WorldWideScience

Sample records for mosquito breeding habitats

  1. Proximity to mosquito breeding habitat and Ross River virus risk in the Peel region of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Andrew; Neville, Peter J; Lindsay, Michael D A

    2015-02-01

    It is intuitive that vector-borne disease exposure risk is related to proximity to sources of vector breeding, but this aspect rarely receives empirical testing. The population of Western Australia (WA) is increasing rapidly, with many new residential developments proposed in close proximity to mosquito breeding habitat. However, potential mosquito-borne disease risks for future residents are given little consideration by planning authorities. The Peel region is one of the fastest growing regions in WA and regularly experiences a large number of cases of the mosquito-borne Ross River virus (RRV) disease with epidemics occuring in the region every few years. A spatial analysis of RRV disease data in the Peel region was undertaken to determine the risk associated with proximity to a mosquito breeding habitat. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software was used to create buffers between 1 and 6 km from the breeding habitat. The number of cases per 1000 dwellings in each buffer was calculated between 2002/03 to 2011/12 for years with >100 cases across all buffers (n=5) in addition to the cumulative rate over the entire period in each buffer. Residents living within 1 km of a mosquito breeding habitat had a significantly higher rate of RRV disease compared to the background rate across the Peel region in all individual years investigated. The cumulative data over the 10-year study period showed that residents in the 1- and 2-km buffers had a significantly higher rate, whereas those living between 3 and 6 km away did not. This study demonstrates an increased mosquito-borne disease risk associated with living in close proximity to a mosquito breeding habitat in a rapidly expanding region of WA and highlights the importance of considering mosquito-borne disease risks when planning authorities assess new residential development applications. Known mosquito breeding wetlands should be incorporated into land use planning scheme maps to ensure that they are accurately

  2. Mapping urban and peri-urban breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes using a fuzzy analytical hierarchical process based on climatic and physical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, Muhammad Shahzad; Tripathi, Nagesh K; Faruque, Fazlay S; Bajwa, Usama Ijaz; Kitamoto, Asanobu; Souris, Marc

    2014-12-01

    The spread of dengue fever depends mainly on the availability of favourable breeding sites for its mosquito vectors around human dwellings. To investigate if the various factors influencing breeding habitats can be mapped from space, dengue indices, such as the container index, the house index and the Breteau index, were calculated from Ministry of Public health data collected three times annually in Phitsanulok, Thailand between 2009 and 2011. The most influential factors were found to be temperature, humidity, rainfall, population density, elevation and land cover. Models were worked out using parameters mostly derived from freely available satellite images and fuzzy logic software with parameter synchronisation and a predication algorithm based on data mining and the Decision Tree method. The models developed were found to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate additional parameters and sampling data that might improve prediction of favourable breeding hotspots. The algorithm applied can not only be used for the prediction of near real-time scenarios with respect to dengue, but can also be applied for monitoring other diseases influenced by environmental and climatic factors. The multi-criteria model presented is a cost-effective way of identifying outbreak hotspots and early warning systems lend themselves for development based on this strategy. The proposed approach demonstrates the successful utilisation of remotely sensed images to map mosquito breeding habitats.

  3. Mapping urban and peri-urban breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes using a fuzzy analytical hierarchical process based on climatic and physical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahzad Sarfraz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The spread of dengue fever depends mainly on the availability of favourable breeding sites for its mosquito vectors around human dwellings. To investigate if the various factors influencing breeding habitats can be mapped from space, dengue indices, such as the container index, the house index and the Breteau index, were calculated from Ministry of Public health data collected three times annually in Phitsanulok, Thailand between 2009 and 2011. The most influential factors were found to be temperature, humidity, rainfall, population density, elevation and land cover. Models were worked out using parameters mostly derived from freely available satellite images and fuzzy logic software with parameter synchronisation and a predication algorithm based on data mining and the Decision Tree method. The models developed were found to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate additional parameters and sampling data that might improve prediction of favourable breeding hotspots. The algorithm applied can not only be used for the prediction of near real-time scenarios with respect to dengue, but can also be applied for monitoring other diseases influenced by environmental and climatic factors. The multi-criteria model presented is a cost-effective way of identifying outbreak hotspots and early warning systems lend themselves for development based on this strategy. The proposed approach demonstrates the successful utilisation of remotely sensed images to map mosquito breeding habitats.

  4. Larval habitats of mosquito fauna in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monsuru Adebayo Adeleke; Wasiu Olalekan Adebimpe; AbdulWasiu Oladele Hassan; Sunday Olukayode Oladejo; Ismail Olaoye; Ganiyu Olatunji Olatunde; Taiwo Adewole

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To determine the larval habitats of mosquito fauna and possible impact of land use/land cover changes on the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern, Nigeria. Methods: All accessible larval habitats were surveyed between May and September, 2011 in Osogbo metropolis while Land Use/ Land cover of the city was analyzed using 2 Lansat Multispectral Scanner satellite imagery of SPOT 1986 and LANDSAT TM 2009. Results:A total of six species namely, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes vittatus, Anopheles gambiae complex, Culex quinquefasciatus and Eretmapodite chrysogaster were encountered during the study. The occurrence and contribution of disused tyres was significantly higher (P0.05). The accessible land use/land covered of the study area between 1986 and 2009 showed that the wet land coverage and settlement area increased from 0.19 to 9.09 hectare and 1.00 to 2.01 hectare respectively while the forest area decreased from 60.18 to 50.14 hectare. Conclusion: The contribution of the habitats coupled with the increasing rate of flooded environment which could provide ample breeding sites for mosquitoes call for sustained environmental sanitation and management in Osogbo metropolis.

  5. British container breeding mosquitoes: the impact of urbanisation and climate change on community composition and phenology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah Townroe

    Full Text Available The proliferation of artificial container habitats in urban areas has benefitted urban adaptable mosquito species globally. In areas where mosquitoes transmit viruses and parasites, it can promote vector population productivity and fuel mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. In Britain, storage of water in garden water butts is increasing, potentially expanding mosquito larval habitats and influencing population dynamics and mosquito-human contact. Here we show that the community composition, abundance and phenology of mosquitoes breeding in experimental water butt containers were influenced by urbanisation. Mosquitoes in urban containers were less species-rich but present in significantly higher densities (100.4±21.3 per container than those in rural containers (77.7±15.1. Urban containers were dominated by Culex pipiens (a potential vector of West Nile Virus [WNV] and appear to be increasingly exploited by Anopheles plumbeus (a human-biting potential WNV and malaria vector. Culex phenology was influenced by urban land use type, with peaks in larval abundances occurring earlier in urban than rural containers. Among other factors, this was associated with an urban heat island effect which raised urban air and water temperatures by 0.9°C and 1.2°C respectively. Further increases in domestic water storage, particularly in urban areas, in combination with climate changes will likely alter mosquito population dynamics in the UK.

  6. Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey was initiated experimentally in 1947 and became operational in 1955. It is conducted cooperatively by the U.S....

  7. Species interactions among larval mosquitoes: context dependence across habitat gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Steven A

    2009-01-01

    Biotic interactions involving mosquito larvae are context dependent, with effects of interactions on populations altered by ecological conditions. Relative impacts of competition and predation change across a gradient of habitat size and permanence. Asymmetrical competition is common and ecological context changes competitive advantage, potentially facilitating landscape-level coexistence of competitors. Predator effects on mosquito populations sometimes depend on habitat structure and on emergent effects of multiple predators, particularly interference among predators. Nonlethal effects of predators on mosquito oviposition, foraging, and life history are common, and their consequences for populations and for mosquito-borne disease are poorly understood. Context-dependent beneficial effects of detritus shredders on mosquitoes occur in container habitats, but these interactions appear to involve more than simple resource modification by shredders. Investigations of context-dependent interactions among mosquito larvae will yield greater understanding of mosquito population dynamics and provide useful model systems for testing theories of context dependence in communities.

  8. Simple intervention to reduce mosquito breeding in waste stabilisation ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; Mukhtar, Muhammad; van der Hoek, Wim;

    2007-01-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) are the preferred method for treatment of urban wastewater in low-income countries but, especially in arid regions, the pond systems can be important breeding sites for mosquitoes of medical importance. In a WSP system in Faisalabad, Pakistan, we assessed the impact...... of simple environmental interventions on mosquito occurrence and abundance. Reducing the amount of floating matter in the ponds, eliminating emergent vegetation and repairing cracks in the cement structure reduced the number of mosquito-positive samples in the intervention ponds to almost zero, whereas...... the control ponds had a significant number of positive samples. This suggests that a combination of simple low-cost interventions is a feasible environmental management strategy for vector control in WSP systems that are located in areas where medically important mosquitoes may breed in the shallow ponds....

  9. Physico-chemical characteristics of the mosquito breeding water in two urban areas of Cairo Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Kenawy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Certain physico-chemical characteristics of mosquito breeding habitats [temperature, pH, salinity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO and nitrite] were examined relative to the distribution of mosquito larval species in two urban areas of Cairo Governorate namely El- Muqattam (M and Abu-Seir (A. Mean values and ranges of such characteristics for the reported mosquito species (Culex pipiens, Cx. perexiguus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Cx. pusillus and Culiseta longiareolata were reported. In conclusion, based on the significant correlations of the different characteristics with the abundance of the two common larval species (Culex pipiens and Cx. perexiguus, salinity and DO may be considered the predictor variables associated with the immature abundance. Considering altogether mosquitoes, there is an increasing presence from planned safe (M to unplanned unsafe (A habitats mainly due to turbidity and nitrite.

  10. Comparison of adult mosquito community structure on various habitats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG-CHENGYAN; HARRYZHONG

    2005-01-01

    The community structure of adult mosquitoes was compared from New Jersey light trap collections in six different types of habitats in Citrus County, Florida, USA. From October 1998 to December 2000, mosquitoes were collected three times a week from the following habitats (swamps, swamps and freshwater marshes, pine fiat-woods, pine fiat-woods and scrub, salt marshes, and salt marshes and mangroves). Mosquito density was highest in the swamps and freshwater marshes habitat, with an average of 95.65 specimens per trap.Density was lowest in the flatwoods and scrub habitat, with an average of 14.38 specimens per trap. Species dominance differed among habitats. Salt marshes produced the greatest aggregation index, while pine flatwoods produced the lowest. Conversely, diversity analysis showed that pine flatwoods had the greatest diversity, while salt marshes the lowest diversity. Similarity indices indicated that the adult mosquito communities from pine flatwoods and pine flatwoods and scrub were very similar (0.8583). The adult mosquito community of salt marshes was different from that of swamps and freshwater marshes (the similar index was 0.0217).

  11. Evaluation of Methoprene (Altosid) and Diflubenzuron (Dimilin) for control of mosquito breeding in Tezpur (Assam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, I; Das, S C

    1996-06-01

    Insect growth regulators (IGRs) namely, Isopropyl (E-E)-(RS)-11-methoxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2, 4-dinoate (Methoprene) and 1-(4-cyclophenyl)-3-(2,6-diflerobenzoyl) urea (Diflubenzuron) were evaluated against mosquito larvae in laboratory as well as in different breeding habitats in Tezpur, Assam. LC90 values of diflubenzuron against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus were 0.0022 and 0.0027 ppm respectively, while it was 0.0027 and 0.0022 ppm respectively in case of methoprene. However, LC50 values of both the IGRs were almost same in case of Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus (varies between 0.0009 and 0.0011 ppm). In case of methoprene, maximum mortality was observed in pupal stage though the exposure was given in all the cases to the III instar larvae. Field trials were conducted in cemented drains, small ponds and ditches. At 0.2 ppm (0.020 kg/ha) both diflubenzuron and methoprene were found to eliminate 92-96 per cent Culex and Anopheles larvae. Methoprene and diflubenzuron were found equally effective for control of mosquito breeding in different breeding habitats and provide better efficacy than conventional larvicides and biocides.

  12. Characterization of water bodies for mosquito habitat using a multi-sensor approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midekisa, A.; Wimberly, M. C.; Senay, G. B.

    2012-12-01

    Malaria is a major health problem in Ethiopia. Anopheles arabiensis, which inhabits and breeds in a variety of aquatic habitats, is the major mosquito vector for malaria transmission in the region. In the Amhara region of Ethiopia, mosquito breeding sites are heterogeneously distributed. Therefore, accurate characterization of aquatic habitats and potential breeding sites can be used as a proxy to measure the spatial distribution of malaria risk. Satellite remote sensing provides the ability to map the spatial distribution and monitor the temporal dynamics of surface water. The objective of this study is to map the probability of surface water accumulation to identify potential vector breeding sites for Anopheles arabiensis using remote sensing data from sensors at multiple spatial and temporal resolutions. The normalized difference water index (NDWI), which is based on reflectance in the green and the near infrared (NIR) bands were used to estimate fractional cover of surface water. Temporal changes in surface water were mapped using NDWI indices derived from MODIS surface reflectance product (MOD09A1) for the period 2001-2012. Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery were used to train and calibrate model results from MODIS. Results highlighted interannual variation and seasonal changes in surface water that were observed from the MODIS time series. Static topographic indices that estimate the potential for water accumulation were generated from 30 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data. Integrated fractional surface water cover was developed by combining the static topographic indices and dynamic NDWI indices using Geographic Information System (GIS) overlay methods. Accuracy of the results was evaluated based on ground truth data that was collected on presence and absence of surface water immediately after the rainy season. The study provided a multi-sensor approach for mapping areas with a high potential for surface water accumulation that are

  13. Environmental characteristics of anopheline mosquito larval habitats in a malaria endemic area in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moussa Soleimani-Ahmadi; Hassan Vatandoost; Ahmad-Ali Hanafi-Bojd; Mehdi Zare; Reza Safari; Abdolrasul Mojahedi; Fatemeh Poorahmad-Garbandi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of environmental parameters of larval habitats on distribution and abundance of anopheline mosquitoes in Rudan county of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during the mosquito breeding season from February 2010 to October 2011. The anopheline larvae were collected using the standard dipping method. The specimens were identified using a morphological-based key. Simultaneously with larval collection, environmental parameters of the larval habitats including water current and turbidity, sunlight situation, and substrate type of habitats were recorded. Water samples were taken from breeding sites during larval collection. Before collection of samples, the water temperature was measured. The water samples were analysed for turbidity, conductivity, total alkalinity, total dissolved solid, pH and ions including chloride, sulphate, calcium, and magnesium. Statistical correlation analysis and ANOVA test were used to analyze the association between environmental parameters and larval mosquito abundance. Results: In total 2 973 larvae of the genus Anopheles were collected from 25 larval habitats and identified using morphological characters. They comprised of six species:An. dthali turkhudi (3.30%), and An. apoci (1.14%). The most abundant species was An. dthali which were collected from all of the study areas. Larvae of two malaria vectors, An. dthali and An. stephensi, co-existed and collected in a wide range of habitats with different physico-chemical parameters. The most common larval habitats were man-made sites such as sand mining pools with clean and still water. The anopheline mosquitoes also preferred permanent habitats in sunlight with sandy substrates. The results indicated that there was a significant relationship between mean physico-chemical parameters such as water temperature, conductivity, total alkalinity, sulphate, chloride, and mosquito distribution and abundance. Conclusions: The results of this

  14. Mosquitoes of field and forest: the scale of habitat segregation in a diverse mosquito assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiskind, M H; Griffin, R H; Janairo, M S; Hopperstad, K A

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of arthropod vectors across a landscape is important in determining the risk for vector-borne disease. This has been well explored for ticks, but not for mosquitoes, despite their importance in the transmission of a variety of pathogens. This study examined the importance of habitat, habitat edges, and the scale at which mosquito abundance and diversity vary in a rural landscape by trapping along transects from grassland areas into forest patches. Significant patterns of vector diversity and distinct mosquito assemblages across habitats were found. The scale of individual species' responses to habitat edges was often dramatic, with several species rarely straying even 10 m from the edge. The present results suggest blood-seeking mosquito species are faithful to certain habitats, which has consequences for patterns of vector diversity and risk for pathogen transmission. This implies that analysts of risk for pathogen transmission and foci of control, and developers of land management strategies should assess habitat at a finer scale than previously considered.

  15. A survey of mosquitoes breeding in used tires in Spain for the detection of imported potential vector species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiz, D; Eritja, R; Escosa, R; Lucientes, J; Marquès, E; Melero-Alcíbar, R; Ruiz, S; Molina, R

    2007-06-01

    The used tire trade has facilitated the introduction, spread, and establishment of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and other mosquito species in several countries of America, Africa, Oceania, and Europe. A strategy for detecting these imported mosquito vectors was developed in Spain during 2003-2004 by EVITAR (multidisciplinary network for the study of viruses transmitted by arthropods and rodents). A survey in 45 locations found no invasive species. Eight autochthonous species of mosquitoes were detected in used tires, including Culex pipiens, Cx. hortensis, Cx. modestus, Anopheles atroparvus, An. claviger, Culiseta longiareolata, Cs. annulata, and Aedes caspius. Dominant species were Cx. pipiens and Cs. longiareolata. Aedes caspius was found in only once, near its natural breeding habitat. Considering the recent discovery of an established population of Ae. albopictus in Catalonia, the increasing commerce of used tires in Spain for recycling, storage, and recapping might greatly contribute to the rapid spread of this species across the Iberian Peninsula.

  16. The fauna, monthly activity and species composition of anophelines mosquito larva in breeding places, Qom province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedin Saghafipour

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is need to develop updated database related to malaria mosquito, because there is back prevalence of malaria in the past two decades in some areas of north and northwest of Iran categorized as epidemiologically clean areas previously. Vectors control is one of the main strategies in controlling the epidemics. In this study, species composition and monthly activity of anopheles mosquito larva in different breeding places in Qom province was assessed. Material and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional one. It was carried out in all 5 parts of geographical areas of Qom province. Samples were collected every 15 days from the natural and artificial breeding places from April to October 2010, using dipping standard method of WHO. Mosquito larvae conserved in lactophenol medium. In the laboratory, the specimens were mounted in likidophor medium and microscopic slides were prepared from larvae, and identified using illustrated keys for Iranian mosquitoes. Results: A total of 298 larvae samples were collected and identified from different breeding places in various areas of Qom province. This larvae belonged to two subgenus of Anopheles and Cellia and including four species of An.(Ano.marteri, An.(Ano.claviger, An.(Cel.superpictus, and An.(Cel.turkhudi. An.(Ano. claviger, An.(Ano.marteri, and An.(Cel.turkhudi are reported for the first time in this province. An.(Ano.claviger was dominant species of larvae in the breeding places in Qom province and found in different larva habitats. The peak of activity of recent species is in late July and early August and its seasonal activity is in late April to late October. Conclusion: An.(Cel.superpictus which is Malaria vector in different parts of the world and Iran is the dominant species of the area had the second frequency. Having high potential for transmission and possibility of establishing a transmission cycle with low abundance is the characteristics of first species. Anopheles

  17. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Habitat Surveillance by Android Mobile Devices in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tai-Ping; Tian, Jun-Hua; Xue, Rui-De; Fang, Yi-Liang; Zheng, Ai-Hua

    2016-12-17

    In 2014, Guangzhou City, South China, suffered from its worst outbreak of dengue fever in decades. Larval mosquito habitat surveillance was carried out by using android mobile devices in four study sites in May 2015. The habitats with larval mosquitoes were recorded as photo waypoints in OruxMaps or in videos. The total number of potential mosquito habitats was 342, of which 166 (49%) were found to have mosquito larvae or pupae. Small containers were the most abundant potential habitats, accounting for 26% of the total number. More mosquito larvae and pupae, were found in small containers than in other objects holding water, for example, potted or hydroponic plants (p mobile devices are a convenient and useful tool for surveillance of mosquito habitats, and the enhancement of source reduction may benefit the prevention and control of dengue vector mosquitoes.

  18. Bamboo stumps as mosquito larval habitats in Darjeeling Himalayas,India:A spatial scale analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gautam Aditya; Rakesh Tamang; Dipendra Sharma; Francis Subba; Goutam K.Saha

    2008-01-01

    Bamboo stumps can be a congenial breeding habitat of the mosquitoes.In view of this,a preliminary assessment of the dipteran immatures inhabiting the stumps of bamboo groves in the Darjeeling Himalayas was carried out at a spatial scale.Of the 104 stumps of Dendrocalamus hamiltoni surveyed,70 were found to host immatures of three dipteran species,the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the midges Chironomus sp.in varying densities.Though the stumps varied in diameter,in each stump on average 12.1 immatures were found.The abundance of the immatures was positively correlated with the diameter of the stumps (r = +0.382;P < 0.001) but negatively with the pH of the water present in the stumps (r = -0.336;P < 0.01).The coefficient of association was found to be +8.4 for the Ae.aegypti and Chironomus immatures,while in the rest of the species pair the association seemed to be independent.Thus it can be concluded that the stumps in the bamboo groves of Darjeeling Himalayas provides a favourable habitat for the mosquito and chironomid immatures.

  19. Larval Habitat Characteristics of Mosquitoes of the Genus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae in Guilan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Azari-Hamidian

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out during April to December 2000 to study mosquito fauna and ecology in Guilan Prov¬ince of northern Iran. The mosquito larvae were collected by dipping method and larval habitat characteristics recorded ac¬cording to hydro-ecological features. In total, 3937 larvae of the genus Culex from 92 larval breeding sites were collected. Six spe¬cies of the genus Culex; Cx. mimeticus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. hortensis, and Cx. terri¬tans were identified in the province and respectively comprised 10.3%, 47.2%, 2.2%, 31%, 6.5%, and 2.8% of the samples. Most of the larvae were collected from the natural habitats (75.6% such as river edges (6.5%, riverbed pools (28.2%, rain pools (47.8%, stream edges (9.4%, grasslands (1.9%, marshes (2.8%, and hoof-prints (3.4% and others from artificial habitats (24.4% including rice fields (32.1%, irrigation channels (7.1%, wells (16.4%, discarded concrete tubes (33.1%, dis¬carded tires (11.0%, and agricultural water-storage pools (0.3%. The ecology of Cx. pipiens and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, which are the most prevalent species and potentially involved in the transmission of many pathogens to humans and domes¬ticated animals, must be extensively studied.

  20. Studies on breeding habitats and density of postembryonic immature filarial vector in a filarial endemic area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manas Paramanik; Indranil Bhattacharjee; Goutam Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To obtain a complete and systematic data about the breeding habitats and density of vector immatures (larvae & pupae) in a filarial endemic area. Methods: All the possible permanent and temporary water bodies were surveyed systematically. Four hundred samples were taken in each season from each type of habitats. Sampling was done with a 250 mL dipper and immature mosquitoes were identified following standard keys. Results: In summer, rainy and winter seasons, overall 49.64%, 44.64%, and 28.57% of the habitats were positive for immature filarial vector (Culex quinquefasciatus) respectively; 36.93%, 35.11%, and 21.18%of the samples were positive for immatures respectively and overall per dip densities (PDD) of them were 10.29, 10.18, and 4.40 respectively. In the study year overall PDD were much higher in open cesspits (19.53) and drains (17.24) than in other habitats. Peak PDD of vector immatures in Dobas (ditches), open cesspits and drains were in March whereas in paddy fields and temporary water bodies peak PPD were in September. Conclusion: Dobas, paddy fields, open cesspits, drains, and temporary water bodies were found to be the main breeding sites of filarial vector, Cx. quinquefasciatus in different months. Open cesspits and drains were suitable almost throughout the year with peak in summer. Dobas also act as a steady breeding site throughout the year, whereas temporary water bodies immerge as strong breeding site during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. Information about the breeding habitats will be helpful to formulate a filarial vector control strategy and in turn to control the filarial diseases in the study area.

  1. Reclamation of mosquito breeding sites using Landsat-8 remote sensing data: A case study of Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusuk, Danboyi Joseph; Hashim, Mazlan; Beiranvand Pour, Amin

    2016-06-01

    It is believed by recent releases of World Health Organization (WHO) that more than half of the world's population (3.2 billion) live in areas that are at risk of malaria transmission. Although increased efforts are dramatically reducing the malaria burden in some places where the rate of new cases indicates a fall by 37% globally and 60% death rate. Unfortunately, the subSaharan Africa still shares 89% of malaria and 91% of malaria deaths. Essentially, attacking the causative vectors and reclamation of the vector breeding sites could be remarkable for the rolling back the malaria epidemic project. Consequently, it is essential to explore the possibility of using recent Landsat-8 data remote sensing data and applications of Geographic Information System (GIS) technique in contributing to the realization of this objective. This investigation used for identifying mosquito breeding habitat (Derelict Ponds) zones the application of supervised classification of the Landsat-8 image in conjunction with GIS layering which allowed identification of high risk prone regions for mosquito breeding habitat. The methodology delineated 10 spatial locations of the Derelict Ponds (DP) spread around the Birnin Kebbi urban environment. Moreover, the results combined with comparative analysis of the link between warm climatic (temperature and rainfall data) conditions and Malaria prevalence that is associated with urban poverty. This study indicates that the application of Landsat-8 data and GIS techniques can be a useful tool for planning and management of environmental health and mapping of hot spot environmental problem areas.

  2. Spatial distribution & physicochemical characterization of the breeding habitats of Aedes aegypti in & around Kolkata, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumendranath Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Dengue infection is endemic in several areas and the dengue virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Thus, it becomes important to understand the breeding ecology of dengue vector and characterize the physicochemical parameters of its breeding habitat. The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical parameters of the breeding habitat of the dengue vector and to find out the nutrient composition of the habitat in and around Kolkata, West Bengal. In addition, a geographic information system (GIS was used to map the disease prone areas for its effective management and prevention. Methods: Water samples were collected from various breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes of Kolkata and adjoining areas and were analysed for various physicochemical properties like acidity, alkalinity, hardness, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, concentration of chloride (Cl - , sodium (Na + , potassium (K + , fluoride (F - in relation to larval prevalence. Results: Parameters like water pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, electrical conductivity, concentration of chloride, sodium and potassium were seen to vary throughout the year. Certain parameters were found to be dependent on container type, like concentration of fluoride. Significant positive correlations were seen between per dip larval density and total dissolved solids (TDS and electrical conductivity. Interpretation & conclusions: Water pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids were seen to play a major role in the ovipositional preferences. Container type did not seem to affect TDS. Tyres had the highest TDS in most of the cases. Nutrient composition like sodium concentration was mostly found in the coconut shells, potassium concentration also showed the same. Thus, container type and various parameters and nutrients play a major role in determining where a gravid female mosquito will lay its eggs. It was observed that by altering various

  3. Seabird metapopulations: searching for alternative breeding habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, P.; Snep, R.P.H.; Schotman, A.G.M.; Jochem, R.; Stienen, E.W.M.; Slim, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Today, many seabird species nest in port areas, which are also necessary for human economic activity. In this paper, we evaluate, using a metapopulation model, the possibilities for creating alternative breeding sites for the Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) in the Rhine¿Meuse¿Scheldt estuary. We explor

  4. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae Habitat Surveillance by Android Mobile Devices in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Ping Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, Guangzhou City, South China, suffered from its worst outbreak of dengue fever in decades. Larval mosquito habitat surveillance was carried out by using android mobile devices in four study sites in May 2015. The habitats with larval mosquitoes were recorded as photo waypoints in OruxMaps or in videos. The total number of potential mosquito habitats was 342, of which 166 (49% were found to have mosquito larvae or pupae. Small containers were the most abundant potential habitats, accounting for 26% of the total number. More mosquito larvae and pupae, were found in small containers than in other objects holding water, for example, potted or hydroponic plants (p < 0.05. Mosquito larvae were collected from all plastic road barriers, used tires, and underground water. Aedes albopictus larvae were found from small and large containers, stumps, among others. The overall route index (RI was 11.3, which was 14.2 times higher than the grade C criteria of the National Patriotic Health Campaign Committee (NPHCC, China. The higher RIs were found from the bird and flower markets, schools, and underground parking lots. The results indicated that Android mobile devices are a convenient and useful tool for surveillance of mosquito habitats, and the enhancement of source reduction may benefit the prevention and control of dengue vector mosquitoes.

  5. Spatial scale of local breeding habitat quality and adjustment of breeding decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doligez, Blandine; Berthouly, Anne; Doligez, Damien; Tanner, Marion; Saladin, Verena; Bonfils, Danielle; Richner, Heinz

    2008-05-01

    Experimental studies provide evidence that, in spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments, individuals track variation in breeding habitat quality to adjust breeding decisions to local conditions. However, most experiments consider environmental variation at one spatial scale only, while the ability to detect the influence of a factor depends on the scale of analysis. We show that different breeding decisions by adults are based on information about habitat quality at different spatial scales. We manipulated (increased or decreased) local breeding habitat quality through food availability and parasite prevalence at a small (territory) and a large (patch) scale simultaneously in a wild population of Great Tits (Parus major). Females laid earlier in high-quality large-scale patches, but laying date did not depend on small-scale territory quality. Conversely, offspring sex ratio was higher (i.e., biased toward males) in high-quality, small-scale territories but did not depend on large-scale patch quality. Clutch size and territory occupancy probability did not depend on our experimental manipulation of habitat quality, but territories located at the edge of patches were more likely to be occupied than central territories. These results suggest that integrating different decisions taken by breeders according to environmental variation at different spatial scales is required to understand patterns of breeding strategy adjustment.

  6. Long lasting persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis Subsp. israelensis (Bti in mosquito natural habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Tilquin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The detrimental effects of chemical insecticides on the environment and human health have lead to the call for biological alternatives. Today, one of the most promising solutions is the use of spray formulations based on Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti in insect control programs. As a result, the amounts of Bti spread in the environment are expected to increase worldwide, whilst the common belief that commercial Bti is easily cleared from the ecosystem has not yet been clearly established. METHODOLOGY/MAIN FINDINGS: In this study, we aimed to determine the nature and origin of the high toxicity toward mosquito larvae found in decaying leaf litter collected in several natural mosquito breeding sites in the Rhône-Alpes region. From the toxic fraction of the leaf litter, we isolated B. cereus-like bacteria that were further characterized as B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis using PCR amplification of specific toxin genes. Immunological analysis of these Bti strains showed that they belong to the H14 group. We finally used amplified length polymorphism (AFLP markers to show that the strains isolated from the leaf litter were closely related to those present in the commercial insecticide used for field application, and differed from natural worldwide genotypes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results raise the issue of the persistence, potential proliferation and environmental accumulation of human-spread Bti in natural mosquito habitats. Such Bti environmental persistence may lengthen the exposure time of insects to this bio-insecticide, thereby increasing the risk of resistance acquisition in target insects, and of a negative impact on non-target insects.

  7. Larvivorous fishes in controlling mosquito breeding from draw wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, R D; Chakraverty, R K; Rai, R N; Dey, K P; Sharma, R S

    1989-12-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus have been found to breed in about 29 per cent of the wells in semi-urban area and 14 per cent of the wells in rural areas of Varanasi at one time or other. Majority of such wells are used-ones. Effectiveness of Poecillia reticulata, Esomus danrica and Trichogaster fasciatus in controlling well breeding is evaluated in the present study with successful results.

  8. Effect of leaf type and pesticide exposure on abundance of bacterial taxa in mosquito larval habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephantus J Muturi

    Full Text Available Lentic freshwater systems including those inhabited by aquatic stages of mosquitoes derive most of their carbon inputs from terrestrial organic matter mainly leaf litter. The leaf litter is colonized by microbial communities that provide the resource base for mosquito larvae. While the microbial biomass associated with different leaf species in container aquatic habitats is well documented, the taxonomic composition of these microbes and their response to common environmental stressors is poorly understood. We used indoor aquatic microcosms to determine the abundances of major taxonomic groups of bacteria in leaf litters from seven plant species and their responses to low concentrations of four pesticides with different modes of action on the target organisms; permethrin, malathion, atrazine and glyphosate. We tested the hypotheses that leaf species support different quantities of major taxonomic groups of bacteria and that exposure to pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations alters bacterial abundance and community structure in mosquito larval habitats. We found support for both hypotheses suggesting that leaf litter identity and chemical contamination may alter the quality and quantity of mosquito food base (microbial communities in larval habitats. The effect of pesticides on microbial communities varied significantly among leaf types, suggesting that the impact of pesticides on natural microbial communities may be highly complex and difficult to predict. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential for detritus composition within mosquito larval habitats and exposure to pesticides to influence the quality of mosquito larval habitats.

  9. Adaptive breeding habitat selection: Is it for the birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, Anna D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The question of why animals choose particular habitats has important implications for understanding behavioral evolution and distribution of organisms in the wild and for delineating between habitats of different quality for conservation and management. Habitats chosen by animals can influence fitness outcomes via the costs (e.g., predation risk) and benefits (e.g., food availability) of habitat use. Habitat preferences should therefore be under selection to favor those that confer fitness advantages (Clark and Shutler 1999). Indeed, prevailing theory suggests that the habitat preferences of animals should be adaptive, such that fitness is higher in preferred habitats (Hildén 1965, Southwood 1977, Martin 1998). However, studies have often identified apparent mismatches between observed habitat preferences and fitness outcomes across a wide variety of taxa (Valladares and Lawton 1991, Mayhew 1997, Kolbe and Janzen 2002, Arlt and Pärt 2007, Mägi et al. 2009). Certainly, one limitation of studies may be that assessment of “fitness” is typically constrained to fitness surrogates such as nest success rather than lifetime reproductive success or classic Fisherian fitness (Endler 1986). Nevertheless, important habitat choices such as nest sites influence the probability that temporarily sedentary, dependent young are discovered by enemies such as predators and parasites. We therefore expect, on average, to see congruence between evolved habitat preferences and relevant components of fitness (e.g., nest success). Here, we (1) review the prevalence of apparent mismatches between avian breeding-habitat preferences and fitness outcomes using nest-site selection as a focus; (2) describe several potential mechanisms for such mismatches, including anthropogenic, methodological, and ecological–evolutionary; and (3) suggest a framework for understanding the contexts in which habitat preferences represent adaptive decisions, with a primary focus on ecological information

  10. Effect of rice husbandry on mosquito breeding at Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme with reference to biocontrol strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimeng, E J; Mutinga, M J

    1993-03-01

    A study was carried out at Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme, Kenya, to assess the impact of rice husbandry on mosquito breeding and identify indigenous biocontrol agents with potential for controlling mosquito breeding in the scheme. The study established a close relationship between the schedule of the farming practices (particularly the flooding phase) and mosquito breeding. Two groups of agents, entomopathogenic bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis) and larvivorous fish, were identified. Laboratory evaluation of the agents produced encouraging results. The bacterial isolates showed broad-spectrum larvicidal potency against Anopheles, Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae and 2 of the fish species, Tilapia zilli and Oreochromis niloticus, demonstrated a strong predation for a mosquito larval diet. To facilitate their use in effective biocontrol strategies, the agents would require further evaluation under field conditions.

  11. Efficacy of neem chippings for mosquito larval control under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Imbahale, Susan S; Mukabana, Wolfgang R

    2015-01-01

    Background An in depth understanding of mosquito breeding biology and factors regulating population sizes is fundamental for vector population control. This paper presents results from a survey of mosquito breeding habitats and the efficacy of neem chippings as a potential larvicide that can be integrated in mosquito control on Nyabondo Plateau in western Kenya. Results Six main mosquito habitat types namely artificial ponds, abandoned fish ponds, active fish ponds, open drains, temporary poo...

  12. Diversity and abundance of mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) in an urban park: larval habitats and temporal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio R; Ceretti-Júnior, Walter; de Carvalho, Gabriela C; Nardi, Marcello S; Araujo, Alessandra B; Vendrami, Daniel P; Marrelli, Mauro T

    2015-10-01

    Urban parks are areas designated for human recreation but also serve as shelter and refuge for populations of several species of native fauna, both migratory and introduced. In Brazil, the effect of annual climate variations on Aedes aegypti and dengue epidemics in large cities like São Paulo is well known, but little is known about how such variations can affect the diversity of mosquito vectors in urban parks and the risk of disease transmission by these vectors. This study investigates the influence of larval habitats and seasonal factors on the diversity and abundance of Culicidae fauna in Anhanguera Park, one of the largest remaining green areas in the city of São Paulo. Species composition and richness and larval habitats were identified. Seasonality (cold-dry and hot-rainy periods) and year were considered as explanatory variables and the models selection approach was developed to investigate the relationship of these variables with mosquito diversity and abundance. A total of 11,036 specimens from 57 taxa distributed in 13 genera were collected. Culex nigripalpus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus were the most abundant species. Bamboo internodes and artificial breeding sites showed higher abundance, while ponds and puddles showed greater richness. Significant relationships were observed between abundance and seasonality, with a notable increase in the mosquitos abundance in the warm-rainy periods. The Shannon and Berger-Parker indices were related with interaction between seasonality and year, however separately these predictors showed no relationship with ones. The increased abundance of mosquitoes in warm-rainy months and the fact that some of the species are epidemiologically important increase not only the risk of pathogen transmission to people who frequent urban parks but also the nuisance represented by insect bites. The findings of this study highlight the importance of knowledge of culicid ecology in green areas in urban environments.

  13. Evaluation of biological control agents for mosquitoes control in artificial breeding places

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salim Abadi Yaser; Vatandoost Hassan; Rassi Yavar; Abai Mohammad Reza; Sanei Dehkordi Ali Reza; Paksa Azim

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the entomological impact of chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis, andGambusia affinis on mosquitoes control in artificial breeding places.Methods:A Latin square design with 4 replicates was performed in order to evaluate the efficacy of chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis, andGambusia affinis on larva. The larvicide was applied at the dosage of 100 mg a.h/ha,Bacillus thuringiensis at the recommended dosage and 10 fishes per m2 were applied at 1í1 m2 artificial breeding sites. The larval densities for both anopheline and culicine were counted according to larvae /10 dippers prior and 24 h after application.Results:All three control agents are effective for mosquito density reduction, and the difference between the three agents and the control is significant (P<0.05). There is also significant difference among chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis andGambusia affinis.Bacillus thuringiensisexhibited more reduction on mosquito larval density than fish and larvicide (P<0.05).Conclusions:Bacillus thuringiensis in comparison with two other agents is the appropriate method for larviciding in the breeding places. Although long term assessing for biological activities as well as monitoring and mapping of resistance is required.

  14. Fauna and Larval Habitats of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae of West Azerbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Khoshdel-Nezamiha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several important diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. Despite of the potential of the occurrence of some mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile, dirofilariasis and malaria in the region, there is no recent study of mosquitoes in West Azerbaijan Province. The aim of this investigation was to study the fauna, composition and distribution of mosquitoes and the characteristics of their larval habitats in this province.Larvae and adult collections were carried out from different habitats using the standard methods in twenty five localities of seven counties across West Azerbaijan Province.Overall, 1569 mosquitoes including 1336 larvae and 233 adults were collected from 25 localities. The details of geographical properties were recorded. Five genera along with 12 species were collected and identified including: Anopheles claviger, An. maculipennis s.l., An. superpictus, Culex pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. modestus, Cx. hortensis, Cx. mimeticus, Culiseta Longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caspius s.l., Oc. geniculatus and Uranotaenia unguiculata. This is the first record of Oc. geniculatus in the province.Due to the geographical location of the West Azerbaijan Province, it comprises different climatic condition which provides suitable environment for the establishment of various species of mosquitoes. The solidarity geographical, cultural and territorial exchanges complicate the situation of the province and its vectors as a threat for future and probable epidemics of mosquito-borne diseases.

  15. Amendment Number 2 - Effects of Commercial Thinning in Slash Pine on Breeding Birds and Their Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A plan to determine the impact on breeding birds and their habitat of thinning by commercial harvest in the slash pine habitat type on St. Vincent Island. This plan...

  16. Tires as habitats for mosquitoes: a review of studies within the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Donald A

    2008-07-01

    Discarded vehicle tires are a common habitat for a variety of container mosquito species. I reviewed the literature from the last 50 yr on mosquitoes collected within tires in the eastern United States with four objectives: to examine the historical and contemporary issues of tires as a habitat for mosquitoes, to identify tire-inhabiting species, to summarize findings from studies that focused on biotic and abiotic characteristics of tires, and to offer future directions to aid our understanding of tire-inhabiting mosquitoes. Thirty-two species have been documented, including seven invasives, with the most frequently encountered being Aedes triseriatus, Ae. albopictus, Ae. atropalpus, Culex restuans, Cx. pipiens, Cx. territans, Anopheles punctipennis, and Toxorhynchites rutilus. The proclivity of these species to occupy small containers is one possible explanation for their occurrence in tires. The native species Ae. triseriatus was abundant and the most often collected, particularly in central and northern regions, whereas the invasive Ae. albopictus was most abundant in the south. One half of the studies investigating aspects of the tire environment compared mosquito populations between sunlit and shaded tires, with the general finding that this factor alone led to dramatic differences in larval species composition and abundance patterns. Less frequently investigated factors, e.g., tire orientation, detritus, and proximity to humans, also were found to affect patterns of occupancy by mosquitoes. For the future, I suggest more surveys are needed in understudied areas, as well as quantitative experiments to determine habitat associations and community dynamics in tires, which are especially necessary to assist in understanding invasions. Discarded tires are important for studies of vector dynamics, because of their abundance near human populations and because they expand the habitat range of mosquitoes that vector pathogens.

  17. Larval habitat dynamics and diversity of Culex mosquitoes in rice agro-ecosystem in Mwea, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Shililu, Josephat I; Gu, Weidong; Jacob, Benjamin G; Githure, John I; Novak, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    Introduction of irrigation projects in developing nations has often been blamed for aggravating the problem of mosquito-borne diseases by creating ideal larval habitats for vector mosquitoes. However, whereas several studies have demonstrated the relationship between malaria vectors and irrigation, little work has been done on culicine mosquitoes despite their potential in transmission of filariasis and arboviruses and their significant biting nuisance in these areas. This study examined the diversity of Culex mosquito fauna and their larval habitats at two sites (Murinduko and Kiamachiri) in Mwea, Kenya over a 12-month period. The habitat types present at each site within a 200-meter radius around the study village, including randomly selected paddies and canals, were sampled every two weeks to examine the relationship between vegetation cover, water depth, turbidity, and Culex larval counts. Ten culicine species belonging to four genera were identified, with 73.1% of the total collection comprising of Culex duttoni and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Other species collected included Cx. annulioris, Cx. poicilipes, Cx. cinereus, Cx. tigripes, Cx. trifilatus, Aedes spp., Coquilettidia fuscopennata, and Ficalbia splendens. Murinduko was more diverse than Kiamachiri in terms of species richness (10 versus 7 species) and larval habitat diversity (11 versus 8 habitat types). Paddies, canals, and rain pools were the most diverse habitats in terms of species richness, and ditches, rock pools, and tree holes were the least diverse. Principal component and correlation analyses showed a strong association between three Culex species and the measured habitat characteristics. Culex poicilipes was strongly associated with floating vegetation, Cx. annulioris with clean water containing emergent vegetation, and Cx. quinquefasciatus was associated with turbid water. Seasonal changes in larval counts in water reservoirs and pool and ditch habitats were closely associated with rainfall

  18. Epidemiological significance of the breeding of mosquitoes in discarded automobile tyres in Zaria, Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebote, D A; Kogi, E; Oniye, S J; Akoje, F

    2011-09-01

    Waste automobile tyres are suitable receptacles of rainwater thus capable of supporting the breeding of vector mosquito species in close proximity to humans and altering disease transmission risks. Bionomics of mosquitoes in carelessly discarded tyres was explored to unravel species composition and abundance, physicochemical parameters of microhabitats and epidemiological significance. Of the 1179 larvae isolated from 90/212 (42.45%) positive tyres were ten species belonging to Aedes and Culex genera, including Aedes aegypti (46.56%), Culex albiventris (0.25%), Cx. cinereus (0.25%), Cx. grahami (0.68%), Cx. ingrami (1.44%), Cx. nebulosus (2.37%), Cx. mirificus (0.08%), Cx. pipiens pipiens (0.17%), Cx. quinquefasciatus (47.07%) and Cx. tigripes (1.10%). Abundance of the dominant Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus did not differ significantly (P > 0.05), but was higher than those of the other eight species (P < 0.05). The microhabitat pH (range 5.20-9.50), total dissolved solids (range 15-802 ppm) and electrical conductivity (range 30-1603 microscm 1) were obtained in tyres. Abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus correlated positively and significantly with EC and TDS of breeding water (P < 0.05). The study revealed high potential of the transmission of filariasis and arboviruses including dengue and yellow fever by mosquitoes domiciled in waste tyres.

  19. Mosquito species and their habitats in Zhangzhou, Fujian%福建省漳州地区蚊媒种类及孳生环境调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朱云; 方义亮; 谢汉国; 杨发柱; 徐保海

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mosquito species and breeding environment in Zhangzhou of Fujian, and to provide basis for prevention and control of mosquitoes and mosquito?borne diseases. Methods A series of combined larvae investigation methods, human bait method and ox?trap method were used. The mosquitoes were collected mainly in the residential area, mountain area and the port of six counties. Then they were classified and identified after larvae developing into adult. Results The mosquitoes were identified to 40 species, 9 genus and 3 subfamilies. They were 4 species of Anopheles, 12 Aedes, 14 Culex and 10 other mosquito genera. Uranotaenia koli Peyton et Klein was first reported in Fujian. Different mosquito species were captured in different parts. The largest number of mosquito species were in Nanjing and Pinghe, there were both 27 species. Eight types of mosquito breeding habitats were investigated. There were 15 species breeding in bamboo tube, 11 species from the pits formed by ravine streams water, 11 species in stone caves, and few from other breeding habitats. Conclusion There are many kinds of mosquitoes related to mosquito?borne diseases in Zhangzhou. The monitoring of mosquitoes for Dengue should be strengthened, and comprehensive management measures should be combined with breeding environment.%目的 掌握福建省漳州地区蚊虫种类以及孳生环境,为福建省蚊媒病的预防与控制提供依据.方法 采用幼虫调查法,结合人诱法、牛诱法,调查福建省漳州地区6个县,主要在居民区、山区和港口采集幼虫,饲养为成蚊后鉴定.结果 此次调查蚊种经鉴定隶属于3亚科9属40种,其中按蚊属4种,伊蚊属12种,库蚊属14种,其他蚊属10种,首次在福建地区报道捕获蓝带蚊属的科利蓝带蚊;不同地区捕获的蚊种不同,南靖和平和县捕获的蚊种数量最多,有27种;调查蚊媒8种孳生环境,其中竹筒孳生蚊虫有15种,山沟溪涧积水形

  20. Nestedness patterns of container-dwelling mosquitoes: Effects of larval habitat within variable terrestial matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distributions of mosquito larvae likely are a consequence of multiple factors, although two commonly studied factors (quality of the larval environment and the terrestrial matrix in which these habitats reside) have rarely and simultaneously been varied in the field to understand...

