellent cream Odomos(®) in the laboratory. The developed patches were 100% flat and there was no interaction between oil components and the excipients. Patches were smooth, homogenous and provided excellent mosquito repellent activity comparable to Odomos(®) under laboratory condition. Morphological and physico-chemical characterization indicated that the formulation was stable and suitable with the polymeric combination. The patch formulation did not show any inhalation toxicity in experimental Wistar rat. The repellent patches developed and evaluated currently, may provide a suitable, eco-friendly, acceptable and safe alternative to the existing synthetic repellent formulations for achieving protection against mosquitoes.

  3. Synergistic mosquito-repellent activity of Curcuma longa, Pogostemon heyneanus and Zanthoxylum limonella essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, N G; Dhiman, Sunil; Talukdar, P K; Rabha, Bipul; Goswami, Diganta; Veer, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito repellents play an important role in preventing man-mosquito contact. In the present study, we evaluated the synergistic mosquito-repellent activity of Curcuma longa, Pogostemon heyneanus and Zanthoxylum limonella essential oils. The mosquito repellent efficacies of three essential oils were evaluated separately and in combination under laboratory and field conditions. N,N-Diethylphenylacetamide (DEPA) and dimethylphthalate (DMP) were used for comparison of the protection time of the mixture of essential oils. At an optimum concentration of 20%, the essential oils of C. longa, Z. limonella and P. heyneanus provided complete protection times (CPTs) of 96.2, 91.4 and 123.4 min, respectively, against Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in the laboratory. The 1:1:2 mixture of the essential oils provided 329.4 and 391.0 min of CPT in the laboratory and field trials, respectively. The percent increases in CPTs for the essential oil mixture were 30 for DMP and 55 for N,N-diethylphenylacetamide (DEPA). The synergistic repellent activity of the essential oils used in the present study might be useful for developing safer alternatives to synthetic repellents for personal protection against mosquitoes.

  4. Seasonal and Daily Activity Patterns of Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Vectors of Pathogens in Northeastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montarsi, Fabrizio; Mazzon, Luca; Cazzin, Stefania; Ciocchetta, Silvia; Capelli, Gioia

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal and daily activity of mosquito vectors of pathogens affecting animals and humans were studied in northeastern Italy at a site within the Po River Delta Park. A CDC-CO2 trap and a gravid trap were operated at 2-h intervals for 24 h every 15 d from May to October 2010. Overall, 5,788 mosquitoes comprising six species were collected, namely Culex pipiens L. (75.1% of total), Aedes caspius (Pallas) (15.2%), Aedes vexans (Meigen) (6.9%), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (2.6%), Culiseta annulata (Schrank) (0.2%), and Culex modestus Ficalbi (mosquito collection or two weeks before collection. Knowledge of the seasonal and daily host-seeking patterns of mosquitoes highlights the time periods of the day and the seasons of potential exposure for animals and humans to mosquito-borne pathogens, therefore delineating the best time for the application of preventive measures. Furthermore, knowledge of the oviposition site-seeking activity of the mosquitoes optimizes the capture of gravid females, thereby enhancing the likelihood of detecting pathogens. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Chemical Composition of a New Taxon, Seseli gummiferum subsp. ilgazense, and its Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been renewed interest in finding the use of natural plant extracts as alternative sources for public health pesticides since these extracts and their constituent compounds are normally considered safer than chemicals for human health and the environment. Mosquitoes are vectors for many pat...