  1. Mosquito vector diversity across habitats in central Thailand endemic for dengue and other arthropod-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongsripong, Panpim; Green, Amy; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Kapan, Durrell; Wilcox, Bruce; Bennett, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen the greatest ecological disturbances of our times, with global human expansion, species and habitat loss, climate change, and the emergence of new and previously-known infectious diseases. Biodiversity loss affects infectious disease risk by disrupting normal relationships between hosts and pathogens. Mosquito-borne pathogens respond to changing dynamics on multiple transmission levels and appear to increase in disturbed systems, yet current knowledge of mosquito diversity and the relative abundance of vectors as a function of habitat change is limited. We characterize mosquito communities across habitats with differing levels of anthropogenic ecological disturbance in central Thailand. During the 2008 rainy season, adult mosquito collections from 24 sites, representing 6 habitat types ranging from forest to urban, yielded 62,126 intact female mosquitoes (83,325 total mosquitoes) that were assigned to 109 taxa. Female mosquito abundance was highest in rice fields and lowest in forests. Diversity indices and rarefied species richness estimates indicate the mosquito fauna was more diverse in rural and less diverse in rice field habitats, while extrapolated estimates of true richness (Chao1 and ACE) indicated higher diversity in the forest and fragmented forest habitats and lower diversity in the urban. Culex sp. (Vishnui subgroup) was the most common taxon found overall and the most frequent in fragmented forest, rice field, rural, and suburban habitats. The distributions of species of medical importance differed significantly across habitat types and were always lowest in the intact, forest habitat. The relative abundance of key vector species, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, was negatively correlated with diversity, suggesting that direct species interactions and/or habitat-mediated factors differentially affecting invasive disease vectors may be important mechanisms linking biodiversity loss to human health. Our results are an

  2. Household survey of container-breeding mosquitoes and climatic factors influencing the prevalence of Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae) in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Al Thabiany Aziz; Hamdan Ahmad; Wan Fatma Zuharah; Ahmad Saad Ramli; Fumio Miake; Hamady Dieng; Abu Hassan Ahmad; Jazem A Mahyoub; Abdulhafis M Turkistani; Hatabbi Mesed; Salah Koshike; Tomomitsu Satho; MR Che Salmah

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of container breeding mosquitoes with emphasis on the seasonality and larval habitats of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) in Makkah City, adjoining an environmental monitoring and dengue incidence. Methods: Monthly visits were performed between April 2008 and March 2009 to randomly selected houses. During each visit, mosquito larvae were collected from indoors and outdoors containers by either dipping or pipetting. Mosquitoes were morphologically identified. Data on temperature, relative humidity, rain/precipitations during the survey period was retrieved from governmental sources and analyzed. Results: The city was warmer in dry season (DS) than wet season (WS). No rain occurred at all during DS and even precipitations did fall, wetting events were much greater during WS. Larval survey revealed the co-breeding of Aedes, Culex and Anopheles in a variety of artificial containers in and around homes. 32109 larvae representing 1st , 2nd, 3rd, and 4th stages were collected from 22618 container habitats. Culicines was far the commonest and Aedes genus was as numerous as the Culex population. Ae. aegypti larval abundance exhibited marked temporal variations, overall, being usually more abundant during WS. Ten types of artificial containers were found with developing larvae. 70% of these habitats were located indoors. 71.42% of indoor containers were permanent and 28.58% was semi-permanent during WS. Cement tanks was the only container type permanent during DS. Ae. aegypti larval indices (CI, HI, BI) recorded were greater during WS. Conclusions: Taken together, these results indicate a high risk of dengue transmission in the holy city.

  3. Extension of habitat of female blood-sucking mosquitoes in Solomenskiy district, Kiev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Kilochytska

    2013-09-01

    2010 in Solomyanskyi district with measurement of temperature at the locations of collection. It turned out that the air temperature in the sheds was 2–4 °C lower than outside in the shade, in the basements lower by 4–11 °C, and in the cellars lower by 4–12 °C. Comparison of the temperature in the daytime habitats and number of mosquitoes found there showed a direct relation between the outdoor temperature and the number of mosquitoes in the daytime habitat on the premises. The data indicate that there is a tendency for the number of synanthropic blood-sucking mosquito species to increase owing to the occupation of domestic premises as a daytime habitat by those species of mosquitoes for which this phenomenon was not typical earlier. If global warming and the current trend to increase in summer temperatures persist, this can cause a deterioration of the epidemiological situation in the megalopolis.

  4. Integrated control of peridomestic larval habitats of Aedes and Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in atoll villages of French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardeux, Frederic; Sechan, Yves; Loncke, Stepiiane; Deparis, Xavier; Cheffort, Jules; Faaruia, Marc

    2002-05-01

    An integrated larval mosquito control program was carried out in Tiputa village on Rangiroa atoll of French Polynesia. Mosquito abundance before and after treatment was compared with the abundance in an untreated village. Mosquito larval habitats consisted of large concrete or polyurethane cisterns, wells, and 200-liter drums. Depending on the target species, larval habitat category, its configuration, and purpose (drinking consumption or not), abatement methods consisted of sealing the larval habitats with mosquito gauze, treating them with 1% Temephos, covering the water with a 10-cm thick layer of polystyrene beads or introducing fish (Poecillia reticulata Rosen & Bailey). All premises of the chosen village were treated and a health education program explained basic mosquito ecology and the methods of control. A community health agent was trained to continue the control program at the end of the experiment. Entomological indices from human bait collections and larval surveys indicated that mosquito populations were reduced significantly, compared with concurrent samples from the untreated control village, and that mosquito control remained effective for 6 mo after treatment. Effects of the treatment were noticed by the inhabitants in terms of a reduction in the number of mosquito bites. In the Polynesian context, such control programs may succeed in the long-term only if strong political decisions are taken at the village level, if a community member is designated as being responsible for maintaining the program, and if the inhabitants are motivated sufficiently by the mosquito nuisance to intervene.

  5. Habitat Effects on the Breeding Performance of Three Forest-Dwelling Hawks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Heidi; Valkama, Jari; Tomppo, Erkki; Laaksonen, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss causes population declines, but the mechanisms are rarely known. In the European Boreal Zone, loss of old forest due to intensive forestry is suspected to cause declines in forest-dwelling raptors by reducing their breeding performance. We studied the boreal breeding habitat and habitat-associated breeding performance of the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and European honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). We combined long-term Finnish bird-of-prey data with multi-source national forest inventory data at various distances (100-4000 m) around the hawk nests. We found that breeding success of the goshawk was best explained by the habitat within a 2000-m radius around the nests; breeding was more successful with increasing proportions of old spruce forest and water, and decreasing proportions of young thinning forest. None of the habitat variables affected significantly the breeding success of the common buzzard or the honey buzzard, or the brood size of any of the species. The amount of old spruce forest decreased both around goshawk and common buzzard nests and throughout southern Finland in 1992-2010. In contrast, the area of young forest increased in southern Finland but not around hawk nests. We emphasize the importance of studying habitats at several spatial and temporal scales to determine the relevant species-specific scale and to detect environmental changes. Further effort is needed to reconcile the socioeconomic and ecological functions of forests and habitat requirements of old forest specialists.

  6. Habitat selection and movements of Piping Plover broods suggest a tradeoff between breeding stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Pearse, Aaron T.

    2015-01-01

    In precocial birds, adults select breeding areas using cues associated with habitat characteristics that are favorable for nesting success and chick survival, but there may be tradeoffs in habitat selection between these breeding stages. Here we describe habitat selection and intra-territory movements of 53 Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) broods (320 observations) during the 2007–2008 breeding seasons on mainland- and island-shoreline habitats at Lake Sakakawea, North Dakota, USA. We used remotely sensed habitat characteristics to separately examine habitat selection and movements at two spatiotemporal scales to account for potential confounding effects of nest-site selection on brood-rearing habitat used. The scales used were (1) the entire brood-rearing period within available brood-rearing areas and (2) 2-day observation intervals within age-specific discrete habitat selection choice sets. Analyses at both scales indicated that broods selected areas which were non-vegetated, moderately level, and nearer to the shoreline. Rate of brood movement increased with age up to 5 days, then stabilized; broods that hatched >50 m away from the shoreline moved toward the shoreline. Brood movements were greater when they were in vegetated areas, when the brood-rearing area was of greater topographic complexity, and when broods aged 6–25 days were further away from the shoreline. Using inferences from our results and those of previously published work, we postulate how a potential tradeoff in habitat selection between nesting and brood-rearing can contribute to an ecological trap in a novel habitat. This work, in the context of published works, suggests that plover breeding habitat is a complex of both nesting and brood-rearing habitats and provides a basis for making remotely sensed abundance estimates of suitable breeding habitat for Piping Plovers.

  7. A model to predict evaporation rates in habitats used by container-dwelling mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Healy, Sean P; Hamilton, George C

    2011-05-01

    Container-dwelling mosquitoes use a wide variety of container habitats. The bottle cap is often cited as the smallest container habitat used by container species. When containers are small, the habitat conditions can greatly affect evaporation rates that in turn can affect the species dynamics within the container. An evaporation rate model was adapted to predict evaporation rates in mosquito container habitats. In both the laboratory and field, our model was able to predict actual evaporation rates. Examples of how the model may be applied are provided by examining the likelihood of Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes aegypti (L.), and Culex pipiens pipiens (L.) completing their development within small-volume containers under typical environmental conditions and a range of temperatures. Our model suggests that under minimal direct sunlight exposure, both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus could develop within a bottle cap before complete evaporation. Our model shows that under the environmental conditions when a plastic field container was sampled, neither Ae. albopictus or Cx. p. pipiens could complete development in that particular container before the water evaporated. Although rainfall could replenish the habitat, the effects of evaporation would increase larval density, which could in turn further decrease developmental rates.

  8. Endangered Roseate Tern Breeding and Staging Habitat Management and Enhancement Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goals of this project are to enhance and protect roseate tern breeding and staging habitat to increase productivity, and improve survival of fledglings and...

  9. Landscape determinants and remote sensing of anopheline mosquito larval habitats in the western Kenya highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck Louisa

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past two decades the east African highlands have experienced several major malaria epidemics. Currently there is a renewed interest in exploring the possibility of anopheline larval control through environmental management or larvicide as an additional means of reducing malaria transmission in Africa. This study examined the landscape determinants of anopheline mosquito larval habitats and usefulness of remote sensing in identifying these habitats in western Kenya highlands. Methods Panchromatic aerial photos, Ikonos and Landsat Thematic Mapper 7 satellite images were acquired for a study area in Kakamega, western Kenya. Supervised classification of land-use and land-cover and visual identification of aquatic habitats were conducted. Ground survey of all aquatic habitats was conducted in the dry and rainy seasons in 2003. All habitats positive for anopheline larvae were identified. The retrieved data from the remote sensors were compared to the ground results on aquatic habitats and land-use. The probability of finding aquatic habitats and habitats with Anopheles larvae were modelled based on the digital elevation model and land-use types. Results The misclassification rate of land-cover types was 10.8% based on Ikonos imagery, 22.6% for panchromatic aerial photos and 39.2% for Landsat TM 7 imagery. The Ikonos image identified 40.6% of aquatic habitats, aerial photos identified 10.6%, and Landsate TM 7 image identified 0%. Computer models based on topographic features and land-cover information obtained from the Ikonos image yielded a misclassification rate of 20.3–22.7% for aquatic habitats, and 18.1–25.1% for anopheline-positive larval habitats. Conclusion One-metre spatial resolution Ikonos images combined with computer modelling based on topographic land-cover features are useful tools for identification of anopheline larval habitats, and they can be used to assist to malaria vector control in western Kenya

  10. Larval Habitats Diversity and Distribution of the Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Species in the Republic of Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulesco, Tatiana M; Toderas, Lidia G; Uspenskaia, Inga G; Toderas, I K

    2015-11-01

    A countrywide field survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted in Moldova with the aim to evaluate the Culicidae species composition in different larval habitats and their distribution in the country. In total, 259 potential larval habitats were sampled in the 53 localities, resulting in 9,456 specimens. Twenty species belonging to the genera Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Culiseta, and Uranotaenia were collected. Mean species richness in aquatic habitats ranged from 1.00 to 4.00, and, for example, was higher in swamps, flood plains, ditches, and large ground pools and lower in rivers, streams, tree-holes, and containers. Six mosquito species were identified only in a single type of aquatic habitat. Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Culex pipiens pipiens L., and Culex modestus Ficalbi were the most abundant and distributed species representing over 80% of the identified specimens. Three, four, and five associated species were recorded from 23.5% of mosquito-positive aquatic habitats. Our findings demonstrate the co-occurrence of Cx. p. pipiens and Culex torrentium Martini in natural and rural environments. It is concluded that the study area has undergone a dramatic ecological change since the previous studies in the 1950s, causing the near extinction of Culex theileri Theobald from Moldova. An. maculipennis s.l. larval abundance, reduced by the DDT control of the adults in the 1950s, had returned to those of the 1940s. Restoration of An. maculipennis s.l. abundance in combination with imported malaria cases constitute a risk of the reintroduction of malaria transmission in Moldova.

  11. Integrating the public in mosquito management: active education by community peers can lead to significant reduction in peridomestic container mosquito habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  12. Integrating the public in mosquito management: active education by community peers can lead to significant reduction in peridomestic container mosquito habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Healy

    Full Text Available Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical

  13. Immature Aedes mosquitoes colonize Culex quinquefasciatus breeding sites in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda, State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane Alves dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The present study shows the colonization of Aedes mosquitoes in breeding sites specific for Culex quinquefasciatus in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda. Methods Samples were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 from breeding sites positive for Cx. quinquefasciatus by using a ladle and manual suction pump. Results Aedes aegypti (0.12%, Aedes albopictus (0.03%, and Cx. quinquefasciatus (99.8% were found across the breeding sites. Conclusions The presence of Aedes ssp. in several Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding sites with a heavy load of organic material demonstrates the need to review the concepts and methods used for treatment, as the use of specific larvicide for breeding sites of Culex.

  14. Evaluation of bifenthrin applications in tires to prevent Aedes mosquito breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy T; Whelan, Peter I; Shortus, Matthew S; Jacups, Susan P

    2009-03-01

    The efficacy of maximum label rates of bifenthrin applications to dry tires to prevent Aedes mosquito breeding was investigated by field colonization and bioassay trials in shaded and unshaded locations. Aedes notoscriptus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae were the most abundant species present in the field colonization trial. Colonization and survival of Ae. notoscriptus larvae to the late instar occurred significantly earlier in treated tires in shaded compared with unshaded locations (P = 0.002). Bifenthrin applications in shaded tires only prevented early instar survival for approximately 2.6 wk. Aedes notoscriptus late instars did not appear in the treated unshaded tires. Culex quinquefasciatus colonized treated tires from the 2nd wk in both shaded and unshaded treatments. In the bioassay, water from bifenthrin-treated tires, through extrapolation, was found to kill approximately 100% of late instar Ae. notoscriptus for only approximately 2.0-2.2 wk in shaded and unshaded tires. Under conditions optimal for Aedes breeding, such as shaded locations, high ambient temperatures, high relative humidity, and high amounts of leaf/organic matter accumulations, bifenthrin may not be effective as a larval control measure in tires for greater than 2.0-2.6 wk.

  15. Household disposables as breeding habitats of dengue vectors: Linking wastes and public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Soumyajit, E-mail: soumyajitb@gmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India); Aditya, Gautam, E-mail: gautamaditya2001@gmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India); Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713 104 (India); Saha, Goutam K, E-mail: gkszoo@rediffmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An assessment of different household wastes as larval habitats of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus was made using Kolkata, India as a model geographical area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Household wastes of four major categories namely earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells varied significantly for Aedes immature depending on species, month and location. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on the relative density of Aedes immature, cluster analyses allowed segregation and classification of the waste containers and relative importance as mosquito larval habitats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conversion of disposed wastes into larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population in Kolkata and similar cities of tropics lacking suitable waste management practices. - Abstract: An assessment of the household wastes as larval habitats of the dengue vectors was made considering Kolkata, India, as geographical area. Wastes of four major categories, namely, earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells were monitored for positive with immature of either Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. Twenty six types of wastes with varying size and shape, resembling containers, were identified that hosted mosquito immature. The number of waste containers positive for Aedes immature varied significantly (P < 0.05) with respect to location, type and month. The relative density of Aedes immature in the waste containers varied significantly (P < 0.05) with the types and months. The significant interaction between the month, waste container types and density of Aedes immature suggest that the household wastes are important contributors to the maintenance of the population of Aedes mosquito in the city. Based on the relative density of mosquito immature in the wastes, cluster analysis allowed segregation and classification of the wastes and their importance as mosquito larval habitats. Apparently, the containers that

  16. Sex-Specific Habitat Utilization and Differential Breeding Investments in Christmas Island Frigatebirds throughout the Breeding Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennicke, Janos C; James, David J; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-01-01

    In seabirds, equal bi-parental care is the rule, as it is considered crucial for raising chicks successfully because seabirds forage in an environment with unpredictable and highly variable food supply. Frigatebirds forage in poor tropical waters, yet males reduce and even stop parental care soon after chick brooding, leaving the female to provision the chick alone for an extended fledging period. Using bird-borne tracking devices, male and female Christmas Island Frigatebirds (Fregata andrewsi) were investigated during the brooding, late chick rearing and post-fledging period to examine whether sexes exhibit foraging strategies that may be linked to differential breeding investments. During brooding, males and females showed similar foraging behaviour under average marine productivity of oceanic waters close to the colony, but males shifted to more distant and more productive habitats when conditions deteriorated to continue with reduced chick provisioning. During the late chick rearing period, females progressively increased their foraging range to the more distant but productive marine areas that only males had visited during brooding. Birds spent the non-breeding period roosting in highly productive waters of the Sunda Shelf. The sex-specific utilisation of three different foraging habitats with different primary productivity (oceanic, coastal, and shelf areas) allowed for temporal and spatial segregation in the exploitation of favourable habitats which seems to enable each sex to optimise its foraging profitability. In addition, post-fledging foraging movements of females suggest a biennial breeding cycle, while limited information on males suggests the possibility of an annual breeding cycle.

  17. Mosquito habitat and dengue risk potential in Kenya: alternative methods to traditional risk mapping techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Attaway

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks, epidemics and endemic conditions make dengue a disease that has emerged as a major threat in tropical and sub-tropical countries over the past 30 years. Dengue fever creates a growing burden for public health systems and has the potential to affect over 40% of the world population. The problem being investigated is to identify the highest and lowest areas of dengue risk. This paper presents “Similarity Search”, a geospatial analysis aimed at identifying these locations with- in Kenya. Similarity Search develops a risk map by combining environmental susceptibility analysis and geographical infor- mation systems, and then compares areas with dengue prevalence to all other locations. Kenya has had outbreaks of dengue during the past 3 years, and we identified areas with the highest susceptibility to dengue infection using bioclimatic variables, elevation and mosquito habitat as input to the model. Comparison of the modelled risk map with the reported dengue epi- demic cases obtained from the open source reporting ProMED and Government news reports from 1982-2013 confirmed the high-risk locations that were used as the Similarity Search presence cells. Developing the risk model based upon the bio- climatic variables, elevation and mosquito habitat increased the efficiency and effectiveness of the dengue fever risk mapping process.

  18. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A.; Steven J. Wagner.

    2005-06-29

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A., and Steven J. Wagner. 2005. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS). Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 48 pp. Abstract: During the 1970's and 1980's a dramatic decline occurred in the populations of Neotropical migratory birds, species that breed in North America and winter south of the border in Central and South America and in the Caribbean. In 1991 an international initiative was mounted by U. S. governmental land management agencies, nongovernmental conservation agencies, and the academic and lay ornithological communities to understand the decline of Neotropical migratory birds in the Americas. In cooperation with the USDA Forest Service - Savannah River (FS - SR) we began 1992 a project directed to monitoring population densities of breeding birds using the Breeding Bird Census (BBC) methodology in selected habitats within the Savannah River Site SRS. In addition we related point count data on the occurrence of breeding Neotropical migrants and other bird species to the habitat data gathered by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service and data on habitat treatments within forest stands.

  19. Sex-Specific Habitat Utilization and Differential Breeding Investments in Christmas Island Frigatebirds throughout the Breeding Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janos C Hennicke

    Full Text Available In seabirds, equal bi-parental care is the rule, as it is considered crucial for raising chicks successfully because seabirds forage in an environment with unpredictable and highly variable food supply. Frigatebirds forage in poor tropical waters, yet males reduce and even stop parental care soon after chick brooding, leaving the female to provision the chick alone for an extended fledging period. Using bird-borne tracking devices, male and female Christmas Island Frigatebirds (Fregata andrewsi were investigated during the brooding, late chick rearing and post-fledging period to examine whether sexes exhibit foraging strategies that may be linked to differential breeding investments. During brooding, males and females showed similar foraging behaviour under average marine productivity of oceanic waters close to the colony, but males shifted to more distant and more productive habitats when conditions deteriorated to continue with reduced chick provisioning. During the late chick rearing period, females progressively increased their foraging range to the more distant but productive marine areas that only males had visited during brooding. Birds spent the non-breeding period roosting in highly productive waters of the Sunda Shelf. The sex-specific utilisation of three different foraging habitats with different primary productivity (oceanic, coastal, and shelf areas allowed for temporal and spatial segregation in the exploitation of favourable habitats which seems to enable each sex to optimise its foraging profitability. In addition, post-fledging foraging movements of females suggest a biennial breeding cycle, while limited information on males suggests the possibility of an annual breeding cycle.

  20. An Expert-Based Assessment Model for Evaluating Habitat Suitability of Pond-Breeding Amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ruoh Juang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Farm ponds are important habitats for amphibians, birds, and other wildlife. In Taiwan, artificial ponds were originally created on farmlands for irrigation purposes and the needs of the domestic water supply. Although pond creation is a typical farming practice, it also provides habitats for pond-breeding amphibians. Thus, it is essential to understand the current status of habitats and their vulnerability regarding urgent conservation needs for target species. Günther’s frog (Hylarana guentheri, a pond-breeding amphibian, has a high sensitivity towards surrounding environmental changes, and can be used as an indicator species to assess habitat suitability. The purpose of this study is to establish a systematic framework to assess the habitat suitability of pond-breeding amphibians by using Günther’s frog as a pilot-study species. First, we collected frog survey data from Chiayi, Taiwan, from winter 2013 to spring 2015, and investigated the present status of the environmental conditions around the ponds. Next, expert questionnaires and the fuzzy Delphi method were applied to establish the hierarchical evaluation criteria regarding the habitat suitability assessment. Four indicators: the aquatic environments of farm ponds; the terrestrial environments around ponds; landscape connectivity; and the conservation perceptions of the residents, were determined as first-layer factors in the assessment criteria, while ten other indicators were defined as second-layer factors. Based on the established assessment criteria, we performed in situ habitat suitability evaluations on 69 selected sites and surveyed the perceptions of the residents using questionnaires. Results revealed that 19% of locations were rich in frog species with a high habitat suitability. However, 67% of locations showed signs of habitat degradation, which may imply a higher need in practicing habitat improvement or restoration. The Kappa value was 0.6061, which indicated a high

  1. Locating suitable habitats for West Nile Virus-infected mosquitoes through association of environmental characteristics with infected mosquito locations: a case study in Shelby County, Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bialkowska-Jelinska Elzbieta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its first detection in 2001, West Nile Virus (WNV poses a significant health risk for residents of Shelby County in Tennessee. This situation forced public health officials to adopt efficient methods for monitoring disease spread and predicting future outbreaks. Analyses that use environmental variables to find suitable habitats for WNV-infected mosquitoes have the potential to support these efforts. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, we identified areas of Shelby County that are ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV, based on similarity of environmental characteristics to areas where WNV was found. The environmental characteristics in this study were based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS data, such as elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, and precipitation. Results Our analyses produced maps of likely habitats of WNV-infected mosquitoes for each week of August 2004, revealing the areas that are ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV within the core of the Memphis urban area. By comparing neighbourhood social characteristics to the environmental factors that contribute to WNV infection, potential social drivers of WNV transmission were revealed in Shelby County. Results show that human population characteristics and housing conditions such as a high percentage of black population, low income, high rental occupation, old structures, and vacant housing are associated with the focal area of WNV identified for each week of the study period. Conclusion We demonstrated that use of the Mahalanobis Distance statistic as a similarity index to assess environmental characteristics is a potential raster-based approach to identify areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining the virus. This approach was also useful to monitor changes over time for likely locations of infected mosquito habitats. This technique is very helpful for authorities when making decisions related to an

  2. The Effects of Habitat Type and Volcanic Eruptions on the Breeding Demography of Icelandic Whimbrels Numenius phaeopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrínardóttir, Borgný; Alves, José A; Sigurjónsdóttir, Hrefna; Hersteinsson, Páll; Gunnarsson, Tómas G

    2015-01-01

    Distinct preference of species for habitats is most often driven by long term differences in demographic rates between habitats. Estimating variation in those rates is key for developing successful conservation strategies. Stochastic events can interact with underlying variation in habitat quality in regulating demography but the opportunities to explore such interactions are rare. Whimbrels in Iceland show a strong preference for sparsely vegetated riverplains. Such habitats in Iceland face various threats, e.g., climate change, river regulation and spread of alien plant species. In this study we compared demographic parameters of breeding Whimbrels between riverplains and other habitats before, during and after volcanic eruption events to estimate the importance of the habitats for the species and the effect of ash deposit on breeding success. We found that an estimated minimum of 23% of the Icelandic population of Whimbrels and c. 10% of the world population of the species breed in riverplain habitats in Iceland. Whimbrels bred consistently at much higher densities in riverplain habitats than in other habitats and riverplains also had higher densities of pairs with fledglings although the proportion of successful breeders was similar between habitats. Predation by livestock may have had a considerable negative effect on breeding success on our study sites. Breeding was negatively affected by the volcanic activity, probably through the effects of ash on the invertebrate food supply, with breeding success being gradually worse closer to the eruption. Breeding success was equally affected by volcanism across habitats which differed in underlying habitat quality. This study gives an example of how populations can be regulated by factors which operate at different spatial scales, such as local variation in habitat quality and stochastic events which impact larger areas.

  3. Landscape effects on mallard habitat selection at multiple spatial scales during the non-breeding period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, William S.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies that evaluated effects of landscape-scale habitat heterogeneity on migratory waterbird distributions were spatially limited and temporally restricted to one major life-history phase. However, effects of landscape-scale habitat heterogeneity on long-distance migratory waterbirds can be studied across the annual cycle using new technologies, including global positioning system satellite transmitters. We used Bayesian discrete choice models to examine the influence of local habitats and landscape composition on habitat selection by a generalist dabbling duck, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), in the midcontinent of North America during the non-breeding period. Using a previously published empirical movement metric, we separated the non-breeding period into three seasons, including autumn migration, winter, and spring migration. We defined spatial scales based on movement patterns such that movements >0.25 and 30.00 km were classified as relocation scale. Habitat selection at the local scale was generally influenced by local and landscape-level variables across all seasons. Variables in top models at the local scale included proximities to cropland, emergent wetland, open water, and woody wetland. Similarly, variables associated with area of cropland, emergent wetland, open water, and woody wetland were also included at the local scale. At the relocation scale, mallards selected resource units based on more generalized variables, including proximity to wetlands and total wetland area. Our results emphasize the role of landscape composition in waterbird habitat selection and provide further support for local wetland landscapes to be considered functional units of waterbird conservation and management.

  4. The survey in different habitat to the mosquito-vector in Yimeng mountain area%沂蒙山区蚊类传播媒介的生态学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景晓; 常树珍; 张世水; 宫学诗; 赖世宏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To survey the different habitat to the species, distribution, habitat, behavior of mosquitoes in Yimeng mountain area for about twenty years,and provide local background data for killing mosquitoes. Methods Applying five ways :human baited net trap , catching with a net ,lamp baited trap, labor-hour methods and animal baited trap to catch the mosquitoes in different habitat. Results Mosquitoes collected were total subjected to 5 genera 28 species. Among them, 7 species as An. Lindosagi,Ae. Koreicus, Ae. Dorsalis,et al were new record. Mosquito larva breeded in different habitat. 11 species of the bloodsucking of mosquitoes were found,the bloodsucking of Culex pipiens pallens was wide-ranging. Conclusion When the infectious diseases caused by mosquito-vectors are continual changing at present, it is indispensable to continue strengthening the working of investigating mosquito, and consolidate achievements of eliminating the pests.%目的 通过对沂蒙山区蚊类生态习性近20年生态学调查,掌握不同生境蚊类的本底资料,为除害灭病提供科学依据.方法 选择取样点,用人帐法、网捕法、灯诱法、人工小时法、动物诱捕法等5种采集方法分别在不同生境中采集蚊虫成虫,分类计数.结果 共发现蚊类5属28种,其中环股按蚊、朝鲜伊蚊、背点伊蚊等7种为沂蒙山区新记录.蚊类的孳生地非常广泛,而不同蚊种在各种水质中又有不同的孳生特点.对11种常见蚊虫的嗜血习性进行了判断.结论 在当前蚊媒传播疾病不断发生变化的情况下,有必要继续加强对蚊类生态学的调查,以巩固除害灭病的成果.

  5. An Educational Interventional Study to Assess Awareness about Mosquito Breeding, Diseases Caused and Protective Measures Against them among Families Residing in an Urban Slum of Indore City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Raghunath

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community participation plays an important role in control of Mosquito borne diseases. This study tries to assess impact of educational intervention on various aspects of mosquito borne diseases in an urban slum. Methodology: An educational interventional study was done in 200 families residing in a slum (Badi Gwaltoli which is in field practice area of Urban Health Centre attached to Department of Community Medicine of M.G.M.Medical College, Indore. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the Head of the family which studied their awareness and perception regarding breeding sites and biting habits of mosquitoes, diseases spread by them and personal protective measures used, followed by an educational intervention and post assessment. Data was entered into Microsoft excel spread sheet and analysed using SPSS version 20 software. Results: 46% of study population knew the correct breeding season of mosquitoes (monsoon season during pre-intervention and 68% of the population post- intervention (p- value 0.004. When asked at what time mosquitoes bite the most, maximum number (92% of people said that mosquitoes bite most in the evening and night, while only 6% and 2% were for morning and noon, respectively. Only 3.5% of the population who knew about breeding sites knew about artificial collections of water. Majority said mosquito breed in dirty stagnant water (78.5%. About 96%of the study population was aware that mosquitoes spread diseases. However, only 33.3%of respondents knew correctly about the diseases spread which improved to 68% in the post-intervention period (p-value=.000. 46% knew all the protection measures against mosquitoes in the pre-intervention which increased to 86% in the post intervention (p.value-.005. Conclusion: Awareness about Aedes mosquitoes and its habits is quite poor and many people still believe that only dirty water serves as a breeding place in mosquitoes. Regular IEC sessions

  6. Suboptimal Larval Habitats Modulate Oviposition of the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunho Suh

    Full Text Available Selection of oviposition sites by gravid females is a critical behavioral step in the reproductive cycle of Anopheles coluzzii, which is one of the principal Afrotropical malaria vector mosquitoes. Several studies suggest this decision is mediated by semiochemicals associated with potential oviposition sites. To better understand the chemosensory basis of this behavior and identify compounds that can modulate oviposition, we examined the generally held hypothesis that suboptimal larval habitats give rise to semiochemicals that negatively influence the oviposition preference of gravid females. Dual-choice bioassays indicated that oviposition sites conditioned in this manner do indeed foster significant and concentration dependent aversive effects on the oviposition site selection of gravid females. Headspace analyses derived from aversive habitats consistently noted the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone each of which unitarily affected An. coluzzii oviposition preference. Electrophysiological assays across the antennae, maxillary palp, and labellum of gravid An. coluzzii revealed differential responses to these semiochemicals. Taken together, these findings validate the hypothesis in question and suggest that suboptimal environments for An. coluzzii larval development results in the release of DMDS, DMTS and sulcatone that impact the response valence of gravid females.

  7. Effects of habitat fragmentation on passerine birds breeding in Intermountain shrubsteppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knick, S.T.; Rotenberry, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and loss strongly influence the distribution and abundance of passerine birds breeding in Intermountain shrubsteppe. Wildfires, human activities, and change in vegetation communities often are synergistic in these systems and can result in radical conversion from shrubland to grasslands dominated by exotic annuals at large temporal and spatial scales from which recovery to native conditions is unlikely. As a result, populations of 5 of the 12 species in our review of Intermountain shrubsteppe birds are undergoing significant declines; 5 species are listed as at-risk or as candidates for protection in at least one state. The process by which fragmentation affects bird distributions in these habitats remains unknown because most research has emphasized the detection of population trends and patterns of habitat associations at relatively large spatial scales. Our research indicates that the distribution of shrubland-obligate species, such as Brewer's Sparrows (Spizella breweri), Sage Sparrows (Amphispiza belli), and Sage Thrashers (Oreoscoptes montanus), was highly sensitive to fragmentation of shrublands at spatial scales larger than individual home ranges. In contrast, the underlying mechanisms for both habitat change and bird population dynamics may operate independently of habitat boundaries. We propose alternative, but not necessarily exclusive, mechanisms to explain the relationship between habitat fragmentation and bird distribution and abundance. Fragmentation might influence productivity through differences in breeding density, nesting success, or predation. However, local and landscape variables were not significant determinants either of success, number fledged, or probability of predation or parasitism (although our tests had relatively low statistical power). Alternatively, relative absence of natal philopatry and redistribution by individuals among habitats following fledging or post-migration could account for the pattern of

  8. Habitat Requirements of Breeding Black-Backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus in Managed, Unburned Boreal Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior A. Tremblay

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated home-range characteristics and habitat selection by Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus in an unburned, boreal forest landscape managed by mosaic harvesting in Quebec, Canada. Habitat selection by this species was specifically examined to determine home-range establishment and foraging activities. We hypothesized that Black-backed Woodpeckers would respond to harvesting by adjusting their home-range size as a function of the amount of dead wood available. Twenty-two birds were tracked using radiotelemetry, and reliable estimates of home-range size were obtained for seven breeding individuals (six males and one female. The average home-range size was 151.5 ± 18.8 ha (range: 100.4-256.4 ha. Our results indicate that this species establishes home ranges in areas where both open and forested habitats are available. However, during foraging activities, individuals preferentially selected areas dominated by old coniferous stands. The study also showed that the spatial distribution of preferred foraging habitat patches influenced space use, with home-range area increasing with the median distance between old coniferous habitat patches available within the landscape. Finally, these data show that Black-backed Woodpeckers may successfully breed in an unburned forest with at least 35 m3 • ha-1 of dead wood, of which 42% (15 m3 • ha-1 is represented by dead wood at the early decay stage.

  9. A study on container breeding mosquitoes with special reference to Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Thiruvananthapuram district, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The district of Thiruvananthapuram reports the maximum number of cases of dengue in the state of Kerala. To determine the larval diversity, density and breeding site preferences of Aedes mosquitoes, during pre-monsoon and monsoon periods in urban and rural areas of Thiruvananthapuram district. Methods: Based on the daily reports of dengue cases, 70 clusters were identified in Thiruvananthapuram district. A cross-sectional larval survey was done in the domestic and peri-domestic areas of 1750 houses, using the WHO standard techniques. The larval indices were calculated, and the larvae were identified by using taxonomic keys. Urban and rural differences and the variations during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons were also studied. Results: In the surveyed houses, 15% had mosquito breeding, with 88% having Aedes larvae. The house index, container index and the breteau index were 13.08, 13.28 and 16.57%, respectively. About 86% of the clusters were found positive for Aedes albopictus and 11% for Ae. aegypti. Aedes albopictus was distributed almost equally in rural and urban clusters, whereas the distribution of Ae. aegypti was significantly higher in urban areas (p = 0.03. The most common water holding containers found (outdoor were of plastic, followed by coconut shells. The breeding preference ratio was highest for tyres. Significantly lesser positivity was found for containers during monsoon period when compared to pre-monsoon period. Conclusion: The geographical distribution of Ae. albopictus is significantly high in peri-domestic areas and, therefore, its epidemiological role in the widespread disease occurrence needs to be studied. The discarded tyres being the most preferred breeding sites, where IEC activities will help in source reduction.

  10. Breeding of Anopheles mosquitoes in irrigated areas of South Punjab, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrel, N; Amerasinghe, F P; Ensink, J;

    2001-01-01

    As part of investigations on potential linkages between irrigation and malaria transmission, all surface water bodies in and around three villages along an irrigation distributary in South Punjab, Pakistan, were surveyed for anopheline mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) from April 1999 to March...

  11. Beetle (Coleoptera: Scirtidae) facilitation of larval mosquito growth in tree hole habitats is linked to multitrophic microbial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten; Kaufman, Michael G; Walker, Edward D

    2011-10-01

    Container-breeding mosquitoes, such as Aedes triseriatus, ingest biofilms and filter water column microorganisms directly to obtain the bulk of their nutrition. Scirtid beetles often co-occur with A. triseriatus and may facilitate the production of mosquito adults under low-resource conditions. Using molecular genetic techniques and quantitative assays, we observed changes in the dynamics and composition of bacterial and fungal communities present on leaf detritus and in the water column when scirtid beetles co-occur with A. triseriatus. Data from terminal restriction fragment polymorphism analysis indicated scirtid presence alters the structure of fungal communities in the water column but not leaf-associated fungal communities. Similar changes in leaf and water bacterial communities occurred in response to mosquito presence. In addition, we observed increased processing of leaf detritus, higher leaf-associated enzyme activity, higher bacterial productivity, and higher leaf-associated fungal biomass when scirtid beetles were present. Such shifts suggest beetle feeding facilitates mosquito production indirectly through the microbial community rather than directly through an increase in available fine particulate organic matter.

  12. The effect of West Nile virus perceptions and knowledge on protective behavior and mosquito breeding in residential yards in Upstate New York

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuiten, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; McComas, K.; Harrington, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    A knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) questionnaire combined with entomological surveys of residential mosquito-breeding sites were conducted in two Upstate New York neighborhoods. We tested the hypothesis that “correct” West Nile virus (WNV) knowledge and perceptions correspond with the use o

  13. Alterations in the breeding habitats for two endangered raptor species along the Sava River basin, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radović, Andreja; Jelaska, Sven D

    2012-07-01

    Changes in habitat suitable for breeding of two sympatric raptor species (Haliaeetus albicilla and Aquila pomarina) were analysed along one of the most important breeding sites in Croatia for both species. The habitat suitability modelling was used to assess the influence of forestry practice during 2000-2006 using the known data on nesting places along research area. The four most important variables for lesser spotted eagle were elevation, distance from the nearest pasture, vertical distance to the nearest channel network and broadleaved forest placement (second axis from the principal component analysis of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) index of MODIS images; November-March). The variables where white-tailed eagles showed greatest shift from overall habitat characteristics in the research area were broadleaved forest (second axis from the principal component analysis of the EVI index), height above the sea level, distance from the small settlements, vertical distance to channel network - all with negative loadings. The results clearly reveal the disproportion of suitable forests for raptors that were cut down in comparison to maturation of suitable forests.

  14. Tires as larval habitats for mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, T J Scott; Galloway, Terry D; Anderson, Robert A

    2008-06-01

    In 2003, a survey at waste management grounds and tire dealerships was conducted to determine the species composition of mosquitoes in tires in southern Manitoba, Canada. Over 25% of the 1,142 tires sampled contained a total of 32,474 mosquito larvae and pupae. Culex restuans made up at least 95% of the larvae collected for each month of the summer. Culiseta inornata and Culex tarsalis reached their greatest numbers in July and August, respectively, though they were never abundant. Ochlerotatus triseriatus was also found but never reached more than 1% of the total larvae collected in any given month. Mosquito prevalence was more than three times greater in August (36.1%) than in June (11.7%). Orientation affected prevalence of mosquitoes in tires: 31.4% of vertical tires (tires standing on their treads) contained mosquitoes, whereas mosquitoes were found in only 18.9% of horizontal tires (tires parallel to the ground). Tires in the eastern region of Manitoba contained mosquitoes more often (61.7%), irrespective of date, than Winnipeg (25.9%), the central region (29.1%), or the western region (19.8%). Mosquito prevalence was similar across three size categories of tires, car tires (18.8%), truck tires (19.8%), and semi-trailer tires (26.7%), though tractor tires (47.8%) contained significantly more mosquitoes than tires in the other categories.

  15. Breeding Bird Assemblage in a Mosaic of Urbanized Habitats in a Central European City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopij Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data on the population densities of birds breeding in a mosaic of typical urbanized habitats. This study was undertaken to partly fulfil this gap in our knowledge. Counts were conducted in 2008 by means of simplified territory mapping method in a fragment (1197 ha of a large Central European city (Wrocław, SW Poland. In total, 50 bird species were breeding in the study area in 2008. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus, Common Swift Apus apus and Rock Dove comprised about 3/5 of all breeding pairs. The other group of species, each one with a density between 6 and 13 pairs per 100 ha, included seven species, namely the Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, Greenfinch, Carduelis chloris, House Martin, Delichon urbica, Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus, Great Tit, Parus major, Blue Tit, Parus caeruleus, and Jackdaw, Corvus monedula. They comprised together about 1/5. The remaining 40 species nested in a density between 0.1 and 3.5 pairs per 100 ha. The most numerous feeding guild were granivores (53.8% and insectivores (37.9 %. Birds nesting on buildings comprised together 74 % of all breeding pairs. For a few species (Luscinia megarhynchos, Saxicola torquata, Corvus cornix and Turdus pilaris an increase in their numbers in the last three decades has been evidenced.

  16. Identifying western yellow-billed cuckoo breeding habitat with a dual modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew J.; Hatten, James R.; Holmes, Jennifer A.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2017-01-01

    The western population of the yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) was recently listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act. Yellow-billed cuckoo conservation efforts require the identification of features and area requirements associated with high quality, riparian forest habitat at spatial scales that range from nest microhabitat to landscape, as well as lower-suitability areas that can be enhanced or restored. Spatially explicit models inform conservation efforts by increasing ecological understanding of a target species, especially at landscape scales. Previous yellow-billed cuckoo modelling efforts derived plant-community maps from aerial photography, an expensive and oftentimes inconsistent approach. Satellite models can remotely map vegetation features (e.g., vegetation density, heterogeneity in vegetation density or structure) across large areas with near perfect repeatability, but they usually cannot identify plant communities. We used aerial photos and satellite imagery, and a hierarchical spatial scale approach, to identify yellow-billed cuckoo breeding habitat along the Lower Colorado River and its tributaries. Aerial-photo and satellite models identified several key features associated with yellow-billed cuckoo breeding locations: (1) a 4.5 ha core area of dense cottonwood-willow vegetation, (2) a large native, heterogeneously dense forest (72 ha) around the core area, and (3) moderately rough topography. The odds of yellow-billed cuckoo occurrence decreased rapidly as the amount of tamarisk cover increased or when cottonwood-willow vegetation was limited. We achieved model accuracies of 75–80% in the project area the following year after updating the imagery and location data. The two model types had very similar probability maps, largely predicting the same areas as high quality habitat. While each model provided unique information, a dual-modelling approach provided a more complete picture of yellow-billed cuckoo habitat

  17. Characterization of larval habitats for anopheline mosquitoes in a malarious area under elimination program in the southeast of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moussa Soleimani-Ahmadi; Hassan Vatandoost; Mehdi Zare

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of environmental characteristics of larval habitats on distribution and abundance of anopheline mosquitoes in Bashagard county, a malarious area in southeast of Iran. Methods: Larvae were collected monthly using the standard dipping method and identified using a morphological-based key. Environmental characteristics of the larval habitats were recorded. Water samples were taken from habitats during larval collection for physico-chemical characterization. Statistical analyses were performed. Results: In total 5150 anopheline larvae from 36 larval habitats were collected and identified. They comprised of six species: Anopheles culicifacies (29.36%), Anopheles moghulensis (25.20%),Anopheles dthali stephensi (5.01%). (18.02%), Anopheles superpictus (17.24%), Anopheles turkhudi (5.17%) and Anopheles The most common larval habitats were natural and clear water bodies such as riverbeds with sandy substrates and still water. Furthermore, the anopheline larvae were abundant in permanent and full sunlight habitats without vegetation and algae. Larval density was positively correlated with water temperature. Chemical characteristics including conductivity, total alkalinity, sulphate and chloride had significant effects on distribution and abundance of anopheline species.Conclusions:The result of this study indicates a correlation between some environmental characteristics and anopheline larvae abundance which can be considered for effective planning and implementing malaria elimination program in Iran.

  18. Breeding habitat selection by houbara bustard (Chlamydotis[undulata] macqueenii) in Mori, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Weikang(杨维康); QIAO Jianfang(乔建芳); Olivier Combreau; YAO Jun(姚军); GAO Xingyi(高行宜); ZHONG Wenqin(钟文勤)

    2002-01-01

    The breeding habitat selection by houbara bustards in Mori, Xinjiang, China duringthe breeding seasons from April to June 1998-2000 was studied. Most of habitats chosen forbreeding were short sub-shrubby and open areas close to high bushy patches. The nesting re-males clearly prefer Iow covered areas and avoid densely covered and high vegetation sites. Thenumber of herb species was significantly smaller at nest sites than at randomly selected sites.Only the distance to the closest fox den contributed the most to discrimination between successfuland predated nests. The average distance to the closest fox den was significantly longer at suc-cessful nests than at depredated nests. Vegetative density, plant species richness, topography anddistance to the closest fox den are possibly the most important factors that determined the nestsites selection of houbara bustard. The displaying males clearly prefer Iow covered areas andavoid densely covered and high vegetation sites. The vegetation density and number of plant spe-cies at display sites was significantly lower than that at randomly selected sites. The average dis-tance to the closest bushy patch was significantly shorter at display sites than at random sites.Plant species richness, vegetative density, vegetative cover and distance to the bushy patches arepossibly the most important factors for the display sites selection of houbara bustard.

  19. Diet and foraging habitats of non-breeding white storks (Ciconia ciconia in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milchev Boyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of non-breeding White Storks was studied by pellet analysis and included mainly insects (99.9%, n=28947 with a predominance of grasshoppers (Orthoptera, 76.1%, and beetles (Coleoptera, 26.1%. The bush crickets Decticus albifrons/verrucivorus were the most numerous prey (29.9% by items, occurring in almost all pellets (98% occurrence in pellets, n=147 and predominating in half of them (49.7%. The grasshopper associations in the pellets specify foraging mainly in mesophytic grasslands that usually replace abandoned fields and overgrown pastures with a low level of grazing. The xerophytic grass-shrubby habitats, not rare on stony terrains, were of less importance, providing around 20% by prey. The typical aquatic inhabitants and the use of carrion around villages were exceptions in the study diet. The number of innutritious materials in the pellets rose when the White Storks hunted on nippy and agile grasshoppers and decreased when the main pray was slower beetles taken from the ground. The roosting of non-breeding White Storks disappeared when their preferred feeding habitats were ploughed up in the following years.

  20. Breeding Guild Determines Frog Distributions in Response to Edge Effects and Habitat Conversion in the Brazil's Atlantic Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B Ferreira

    Full Text Available Understanding the response of species with differing life-history traits to habitat edges and habitat conversion helps predict their likelihood of persistence across changing landscape. In Brazil's Atlantic Forest, we evaluated frog richness and abundance by breeding guild at four distances from the edge of a reserve: i 200 m inside the forest, ii 50 m inside the forest, iii at the forest edge, and iv 50 m inside three different converted habitats (coffee plantation, non-native Eucalyptus plantation, and abandoned pastures, hereafter matrix types. By sampling a dry and a wet season, we recorded 622 individual frogs representing 29 species, of which three were undescribed. Breeding guild (i.e. bromeliad, leaf-litter, and water-body breeders was the most important variable explaining frog distributions in relation to edge effects and matrix types. Leaf-litter and bromeliad breeders decreased in richness and abundance from the forest interior toward the matrix habitats. Water-body breeders increased in richness toward the matrix and remained relatively stable in abundance across distances. Number of large trees (i.e. DBH > 15 cm and bromeliads best explained frog richness and abundance across distances. Twenty species found in the interior of the forest were not found in any matrix habitat. Richness and abundance across breeding guilds were higher in the rainy season but frog distributions were similar across the four distances in the two seasons. Across matrix types, leaf-litter species primarily used Eucalyptus plantations, whereas water-body species primarily used coffee plantations. Bromeliad breeders were not found inside any matrix habitat. Our study highlights the importance of primary forest for bromeliad and leaf-litter breeders. We propose that water-body breeders use edge and matrix habitats to reach breeding habitats along the valleys. Including life-history characteristics, such as breeding guild, can improve predictions of frog

  1. Predicting breeding habitat for amphibians: a spatiotemporal analysis across Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Paul E; Gallant, Alisa L; Klaver, Robert W; Wright, Chris K; Patla, Debra A; Peterson, Charles R

    2011-10-01

    The ability to predict amphibian breeding across landscapes is important for informing land management decisions and helping biologists better understand and remediate factors contributing to declines in amphibian populations. We built geospatial models of likely breeding habitats for each of four amphibian species that breed in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). We used field data collected in 2000-2002 from 497 sites among 16 basins and predictor variables from geospatial models produced from remotely sensed data (e.g., digital elevation model, complex topographic index, landform data, wetland probability, and vegetative cover). Except for 31 sites in one basin that were surveyed in both 2000 and 2002, all sites were surveyed once. We used polytomous regression to build statistical models for each species of amphibian from (1) field survey site data only, (2) field data combined with data from geospatial models, and (3) data from geospatial models only. Based on measures of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) scores, models of the second type best explained likely breeding habitat because they contained the most information (ROC values ranged from 0.70 to 0.88). However, models of the third type could be applied to the entire YNP landscape and produced maps that could be verified with reserve field data. Accuracy rates for models built for single years were highly variable, ranging from 0.30 to 0.78. Accuracy rates for models built with data combined from multiple years were higher and less variable, ranging from 0.60 to 0.80. Combining results from the geospatial multiyear models yielded maps of "core" breeding areas (areas with high probability values for all three years) surrounded by areas that scored high for only one or two years, providing an estimate of variability among years. Such information can highlight landscape options for amphibian conservation. For example, our models identify alternative areas that could be protected for each species

  2. Role of wastewater irrigation in mosquito breeding in south Punjab, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukhtar, Muhammad; Herrel, Nathaly; Amerasinghe, Felix P

    2003-01-01

    ) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (Bancroftian filariasis, West Nile fever) in the wastewater system indicated that such habitats could contribute to vector-borne disease risks for human communities that are dependent upon wastewater use for their livelihoods. Wastewater disposal and irrigation systems provide...

  3. Underwater topography determines critical breeding habitat for humpback whales near Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica: implications for marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, L; Solís, M

    2008-06-01

    Migrating humpback whales from northern and southern feeding grounds come to the tropical waters near Osa Peninsula, Pacific of Costa Rica, to reproduce and raise their calves. Planning effective marine protected areas that encompass humpback critical habitats require data about which oceanographic features influence distribution during the breeding period. This study examines the relationship between water depth and ocean floor slope with humpback whale distribution, based on sightings during two breeding seasons (2005 and 2006). Data are from the Southern and Northern subpopulations in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP). Analysis followed the basic principles of the Ecological Niche Factors Analysis (ENFA), where indices of Marginality and Tolerance provide insights on the restrictiveness of habitat use. At a fine scale, physical factors such as water depth and slope define the critical breeding and nursing habitat for M. novaeangliae. Divergence in the subsamples means of depths and slope distribution, with the global mean of the study area in both eco-geographical variables, determine habitat requirements restricted by topographic features such as depths (< 100 m) and slope (< 10%), and locate the key breeding and nursing habitat of the species within the continental shelf domains. Proposed Marine Protected Areas (MPA's) network plans should consider connectivity of Cafio Island-Drake Bay and the extension of Corcovado National Park maritime borders.

  4. Energy crop cultivations of reed canary grass - An inferior breeding habitat for the skylark, a characteristic farmland bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vepsaelaeinen, Ville [Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 17, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    Here, I present the first comparison of the abundance of farmland birds in energy grass fields and in cereal-dominated conventionally cultivated fields (CCFs). I demonstrate that in boreal farmland, skylark (Alauda arvensis) densities were significantly lower in reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea) fields than in CCFs. I found that during the early breeding season RCG fields and CCFs are equally good habitats, but over the ensuing couple of weeks RCG rapidly grows too tall and dense for field-nesting species. Consequently, RCG is an inferior habitat for skylark for laying replacement clutches (after failure of first nesting) or for a second clutch after one successful nesting. The results imply that if RCG cultivation is to be expanded, the establishment of large monocultures should be avoided in farmland landscapes; otherwise the novel habitat may affect detrimentally the seriously depleted skylark population, and probably also other field-nesting bird species with similar breeding habitats. (author)

  5. Identifying malaria vector breeding habitats with remote sensing data and terrain-based landscape indices in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiff Clive

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. Methods A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of water pooling and the occurrence anopheline larval habitats; this was repeated in October 2007 at the end of the dry season and in March-April 2008 during the next rainy season. Logistic regression and generalized linear mixed modeling were applied to assess the predictive value of terrain-based landscape indices along with LandSat imagery to identify aquatic habitats and, especially, those with anopheline mosquito larvae. Results Approximately two hundred aquatic habitat sites were identified with 69 percent positive for anopheline mosquitoes. Nine species of anopheline mosquitoes were identified, of which, 19% were An. arabiensis. Terrain-based landscape indices combined with LandSat predicted sites with water, sites with anopheline mosquitoes and sites specifically with An. arabiensis. These models were especially successful at ruling out potential locations, but had limited ability in predicting which anopheline species inhabited aquatic sites. Terrain indices derived from 90 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation data (DEM were better at predicting water drainage patterns and characterizing the landscape than those derived from 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER DEM. Conclusions The low number of aquatic habitats available and the ability to locate the limited number of aquatic habitat locations for surveillance, especially those containing anopheline larvae, suggest that larval control maybe a cost-effective control measure in the fight

  6. Targeting a Hidden Enemy: Pyriproxyfen Autodissemination Strategy for the Control of the Container Mosquito Aedes albopictus in Cryptic Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Devi Shankar; Wang, Yi; Unlu, Isik; Williges, Eric; Williams, Gregory M.; Gaugler, Randy

    2016-01-01

    Background The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a vector of dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika viruses. This mosquito inhabits a wide range of artificial water-holding containers in urban and suburban areas making it difficult to control. We tested the hypothesis that female-driven autodissemination of an insect growth regulator could penetrate cryptic oviposition habitats difficult to treat with conventional insecticidal sprays. Methodology Oviposition preferences of Ae. albopictus females for open and cryptic cups were tested in semi-field experiments. Two conventional larvicidal sprayers were tested to determine droplet penetration and larvicidal efficacy in open and cryptic habitats using Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) in the field. Finally, the efficacy of pyriproxyfen autodissemination stations was assessed in cryptic and open cups in residential areas during 2013 and 2014. Principal Findings Gravid females strongly preferred cryptic (53.1±12.9 eggs/cup) over open (10.3±4.3 eggs/cup) cups for oviposition. Cryptic cups showed limited droplet penetration and produced 0.1–0.3% larval mortality with a conventional backpack and low-volume sprays of Bti. The autodissemination stations effectively contaminated these cryptic cups (59.3–84.6%) and produced 29.7–40.8% pupal mortality during 2013–2014. Significant pupal mortality was also observed in open cups. Conclusions The autodissemination station effectively exploits the oviposition behavior of wild gravid females to deliver pyriproxyfen to targeted oviposition habitats. Although the pupal mortality in cryptic cups was relatively lower than expected for the effective vector control. Autodissemination approach may be a suitable supporting tool to manage Ae. albopictus immatures in the cryptic habitats those are less accessible to conventional larvicidal sprays. PMID:28033379

  7. Do natural container habitats impede invader dominance? Predator-mediated coexistence of invasive and native container-dwelling mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Damal, Kavitha; Juliano, Steven A

    2008-03-01

    Predator-mediated coexistence of competitors occurs when a species that is superior in competition is also more vulnerable to a shared predator compared to a poorer competitor. The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus is usually competitively superior to Ochlerotatus triseriatus. Among second instar larvae, A. albopictus show a lesser degree of behavioral modification in response to water-borne cues from predation by the larval midge Corethrella appendiculata than do O. triseriatus, rendering A. albopictus more vulnerable to predation by C. appendiculata than O. triseriatus. The hypothesis that C. appendiculata predation favors coexistence of these competitors predicts that C. appendiculata abundances will be negatively and positively correlated with A. albopictus and O. triseriatus abundances, respectively, and that coexistence will occur where C. appendiculata are common. Actual abundances of O. triseriatus, A. albopictus, and C. appendiculata in three habitats fit this prediction. In natural container habitats like tree holes, C. appendiculata were abundant and competitors co-existed at similar densities. In cemeteries and tires, which occur primarily in non-forested, human-dominated habitats, A. albopictus dominated, with abundances twice those found in tree holes, but C. appendiculata and O. triseriatus were rare or absent. We also tested for whether antipredatory behavioral responses of A. albopictus differed among habitats or populations, or were correlated with local C. appendiculata abundances. We could detect no differences in A. albopictus antipredatory behavioral responses to water-borne cues from predation. Tree hole habitats appear to promote co-existence of O. triseriatus and A. albopictus through interactions with predatory C. appendiculata, and this predator effect appears to limit invasion success of A. albopictus in tree holes. There are many studies on predator-mediated coexistence in natural habitats but to our knowledge this is the first study

  8. Community diversity of mosquitoes and their microbes across different habitats endemic for West Nile Virus and other arthropod-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R.; Bennett, S. N.; Thongsripong, P.; Chandler, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Mosquitoes have long been vectors for disease, and humans, birds, and other vertebrates have served their role as hosts in the transmission cycle of arthropod-borne viruses. In California, there are several mosquito species that act as vectors, transmitting such disease agents as Western equine and St. Louis encephalitis viruses, filarial nematodes, Plasmodium (which causes malaria), and West Nile virus (WNV). Last year (2012-2013), California had over 450 reported cases of West Nile Virus in humans (http://westnile.ca.gov/). To begin to understand mosquitoes and their role in the bay area as vectors of diseases, including West Nile Virus, we trapped mosquitoes from various sites and examined their microbiomes, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and eukaryotes. Study sites were in Marin, San Mateo, and San Francisco counties, in areas that represented, respectively, rural, suburban, and urban habitats. The mosquitoes were identified through morphological characteristics, and verified molecularly by sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene extracted from a leg. Most mosquitoes were collected from San Mateo and Mill Valley and were identified as Culiseta incidens. Data from traditional culture-based and next-generation 454 sequencing methods applied to mosquito whole bodies, representing their microbiomes, will be discussed, to determine how mosquito and microbial diversity varies across sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay area.

  9. Habitat selection of breeding brown eared-pheasants (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) in Xiaowutaishan National Nature Reserve,Hebei Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongming LI; Shiping GAO; Yuefeng WU; Lihan SUN; Shubin GUO; Jili LI

    2009-01-01

    From April to July of 2003-2005,we investigated habitat selection of breeding brown eared-pheasants (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) in the Xiaowutaishan National Nature Reserve,Hebei Province.Our results show that brown eared-pheasants preferred deciduousconiferous mixed or deciduous forests with altitudes ranging from 1600 to 2200 m,steep gradients of slopes and medium or high positions on slopes.Moreover,they preferred habitats with more tree species,larger diameters at the breast height,more density and cover of trees and habitats with more types of grasses,high density and cover of grasses,but with fewer types of shrubs and lower density and cover of shrubs.They had larger territories in the early breeding stage than in the late breeding stage.There were significant differences in diameters at the breast height of trees,average height of trees,cover of trees,density of shrubs,cover of shrubs,aspect,distance to path,distance to water,distance to forest edge (P < 0.01,respectively),density of trees,type of shrubs,height of shrubs,type of grasses,density of grasses and proportion of bareness (P < 0.05,respectively).The result of the principal component analysis suggested that the principal components among the 23 habitat factors were the average height of trees,density of trees,diameters at the breast height of trees,density of shrubs,cover of shrubs and density of grasses.The differences in habitat selection of brown eared-pheasants between early breeding and late breeding stages may correlate with the dynamics of ambient environmental conditions,the reproductive behavior and energy requirements in their sub-stages of breeding.

  10. Comparison of Model Predictions and Laboratory Observations of Transgene Frequencies in Continuously-Breeding Mosquito Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Laura; North, Ace; Collins, C Matilda; Mumford, John D; Facchinelli, Luca; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Benedict, Mark Q

    2016-09-22

    The persistence of transgenes in the environment is a consideration in risk assessments of transgenic organisms. Combining mathematical models that predict the frequency of transgenes and experimental demonstrations can validate the model predictions, or can detect significant biological deviations that were neither apparent nor included as model parameters. In order to assess the correlation between predictions and observations, models were constructed to estimate the frequency of a transgene causing male sexual sterility in simulated populations of a malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae that were seeded with transgenic females at various proportions. Concurrently, overlapping-generation laboratory populations similar to those being modeled were initialized with various starting transgene proportions, and the subsequent proportions of transgenic individuals in populations were determined weekly until the transgene disappeared. The specific transgene being tested contained a homing endonuclease gene expressed in testes, I-PpoI, that cleaves the ribosomal DNA and results in complete male sexual sterility with no effect on female fertility. The transgene was observed to disappear more rapidly than the model predicted in all cases. The period before ovipositions that contained no transgenic progeny ranged from as little as three weeks after cage initiation to as long as 11 weeks.

  11. Comparison of Model Predictions and Laboratory Observations of Transgene Frequencies in Continuously-Breeding Mosquito Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Valerio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of transgenes in the environment is a consideration in risk assessments of transgenic organisms. Combining mathematical models that predict the frequency of transgenes and experimental demonstrations can validate the model predictions, or can detect significant biological deviations that were neither apparent nor included as model parameters. In order to assess the correlation between predictions and observations, models were constructed to estimate the frequency of a transgene causing male sexual sterility in simulated populations of a malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae that were seeded with transgenic females at various proportions. Concurrently, overlapping-generation laboratory populations similar to those being modeled were initialized with various starting transgene proportions, and the subsequent proportions of transgenic individuals in populations were determined weekly until the transgene disappeared. The specific transgene being tested contained a homing endonuclease gene expressed in testes, I-PpoI, that cleaves the ribosomal DNA and results in complete male sexual sterility with no effect on female fertility. The transgene was observed to disappear more rapidly than the model predicted in all cases. The period before ovipositions that contained no transgenic progeny ranged from as little as three weeks after cage initiation to as long as 11 weeks.

  12. Simulating range-wide population and breeding habitat dynamics for an endangered woodland warbler in the face of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Duarte,; Hatfield, Jeffrey; Todd M. Swannack,; Michael R. J. Forstner,; M. Clay Green,; Floyd W. Weckerly,

    2015-01-01

    Population viability analyses provide a quantitative approach that seeks to predict the possible future status of a species of interest under different scenarios and, therefore, can be important components of large-scale species’ conservation programs. We created a model and simulated range-wide population and breeding habitat dynamics for an endangered woodland warbler, the golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia). Habitat-transition probabilities were estimated across the warbler's breeding range by combining National Land Cover Database imagery with multistate modeling. Using these estimates, along with recently published demographic estimates, we examined if the species can remain viable into the future given the current conditions. Lastly, we evaluated if protecting a greater amount of habitat would increase the number of warblers that can be supported in the future by systematically increasing the amount of protected habitat and comparing the estimated terminal carrying capacity at the end of 50 years of simulated habitat change. The estimated habitat-transition probabilities supported the hypothesis that habitat transitions are unidirectional, whereby habitat is more likely to diminish than regenerate. The model results indicated population viability could be achieved under current conditions, depending on dispersal. However, there is considerable uncertainty associated with the population projections due to parametric uncertainty. Model results suggested that increasing the amount of protected lands would have a substantial impact on terminal carrying capacities at the end of a 50-year simulation. Notably, this study identifies the need for collecting the data required to estimate demographic parameters in relation to changes in habitat metrics and population density in multiple regions, and highlights the importance of establishing a common definition of what constitutes protected habitat, what management goals are suitable within those protected

  13. Preferred habitat of breeding birds may be compromised by climate change: unexpected effects of an exceptionally cold, wet spring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Whitehouse

    Full Text Available Previous studies of the consequences for breeding birds of climate change have explored how their populations may respond to increasing temperatures. However, few have considered the likely outcome of predicted extreme conditions and the relative vulnerability of populations in different habitats. Here, we compare phenology and breeding success in great tits and blue tits over a 10 year period, including the extremely harsh conditions during spring 2012, at three sites in eastern England--mixed deciduous woodland, riparian and urban habitat. Production, measured as brood biomass, was significantly lower in 2012 compared with the previous 9 years, with the decrease in productivity relatively greatest in woodland habitat. Production was related to hatch delay, i.e. birds not initiating incubation immediately after clutch completion, which was more common in 2012 than in previous years. The best predictor of hatch delay was daytime temperature (not nighttime minimum temperature and rainfall, which convincingly reflected low growth and activity of caterpillar prey. We found that birds breeding in riparian and urban habitats were less vulnerable to the extremes of weather than those breeding in mixed deciduous woodland.

  14. Habitat Relationships of Three Grassland Breeding Bird Species: Broadscale Comparisons and Hayfield Management Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Nocera

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Generalized recommendations for the conservation of birds in agro-ecosystems have been elusive because studies are often of a local nature, and do not compare source data against those from other regions. In this study, we developed geographically broad habitat relationship models to provide conservation prescriptions for three species that breed in farmed grasslands: Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis, and Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni subvirgatus. We develop models from our study in Nova Scotia, Canada and confront them with independent data from Wisconsin, USA pastures and Iowa, USA restored prairies. Vegetation that was higher and denser in the prebreeding season was linked to increased occupancy rates and abundance of Bobolinks in each study region. Providing tall spring grass is easily accomplished by not cutting late in the previous year. Savannah Sparrows were instead associated with shorter and sparser spring grass, which highlights the need to simultaneously provide heterogeneous habitat for otherwise ecologically similar species. Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrows were more likely to occur, and be numerous, in areas with greater availability of drainage ditches. They and several other species would benefit from provision of ditches with adequate vegetation to promote occupancy. By combining these with other well-established recommendations, such as a delayed first harvest, a greater net conservation benefit can be realized from these working landscapes.

  15. Breeding habitat of sparrowhawks, Accipiter nisus on spoil heaps after coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šálek, Miroslav; Hendrychová, Markéta; Řehoř, Michal

    2010-03-01

    Natural succession of spoil heaps after brown coal mining leads to the development of rich plant and invertebrate communities and therefore has been considered a proper alternative to conventional reclamation practice. Little is known, however, about the effects of these alternative approaches on vertebrate predators. This study analyses nest-site choice of the sparrowhawk, Accipiter nisus on afforested spoil heaps in the brown coal basin of north-west Bohemia, Czech Republic. Nest places of sparrowhawks, numbers of their main prey (small birds) and habitat attributes were investigated in 2007 and 2008 on 28 individual spoil heaps that were either reclaimed by silviculture or spontaneously afforested. Our results revealed preferences of breeding sparrowhawks for spontaneously developed birch growths with diverse mosaics of tree clumps, open patches and edge structures, all providing for opportunities to hunt. In addition, the proximity of large forests positively influenced nest-site choice of sparrowhawks. Although small birds were more abundant on Successions than Reclamations, our results did not suggest that numbers of this main prey were of higher importance for the sparrowhawks than habitat components of prey availability. These results highlight the importance of spontaneous succession as a rehabilitation alternative in post-mining landscapes.

  16. The ecology and larval habitats characteristics of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) in Aligudarz County (Luristan province, western Iran)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Amani; Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi; Hamid Kassiri

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine ecology and characteristics of the larval habitats of the genus Anopheles (Dipetra: Culicidae) in Aligudarz County, western Iran.Methods:larvae ecology in seven rural districts, Aligudarz County, from late April to late November 1997. Larvae were captured using the dipping method. Larval breeding places characteristics were noted according to water situation (turbid or clean, stagnant or running), substrate type, site type (man-made or natural), sunlight situation, site situation (transient or permanent, with or without vegetation). This descriptive cross-sectional research was carried out to study the anopheline Results: A total of 9 620 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Anopheles from 115 breeding places in 22 villages were captured, which belonged to the following species: Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles d’thali, Anopheles apoci, Anopheles superpictus (forms A and B), Anopheles marterii sogdianus, Anopheles turkhodi, Anopheles maculipennis S.L and Anopheles claviger. Anopheles stephensi,Anopheles maculipennis Anopheles superpictus (93.18%) was the most prevailed one and dispersed over the entire region. Larval habitats consisted of nine natural and three artificial larval habitats. The most important larval habitats were river edges (54.8%), rice fields (12.2%), and grassland (8.7%) with permanent or transient, stagnant or running and clean water, with or without vegetation, sand or mud substrate in full sunlight area.Conclusions:Regarding this research, river edges and rice fields are the most important S.L and Anopheles apoci were collected for the first time in this county. breeding places of malaria vectors in Aligudarz County. It is worthy of note in larvicidal programs.

  17. Culex pipiens s.l. and Culex torrentium (Culicidae) in Wrocław area (Poland): occurrence and breeding site preferences of mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, Thomas; Jawień, Piotr; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Lonc, Elzbieta; Becker, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Both ornithophilic mosquito species, Culex pipiens s.l. (L.) and Culex torrentium (Martini, 1925), occur sympatric in temperate Europe. They are presumed to be primary vectors of West Nile and Sindbis viruses. Differentiation of these morphologically similar Culex species is essential for evaluation of different vector roles, for mosquito surveillance and integrated control strategies. Cx. torrentium has been neglected or erroneously determined as Cx. pipiens s.l. in some previous studies, because only males of both species can be diagnosed reliably by morphology. Thus, knowledge about species abundance, geographical distribution, breeding site preferences and the zoonotic risk assessment is incomplete also in Poland. In Wrocław area (Silesian Lowland), besides typical urban breeding sites, huge sewage irrigation fields provide suitable breeding conditions for Culex species. They are also inhabited by 180 resident and migratory bird species serving as potential virus reservoirs. In this study, morphology of larvae and males as well as species diagnostic enzyme markers, namely adenylate kinase (AK) and 2-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), were used to discriminate Cx. pipiens s.l. and Cx. torrentium. In a total of 650 Culex larvae from 24 natural and artificial breeding sites, Cx. pipiens s.l. had a proportion of 94.0% and Cx. torrentium only 6.0%. It could be shown that both species are well adapted to various breeding site types like ditches, catch basins, flower pots and buckets with diverse water quality. Cx. torrentium preferred more artificial water containers in urban surrounding (12% species proportion), whereas in semi-natural breeding sites, Cx. torrentium was rare (3%). In 12 of 24 breeding sites, larvae of both species have been found associated.

  18. Effects of food provisioning and habitat management on spatial behaviour of Little Owls during the breeding season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Chrenkova, Monika; Sunde, Peter

    2016-01-01

    the nests. In addition to increasing the reproductive output, feeding and habitat management may cause parents to work less hard improving their future reproductive value. We studied working efforts of five radio-tagged Little Owl pairs in years of absence and presence of food provisioning, and/or access......The population of Little Owls in Denmark is close to extinction. The main cause is food limitation during the breeding season. Efforts to improve breeding success include providing breeding pairs with supplementary food and attempts to improve foraging habitats by creating short grass areas near...... to short sward vegetation areas near to the nest. We quantified movement as the minimum flight distance hour–1 (MFD), using the mean distance from the nest (DN) as a supplementary index. Under unmanipulated conditions, males had higher MFD and DN than females. If provided with food and/or areas with short...

  19. Using a Remote Sensing/GIS Model to Predict Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Breeding Habitat along the Rio Grande, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Sogge, Mark K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; hereafter SWFL) is a federally endangered bird (USFWS 1995) that breeds in riparian areas in portions of New Mexico, Arizona, southwestern Colorado, extreme southern Utah and Nevada, and southern California (USFWS 2002). Across this range, it uses a variety of plant species as nesting/breeding habitat, but in all cases prefers sites with dense vegetation, high canopy, and proximity to surface water or saturated soils (Sogge and Marshall 2000). As of 2005, the known rangewide breeding population of SWFLs was roughly 1,214 territories, with approximately 393 territories distributed among 36 sites in New Mexico (Durst et al. 2006), primarily along the Rio Grande. One of the key challenges facing the management and conservation of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher is that riparian areas are dynamic, with individual habitat patches subject to cycles of creation, growth, and loss due to drought, flooding, fire, and other disturbances. Former breeding patches can lose suitability, and new habitat can develop within a matter of only a few years, especially in reservoir drawdown zones. Therefore, measuring and predicting flycatcher habitat - either to discover areas that might support SWFLs, or to identify areas that may develop into appropriate habitat - requires knowledge of recent/current habitat conditions and an understanding of the factors that determine flycatcher use of riparian breeding sites. In the past, much of the determination of whether a riparian site is likely to support breeding flycatchers has been based on qualitative criteria (for example, 'dense vegetation' or 'large patches'). These determinations often require on-the-ground field evaluations by local or regional SWFL experts. While this has proven valuable in locating many of the currently known breeding sites, it is difficult or impossible to apply this approach effectively over large geographic areas (for example, the

  20. Using a remote sensing/GIS model to predict southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding habitat along the Rio Grande, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Sogge, Mark K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; hereafter SWFL) is a federally endangered bird (USFWS 1995) that breeds in riparian areas in portions of New Mexico, Arizona, southwestern Colorado, extreme southern Utah and Nevada, and southern California (USFWS 2002). Across this range, it uses a variety of plant species as nesting/breeding habitat, but in all cases prefers sites with dense vegetation, high canopy, and proximity to surface water or saturated soils (Sogge and Marshall 2000). As of 2005, the known rangewide breeding population of SWFLs was roughly 1,214 territories, with approximately 393 territories distributed among 36 sites in New Mexico (Durst et al. 2006), primarily along the Rio Grande. One of the key challenges facing the management and conservation of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher is that riparian areas are dynamic, with individual habitat patches subject to cycles of creation, growth, and loss due to drought, flooding, fire, and other disturbances. Former breeding patches can lose suitability, and new habitat can develop within a matter of only a few years, especially in reservoir drawdown zones. Therefore, measuring and predicting flycatcher habitat - either to discover areas that might support SWFLs, or to identify areas that may develop into appropriate habitat - requires knowledge of recent/current habitat conditions and an understanding of the factors that determine flycatcher use of riparian breeding sites. In the past, much of the determination of whether a riparian site is likely to support breeding flycatchers has been based on qualitative criteria (for example, 'dense vegetation' or 'large patches'). These determinations often require on-the-ground field evaluations by local or regional SWFL experts. While this has proven valuable in locating many of the currently known breeding sites, it is difficult or impossible to apply this approach effectively over large geographic areas (for example, the

  1. Water management for controlling the breeding of Anopheles mosquitoes in rice irrigation schemes in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutero, C M; Blank, H; Konradsen, F; van der Hoek, W

    2000-10-02

    An experiment to assess the impact of intermittent irrigation on Anopheles larval populations, rice yields and water use was conducted in the Mwea rice irrigation scheme in Kenya. Four water regimes including intermittent irrigation were tested in a complete randomized block experimental design. Intermittent irrigation was carried out on a weekly schedule, with flooded conditions from Saturday through Tuesday morning. Larval sampling at each plot was conducted every Monday and prior to draining of intermittently irrigated subplots on Tuesday. All the adult anopheline mosquitoes emerging from larvae collected in the experimental plots were identified as being An. arabiensis. By far the highest numbers of An. arabiensis 1st instar larvae were found in the intermittently irrigated subplots, indicating that the water regime provided the most attractive environment for egg laying. However, the ratio between the 4th and 1st instar larvae in the subplots was only 0.08, indicating very low survival rates. In contrast, the 4th/1st instar ratio for subplots with other water management regimes ranged between 0.27 and 0.68, suggesting a correspondingly higher survival than observed with intermittent irrigation. The total number of 4th instars was almost the same in the intermittently irrigated subplots and the irrigation system normally practised by the farmers. The failure to eliminate larval development up to the 4th instar in the former method was attributed to residual pools of water. Larval abundance fluctuated throughout the 12-week sampling period. The highest larval densities were recorded in the 3 weeks after transplanting the rice seedlings. Afterwards, larval numbers dropped dramatically as the height of rice plants increased. Rice yields at harvest did not show statistically significant differences among subplots with different water regimes. The average yield per hectare ranged from 4.8-5.3 metric tonnes. The average daily water percolation/seepage rate was 3.6 mm

  2. Influence of environmental parameters on movements and habitat utilization of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Madagascar breeding ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudelle, Laurène; Cerchio, Salvatore; Zerbini, Alexandre N; Geyer, Ygor; Mayer, François-Xavier; Jung, Jean-Luc; Hervé, Maxime R; Pous, Stephane; Sallée, Jean-Baptiste; Rosenbaum, Howard C; Adam, Olivier; Charrassin, Jean-Benoit

    2016-12-01

    Assessing the movement patterns and key habitat features of breeding humpback whales is a prerequisite for the conservation management of this philopatric species. To investigate the interactions between humpback whale movements and environmental conditions off Madagascar, we deployed 25 satellite tags in the northeast and southwest coast of Madagascar. For each recorded position, we collated estimates of environmental variables and computed two behavioural metrics: behavioural state of 'transiting' (consistent/directional) versus 'localized' (variable/non-directional), and active swimming speed (i.e. speed relative to the current). On coastal habitats (i.e. bathymetry < 200 m and in adjacent areas), females showed localized behaviour in deep waters (191 ± 20 m) and at large distances (14 ± 0.6 km) from shore, suggesting that their breeding habitat extends beyond the shallowest waters available close to the coastline. Males' active swimming speed decreased in shallow waters, but environmental parameters did not influence their likelihood to exhibit localized movements, which was probably dominated by social factors instead. In oceanic habitats, both males and females showed localized behaviours in shallow waters and favoured high chlorophyll-a concentrations. Active swimming speed accounts for a large proportion of observed movement speed; however, breeding humpback whales probably exploit prevailing ocean currents to maximize displacement. This study provides evidence that coastal areas, generally subject to strong human pressure, remain the core habitat of humpback whales off Madagascar. Our results expand the knowledge of humpback whale habitat use in oceanic habitat and response to variability of environmental factors such as oceanic current and chlorophyll level.

  3. The key breeding sites by pupal survey for dengue mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), in Guba, Cebu City, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edillo, Frances E; Roble, Noel D; Otero, Nenito D

    2012-11-01

    We conducted this study to assess how well a pupal survey of dengue mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, is able to target the most productive breeding sites. The study was carried out monthly during the rainy season (8 months) in 2008 in Cuba, Cebu City, Philippines. The hypotheses tested were: 1) most pupae of Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus were produced in a few types of breeding sites and 2) the most productive types of breeding sites for each species were the most abundant. Approximately 2,500 pupae were collected from 554 breeding sites in 279 houses. Thirty-eight point four percent of ten types of breeding sites were positive for Ae. aegypti, and 11.9% of nine types of sites were positive for Ae. albopictus. Plastic drums (40.2%), metal drums (29.6%), and plastic containers (10.5%) were the key sites for Ae. aegypti pupae, whereas bamboo stumps (28.5%), plastic drums (21.1%), and rubber tires (19.1%) were the key sites for Ae. albopictus. The most productive breeding sites for Ae. aegypti were common but not the most common for Ae. albopictus. These results are relevant for dengue vector control programs.

  4. Larval Mosquito Habitat Utilization and Community Dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    container-in- habiting mosquitoes that transmit disease agents, outcompete native species, and continue to expand their range in theUnited States. Both...days to complete evaporation in containers in- habited by the most common species collected, us- ing themean temperature of 18.6Cduring sampling... snack bags, and Sty- rofoam cups and bowls. Evaporation analyses showed that Culex species were more common in containers that are less inßuenced by

  5. Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea home range and habitat use during the non-breeding season in Assam, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgail, T.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Sivananinthaperumal, B.; Areendran, G.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Mundkur, T.; Mccracken, T.; Newman, S.

    2011-01-01

    India is an important non-breeding ground for migratory waterfowl in the Central Asian Flyway. Millions of birds visit wetlands across the country, yet information on their distribution, abundance, and use of resources is rudimentary at best. Limited information suggests that populations of several species of migratory ducks are declining due to encroachment of wetland habitats largely by agriculture and industry. The development of conservation strategies is stymied by a lack of ecological information on these species. We conducted a preliminary assessment of the home range and habitat use of Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea in the northeast Indian state of Assam. Seven Ruddy Shelducks were fitted with solar-powered Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite transmitters, and were tracked on a daily basis during the winter of 2009-2010. Locations from all seven were used to describe habitat use, while locations from four were used to quantify their home range, as the other three had too few locations (2 (range = 22-87 km2) and an average home range (95% contour) of 610 km2 (range = 222-1,550 km2). Resource Selection Functions (RSF), used to describe habitat use, showed that the birds frequented riverine wetlands more than expected, occurred on grasslands and shrublands in proportion to their availability, and avoided woods and cropland habitats. The core use areas for three individuals (75%) were on the Brahmaputra River, indicating their preference for riverine habitats. Management and protection of riverine habitats and nearby grasslands may benefit conservation efforts for the Ruddy Shelduck and waterfowl species that share these habitats during the non-breeding season.

  6. Effects of habitat change along Breeding Bird Survey routes in the central Appalachians on Cerulean Warbler population

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhone, P.; Wood, P.W.; Dawson, D.

    2007-01-01

    The cerulean warbler (Dendroica cerulea) is one of the highest priority bird species in the eastern United States because populations have declined 4.3% annually during 1966?2005 based on Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Habitat loss and fragmentation due to land use changes is thought to be one of the major factors contributing to the decline. BBS routes, the primary source for monitoring bird population trends, include 50 sampling stops every 0.8 km. Although data from BBS routes are extrapolated to determine regional trends in bird populations, it is important to understand the effects of habitat changes at the stop-level along BBS routes. Route-level analysis of habitat changes may mask important changes that are occurring at a smaller scale particularly for the cerulean warbler which displays several micro-scale habitat preferences. We are examining cerulean warbler habitat and population changes in its core breeding range of the Ohio Hills and Cumberland Plateau physiographic regions. We quantified land cover changes within 300 m of BBS routes in the core cerulean warbler breeding range of Ohio, West Virginia, and Kentucky by digitizing aerial photographs from two time periods: the 1980s and 2004. We also quantified land cover changes within 300 m of BBS routes with the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) from 1992 and 2001. The hand-digitized aerial photos will be compared with the NLCD to determine how similar the two methods are in quantifying land cover changes. We then compared stop-level land cover changes with stop level changes in cerulean warbler detections within the same time periods along the BBS routes. This will allow for a more detailed analysis of how well habitat changes along BBS routes reflect the changes in cerulean warbler populations.

  7. Post-breeding habitat use by adult Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas) after wildfire in Glacier National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guscio, C.G.; Hossack, B.R.; Eby, L.A.; Corn, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of wildfire on amphibians are complex, and some species may benefit from the severe disturbance of stand-replacing fire. Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas boreas) in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA increased in occurrence after fires in 2001 and 2003. We used radio telemetry to track adult B. boreas in a mosaic of terrestrial habitats with different burn severities to better understand factors related to the post-fire pulse in breeding activity. Toads used severely burned habitats more than expected and partially burned habitats less than expected. No toads were relocated in unburned habitat, but little of the study area was unburned and the expected number of observations in unburned habitat was < 3. High vagility of B. boreas and preference for open habitats may predispose this species to exploit recently disturbed landscapes. The long-term consequences of fire suppression likely have had different effects in different parts of the range of B. boreas. More information is needed, particularly in the northern Rocky Mountains, where toads are more likely to occupy habitats that have diverged from historic fire return intervals. Copyright ?? 2008. C. Gregory Guscio. All rights reserved.

  8. Temporal and spatial distribution of dengue vector mosquitoes and their habitat patterns in Penang Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifur, Rahman G M; Hassan, Ahmad Abu; Dieng, Hamady; Salmah, Md Rawi Che; Saad, Ahmad Ramli; Satho, Tomomitsu

    2013-03-01

    We studied the diversity of Aedes breeding sites in various urban, suburban, and rural areas over time between February 2009 and February 2010 in the dengue endemic areas of Penang Island, Malaysia. We categorized the breeding sites and efficiency, and identified the key breeding containers. Among the 3 areas, the rural areas produced the highest container index (55), followed by suburban (42) and urban (32) areas. The numbers of key premises and containers were significantly higher (P < 0.000) in rural areas. The class 1 containers were identified as the key containers with higher productivity and efficiency, although class 2 and class 4 are the highest in numbers. Aedes aegypti immatures were found mostly in drums, water reservoirs, and polyethylene sheets, while mixed breeding was more common in buckets and empty paint cans in urban and suburban areas. Aedes albopictus was found mainly in miscellaneous containers such as drums, empty paint cans, and covers in all areas. The main potential containers indoors were drums, water reservoirs, and empty paint cans, and containers outdoors included empty paint cans, drums, and polyethylene sheets.

  9. Ecology of mosquitoes of Midwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin R.A. Okogun, Jude C. Anosike, Anthony N. Okere & Bethran E.B. Nwoke

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The ecology and distribution of various mosquito species is important inthe determination of mosquito vector abundance and associated diseases prevalence. The distributionof various mosquito genera in natural and artificial habitats and their relative species abundancewas studied between August 2002 and July 2003 in three foci (Uromi, Ekpoma and Auchi comprisingthe Esan and Etsako regions of Midwestern Nigeria.Methods: Sampling was carried out by the method of Hopkins (1952 by dipping using a pipette orladle depending on container types. Pooled contents of smaller containers were sampled with a pondnet. All breeding sources of mosquito larvae were grouped into five (5 depending on their nature,constitution and the physiochemical properties. Artificial mosquito cultures were also carried out infour different container types; plastics, metal cans, earthenware pots and bamboo strips, in parts oftwo different macro habitats subdivided into area of high human activities (AHHA and areas ofderived/secondary vegetation (ADSV. Environmental temperatures, rainfall and relative humiditywere monitored during the study.Results: The present study revealed 17 mosquito species belonging to three genera (Anopheles,Culex and Aedes which are potential vectors of four human diseases in the areas surveyed. A total of736 mosquito larvae were encountered in artificial sources and 568 larvae were harvested from naturalsources. Pools, plastics and metal cans were the predominant artificial sources of mosquito larvae.Conclusion: The contribution of human activities and increasing environmental modification to thebreeding of human disease vector mosquitoes is of importance and selective vector control measuresincluding larviciding are recommended particularly before onset of rainy season

  10. Human Disturbance and Stage-Specific Habitat Requirements Influence Snowy Plover Site Occupancy during the Breeding Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    during incubation by choosing cryptic nesting areas with lower risk of predation (Winton et al. 2000; Colwell et al. 2005; Hood and Dinsmore 2007). If...through mid-March as “pre-breeding,” when plovers formed loose flocks, pairs engaged in courtship behavior, and females acquired resources for egg formation...Charadrius melodus). Estuaries 17:695–701. Burger, J., S. A. Carlucci, C. W. Jeitner, and L. Niles. 2007. Habitat choice , disturbance, and management of

  11. Investigations on mosquito fauna and habitats in the north of Laos%老挝北部蚊虫种群组成及孳生习性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑; 徐艳春; 周红宁; 董学书; 郭晓芳; 李春富; 姜进勇; 杨中华; Sorchampa Somphath; 孙晓东; 林祖锐

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate mosquito fauna and habitats in the north of Laos and provide evidences for clarification of mosquitoes, prevention of mosquitoes borne diseases and take advantage of biological resources. Methods Seven counties of five provinces in the north of Laos were chosen randomly from August to October in 2014 and 2015. Adult mosquitoes were collected by overnight trapping with ovitrap light and larvae were collected in the different breeding sites. All captured mosquitoes were processed in the lab. Results In total, 5 921 adult mosquitoes and 3 526 larvae were collected from 82 species of 19 subgenera of 15 genera in 3 subfamilies. All captured adult mosquitoes from 37 species of 11 subgenera of 10 genera in 2 subfamilies were collected by overnight trapping with ovitrap light. The predominant species was Culex tritaeniorhynchus (3 925, 66.29%). Besides, collected larvae belonged to 59 species of 17 subgenera of 12 genera in 3 subfamilies. Culex tritaeniorhynchus was still the predominant species (751, 21.30%). In total, 636 larval habitats of seven different environments were investigated. The predominant habitats were bamboo tube and tree hole(162) and wasted tires(153), these three habitats accounted for 49.30%(315/636)in all habitats. Conclusion The mosquito species showed biological richness in the north of Laos. The predominant species was Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, followed by Anopheles argyropus, An. minimus, An. sinensis, Aedes albopictus, Armigeres subalbatus and Ae. aegypti. The diversity and complexity of habitats of larvae were observed. Different mosquito larvae preferred different habitats, but symbiotic phenomenon of various mosquito species commonly existed.%目的:了解老挝北部蚊虫种群组成及孳生习性,为蚊虫分类、防治及生物资源利用提供参考。方法2014年和2015年8-10月,在老挝北部5个省的7个县设置调查点,利用夜间诱蚊灯诱捕成蚊和日间捞捕蚊幼虫两种方法采

  12. 石家庄市蚊幼虫孳生情况调查%Investigation of breeding situation of mosquito larvae in urban area of Shijiazhuang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志清; 翟士勇; 侯雨丰

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查石家庄市区蚊幼虫孳生情况,为蚊虫防制提供科学依据.方法 于2011年7-8月对小型积水和容器积水采用直接观察法,大中型水体采用目测法结合捞勺法调查孳生情况;同时采集阳性积水或水体中的蚊幼虫带回实验室鉴定.结果 大中型水体广场喷泉池、公园景观水域(人工湖)、民心河(环城人工河),平均阳性率为10.94%;各类小型积水和容器积水1120处,蚊幼虫孳生阳性221处,阳性率在6.35%~38.46%之间,平均阳性率为19.73%.蚊幼虫孳生优势种群为白纹伊蚊和淡色库蚊,其中白纹伊蚊占42.74%,淡色库蚊占35.55%.结论 石家庄市不同水体蚊虫孳生各具特点,为蚊虫防制和治理策略制定提供了依据.%Objective To investigate the breeding situation of mosquito larvae in the urban area of Shijiazhuang,China and to provide scientific evidence for mosquito control.Methods Direct observation was used to investigate the breeding of mosquitoes in small collected waters and container waters,and visual observation combined with scoop sampling were used to investigate the breeding of mosquitoes in large and medium-sized water bodies.Water containing mosquito larvae or mosquito larvae in water were collected and taken back to the laboratory to be classified.Results The mean positive rate was 10.94% in the large and medium-sized water bodies,such as square fountains,park landscape waters (artificial lake),and Minxin River,while 221 positive sites were found in 1120 small collected waters and container waters,with a mean positive rate of 19.73% (6.35%-38.46%).The dominant species were Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens,accounting for 42.74% and 35.55%,respectively.Conclusion Mosquito control strategy should be varied with the different chacateristics of various breeding places.

  13. Effects of breeding versus winter habitat loss and fragmentation on the population dynamics of a migratory songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caz M; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2016-03-01

    Many migratory species are in decline and understanding these declines is challenging because individuals occupy widely divergent and geographically distant habitats during a single year and therefore populations across the range are interconnected in complex ways. Network modeling has been used to show, theoretically, that shifts in migratory connectivity patterns can occur in response to habitat or climate changes and that habitat loss in one region can affect sub-populations in regions that are not directly connected. Here, we use a network model, parameterized by integrating long-term monitoring data with direct tracking of -100 individuals, to explain population trends in the rapidly declining Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) and to predict future trends. Our model suggests that species-level declines in Wood Thrush are driven primarily by tropical deforestation in Central America but that protection of breeding habitat in some regions is necessary to prevent shifts in migratory connectivity and to sustain populations in all breeding regions. The model illustrates how shifts in migratory connectivity may lead to unexpected population declines in key regions. We highlight current knowledge gaps that make modeling full life-cycle population demographics in migratory species challenging but also demonstrate that modeling can inform conservation while these gaps are being filled.

  14. A Study of the Effects of Gas Well Compressor Noise on Breeding Bird Populations of the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area, San Juan County, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K.E.; Chang, Young-Soo; Chun, K.C.; Reeves, T.; Liebich, R.; Smith, K.

    2001-06-04

    This report, conducted from May through July 2000, addressed the potential effect of compressor noise on breeding birds in gas-production areas administered by the FFO, specifically in the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area northeast of Farmington, New Mexico. The study was designed to quantify and characterize noise output from these compressors and to determine if compressor noise affected bird populations in adjacent habitat during the breeding season.

  15. Effects of stop-level habitat change on cerulean warbler detections along breeding bird survey routes in the central appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhone, P.M.; Wood, P.B.; Dawson, D.K.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of habitat change on Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) populations at stops along Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) routes in the central Appalachians. We used aerial photographs to compare early (1967/1971), middle (1982/1985), and late (2000/2003) periods and compared 1992 and 2001 National Land Cover Data (NLCD). Mean Cerulean Warbler detections per stop decreased at 68 BBS stops between the early (0.05) and middle (0.01) time periods and their distribution became more restricted (15 vs. 3% of stops), but the amount of deciduous/mixed forest increased. Mean detections at 240 stops decreased from the middle (0.09) to the late (0.06) time periods, but the deciduous/mixed forest land cover and fragmentation metrics did not change. The amounts of deciduous/mixed forest, core forest area, and edge density in the NLCD analysis decreased from 1992 to 2001, whereas the amount of non-forest land cover increased. The number of Cerulean Warbler detections did not change (1992 ?=? 0.08, 2001 ?=? 0.10; P ?=? 0.11). The lack of concordance between Cerulean Warbler detections and broad habitat features suggests that smaller, microhabitat features may be most important in affecting Cerulean Warbler breeding habitat suitability. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  16. Diversity of breeding habitats of anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae in Ramgarh district, Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: The study revealed that malaria vector species have been adapted to breed in a wide range of water bodies. The regular monitoring of such specific vector breeding sites under changing ecological and environmental conditions will be useful in guiding larval control operations selectively for effective vector/ malaria control.