  6. Larvicidal potential of commercially available pine (Pinus longifolia) and cinnamon ( Cinnamnomum zeylanicum) oils against dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti L.( Diptera: Culicidae)%市售长叶松油和锡兰肉桂油对登革热媒蚊埃及伊蚊的灭幼效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radhika WARIKOO; Naim WAHAB; Sarita KUMAR

    2011-01-01

    The aromatic nature of pine and cinnamon oils has established them as good adult repellents but their larvicidal efficacy against mosquitoes has not been explored much.Keeping this in view,laboratory studies were conducted to uncover the larvicidal potential of commercially available pine ( Pinus longifolia) oil and cinnamon ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum) oil against the early 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, originating from Delhi, India.The larvicidal effects were investigated in terms of the larval mortality, behavioural and morphological changes, if any.Our studies revealed the larvicidal efficiency of both the oils against 4th instar larvae of Ae.aegypti, the pine oil proving to be more effective than the cinnamon oil.The LC50 and LC70values exhibited by pine oil were 0.33093 mg/L and 0.54476 mg/L,respectively, while the values obtained with cinnamon oil were 0.63159 mg/L and 0.77736 mg/L,respectively.It was further observed that at LC90 the larvicidal potential of cinnamon oil surpassed that of the pine oil, exhibiting a value of 1.11879 mg/L as in comparison to 1.04915 mg/L shown by pine oil.The behavioural changes as excitation, restlessness, tremors, and convulsions followed by paralysis observed in the treated larvae suggest a probable effect of the oils on their neuromuscular system.Microscopic study of morphological alterations in the treated larvae revealed that most of their organs had a normal structural appearance as that of controls except the little internal shrinkage in anal gills leading to the structural deformity.This indicates the anal gills as the probable action sites of the oil extracts and dysfunction of the gills leading to larval mortality.The potential of oils as new types of larvicides for the control of mosquitoes are explored.%松油和桂皮油由于具有芳香性气味,因而成为良好的成虫驱避剂,但是关于它们对蚊虫的杀幼虫作用研究不多.为揭示市售的长叶松Pinus longifolia

  7. Larvicidal and repellent properties of some essential oils againstCulex tritaeniorhynchus Giles andAnopheles subpictusGrassi (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal and repellent properties of essential oils from various parts of four plant speciesCymbopogan citrates, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Rosmarinus officinalis andZingiber officinale againstCulex tritaeniorhynchus (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus)and Anopheles subpictus (An. subpictus).Methods: Essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation method. The mosquitoes were reared in the vector control laboratory and twenty five late third instar larvae ofCx. tritaeniorhynchus andAn. subpictus were exposed to based on the wide range and narrow range test, essential oil tested at various concentrations ranging from25 to 250 ppm. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h under the laboratory conditions. The repellent efficacy was determined against two mosquito species at three concentrations viz., 1.0,2.5 and5.0 mg/cm2 under laboratory conditions.Results:Results showed all the four plant essential oil produced significant larval mortality against two mosquito species. However, the highest larvicidal activity was observed in the essential oil fromZingiber officinale againstCx. tritaeniorhynchus andAn. subpictus with theLC50 andLC90 values as98.83, 57.98 ppm and186.55, 104.23 ppm, respectively. All the four essential oil shows significant repellency againstCx. tritaeniorhynchus thanAn. subpictus. Among four essential oil tested the highest repellency was observed inZingiber officinale, a higher concentration of5.0 mg/cm2 provided100% protection up to150 and180 min againstCx. tritaeniorhynchus andAn. subpictus, respectively.Conclusions:In this work, it can be concluded that four essential oils which were distilled fromCymbopogan citrates, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Rosmarinus officinalis andZingiber officinale showed promising larvicidal and repellent agent againstCx. tritaeniorhynchus andAn. subpictus.

  8. Seasonal activity, vector relationships and genetic analysis of mosquito-borne Stratford virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toi, Cheryl S.; Webb, Cameron E.; Haniotis, John; Clancy, John; Doggett, Stephen L.