  17. Evaluation of 1-octen-3-ol, carbon dioxide, and light as attractants for mosquitoes associated with two distinct habitats in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, L M; Harrison, B A; Brown, J S; Whitt, P B; Harrison, R L; Gardner, R C

    2001-03-01

    Field studies were conducted in North Carolina to determine the responses of mosquitoes found in salt marsh and inland creek flood plain areas to 1-octen-3-ol (octenol), carbon dioxide (CO2), and light in various combinations with Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps. Over 56,000 adult mosquito specimens of 12 species in 4 genera were collected in the salt marsh. They exhibited a general response pattern of octenol + CO2 + light > CO2 + light = octenol + CO2 > octenol + light > octenol alone. Significantly, more Aedes sollicitans, Ae. taeniorhynchus, Anopheles bradleyi, and Culex salinarius were attracted to octenol + CO2 + light than to CO2 + light. Over 19,000 specimens of 24 species in 7 genera were collected in the inland creek flood plain. Although the response patterns to the attractants were similar to those in the salt marsh area, there was no significant difference between octenol + CO2 + light and CO2 + light. Aedes vexans, An. crucians, and An. punctipennis were attracted nearly equally to these two attractant combinations. These studies demonstrate that responses to combinations of these attractants are species specific. However, different combinations of attractants can significantly increase the collection of targeted species important in arbovirus transmission. The use of these combinations would be very beneficial in mosquito-borne virus surveillance studies. The use of octenol by itself or in conjunction with light was found the least useful for collecting mosquitoes in both habitats.

  18. Vigilancia y control en criaderos temporales y permanentes de culícidos en Villa Clara (Vigilance and control in temporal and permanent breeding ground of mosquitoes in Villa Clara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janhad L. Rodríguez Mendieta

    2006-07-01

    developed in the Provincial Unit of Vigilance and Vectors Against fight in Villa Clara province, between the first July to first November 2005. For the same was graphically represented the 304 permanent and 218 temporal breeding ground of mosquitoes; distributed in the 13 municipalities of this province. Were taken shows of water body (28 breeding ground existence in the 13 municipalities of the province that to detect the Density of Larva according the methodology of ladle. Were determined the species main of mosquitoes that habitat in the province and were compared two methods (Temephos 2% and fish of control for this vectors, determining the cost – risk of Temephos 2%, the Bacillus thurigiensis and fish as mosquitoes control thorough a consideration. Were primary dates process in the computerized system Excel of packet Office XP and that statistic process of effectively of each treatment was use the test of proportions comparison of packet Statgraphics plus 4.1, both systems sustained in WindowsÒ. The results showing that the mosquitoes species more disseminated in the province are: Anopheles albimanus, Aedes mediovitatus, Aedes scapularis, Aedes confinis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex nigripalpus and Culex corniger; besides, the results demonstrating the superiority of control with fish on the Temephos control, already that is more efficient (99% versus 87% that p < 0.01 in the mosquitoes control. The fish control (no spending in CUC and $ 1 035.08 MN is more economic than Temephos (847 500 CUC and $ 12 490.96 MN and than Bacillus thurigiensis (6 328 cuc and $ 8 280.64 MN. Was conclude that the fish constitute a control effective that the mosquitoes people, recommended the use of fish for all benefice that this represent.

  19. Unravelling the annual cycle in a migratory animal: breeding-season habitat loss drives population declines of monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Pichancourt, Jean-Baptiste; Norris, D Ryan; Martin, Tara G

    2015-01-01

    Threats to migratory animals can occur at multiple periods of the annual cycle that are separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. Populations of the iconic monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America have declined over the last 21 years. Three hypotheses have been posed to explain the decline: habitat loss on the overwintering grounds in Mexico, habitat loss on the breeding grounds in the United States and Canada, and extreme weather events. Our objectives were to assess population viability, determine which life stage, season and geographical region are contributing the most to population dynamics and test the three hypotheses that explain the observed population decline. We developed a spatially structured, stochastic and density-dependent periodic projection matrix model that integrates patterns of migratory connectivity and demographic vital rates across the annual cycle. We used perturbation analysis to determine the sensitivity of population abundance to changes in vital rate among life stages, seasons and geographical regions. Next, we compared the singular effects of each threat to the full model where all factors operate concurrently. Finally, we generated predictions to assess the risk of host plant loss as a result of genetically modified crops on current and future monarch butterfly population size and extinction probability. Our year-round population model predicted population declines of 14% and a quasi-extinction probability (5% within a century. Monarch abundance was more than four times more sensitive to perturbations of vital rates on the breeding grounds than on the wintering grounds. Simulations that considered only forest loss or climate change in Mexico predicted higher population sizes compared to milkweed declines on the breeding grounds. Our model predictions also suggest that mitigating the negative effects of genetically modified crops results in higher population size and lower extinction

  20. Effects of breeding habitat (woodland versus urban) and metal pollution on the egg characteristics of great tits (Parus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, Rita; Nagy, Gergely; Nyiri, Zoltán; Bervoets, Lieven; Eke, Zsuzsanna; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2016-02-15

    In an urban environment, birds are exposed to metals, which may accumulate in their tissues and cause oxidative stress. Female birds may eliminate these pollutants through depositing them into eggs, thus eggs become suitable bioindicators of pollution. In this study, we aimed to analyse whether eggshell spotting pattern, egg volume, eggshell thickness and egg yolk antioxidant (lutein, tocopherol, retinol and selenium) levels were related to the breeding area (woodland versus urban) and the metal levels in the eggshell of a small passerine species, the great tit (Parus major). In the urban habitat, soil and eggshells contained higher concentrations of metals, and soil calcium level was also higher than that in the woodland. Eggshell spotting intensity and egg volume did not differ between eggs laid in the woodland and the urban park, and these traits were not related to the metal levels of the eggshell, suggesting that these egg characteristics are not sensitive indicators of metal pollution. A more aggregated eggshell spotting distribution indicated a higher Cu concentration of the eggshell. We found that eggshells were thinner in the less polluted woodland habitat, which is likely due to the limited Ca availability of the woodland area. Great tit eggs laid in the urban environment had lower yolk lutein, retinol and selenium concentrations, however, as a possible compensation for these lower antioxidant levels, urban females deposited more tocopherol into the egg yolk. It appears that females from different breeding habitats may provide similar antioxidant protection for their offspring against oxidative damage by depositing different specific dietary antioxidants. Egg yolk lutein and retinol levels showed a negative relationship with lead concentration of the eggshell, which may suggest that lead had a negative impact on the amount of antioxidants available for embryos during development in great tits.

  1. Between a rock and a hard place: habitat selection in female-calf humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) Pairs on the Hawaiian breeding grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Rachel; Gillespie, Blake; Labonte, Kristen; Mangold, Terence; Venema, Amy; Eden, Kevin; Sullivan, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The Au'au Channel between the islands of Maui and Lanai, Hawaii comprises critical breeding habitat for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) of the Central North Pacific stock. However, like many regions where marine mega-fauna gather, these waters are also the focus of a flourishing local eco-tourism and whale watching industry. Our aim was to establish current trends in habitat preference in female-calf humpback whale pairs within this region, focusing specifically on the busy, eastern portions of the channel. We used an equally-spaced zigzag transect survey design, compiled our results in a GIS model to identify spatial trends and calculated Neu's Indices to quantify levels of habitat use. Our study revealed that while mysticete female-calf pairs on breeding grounds typically favor shallow, inshore waters, female-calf pairs in the Au'au Channel avoided shallow waters (whale breeding grounds, there was only minimal evidence of typical patterns of stratification or segregation according to group composition. A review of habitat use by maternal females across Hawaiian waters indicates that maternal habitat choice varies between localities within the Hawaiian Islands, suggesting that maternal females alter their use of habitat according to locally varying pressures. This ability to respond to varying environments may be the key that allows wildlife species to persist in regions where human activity and critical habitat overlap.

  2. Breeding loggerhead marine turtles Caretta caretta in Dry Tortugas National Park, USA, show high fidelity to diverse habitats near nesting beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; Zawada, David G.; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Fujisaki, Ikuko

    2016-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to identify in-water habitat used by individuals in the smallest North-west Atlantic subpopulation of adult nesting loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta during the breeding season. During 2010, 2011 and 2012 breeding periods, a total of 20 adult females used habitats proximal to nesting beaches with various levels of protection within Dry Tortugas National Park. We then used a rapid, high-resolution, digital imaging system to map habitat adjacent to nesting beaches, revealing the diversity and distribution of available benthic cover. Turtle behaviour showing measurable site-fidelity to these diverse habitats has implications for managing protected areas and human activities within them. Protecting diverse benthic areas adjacent to loggerhead turtle nesting beaches here and elsewhere could provide benefits for overall biodiversity conservation.

  3. Web mapping GIS: GPS under the GIS umbrella for Aedes species dengue and chikungunya vector mosquito surveillance and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Palaniyandi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito nuisance and the mosquito borne diseases have become major important challenging public health problems in India especially in the fast developing city like Pondicherry urban agglomeration. The Pondicherry government has been implemented full-fledged mosquito control measures, however, dengue and chikungunya epidemics was accelerating trend in Pondicherry for the recent years, and therefore, the directorate of public health, Pondicherry was requested vector control research centre (VCRC, to conduct a mosquito control evaluation survey. A team of field staff of VCRC headed by the author, Pondicherry, have conducted a detailed reconnaissance survey for collecting the site specifications of houses and the streetwise mosquito data for analyzing the density of vector mosquitoes in the wards / blocks and delineating the areas vulnerable to disease epidemics in the urban areas. The GPS GARMIN 12 XL was used to collect the field data. The ARC GIS 10.0 software was used to map the site locations (houses with mosquito’s data. The digital map of block boundary of Pondicherry was used for mapping purpose. A systematic grid sampling was applied to conduct a rapid survey for mapping Aedes species mosquito genic condition in the urban areas and the coordinates of sites of house information with breeding habitats positive in the grid sectors was collected using GPS, and the mean value of positive habitats was analyzed by quintiles method for mapping. The four blocks were selected for Aedes mosquito survey where the mosquito problem was identified as comparatively high, four numbers of wards were selected from each block, and the 40 number of houses was selected with 100 meter interval distance for mosquito breeding survey in the domestic and peripheral domestic areas in each wards. The problematic areas were identified, highlighted and recommended for web mapping GIS for Aedes mosquito surveillance continuously for monitoring the mosquito control

  4. Mosquito control in Dar es Salaam. II. Impact of expanded polystyrene beads and pyriproxyfen treatment of breeding sites on Culex quinquefasciatus densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavasse, D C; Lines, J D; Ichimori, K; Majala, A R; Minjas, J N; Marijani, J

    1995-04-01

    In two contrasting areas of Dar es Salaam (Ilala and Mikocheni) all enclosed breeding sites of Culex quinquefasciatus, such as latrines and septic tanks, were treated with a floating layer of expanded polystyrene beads. 7 months later checks in both study areas revealed only one site (from which the polystyrene had been removed during emptying) containing immature stages of Cx quinquefasciatus. Open breeding sites such as areas of flooded land and blocked drains were treated with pyriproxyfen (an insect growth regulator) at a concentration of 0.1 ppm. Emergence of Cx quinquefasciatus adults from these sites was inhibited for 4 weeks during the rainy season and for up to 11 weeks during the dry season. The problem of mosquito breeding sites caused by bathroom sullage water was addressed through a combination of health education and indirect pressure from the Urban Malaria Control Project (UMCP) via local community leaders. Households responsible for these sites were encouraged to eliminate them by diverting the water into an enclosed drainage structure, usually a pit latrine. After two weekly visits 64.7% of households had complied and 93.4% had complied after five visits. 5 months later, only 15.7% had reverted to allowing sullage water to collect into puddles. Densities of Cx quinquefasciatus adults dropped by 76.7% in Mikocheni and by 46.2% in Ilala following intervention, but increased by 84.9% and 25.6% in two untreated comparison areas. The reasons for differential success of the combined interventions in the two treated areas are discussed.

  5. Population Densities of Birds Breeding in Urbanized Habitats in the Grabiszyn District in the City of Wrocław

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopij Grzegorz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out in 2010 by mean of simplified version of the mapping method. The study area (395 ha was located close to the city centre. It comprised a mosaic of urbanized habitats, with a clear dominance of green areas, such as parks (41.1 ha, gardens, cemeteries and tree clumps. A total of 48 breeding bird species were recorded in the whole study area. The most common (<25 pairs/100 ha were Passer domesticus, Passer montanus, Sturnus vulgaris, Parus caeruleus, Parus major, Apus apus and Columba livia. Numerous (7-15 pairs/100 ha were also the following species: Columba palumbus, Turdus pilaris, Sylvia atricapilla, Serinus serinus, Turdus merula and Pica pica. Insectivorous birds were the most common birds constituting 63.3%, and granivorous -32.6% of all pairs recorded. Most birds nested in tree holes (39.3%, in/on buildings (30.2% and in trees/shrubs (25.6%. Distribution of breeding pairs of 23 bird species was presented on maps. Population trends for 17 species were documented. Rapid increase in numbers of Turdus pilaris, Corvus cornix and Phoenicurus phoenicurus and decrease of Pica pica were recorded.

  6. Human residential status and habitat quality affect the likelihood but not the success of lapwing breeding in an urban matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Dylan V; Cardilini, Adam P A; Lees, Daniel; Maguire, Grainne S; Dann, Peter; Sherman, Craig D H; Weston, Michael A

    2016-06-15

    Wildlife living in the suburbs faces the challenge of dealing with human presence and yard management (including the occurrence of pets) which vary at the scale of the house block. This study examined the influence of ecological factors (e.g. extent of grass and food availability) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. human activity and garden usage) on breeding site choice and reproductive success of the ground-nesting masked lapwing Vanellus miles on Phillip Island, Australia. Lapwings nested less frequently in residential properties (high levels of human usage) compared with vacant blocks and holiday houses. They were also more likely to breed on properties with high food availability and larger areas of grass. None of these variables influenced clutch size or the probability of eggs hatching, although larger clutches and higher hatching rates tended to be associated with more food. This study shows that, for an urban exploiting species, habitat quality is not homogenous at the scale of the house block, and that human activity is avoided by a species generally considered highly tolerant of people.

  7. A Sequence of Flushing and Drying of Breeding Habitats of Aedes aegypti (L. Prior to the Low Dengue Season in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M E Seidahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In dengue-endemic areas, transmission shows both a seasonal and interannual variability. To investigate how rainfall impacts dengue seasonality in Singapore, we carried out a longitudinal survey in the Geylang neighborhood from August 2014 to August 2015. The survey comprised of twice-weekly random inspections to outdoor breeding habitats and continuous monitoring for positive ones. In addition, observations of rainstorms were collected. Out of 6824 inspected habitats, 67 contained Aedes aegypti, 11 contained Aedes albopictus and 24 contained Culex spp. The main outdoors habitat of Aedes aegypti was storm drains (54/67. We found that 80% of breeding sites in drains (43/54 were lost after intense rainstorms related to the wet phase of the Northeast monsoon (NE between November 2014 and early January 2015. Subsequently, 95% (41/43 of these flushed drains had dried out during the dry phase of the NE in late January-February 2015. A return in the outdoor breeding of Aedes aegypti was observed after the onset of Southwest monsoon (SW between May and August 2015. There was also a reduction in productivity of breeding habitats for larvae and pupae after the onset of the NE. In wet equatorial regions like Singapore, rainfall varies with the monsoons. A monsoon-driven sequence of flushing and drying shapes the outdoor seasonal abundance of Aedes aegypti. This finding can be used to optimize vector control strategies and better understand dengue in the context of climate change.

  8. A Sequence of Flushing and Drying of Breeding Habitats of Aedes aegypti (L.) Prior to the Low Dengue Season in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidahmed, Osama M E; Eltahir, Elfatih A B

    2016-07-01

    In dengue-endemic areas, transmission shows both a seasonal and interannual variability. To investigate how rainfall impacts dengue seasonality in Singapore, we carried out a longitudinal survey in the Geylang neighborhood from August 2014 to August 2015. The survey comprised of twice-weekly random inspections to outdoor breeding habitats and continuous monitoring for positive ones. In addition, observations of rainstorms were collected. Out of 6824 inspected habitats, 67 contained Aedes aegypti, 11 contained Aedes albopictus and 24 contained Culex spp. The main outdoors habitat of Aedes aegypti was storm drains (54/67). We found that 80% of breeding sites in drains (43/54) were lost after intense rainstorms related to the wet phase of the Northeast monsoon (NE) between November 2014 and early January 2015. Subsequently, 95% (41/43) of these flushed drains had dried out during the dry phase of the NE in late January-February 2015. A return in the outdoor breeding of Aedes aegypti was observed after the onset of Southwest monsoon (SW) between May and August 2015. There was also a reduction in productivity of breeding habitats for larvae and pupae after the onset of the NE. In wet equatorial regions like Singapore, rainfall varies with the monsoons. A monsoon-driven sequence of flushing and drying shapes the outdoor seasonal abundance of Aedes aegypti. This finding can be used to optimize vector control strategies and better understand dengue in the context of climate change.

  9. Diversity of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and classification based on the characteristics of the habitats where they were collected in Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, P G; Stein, M; Etchepare, E G; Almiron, W R

    2016-12-01

    In order to extend the knowledge of anopheline diversity and their habitats in three environments with different degrees of anthropic intervention in Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, anopheline larvae were collected and classified on the basis of similarities of their habitats. Spatio-temporal abundance was determined and larval diversity and complementarity index were calculated. Rank-abundance curves were performed to compare the composition, abundance, and species evenness among environments. A total of 783 larvae, belonging to six species: Anopheles argyritarsis, An. fluminensis, An. mediopunctatus, An. punctimacula, An. strodei s.l., and An. triannulatus s.l., were collected. A cluster analysis and a principal component analysis detected two groups; exposure to sunlight and type of habitat were the characteristics that explained the grouping of species. Higher abundances of anopheline larvae were observed during autumn and spring. The greatest richness was recorded in wild and peri-urban environments and the effective number of species was greater in the wild. Anopheles punctimacula and An. triannulatus s.l. are secondary vectors of malaria in other South American countries and both species were found in the three environments, so that deforestation poses a potential risk for malaria transmission as it contributes to the proliferation of larval habitats for these mosquitoes.

  10. Breeding habitat selection of an endangered species in an arid zone: the case of Alytes dickhilleni Arntzen & García-París, 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Egea-Serrano

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environmental variables on the selection of a particular water body as breeding habitat by Alytes dickhilleni was studied in the southeastern and most arid zone of its distribution range. From November 2002 to October 2003, 50 water bodies were monitored in the south east of the Iberian Peninsula. Environmental data were submitted to a stepwise logistic regression analysis at macrohabitat, water body typology and microhabitat scales in order to establish the main factors influencing the use of a given water body as breeding habitat by this species. Statistical analysis showed that the reproduction of Alytes dickhilleni is associated with the macrohabitat variable topography, and the water body typology. This species breeds mainly in permanent water bodies located in mountainous topography in the study area. These results should be taken into account when populations of this species are subjected to management and/or recovery programmes in arid areas.

  11. Climate and habitat interact to shape the thermal reaction norms of breeding phenology across lizard populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutschmann, Alexis; Miles, Donald B; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Richard, Murielle; Moulherat, Sylvain; Sinervo, Barry; Clobert, Jean

    2016-03-01

    Substantial plastic variation in phenology in response to environmental heterogeneity through time in the same population has been uncovered in many species. However, our understanding of differences in reaction norms of phenology among populations from a given species remains limited. As the plasticity of phenological traits is often influenced by local thermal conditions, we expect local temperature to generate variation in the reaction norms between populations. Here, we explored temporal variation in parturition date across 11 populations of the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) from four mountain chains as a function of air temperatures during mid-gestation. We characterized among-population variation to assess how local weather conditions (mean and variance of ambient temperatures during mid-gestation) and habitat openness (an index of anthropogenic disturbance) influence the thermal reaction norms of the parturition date. Our results provide evidence of interactive effects of anthropogenic disturbance and thermal conditions, with earlier parturition dates in warmer years on average especially in closed habitats. Variation in the reaction norms for parturition date was correlated with mean local thermal conditions at a broad geographical scale. However, populations exposed to variable thermal conditions had flatter thermal reaction norms. Assessing whether environmental heterogeneity drives differentiation among reaction norms is crucial to estimate the capacity of different populations to contend with projected climatic and anthropogenic challenges.

  12. Laboratory evaluation of Mesocyclops annulatus (Wierzejski, 1892 (Copepoda: Cyclopidea as a predator of container-breeding mosquitoes in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V Micieli

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In laboratory bioassays we tested the predatory capacity of the copepod Mesocyclops annulatus on Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens larvae. A single adult female of M. annulatus caused 51.6% and 52.3% mortality of 50 first instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens respectively, in a 72 h test period. When alternative food was added to the containers, mortality rates declined to 16% and 10.3% for Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens respectively. When 50 first instar larvae of each of the two mosquito species tested were placed together with a single adult female of M. annulatus, mortality rates were 75.5% for Ae. aegypti larvae and 23.5% for Cx. pipiens larvae in a three day test period. Different density of adult females of M. annulatus ranged from 5 to 25 females produced mortality rates of Ae. aegypti first instar larvae from 50% to 100% respectively. When a single adult female of M. annulatus was exposed to an increasing number of first-instar Ae. aegypti larvae ranging from 10 to 100, 100% mortality was recorded from 1 to 25 larvae, then mortality declined to 30% with 100 larvae. The average larvae killed per 24 h period by a single copepod were 29.

  13. Anopheline (Diptera:Culicidae) breeding in a traditional tank-based village ecosystem in north central Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F; Fonseka, K T;

    1997-01-01

    A 13-mo survey of immature anopheline mosquitoes breeding in surface water habitats was done at Mahameegaswewa village within the Huruluwewa watershed in north central Sri Lanka as part of a multidisciplinary study on malaria epidemiology. The watershed is representative of the ancient small tank...

  14. Effect of food on immature development, consumption rate, and relative growth rate of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae, a predator of container breeding mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Dominic Amalraj

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Food utilization by the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann was studied in the laboratory by offering larvae of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, Anopheles stephensi (Liston, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. Quantitative analyses of data indicated that immature development was significantly faster with increase in food availability. The regression analysis showed that the degrees of the relationship between immature duration (Id and food availability were higher when offered early instars of prey (first and second instars than late instars. Consumption rate (Cr of the predator increased with increase in food availability and this relationship was highly significant when larvae of An. stephensi were offered as food. Consumption rate to food level decreased with increase in the age class of the prey. There was a significant negative correlation between Id and Cr. This aspect helps to increase population turnover of T. splendens in a shorter period when the prey is abundant. Conversely, the predator compensated the loss in daily food intake at low food level by extending Id thereby attains the minimum threshold pupal weight for adult emergence. There was an increase in the relative growth rate (RGR of the predator when An. stephensi was offered as prey and this was related to the high protein content of the prey per body weight. There was a positive correlation between Cr and RGR. This adaptive life characteristic strategy of this predator is useful for mass-rearing for large scale field release programmes in the control of container breeding mosquitoes is discussed.

  15. Characteristics of malaria vector breeding habitats in Sri Lanka: relevance for environmental management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoek, Wim van der; Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F;

    1998-01-01

    In and around a village in the Anuradhapura District of Sri Lanka anopheline larvae were sampled from July 1994 to April 1996 in all surface water bodies. Samples positive for Anopheles culicifacies, the established vector of malaria in Sri Lanka, and for An. barbirostris, An. vagus, and An. varuna......, potential secondary vectors, were characterized by site, exposure to sunlight, substratum, turbidity of the water, presence of vegetation, and presence of fauna. Availability of pools of stagnant water in the stream near the village and along the edge of the village tank was highly predictive for presence...... of An. culicifacies larvae, independent from the other characteristics that were included in the study. The biological and physical characteristics could not very well explain the preference for certain habitats, but it was of interest that An. culicifacies, generally considered to bread in sun exposed...

  16. The Importance of Maintaining Upland Forest Habitat Surrounding Salamander Breeding Ponds: Case Study of the Eastern Tiger Salamander in New York, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valorie Titus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most amphibians use both wetland and upland habitats, but the extent of their movement in forested habitats is poorly known. We used radiotelemetry to observe the movements of adult and juvenile eastern tiger salamanders over a 4-year period. Females tended to move farther from the breeding ponds into upland forested habitat than males, while the distance a juvenile moved appeared to be related to body size, with the largest individuals moving as far as the adult females. Individuals chose refugia in native pitch pine—oak forested habitat and avoided open fields, roads, and developed areas. We also observed a difference in potential predation pressures in relation to the distance an individual moved from the edge of the pond. Our results support delineating forested wetland buffer zones on a case-by-case basis to reduce the impacts of concentrated predation, to increase and protect the availability of pitch pine—oak forests near the breeding pond, and to focus primarily on the habitat needs of the adult females and larger juveniles, which in turn will encompass habitat needs of adult males and smaller juveniles.

  17. Between a rock and a hard place: habitat selection in female-calf humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae Pairs on the Hawaiian breeding grounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cartwright

    Full Text Available The Au'au Channel between the islands of Maui and Lanai, Hawaii comprises critical breeding habitat for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae of the Central North Pacific stock. However, like many regions where marine mega-fauna gather, these waters are also the focus of a flourishing local eco-tourism and whale watching industry. Our aim was to establish current trends in habitat preference in female-calf humpback whale pairs within this region, focusing specifically on the busy, eastern portions of the channel. We used an equally-spaced zigzag transect survey design, compiled our results in a GIS model to identify spatial trends and calculated Neu's Indices to quantify levels of habitat use. Our study revealed that while mysticete female-calf pairs on breeding grounds typically favor shallow, inshore waters, female-calf pairs in the Au'au Channel avoided shallow waters (<20 m and regions within 2 km of the shoreline. Preferred regions for female-calf pairs comprised water depths between 40-60 m, regions of rugged bottom topography and regions that lay between 4 and 6 km from a small boat harbor (Lahaina Harbor that fell within the study area. In contrast to other humpback whale breeding grounds, there was only minimal evidence of typical patterns of stratification or segregation according to group composition. A review of habitat use by maternal females across Hawaiian waters indicates that maternal habitat choice varies between localities within the Hawaiian Islands, suggesting that maternal females alter their use of habitat according to locally varying pressures. This ability to respond to varying environments may be the key that allows wildlife species to persist in regions where human activity and critical habitat overlap.

  18. Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Mosquito Control About Mosquitoes General Information Life Cycle Information from ... Repellent that is Right for You DEET Mosquito Control Methods Success in mosquito control: an integrated approach ...

  19. Habitat Characteristics and Eggshell Distribution of the Salt Marsh Mosquito, Aedes vigilax, in Marshes in Subtropical Eastern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Pat E. R.; Knight, Jon; Kay, Brian H.; Chapman, Heather; Ritchie, Scott A.; Brown, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Research at 10 locations in coastal subtropical Queensland, Australia, has shown that salt marshes contained heterogeneous distributions of eggshells of the pest and vector mosquito Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera:Culicidae). The eggshell distribution was related to specific vegetation assemblages, with a mix of the grass, Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), and the beaded glasswort, Sarcocornia quinqueflora (Bunge ex (Ung.-Stern) A.J. Scott (Caryophyllales: Chenopodiaceae), as...

  20. Analysis of humpback whale sounds in shallow waters of the Southeastern Arabian Sea: An indication of breeding habitat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madan M Mahanty; Latha G; Thirunavukkarasu A

    2015-06-01

    The primary objective of this work was to present the acoustical identification of humpback whales, detected by using an autonomous ambient noise measurement system, deployed in the shallow waters of the Southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) during the period January to May 2011. Seven types of sounds were detected. These were characteristically upsweeps and downsweeps along with harmonics. Sounds produced repeatedly in a specific pattern were referred to as phrases (PQRS and ABC). Repeated phrases in a particular pattern were referred to as themes, and from the spectrographic analysis, two themes (I and II) were identified. The variation in the acoustic characteristics such as fundamental frequency, range, duration of the sound unit, and the structure of the phrases and themes are discussed. Sound units were recorded from mid-January to mid-March, with a peak in February, when the mean SST is ∼ 28°C, and no presence was recorded after mid-March. The temporal and thematic structures strongly determine the functions of the humpback whale song form. Given the use of song in the SEAS, this area is possibly used as an active breeding habitat by humpback whales during the winter season.

  1. Combining site occupancy, breeding population sizes and reproductive success to calculate time-averaged reproductive output of different habitat types: an application to Tricolored Blackbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Holyoak

    Full Text Available In metapopulations in which habitat patches vary in quality and occupancy it can be complicated to calculate the net time-averaged contribution to reproduction of particular populations. Surprisingly, few indices have been proposed for this purpose. We combined occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, and reproductive success to determine the net value of different sites through time and applied this method to a bird of conservation concern. The Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor has experienced large population declines, is the most colonial songbird in North America, is largely confined to California, and breeds itinerantly in multiple habitat types. It has had chronically low reproductive success in recent years. Although young produced per nest have previously been compared across habitats, no study has simultaneously considered site occupancy and reproductive success. Combining occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, reproductive success and nest failure rate we found that that large colonies in grain fields fail frequently because of nest destruction due to harvest prior to fledging. Consequently, net time-averaged reproductive output is low compared to colonies in non-native Himalayan blackberry or thistles, and native stinging nettles. Cattail marshes have intermediate reproductive output, but their reproductive output might be improved by active management. Harvest of grain-field colonies necessitates either promoting delay of harvest or creating alternative, more secure nesting habitats. Stinging nettle and marsh colonies offer the main potential sources for restoration or native habitat creation. From 2005-2011 breeding site occupancy declined 3x faster than new breeding colonies were formed, indicating a rapid decline in occupancy. Total abundance showed a similar decline. Causes of variation in the value for reproduction of nesting substrates and factors behind continuing population declines merit urgent

  2. Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro - Are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Goulart Mocellin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07% and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18% were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats.

  3. Effects of habitat characteristics and interspecific interactions on co-occurrence patterns of saproxylic beetles breeding in tree boles after forest fire: null model analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeria, Ermias T; Ibarzabal, Jacques; Hébert, Christian

    2012-04-01

    It is often suggested that habitat attributes and interspecific interactions can cause non-random species co-occurrence patterns, but quantifying their contributions can be difficult. Null models that systematically exclude and include habitat effects can give information on the contribution of these factors to community assembly. In the boreal forest, saproxylic beetles are known to be attracted to recently burned forests where they breed in dead and dying trees. We examined whether species co-occurrences of saproxylic beetles that develop in, and emerge from, boles of recently burned trees show non-random patterns. We also estimated the extent to which both the post-fire habitat attributes and interspecific interactions among beetles contribute to such patterns. We sampled tree boles encompassing key attributes (tree species, tree size/dbh and burn severity) that are thought to characterize species-habitat associations of saproxylic beetles, a proposition that we tested using indicator species analysis. Two null models with no habitat constraints ("unconstrained") indicated that a total of 29.4% of the species pairs tested had significant co-occurrence patterns. Habitat-constrained null models indicated that most of the detected species aggregations (72%) and segregations (59%) can be explained by shared and distinct species-habitat relationships, respectively. The assembly pattern was also driven by interspecific interactions, of which some were modulated by habitat; for example, predator and prey species tended to co-occur in large-sized trees (a proxy of available bark/wood food resource primarily for the prey). In addition, some species segregation suggesting antagonistic, competitive, or prey-predator interactions were evident after accounting for the species' affinities for the same tree species. Overall, our results suggest that an intimate link between habitat and interspecific interactions can have important roles for community assembly of saproxylic

  4. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ribas, Jordi; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Trilla, Lluís; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs.

  5. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sánchez-Ribas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs.

  6. Fish breeding and habitat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.11_1.pdf.txt stream_source_info Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.11_1.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content...

  7. The effect of shade on the container index and pupal productivity of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens breeding in artificial containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzani, D; Albicócco, A P

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether certain attributes of larval breeding sites are correlated with pupal productivity (i.e. numbers of pupae collected per sampling period), so that these could be used as the focus for control measures to enhance control efficiency. Therefore, the objectives were to identify the months of highest pupal productivity of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) in an urban temperate cemetery in Argentina where artificial containers of containers and to determine whether the composition of the containers affected pupal productivity. Over a period of 9 months, 200 randomly chosen water-filled containers (100 sunlit and 100 shaded), out of approximately 3738 containers present (approximately 54% in shade), were examined each month within a cemetery (5 ha) in Buenos Aires (October 2006 to June 2007). In total, 3440 immatures of Cx pipiens and 1974 of Ae. aegypti were collected. The larvae : pupae ratio was 10 times greater for the former, indicating that larval mortality was greater for Cx pipiens. Both mosquito species showed a higher container index (CI) in shaded than in sunlit containers (Ae. aegypti: 12.8% vs. 6.9% [chi(2) = 17.6, P container and the number of pupae per pupa-positive container did not differ significantly between sunlit and shaded containers for either species. Therefore, the overall relative productivity of pupae per ha of Ae. aegypti and Cx pipiens was 2.3 and 1.8 times greater, respectively, in shaded than in sunlit areas as a result of the greater CIs of containers in shaded areas. Neither the CI nor the number of immatures per infested container differed significantly among container types of different materials in either lighting condition. The maximum CI and total pupal counts occurred in March for Ae. aegypti and in January and February for Cx pipiens. The estimated peak abundance of pupae in the whole cemetery reached a total of approximately 4388 in the middle of March for Ae

  8. Habitat use by the Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps (Gruiformes: Otididae in breeding and non-breeding seasons in Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Munjpara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps, a threatened and endemic species of the Indian subcontinent, is declining in its natural habitats. The Great Indian Bustard is a bird of open land and was observed using the grasslands habitat (73%, followed by areas covered with Prosopis (11%. In the grasslands, the communities dominated with Cymbopogon martinii were utilized the highest, while those dominated by Aristida adenemsoidis were least utilized. As Cymbopogon martinii is non-palatable, we infer that it does not attract livestock and herdsmen resulting in minimum movement and trampling that favors the Great Indian Bustard.

  9. The association of environmental changes and the replacement of mosquito fauna in the Colombo District, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAS Priyangika

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito survey was carried out for 8 months between October 2009 and May 2010. Investigations included 12 randomly selected urban (6 and semi-urban (6 areas in the Colombo District of Sri Lanka. Thirty eight mosquito species were found and Anopheles interruptus, An. pseudojamesii, Aedes stenovensoni, Ae. edwardsi, Ae. vittatus, Culex  barraudi, Cx. fatigans, Cx. univittatus, Cx. aculeatus, Cx. purplexus, Cx. spiculosus, Cx. quadripalpis, Cx. halifaxi, Uranotaenia atra, Ur. unguiculata were new findings that were not recorded  previously in the period 1981-1982 from the same locations although 11 different breeding habitats were examined. Rainfall had a direct relation (P=0.000 with the distribution and the density of mosquitoes. Unplanned urbanization, human activities and irregular or non-disposal of domestic waste products have led to a population replacement of the mosquito fauna in these locations.

  10. Thule AB, Greenland, Mosquito Survey and Arbovirus Surveillance, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) USAF School of Aerospace Medicine Public Health and Preventive ...July 2012. One species of mosquitoes, Aedes impiger, was collected and more than 3000 were processed for virus testing. Active mosquito breeding...of mosquitoes, Aedes impiger, was collected and more than 3000 were processed for virus testing. Active mosquito breeding sites were located

  11. Septic tanks as larval habitats for the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Playa-Playita, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, R; Barrera, R; Lewis, M; Kluchinsky, T; Claborn, D

    2010-06-01

    Adult Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) were previously recovered from emergence traps on septic tanks in southeastern Puerto Rico. In this study we quantified immature mosquito abundance and its relationship with structural variables of the septic tanks and chemical properties of the water containing raw sewage. A miniaturized floating funnel trap was used to sample 89 septic tanks for larvae in the Puerto Rican community of Playa-Playita. Aedes aegypti larvae were recovered from 18% of the sampled tanks (10.3 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and uncovered access ports. Larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and larger tank surface areas, and inversely associated with the total dissolved solids (TDS). Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) larvae were also recovered from 74% of the septic tanks (129.6 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was negatively associated with TDS in the water and larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls. A screened, plastic emergence trap was used to sample 93 septic tanks within the community for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults. Aedes aegypti adults were recovered from 49% of the sampled tanks (8.7 adults per septic tank per day) and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults were recovered from 97% of the sampled tanks (155.5 adults per septic tank per day). Aedes aegypti adult presence was positively associated with cracking, uncapped openings and septic water pH. The Ae. aegypti adult counts were positively associated with cracking and inversely associated with TDS and conductivity. This study marks the first published record of the recovery of Ae. aegypti larvae from holding tanks containing raw sewage in the Caribbean region. Our study indicates that Ae. aegypti larvae are present in sewage water and that septic tanks have at least the potential to maintain

  12. Habitat characteristics and eggshell distribution of the salt marsh mosquito, Aedes vigilax, in marshes in subtropical Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Pat E R; Knight, Jon; Kay, Brian H; Chapman, Heather; Ritchie, Scott A; Brown, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Research at 10 locations in coastal subtropical Queensland, Australia, has shown that salt marshes contained heterogeneous distributions of eggshells of the pest and vector mosquito Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera:Culicidae). The eggshell distribution was related to specific vegetation assemblages, with a mix of the grass, Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), and the beaded glasswort, Sarcocornia quinqueflora (Bunge ex (Ung.-Stern) A.J. Scott (Caryophyllales: Chenopodiaceae), as significantly higher in eggshells than any other vegetation. There were also high numbers in the mix of S. virginicus with the arrowgrass, Triglochin striata Ruiz & Pavón (Alismatales: Juncaginaceae). Both mixed types are found in relatively wetter areas, despite very few eggshells being found generally in the low marsh. Most sites contained S. virginicus and eggshell locations were variable for this species alone. This was probably related to its life form variability in response to salinity and location on the marsh. Location on the marsh was important for eggshell distribution with most eggshells around the edges of pools and depressions, followed by, but to a significantly lesser extent, the marsh surface. Eggshells were fewest in the low marsh. Partition analysis resulted in a tree that simplified and summarised the factors important for eggshell distribution confirming the individual analyses. The potential effects of climate, sea level and other change are also briefly discussed in the context of likely changes to land cover and relative location on the marsh. For example, increased sea level may lead to low marsh conditions extending into higher marsh area with implications for oviposition and numbers of eggshells.

  13. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae em áreas do Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina, Brasil.I - Distribuição por habitat Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in areas of Serra da Bocaina National Park, Brazil. I - Habitat distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer a influência exercida por três diferentes biótopos em áreas do Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina (PNSB sobre a fauna local de mosquitos. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas capturas mensais em ambiente silvestre e domiciliar, em isca humana, durante três diferentes períodos do dia, pelo período de 24 meses consecutivos, de janeiro de 1991 a dezembro de 1992. RESULTADOS: Foram capturados 11.808 espécimes adultos, pertencentes a 28 espécies. Ru. reversa e An. cruzii foram predominantes, respectivamente 52,5% e 17,9% do total de mosquitos. Ru. reversa representou 59,4% do total de espécimes no ambiente de mata fechada, seguida por Ru. frontosa com 10,5% e An. cruzii com 9,9%. No ambiente formado por campos de altitude e matas de galeria, o An. cruzii predominou com 48,1%, seguido por Ru. reversa com 28,1%. No ambiente modificado pelo homem, o An. cruzii predominou com 73,7% dos espécimes. Coquillettidia chrysonotum foi a única que se apresentou preferencialmente nesse biótopo: 14,9% no intra, 19,4% no peri e 65,7% no extradomicílio. An. cruzii e Ru. reversa foram constantes em todos os ambientes ao longo do ano. CONCLUSÕES: Com exceção de Cq. chrysonotum, com preferência pelo ambiente modificado pelo homem, os mosquitos apresentam hábitos assinantrópicos no PNSB. An. cruzii, embora assinantrópico, se aproxima e adentra o domicílio para realizar a hematofagia. A presença do Ae. serratus no extra e peridomicílio reforça a importância epidemiológica como vetora potencial de arboviroses. Os Sabethini apresentaram-se exclusivamente silvestres.OBJECTIVE: To assess the mosquito fauna in Serra da Bocaina National Park (PNSB, by collecting information through a general survey, and investigating the population behavior in habitats within the park with different vegetation. METHODS: Human bait collections were conducted once a month for both the forest and households, in diurnal and nocturnal periods, three time a day

  14. Persistent oscillations and backward bifurcation in a malaria model with varying human and mosquito populations: implications for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngonghala, Calistus N; Teboh-Ewungkem, Miranda I; Ngwa, Gideon A

    2015-06-01

    We derive and study a deterministic compartmental model for malaria transmission with varying human and mosquito populations. Our model considers disease-related deaths, asymptomatic immune humans who are also infectious, as well as mosquito demography, reproduction and feeding habits. Analysis of the model reveals the existence of a backward bifurcation and persistent limit cycles whose period and size is determined by two threshold parameters: the vectorial basic reproduction number Rm, and the disease basic reproduction number R0, whose size can be reduced by reducing Rm. We conclude that malaria dynamics are indeed oscillatory when the methodology of explicitly incorporating the mosquito's demography, feeding and reproductive patterns is considered in modeling the mosquito population dynamics. A sensitivity analysis reveals important control parameters that can affect the magnitudes of Rm and R0, threshold quantities to be taken into consideration when designing control strategies. Both Rm and the intrinsic period of oscillation are shown to be highly sensitive to the mosquito's birth constant λm and the mosquito's feeding success probability pw. Control of λm can be achieved by spraying, eliminating breeding sites or moving them away from human habitats, while pw can be controlled via the use of mosquito repellant and insecticide-treated bed-nets. The disease threshold parameter R0 is shown to be highly sensitive to pw, and the intrinsic period of oscillation is also sensitive to the rate at which reproducing mosquitoes return to breeding sites. A global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis reveals that the ability of the mosquito to reproduce and uncertainties in the estimations of the rates at which exposed humans become infectious and infectious humans recover from malaria are critical in generating uncertainties in the disease classes.

  15. Habitat Use, Spatial Relationships, and Censusing Techniques of Breeding Eastern Black Rails (Laterallus jamaicensis jamaicensis) in Northern Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project proposed this report will provide data on the habitats of the eastern black rail through the use of radio telemetry, vegetative samples, and weekly...

  16. Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea home range and habitat use during the non-breeding season in Assam, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namgail, T.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Sivananinthaperumal, B.; Areendran, G.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Mundkur, T.; Mccracken, T.; Newman, S.

    2011-01-01

    India is an important non-breeding ground for migratory waterfowl in the Central Asian Flyway. Millions of birds visit wedands across the country, yet information on their distribution, abundance, and use of resources is rudimentary at best. Limited information suggests that populations of several s

  17. There and back again : multiple and return exchange of humpback whales between breeding habitats separated by an ocean basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevick, P. T.; Berrow, Simon D.; Berube, Martine; Bouveret, Laurent; Broms, Fredrik; Jann, Beatrice; Kennedy, Amy; Suarez, Pedro Lopez; Meunier, Marine; Ryan, Conor; Wenzel, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    In species that aggregate for reproduction, the social and fitness costs of movement between groups frequently lead to restricted exchange between breeding areas. We report on four individual humpback whales identified in both the Cape Verde Islands and Guadeloupe; locations separated by an ocean ba

  18. Electrophysiological, flight orientation and oviposition responses of three species of mosquito vectors to hexadecyl pentanoate: residual oviposition repellent activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenivasagan, T; Sharma, Kavita R; Ganesan, K; Prakash, Shri

    2010-05-01

    Understanding on the chemical ecology of mosquito behavior is of paramount importance in developing control programs employing attractants and repellents. Several workers focused on topical repellents and oviposition attractants of mosquitoes, however, only limited work has been accomplished on mosquito oviposition repellents. The present systematic investigation provides evidence on the effectiveness of a C21 fatty acid ester- hexadecyl pentanoate, to stimulate antennal olfactory receptors of Aedes aegypti (L.), Ae. albopictus (Skuse), and Anopheles stephensi (Liston) that mediate their long-range olfaction guided flight orientation behavior by repelling the gravid females of these mosquito vectors in the olfactometer. The compound loaded onto an effervescent tablet retained its repellent property in the treated substrates for up to 1 wk at 10 mg/L. In places, where the mosquito breeding habitats are near to human habitations, could be treated with hexadecyl pentanoate to repel the ovipositing gravid females as a component of the integrated approach for mosquito management by disrupting the mosquito life cycle and population growth.

  19. Opposing effects on glutathione and reactive oxygen metabolites of sex, habitat, and spring date, but no effect of increased breeding density in great tits (Parus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Caroline

    2013-08-01

    Oxidative stress (i.e., more oxidants than antioxidants) has been proposed as a proximate currency in life-history trade-offs, which if studied in an ecological setting allow a more realistic perspective on the origin and evolution of trade-offs. Therefore, the aim here was to investigate the impact of ecological and individual factors for variation in markers of oxidative stress using both experimental and correlational data. Total glutathione (tGSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), plasma antioxidant capacity (OXY), and plasma-reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) were measured in more than 700 breeding great tits (Parus major). The main results revealed a pronounced sex difference, with females having lower ROM and OXY, but higher tGSH compared with males. In addition, birds breeding in the evergreen areas had higher tGSH compared with those in the deciduous habitat, but the experimentally manipulated breeding density had no significant effect on any of the redox markers. Independent of the sex differences, the larger the reproductive investment the lower the ROM of both males and females. Taken together, the extracellular markers - ROM and OXY - revealed similar results and were highly correlated. Interestingly, the direction of their effects was in the opposite direction to the endogenously synthesized tGSH and GSSG. This highlights the need to combine extracellular markers with endogenously synthesized antioxidants to understand its implications for the origin and evolution of trade-offs in an ecological setting. Oxidative stress has been proposed as a proximate currency in life-history trade-offs, which if studied in an ecological setting allow a more realistic perspective on the origin and evolution of trade-offs. Here multiple markers of oxidative stress were analysed in wild great tits. The results reveal that the endogenously synthesized antioxidant glutathione and markers of plasma oxidative stress are affected in opposing directions with regard to sex

  20. Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropicenvironment: 5- Breeding of Anopheles albitarsis in flooded rice fields in South-Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on breeding Anopheles albitarsis and association with rice growth in irrigated paddy fields were carried out during the rice cultivation cycle from December 1993 to March 1994. This period corresponded to the length of time of permanent paddy flooding. Breeding occurred in the early stage up until five weeks after transplantation when rice plant height was small. That inverse correlation may give potential direction to control measures.

  1. Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropicenvironment: 5- Breeding of Anopheles albitarsis in flooded rice fields in South-Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forattini Oswaldo Paulo

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on breeding Anopheles albitarsis and association with rice growth in irrigated paddy fields were carried out during the rice cultivation cycle from December 1993 to March 1994. This period corresponded to the length of time of permanent paddy flooding. Breeding occurred in the early stage up until five weeks after transplantation when rice plant height was small. That inverse correlation may give potential direction to control measures.

  2. Investigation of Comparative Mosquito Breeding in Dredged Material Disposal Sites Used in the Maintenance Dredging of the Atlantic Intra-Coastal Waterway in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The possible use of this technique in older disposal areas, which are no longer used for disposal of dredged material, should not be ruled out however...chemistry profiles reported in this study do not rule out the possibility of chemically altering the substrate composi- tion in a manner which makes the...Bionomics and embryology of the inland floodwater mosquito . .. .’. Univ. of Illinois Press. 2 11pp. S Jeane, G. S., II, and R. E. Pine. 1975

  3. 澜沧江下游地区蚊虫种类、分布及其孳生习性调查%Investigation of mosquito species,distributions and larva breeding habits in the low treaches of Lancangjiang River in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丕玉; 周红宁; 吴超; 郭晓芳; 顾云安; 董利民

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate the mosquito species, distributions and their larva breeding habits in the losw reaches of Lancangjiang River. Methods Adult mosquitoes were collected by lamp-traps,cower shed catches and human landing catches in the daytime, and mosquito larvae were collected from different breeding sites. Results Totally of 26 754 mosquitoes of 33 species in 7 genera were collected from 2 counties in the low reaches of Lancangjiang River by using Lamp-traps. Totally of 10 494 mosquitoes of 24 species in 5 genera were caught from Simao County and 409 mosquitoes of 14 species in 5 genera were gotten from the ocunties of Mengla,Menghai and Menglian. There 6 051 mosquito larvae of 40 species in 10 genera were collected. Conclusion There are polenty of mosquito species in the low reaches of Lancangjian River,and different mosquito species prefer different breeding habits. The predominant mosquito species are Culex tritaenorhynchus,followed by Anopheles sinensis and Aedes albopictos, that are widely distributed.%目的 弄清澜沧江下游地区蚊虫种类、分布及其幼虫孳生习性.方法 蚊虫成蚊采用牛圈诱蚊灯诱捕法、人工牛圈捕捉和人饵白天诱捕方法.采集幼虫采用勺和吸管等方法在各类蚊虫孳生地捕捞幼虫.结果 调查澜沧江下游地区2个县,用诱蚊灯捕获蚊虫26 754只,隶属7属33种,在思茅共捕获咸蚊10 494只,隶属5属24种,在勐腊、勐海和孟连县调查,共捕获蚊虫409只,隶属5属14种;幼虫调查,共捕获蚊虫6 051只,隶属3亚科,10属40种.结论 澜沧江下游地区蚊虫种类繁多,不同的蚊种有不同的孳生习性,优势蚊种为三带喙库蚊,中华按蚊、白纹伊蚊属次优势蚊种,以上3种蚊虫种群密度高,分布较广.

  4. Inter-epidemic abundance and distribution of potential mosquito vectors for Rift Valley fever virus in Ngorongoro district, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement N. Mweya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis that primarily affects ruminants but also has the capacity to infect humans. Objective: To determine the abundance and distribution of mosquito vectors in relation to their potential role in the virus transmission and maintenance in disease epidemic areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional entomological investigation was carried out before the suspected RVF outbreak in October 2012. Mosquitoes were sampled both outdoors and indoors using the Centre for Disease Control (CDC light traps and Mosquito Magnets baited with attractants. Outdoor traps were placed in proximity with breeding sites and under canopy in banana plantations close to the sleeping places of animals. Results: A total of 1,823 mosquitoes were collected, of which 87% (N=1,588 were Culex pipiens complex, 12% (N=226 Aedes aegypti, and 0.5% (N=9 Anopheles species. About two-thirds (67%; N=1,095 of C. pipiens complex and nearly 100% (N=225 of A. aegypti were trapped outdoors using Mosquito Magnets. All Anopheles species were trapped indoors using CDC light traps. There were variations in abundance of C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti among different ecological and vegetation habitats. Over three quarters (78% of C. pipiens complex and most (85% of the A. aegypti were trapped in banana and maize farms. Both C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti were more abundant in proximity with cattle and in semi-arid thorn bushes and lower Afro-montane. The highest number of mosquitoes was recorded in villages that were most affected during the RVF epidemic of 2007. Of the tested 150 pools of C. pipiens complex and 45 pools of A. aegypti, none was infected with RVF virus. Conclusions: These results provide insights into unique habitat characterisation relating to mosquito abundances and distribution in RVF epidemic-prone areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania.

  5. Mosquito population regulation and larval source management in heterogeneous environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Smith

    Full Text Available An important question for mosquito population dynamics, mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and vector control is how mosquito populations are regulated. Here we develop simple models with heterogeneity in egg laying patterns and in the responses of larval populations to crowding in aquatic habitats. We use the models to evaluate how such heterogeneity affects mosquito population regulation and the effects of larval source management (LSM. We revisit the notion of a carrying capacity and show how heterogeneity changes our understanding of density dependence and the outcome of LSM. Crowding in and productivity of aquatic habitats is highly uneven unless egg-laying distributions are fine-tuned to match the distribution of habitats' carrying capacities. LSM reduces mosquito population density linearly with coverage if adult mosquitoes avoid laying eggs in treated habitats, but quadratically if eggs are laid in treated habitats and the effort is therefore wasted (i.e., treating 50% of habitat reduces mosquito density by approximately 75%. Unsurprisingly, targeting (i.e. treating a subset of the most productive pools gives much larger reductions for similar coverage, but with poor targeting, increasing coverage could increase adult mosquito population densities if eggs are laid in higher capacity habitats. Our analysis suggests that, in some contexts, LSM models that accounts for heterogeneity in production of adult mosquitoes provide theoretical support for pursuing mosquito-borne disease prevention through strategic and repeated application of modern larvicides.

  6. Hydrology and Mosquito Population Dynamics around a Hydropower Reservoir in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, N.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Malaria is associated with dams because their reservoirs provide mosquitoes, the vector of malaria, with permanent breeding sites. The risk of contracting malaria is likely to be enhanced following the increasing trend of hydropower dam construction to satisfy the expanding energy needs in developing countries. A close examination of its adverse health impacts is critical in the design, construction, and operation phases. We will present results of extensive field studies in 2012 and 2013 around the Koka Reservoir, Ethiopia. The results uncover the importance of reservoir management especially after the rainy seasons. Furthermore, we show the capability of a newly modified hydrology, entomology and malaria transmission simulator, HYDREMATS (Bomblies et al, 2008), and its potential as a tool for evaluating environmental management strategies to control malaria. HYDREMATS was developed to represent how the hydrology in nearby villages is impacted by the reservoir system, and the role of different types of vector ecologies associated with different Anopheles mosquito species. The hydrology component of HYDREMATS simulates three different mosquito breeding habitats: rain-fed pools, groundwater pools, and shoreline water. The entomology component simulates the life cycles of An. funestus and An. arabiensis, the two main vectors around the reservoir. The model was calibrated over the 2012-2013 period. The impact of reservoir water level management on the mosquito population is explored based on numerical model simulations and field experiments.

  7. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  8. Time budgets of Tibetan eared pheasants during the non-breeding season in an alpine scrub habitat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin LU; Guangmei ZHENG

    2009-01-01

    Time allocations of the group-living Tibetan eared pheasants Crossoptilon harmani with and without supplementary food were investigated by full-day sampling from winter through spring in an alpine scrub zone, south Tibet. At a flock scale, both the different food-supply flocks displayed similar daily patterns of activity, foraging in the morning and evening, and resting around midday. In terms of individual activity, either foraging or resting was highly synchronous with the flock's. Non-provisioned birds spent more time feeding and less resting in midwinter than in late autumn. In early spring as climates became wanner and day longer, however, non-provisioned birds did not decrease their feeding efforts significantly but the provisioned birds did. Across the non-breeding seasons, the provisioned birds (relying on nutrition-rich artificial food) devoted less time to feeding and more to resting than did the non-previsioned ones (relying on nutrition-poor plant roots). Multivariate analysis showed increased food supply and ambient temperature resulted in a reduced foraging effort. However, the fact that the non-provisioned birds can save daily time for resting even in the cold short-day length mid-winter indicated that they faced no energetic constraint. Thus, protecting shelter vegetation rather than providing extra food is suggested to be important for long-term survival of the endangered galliform birds.

  9. The use of annual killifish in the biocontrol of the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in temporary bodies of fresh water; a potential new tool in vector control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrias Araceli Q

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes that breed in temporary pools in remote areas that dry up seasonally are especially difficult to control through chemical or biological means. The annual killifish has been suggested as a means of eradicating the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in transient pools because they can maintain permanent populations in such habitats by undergoing suspended animation or diapause during the embryonic stages to survive periodic drought. However, very little is known about the predatory activity of annual killifish and their usefulness in mosquito control. Results The annual killifish, Nothobranchius guentheri, native to Tanzania, was used in this investigation. Food preference was tested under laboratory conditions by feeding juvenile killifish with 2nd instar mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in the presence of alternative food sources, such as rotifers and chironomid larvae. Semi-field tests were conducted by introduction of hibernating killifish embryos and juvenile fish to artificial ponds in an outdoor open environment that allowed natural oviposition of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Food preference studies show that N. guentheri preferred to prey on mosquito larvae than either chironomid or rotifers. When hibernating killifish embryos were added to ponds simultaneously with the addition of freshwater, the embryos hatched and fed on mosquito larval population resulting in complete elimination of the immature stages. The introduction of juvenile fish to ponds with high density of mosquito larvae resulted in total eradication of the mosquito population due to predation by fish. Complete biocontrol of the mosquito larval population was achieved in the presence of 3 fish per m2 of pond surface area. Conclusions The annual killifish provides yet another tool that may be employed in the eradication diseases carried by mosquitoes through vector control, particularly in temporary bodies of freshwater. The fish can be conveniently

  10. Logging impacts on avian species richness and composition differ across latitudes and foraging and breeding habitat preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaManna, Joseph A; Martin, Thomas E

    2016-10-10

    Understanding the causes underlying changes in species diversity is a fundamental pursuit of ecology. Animal species richness and composition often change with decreased forest structural complexity associated with logging. Yet differences in latitude and forest type may strongly influence how species diversity responds to logging. We performed a meta-analysis of logging effects on local species richness and composition of birds across the world and assessed responses by different guilds (nesting strata, foraging strata, diet, and body size). This approach allowed identification of species attributes that might underlie responses to this anthropogenic disturbance. We only examined studies that allowed forests to regrow naturally following logging, and accounted for logging intensity, spatial extent, successional regrowth after logging, and the change in species composition expected due to random assembly from regional species pools. Selective logging in the tropics and clearcut logging in temperate latitudes caused loss of species from nearly all forest strata (ground to canopy), leading to substantial declines in species richness (up to 27% of species). Few species were lost or gained following any intensity of logging in lower-latitude temperate forests, but the relative abundances of these species changed substantially. Selective logging at higher-temperate latitudes generally replaced late-successional specialists with early-successional specialists, leading to no net changes in species richness but large changes in species composition. Removing less basal area during logging mitigated the loss of avian species from all forests and, in some cases, increased diversity in temperate forests. This meta-analysis provides insights into the important role of habitat specialization in determining differential responses of animal communities to logging across tropical and temperate latitudes.

  11. The effect of water physical quality and water level changes on the occurrence and density of larvae of Anopheles mosquitoes around the shoreline of the Koka reservoir, Central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kibret

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Entomological studies to determine the effect of the physical characteristics of larval breeding water bodies and reservoir water level changes on the occurrence of Anopheles mosquito larvae and on the spatial and temporal formation of larval breeding habitats were conducted in two villages at Koka reservoir between August and December 2007. Of the two study villages, Ejersa is in close proximity to the reservoir, and Kuma is 5 km away from it. Data on the type, number and physical characteristics of Anopheles larval breeding habitat, species composition and densities of anopheles mosquitoes in and around the study villages were investigated and recorded. Meteorological and reservoir water level data were compared with availability of Anopheles larval breeding sites and densities. Entomological data from the weekly larval collections showed that Anopheles pharoensis Theobald, Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles, Anopheles coustani Laveran and Anopheles squamosus Theobald were breeding in the study area. The mean larval density of A. gambiae s.l. in this study was higher in slightly turbid and shallow aquatic habitats than in turbid and relatively deep aquatic habitats (F=16.97, pF=6.03, pA. pharoensis in habitat with floating vegetation and with relatively shady conditions was significantly higher than that of less shaded aquatic habitat and greater emergent vegetation (F=15.75, pF=10.56, pAnopheles larvae with water temperature of the breeding habitat and daily minimum atmospheric temperature (r=0.541, pr=0.604, pr=0.605, pAnopheles larval count, and the density of Anopheles mosquitoes in the vicinity. The proliferation of suitable breeding habitats around the reservoir villages is strongly associated with reservoir water level changes. This is particularly important for A. pharoensis and A. arabiensis which are important vectors of malaria in the area. Further investigation on the species diversity, physical and chemical habitat characteristics and

  12. Breeding sites of Phlebotomus sergenti, the sand fly vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Judean Desert.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviad Moncaz

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies transmit Leishmania, phlebo-viruses and Bartonella to humans. A prominent gap in our knowledge of sand fly biology remains the ecology of their immature stages. Sand flies, unlike mosquitoes do not breed in water and only small numbers of larvae have been recovered from diverse habitats that provide stable temperatures, high humidity and decaying organic matter. We describe studies designed to identify and characterize sand fly breeding habitats in a Judean Desert focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. To detect breeding habitats we constructed emergence traps comprising sand fly-proof netting covering defined areas or cave openings. Large size horizontal sticky traps within the confined spaces were used to trap the sand flies. Newly eclosed male sand flies were identified based on their un-rotated genitalia. Cumulative results show that Phlebotomus sergenti the vector of Leishmania tropica rests and breeds inside caves that are also home to rock hyraxes (the reservoir hosts of L. tropica and several rodent species. Emerging sand flies were also trapped outside covered caves, probably arriving from other caves or from smaller, concealed cracks in the rocky ledges close by. Man-made support walls constructed with large boulders were also identified as breeding habitats for Ph. sergenti albeit less important than caves. Soil samples obtained from caves and burrows were rich in organic matter and salt content. In this study we developed and put into practice a generalized experimental scheme for identifying sand fly breeding habitats and for assessing the quantities of flies that emerge from them. An improved understanding of sand fly larval ecology should facilitate the implementation of effective control strategies of sand fly vectors of Leishmania.

  13. Ecology of the mosquito larvae in urban environments of Cairo Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Sherif E; Kenawy, Mohamed A; Abdel-Rahman, Hashim A; Gad, Adel M; Hamed, Adel F

    2012-04-01

    Mosquitoes were surveyed over one year period in two localities in Cairo representing different levels of urban planning: El-Muqattam (planned) and Abu-Seir (unplanned). Culex pipiens, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. pusillus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Culiseta longiareolata and Anopheles multicolor were the collected species at both sites. Mosquitoes were more common in Abu-Seir than in El-Muqattam, with larvae of the filaria vector Cx. pipiens accounting for 81% and 52% of recorded individuals at these sites, respectively. Five types of the potential breeding habitats were detected of which, the cesspits (El-Muqattam) and drainage canals (Abu-Seir) were the most common while springs in El-Muqattam and drainage canals in Abu-Seir were the most productive types. Both Cx. pipiens and Cx. perexiguus bred year round with peaks of abundance coinciding with higher temperatures.

  14. Breeding habitat selection of an endangered species in an arid zone: the case of Alytes dickhilleni Arntzen & García-París, 1995

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The influence of environmental variables on the selection of a particular water body as breeding habitat by Alytes dickhilleni was studied in the southeastern and most arid zone of its distribution range. From November 2002 to October 2003, 50 water bodies were monitored in the south east of the Iberian Peninsula. Environmental data were submitted to a stepwise logistic regression analysis at macrohabitat, water body typology and microhabitat scales in order to establish the ma...

  15. Global climate change and its potential impact on disease transmission by salinity-tolerant mosquito vectors in coastal zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby Noble

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change can potentially increase the transmission of mosquito vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue in many parts of the world. These predictions are based on the effects of changing temperature, rainfall, and humidity on mosquito breeding and survival, the more rapid development of ingested pathogens in mosquitoes and the more frequent blood feeds at moderately higher ambient temperatures. An expansion of saline and brackish water bodies (water with 30 ppt salt are termed fresh, brackish, and saline respectively) will also take place as a result of global warming causing a rise in sea levels in coastal zones. Its possible impact on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases has, however, not been adequately appreciated. The relevant impacts of global climate change on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones are discussed with reference to the Ross-McDonald equation and modeling studies. Evidence is presented to show that an expansion of brackish water bodies in coastal zones can increase the densities of salinity-tolerant mosquitoes like Anopheles sundaicus and Culex sitiens, and lead to the adaptation of fresh water mosquito vectors like Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes albopictus to salinity. Rising sea levels may therefore act synergistically with global climate change to increase the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones. Greater attention therefore needs to be devoted to monitoring disease incidence and preimaginal development of vector mosquitoes in artificial and natural coastal brackish/saline habitats. It is important that national and international health agencies are aware of the increased risk of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones and develop preventive and mitigating strategies. Application of appropriate counter measures can greatly reduce the potential for increased coastal transmission of mosquito-borne diseases

  16. Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro--are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Márcio Goulart; Simões, Taynãna César; Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes Silva do; Teixeira, Maria Lucia França; Lounibos, Leon Philip; Oliveira, Ricardo Lourenço de

    2009-12-01

    Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex) pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07%) and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18%) were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats.

  17. Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. II - Habitat distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae ecology was studied in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992. A total of 24,943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. Aedes scapularis, Coquillettidia chrysonotum, Cq. venezuelensis, Wyeomyia dyari, Wy. longirostris, Wy. theobaldi and Wy. palmata were more frequently collected at swampy and at flooded areas. Anopheles mediopunctatus, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. serratus, Ae. fulvus, Psorophora ferox, Ps. albipes and the Sabethini in general, were captured almost exclusively in forested areas. An. cruzii, An. oswaldoi and An. fluminensis were captured more frequently in a residence area. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the only one truly eusynanthropic. An. cruzii and Ae. scapularis were captured feeding on blood inside and around the residence, indicating that both species, malaria and arbovirus vectors respectively, may be involved in the transmission of these such diseases in rural areas.

  18. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae em áreas do Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina, Brasil. I - Distribuição por habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Anthony Érico

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer a influência exercida por três diferentes biótopos em áreas do Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina (PNSB sobre a fauna local de mosquitos. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas capturas mensais em ambiente silvestre e domiciliar, em isca humana, durante três diferentes períodos do dia, pelo período de 24 meses consecutivos, de janeiro de 1991 a dezembro de 1992. RESULTADOS: Foram capturados 11.808 espécimes adultos, pertencentes a 28 espécies. Ru. reversa e An. cruzii foram predominantes, respectivamente 52,5% e 17,9% do total de mosquitos. Ru. reversa representou 59,4% do total de espécimes no ambiente de mata fechada, seguida por Ru. frontosa com 10,5% e An. cruzii com 9,9%. No ambiente formado por campos de altitude e matas de galeria, o An. cruzii predominou com 48,1%, seguido por Ru. reversa com 28,1%. No ambiente modificado pelo homem, o An. cruzii predominou com 73,7% dos espécimes. Coquillettidia chrysonotum foi a única que se apresentou preferencialmente nesse biótopo: 14,9% no intra, 19,4% no peri e 65,7% no extradomicílio. An. cruzii e Ru. reversa foram constantes em todos os ambientes ao longo do ano. CONCLUSÕES: Com exceção de Cq. chrysonotum, com preferência pelo ambiente modificado pelo homem, os mosquitos apresentam hábitos assinantrópicos no PNSB. An. cruzii, embora assinantrópico, se aproxima e adentra o domicílio para realizar a hematofagia. A presença do Ae. serratus no extra e peridomicílio reforça a importância epidemiológica como vetora potencial de arboviroses. Os Sabethini apresentaram-se exclusivamente silvestres.

  19. Impacts of the creation, expansion and management of English wetlands on mosquito presence and abundance - developing strategies for future disease mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Vaux, Alexander G C

    2015-03-03

    The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases is increasing in Europe, partly due to the incursion of a number of invasive species known to be vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses, but also due to the involvement of native species in the transmission of West Nile virus and malaria. For some of these pathogens, there is a risk of the re-emergence of vector-borne diseases that were once widespread in Europe, but declined partly due to large-scale land-drainage projects. Some mosquito species exploit container habitats as breeding sites in urban areas; an adaptation to human-made micro-habitats resulting from increased urbanisation. However, many species thrive in natural wetland ecosystems. Owing to the impacts of climate change there is an urgent need for environmental adaptation, such as the creation of new wetlands to mitigate coastal and inland flooding. In some cases, these initiatives can be coupled with environmental change strategies to protect a range of endangered flora and fauna species by enhancing and extending wetland landscapes, which may by driven by European legislation, particularly in urban areas. This paper reviews field studies conducted in England to assess the impact of newly created wetlands on mosquito colonisation in a) coastal, b) urban and c) arable reversion habitats. It also considers the impact of wetland management on mosquito populations and explores the implications of various water and vegetation management options on the range of British mosquito species. Understanding the impact of wetland creation and management strategies on mosquito prevalence and the potential risk of increasing the levels of nuisance or disease vector species will be crucial in informing health and well-being risk assessments, guiding targeted control, and anticipating the social effects of extreme weather and climate change. Although new wetlands will certainly extend aquatic habitats for mosquitoes, not all species will become a major nuisance or a vector

  20. Mosquito Traps: An Innovative, Environmentally Friendly Technique to Control Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Poulin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We tested the use of mosquito traps as an alternative to spraying insecticide in Camargue (France following the significant impacts observed on the non-target fauna through Bti persistence and trophic perturbations. In a village of 600 inhabitants, 16 Techno Bam traps emitting CO2 and using octenol lures were set from April to November 2016. Trap performance was estimated at 70% overall based on mosquitoes landing on human bait in areas with and without traps. The reduction of Ochlerotatus caspius and Oc. detritus, the two species targeted by Bti spraying, was, respectively, 74% and 98%. Traps were less efficient against Anopheles hyrcanus (46%, which was more attracted by lactic acid than octenol lures based on previous tests. Nearly 300,000 mosquitoes from nine species were captured, with large variations among traps, emphasizing that trap performance is also influenced by surrounding factors. Environmental impact, based on the proportion of non-target insects captured, was mostly limited to small chironomids attracted by street lights. The breeding success of a house martin colony was not significantly affected by trap use, in contrast to Bti spraying. Our experiment confirms that the deployment of mosquito traps can offer a cost-effective alternative to Bti spraying for protecting local populations from mosquito nuisance in sensitive natural areas.

  1. 山东省淄博市不同生境流行性乙型脑炎传播媒介蚊虫监测%Monitoring of mosquito vectors of Japanese encephalitis in different habitats of Zibo, Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景晓; 刘桂芳; 王敏; 林小娟; 石志凯; 王广营; 司海霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 对淄博市的淄川区和高青县不同生境流行性乙型脑炎(乙脑)传播媒介蚊虫进行比较监测,调查当地突发乙脑病例的传播媒介蚊虫种类,为进一步防治乙脑提供依据.方法 用人帐法、网捕法、灯诱法、人工小时法,分别在稻田、畜禽舍、住宅区3种不同生境采集蚊虫,分类计数,以50只为单位放入液氮罐中带回实验室进行病毒分离;记录当地温度、湿度、风速等环境气候因素.结果 在3种生境中共捕获成蚊5属7种3116只,以稻田数量居多,占捕蚊总数的61.6%,畜禽舍次之,占24.1%,住宅区最少,占14.3%;三带喙库蚊、淡色库蚊是当地优势蚊种,分别占捕获总数的66.1%和19.1%.淄川区无稻田,淡色库蚊数量居多,占43.6%,三带喙库蚊次之,占34.0%.高青县以稻田为主,三带喙库蚊最多,占68.5%,淡色库蚊次之,占24.9%.入帐法捕获的蚊虫最多,占62.4%,灯诱法次之,占16.6%,人工小时法占14.6%,网捕法仅占6.4%.三带喙库蚊和淡色库蚊的叮刺高峰在日落后0.5~1 h达到活动高峰,持续约0~40 min,淡色库蚊的叮刺高峰迟20 min.结论 三带喙库蚊可能是当地乙脑的主要传播媒介,在进行野外蚊虫种类和数量监测时,应以人帐法和灯诱法为主,辅以网捕法和人工小时法.%Objective To survey the species, distribution, habitat, behavior of vectors of Japanese encephalitis in Zichuan district and Caoqing county of Zibo, Shandong. Methods The human baited net traps, mosquito nets, lamp baited traps and labor - hour methods were employed to investigate the mosquito counts of three habitats - rice field, domestic fowls shed, and household. The environmental factors were documented. Fifty mosquitoes from each group were preserved in liquid-nitrogen jars for viral isolation under laboratory settings. Results Of the 3116 mosquitoes collected, 7 species of 5 genera were found. Most mosquitoes were captured from

  2. Environmental factors associated with larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in irrigation and major drainage areas in the middle course of the Rift Valley, central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oljira Kenea, Meshesha Balkew & Teshome Gebre-Michael

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Larval control is an integral part of malaria vector management in Ethiopia andelsewhere. For effective larval control, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for spatio-temporalvariation in larval production is essential. A study was thus conducted to characterize larval habitats of anophelinemosquitoes in irrigation and major drainage areas between Adami Tulu and Meki towns, in the middle course ofthe Ethiopian Rift Valley.Methods: Aquatic habitats were sampled for anopheline larvae and the associated environmental variables(water temperature, turbidity, water current, water pH and other variables were measured, characterized andanalyzed.Results: Microscopic identification of the late instars (III and IV of anopheline larvae collected throughout thestudy period yielded nearly 47.6% Anopheles pharoensis, 32.1% An. arabiensis, 17.1% An. squamosus and only3.2% of other species (An. coustani and An. cinereus. Larvae of the local malaria vectors, An. arabiensis andAn. pharoensis were most abundantly sampled from sand pools and natural swamps, respectively. Logisticregression analysis detected four best predictor variables associated with larval abundance of malaria vectorspecies. Thus, relative abundance of An. arabiensis larvae was significantly and inversely associated with aquaticvegetation and water current, whereas the relative abundance of An. pharoensis larvae was significantly andpositively associated with water temperature and the presence of algae in the water bodies.Conclusion: Dry season anopheline larval habitats such as riverine sand pools that are created and maintainedby perennial water bodies and their associated water development projects need to be considered in vectorcontrol operations.

  3. 扎龙湿地丹顶鹤繁殖生境变化驱动因素分析%Driver analysis of breeding habitat change of red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) in Zhalong wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明阳; 张称意; 吴军; 徐婷

    2012-01-01

    Understanding drivers of breeding habitat change of endangered species is the premise of making of wildlife protection plan. Nest site data of red-crowned crane ( Grus japonensis) inl996 and 2004, remote sensing images of Land-sat TM and DMSP/OLS night time light intensity data at the same periods were collected as the main information source, while the ecological niche model of maximum entropy method ( Maxent) was applied to predict breeding habitat of the crane. Then scenario analysis and spatial hot spots exploration were used to study the drivers of breeding habitat change of red-crowned crane. Research results showed that: ( 1 ) the area proportion of good and medium quality habitat were dramatically decreased by 2. 87 % and 5. 59 % respectively, while the spatial distribution of high quality breeding habitat for the crane with suitability above 0. 90 were less aggregated and more fragmented; ( 2 ) the human disturbance had cage effect on the habitat of endangered bird, while the climate change made the distribution center shift to places with better environmental condition; ( 3 ) the hot spots with significantly increased habitat suitability were located at places with improved hydrological and growing conditions of marsh plant, while the cold spots located at places with deteriorated environmental factors.%以扎龙湿地1996、2004年丹顶鹤巢址数据、同期Landsat TM遥感图像及DMSP/OLS夜间灯光亮度数据为主要信息源,通过最大熵法(Maxent)生态位模型,建立丹顶鹤繁殖生境预测模型,采用情景分析、空间热点探测,研究丹顶鹤繁殖生境变化驱动因素.结果表明:与1996年相比,2004年质量好、质量中等的丹顶鹤繁殖生境面积比例分别下降了2.87%、5.59%,高质量丹顶鹤繁殖生境(适宜性概率>0.90)空间聚集性减弱,破碎化趋势增强;人类干扰对丹顶鹤繁殖生境的影响主要体现在囚笼效应,而气候变化则驱使丹顶鹤繁殖生境分布中心

  4. Mosquitoes of Istria, a contribution to the knowledge of Croatian mosquito fauna (Diptera, Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    MERDIĆ, Enrih; BOCA, IVANA; SUDARIĆ BOGOJEVIĆ, MIRTA; LANDEKA, Nediljko

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Although Istria was endemic of malaria up to the mid 20th century, the mosquito fauna was studied in detail. Our investigation of mosquitoes in Istria, a very specific region with a highly diverse breeding site types, was conducted in order to gain insights into the mosquito fauna and abundance, as well as to establish the possible presence of new species. Material and Methods: The sampling took place from May to September over a seven-year period, from 1999 to ...

  5. Control of Culex pipiens fatigans(W) by the larvivorous fish Poecillia reticulata and by removal of debris from the breeding habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan-Urai, P; Nelson, M J; Phanthumachinda, B

    1976-03-01

    Twice weekly removal of floating debris from two polluted ponds in Bangkok resulted in 75% reduction of immature populations of C.p. fatigans for seven weeks. Subsequent introduction of the guppy Poecilia reticulata at 10 fish per m2 further reduced the aquatic population to 2% of the pretreatment level during 12 weeks. When debris removal was discontinued, partial recovery of the larval density was observed. When fish were introduced in a plot without prior debris removal, there was no reduction of the mosquito population, and when only part of the debris was removed from one plot, the reduction was immediate.

  6. Mosquito Oviposition Behavior and Vector Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan F. Day

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The burden of gene transfer from one mosquito generation to the next falls on the female and her eggs. The selection of an oviposition site that guarantees egg and larval survival is a critical step in the reproductive process. The dangers associated with ephemeral aquatic habitats, lengthy droughts, freezing winters, and the absence of larval nutrition makes careful oviposition site selection by a female mosquito extremely important. Mosquito species exhibit a remarkable diversity of oviposition behaviors that ensure eggs are deposited into microenvironments conducive for successful larval development and the emergence of the next mosquito generation. An understanding of mosquito oviposition behavior is necessary for the development of surveillance and control opportunities directed against specific disease vectors. For example, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus is the vector of viruses causing important human diseases including yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. The preference of this species to oviposit in natural and artificial containers has facilitated the development of Ae. aegypti-specific surveillance and toxic oviposition traps designed to detect and control this important vector species in and around disease foci. A better understanding of the wide diversity of mosquito oviposition behavior will allow the development of new and innovative surveillance and control devices directed against other important mosquito vectors of human and animal disease.

  7. Characterisation of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae larval habitats at ground level and temporal fluctuations of larval abundance in Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grech

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to characterise the ground-level larval habitats of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, to determine the relationships between habitat characteristics and larval abundance and to examine seasonal larval-stage variations in Córdoba city. Every two weeks for two years, 15 larval habitats (natural and artificial water bodies, including shallow wells, drains, retention ponds, canals and ditches were visited and sampled for larval mosquitoes. Data regarding the water depth, temperature and pH, permanence, the presence of aquatic vegetation and the density of collected mosquito larvae were recorded. Data on the average air temperatures and accumulated precipitation during the 15 days prior to each sampling date were also obtained. Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were collected throughout the study period and were generally most abundant in the summer season. Generalised linear mixed models indicated the average air temperature and presence of dicotyledonous aquatic vegetation as variables that served as important predictors of larval densities. Additionally, permanent breeding sites supported high larval densities. In Córdoba city and possibly in other highly populated cities at the same latitude with the same environmental conditions, control programs should focus on permanent larval habitats with aquatic vegetation during the early spring, when the Cx. quinquefasciatus population begins to increase.

  8. Role of the repartition of wetland breeding sites on the spatial distribution of Anopheles and Culex, human disease vectors in Southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontenille Didier

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, carried out in the Camargue region (France, we combined entomological data with geomatic and modelling tools to assess whether the location of breeding sites may explain the spatial distribution of adult mosquitoes. The species studied are important and competent disease vectors in Europe: Culex modestus Ficalbi and Cx. pipiens Linnaeus (West Nile virus, Anopheles atroparvus Van Thiel, a former Plasmodium vector, and An. melanoon Hackett, competent to transmit Plasmodium. Using a logistic regression model, we first evaluated which land cover variables determined the presence of Culex and Anopheles larva. The resulting probability map of larval presence then was used to project the average probability of finding adults in a buffer area. This was compared to the actual number of adults collected, providing a quantitative assessment of adult dispersal ability for each species. Results The distribution of Cx. modestus and An. melanoon is mainly driven by the repartition of irrigated farm fields and reed beds, their specific breeding habitats. The presence of breeding sites explained the distribution of adults of both species. The buffer size, reflecting the adult dispersal ability, was 700 m for Cx. modestus and 1000 m for An. melanoon. The comparatively stronger correlation observed for Cx. modestus suggested that other factors may affect the distribution of adult An. melanoon. We did not find any association between Cx. pipiens larval presence and the biotope due to the species' ubiquist character. Conclusion By applying the same method to different species, we highlighted different strengths of association between land cover (irrigated farm fields and reed beds, larval presence and adult population distribution. This paper demonstrates the power of geomatic tools to quantify the spatial organization of mosquito populations, and allows a better understanding of links between landcover, breeding habitats, presence

  9. Habitat Appraisal by Vermont Electric Power Company

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Declines in habitat availability have been associated with population declines in bird species breeding in early successional forest and shrubland habitats....

  10. The importance of grazing regime in the provision of breeding habitat for grassland birds: The case of the endangered little bustard (Tetrax tetrax)

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Nuno; Rabaça, João E.; Morales, Manuel B.

    2012-01-01

    In Mediterranean dry grasslands, grazing by domestic animals is an important agricultural activity on dry grasslands. Several bird species occur in these grazed habitats and are now experiencing a near continuous decline. We investigated the impact of livestock grazing on the threatened little bustard (Tetrax tetrax L.). The study was conducted at the NATURA 2000 Site/Important Bird Area of Cabrela, Portugal. Our main goals were to investigate responses of little bustard territorial males and...

  11. Survey of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mayotte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Gilbert; Goodman, Steven M; Elguero, Eric; Robert, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat) suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species belonging to 15 genera.

  12. Aqueous neem extract versus neem powder on Culex quinquefasciatus: implications for control in anthropogenic habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudom, Andreas A; Mensah, Ben A; Botchey, Mary A

    2011-01-01

    Control programs using conventional insecticides to target anthropogenic mosquito habitats are very expensive because these habitats are widespread, particularly in cities of most African countries. Additionally, there are serious environmental concerns regarding large-scale application of most conventional insecticides. Clearly there is a need for alternative methods that are more effective, less expensive, and environmentally friendly. One such method would be the application of preparations made from parts of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Jussieu (Sapindales: Meliaceae). In this study, aqueous crude extracts and crude powder were prepared from different parts of neem, and the efficacies of the preparations on juvenile stages of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) were evaluated in the laboratory. When larvae were exposed to a concentration of 0.1 g/mL extract for 24 hours, percent mean mortality (± SE) was 72.7 plusmn; 1.8 for the bark, 68.7 ± 1.6 for fruits and 60 ± 1.6 for leaves. These means were not significantly different (χ(2) = 4.12; df = 2; p = 0.127). At a concentration of 0.01 g/mL, > 95% of the larvae died within 24 hours of exposure to powdered neem leaf, but it took 120 hours to reach the same level of larval mortality in aqueous leaf extract. The crude extract slowly inhibited the growth and development of mosquitoes while the crude powder acted more as a barrier; the mosquitoes probably died from suffocation. However, both types of preparations can be made and used by local people to control mosquito breeding in anthropogenic habitats, especially in urbanized areas.

  13. Environmental management and mosquito control%公共环境治理与蚊媒控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷培恩; 高强; 刘洪霞

    2016-01-01

    urbanization and the consequent environment changes.Surface sewers and under-ground catch basins are becoming major mosquito breeding habitats. Population structure in surface sewers varies with the environment, Aedes albopictus is the dominant species in residential areas.Charac-terized with high population density and mobility, residential areas are easier for mosquito-borne disease spreading, so more attention should be paid to Aedes albopictus control in urban residential areas.Increased underground garages and subway traffic generated new breeding habitats and over wintering sites for mosquitoes in urban environment, control measures should be taken for such environments, since urban underground spaces are always the transit hub of vehicles, which may facilitate the spread of mosquito and its vectored virus, particularly, Culex molestus, Aedes albopictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus can all be found breeding in underground catch basins.Frequent reports of Culex tritaeniorhynchus breeding in urban surface and underground environment suggest that Culex tritaeniorhynchus is gradually adapted to the new urbanized habitats, which may produce great effect for mosquito population structures in urban environment.Breeding habitats management is the most effective measures for mosquito control, qualified mosquito surveillance can help understand the fluctuation of mosquito species and provide timely warning, at the same time, regular risk assessment for mosquito-borne disease is essential for disease control and prevention.

  14. Multi-scale habitat selection in highly territorial bird species: Exploring the contribution of nest, territory and landscape levels to site choice in breeding rallids (Aves: Rallidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlikowski, Jan; Chibowski, Piotr; Karasek, Tomasz; Brambilla, Mattia

    2016-05-01

    Habitat selection often involves choices made at different spatial scales, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood, and studies that investigate the relative importance of individual scales are rare. We investigated the effect of three spatial scales (landscape, territory, nest-site) on the occurrence pattern of little crake Zapornia parva and water rail Rallus aquaticus at 74 ponds in the Masurian Lakeland, Poland. Habitat structure, food abundance and water chemical parameters were measured at nests and random points within landscape plots (from 300-m to 50-m radius), territory (14-m) and nest-site plots (3-m). Regression analyses suggested that the most relevant scale was territory level, followed by landscape, and finally by nest-site for both species. Variation partitioning confirmed this pattern for water rail, but also highlighted the importance of nest-site (the level explaining the highest share of unique variation) for little crake. The most important variables determining the occurrence of both species were water body fragmentation (landscape), vegetation density (territory) and water depth (at territory level for little crake, and at nest-site level for water rail). Finally, for both species multi-scale models including factors from different levels were more parsimonious than single-scale ones, i.e. habitat selection was likely a multi-scale process. The importance of particular spatial scales seemed more related to life-history traits than to the extent of the scales considered. In the case of our study species, the territory level was highly important likely because both rallids have to obtain all the resources they need (nest site, food and mates) in relatively small areas, the multi-purpose territories they defend.

  15. Do the Golden-winged Warbler and Blue-winged Warbler Exhibit Species-specific Differences in their Breeding Habitat Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Maehr

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared habitat features of Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera territories in the presence and absence of the Blue-winged Warbler (V. cyanoptera on reclaimed coal mines in southeastern Kentucky, USA. Our objective was to determine whether there are species specific differences in habitat that can be manipulated to encourage population persistence of the Golden-winged Warbler. When compared with Blue-winged Warblers, Golden-winged Warblers established territories at higher elevations and with greater percentages of grass and canopy cover. Mean territory size (minimum convex polygon was 1.3 ha (se = 0.1 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 1.7 ha (se = 0.3 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 2.1 ha (se = 0.3 for Blue-winged Warbler. Territory overlap occurred within and between species (18 of n = 73 territories, 24.7%. All Golden-winged and Blue-winged Warblers established territories that included an edge between reclaimed mine land and mature forest, as opposed to establishing territories in open grassland/shrubland habitat. The mean distance territories extended from a forest edge was 28.0 m (se = 3.8 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 44.7 m (se = 5.7 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 33.1 m (se = 6.1 for Blue-winged Warbler. Neither territory size nor distances to forest edges differed significantly between Golden-winged Warbler in presence or absence of Blue-winged Warbler. According to Monte Carlo analyses, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings and saplings, and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia saplings were indicative of sites with only Golden-winged Warblers. Sericea lespedeza, goldenrod (Solidago spp., clematis vine (Clematis spp., and blackberry (Rubus spp. were indicative of sites where both species occurred. Our findings complement recent genetic studies and add

  16. Mosquito, egg raft (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes of the Culex species lay their eggs in the form of egg rafts that float in ... feed on micro-organisms before developing into flying mosquitoes. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control ...

  17. Mosquito, adult (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

  18. Microhabitats de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em internódios de taquara na Mata Atlântica, Paraná, Brasil Mosquitoes microhabitats (Diptera, Culicidae in bamboo internodes in Atlantic forest, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Leuch Lozovei

    Full Text Available During two consecutive years, from January 1985 to December 1986, a comparative study of mosquitoes preferences for breeding habitat was carried out in the Atlantic Forest of the Serra do Mar, Paraná State, Brazil. To achieve it, 1875 bamboo internodes aligned vertically in live green, bamboo plants Merostachys speciosa Munro and Merostachys sp. were used, in which metabolic water was exuded from the plant itself, and presenting different size/pattern holes at their lateral walls, bored by the local sylvan fauna. Another group of 1200 individual internode traps was used as comparative element, carved out with a transversal cut by a saw, filled with local stream water and held in branches at different heights in the vegetal strata nearby. At both microhabitat types, a total of 17 culicid species was registered. Culex (Microculex neglectus Lutz, 1904, Cx. (Carrollia soperi Antunes & Lane, 1937, Sabethes (Sabethes batesi Lane & Cerqueira, 1942 and Sa. (Sabethinus melanonymphe (Dyar, 1924colonized exclusively live plant internodes, while Culex (Microculex elongatus Rozeboom & Lane, 1950, Cx. (Carrollia iridescens (Lutz, 1905, Cx. (Carrollia kompi Valencia,1973and Trichoprosopon (Trichoprosopon soaresi Dyar & Knab, 1907 bred only in internode traps. The remaining nine species colonized both habitats indistinctly. Quantitatively, was detected the abundance of 60.1% at live green internodes, against 39.9% for internode traps. Concerning the different patterns of bored live internode holes, 40.3% of the total computed specimens were collected in square or rectangular holes, 31.9% in two hole internodes, one minute circular, the other wider, and the remaining 28.8% of specimens distributed in other pattern type internodes. The mosquitoes breeding at these microhabitats fall in the culicid entomofauna specialized at locating and detecting peculiar and propitious mesogen conditions for breeding purposes.

  19. Habitat use of breeding green turtles Chelonia mydas tagged in Dry Tortugas National Park: Making use of local and regional MPAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen; Zawada, David G.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lidz, Barbara H.

    2013-01-01

    Use of existing marine protected areas (MPAs) by far-ranging marine turtles can be determined using satellite telemetry. Because of a lack of information on MPA use by marine turtles in the Gulf of Mexico, we used satellite transmitters in 2010 and 2011 to track movements of 11 adult female breeding green turtles (Chelonia mydas) tagged in Dry Tortugas National Park (DRTO), in the Gulf of Mexico, south Florida, USA. Throughout the study period, turtles emerged every 9–18 days to nest. During the intervals between nesting episodes (i.e., inter-nesting periods), the turtles consistently used a common core-area within the DRTO boundary, determined using individual 50% kernel-density estimates (KDEs). We mapped the area in DRTO where individual turtle 50% KDEs overlapped using the USGS Along-Track Reef-Imaging System, and determined the diversity and distribution of various benthic-cover types within the mapped area. We also tracked turtles post-nesting as they transited to foraging sites 5–282 km away from tagging beaches; these sites were located both within DRTO and in the surrounding area of the Florida Keys and Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), a regional MPA. Year-round residency of 9 out of 11 individuals (82%) both within DRTO and in the FKNMS represents novel non-migratory behavior, which offers an opportunity for conservation of this imperiled species at both local and regional scales. These data comprise the first satellite-tracking results on adult nesting green turtles at this remote study site. Additional tracking could reveal whether the distinct inter-nesting and foraging sites delineated here will be repeatedly used in the future by these and other breeding green turtles.

  20. 安徽省夏秋季蚊类初步调查%Primary investigation of mosquito population composition in Anhui province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯银续; 吴明生; 张家林; 张跃玉; 陆群; 王晓敏; 苏宝; 魏永; 吴丽琴; 于修贵

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify the population composition, distribution and biology of mosquitoes in Anhui province as evidence for the development of control strategies against mosquito - borne diseases. Methods Mosquito were captured or collected by the man-hour or light trap methods. Results From August to September 2009, 2086 mosquitoes were captured, which belonged to 10 species, 5 subgenera, 4 genera and 2 subfamily. The dominant species was Culex tritaeruorhynchus (67.79%), and Cx. Pipiens pollens (12.03%), Cx. Bitaeniorhynchus (11.79%), Armigeres subalbatus (5.03%) and Anopheles sinensis (1.58%) were commonly seen in summer. The mosquito populations varied in different habitats. Conclusion The mosquito population composition was dependent on habitat type, breeding resources, climate and geographic factors. Hence, effective mosquito control strategies should be tailored to local mosquito population structures.%目的 初步掌握安徽省蚊虫的分布特点及生态习性,为蚊虫及蚊媒疾病的防制工作提供科学依据.方法 诱蚊灯法及人工小时法.结果 本次调查共诱捕成蚊2086只,分属2亚科4属5亚属10种.夏秋季节三带喙库蚊为优势蚊种(67.79%),淡色库蚊(12.03%)、二带喙库蚊(11.79%)、骚扰阿蚊(5.03%)和中华按蚊(1.58%)为该季节的常见蚊种.不同地区和生境蚊类种群结构差异较大.结论 研究区域蚊类种群结构除与气候条件和地理区划有关外,还与孳生环境类型和生境多样性有很大关系,因此在灭蚊工作中必须根据当地蚊类种群结构,并结合实际情况才能有效控制蚊虫和蚊媒疾病.

  1. Controlling Mosquitoes Outside

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-09

    Mosquitoes can carry viruses, like West Nile, Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. In this podcast, Mr. Hubbard will teach you and his neighbor, Laura, ways to help reduce the number of mosquitoes outside your home. Tips include eliminating areas of standing water where mosquitoes lay eggs and using larvicides to kill young mosquitoes.  Created: 8/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/9/2016.