    2017-01-01

    There are many gaps to be filled in our understanding of mosquito-borne viruses, their relationships with vectors and reservoir hosts, and the environmental drivers of seasonal activity. Stratford virus (STRV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus and has been isolated from mosquitoes and infected humans in Australia but little is known of its vector and reservoir host associations. A total of 43 isolates of STRV from mosquitoes collected in New South Wales between 1995 and 2013 was examined to determine the genetic diversity between virus isolates and their relationship with mosquito species. The virus was isolated from six mosquito species; Aedes aculeatus, Aedes alternans, Aedes notoscriptus, Aedes procax, Aedes vigilax, and Anopheles annulipes. While there were distinct differences in temporal and spatial activity of STRV, with peaks of activity in 2006, 2010 and 2013, a sequence homology of 95.9%–98.4% was found between isolates and the 1961 STRV prototype with 96.2%–100% identified among isolates. Temporal differences but no apparent nucleotide divergence by mosquito species or geographic location was evident. The result suggests the virus is geographically widespread in NSW (albeit only from coastal regions) and increased local STRV activity is likely to be driven by reservoir host factors and local environmental conditions influencing vector abundance. While STRV may not currently be associated with major outbreaks of human disease, with the potential for urbanisation and climate change to increase mosquito-borne disease risks, and the possibility of genomic changes which could produce pathogenic strains, understanding the drivers of STRV activity may assist the development of strategic response to public health risks posed by zoonotic flaviviruses in Australia. PMID:28253306

  9. Plasmodium activates the innate immune response of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

    OpenAIRE

    Richman, A M; Dimopoulos, G; Seeley, D; Kafatos, F C

    1997-01-01

    Innate immune-related gene expression in the major disease vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae has been analyzed following infection by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei. Substantially increased levels of mRNAs encoding the antibacterial peptide defensin and a putative Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein (GNBP) are observed 20-30 h after ingestion of an infected blood-meal, at a time which indicates that this induction is a response to parasite invasion of the midgut epithelium. The i...

  10. Development of a Bacillus sphaericus tablet formulation and its evaluation as a larvicide in the biological control of Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia P Morais de Medeiros

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the final fermentation culture of Bacillus sphaericus 2362, standardize it and develop an active tablet formulation for use in urban mosquito breeding sites. It was performed in three phases: analysis and standardization of a B. sphaericus fermented culture; physical, chemical, and biological analysis of the active powder (solubility, residual humidity, particle size, resting angle, flowing off time, compacted density, and biological activity against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae; and the development of fast-disintegrating tablets. Five formulations with differing compositions were developed and a UV protector was added to the selected formulation. The formulation products with or without UV protector, as well as the active powder caused 100% larval mortality from 1 day to 2 months after a single treatment under simulated field conditions. These results show that the UV protector does not affect the initial larvicide activity of B. sphaericus, nor its persistence over a period of two months.

  11. Development of a Bacillus sphaericus tablet formulation and its evaluation as a larvicide in the biological control of Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Flávia P Morais de; Santos, Maria Alice Varjal de Melo; Regis, Leda; Rios, Eugênia M Maranhão; Rolim Neto, Pedro J

    2005-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the final fermentation culture of Bacillus sphaericus 2362, standardize it and develop an active tablet formulation for use in urban mosquito breeding sites. It was performed in three phases: analysis and standardization of a B. sphaericus fermented culture; physical, chemical, and biological analysis of the active powder (solubility, residual humidity, particle size, resting angle, flowing off time, compacted density, and biological activity against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae); and the development of fast-disintegrating tablets. Five formulations with differing compositions were developed and a UV protector was added to the selected formulation. The formulation products with or without UV protector, as well as the active powder caused 100% larval mortality from 1 day to 2 months after a single treatment under simulated field conditions. These results show that the UV protector does not affect the initial larvicide activity of B. sphaericus, nor its persistence over a period of two months.

  12. The use of early summer mosquito surveillance to predict late summer West Nile virus activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Rochlin, Ilia; Campbell, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Utility of early-season mosquito surveillance to predict West Nile virus activity in late summer was assessed in Suffolk County, NY. Dry ice-baited CDC miniature light traps paired with gravid traps were set weekly. Maximum-likelihood estimates of WNV positivity, minimum infection rates, and % positive pools were generally well correlated. However, positivity in gravid traps was not correlated with positivity in CDC light traps. The best early-season predictors of WNV activity in late summer (estimated using maximum-likelihood estimates of Culex positivity in August and September) were early date of first positive pool, low numbers of mosquitoes in July, and low numbers of mosquito species in July. These results suggest that early-season entomological samples can be used to predict WNV activity later in the summer, when most human cases are acquired. Additional research is needed to establish which surveillance variables are most predictive and to characterize the reliability of the predictions.