  2. MAN, MOSQUITOES AND MICROBES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHOONOVER, ROBERT A.

    THE CONTROL OF MOSQUITOES IS A MATTER OF INCREASING CONCERN IN THE STATE OF FLORIDA. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE LIFE CYCLE, VARIOUS SPECIES, CONTROL, AND DESCRIPTION OF DISEASES TRANSMITTED BY THE MOSQUITO WAS PRESENTED. THE ARTICLE CONCLUDED THAT MOSQUITO CONTROL IS NOT ONLY A HEALTH PROBLEM, BUT ALSO A MATTER OF IMPROVED ECONOMICS IN RELATION TO…

  3. [Progress on transgenic mosquitoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pin

    2011-04-30

    The genetically modified mosquitoes have been developed aiming to control mosquito-borne diseases by either reducing population sizes or replacing existing populations with vectors unable to transmit the disease. introduces some progress on the generation of transgenic mosquitoes and their fitness in wild population. This paper

  4. Shesher and Welala Floodplain Wetlands (Lake Tana, Ethiopia: Are They Important Breeding Habitats for Clarias gariepinus and the Migratory Labeobarbus Fish Species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassie Anteneh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the spawning migration of the endemic Labeobarbus species and C. gariepinus from Lake Tana, through Ribb River, to Welala and Shesher wetlands. The study was conducted during peak spawning months (July to October, 2010. Fish were collected through overnight gillnet settings. A total of 1725 specimens of the genus Labeobarbus (13 species and 506 specimens of C. gariepinus were collected. Six species of Labeobarbus formed prespawning aggregation at Ribb River mouth. However, no Labeobarbus species was found to spawn in the two wetlands. More than 90% of the catch in Welala and Shesher wetlands was contributed by C. gariepinus. This implies that these wetlands are ideal spawning and nursery habitats for C. gariepinus but not for the endemic Labeobarbus species. Except L. intermedius, all the six Labeobarbus species (aggregated at Ribb River mouth and C. gariepinus (spawning at Shesher and Welala wetlands were temporally segregated.

  5. Shesher and Welala floodplain wetlands (Lake Tana, Ethiopia): are they important breeding habitats for Clarias gariepinus and the migratory Labeobarbus fish species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteneh, Wassie; Dejen, Eshete; Getahun, Abebe

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the spawning migration of the endemic Labeobarbus species and C. gariepinus from Lake Tana, through Ribb River, to Welala and Shesher wetlands. The study was conducted during peak spawning months (July to October, 2010). Fish were collected through overnight gillnet settings. A total of 1725 specimens of the genus Labeobarbus (13 species) and 506 specimens of C. gariepinus were collected. Six species of Labeobarbus formed prespawning aggregation at Ribb River mouth. However, no Labeobarbus species was found to spawn in the two wetlands. More than 90% of the catch in Welala and Shesher wetlands was contributed by C. gariepinus. This implies that these wetlands are ideal spawning and nursery habitats for C. gariepinus but not for the endemic Labeobarbus species. Except L. intermedius, all the six Labeobarbus species (aggregated at Ribb River mouth) and C. gariepinus (spawning at Shesher and Welala wetlands) were temporally segregated.

  6. The most common mosquitoes at Al- Rayyan municipality (Qatar state) and their potential for transmitting malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Rabab Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    During the period from December 2014 to April 2015, a mosquito survey (Diptera: Culicidae) was conducted at Al Rayyan Municipality, western region of Qatar. The survey aimed to identify the most common mosquitoes species in the study area and assess their potential in transmitting malaria. In all, 37 collection sites were visited throughout the study period revealing 312 mosquitoes. Larvae were collected as well as adults. The pH of larvae breeding sites was also measured in the laboratory. A...

  7. Pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NANNAN LIU; QIANG XU; FANG ZHU; LEE ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Repeated blood feedings throughout their life span have made mosquitoes ideal transmitters of a wide variety of disease agents. Vector control is a very important part of the current global strategy for the control of mosquito-associated diseases and insecticide application is the most important component in this effort. Pyrethroids, which account for 25% of the world insecticide market, are currently the most widely used insecticides for the indoor control of mosquitoes and are the only chemical recommended for the treatment of mosquito nets, the main tool for preventing malaria in Africa. However, mosquito-borne diseases are now resurgent, largely because of insecticide resistance that has developed in mosquito vectors and the anti-parasite drug resistance of parasites. This paper reviews our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing metabolic detoxification and the development of target site insensitivity that leads to pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes.

  8. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Manitoba: 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Manitoba during 1983. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  9. Final Performance Report : Snowy Plover Breeding Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys of breeding populations and nesting habitat of the snowy plover were conducted from January to August, 1989 along the Gulf Coast of Florida and Alabama....

  10. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1993. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  11. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1986. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  12. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1998. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  13. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Southern Alberta: 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1981. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  14. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1989. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  15. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1995. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  16. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1993. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  17. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1994. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  18. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1996. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  19. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1987. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  20. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1992. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  1. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1990. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  2. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1997. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  3. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1988. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  4. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

    2014-10-01

    Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  5. National Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Survey in The Netherlands 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Justicia, A; Stroo, A; Dik, M; Beeuwkes, J; Scholte, E J

    2015-03-01

    From 2010 onwards, a nationwide mosquito monitoring scheme has been conducted in The Netherlands with the aim of gaining crucial information about mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition, geographical distributions, biodiversity, and habitat preferences. The results of this study are based on 778 randomly sampled mosquito locations. These are divided into three main habitat types: urban, rural-agricultural, and natural areas. Twenty-seven mosquito species were found: 26 indigenous and 1 exotic, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The preliminary results are presented here, with details of their species distribution and seasonality. Monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of mosquitoes is an essential step in the risk analysis of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  6. Karakteristik Habitat Larva Anopheles spp. di Desa Sungai Nyamuk, Daerah Endemik Malaria di Kabupaten Nunukan, Kalimantan Utara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiarto Sugiarto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A research about Habitat Characteristics of Anopheles spp. larvae was done in Sungai Nyamuk Village, Nunukan District, North Kalimantan Province from August 2010 to January 2012. This research aims to analyse the characteristics of breeding places of Anopheles spp. The larvae taken from various types of habitat with detention and maintained until it was developed into mosquitoes, then later identified. The results showed that there are four types of potential breeding places of Anopheles spp. ie lagoon, ditches, fish ponds and marshes. Anopheles types that are found consist of five species, namely An. vagus, An. subpictus, An. sundaicus, An. indefinitus dan An. peditaeniatus. Types of potential breeding places are dominated by the unused fish pond, with the substrate in the form of mud and water is not flowing, located around settlements surrounded by grasses, shrubs and trees. Breeding places contains of aquatic plants such as grasses and moss. Predators are found in the form of a dragonfly nymph, crustaceans, tadpoles and small fish. Early malaria vector control at the level of the larvae is a critical point of the success of malaria elimination programs in endemic areas.

  7. Origin of the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Brown, Julia E; Kramer, Vicki; Hardstone Yoshimizu, Melissa; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever is among the most widespread vector-borne infectious diseases. The primary vector of dengue is the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Ae. aegypti is prevalent in the tropics and sub-tropics and is closely associated with human habitats outside its native range of Africa. While long established in the southeastern United States of America where dengue is re-emerging, breeding populations have never been reported from California until the summer of 2013. Using 12 highly variable microsatellite loci and a database of reference populations, we have determined that the likely source of the California introduction is the southeastern United States, ruling out introductions from abroad, from the geographically closer Arizona or northern Mexico populations, or an accidental release from a research laboratory. The power to identify the origin of new introductions of invasive vectors of human disease relies heavily on the availability of a panel of reference populations. Our work demonstrates the importance of generating extensive reference databases of genetically fingerprinted human-disease vector populations to aid public health efforts to prevent the introduction and spread of vector-borne diseases.

  8. Anopheles (Anopheles) petragnani Del Vecchio 1939-a new mosquito species for Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Norbert; Pfitzner, Wolf Peter; Czajka, Christina; Kaiser, Achim; Weitzel, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The so far known species of the Anopheles Claviger Complex, Anopheles claviger s.s. and Anopheles petragnani, can only be distinguished by partial overlapping characteristics of immature stages and by nucleotide sequence variation of the genomic ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region. The known distribution of An. petragnani is so far restricted to the western Mediterranean region, whereas An. claviger s.s. occurs across most of Europe, up to the Middle East and North Africa. In our study, we investigated the larval mosquito fauna in rock pools of the Murg valley (Black Forest, Germany) once a month from April to December 2015.Among other species, larvae belonging to the Anopheles Claviger Complex were found. The fourth instar larvae were morphologically identified by chaetotaxy of the head and abdomen. The results were confirmed by a multiplex PCR and additional sequencing of the amplificates.Of the 1289 collected larvae from the rock pools, seven belonged to the Anopheles Claviger Complex. Five individuals were determined morphologically as An. petragnani and two as An. claviger s.s. The associated mosquito fauna comprised of Aedes japonicus japonicus (548 individuals), Culex pipiens s.l. and Culex torrentium (493 individuals) and Culex hortensis (241 individuals).This is the first record of An. petragnani north of the Alps. Further studies will reveal whether this is an isolated population of An. petragnani and if the investigated rock pool breeding sites represent typical habitats of this species in temperate regions in Central Europe.

  9. Mosquito diversity in Keeriparai and Mundanthurai hill ranges of the Western Ghats, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Munirathinam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available After a gap of 25 years the Centre for Research in Medical Entomology (CRME surveyed the mosquito biodiversity in the tail-end hill ranges of the Western Ghats, viz., Kanyakumari (Keeriparai and Tirunelveli districts (Kalakkad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR and Courtallam of Tamil Nadu between July 2010 and June 2013.  The altitude of the hills ranged from 100–950 m covered by evergreen forests.  A major emphasis was given to collect the immature stages of mosquitoes, from various breeding habitats, viz., slow flowing streams, spring pool, rocky pool, leaf axils, latex cup, tree hole, bamboo stumps, etc.  Altogether 4602 immature individuals were collected, reared individually to be identified at the adult stage.  A total of 3583 specimens belonging to 50 species classified under 21 genera and 18 subgenera were recorded.  The major vector species found in these hill ranges were Stegomyia aegypti, S. albopicta (Dengue and Chikungunya, Culex bitaeniorhynchus, C. tritaeniorhynchus (Japanese encephalitis, Downsiomyia nivea (diurnally subperiodic filariasis and Anopheles mirans (Simian malaria vectors were recorded. 

  10. Pollination biology and breeding system of Craigia yunnanensis in fragmented habitat%片断化生境中滇桐传粉生物学和繁育系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高则睿; 张长芹; 韩智强; 李忠; 魏杰; 施红林

    2012-01-01

    通过野外观察和人工授粉试验方法,对云南省文山州西畴县法斗分布区片断化生境中濒危植物滇桐(Craigia yunnanensis)的传粉生物学特征和繁育系统进行研究.结果表明:滇桐每个聚伞花序有2~9朵两性花,单花花期为3~4d,单花雌雄蕊在时空上有一定的隔离;杂交指数(OCI) >4,花粉-胚珠比(P/O)为1381±53;有效传粉昆虫为大头丽蝇(Chrysomyia megacephala);同株异花授粉结实率低;滇桐的繁育系统属于异交为主,部分自交亲和,传粉过程需要传粉者;自然状态下滇桐的座果率(56.67%±3.85%)和结籽率(6.26%±0.75%)均较低,而异株异花授粉均可显著提高座果率及结籽率(P<0.01),这与当前片断化生境中传粉昆虫少、效率低下等有关,表明生境片断化正在影响滇桐植株的早期生殖成功.%By the methods of field observation and artificial pollination, this paper studied the characteristics of pollination biology and breeding system of endangered species Craigia yunnanensis in the fragmented habitats of Fadou distribution area, Xichou County of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Each cyme of the C. yunnanensis had 2-9 hermaphroditic flowers, and the lifespan of a single hermaphroditic flower was approximately 3-4 days. There existed certain temporal isolation ( dichogamy) and spatial isolation ( herkogamy) between the pistils and stamens of each hermaphroditic flower. The outcrossing index ( OCI) was >4, and the ratio of pollen to ovule (P/O) was 1381+53. The most frequent and effective pollinator was Chrysomyia megacephala. The fruiting rate of geitonogamous pollination was rather low, and thus, the breeding system of C. yunnanensis was mainly belonged to outcrossing, with partial self-compatibility, and the pollinator insects were essential. Both the fruit-setting ratio and the seed-bearing ratio under natural conditions were low as 56. 67% ±3. 85% and 6. 26% ±0. 75% , respectively, whereas

  11. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina K. Gonzales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT, release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL, population replacement strategies (PR, and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood.

  12. The primary investigation of mosquitoes population and density at Yunfu port%云浮口岸蚊类种群及密度首次调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘传鸽; 罗琳; 胡龙飞; 邓继棠; 马泽征; 侯捷; 张友

    2012-01-01

    目的 掌握云浮口岸蚊类的种群构成、不同生境密度分布和季节消长变化,以及云浮地区白纹伊蚊刺叮节律情况,为口岸蚊类及蚊媒传染病的有效防制提供依据.方法 在蚊类易孳生和栖息地点,采用电动吸蚊器、诱蚊灯和灭蚊磁场捕捉成蚊,采用勺捞法采集幼虫和蛹,待羽化为成蚊后进行分类鉴定;成蚊密度调查选择有代表性的生态环境,采用人工小时法监测.结果 2011年5-11月共捕获成蚊42 367只,采集各龄期幼虫和蛹3680只,经鉴定隶属3亚科8属12种;优势蚊种依次为三带喙库蚊、致倦库蚊和白纹伊蚊;成蚊季节消长呈双峰型,5、6月为第一个高峰期,8月为第二个高峰期;白纹伊蚊昼夜都有刺叮活动,一天中有3个刺叮高峰,白天刺叮活动显著高于晚上.结论 本次调查是云浮口岸地区的首次蚊类调查,较准确地反映了云浮口岸地区在自然条件下蚊类种群的基本情况,为进一步的蚊类监测和防治工作提供了基础数据.%Objective To investigate the mosquito population, density and distribution in different habitats at Yunfu port in Guangdong province, and to provide the scientific evidence for controlling mosquito and vector - bom infectious diseases. Methods Labour hour method, CDC light traps and mosquito magnet were taken for the survey of adult mosquitoes, scoop dipping method for the survey of larvaes and pupaes which would be identified after captured at the mosquito breeding site. The density of adult mosquitoes was obtained by monitoring mosquitoes with labour hour method in typical habitat. Results A total of 42 367 adult mosquitoes and 3680 larvaes were collected from May to November in 2011, which belong to 3 subfamily, 8 genera and 12 species. The dominant species are Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. pipiens quinquefascuitus and Aedes albopictus successively. There were two peaks of adult mosquitoes density from May to November. The first is

  13. Predator-prey interactions and community structure: chironomids, mosquitoes and copepods in Heliconia imbricata (Musaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Shahid

    1988-11-01

    Evidence from both field observations and experimental work indicates that predation by larvae of a midge, Pentaneura n. sp. (Chironomidae), causes the low densities of mosquito larvae (Culicidae) found in the water filled bracts of Heliconia imbricata (Musaceae), microhabitats typically colonized by mosquitoes. This predation affects 2 species of mosquitoes, Wyeomyia pseudopecten, a resident species, and Trichoprosopon digitatum, a non-resident species. Predation keeps resident mosquito densities low while completely excluding the nonresident mosquito from the habitat. Both these effects of predation depend on the presence of an abundant alternative prey, an undescribed species of harpacticoid copepod found in the bracts. These copepod prey sustain chironomids when resident mosquito densities are low, permiting predator densities to remain high enough to exclude the non-resident mosquito. I discuss the evolutionary and ecological implications of predation structuring communities.

  14. Bacterial communities associated with culex mosquito larvae and two emergent aquatic plants of bioremediation importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguma, Dagne; Rugman-Jones, Paul; Kaufman, Michael G; Hall, Michael W; Neufeld, Josh D; Stouthamer, Richard; Walton, William E

    2013-01-01

    Microbes are important for mosquito nutrition, growth, reproduction and control. In this study, we examined bacterial communities associated with larval mosquitoes and their habitats. Specifically, we characterized bacterial communities associated with late larval instars of the western encephalitis mosquito (Culextarsalis), the submerged portions of two emergent macrophytes (California bulrush, Schoenoplectuscalifornicus and alkali bulrush, Schoenoplectusmaritimus), and the associated water columns to investigate potential differential use of resources by mosquitoes in different wetland habitats. Using next-generation sequence data from 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions, the alpha diversity of mosquito gut microbial communities did not differ between pond mesocosms containing distinct monotypic plants. Proteobacteria, dominated by the genus Thorsellia (Enterobacteriaceae), was the most abundant phylum recovered from C. tarsalis larvae. Approximately 49% of bacterial OTUs found in larval mosquitoes were identical to OTUs recovered from the water column and submerged portions of the two bulrushes. Plant and water samples were similar to one another, both being dominated by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla. Overall, the bacterial communities within C. tarsalis larvae were conserved and did not change across sampling dates and between two distinct plant habitats. Although Thorsellia spp. dominated mosquito gut communities, overlap of mosquito gut, plant and water-column OTUs likely reveal the effects of larval feeding. Future research will investigate the role of the key indicator groups of bacteria across the different developmental stages of this mosquito species.

  15. Mosquitoes Associated with Ditch-Plugged and Control Tidal Salt Marshes on the Delmarva Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Leisnham

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted during the summer of 2009 (from July to September to characterize mosquito communities among different habitats in five historically ditched tidal salt marshes and three adjacent wooded areas in the E.A. Vaughn Wetland Management Area on the Maryland Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Study marshes are characteristic of Atlantic coastal salt marshes that had undergone grid ditching from the 1930s to 1950s. In the autumn of 2008 (October and November ditches were plugged near their outlets in two (‘experimental’ marshes with the aim to restore their natural tidal hydrology. The three other marshes were not plugged. Marshes were sampled from July to September in 2009 by using standard dip count method. A total of 2,457 mosquito larvae representing six species were collected on 15.4% (86/557 of all sample occasions and 399 adults representing four mosquito species were collected from landing counts. Aedes sollicitans, Anopheles bradleyi and Culex salinarius were the most common species collected in larval habitats, and Ae. sollicitans was the most common adult collected. Wooded habitats had more total mosquitoes, were also more frequently occupied by mosquitoes and had higher densities of mosquitoes than marsh habitats. Almost all larvae collected from marshes were from one experimental and one control site. The majority of larvae at the control site were Ae. sollicitans in marsh pannes while Cx. salinarius, An. bradleyi, Ae. cantator, and Ae. sollicitans were collected in high numbers from ditches at the experimental site. We found a difference in the proportion of marsh pannes occupied by Ae. sollicitans but not total mosquitoes sampled 4–5 days after spring tide events than on other occasions. Salinity measures of 42 larval habitats showed lower median salinity in mosquito-occupied habitats (11.5 ppt than unoccupied habitats (20.1 ppt, and in habitats in wooded areas followed by ditches and pannes in marsh areas. The results of

  16. Mosquitoes associated with ditch-plugged and control tidal salt marshes on the Delmarva Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisnham, Paul T; Sandoval-Mohapatra, Sarah

    2011-08-01

    A study was conducted during the summer of 2009 (from July to September) to characterize mosquito communities among different habitats in five historically ditched tidal salt marshes and three adjacent wooded areas in the E.A. Vaughn Wetland Management Area on the Maryland Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Study marshes are characteristic of Atlantic coastal salt marshes that had undergone grid ditching from the 1930s to 1950s. In the autumn of 2008 (October and November) ditches were plugged near their outlets in two ('experimental') marshes with the aim to restore their natural tidal hydrology. The three other marshes were not plugged. Marshes were sampled from July to September in 2009 by using standard dip count method. A total of 2,457 mosquito larvae representing six species were collected on 15.4% (86/557) of all sample occasions and 399 adults representing four mosquito species were collected from landing counts. Aedes sollicitans, Anopheles bradleyi and Culex salinarius were the most common species collected in larval habitats, and Ae. sollicitans was the most common adult collected. Wooded habitats had more total mosquitoes, were also more frequently occupied by mosquitoes and had higher densities of mosquitoes than marsh habitats. Almost all larvae collected from marshes were from one experimental and one control site. The majority of larvae at the control site were Ae. sollicitans in marsh pannes while Cx. salinarius, An. bradleyi, Ae. cantator, and Ae. sollicitans were collected in high numbers from ditches at the experimental site. We found a difference in the proportion of marsh pannes occupied by Ae. sollicitans but not total mosquitoes sampled 4-5 days after spring tide events than on other occasions. Salinity measures of 42 larval habitats showed lower median salinity in mosquito-occupied habitats (11.5 ppt) than unoccupied habitats (20.1 ppt), and in habitats in wooded areas followed by ditches and pannes in marsh areas. The results of this study suggest

  17. Exploring methods to minimize the risk of mosquitoes in rainwater harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglia, Magnus; Gan, Kein; Delbridge, Nathan

    2016-12-01

    Rainwater harvesting in residential homes is emerging as an important complement to centralized water supplies in urban centres around the world. Domestic rainwater harvesting systems provide a variety of benefits for water management and contribute to sustainable and integrated urban water management. There are however risks associated with rainwater harvesting that requires appropriate mitigation. One such risk is that systems can become breeding grounds for mosquitoes. This can constitute a significant health risk through the spread of mosquito-borne diseases (i.e. arbovirus and malaria). This paper explores the extent to which mosquitoes breed in rainwater harvesting systems as well as the effectiveness of different risk mitigation actions. Data were sourced from a large-scale domestic rainwater tank inspection survey undertaken in Melbourne and were analysed using simple Bayesian Network models. The observed rate of mosquito breeding was too high and was identified as a serious concern for health officials and water managers. The most common access routes into the tank system were found to be through the tank inlet or overflow. By exploring different system set-ups it was found that in order to mitigate the risk of mosquito breeding in tanks, all potential access routes must be adequately sealed. The complete eradication of mosquitos in rainwater tanks, however, may need further investigation, as 4% of systems with adequate protection at the inlet and overflow were still found to have mosquitoes in them.

  18. Surveillance should be strengthened to improve epidemiological understandings of mosquito-borne Barmah Forest virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Durrheim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Barmah Forest virus (BFV is a mosquito-borne virus causing epidemic polyarthritis in Australia. This study used case follow-up of cases from the surveillance system to demonstrate that routinely collected BFV notification data were an unreliable indicator of the true location of exposure.Methods: BFV notifications from June 2001 to May 2011 were extracted from the New South Wales (NSW Notifiable Conditions Information Management System to study case distribution. Disease cluster analysis was performed using spatial scan statistics. Exposure history data were collected from cases notified in 2010 and 2011 to accurately determine travel to high-risk areas.Results: Cluster analysis using address data identified an area of increased BFV disease incidence in the mid-north coast of NSW contiguous with estuarine wetlands. When travel to this area was investigated, 96.7% (29/30 cases reported having visited coastal regions within four weeks of developing symptoms.Discussion: Along the central NSW coastline, extensive wetlands occur in close proximity to populated areas. These wetlands provide ideal breeding habitats for a range of mosquito species implicated in the transmission of BFV. This is the first study to fully assess case exposure with findings suggesting that sporadic cases of BFV in people living further away from the coast do not reflect alternative exposure sites but are likely to result from travel to coastal regions. Spatial analysis by case address alone may lead to inaccurate understandings of the true distribution of arboviral diseases. Subsequently, this information has important implications for the collection of mosquito-borne disease surveillance information and public health response strategies.

  19. The Knowledge and Experience of Dengue Mosquitoes among Housewives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atik Triratnawati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF prevention programs in Semarang, were focused through controlling mosquito breeding sites (PSN, but the implementation of PSN was not become a habit in every household. The objective of this study was to explore knowledge and experience of dengue mosquitoes among housewives in the endemic villages.The research was using qualitative methods. Subjects of the study were 17 housewives which selected by purposive sampling. The data collection was carried in Sendangmulyo village, Semarang, through observation, focus groups discussions, and indepth interviews. The techniques used to test data validity were triangulation and member checking method. Data were analyzed using content analysis approached. The results showed that housewives classifying mosquito based on time occurrence whether the presence of mosquito in environment was perceived naturally. Unoptimalized PSN behavior was based on the lack of housewives knowledge on larvae development stages. Mosquito was not considered as a threatening because night mosquito biting was directly more disturbing rather than day mosquitoes’. Health promotion program could increase dasa wisma cadres knowledge and skill, particularly on mosquito life cycle and the correct stages of PSN behavior. This study did not distinguish the demographic characteristics of informants. Further reserch could explore it or develop media based on local knowledge and experience.

  20. Controlling Mosquitoes Indoors

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-23

    Mosquitoes can carry viruses, like West Nile and Zika. In this podcast, Mr. Hubbard teaches his neighbors, the Smith family, ways to help reduce the number of mosquitoes inside their home.  Created: 8/23/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/23/2016.

  1. UV light and urban pollution: Bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetreau, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.tetreau@gmail.com [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, LECA-UMR 5553, Université de Grenoble 1, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 09 (France); Department of Entomology, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States); Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud’homme, Sophie M.; Régent-Kloeckner, Myriam; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, LECA-UMR 5553, Université de Grenoble 1, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 09 (France)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •Mosquito tolerance to temephos is induced by PAHs and UV exposure. •Toxicity of fluoranthene for mosquito Malpighian tubules cells is induced by UV. •Fluoranthene crystallizes in mosquito Malpighian tubules upon UV exposure. •Mixture of two PAHs is less toxic for mosquitoes than each PAHs separately. •Combination of abiotic parameters (PAHs and UV) affect mosquito physiology. -- Abstract: Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species–ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis–Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on

  2. Mosquito immunity against arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Shuzhen; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Dimopoulos, George

    2014-11-19

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) pose a significant threat to global health, causing human disease with increasing geographic range and severity. The recent availability of the genome sequences of medically important mosquito species has kick-started investigations into the molecular basis of how mosquito vectors control arbovirus infection. Here, we discuss recent findings concerning the role of the mosquito immune system in antiviral defense, interactions between arboviruses and fundamental cellular processes such as apoptosis and autophagy, and arboviral suppression of mosquito defense mechanisms. This knowledge provides insights into co-evolutionary processes between vector and virus and also lays the groundwork for the development of novel arbovirus control strategies that target the mosquito vector.

  3. Transmission of tularemia from a water source by transstadial maintenance in a mosquito vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckman, Stina; Näslund, Jonas; Forsman, Mats; Thelaus, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are thought to function as mechanical vectors of Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica (F. t. holarctica) causing tularemia in humans. We investigated the clinical relevance of transstadially maintained F. t. holarctica in mosquitoes. Aedes egypti larvae exposed to a fully virulent F. t. holarctica strain for 24 hours, were allowed to develop into adults when they were individually homogenized. Approximately 24% of the homogenates tested positive for F. t. DNA in PCR. Mice injected with the mosquito homogenates acquired tularemia within 5 days. This novel finding demonstrates the possibility of transmission of bacteria by adult mosquitoes having acquired the pathogen from their aquatic larval habitats.

  4. “Looking over the Backyard Fence”: Householders and Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainali, Samir; Lamichhane, Ram Sharan; Clark, Kim; Beatty, Shelley; Fatouros, Maria; Neville, Peter; Oosthuizen, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: Vector-borne diseases are a significant public health problem in Western Australia. Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of a number of pathogens and may pose a serious nuisance problem. Prevention efforts in the State are multi-faceted and include physical, chemical, and cultural control methods for restricting mosquito breeding. This is less complex where breeding areas are located within public open spaces. In Australia’s developed urban areas, breeding sites are, however, frequently located within private residential landholdings, where the scope of public health officials to act is constrained by law and practicality. Consequently, mosquito prevention in these locations is predominantly the responsibility of the residents. This research addressed a gap, both in understanding the degree to which “backyard” mosquito breeding has the potential to contribute to local mosquito problems, and in assessing what residents “think and do” about mosquito control within their home environment. (2) Methods: The study was conducted in the Town of Bassendean, a metropolitan Local Government Area of Perth, Western Australia, in close proximity to two natural, productive mosquito breeding sites, namely Ashfield Flats and Bindaring Park. A total of 150 householders were randomly surveyed during the summer of 2015–2016, to gauge residents’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP (knowledge, attitudes, and practices) Survey) in regards to mosquitoes, their breeding and ecology, and avoidance or minimization strategies. The survey comprised nine questions covering residents’ knowledge (3 questions), attitudes (3 questions), and practices (3 questions), as well as additional questions regarding the basic demographics of the resident. Larvae were collected from backyard containers and reared to adults for species identification. A series of Encephalitis Vector Surveillance carbon dioxide (EVS CO2) traps were also deployed, to assess adult

  5. “Looking over the Backyard Fence”: Householders and Mosquito Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Mainali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Vector-borne diseases are a significant public health problem in Western Australia. Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of a number of pathogens and may pose a serious nuisance problem. Prevention efforts in the State are multi-faceted and include physical, chemical, and cultural control methods for restricting mosquito breeding. This is less complex where breeding areas are located within public open spaces. In Australia’s developed urban areas, breeding sites are, however, frequently located within private residential landholdings, where the scope of public health officials to act is constrained by law and practicality. Consequently, mosquito prevention in these locations is predominantly the responsibility of the residents. This research addressed a gap, both in understanding the degree to which “backyard” mosquito breeding has the potential to contribute to local mosquito problems, and in assessing what residents “think and do” about mosquito control within their home environment. (2 Methods: The study was conducted in the Town of Bassendean, a metropolitan Local Government Area of Perth, Western Australia, in close proximity to two natural, productive mosquito breeding sites, namely Ashfield Flats and Bindaring Park. A total of 150 householders were randomly surveyed during the summer of 2015–2016, to gauge residents’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP (knowledge, attitudes, and practices Survey in regards to mosquitoes, their breeding and ecology, and avoidance or minimization strategies. The survey comprised nine questions covering residents’ knowledge (3 questions, attitudes (3 questions, and practices (3 questions, as well as additional questions regarding the basic demographics of the resident. Larvae were collected from backyard containers and reared to adults for species identification. A series of Encephalitis Vector Surveillance carbon dioxide (EVS CO2 traps were also deployed, to

  6. Dispersal behavior of adult snow melt mosquitoes in the Upper Rhine Valley, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M; Storch, V; Kaiser, A; Beck, M; Becker, N

    1997-06-01

    The dispersal behavior of female snow melt mosquitoes was studied in two forests in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, from April to August 1993. Both CDC-light-traps and human bait collections were used to collect mosquitoes. Sampling sites were chosen along a west-east and a north-south transect in treated and untreated parts of a forest with a village in its center. Around this settlement, breeding sites within a radius of 1.5 to 2.5 km were treated. It could be shown that this buffer zone is sufficient to prevent a nuisance caused by snow melt mosquitoes in the village. The results lead to the conclusion that snow melt mosquitoes do not regularly migrate over large distances but stay near their breeding sites. In a detailed study of the behavior of Aedes rusticus, it could be observed that these mosquitoes were resting in the interior of the forest during daytime and leaving it with increasing dusk up to 50 m from the forest edge. A comparison of landing rate counts near a row of trees and in the open field showed higher activity near the row of trees indicating visual orientation of the mosquitoes. Although the Ae. rusticus females left the forest regularly, no nuisance occurred in nearby villages. The treatment of breeding sites near settlements appeared to be sufficient to prevent a nuisance caused by the snow melt mosquitoes.

  7. PERCEPTIONS REGARDING MOSQUITO BORNE DISEASES IN AN URBAN AREA OF RAJKOT CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amul B. Patel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mosquito borne diseases is a growing urban problem because of unplanned urbanization, industrialization and excessive population growth coupled with rural to urban migration. For developing a suitable and effective health education strategy, it is inevitable to understand the level of knowledge of the community, their attitude and practices regarding mosquito borne diseases. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in an urban field practice area of Urban Health Centre in Rajkot city. Total 500 houses were selected for study by systematic random sampling. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire during transmission season of vector borne diseases. The results were analyzed using the SPSS 17 software. Results: 90% respondents agreed that mosquitoes are a problem. 30.4% didn’t know breeding sites of mosquitoes. Only 11.6% of people associated clean water collections with mosquito breeding. Regarding diseases transmitted by mosquito, 62% answered malaria, 37.4% were not aware and 8.8% people mentioned about Filariasis, Dengue or Japanese encephalitis. 4.7% granted mosquito control as responsibility of community. 61.4 % were using repellents for prevention against mosquito bites and 39% not taking any preventive measure. 67.8% consulted private practitioner for treatment. Conclusion: Intensified efforts towards creating public awareness and mobilizing the community regarding the preventive measures they can take are needed. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 45-47

  8. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em áreas do Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Brasil: 1 ­ Distribuição por hábitat Mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae ecology in the Iguaçu National Park, Brazil: 1 ­ Habitat distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Estabelecemos a influência exercida pela cobertura vegetal de quatro diferentes biótopos em áreas do Parque Nacional do Iguaçu (PNI sobre a fauna local de mosquitos. Realizaram-se capturas bimestrais, em isca humana e armadilha Shannon, em três diferentes períodos do dia, em ambiente silvestre e domiciliar, durante 24 meses consecutivos. Dentre os 20.273 espécimes de fêmeas adultas capturadas, pertencentes a 44 espécies, Ochlerotatus serratus (10,3%, Haemagogus leucocelaenus (9,7%, Mansonia titillans (9,6% e Chagasia fajardoi (8,8% foram predominantes. Anopheles cruzii, Runchomyia theobaldi, Wyeomyia aporonoma e Wy. confusa ocorreram exclusivamente em áreas com vegetação bem preservada e densa configuração. Culex nigripalpus, Oc. pennai, Oc. serratus, Sabethes purpureus e Sa. albiprivus foram capturados nos três biótopos essencialmente silvestres. Na mata no entorno da represa foram capturadas principalmente An. albitarsis s.l., An. galvaoi, An. evansae, An. fluminensis, Coquillettidia venezuelensis, Cq. juxtamansonia, Wy. quasilongirostris e Onirion personatum. As espécies que apresentaram maiores incidências na área sob ação antrópica foram Ch. fajardoi, Cq. fasciolata, Cq. nitens e Ma. titillans.A study of the mosquito fauna in the Iguaçu National Park focused on population behavior in four biotopes with different types of plant cover inside the Park. Systematic bimonthly diurnal and nocturnal human bait and Shannon trap captures were conducted in both forest and domiciliary environments over the course of 24 months. A total of 20,273 adult mosquito specimens belonging to 44 species were collected: Ochlerotatus serratus (10.3%, Haemagogus leucocelaenus (9.7%, Mansonia titillans (9.6%, and Chagasia fajardoi (8.8% were the most frequently captured mosquitoes. Anopheles cruzii, Runchomyia theobaldi, Wyeomyia aporonoma, and Wy. confusa were captured almost exclusively in well-preserved areas with dense forest cover. Culex

  9. Mosquitoes of Middle America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-30

    FL; (I S) Museu de Zoologia da (Jniversidade de Sao Paulo , Instituto Adolfo Lu tz in Sao Paulo and Instituto de Microbiologia , Un iversidade...Herbert C., Inst ituto de Microbiologia , Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro , Brazil. — Facilities for topotypic survey of mosquitoes in Rio de...976 17 Garcia , M iguel, Departamento de Entomologia Sanitaria , Instituto de Microbiologia , Buenos Aires, Argentina . — Mosquitoes from Argentina

  10. Evaluation of insecticide impregnated baits for control of mosquito larvae in land crab burrows on French Polynesian atolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardeux, Frederic; Sechan, Yves; Faaruia, Marc

    2002-07-01

    Land crab burrows are larval mosquito habitats of major significance in the Pacific region. They are constituted by a sinuous tunnel leading to a chamber in contact with the water table, where mosquito larvae proliferate. Controlling larvae in these sites is difficult, because the configuration of burrows prevents the use of standard techniques. An experiment was carried out in French Polynesia to control Aedes polynesiensis Marks and Culex spp. breeding in burrows of the land crab Cardisoma carnifex (Herbst). The technique was based on the crab's behavior, which involves the crab carrying food into its burrow. It was shown that appetizing baits impregnated with an insecticide were carried by crabs into the flooded chamber of their burrows. A field treatment of burrows was carried out by sowing insecticide impregnated baits on the ground. The treatment coverage was almost perfect and the easy implementation of the technique enabled large areas to be treated in a short time. The bait was developed by compacting various flours, which easily incorporate a large variety of insecticide formulations. Although the baits can be easily stocked, a reliable insecticide is still to be found. The results indicate that our technique could be a method of choice for treating crab burrows.

  11. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dongus

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2 was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92. Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

  12. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Gosoniu, Laura; Drescher, Axel W; Fillinger, Ulrike; Tanner, Marcel; Killeen, Gerry F; Castro, Marcia C

    2009-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2) was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92). Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

  13. Progress report: Waterfowl breeding ground aerial surveys in southern Saskatchewan: 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey and Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1960. The...

  14. Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

    This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.…

  15. Transfer of toxin genes to alternate bacterial hosts for mosquito control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Orduz

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are vector of serious human and animal diseases, such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever, among others. The use of biological control agents has provide an environmentally safe and highly specific alternative to the use of chemical insecticides in the control of vector borne diseases. Bacillus thuringiensis and B. sphaericus produce toxic proteins to mosquito larvae. Great progress has been made on the biochemical and molecular characterization of such proteins and the genes encoding them. Nevertheless, the low residuality of these biological insecticides is one of the major drawbacks. This article present some interesting aspects of the mosquito larvae feeding habits and review the attempts that have been made to genetically engineer microorganisms that while are used by mosquito larvae as a food source should express the Bacillus toxin genes in order to improve the residuality and stability in the mosquito breeding ponds.

  16. Mosquito surveillance for prevention and control of emerging mosquito-borne diseases in Portugal - 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Hugo C; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Amaro, Fátima; Alves, Maria J

    2014-11-12

    Mosquito surveillance in Europe is essential for early detection of invasive species with public health importance and prevention and control of emerging pathogens. In Portugal, a vector surveillance national program-REVIVE (REde de VIgilância de VEctores)-has been operating since 2008 under the custody of Portuguese Ministry of Health. The REVIVE is responsible for the nationwide surveillance of hematophagous arthropods. Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other flaviviruses in adult mosquitoes is continuously performed. Adult mosquitoes-collected mainly with Centre for Disease Control light traps baited with CO2-and larvae were systematically collected from a wide range of habitats in 20 subregions (NUTS III). Around 500,000 mosquitoes were trapped in more than 3,000 trap nights and 3,500 positive larvae surveys, in which 24 species were recorded. The viral activity detected in mosquito populations in these years has been limited to insect specific flaviviruses (ISFs) non-pathogenic to humans. Rather than emergency response, REVIVE allows timely detection of changes in abundance and species diversity providing valuable knowledge to health authorities, which may take control measures of vector populations reducing its impact on public health. This work aims to present the REVIVE operation and to expose data regarding mosquito species composition and detected ISFs.

  17. Effectiveness of Print Education at Reducing Urban Mosquito Infestation through Improved Resident-Based Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Bodner

    Full Text Available Improving resident-based management and knowledge of mosquitoes is often an integral component of integrated mosquito management, especially in urban landscapes with considerable mosquito habitat on privately owned lands. This study tested the effectiveness of print education materials at reducing urban mosquito exposure through improving resident knowledge of, and attitudes towards, mosquitoes and mosquito management in Washington DC, USA. There was a specific focus on the removal of water-filled containers that are utilized by the developmental stages of the two most common vector species in the region, Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens. Households in six neighborhoods that varied in socio-economic status were administered knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP surveys in 2010 and 2012, and had their yards surveyed for container habitats and immature mosquitoes (larvae and pupae in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Half the households (intervention, n = 120 received education materials in 2011 and 2012 to yield a before-after control-intervention (BACI design. Unexpectedly, residents in intervention households were more likely to show decreased concern for mosquito-borne illnesses than residents in control households, which did not receive materials. Moreover, there was a greater probability that control households reduced containers in 2012 than intervention households, particularly when they had low numbers of baseline (2010 containers. Irrespective of control, reductions in containers were associated with decreased abundances of immature mosquitoes. Overall, our findings suggest that print education materials may have unintended negative effects on resident attitudes and household management of mosquito production. We recommend that mosquito control agencies need to carefully consider their content of print messages and the effectiveness of strategies that passively convey information with little or no engagement with control professionals.

  18. Contrasting patterns of tolerance between chemical and biological insecticides in mosquitoes exposed to UV-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2013-09-15

    Mosquitoes are vectors of major human diseases, such as malaria, dengue or yellow fever. Because no efficient treatments or vaccines are available for most of these diseases, control measures rely mainly on reducing mosquito populations by the use of insecticides. Numerous biotic and abiotic factors are known to modulate the efficacy of insecticides used in mosquito control. Mosquito breeding sites vary from opened to high vegetation covered areas leading to a large ultraviolet gradient exposure. This ecological feature may affect the general physiology of the insect, including the resistance status against insecticides. In the context of their contrasted breeding sites, we assessed the impact of low-energetic ultraviolet exposure on mosquito sensitivity to biological and chemical insecticides. We show that several mosquito detoxification enzyme activities (cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases, esterases) were increased upon low-energy UV-A exposure. Additionally, five specific genes encoding detoxification enzymes (CYP6BB2, CYP6Z7, CYP6Z8, GSTD4, and GSTE2) previously shown to be involved in resistance to chemical insecticides were found over-transcribed in UV-A exposed mosquitoes, revealed by RT-qPCR experiments. More importantly, toxicological bioassays revealed that UV-exposed mosquitoes were more tolerant to four main chemical insecticide classes (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, temephos), whereas the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) appeared more toxic. The present article provides the first experimental evidence of the capacity of low-energy UV-A to increase mosquito tolerance to major chemical insecticides. This is also the first time that a metabolic resistance to chemical insecticides is linked to a higher susceptibility to a bioinsecticide. These results support the use of Bti as an efficient alternative to chemical insecticides when a metabolic resistance to chemicals has been developed by mosquitoes.

  19. Mosquitoes, models, and dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifson, A R

    1996-05-04

    In the last 10 years dengue has spread markedly through Latin America and the Caribbean (Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Barbados, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil). The mosquito Aedes aegypti has taken advantage of increased urbanization and crowding to transmit the dengue virus. The mosquito infests tires, cans, and water jars near dwellings. The female mosquito practices multiple, interrupted feeding. Thus, mosquito infesting and feeding practices facilitate dengue transmission in crowded conditions. Factors contributing to the spread of dengue include numbers of infected and susceptible human hosts, strain of dengue virus, size of mosquito population, feeding habits, time from infection to ability to transmit virus for both vector and host, likelihood of virus transmission from human to mosquito to human, and temperature (which affects vector distribution, size, feeding habits, and extrinsic incubation period). Public health models may use simulation models to help them plan or evaluate the potential impact of different intervention strategies and/or of environmental changes (e.g., global warming). Other factors contributing to the dengue epidemic are international travel, urbanization, population growth, crowding, poverty, a weakened public health infrastructure, and limited support for sustained disease control programs. Molecular epidemiology by nucleic acid sequence analysis is another sophisticated technique used to study infectious diseases. It showed that dengue type 3 isolated from Panama and Nicaragua in 1994 was identical to that responsible for the major dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Sri Lanka and India in the 1980s. Public health officials must remember three priorities relevant to dengue and other emerging infections: the need to strengthen surveillance efforts, dedicated and sustained involvement in prevention and control needs at the local level, and a strong

  20. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Alberta: May 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1991. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  1. Maine & the Maritimes: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Maine and the Maritimes during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  2. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern and central Alberta: May 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern and central Alberta during 1995. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  3. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Ontario, Quebec, and New York: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Ontario, Quebec, and New York during 1997. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  4. Western and Central Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Western and Central Ontario during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  5. Flavivirus-Mosquito Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jang S. Huang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1–4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key data collected from the field and laboratory-based molecular and ultrastructural evaluations.

  6. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF MOSQUITO POPULATIONS (DIPTERA:CULICIDAE) IN A LA CROSSE VIRUS- ENDEMIC AREA IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Container surveys were conducted in 5 communities on the Cherokee Indian Reservation, an area of western North Carolina endemic for transmission of La Crosse (LAC) virus, to determine the potential for peridomestic mosquito breeding, the relative abundance of mosquito species, an...

  7. Resource Limitation, Controphic Ostracod Density and Larval Mosquito Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raylea Rowbottom

    Full Text Available Aquatic environments can be restricted with the amount of available food resources especially with changes to both abiotic and biotic conditions. Mosquito larvae, in particular, are sensitive to changes in food resources. Resource limitation through inter-, and intra-specific competition among mosquitoes are known to affect both their development and survival. However, much less is understood about the effects of non-culicid controphic competitors (species that share the same trophic level. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated and compared mosquito larval development, survival and adult size in two experiments, one with different densities of non-culicid controphic conditions and the other with altered resource conditions. We used Aedes camptorhynchus, a salt marsh breeding mosquito and a prominent vector for Ross River virus in Australia. Aedes camptorhynchus usually has few competitors due to its halo-tolerance and distribution in salt marshes. However, sympatric ostracod micro-crustaceans often co-occur within these salt marshes and can be found in dense populations, with field evidence suggesting exploitative competition for resources. Our experiments demonstrate resource limiting conditions caused significant increases in mosquito developmental times, decreased adult survival and decreased adult size. Overall, non-culicid exploitation experiments showed little effect on larval development and survival, but similar effects on adult size. We suggest that the alterations of adult traits owing to non-culicid controphic competition has potential to extend to vector-borne disease transmission.

  8. Effect of Novaluron (Rimon 10 EC) on the mosquitoes Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus from Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Valdez-Delgado, K M

    2006-12-01

    Novaluron for non-container breeding and container breeding mosquitoes are 0.166 mg/L and 0.55 mg/L, respectively. Overall, the residual effect was more sustained than that of temephos. The lowest dosage of Novaluron had less of an impact on non-target organisms than did temephos. Small-scale field trials in natural breeding sites treated with Novaluron at 0.6 L/ha eliminated adult emergence of An. albimanus and Cx. coronator for 8 weeks. For phase III studies, Novaluron was tested at the local and village levels, applying the optimum field rate to all natural breeding habitats within 1 km of a pair of neighbouring villages. Village-scale trials of Novaluron at 0.6 L/ha reduced An. albimanus larval populations for at least 8 weeks and, more importantly, sharply reduced the densities of adult host-seeking mosquitoes approaching houses. We conclude that Novaluron is effective and environmentally safer than temephos.

  9. Mosquito Bites are Bad!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-11

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of mosquito bites and how to prevent getting them.  Created: 8/11/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2016.

  10. Diversity and ecology survey of mosquitoes potential vectors in Belgian equestrian farms: A threat prevention of mosquito-borne equine arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukraa, Slimane; de La Grandiere, Maria A; Bawin, Thomas; Raharimalala, Fara N; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Haubruge, Eric; Thiry, Etienne; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne equine alphavirus from Americas. Prevention of these arboviruses requires a clear understanding of transmission cycles, especially their vectors. To characterize mosquito fauna, their ecology and identify potential vectors of equine arboviruses in Belgium, entomological surveys of six equestrian farms located in the Wolloon Region were conducted during 2011-2012. The harvest of mosquitoes was based on larval sampling (272 samples from 111 breeding sites) and monthly adults trapping (CO2-baited traps, Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus). Among 51,493 larvae and 319 adult mosquitoes collected, morphological identification showed the presence of 11 species: Anopheles claviger (Meigen), An. maculipennis s.l. (Meigen), An. plumbeus (Stephens), Culex hortensis (Ficalbi), Cx. territans (Walker), Cx. pipiens s.l. L., Cx. torrentium (Martini), Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi), Culiseta annulata (Schrank), Aedes cantans (Meigen), Ae. geniculatus (Olivier). Molecular identification of Cx. pipiens species complex allowed the detection of three molecular forms, Pipiens (92.3%), Molestus (4.6%) and Hybrid (3.1%). Larvae of Cx. pipiens sl and Cx. torrentium were omnipresent and the most abundant species. Water troughs, ponds and slurry (liquid manure) were the most favorable breeding sites of mosquito larvae. Based upon behavior and ecology of the identified mosquito species, Studied Belgian equestrian farms seem to provide a suitable environment and breeding sites for the proliferation of potential vectors of arboviruses and those being a real nuisance problem for horses and neighboring inhabitants.

  11. Proximate drivers of spatial segregation in non-breeding albatrosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Thomas A; Manica, Andrea; Ryan, Peter G; Silk, Janet R D; Croxall, John P; Ireland, Louise; Phillips, Richard A

    2016-07-21

    Many animals partition resources to avoid competition, and in colonially-breeding species this often leads to divergent space or habitat use. During the non-breeding season, foraging constraints are relaxed, yet the patterns and drivers of segregation both between and within populations are poorly understood. We modelled habitat preference to examine how extrinsic (habitat availability and intra-specific competition) and intrinsic factors (population, sex and breeding outcome) influence the distributions of non-breeding grey-headed albatrosses Thalassarche chrysostoma tracked from two major populations, South Georgia (Atlantic Ocean) and the Prince Edward Islands (Indian Ocean). Spatial segregation was greater than expected, reflecting distinct seasonal differences in habitat selection and accessibility, and avoidance of intra-specific competition with local breeders. Previously failed birds segregated spatially from successful birds during summer, when they used less productive waters, suggesting a link between breeding outcome and subsequent habitat selection. In contrast, we found weak evidence of sexual segregation, which did not reflect a difference in habitat use. Our results indicate that the large-scale spatial structuring of albatross distributions results from interactions between extrinsic and intrinsic factors, with important implications for population dynamics. As habitat preferences differed substantially between colonies, populations should be considered independently when identifying critical areas for protection.

  12. Terrestrial bird populations and habitat use on coastal plain tundra of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Presents results of four breeding season and three post-breeding season bird surveys conducted on 45 10-ha plots representing seven habitat types study sites on the...

  13. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  14. Environmental management of mosquito-borne viruses in Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gettman, Alan; Becker, Elisabeth; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S.; LeBrun, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus (EEEV) are both primarily bird viruses, which can be transmitted by several mosquito species. Differences in larval habitats, flight, and biting patterns of the primary vector species result in substantial differences in epidemiology, with WNV more common, primarily occurring in urban areas, and EEEV relatively rare, typically occurring near swamp habitats. The complex transmission ecology of these viruses complicates prediction of disease outbreaks. The Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management (DEM) and Department of Health (DoH) provide prevention assistance to towns and maintain a mosquito surveillance program to identify potential disease risk. Responses to potential outbreaks follow a protocol based on surveillance results, assessment of human risk, and technical consultation.

  15. Effects of Organic Amendments on Microbiota Associated with the Culex nigripalpus Mosquito Vector of the Saint Louis Encephalitis and West Nile Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael W.; Smartt, Chelsea T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pollution from nutrients in aquatic habitats has been linked to increases in disease vectors, including mosquitoes and other pestiferous insects. One possibility is that changes in mosquito microbiomes are impacted by nutrient enrichments and that these changes affect various traits, including larval development, susceptibility to larval control agents, and susceptibility of the adult mosquitoes to pathogens. We tested this hypothesis using field mesocosms supplemented with low- and high-organic-nutrient regimens and then sampled microbial communities associated with the naturally colonizing Culex nigripalpus mosquito vector. By high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences, we found no significant differences in overall microbial communities associated with sampled mosquitoes, despite detecting discernible differences in environmental variables, including pH, dissolved oxygen, and nutrient amendments. Nevertheless, indicator species analysis revealed that members of the Clostridiales were significantly associated with mosquitoes that originated from high-nutrient enrichments. In contrast, members of the Burkholderiales were associated with mosquitoes from the low-nutrient enrichment. High bacterial variability associated with the life stages of the C. nigripalpus was largely unaffected by levels of nutrient enrichments that impacted larval microbial resources, including bacteria, ciliates, and flagellates in the larval environments. IMPORTANCE Mosquito microbiota provide important physiological and ecological attributes to mosquitoes, including an impact on their susceptibility to pathogens, fitness, and sensitivity to mosquito control agents. Culex nigripalpus mosquito populations transmit various pathogens, including the Saint Louis and West Nile viruses, and proliferate in nutrient-rich environments, such as in wastewater treatment wetlands. Our study examined whether increases in nutrients within larval mosquito developmental habitats impact

  16. Mosquito fauna and perspectives for integrated control of urban vector-mosquito populations in Southern Benin (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenfelser, Andre; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Kaiser, Achim; Becker, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at an integrated vector management (IVM) concept of implementing biological control agents against vector mosquito larvae as a cost-effective and scalable control strategy. In the first step, the mosquito species composition fauna of southern Benin was studied using standard entomological procedures in natural and man-made habitats. Altogether, 24 species belonging to 6 genera of mosquitoes Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, Uranotaenia, Ficalbia were recorded. Five species, Cx. thalassius, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. perfuscus, Cx. pocilipes and Fi. mediolineata are described the first time for Benin. The local mosquito species showed high susceptibility to a Bacillus sphaericus formulation (VectoLex(R) WDG ) in a standardized field test. A dosage of 1 g/m(2) was effective to achieve 100 percent mortality rate for Cx. quinquefasciatus late instar larvae in a sewage habitat, with a residual effect of up to 7 days. After more than 1 year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and B. sphaericus was commenced in 2006 in selected areas. Microbial insecticides products for larval control show great potential within IVM programmes and may augment control efforts against adult insects, such as the use of insecticide-treated bed nets or indoor wall spraying in many parts of Africa.

  17. Mosquito Surveillance for Prevention and Control of Emerging Mosquito-Borne Diseases in Portugal — 2008–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Hugo C.; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Amaro, Fátima; Alves, Maria J.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito surveillance in Europe is essential for early detection of invasive species with public health importance and prevention and control of emerging pathogens. In Portugal, a vector surveillance national program—REVIVE (REde de VIgilância de VEctores)—has been operating since 2008 under the custody of Portuguese Ministry of Health. The REVIVE is responsible for the nationwide surveillance of hematophagous arthropods. Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other flaviviruses in adult mosquitoes is continuously performed. Adult mosquitoes—collected mainly with Centre for Disease Control light traps baited with CO2—and larvae were systematically collected from a wide range of habitats in 20 subregions (NUTS III). Around 500,000 mosquitoes were trapped in more than 3,000 trap nights and 3,500 positive larvae surveys, in which 24 species were recorded. The viral activity detected in mosquito populations in these years has been limited to insect specific flaviviruses (ISFs) non-pathogenic to humans. Rather than emergency response, REVIVE allows timely detection of changes in abundance and species diversity providing valuable knowledge to health authorities, which may take control measures of vector populations reducing its impact on public health. This work aims to present the REVIVE operation and to expose data regarding mosquito species composition and detected ISFs. PMID:25396768

  18. Post-breeding migration of Dutch-breeding black-tailed godwits : Timing, routes, use of stopovers, and nonbreeding destinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijmeijer, Jos; Senner, Nathan R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill Jr, Robert E.; Douglas, David C.; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Wymenga, Eddy; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of long-distance migratory shorebirds is complex because these species use habitats spread across continents and hemispheres, making identification of critical habitats and potential bottlenecks in the annual cycle especially difficult. The population of Black-tailed Godwits that breeds

  19. 75 FR 59899 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Proposed Rulemaking To Designate Critical Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... nutritional or physiological requirements; (3) Cover or shelter; (4) Sites for breeding, reproduction, rearing...) in southern California (i.e., south of Point Conception) habitats, and bull kelp...

  20. Modulation of La Crosse virus infection in Aedes albopictus mosquitoes following larval exposure to coffee extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Eastep

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito-borne La Crosse virus (LACV; Family Bunyaviridae may cause encephalitis, primarily in children, and is distributed throughout much of the eastern United States. No antivirals or vaccines are available for LACV, or most other mosquito-borne viruses, and prevention generally relies on mosquito control. We sought to determine whether coffee extracts could interfere with LACV replication and vector mosquito development. Both regular and decaffeinated coffee demonstrated significant reductions in LACV replication in direct antiviral assays. This activity was not due to the presence of caffeine, which did not inhibit the virus life cycle. Aedes albopictus (Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae mosquito larvae suffered near total mortality when reared in high concentrations of regular and decaffeinated coffee and in caffeine. Following larval exposure to sublethal coffee concentrations, adult Ae. albopictus mosquitoes had signficantly reduced whole-body LACV titers five days post-infection, compared to larvae reared in distilled water. These results suggest that it may be possible to both control mosquito populations and alter the vector competence of mosquitoes for arthropod-borne viruses by introducing antiviral compounds into the larval habitat.

  1. SOURCE REDUCTION BEHAVIOR AS AN INDEPENDENT MEASUREMENT OF THE IMPACT OF A PUBLIC HEALTH EDUCATION CAMPAIGN IN AN INTEGRATED VECTOR MANAGEMENT PROGRAM FOR THE ASIAN TIGER MOSQUITO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a public health educational campaign to reduce backyard mosquito-larval habitats. Three communities each, within two New Jersey counties, were randomly selected to receive (1) both education and mosquito control, (2) education only, and (3)...

  2. Mosquito development and biological control in a macrophyte-based wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengne Noumsi, I M; Akoa, A; Atangana Eteme, R; Nya, J; Ngniado, P; Fonkou, T; Brissaud, F

    2005-01-01

    A one-year study of the proliferation of mosquito in a Pistia stratiotes-based waste stabilization ponds in Cameroon revealed that Mansonia and Culex were the main breeding genera with about 55% and 42% of the total imagoes respectively. Though the ponds represent a favorable breeding ground for mosquitoes, only 0.02% of captured imagoes was Anopheles gambiae, suggesting that this wastewater treatment plant does not significantly contribute to the development of the malaria vector in the area. Gambusia sp. introduced to control mosquito population in the ponds acclimatized relatively well in most of the ponds (B3-B7) and their feeding rate without any diet ranged from 15.0 to 50.2 larvae/day for a single fish.

  3. Abiotic and biotic factors associated with the presence of Anopheles arabiensis immatures and their abundance in naturally occurring and man-made aquatic habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouagna Louis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae is a potential malaria vector commonly present at low altitudes in remote areas in Reunion Island. Little attention has been paid to the environmental conditions driving larval development and abundance patterns in potential habitats. Two field surveys were designed to determine whether factors that discriminate between aquatic habitats with and without An. arabiensis larvae also drive larval abundance, comparatively in man-made and naturally occurring habitats. Methods In an initial preliminary survey, a representative sample of aquatic habitats that would be amenable to an intensive long-term study were selected and divided into positive and negative sites based on the presence or absence of Anopheles arabiensis larvae. Subsequently, a second survey was prompted to gain a better understanding of biotic and abiotic drivers of larval abundance, comparatively in man-made and naturally occurring habitats in the two studied locations. In both surveys, weekly sampling was performed to record mosquito species composition and larval density within individual habitats, as well as in situ biological characteristics and physico-chemical properties. Results Whilst virtually any stagnant water body could be a potential breeding ground for An. arabiensis, habitats occupied by their immatures had different structural and biological characteristics when compared to those where larvae were absent. Larval occurrence seemed to be influenced by flow velocity, macrofauna diversity and predation pressure. Interestingly, the relative abundance of larvae in man-made habitats (average: 0.55 larvae per dip, 95%CI [0.3–0.7] was significantly lower than that recorded in naturally occurring ones (0.74, 95%CI [0.5–0.8]. Such differences may be accounted for in part by varying pressures that could be linked to a specific habitat. Conclusions If the larval ecology of An. arabiensis is in general very complex

  4. HABITAT PERKEMBANGBIAKAN DAN AKTIVITAS MENGGIGIT NYAMUK ANOPHELES SUNDAICUS DAN ANOPHELES SUBPICTUS DI PURWOREJO, JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supratman Sukowati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria continues to be a public health problem, it causes morbidity, mortality as well as outbreak in several remote areas in Indonesia. Vector control remains the most effective measure to prevent malaria transmission. The understanding of mosquito species, its bio-ecology, and the characteristic of their habitats are very important to formulate the vector control strategy. It was recognized that there are many aspects of behavior that are directly and indirectly important in the prevention and control of malaria. One of the main cause of malaria control failure due to lack of understanding vector spesies and its bio-ecology.This paper reported the study of breeding places and biting activities of malaria vector Anophles sundaicus and An. subpictus from coastal area of Purworejo area in year 2004. Natural population of anopheline species was sampled from larval survey, landing collection, animal resting collection, resting collection to study the larval habitat, biting activities, resting habit and biting sites. Nine species of anopheline werefound in Jati Malang e.g. An. sundaicus, An. subpictus, An. barbirostris, An. vagus, An. aconitus, An.indefinitus, An. tesselatus, An. nigerrimus, An. annularis. In Gedangan village was found 5 species of Anopheles e.g. An. sundaicus, An. subpictus, An. barbirostris, An. vagus, and An. aconitus.The breeding places of Anopheles spp. are varied, in Jati Malang and Gedangan were found lagoon, brackish water fish-pond, rice field, freshwater fishpond, irrigation channel, and pit hole. Therefore, the breeding places of An. sundaicus and An. subpictus confined in the lagoon and brackish water fish ponds, with its characteristics e.g. water temperature ranges 25,6°C-27,8°C, pH ranges 7,2-7,6, water salinity 3,0-3,4%, and water dept is 20,3 cm-25,2 cm, muddy undergroud, stagnant or slow running water with the water weed mostly green algae (Chlorophyta and lichen.The biting activities of An. sundaicus and An

  5. How mosquitoes fly in the rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Andrew; Shankles, Peter; Madhavan, Nihar; Hu, David

    2011-11-01

    Mosquitoes thrive during rainfall and high humidity. If raindrops are 50 times heavier than mosquitoes, how do mosquitoes fly in the rain? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we measure the impact force between a falling drop and a free-flying mosquito. High-speed videography of mosquitoes and custom-built mimics reveals a mosquito's low inertia renders it impervious to falling drops. Drops do not splash on mosquitoes, but simply push past them allowing a mosquito to continue on its flight path undeterred. We rationalize the force imparted using scaling relations based on the time of rebound between a falling drop and a free body of significantly less mass.

  6. Spatiotemporal dynamics of immature culicines (subfamily Culicinae) and their larval habitats in Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Mwangangi, Joseph M; Jacob, Benjamin G; Shililu, Josephat I; Mbogo, Charles M; Githure, John I; Novak, Robert J

    2009-03-01

    An ecological study was conducted at three study sites in Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya to identify the diverse aquatic habitats in which culicine mosquitoes thrived and to explore the best strategies for mosquito control in the area. During the 11-month study period, ten habitat categories and 11 culicine species mainly dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (72.0%) and Culex annulioris (17.9%) were identified from pupae and late instars larval samples. Two of the 11 culicine species, Ficalbia (Mimomyia) plumosa and Uranotaenia spp., have not been reported previously in the study area. Rurumi had more habitat types than either of the other study sites but the least number of mosquito species. In contrast, Karima had the least number of habitat types but significantly higher density of early instars than the other study sites. The relative abundance of late instars and pupae did not vary significantly among study sites. The contribution of different habitat types to larval production varied markedly between seasons and among study sites. Paddies and canals were perennial contributors of culicine mosquito larvae while the other habitat types were important mainly during the wet season. Some habitat types such as ditches, seeps, marshes, and fishpond were absent in some study sites but of great significance in other study sites. C. quinquefasciatus was positively associated with turbidity at all study sites and also negatively associated with emergent vegetation and distance to the nearest homestead in Karima, emergent vegetation in Kiuria, and other aquatic invertebrates in Rurumi. C. annulioris was positively associated with emergent vegetation at all study sites and also with depth in Kiuria. These findings indicate that besides rice fields and associated habitats, a diversity of other aquatic habitats contribute to culicine adult mosquito production in the study area and that environmental factors that determine the occurrence of a particular mosquito species may vary

  7. Ultrastructural studies of mosquito ovogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumaré, M L; Ndiaye, M

    2005-04-01

    The ovogenesis of four mosquito species belonging to the genera Aedes, Anopheles and Culex, are investigated using Electron microscopes. Three ovogenetic phases named previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis, postvitellogenesis and mature eggs are described using transmission electron and light microscopes. Egg ornamentations are described with scanning electron microscopy. The controversial nomenclature of the mosquito egg envelopes is discussed.

  8. Identification of central Kenyan Rift Valley Fever virus vector habitats with Landsat TM and evaluation of their flooding status with airborne imaging radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, K. O.; Sheffner, E. J.; Linthicum, K. J.; Bailey, C. L.; Logan, T. M.; Kasischke, E. S.; Birney, K.; Njogu, A. R.; Roberts, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne virus that affects livestock and humans in Africa. Landsat TM data are shown to be effective in identifying dambos, intermittently flooded areas that are potential mosquite breeding sites, in an area north of Nairobi, Kenya. Positive results were obtained from a limited test of flood detection in dambos with airborne high resolution L, C, and X band multipolarization SAR imagery. L and C bands were effective in detecting flooded dambos, but LHH was by far the best channel for discrimination between flooded and nonflooded sites in both sedge and short-grass environments. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a combined passive and active remote sensing program for monitoring the location and condition of RVF vector habitats, thus making future control of the disease more promising.

  9. Door to Door Survey and Community Participation to Implement a New County Mosquito Control Program in Wayne County, North Carolina, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Kelley

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Community involvement in mosquito management programs provides more sustainable and effective organization and service. A door to door survey in Wayne County, NC carried out by student volunteers, resulted in 60 household responses. Residents had not previously experienced outreach from the county (88%, and 95% of them thought the student door to door survey was an effective form of outreach. One third of the residents thought mosquitoes were severe where they lived, but only 9% thought they had any containers in their yard that might breed mosquitoes. Only 15% of the residents were concerned about mosquito borne diseases. These responses provide evidence that outreach and education on mosquito control and diseases were necessary steps for future mosquito control community planning.

  10. Modeled response of the West Nile virus vector Culex quinquefasciatus to changing climate using the dynamic mosquito simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Cory W.; Comrie, Andrew C.

    2010-09-01

    Climate can strongly influence the population dynamics of disease vectors and is consequently a key component of disease ecology. Future climate change and variability may alter the location and seasonality of many disease vectors, possibly increasing the risk of disease transmission to humans. The mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus is a concern across the southern United States because of its role as a West Nile virus vector and its affinity for urban environments. Using established relationships between atmospheric variables (temperature and precipitation) and mosquito development, we have created the Dynamic Mosquito Simulation Model (DyMSiM) to simulate Cx. quinquefasciatus population dynamics. The model is driven with climate data and validated against mosquito count data from Pasco County, Florida and Coachella Valley, California. Using 1-week and 2-week filters, mosquito trap data are reproduced well by the model ( P climate projection data generated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research CCSM3 general circulation model, we applied temperature and precipitation offsets to the climate data at each location to evaluate mosquito population sensitivity to possible future climate conditions. We found that temperature and precipitation shifts act interdependently to cause remarkable changes in modeled mosquito population dynamics. Impacts include a summer population decline from drying in California due to loss of immature mosquito habitats, and in Florida a decrease in late-season mosquito populations due to drier late summer conditions.

  11. Competitor phenology as a social cue in breeding site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samplonius, Jelmer M; Both, Christiaan

    2017-05-01

    Predicting habitat quality is a major challenge for animals selecting a breeding patch, because it affects reproductive success. Breeding site selection may be based on previous experience, or on social information from the density and success of competitors with an earlier phenology. Variation in animal breeding phenology is often correlated with variation in habitat quality. Generally, animals breed earlier in high-quality habitats that allow them to reach a nutritional threshold required for breeding earlier or avoid nest predation. In addition, habitat quality may affect phenological overlap between species and thereby interspecific competition. Therefore, we hypothesized that competitor breeding phenology can be used as social cue by settling migrants to locate high-quality breeding sites. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally advanced and delayed hatching phenology of two resident tit species on the level of study plots and studied male and female settlement patterns of migratory pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca. The manipulations were assigned at random in two consecutive years, and treatments were swapped between years in sites that were used in both years. In both years, males settled in equal numbers across treatments, but later arriving females avoided pairing with males in delayed phenology plots. Moreover, male pairing probability declined strongly with arrival date on the breeding grounds. Our results demonstrate that competitor phenology may be used to assess habitat quality by settling migrants, but we cannot pinpoint the exact mechanism (e.g. resource quality, predation pressure or competition) that has given rise to this pattern. In addition, we show that opposing selection pressures for arrival timing may give rise to different social information availabilities between sexes. We discuss our findings in the context of climate warming, social information use and the evolution of protandry in migratory animals.

  12. Mosquitoes: A Resource Book for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmor, Mary S.; And Others

    This booklet was written for anyone interested in growing mosquitoes and experimenting with them. There are three major sections: (1) rationale for studying mosquitoes, (2) raising mosquitoes, and (3) some scientific findings. The first section describes basic information about mosquitoes. The second section includes information about materials,…

  13. Molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus in mosquitoes in Taiwan during 2005-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ling Su

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV. Pigs and water birds are the main amplifying and maintenance hosts of the virus. In this study, we conducted a JEV survey in mosquitoes captured in pig farms and water bird wetland habitats in Taiwan during 2005 to 2012. A total of 102,633 mosquitoes were collected. Culex tritaeniorhynchus was the most common mosquito species found in the pig farms and wetlands. Among the 26 mosquito species collected, 11 tested positive for JEV by RT-PCR, including Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. annulus, Anopheles sinensis, Armigeres subalbatus, and Cx. fuscocephala. Among those testing positive, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was the predominant vector species for the transmission of JEV genotypes I and III in Taiwan. The JEV infection rate was significantly higher in the mosquitoes from the pig farms than those from the wetlands. A phylogenetic analysis of the JEV envelope gene sequences isolated from the captured mosquitoes demonstrated that the predominant JEV genotype has shifted from genotype III to genotype I (GI, providing evidence for transmission cycle maintenance and multiple introductions of the GI strains in Taiwan during 2008 to 2012. This study demonstrates the intense JEV transmission activity in Taiwan, highlights the importance of JE vaccination for controlling the epidemic, and provides valuable information for the assessment of the vaccine's efficacy.

  14. Foraging ranges of insectivorous bats shift relative to changes in mosquito abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroy Gonsalves

    Full Text Available The need to develop effective management strategies for insectivorous bat populations requires an understanding of factors influencing habitat use. Availability of pest prey, such as mosquitoes is likely to be one such factor. To assess whether this is the case, we radio-tracked Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas (little forest bat, a predator of Aedes vigilax Skuse (saltmarsh mosquito, in saltmarsh and adjacent coastal swamp forest during periods of high and low Ae. vigilax abundance. When mosquito abundance in structurally-open saltmarsh was similar to the more cluttered coastal swamp forest, use of saltmarsh by V. vulturnus was disproportionately greater than its availability, with saltmarsh selected preferentially for foraging. However, at times of low Ae. vigilax abundance in saltmarsh, use of saltmarsh by V. vulturnus was reduced and all habitats were used in proportion to availability in the study area. This is the first radio-tracking study to demonstrate a shift in foraging range by an insectivorous bat species correlated with fluctuations in the distribution and abundance of a particular prey resource. The shift in foraging range by V. vulturnus, corresponding with a spatio-temporal variation in abundance of Ae. vigilax highlights the importance of mosquitoes as a dietary item. Broadscale pest control of Ae. vigilax may have ecological implications for the diet and habitat use of V. vulturnus. An adaptive management approach is proposed, whereby careful monitoring of insectivorous bat populations is recommended before and after any application of broadscale mosquito control measures. We also suggest a precautionary approach is taken such that broadscale control of mosquitoes avoids the lactation period of bats, a time when their energetic demands are greatest and when there is reduced risk of contracting mosquito-borne diseases transmitted by Ae. vigilax.

  15. Distribution of mosquitoes in relation to urban landscape characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiser, R M; Zalazar, L P

    2010-04-01

    The current global increase in prevalence of vector borne diseases, as well as an expansion of tropical infections to more temperate zones, justifies further studies on vector populations. Urban areas may favour viral transmission to humans through close contacts between the vectors and the vertebrate hosts, and also affecting mosquito populations by offering larval habitat, refuges and adequate microclimates to survive the winter. This work analyses the spatial distribution of potential vector mosquitoes in relation to landscape characteristics in an urban environment in a temperate climate region. Mosquitoes were trapped monthly from October 2005 to March 2006 in 25 sites within Córdoba city and suburbs with miniature light traps+CO2. Nine species were collected, and the most abundant were Culex quinquefasciatus (37.1%), C. apicinus (26.6%) and Aedes aegypti (13.9%). Species that may be involved in SLEv transmission were recorded throughout the sampling. C. quinquefasciatus was detected in 92% of the sites; however, only two sites showed consistently larger collections. The site of highest C. quinquefasciatus abundance was located within an area of high Saint Louis Encefalitis virus prevalence and risk of infection, further supporting this species involvement as a vector. Significant correlations were detected between land cover characteristics and abundance of C. apicinus, C. interfor and C. maxi that were consistent with previous knowledge about their larval habitat and domestic preferences, which may be useful for targeting vector control operations.

  16. Anopheline larval habitats seasonality and species distribution: a prerequisite for effective targeted larval habitats control programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya J Kweka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Larval control is of paramount importance in the reduction of malaria vector abundance and subsequent disease transmission reduction. Understanding larval habitat succession and its ecology in different land use managements and cropping systems can give an insight for effective larval source management practices. This study investigated larval habitat succession and ecological parameters which influence larval abundance in malaria epidemic prone areas of western Kenya. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 51 aquatic habitats positive for anopheline larvae were surveyed and visited once a week for a period of 85 weeks in succession. Habitats were selected and identified. Mosquito larval species, physico-chemical parameters, habitat size, grass cover, crop cycle and distance to nearest house were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction revealed that An. gambiae s.l was the most dominant vector species comprised of An.gambiae s.s (77.60% and An.arabiensis (18.34%, the remaining 4.06% had no amplification by polymerase chain reaction. Physico-chemical parameters and habitat size significantly influenced abundance of An. gambiae s.s (P = 0.024 and An. arabiensis (P = 0.002 larvae. Further, larval species abundance was influenced by crop cycle (P≤0.001, grass cover (P≤0.001, while distance to nearest houses significantly influenced the abundance of mosquito species larvae (r = 0.920;P≤0.001. The number of predator species influenced mosquito larval abundance in different habitat types. Crop weeding significantly influenced with the abundance of An.gambiae s.l (P≤0.001 when preceded with fertilizer application. Significantly higher anopheline larval abundance was recorded in habitats in pasture compared to farmland (P = 0.002. When habitat stability and habitat types were considered, hoof print were the most productive followed by disused goldmines. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that implementation of effective larval

  17. Challenges in undertaking mosquito surveillance at UK seaports and airports to prevent the entry and establishment of invasive vector species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gai; Vaux, Alex; Medlock, Jolyon

    2013-01-01

    Port health authorities have played an important role in the control of infectious diseases worldwide. The International Health Regulations (2005) further clarifies this role and provides a legal statutory instrument that aims to assist the international community to prevent and respond to global public health risks. Eleven UK sea and airports participated in a pilot, investigating the challenges ports could face in attempting to monitor for mosquitoes. The study also examined the types of habitat that could support mosquitoes. There is a concern that exotic vector species, such as Aedes albopictus, could invade and become established in the UK. Environments in and around the ports differed, and this was reflected in the species of mosquitoes caught. Ports used different methods to collect mosquitoes and developed a range of techniques for surveying, which suited the conditions at their port. This paper discusses the implications of invasive mosquito surveillance to UK port health authorities.

  18. Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Famenini Shannon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically-modified (GM mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily directed, very little data is available on perspectives to GMOs. Here, results are presented of a qualitative survey of public attitudes to GM mosquitoes for malaria control in rural and urban areas of Mali, West Africa between the months of October 2008 and June 2009. Methods The sample consisted of 80 individuals - 30 living in rural communities, 30 living in urban suburbs of Bamako, and 20 Western-trained and traditional health professionals working in Bamako and Bandiagara. Questions were asked about the cause of malaria, heredity and selective breeding. This led to questions about genetic alterations, and acceptable conditions for a release of pest-resistant GM corn and malaria-refractory GM mosquitoes. Finally, participants were asked about the decision-making process in their community. Interviews were transcribed and responses were categorized according to general themes. Results Most participants cited mosquitoes as one of several causes of malaria. The concept of the gene was not widely understood; however selective breeding was understood, allowing limited communication of the concept of genetic modification. Participants were open to a release of pest-resistant GM corn, often wanting to conduct a trial themselves. The concept of a trial was reapplied to GM mosquitoes, although less frequently. Participants wanted to see evidence that GM mosquitoes can reduce malaria prevalence without negative consequences for human health and the environment. For several participants, a mosquito control programme was

  19. Nesting habitat requirements and nestling diet in the Mediterranean populations of Crested Tits Lophophanes cristatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atienzar, F.; Barba, E.; Holleman, L.J.M.; Belda, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Most bird species show specific habitat requirements for breeding and feeding. We studied the pattern of habitat occupation, nestling diet and breeding performance of Crested Tits Lophophanes cristatus in a “typical” (coniferous) and an “atypical” (Holm Oak Quercus ilex) forest in eastern Spain duri

  20. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land. Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  1. RNA Interference for Mosquito and Mosquito-Borne Disease Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Airs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is a powerful tool to silence endogenous mosquito and mosquito-borne pathogen genes in vivo. As the number of studies utilizing RNAi in basic research grows, so too does the arsenal of physiological targets that can be developed into products that interrupt mosquito life cycles and behaviors and, thereby, relieve the burden of mosquitoes on human health and well-being. As this technology becomes more viable for use in beneficial and pest insect management in agricultural settings, it is exciting to consider its role in public health entomology. Existing and burgeoning strategies for insecticide delivery could be adapted to function as RNAi trigger delivery systems and thereby expedite transformation of RNAi from the lab to the field for mosquito control. Taken together, development of RNAi-based vector and pathogen management techniques & strategies are within reach. That said, tools for successful RNAi design, studies exploring RNAi in the context of vector control, and studies demonstrating field efficacy of RNAi trigger delivery have yet to be honed and/or developed for mosquito control.

  2. Botanicals as Mosquito Larvicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Nath,

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Methanol extracts of 19 indigenous plants were evaluated as mosquito larvicide. Amongthese, pericarp of Zanthoxylum limonella was found to have the most promising larvicidalproperties against Aedes(s albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus with LC90 values at 0.47 ppmand 0.73 ppm, respectively. The extract of Piper nigrum was also found very effective (LC90on the larvae of both the species at 6.8 ppm and 8.4 ppm, respectively. The extracts of theremaining plant parts showed LC90 values at above 100 ppm concentration. Extract of Calotropisgigantea was found to be the least effective ( LC90 values at 962.8 ppm and 1091.8 ppm againstthe larvae of both the species. However, plant extracts were found more effective against Aedes(salbopictus larvae than against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

  3. Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica formulation against mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dua Virendra K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the larvicidal activity of neem-based biopesticide for the control of mosquitoes. Methods Larvicidal efficacy of an emulsified concentrate of neem oil formulation (neem oil with polyoxyethylene ether, sorbitan dioleate and epichlorohydrin developed by BMR & Company, Pune, India, was evaluated against late 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of different genera of mosquitoes. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations (0.5–5.0 ppm of the formulation along with untreated control. Larvicidal activity of the formulation was also evaluated in field against Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes. The formulation was diluted with equal volumes of water and applied @ 140 mg a.i./m2 to different mosquito breeding sites with the help of pre calibrated knapsack sprayer. Larval density was determined at pre and post application of the formulation using a standard dipper. Results Median lethal concentration (LC50 of the formulation against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was found to be 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7 ppm respectively. LC50 values of the formulation stored at 26°C, 40°C and 45°C for 48 hours against Ae. aegypti were 1.7, 1.7, 1.8 ppm while LC90 values were 3.7, 3.7 and 3.8 ppm respectively. Further no significant difference in LC50 and LC90 values of the formulation was observed against Ae. aegypti during 18 months storage period at room temperature. An application of the formulation at the rate of 140 mg a.i./m2 in different breeding

  4. Indigenous knowledge of animal breeding and breeds

    OpenAIRE

    I. Kohler-Rollefson

    2004-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge of animal breeding (IK-AB) includes concepts and practices used to influence the genetic composition of herds. Indigenous selection is often based on preferences based on physical characteristics, vigor, social and economic insurance. This issue paper summarizes the value of indigenous knowledge and local breeds to achieve agricultural sustainability. Links to IK-AB information are also provided. Available in SANREM office, ES

  5. Habitat availability is a more plausible explanation than insecticide acute toxicity for U.S. grassland bird species declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassland bird species have experienced substantial declines in North America. These declines have been largely attributed to habitat loss and degradation, especially from agricultural practices and intensification (the habitat-availability hypothesis). A recent analysis of North American Breeding B...

  6. Do vegetated rooftops attract more mosquitoes? Monitoring disease vector abundance on urban green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gwendolyn K L; Jim, C Y

    2016-12-15

    Green roof, an increasingly common constituent of urban green infrastructure, can provide multiple ecosystem services and mitigate climate-change and urban-heat-island challenges. Its adoption has been beset by a longstanding preconception of attracting urban pests like mosquitoes. As more cities may become vulnerable to emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases, the knowledge gap needs to be filled. This study gauges the habitat preference of vector mosquitoes for extensive green roofs vis-à-vis positive and negative control sites in an urban setting. Seven sites in a university campus were selected to represent three experimental treatments: green roofs (GR), ground-level blue-green spaces as positive controls (PC), and bare roofs as negative controls (NC). Mosquito-trapping devices were deployed for a year from March 2015 to 2016. Human-biting mosquito species known to transmit infectious diseases in the region were identified and recorded as target species. Generalized linear models evaluated the effects of site type, season, and weather on vector-mosquito abundance. Our model revealed site type as a significant predictor of vector mosquito abundance, with considerably more vector mosquitoes captured in PC than in GR and NC. Vector abundance was higher in NC than in GR, attributed to the occasional presence of water pools in depressions of roofing membrane after rainfall. Our data also demonstrated seasonal differences in abundance. Weather variables were evaluated to assess human-vector contact risks under different weather conditions. Culex quinquefasciatus, a competent vector of diseases including lymphatic filariasis and West Nile fever, could be the most adaptable species. Our analysis demonstrates that green roofs are not particularly preferred by local vector mosquitoes compared to bare roofs and other urban spaces in a humid subtropical setting. The findings call for a better understanding of vector ecology in diverse urban landscapes

  7. Nationwide inventory of mosquito biodiversity (Diptera: Culicidae) in Belgium, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteirt, V; Boyer, S; Damiens, D; De Clercq, E M; Dekoninck, W; Ducheyne, E; Grootaert, P; Garros, C; Hance, T; Hendrickx, G; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2013-04-01

    To advance our restricted knowledge on mosquito biodiversity and distribution in Belgium, a national inventory started in 2007 (MODIRISK) based on a random selection of 936 collection points in three main environmental types: urban, rural and natural areas. Additionally, 64 sites were selected because of the risk of importing a vector or pathogen in these sites. Each site was sampled once between May and October 2007 and once in 2008 using Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus traps. Diversity in pre-defined habitat types was calculated using three indices. The association between species and environmental types was assessed using a correspondence analysis. Twenty-three mosquito species belonging to traditionally recognized genera were found, including 21 indigenous and two exotic species. Highest species diversity (Simpson 0.765) and species richness (20 species) was observed in natural areas, although urban sites scored also well (Simpson 0.476, 16 species). Four clusters could be distinguished based on the correspondence analysis. The first one is related to human modified landscapes (such as urban, rural and industrial sites). A second is composed of species not associated with a specific habitat type, including the now widely distributed Anopheles plumbeus. A third group includes species commonly found in restored natural or bird migration areas, and a fourth cluster is composed of forest species. Outcomes of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed sampling scheme and support the choice of the trap type. Obtained results of this first country-wide inventory of the Culicidae in Belgium may serve as a basis for risk assessment of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  8. Breeding Biology and Diet of the African Swallow-Tailed Kite (Chelictinia riocourii) in Senegal and Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, R.; Cavaillés, S.; Mullié, W.C.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the breeding biology of the African Swallow-tailed Kite (Chelictinia riocourii) in two study areas located 3400 km apart in the central (Cameroon) and western (Senegal) portions of the species' breeding range. With 110 nests in 2.8 km2 of suitable breeding habitat, Kousmar islet (23 km2)

  9. BREEDING BIOLOGY AND DIET OF THE AFRICAN SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (CHELICTINIA RIOCOURII) IN SENEGAL AND CAMEROON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, Ralph; Cavailles, Simon; Mullie, Wim C.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the breeding biology of the African Swallow-tailed Kite (Chelictinia riocourii) in two study areas located 3400 km apart in the central (Cameroon) and western (Senegal) portions of the species' breeding range. With 110 nests in 2.8 km(2) of suitable breeding habitat, Kousmar islet (23 km(

  10. Heritability of Attractiveness to Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Grandon, G. Mandela; Gezan, Salvador A.; Armour, John A. L.; Pickett, John A.; Logan, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Female mosquitoes display preferences for certain individuals over others, which is determined by differences in volatile chemicals produced by the human body and detected by mosquitoes. Body odour can be controlled genetically but the existence of a genetic basis for differential attraction to insects has never been formally demonstrated. This study investigated heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes by evaluating the response of Aedes aegypti (=Stegomyia aegypti) mosquitoes to odours from the hands of identical and non-identical twins in a dual-choice assay. Volatiles from individuals in an identical twin pair showed a high correlation in attractiveness to mosquitoes, while non-identical twin pairs showed a significantly lower correlation. Overall, there was a strong narrow-sense heritability of 0.62 (SE 0.124) for relative attraction and 0.67 (0.354) for flight activity based on the average of ten measurements. The results demonstrate an underlying genetic component detectable by mosquitoes through olfaction. Understanding the genetic basis for attractiveness could create a more informed approach to repellent development. PMID:25901606

  11. Categorization of potential breeding sites of dengue vectors in Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamah, M A; Sulaiman, S; Omar, B

    2010-04-01

    This cross-sectional study was to compare and categorize potential breeding sites of dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus at three different places, namely, an urban (Taman Permas Jaya, Johor Bahru, Johor), a suburban (Kg. Melayu Gelang Patah, Johor Bahru, Johor) and a rural (Felda Simpang Waha, Kota Tinggi, Johor) habitats in Malaysia. Larval surveys were conducted once in every two months at each habitat over a period of 11 months from August 2000 until June 2001. There was a significant difference between the three study sites in terms of potential breeding sites inspected (psuburban (29.35)>urban habitat (16.97). Both breeding sites and potential breeding sites were the nominator and the total number of containers inspected as the denominator in the formula of PCI, thus the latter could be a potential indicator to initiate anti-dengue campaign at the community level to rid off potential Aedes breeding sites. The three most common potential breeding sites of Aedes species were similar for urban and suburban habitats (flower pots, pails and bowls respectively). However, flower pots, vases and tyres were the three most common potential breeding sites for the rural habitat. Another finding in this study was that various types of larval habitats were found indoors and outdoors for both species.

  12. Household Wastes as Larval Habitats of Dengue Vectors: Comparison between Urban and Rural Areas of Kolkata, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumyajit Banerjee

    Full Text Available Porcelain and plastic materials constitute bulk of household wastes. Owing to resistibility and slow degradability that accounts for higher residence time, these materials qualify as potential hazardous wastes. Retention of water permits these wastes to form a congenial biotope for the breeding of different vector mosquitoes. Thus porcelain and plastic wastes pose a risk from public health viewpoint. This proposition was validated through the study on the porcelain and plastic household wastes as larval habitats of Dengue vectors (Aedes spp. in rural and urban areas around Kolkata, India. The wastes were characterized in terms of larval productivity, seasonal variation and a comparison between urban and rural areas was made using data of two subsequent years. The number of wastes positive as larval habitats and their productivity of Aedes spp. varied among the types of household wastes with reference to months and location. Multivariate analysis revealed significant differences in the larval productivity of the household wastes based on the materials, season, and urban-rural context. Results of Discriminant Analysis indicated differences in abundance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for the urban and rural areas. The porcelain and plastic wastes were more productive in urban areas compared to the rural areas, indicating a possible difference in the household waste generation. A link between household wastes with Aedes productivity is expected to increase the risk of dengue epidemics if waste generation is continued without appropriate measures to limit addition to the environment. Perhaps, alternative strategies and replacement of materials with low persistence time can reduce this problem of waste and mosquito production.

  13. SPECIES COMPOSITION AND WNV SCREENING OF MOSQUITOES FROM LAGOONS IN A WETLAND AREA OF THE ALGARVE, PORTUGAL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Bernardino Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate mosquito abundance, species diversity, larval and adult population dynamics in seven lagoons integrated in the wetland coastal system of the Algarve, Portugal, in the summer of 2007, as well as the screening of these for West Nile Virus (WNV. WNV has been isolated from mosquitoes in this region, in the summer of 2004, next to the putative area of infection of two linked human WN cases.Adult mosquitoes were collected with CDC traps baited with CO2, and potential breeding sites were surveyed for immature stages. Morphological identification of 1,432 adult mosquitoes and 85 larvae revealed the presence of 10 species: Anopheles atroparvus, An. algeriensis, Coquillettidia richiardii, Culex modestus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. univittatus, Culiseta longiareolata, Aedes caspius and Ae. detritus. Adult mosquito peak densities were recorded in July, contrasting with null larval breeding in the same month in the surveyed biotopes. Most abundant species were Cx. pipiens (52%, Cx. theileri (29% and Ae. caspius (11%. Lagoon Salgados and Quinta das Salinas, exhibited the highest similarity of culicid fauna, despite being most distant from each other, Female mosquitoes (1,249 specimens screened by RT-PCR, did not reveal WNV products. However, previous detection of WNV activity in this area, susceptible to re-introductions, demands for continued vigilance.

  14. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  15. Cooler temperatures destabilize RNA interference and increase susceptibility of disease vector mosquitoes to viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach N Adelman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of global climate change on the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is the subject of extensive debate. The transmission of mosquito-borne viral diseases is particularly complex, with climatic variables directly affecting many parameters associated with the prevalence of disease vectors. While evidence shows that warmer temperatures often decrease the extrinsic incubation period of an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus, exposure to cooler temperatures often predisposes disease vector mosquitoes to higher infection rates. RNA interference (RNAi pathways are essential to antiviral immunity in the mosquito; however, few experiments have explored the effects of temperature on the RNAi machinery. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We utilized transgenic "sensor" strains of Aedes aegypti to examine the role of temperature on RNA silencing. These "sensor" strains express EGFP only when RNAi is inhibited; for example, after knockdown of the effector proteins Dicer-2 (DCR-2 or Argonaute-2 (AGO-2. We observed an increase in EGFP expression in transgenic sensor mosquitoes reared at 18°C as compared with 28°C. Changes in expression were dependent on the presence of an inverted repeat with homology to a portion of the EGFP sequence, as transgenic strains lacking this sequence, the double stranded RNA (dsRNA trigger for RNAi, showed no change in EGFP expression when reared at 18°C. Sequencing small RNAs in sensor mosquitoes reared at low temperature revealed normal processing of dsRNA substrates, suggesting the observed deficiency in RNAi occurs downstream of DCR-2. Rearing at cooler temperatures also predisposed mosquitoes to higher levels of infection with both chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This data suggest that microclimates, such as those present in mosquito breeding sites, as well as more general climactic variables may influence the dynamics of mosquito-borne viral diseases by affecting

  16. Remote Sensing Assessment of Soil Moisture, Soil Mineralogy and other Environmental Factors Influencing Mosquito-borne Infection Risks in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, U.S. - Mexico Border (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, B. E.; Folger, H. W.; Page, W. R.

    2010-12-01

    A dengue fever outbreak occurred near Matamoros, Mexico along the Lower Rio Grande Valley during the summer of 2005 following heavy rainfall from Tropical Storm Gert and Hurricane Emily. This outbreak exemplifies the need for monitoring soil moisture and mapping soil permeability factors affecting the breeding and distribution of mosquito species capable of spreading disease. For example, the Rio Grande delta of South Texas and North Tamaulipas Mexico is inhabited by over 50 native and invasive species of mosquitoes capable of hosting Malaria, West Nile Virus and other types of human and livestock infecting Encephalitis. They range in ecological habitats from coastal salt marshes to freshwater riparian wetlands, tree holes and/or urban containers, flooded agricultural fields, and the many irrigation canals and ditches present throughout our study area. For this study, water-saturated and flooded soils were mapped using a “soil moisture availability” index (Mo) based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images and surface radiant and/or kinetic temperature images derived from multi-temporal Landsat-7 ETM+ and ASTER imagery. In particular, the Landsat-7 imagery covers ten cloud-free or minimal cloud cover acquisition dates during drought and wet periods of 2002, prior to the scan-line corrector failure in 2003. This includes one date (August 18, 2002) of co-orbital swath coverage between Landsat and ASTER, acquired after the land fall and dissipation of Tropical Storm Bertha (August 09, 2002). ASTER image dates used include those before and after the land fall of Hurricane Emily on July 20, 2005. The resulting maps show the distribution of relatively permeable (i.e. sandier) and impermeable soil types, the latter of which are dominated by clay-rich soils deposited in remnant interdistributary channels as channel-fill, and overbank flood deposits along the modern Rio Grande delta and portions of the (remapped) Pleistocene Beaumont coastal deltaic plain

  17. Breeding bird survey of the Delair Division of the Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge, Annada District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this study was to inventory the breeding birds, both game and nongame, present within the boundaries of the Mark Twain NWR, and to identify habitat...

  18. The Breeding Ecology of White-faced Ibis in the Carson River Basin, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To ensure long-term breeding population viability of White-faced Ibis, it may be necessary to develop local water management strategies with consideration of habitat...

  19. Waterfowl breeding pair survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories: 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories during...

  20. Experimental waterfowl breeding population survey Maine, the Maritime provinces, and Central Quebec: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Maine, the Maritime provinces, and Central Quebec during 1997. The primary purpose of...

  1. 1992: Northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories: Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories during...