  13. Tips to Prevent Mosquito Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using the right insect repellent and other preventive actions can discourage mosquitoes from landing on you. Tips include removing mosquito habitats such as standing water, minimizing exposed skin, and staying indoors while mosquitoes are most active.

  14. Larvicidal activity of oil-resin fractions from the Brazilian medicinal plant Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae Atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina da planta medicinal brasileira Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae sobre o Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Helena Garcia da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil-resin fractions from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae were evaluated for larvicidal activity on third larval instars of Aedes aegypti, in searching for alternative control methods for this mosquito. The bioactive fractions were chemically monitored by thin-layer chromatography, ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Bioassays were performed using five repetitions, at a temperature of 28 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 80 ± 5% and light and dark cycles of 12h. Mortality was indicated by darkening of the cephalic capsule after 24h of exposure of the larvae to the solutions. The most active fractions were CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenes and CRM5-7 (labdane diterpenes, which showed LC50 values of 0.2 and 0.8ppm, respectively.A atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae foi avaliada em larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de camada delgada, analisada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (¹H e 13C e espectrometria de massas. Os bioensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 28±1°C, 80±5% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 12h, com cinco repetições. A mortalidade foi determinada através do escurecimento da cápsula cefálica, após 24h de exposição das larvas às soluções. As frações mais ativas foram CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenos e CRM5-7 (diterpeno labdano, que mostraram os valores de CL50 de 0,2 e 0,8ppm, respectivamente.

  15. Preliminary study on mosquito repellent and mosquitocidal activities of Ocimum gratissimum (L. grown in eastern Nigeria

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    Evangeline T. Oparaocha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The study examined the mosquito-repellent and mosquitocidal activitiesof the volatile oil of Ocimum gratissimum at three different locations (World Bank Estate, Ihitteand Umuekunne in Imo State, eastern Nigeria, with the purpose of sourcing for mosquito repellentthat is cheap, abundant, environment and user-friendly.Methods: Four different lotions; 20% (v/v and 30% (v/v concentrations each of the extractedvolatile oil in two natural oil bases (olive and palm kernel were made and six volunteered humanbaits were used to evaluate the mosquito repellent and mosquitocidal activities of the stock materialsat the three different centres from September to November 2008.Results: Topical application of each of the four different lotions significantly (p <0.05 reduced thebiting rate of mosquitoes in all the three locations tested. The 30% (v/v concentration in olive oilbase exhibiting highest average percentage repellencies of 97.2, 95.7 and 96.3% at World BankEstate, Ihitte and Umuekunne centres respectively while the 20% (v/v concentration in palmkernel oil base had the least repellency of 36.3, 41.6 and 36.3%, respectively. The other twoformulations had values ranging from 67.8 to 80% in the three locations. The 30% (v/vconcentration in both olive and palm kernel oil bases afforded all night protection against mosquitobites in all the centres, and demonstrated fast knockdown and paralyzing effect on few mosquitoesat the urban centre (World Bank Estate.Interpretation & conclusion: The study confirms that O. gratissimum grown in eastern Nigeriahas mosquito-repellent and mosquitocidal potentials and the formulations could be used to reducehuman-mosquito contacts and hence mosquito-borne diseases and irritations caused by their bites.

  16. Laboratory and field evaluation of spinosad formulation Natular T30 against immature Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianyun; Cheng, Min-Lee; Thieme, Jennifer

    2014-07-01

    Spinosad consisting of spinosyn A and D is derived from a naturally occurring, soil-dwelling bacterium, Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Spinosyns are neurotoxins that activate postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors and cause rapid excitation of the insect nervous system and ultimately exhaustion and death of the targets. During the past 30 yr, numerous spinosad-based formulations have been developed and applied to control various arthropod pests of agricultural importance. Natular T-30 is a new slow-release formulation containing 8.33% spinosad for use in mosquito larval control programs. High-level larvicidal activity, as indicated by low LC50 and LC90 levels, was demonstrated against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in the laboratory. Larvicidal efficacy was evaluated in semifield microcosms, field mesocosms, and underground storm drains. Fair performance against larval populations of Culex spp. and other mosquito species was achieved, although low efficacy during the initial few days posttreatment was encountered. This slow-release formulation will play an important role in controlling mosquitoes in persistent breeding sources.

  17. "Singing in the Tube"--audiovisual assay of plant oil repellent activity against mosquitoes (Culex pipiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Temitope F; Wongchai, Chatchawal; Chaidee, Anchalee; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Plant essential oils have been suggested as a promising alternative to the established mosquito repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide). Searching for an assay with generally available equipment, we designed a new audiovisual assay of repellent activity against mosquitoes "Singing in the Tube," testing single mosquitoes in Drosophila cultivation tubes. Statistics with regression analysis should compensate for limitations of simple hardware. The assay was established with female Culex pipiens mosquitoes in 60 experiments, 120-h audio recording, and 2580 estimations of the distance between mosquito sitting position and the chemical. Correlations between parameters of sitting position, flight activity pattern, and flight tone spectrum were analyzed. Regression analysis of psycho-acoustic data of audio files (dB[A]) used a squared and modified sinus function determining wing beat frequency WBF ± SD (357 ± 47 Hz). Application of logistic regression defined the repelling velocity constant. The repelling velocity constant showed a decreasing order of efficiency of plant essential oils: rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemon (Citrus limon), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin), DEET, cedar wood (Cedrus atlantica). In conclusion, we suggest (1) disease vector control (e.g., impregnation of bed nets) by eight plant essential oils with repelling velocity superior to DEET, (2) simple mosquito repellency testing in Drosophila cultivation tubes, (3) automated approaches and room surveillance by generally available audio equipment (dB[A]: ISO standard 226), and (4) quantification of repellent activity by parameters of the audiovisual assay defined by correlation and regression analyses.

  18. Insecticidal activity and expression of cytochrome P450 family 4 genes in Aedes albopictus after exposure to pyrethroid mosquito coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avicor, Silas W; Wajidi, Mustafa F F; El-Garj, Fatma M A; Jaal, Zairi; Yahaya, Zary S

    2014-10-01

    Mosquito coils are insecticides commonly used for protection against mosquitoes due to their toxic effects on mosquito populations. These effects on mosquitoes could induce the expression of metabolic enzymes in exposed populations as a counteractive measure. Cytochrome P450 family 4 (CYP4) are metabolic enzymes associated with a wide range of biological activities including insecticide resistance. In this study, the efficacies of three commercial mosquito coils with different pyrethroid active ingredients were assessed and their potential to induce the expression of CYP4 genes in Aedes albopictus analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Coils containing 0.3 % D-allethrin and 0.005 % metofluthrin exacted profound toxic effects on Ae. albopictus, inducing high mortalities (≥90 %) compared to the 0.2 % D-allethrin reference coil. CYP4H42 and CYP4H43 expressions were significantly higher in 0.3 % D-allethrin treated mosquitoes compared to the other treated populations. Short-term (KT50) exposure to mosquito coils induced significantly higher expression of both genes in 0.005 % metofluthrin exposed mosquitoes. These results suggest the evaluated products provided better protection than the reference coil; however, they also induced the expression of metabolic genes which could impact negatively on personal protection against mosquito.