  2. Alaska-Yukon waterfowl breeding pair survey, May 17 to June 7, 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Alaska during 1969. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  3. Alaska-Yukon: Waterfowl breeding pair survey: May 20 to June 14, 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Alaska-Yukon during 1977. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information...

  4. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba and western Ontario: May-June 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and western Ontario during 1959. The...

  5. Pilot study: Waterfowl breeding population survey: Ontario, Quebec, and New York: May 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Ontario, Quebec, and New York during 1995. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  6. Southern Ontario, Quebec, and New York: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Southern Ontario, Quebec, and New York during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey...

  7. Waterfowl breeding pair survey for western Ontario: May 27 through June 1, 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1973. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  8. Waterfowl breeding population survey: New York, Eastern Ontario, and Southern Quebec: 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for New York, Eastern Ontario, and Southern Quebec during 1999. The primary purpose of...

  9. Effects of insect growth regulators on the mosquito-parasitic nematode Romanomermis iyengari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Devi Shankar; Brey, Christopher W; Wang, Yi; Sanad, Manar; Shamseldean, Muhammed S M; Gaugler, Randy

    2013-02-01

    Pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analogue, diflubenzuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, and azadirachtin, an ecdysone agonist, are three insect growth regulators (IGRs) considered as selective and effective insecticides for mosquitoes. Romanomermis iyengari (Welch) is a mosquito-parasitic mermithid that can provide biological control against many medically important mosquito species. The compatibility of these two control tactics was tested by evaluating the sublethal effects of exposure to IGR on nematode developmental stages (preparasitic, parasitic, and preparasitic + parasitic) using Culex pipiens larvae as the host. Sublethal concentrations of IGRs were 90 % emergence inhibition of host mosquito. Preparasitic exposure to pyriproxyfen, azadirachtin, and diflurbenzuron had no effect on infectivity, parasite load, sex ratio, or male size but reduced nematode female length and increased male sex ratio at one parasite/larva. When IGRs treatments were made against the parasitic and preparasitic + parasitic stages, pyriproxyfen and azadirachtin reduced R. iyengari infectivity, parasite load, and male nematode length, whereas pyriproxyfen exposure increased male sex ratio and reduced the female R. iyengari length. Thus, IGRs have significant negative impacts on different stages of mosquito mermithid that can destabilize the balance of host-parasite population interaction. Therefore, IGRs should be used with caution in mosquito habitats where these parasites have established.

  10. Impact of slow-release Bacillus sphaericus granules on mosquito populations followed in a tropical urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovmand, Ole; Ouedraogo, Thierry D A; Sanogo, Edith; Samuelsen, Helle; Toé, Lea P; Baldet, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    A floating, slow-release, granular formulation of Bacillus sphaericus (Neide) was used to control mosquito larvae in two suburban areas of two tropical cities: Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. A circular area of 2 km2, diameter 1,600 m, was treated in each city using a similar, smaller area 1 km away as an untreated control. Mosquito captures were made in houses in four concentric circles, from the periphery to the center; each circle was 50 m in width. Mosquitoes were captured in CDC light traps or from human landings. More than 95% of the mosquitoes were Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae). The human landing catches provided twice as many mosquitoes as did the CDC traps/night/house. The treatments resulted in important reductions relative to the control area and to preintervention captures. The reduction was more prominent in the inner circle (up to 90%) than in the outer circle (50-70%), presumably because of the impact of immigrating mosquitoes from nontreated breeding sites around the intervention area. This effect was more pronounced for light trap catches than from human landings. The impact of treatment was also measured as the mean ratio of mosquito density in the two outer circles to that of the two inner circles. This ratio was approximately 1:1 before the intervention and reached 1:0.43 during the intervention. This comparison does not depend on the assumption that, in the absence of intervention, the mosquito population development in the two areas would have been identical, but does depend on the homogeneity of the intervention area. The study showed that it is possible to organize mosquito control in a tropical, urban environment by forming and rapidly training teams of young people to carry out the mosquito control mostly using a biopesticide that can be applied without any tools except an iron bar to lift lids on some cesspits.

  11. Spatial genetic structure of bristle-thighed curlews (Numenius tahitiensis): breeding area differentiation not reflected on the non-breeding grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Williams, Ian S.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds occupy geographically and ecologically disparate areas during their annual cycle with conditions on breeding and non-breeding grounds playing separate and important roles in population dynamics. We used data from nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA control region loci to assess the breeding and non-breeding spatial genetic structure of a transoceanic migrant shorebird, the bristle-thighed curlew. We found spatial variance in the distribution of allelic and haplotypic frequencies between the curlew's two breeding areas in Alaska but did not observe this spatial structure throughout its non-breeding range on low-lying tropical and subtropical islands in the Central Pacific (Oceania). This suggests that the two breeding populations do not spatially segregate during the non-breeding season. Lack of migratory connectivity is likely attributable to the species' behavior, as bristle-thighed curlews exhibit differential timing of migration and some individuals move among islands during non-breeding months. Given the detrimental impact of many past and current human activities on island ecosystems, admixture of breeding populations in Oceania may render the bristle-thighed curlew less vulnerable to perturbations there, as neither breeding population will be disproportionally affected by local habitat losses or by stochastic events. Furthermore, lack of migratory connectivity may enable bristle-thighed curlews to respond to changing island ecosystems by altering their non-breeding distribution. However, availability of suitable non-breeding habitat for curlews in Oceania is increasingly limited on both low-lying and high islands by habitat loss, sea level rise, and invasive mammalian predators that pose a threat to flightless and flight-compromised curlews during the molting period.

  12. Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160274.html Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes The insects are to blame for first cases ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Aerial spraying is killing many mosquitoes in a part of Miami where the insects ...

  13. Heterologous expression in transgenic mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santhosh P K; Yu hua Deng; Weidong Gu; Xiaoguang Chen

    2010-01-01

    Arthropod-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue virus afflict billions of people worldwide imposing major economic and social burdens. Control of such pathogens is mainly performed by vector management and treatment of affected individuals with drugs. The failure of these conventional approaches due to emergence of insecticide-resistant insects and drug-resistant parasites demonstrate the need of novel and efficacious control strategies to combat these diseases. Genetic modification(GM) of mosquito vectors to impair their ability to be infected and transmit pathogens has emerged as a new strategy to reduce transmission of many vector-borne diseases and deliver public health gains. Several advances in developing transgenic mosquitoes unable to transmit pathogens have gained support, some of them attempt to manipulate the naturally occurring endogenous refractory mechanisms, while others initiate the identification of an exogenous foreign gene which disrupt the pathogen development in insect vectors. Heterologous expression of transgenes under a native or heterologous promoter is important for the screening and effecting of the transgenic mosquitoes. The effect of the transgene on mosquito fitness is a crucial parameter influencing the success of this transgenic approach. This review examines these two aspects and describes the basic research work that has been accomplished towards understanding the complex relation between the parasite and its vector and focuses on recent advances and perspectives towards construction of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to vector-borne disease transmission.

  14. Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to

  15. Rural buyers' perception about mosquito repellants

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, D.; Anand GARG; Naveen K MEHTA

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. Th...

  16. 75 FR 2269 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for Bull...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... Breeding, Reproduction, or Rearing (or Development) of Offspring Bull trout have more specific habitat... Designation of Critical Habitat for Bull Trout in the Coterminous United States; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal... Designation of Critical Habitat for Bull Trout in the Coterminous United States AGENCY: Fish and...

  17. A small scale field trial with expanded polystyrene beads for mosquito control in septic tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M S; Lian, S; Jute, N

    1995-01-01

    A field trial of the use of expanded polystyrene beads (EPSB) to control the breeding of mosquito larvae in household septic tanks was conducted in Sarawak. One week after treatment, the breeding of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus was reduced by 100% and 68.7% respectively. For both species combined, a 57.25% reduction in the adult emergence rate was achieved. No adult was caught in the emergence trap one month after treatment. A reduction in mosquito biting rates was reported by 87.3% of respondents. All households regarded the EPSB treatment as effective. This study has reduced the relatively high infestation rate of A. albopictus in the septic tanks to 16-20%. The EPSB treatment is feasible and practical. Post-treatment assessment using adult emergence traps and the implications for the vector control programme of the local authority are discussed.

  18. An analysis of diet quality, how it controls fatty acid profiles, isotope signatures and stoichiometry in the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Hood-Nowotny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowing the underlying mechanisms of mosquito ecology will ensure effective vector management and contribute to the overall goal of malaria control. Mosquito populations show a high degree of population plasticity in response to environmental variability. However, the principle factors controlling population size and fecundity are for the most part unknown. Larval habitat and diet play a crucial role in subsequent mosquito fitness. Developing the most competitive insects for sterile insect technique programmes requires a "production" orientated perspective, to deduce the most effective larval diet formulation; the information gained from this process offers us some insight into the mechanisms and processes taking place in natural native mosquito habitats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fatty acid profiles and de-novo or direct assimilation pathways, of whole-individual mosquitoes reared on a range of larval diets were determined using pyrolysis gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry. We used elemental analysis and isotope ratio mass spectrometry to measure individual-whole-body carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous values and to assess the impact of dietary quality on subsequent population stoichiometry, size, quality and isotopic signature. Diet had the greatest impact on fatty acid (FA profiles of the mosquitoes, which exhibited a high degree of dietary routing, characteristic of generalist feeders. De-novo synthesis of a number of important FAs was observed. Mosquito C:N stoichiometry was fixed in the teneral stage. Dietary N content had significant influence on mosquito size, and P was shown to be a flexible pool which limited overall population size. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Direct routing of FAs was evident but there was ubiquitous de-novo synthesis suggesting mosquito larvae are competent generalist feeders capable of survival on diet with varying characteristics. It was concluded that nitrogen availability in the larval diet

  19. Modeling future conservation of Hawaiian Honeycreepers by mosquito management and translocation of disease-tolerant Amakihi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbelen, Peter H. F.; Samuel, Michael D.; Lapointe, Dennis; Atkinson, Carter T.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is an important cause of the decline of endemic Hawaiian honeycreepers. Because of the complexity of this disease system we used a computer model of avian malaria in forest birds to evaluate how two proposed conservation strategies: 1) reduction of habitat for mosquito larvae and 2) establishment of a low-elevation, malaria-tolerant honeycreeper (Hawaii Amakihi) to mid-elevation forests would affect native Hawaiian honeycreeper populations. We evaluated these approaches in mid-elevation forests, where malaria transmission is seasonal and control strategies are more likely to work. Our model suggests the potential benefit of larval habitat reduction depends on the level of malaria transmission, abundance of larval cavities, and the ability to substantially reduce these cavities. Permanent reduction in larval habitat of >80% may be needed to control abundance of infectious mosquitoes and benefit bird populations. Establishment of malaria-tolerant Amakihi in mid-elevation forests increases Amakihi abundance, creates a larger disease reservoir, and increases the abundance of infectious mosquitoes which may negatively impact other honeycreepers. For mid-elevation sites where bird populations are severely affected by avian malaria, malaria-tolerant Amakihi had little impact on other honeycreepers. Both management strategies may benefit native Hawaiian honeycreepers, but benefits depend on specific forest characteristics, the amount of reduction in larval habitat that can be achieved, and how malaria transmission is affected by temperature.

  20. Presence and distribution of mosquito larvae predators and factors influencing their abundance along the Mara River, Kenya and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dida, Gabriel O; Gelder, Frank B; Anyona, Douglas N; Abuom, Paul O; Onyuka, Jackson O; Matano, Ally-Said; Adoka, Samson O; Kanangire, Canisius K; Owuor, Philip O; Ouma, Collins; Ofulla, Ayub Vo

    2015-01-01

    Among all the malaria controlling measures, biological control of mosquito larvae may be the cheapest and easiest to implement. This study investigated baseline predation of immature mosquitoes by macroinvertebrate predators along the Mara River, determined the diversity of predators and mosquito larvae habitats and the range of their adaptive capacity to water physico-chemical parameters. Between July and August 2011, sampling sites (n=39) along the Mara River were selected and investigated for the presence of macroinvertebrate predators and mosquito larvae. The selected sampling sites were geocoded and each dipped 20 times using standard mosquito larvae dipper to sample mosquito larvae, while a D-frame dip net was used to capture the macroinvertebrate predators. Water physico-chemical parameters (dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, conductivity, salinity and turbidity) were taken in situ at access points, while hardness and alkalinity were measured titrimetically. The influence of macroinvertebrate predator occurrence was correlated with mosquito larvae and water quality parameters using Generalized Linear Model (GLM). Predators (n=297) belonging to 3 orders of Hemiptera (54.2%), Odonata (22.9%) and Coleoptera (22.9%), and mosquito larvae (n=4001) belonging to 10 species, which included An.gambiae s.l (44.9%), Culex spp. (34.8%) and An. coustani complex (13.8%), An. maculipalpis (3.6%), An. phaorensis (1.2%), An. funestus group (0.5%), An. azaniae (0.4%), An. hamoni (0.3%), An. christyi (0.3%), An. ardensis (0.08%), An. faini (0.07%), An. sergentii (0.05%) and 0.05% of Aedes mosquito larvae which were not identified to species level, due to lack of an appropriate key, were captured from different habitats along the Mara river. It was established that invasion of habitats by the macroinvertebrate predators were partially driven by the presence of mosquito larvae (p < 0.001), and the prevailing water physico-chemical parameters (DO, temperature, and turbidity, p <0

  1. Geostatistical evaluation of integrated marsh management impact on mosquito vectors using before-after-control-impact (BACI design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dempsey Mary E

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many parts of the world, salt marshes play a key ecological role as the interface between the marine and the terrestrial environments. Salt marshes are also exceedingly important for public health as larval habitat for mosquitoes that are vectors of disease and significant biting pests. Although grid ditching and pesticides have been effective in salt marsh mosquito control, marsh degradation and other environmental considerations compel a different approach. Targeted habitat modification and biological control methods known as Open Marsh Water Management (OMWM had been proposed as a viable alternative to marsh-wide physical alterations and chemical control. However, traditional larval sampling techniques may not adequately assess the impacts of marsh management on mosquito larvae. To assess the effectiveness of integrated OMWM and marsh restoration techniques for mosquito control, we analyzed the results of a 5-year OMWM/marsh restoration project to determine changes in mosquito larval production using GIS and geostatistical methods. Methods The following parameters were evaluated using "Before-After-Control-Impact" (BACI design: frequency and geographic extent of larval production, intensity of larval production, changes in larval habitat, and number of larvicide applications. The analyses were performed using Moran's I, Getis-Ord, and Spatial Scan statistics on aggregated before and after data as well as data collected over time. This allowed comparison of control and treatment areas to identify changes attributable to the OMWM/marsh restoration modifications. Results The frequency of finding mosquito larvae in the treatment areas was reduced by 70% resulting in a loss of spatial larval clusters compared to those found in the control areas. This effect was observed directly following OMWM treatment and remained significant throughout the study period. The greatly reduced frequency of finding larvae in the treatment

  2. Mapping of zones potentially occupied by Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes, the main vectors of Rift Valley fever in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves M. Tourre

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A necessary condition for Rift Valley fever (RVF emergence is the presence of Aedes (Aedimorphus vexans and Culex (Culex poicilipes mosquitoes carrying the arbovirus and responsible for the infection. This paper presents a detailed mapping in the Sahelian region of Senegal of zones potentially occupied by these mosquitoes (ZPOMs whose population density is directly linked to ecozones in the vicinity of small ponds. The vectors habitats and breeding sites have been characterized through an integrated approach combining remote sensing technology, geographical information systems, geographical positioning systems and field observations for proper geo-referencing. From five SPOT-5 images (~10 m spatial resolution with appropriate channels, a meridional composite transect of 290 x 60 km was first constructed at the height of the summer monsoon. Subsequent ZPOMs covered major ecozones from north to south with different hydrological environments and different patterns pond distributions. It was found that an overall area of 12,817 ha ± 10% (about 0.8% of the transect is occupied by ponds with an average ZPOM 17 times larger than this (212,813 ha ± 10% or about 14% of the transect. By comparing the very humid year of 2003 with 2006 which had just below normal rainfall, the ZPOMs inter-annual variability was analyzed in a sandy-clayey ecozone with an important hydrofossil riverbed within the Ferlo region of Senegal. Very probably contributing to an increased abundance of vectors by the end of August 2003, it was shown that the aggregate pond area was already about 22 times larger than in August 2006, corresponding to an approximately five times larger total ZPOM. The results show the importance of pin-pointing small ponds (sizes down to 0.1 ha and their geographical distribution in order to assess animal exposure to the RVF vectors.

  3. Looking Backward, Looking Forward: The Long, Torturous Struggle with Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon M. Patterson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The American anti-mosquito movement grew out of the discovery of the role of mosquitoes in transferring pathogens and public concern about pest and nuisance mosquitoes in the late 1800s. In the 20th century, organized mosquito control in the United States passed through three eras: mechanical, chemical, and integrated mosquito control. Mosquito control in the 21st century faces the challenge of emerging pathogens, invasive mosquito species, and balancing concerns about the environment with effective control strategies.

  4. Evaluation of immature mosquitocidal properties of Xanthium strumarium Linn. plant extracts against Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim Roba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate immature mosquitocidal properties of Xanthium strumarium plant extracts against Culex mosquitoes at Entomology Laboratory, Maraki Campus, University of Gondar. Methods: The immature mosquitocidal activity of plant extracts was tested by following World Health Organization recommended protocol. Acetone, methanol and water extracts were prepared at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L concentrations and tested against third and fourth instar larvae and pupae of Culex mosquitoes. The mortality rate of immature mosquitoes was recorded after 24, 48 and 72 h exposure period continuously. Results: Third instar larvae after 24 h exposure period, maximum mortality of 77.80% was recorded at 250 mg/L concentration of acetone extract. After 48 h and 72 h exposure period, maximum mortality of 88.90% was recorded in acetone extract in all the tested concentration. The maximum mortality of fourth instar larvae was 88.90% in acetone extract at 200 and 250 mg/L concentrations. Pupal mortality was also greater in acetone extract. The percentage of mortality in all the stage of mosquitoes was higher in acetone extract followed by methanol and water extract. Conclusions: The percentage of mortality is associated with concentration of the extracts tested and exposure period. This laboratory study confirmed immature mosquitocidal activity of Xanthium strumarium leaf extracts against Culex mosquitoes. The aqueous leaf extract can be used by applying on small man-made breeding places to prevent adult emergence.

  5. Determining habitat quality for species that demonstrate dynamic habitat selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerens, James; Frederick, Peter C; Noonburg, Erik G; Gawlik, Dale E.

    2015-01-01

    Determining habitat quality for wildlife populations requires relating a species' habitat to its survival and reproduction. Within a season, species occurrence and density can be disconnected from measures of habitat quality when resources are highly seasonal, unpredictable over time, and patchy. Here we establish an explicit link among dynamic selection of changing resources, spatio-temporal species distributions, and fitness for predictive abundance and occurrence models that are used for short-term water management and long-term restoration planning. We used the wading bird distribution and evaluation models (WADEM) that estimate (1) daily changes in selection across resource gradients, (2) landscape abundance of flocks and individuals, (3) conspecific foraging aggregation, and (4) resource unit occurrence (at fixed 400 m cells) to quantify habitat quality and its consequences on reproduction for wetland indicator species. We linked maximum annual numbers of nests detected across the study area and nesting success of Great Egrets (Ardea alba), White Ibises (Eudocimus albus), and Wood Storks (Mycteria americana) over a 20-year period to estimated daily dynamics of food resources produced by WADEM over a 7490 km2 area. For all species, increases in predicted species abundance in March and high abundance in April were strongly linked to breeding responses. Great Egret nesting effort and success were higher when birds also showed greater conspecific foraging aggregation. Synthesis and applications: This study provides the first empirical evidence that dynamic habitat selection processes and distributions of wading birds over environmental gradients are linked with reproductive measures over periods of decades. Further, predictor variables at a variety of temporal (daily-multiannual) resolutions and spatial (400 m to regional) scales effectively explained variation in ecological processes that change habitat quality. The process used here allows managers to develop

  6. Behavioural cues surpass habitat factors in explaining prebreeding resource selection by a migratory diving duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Shawn T.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Cutting, Kyle A.; Parker, Michael W.; Yee, Julie L.

    2014-01-01

    Prebreeding habitat selection in birds can often be explained in part by habitat characteristics. However, females may also select habitats on the basis of fidelity to areas of previous reproductive success or use by conspecifics. The relative influences of sociobehavioural attributes versus habitat characteristics in habitat selection has been primarily investigated in songbirds, while less is known about how these factors affect habitat selection processes in migratory waterfowl. Animal resource selection models often exhibit much unexplained variation; spatial patterns driven by social and behavioural characteristics may account for some of this. We radiomarked female lesser scaup, Aythya affinis, in the southwestern extent of their breeding range to explore hypotheses regarding relative roles of habitat quality, site fidelity and conspecific density in prebreeding habitat selection. We used linear mixed-effects models to relate intensity of use within female home ranges to habitat features, distance to areas of reproductive success during the previous breeding season and conspecific density. Home range habitats included shallow water (≤118 cm), moderate to high densities of flooded emergent vegetation/open water edge and open water areas with submerged aquatic vegetation. Compared with habitat features, conspecific female density and proximity to successful nesting habitats from the previous breeding season had greater influences on habitat use within home ranges. Fidelity and conspecific attraction are behavioural characteristics in some waterfowl species that may exert a greater influence than habitat features in influencing prebreeding space use and habitat selection within home ranges, particularly where quality habitat is abundant. These processes may be of critical importance to a better understanding of habitat selection in breeding birds.

  7. Rural buyers' perception about mosquito repellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. MEHTA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. That is why it has been necessary to understand the various aspects of selected rural areas and consumption pattern for such a fast growing market i.e. mosquito repellants and rural buyers’ perception towards such urban products. The present paper aims to find out the factors influencing the purchase decisions of rural buyers for mosquito repellants and to study the perceptions of present and potential rural buyers' of selected mosquito repellant brands.

  8. An updated checklist of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Le Goff, Gilbert; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2016-01-01

    An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species). This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species), Aedes (35 species), Anopheles (26 species), Coquillettidia (3 species), Culex (at least 50 species), Eretmapodites (4 species), Ficalbia (2 species), Hodgesia (at least one species), Lutzia (one species), Mansonia (2 species), Mimomyia (22 species), Orthopodomyia (8 species), Toxorhynchites (6 species), and Uranotaenia (73 species). Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%). Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27%) with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar.

  9. An updated checklist of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae from Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantely Michaël Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species. This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species, Aedes (35 species, Anopheles (26 species, Coquillettidia (3 species, Culex (at least 50 species, Eretmapodites (4 species, Ficalbia (2 species, Hodgesia (at least one species, Lutzia (one species, Mansonia (2 species, Mimomyia (22 species, Orthopodomyia (8 species, Toxorhynchites (6 species, and Uranotaenia (73 species. Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%. Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27% with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar.

  10. Immatures of Lutzia fuscanus (Wiedemann,1820)(Dipter-a:Culicidae)in ricefields:implications for biological con-trol of vector mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mihir Kumar Pramanik; Gautam Aditya

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Rice fields are dynamic mosquito larval habitats with assemblage of different predator taxa,inclu-ding the larva of the mosquitoes Lutzia.Entomological surveillance in the ricefields is essential to evaluate the potential of these predators as biological resource to regulate vector mosquito population.In view of this,a sur-vey of ricefields for immatures of different mosquito species including Lutzia was conducted.Methods:Survey of selected ricefields was carried out to evaluate the species composition of mosquitoes.Laboratory evaluation of the immatures of Lutzia mosquitoes was carried out to assess its predation potential using mosquitoes and chi-ronomid as preys.Results:The survey revealed the presence of five mosquito species belonging to the genera Anopheles and Culex and the predatory immatures of the mosquito Lutzia fuscana (Wiedemann,1820).The ra-tio of prey and predatory larva ranged between 1.46 and 4.78 during the study period,with a significant corre-lation on the relative abundance of the larval stages of Lt.fuscanus and Anopheles and Culex larvae.Under la-boratory conditions,a single IV instar larvae of Lt.fuscanus was found to consume on an average 5 to 15 equiv-alent instars of Anopheles sp.and Culex sp.larvae per day depending on its age.The prey consumption re-duced with the larval stage approaching pupation.When provided with equal numbers of chironomid and A-nopheles or Culex larvae,larva of Lt.fuscanus consumed mosquito larvae significantly more compared to chi-ronomids.Conclusion:The survey results and the preliminary study on predation are suggestive of the role of Lt.fuscanus in the regulation of vector mosquito populations naturally in the ricefields.Since Lt.fuscanus is common in many Asian countries,further studies on bioecology will be helpful to justify their use in mosquito control programme.

  11. Is income breeding an appropriate construct for waterfowl?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Adam K.; Anteau, Michael J.; Markl, Nicholas; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding birds use a range of nutrient accumulation and allocation strategies to meet the nutritional demands of clutch formation and incubation. On one end of the spectrum, capital breeders use stored nutrients acquired prior to clutch formation and incubation to sustain metabolism during reproduction, while on the opposite end, income breeders derive nutrients solely from exogenous sources on the breeding grounds. Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors) are an ideal candidate to test for adoption of an income strategy among migratory waterfowl because of their small body size, temperate breeding range, and timing of reproduction relative to pulses in nutrient availability within breeding habitats. We collected migrating and pre-breeding Blue-winged Teal (n = 110) during the warmest spring in over a century in the southern edge of the species’ breeding range, which produced ideal conditions to test for adoption of an income breeding strategy among migratory waterfowl. Regression analyses revealed that females accumulated protein and fat reserves early in follicle development and appeared to mobilize at least some reserves coincident with the onset of clutch formation. Accumulation and subsequent mobilization of nutrient reserves was inconsistent with adherence to an income breeding strategy and suggested breeding Blue-winged Teal used capital (albeit locally acquired) for reproduction. Our results add to existing knowledge on the ubiquity of endogenous nutrient reserve accumulation prior to and during reproduction by waterfowl, perhaps suggesting endogenous nutrient reserves are universally used for clutch formation or incubation to some degree. If indeed Blue-winged Teal and other waterfowl universally use capital for breeding, research and conservation efforts should shift from evaluating whether an income breeding strategy is used and focus on when and where necessary capital is acquired prior to clutch formation.

  12. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  13. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  14. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual ste

  15. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  16. Integrated mosquito larval source management reduces larval numbers in two highland villages in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imbahale Susan S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In western Kenya, malaria remains one of the major health problems and its control remains an important public health measure. Malaria control is by either use of drugs to treat patients infected with malaria parasites or by controlling the vectors. Vector control may target the free living adult or aquatic (larval stages of mosquito. The most commonly applied control strategies target indoor resting mosquitoes. However, because mosquitoes spend a considerable time in water, targeting the aquatic stages can complement well with existing adult control measures. Methods Larval source management (LSM of malaria vectors was examined in two villages i.e. Fort Ternan and Lunyerere, with the aim of testing strategies that can easily be accessed by the affected communities. Intervention strategies applied include environmental management through source reduction (drainage of canals, land levelling or by filling ditches with soil, habitat manipulation (by provision of shading from arrow root plant, application of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis (Bti and the use of predatory fish, Gambusia affinis. The abundance of immature stages of Anopheles and Culex within intervention habitats was compared to that within non-intervention habitats. Results The findings show that in Fort Ternan no significant differences were observed in the abundance of Anopheles early and late instars between intervention and non-intervention habitats. In Lunyerere, the abundance of Anopheles early instars was fifty five times more likely to be present within non-intervention habitats than in habitats under drainage. No differences in early instars abundance were observed between non-intervention and habitats applied with Bti. However, late instars had 89 % and 91 % chance of being sampled from non-intervention rather than habitats under drainage and those applied with Bti respectively. Conclusion Most of these interventions were applied in habitats

  17. Post-breeding migration of Dutch-breeding black-tailed godwits: timing, routes, use of stopovers, and nonbreeding destinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooijmeijer, Jos C. E. W.; Senner, Nathan R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Douglas, David C.; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Wymenga, Eddy; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of long-distance migratory shorebirds is complex because these species use habitats spread across continents and hemispheres, making identification of critical habitats and potential bottlenecks in the annual cycle especially difficult. The population of Black-tailed Godwits that breeds in Western Europe, Limosa limosa limosa, has declined precipitously over the past few decades. Despite significant efforts to identify the root causes of this decline, much remains unclear. To better understand the migratory timing, use of stopover and nonbreeding sites, and the potential impact of breeding success on these parameters, we attached 15 Argos satellite transmitters and 10 geolocation tracking devices to adult godwits nearing completion of incubation at breeding sites in southwest Friesland, The Netherlands during the spring of 2009. We successfully tracked 16 adult godwits for their entire southward migration and two others for part of it. Three migration patterns and four regions of use were apparent. Most godwits left their breeding sites and proceeded south directly to stopover sites in the Mediterranean — e.g. Spain, Portugal, and Morocco — before flying on to non-breeding sites in West Africa. Other individuals spent the entire nonbreeding season in the Mediterranean. A third pattern included a few individuals that flew nonstop from their Dutch breeding sites to nonbreeding sites in West Africa. Tracking data from this study will be immediately useful for conservation efforts focused on preserving the dispersed network of sites used by godwits during their southward migration.

  18. Avian Plasmodium lineages found in spot surveys of mosquitoes from 2007 to 2010 at Sakata wetland, Japan: do dominant lineages persist for multiple years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K S; Tsuda, Y

    2012-11-01

    The ecology and geographical distribution of disease vectors are major determinants of spatial and temporal variations in the transmission dynamics of vector-borne pathogens. However, there are limited studies on the ecology of vectors that contribute to the natural transmission of most vector-borne pathogens. Avian Plasmodium parasites are multihost mosquito-borne pathogens transmitted by multiple mosquito species, which might regulate the diversity and persistence of these parasites. From 2007 to 2010, we conducted entomological surveys at Sakata wetland in central Japan, to investigate temporal variation in mosquito occurrence and prevalence of avian Plasmodium lineages in the mosquito populations. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method was used to detect Plasmodium parasites and identify the blood sources of mosquitoes. Culex inatomii and C. pipiens pallens represented 60.0% and 34.8% of 11 mosquito species collected, respectively. Our results showed that the two dominant mosquito species most likely serve as principal vectors of avian Plasmodium parasites during June, which coincides with the breeding season of bird species nesting in the wetland reed beds. Fourteen animal species were identified as blood sources of mosquitoes, with the oriental reed warbler (Acrocephalus orientalis) being the commonest blood source. Although there was significant temporal variation in the occurrence of mosquitoes and prevalence of Plasmodium lineages in the mosquitoes, the dominant Plasmodium lineages shared by the two dominant mosquito species were consistently found at the same time during transmission seasons. Because vector competence cannot be confirmed solely by PCR approaches, experimental demonstration is required to provide definitive evidence of transmission suggested in this study.

  19. Approaches to passive mosquito surveillance in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, H.; Medlock, J.M.; Vaux, A.G.C.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Vliet, van A.J.H.; Bartumeus, F.; Oltra, A.; Sousa, C.A.; Chouin, S.; Werner, D.

    2015-01-01

    The recent emergence in Europe of invasive mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease associated with both invasive and native mosquito species has prompted intensified mosquito vector research in most European countries. Central to the efforts are mosquito monitoring and surveillance activities in order

  20. Status of Aedes japonicus in the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kirk A; Brogren, Sandra J; Crane, Diann M; Lamere, Carey A

    2010-09-01

    ABSTRACT. The Asian exotic mosquito Aedes japonicus was 1st collected in Minnesota in 2007 and was well established in parts of the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District (MMCD) by 2008. Surveillance strategies were devised for 2009 to track the expansion of its range through MMCD and to direct control efforts. Sampling of larvae from container and tire habitats was the primary method used to document Ae. japonicus presence, but larvae were found in other habitats as well. Adult Ae. japonicus were collected by vacuum aspirator, gravid trap, and New Jersey trap but not by CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap. Aedes japonicus were collected from each of the 7 counties surveyed; in 5 of the counties for the 1st time in 2009. Preliminary findings suggest that a control strategy involving intensive source reduction can reduce Ae. japonicus populations.

  1. Contribution of different aquatic habitats to adult Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) production in a rice agroecosystem in Mwea, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangangi, Joseph M; Muturi, Ephantus J; Shililu, Josephat; Muriu, Simon M; Jacob, Benjamin; Kabiru, Ephantus W; Mbogo, Charles M; Githure, John; Novak, Robert

    2008-06-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the contribution of diverse larval habitats to adult Anopheles arabiensis Patton and Culex quinquefasciatus Say production in a rice land agro-ecosystem in Mwea, Kenya. Two sizes of cages were placed in different habitat types to investigate the influence of non-mosquito invertebrates on larval mortalities and the contribution of each habitat type to mosquito productivities, respectively. These emergence traps had fine netting material covers to prevent adult mosquitoes from ovipositing in the area covered by the trap and immature mosquitoes from entering the cages. The emergence of Anopheles arabiensis in seeps, tire tracks, temporary pools, and paddies was 10.53%, 17.31%, 12.50%, and 2.14%, respectively, while the corresponding values for Cx. quinquefasciatus were 16.85% in tire tracks, 8.39% in temporary pools, and 5.65% in the paddies from 0.125 m3 cages during the study. Cages measuring 1 m3 were placed in different habitat types which included paddy, swamp, marsh, ditch, pool, and seep to determine larval habitat productivity. An. arabiensis was the predominant anopheline species (98.0%, n = 232), although a few Anopheles coustani Laveran (2.0%, n = 5) emerged from the habitats. The productivity for An. arabiensis larvae was 6.0 mosquitoes per m2 for the temporary pools, 5.5 for paddy, 5.4 for marsh, 2.7 for ditch, and 0.6 for seep. The Cx. quinquefasciatus larval habitat productivity was 47.8 mosquitoes per m2 for paddies, 35.7 for ditches, 11.1 for marshes, 4.2 for seeps, 2.4 for swamps, and 1.0 for temporary pools. Pools, paddy, and marsh habitat types were the most productive larval habitats for An. arabiensis while paddy, ditch, and marsh were the most productive larval habitats for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The most common non-mosquito invertebrate composition in the cages included Dytiscidae, Notonectidae, Belostomatidae, and Ephemerellidae, and their presence negatively affected the number of emergent mosquitoes from

  2. Natural plant sugar sources of Anopheles mosquitoes strongly impact malaria transmission potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Gu

    Full Text Available An improved knowledge of mosquito life history could strengthen malaria vector control efforts that primarily focus on killing mosquitoes indoors using insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying. Natural sugar sources, usually floral nectars of plants, are a primary energy resource for adult mosquitoes but their role in regulating the dynamics of mosquito populations is unclear. To determine how the sugar availability impacts Anopheles sergentii populations, mark-release-recapture studies were conducted in two oases in Israel with either absence or presence of the local primary sugar source, flowering Acacia raddiana trees. Compared with population estimates from the sugar-rich oasis, An. sergentii in the sugar-poor oasis showed smaller population size (37,494 vs. 85,595, lower survival rates (0.72 vs. 0.93, and prolonged gonotrophic cycles (3.33 vs. 2.36 days. The estimated number of females older than the extrinsic incubation period of malaria (10 days in the sugar rich site was 4 times greater than in the sugar poor site. Sugar feeding detected in mosquito guts in the sugar-rich site was significantly higher (73% than in the sugar-poor site (48%. In contrast, plant tissue feeding (poor quality sugar source in the sugar-rich habitat was much less (0.3% than in the sugar-poor site (30%. More important, the estimated vectorial capacity, a standard measure of malaria transmission potential, was more than 250-fold higher in the sugar-rich oasis than that in the sugar-poor site. Our results convincingly show that the availability of sugar sources in the local environment is a major determinant regulating the dynamics of mosquito populations and their vector potential, suggesting that control interventions targeting sugar-feeding mosquitoes pose a promising tactic for combating transmission of malaria parasites and other pathogens.

  3. Dynamic gut microbiome across life history of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available The mosquito gut represents an ecosystem that accommodates a complex, intimately associated microbiome. It is increasingly clear that the gut microbiome influences a wide variety of host traits, such as fitness and immunity. Understanding the microbial community structure and its dynamics across mosquito life is a prerequisite for comprehending the symbiotic relationship between the mosquito and its gut microbial residents. Here we characterized gut bacterial communities across larvae, pupae and adults of Anopheles gambiae reared in semi-natural habitats in Kenya by pyrosequencing bacterial 16S rRNA fragments. Immatures and adults showed distinctive gut community structures. Photosynthetic Cyanobacteria were predominant in the larval and pupal guts while Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated the adult guts, with core taxa of Enterobacteriaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. At the adult stage, diet regime (sugar meal and blood meal significantly affects the microbial structure. Intriguingly, blood meals drastically reduced the community diversity and favored enteric bacteria. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the enriched enteric bacteria possess large genetic redox capacity of coping with oxidative and nitrosative stresses that are associated with the catabolism of blood meal, suggesting a beneficial role in maintaining gut redox homeostasis. Interestingly, gut community structure was similar in the adult stage between the field and laboratory mosquitoes, indicating that mosquito gut is a selective eco-environment for its microbiome. This comprehensive gut metatgenomic profile suggests a concerted symbiotic genetic association between gut inhabitants and host.

  4. Effects of vegetation management in constructed wetland treatment cells on water quality and mosquito production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thullen, J.S.; Sartoris, J.J.; Walton, W.E.

    2002-01-01

    The impact of three vegetation management strategies on wetland treatment function and mosquito production was assessed in eight free water surface wetland test cells in southern California during 1998-1999. The effectiveness of the strategies to limit bulrush Schoenoplectus californicus culm density within the cells was also investigated. Removing accumulated emergent biomass and physically limiting the area in which vegetation could reestablish, significantly improved the ammonia - nitrogen removal efficiency of the wetland cells, which received an ammonia-dominated municipal wastewater effluent (average loading rate = 9.88 kg/ha per day NH4-N). We determined that interspersing open water with emergent vegetation is critical for maintaining the wetland's treatment capability, particularly for systems high in NH4-N. Burning aboveground plant parts and thinning rhizomes only temporarily curtailed vegetation proliferation in shallow zones, whereas creating hummocks surrounded by deeper water successfully restricted the emergent vegetation to the shallower hummock areas. Since the hummock configuration kept open water areas interspersed throughout the stands of emergent vegetation, the strategy was also effective in reducing mosquito production. Decreasing vegetation biomass reduced mosquito refuge areas while increasing mosquito predator habitat. Therefore, the combined goals of water quality improvement and mosquito management were achieved by managing the spatial pattern of emergent vegetation to mimic an early successional growth stage, i.e. actively growing plants interspersed with open water. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Host-Seeking Behavior and Arbovirus Detection in Mosquitoes of Habahe County, Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Gui-Lin; Zheng, Zhong; Dong, Yan-De; Xue, Rui-De; Xing, Dan; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes in Habahe County of Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region in China are considered a serious nuisance problem to local residents, but little is known of their role in enzootic disease. Therefore, host-seeking behavior and virus detection in mosquitoes were investigated in this study. Adult host-seeking mosquitoes were sampled using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps operated at three locations in June through August 2008. Nine traps were used at each location at 3 different heights (1 m, 3 m, and 5 m). Seven mosquito species from 4 genera were collected by CDC light traps in different habitats. In total, 90,055 mosquitoes were captured, of which Aedes vexans was the most abundant species, comprising 88.02% of all mosquitoes collected. The second most abundant species was Anopheles messese, which comprised about 5.86%. Other species caught were Culex modestus (2.89%), Aedes caspius (1.11%), Coquillettidia richiardii (0.61%), Ae. dorsalis (1.36%), and An. hyrcanus (0.14%). About 93.5% of Ae. vexans individuals were caught in CO2-baited CDC light traps at 1 m above the ground. The highest numbers of Cx. modestus were caught at the highest trap level, 5 m above ground. Overall, significantly more mosquitoes of all species were collected at dusk than at dawn. Based on blood-meal analyses, Ae. vexans and An. messese fed on various vertebrate hosts, whereas Cx. modestus fed on ducks only. From a total of 335 mosquito pools tested, 10 pools of Ae. vexans were found positive for alphavirus. Comparison with the gene database revealed that the alphavirus deoxyribonucleic acid fragment obtained (GenBank accession no. HM160530) was 100% homologous at the nucleotide level to chikungunya virus isolate LK (PB) chik3408, chikungunya virus isolate SGEHICHD122508, and chikungunya virus strain FD080231. The results of this study suggest that ongoing, integrated mosquito and arbovirus surveillance is necessary in this river wetland.

  6. A grid-based infrastructure for ecological forecasting of rice land Anopheles arabiensis aquatic larval habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakoma Ibulaimu I

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For remote identification of mosquito habitats the first step is often to construct a discrete tessellation of the region. In applications where complex geometries do not need to be represented such as urban habitats, regular orthogonal grids are constructed in GIS and overlaid on satellite images. However, rice land vector mosquito aquatic habitats are rarely uniform in space or character. An orthogonal grid overlaid on satellite data of rice-land areas may fail to capture physical or man-made structures, i.e paddies, canals, berms at these habitats. Unlike an orthogonal grid, digitizing each habitat converts a polygon into a grid cell, which may conform to rice-land habitat boundaries. This research illustrates the application of a random sampling methodology, comparing an orthogonal and a digitized grid for assessment of rice land habitats. Methods A land cover map was generated in Erdas Imagine V8.7® using QuickBird data acquired July 2005, for three villages within the Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya. An orthogonal grid was overlaid on the images. In the digitized dataset, each habitat was traced in Arc Info 9.1®. All habitats in each study site were stratified based on levels of rice stage Results The orthogonal grid did not identify any habitat while the digitized grid identified every habitat by strata and study site. An analysis of variance test indicated the relative abundance of An. arabiensis at the three study sites to be significantly higher during the post-transplanting stage of the rice cycle. Conclusion Regions of higher Anopheles abundance, based on digitized grid cell information probably reflect underlying differences in abundance of mosquito habitats in a rice land environment, which is where limited control resources could be concentrated to reduce vector abundance.

  7. Mosquitoes Associated with Ditch-Plugged and Control Tidal Salt Marshes on the Delmarva Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Leisnham, Paul T.; Sarah Sandoval-Mohapatra

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted during the summer of 2009 (from July to September) to characterize mosquito communities among different habitats in five historically ditched tidal salt marshes and three adjacent wooded areas in the E.A. Vaughn Wetland Management Area on the Maryland Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Study marshes are characteristic of Atlantic coastal salt marshes that had undergone grid ditching from the 1930s to 1950s. In the autumn of 2008 (October and November) ditches were plugged near the...

  8. Spinosad: a biorational mosquito larvicide for use in car tires in southern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Carlos F; Bond J; Muñoz José; Valle Javier; Chirino Nelva; Williams Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Car tires are important habitats for mosquito development because of the high density populations they can harbor and their presence in urban settings. Water in experimental tires was treated with one of three insecticides or an untreated control. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled at weekly intervals. Eggs, larval and pupal samples were laboratory-reared to estimate seasonal fluctuations in Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus abundance. Results Spinosad treatments at 1 or 5 ...

  9. First Record of the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus in Hidalgo State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Morales, Aldo I; Cueto-Medina, Sarai M; Rodríguez, Quetzaly K Siller

    2016-09-01

    The occurrence of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus , has been reported in the Mexican states of Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila (northeastern), Veracruz, Chiapas, Quintana Roo (southeastern), Morelos, San Luis Potosí (middle), and Sinaloa (northwestern). In April and September 2012, Ae. albopictus was collected in a variety of habitats and landing/biting on the collecting personnel in 12 counties of Hidalgo state (middle). This is the first record of the occurrence of this species in Hidalgo state.

  10. Distribution and occurrence of mosquito species in the municipal areas of Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeyinwa Celestina MGBEMENA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A study of the ecology of drainage - breeding mosquito vectors was conducted in the three urban centers (Owerri, Orlu and Okigwe of Imo State, Nigeria. Four drainage sites located around markets, residential, stream and hotel premises were selected in each urban centre. Dipping method of sampling was employed and a total of 8,820 mosquitoes comprising eight species namely; Aedes aegypti, Aedes vittatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tigripes, Culex horridus, Culex cinereus, Culex annuliorus and Anopheles gambiae were encountered; in Owerri and Orlu with Cx. cinereus being completely absent in Okigwe. Cx. quinquefasciatus was predominantly present in all drainage sites with the highest occurrence of 4,474(50.74% followed by Aedes aegypti 1814 (20.57%, An .gambiae 945(10.71%, Cx. tigripes 484 (5.48% Ae. vittatus 420 (4.76%, Cx. horridus 264 (02.99%, Cx. cinereus 261 (2.96%, Cx. annuliorus 159 (1.88%. Of all sites sampled, market drainages had the highest abundance of mosquitoes which was significantly higher than (ANOVA, P≤ 0.05 those found in the residential, streams and hotel premises. Residential drainages recorded the second highest density followed by stream/vegetation drainages and hotel drainages which had the least. The abundance and distribution of mosquitoes in Owerri (130.06 the State Capital was significantly higher (ANOVA, P≤ 0.05 than those for Orlu (93.44 and Okigwe (52.13. The mosquito species identified in this study are of public health importance and there is an urgent need to desilt and clean up these drainages for free flow of water. This will not only rid these species of breeding sites but also free the State of the diseases associated with these organisms.

  11. Broiler breeding : breeding goals, selection schemes and the usefulness of local breeds for China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, X.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation considers three aspects of broiler breeding: definition of breeding goals, selection schemes for specialized lines, and the usefulness of local breeds for China. Economic values in broiler breeding were derived based on a deterministic model. A systematic design for the application

  12. Wash resistance and repellent properties of Africa University mosquito blankets against mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lukwa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of permethrin-treated Africa University (AU mosquito blankets on susceptible female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes was studied under laboratory conditions at Africa University Campus in Mutare, Zimbabwe. Wash resistance (ability to retain an effective dose that kills ≥80% of mosquitoes after a number of washes and repellence (ability to prevent ≥80% of mosquito bites properties were studied. The AU blankets were wash resistant when 100% mortality was recorded up to 20 washes, declining to 90% after 25 washes. Untreated AU blankets did not cause any mortality on mosquitoes. However, mosquito repellence was 96%, 94%, 97.9%, 87%, 85% and 80.7% for treated AU blankets washed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 times, respectively. Mosquito repellence was consistently above 80% from 0-25 washes. In conclusion, AU blankets washed 25 times were effective in repelling and killing An. gambiae sl mosquitoes under laboratory conditions.

  13. Breeding-assisted genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    The revolution of inexpensive sequencing has ushered in an unprecedented age of genomics. The promise of using this technology to accelerate plant breeding is being realized with a vision of genomics-assisted breeding that will lead to rapid genetic gain for expensive and difficult traits. The reality is now that robust phenotypic data is an increasing limiting resource to complement the current wealth of genomic information. While genomics has been hailed as the discipline to fundamentally change the scope of plant breeding, a more