  19. Effects of Croton rhamnifolioides essential oil on Aedes aegypti oviposition, larval toxicity and trypsin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Geanne K N; Dutra, Kamilla A; Lira, Camila S; Lima, Bheatriz N; Napoleão, Thiago H; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Maranhão, Claudia A; Brandão, Sofia S F; Navarro, Daniela M A F

    2014-10-14

    Although numerous reports are available concerning the larvicidal potential of essential oils, very few investigations have focused on their mechanisms of action. In the present study, we have investigated the chemical composition of the leaf oil of Croton rhamnifolioides during storage and its effects on oviposition and survival of larvae of the dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. In addition, we have established a possible mechanism of action for the larvicidal activity of the essential oil. GC-MS analyses revealed marked differences in the composition of oil that had been freshly isolated and that of a sample that had been stored in a sealed amber-glass vial under refrigeration for three years. However, both fresh and stored oil exhibited substantial larvicidal activities with LC50 values of 122.35 and 89.03 ppm, respectively, and oviposition deterrent effects against gravid females at concentrations of 50 and 100 µg·mL-1. These results demonstrate that the larvicidal effect of the essential oil was unchanged during three years of storage even though its chemical composition altered. Hence, the essential oil could be used in the preparation of commercial products. In addition, we observed that the trypsin-like activity of mosquito larvae was inhibited in vitro by the essential oil of C. rhamnifolioides, suggesting that the larvicidal effect may be associated with inhibition of this enzyme.

  20. Lantana montevidensis Essential Oil: Chemical Composition and Mosquito Repellent Activity against Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil (EO) of Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. (L. sellowiana Link & Otto) was investigated for its chemical composition and mosquito repellent activity. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial plant parts was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major constituents we...

  1. Chemical composition, larvicidal, and biting deterrent activity of essential oils of two subspecies of Tanacetum argenteum (Asterales: Asteraceae) and individual constituents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Kurkcuoglu, Mine; Duran, Ahmet; Blythe, Eugene K; Khan, Ikhlas A; Baser, K Husnu Can

    2014-07-01

    Water-distilled essential oils from dried aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. argenteum (Lam.) and T. argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. canum (C. Koch) Grierson were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 27 and 32 components were identified representing 97.2 and 98.7% of essential oils of subsp. argenteum and canum, respectively. Main compounds of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum were alpha-pinene (67.9%) and beta-pinene (4.8%), whereas alpha-pinene (53.6%), 1, 8-cineole (14.8%), and camphor (4.7%) were the major constituents of subsp. canum. Essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. canum at 10 microg/cm2 with Biting Deterrent Index (BDI) value of 0.73 showed activity similar to N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) at 25 mol/cm2, whereas the activity of essential oil of subsp. argenteum was lower (BDI = 0.47) than subsp. canum and DEET. Based on 95% CIs, activity of beta-caryophyllene (BDI value = 0.54) and caryophyllene oxide (BDI = 0.66) were significantly lower than DEET. In larval bioassays, essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum showed LC50 value of 93.34 ppm, whereas T. argenteum subsp. canum killed only 40% of the larvae at the highest dose of 125 ppm. Among the pure compounds, beta-caryophyllene (LC50 = 26 ppm) was the most potent compound followed by caryophyllene oxide (LC50 = 29 ppm), which was also similar to (-)-beta-pinene (LC50 = 35.9 ppm) against 1-d-old Ae. aegypti larvae at 24-h post treatment. Compounds (-)-alpha-pinene and (+)-beta-pinene showed similar larvicidal activity. Activity of (+)-alpha-pinene with LC50 value of was similar to the essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Gmelina asiatica leaf extract against filariasis, dengue, and malaria vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L

    2015-05-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal potential of leaf extracts of Gmelina asiatica and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the larvae of An. stephensi (lethal dose (LC₅₀) = 22.44 μg/mL; LC₉₀ 40.65 μg/mL), Ae. aegypti (LC₅₀ = 25.77 μg/mL; LC₉₀ 45.98 μg/mL), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC₅₀ = 27.83 μg/mL; LC₉₀ 48.92 μg/mL), respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of G. asiatica to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach and the AgNps formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents.

  3. Synthesis of pediculocidal and larvicidal silver nanoparticles by leaf extract from heartleaf moonseed plant, Tinospora cordifolia Miers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Vishnu Kirthi, Arivarasan; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Bagavan, Asokan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperu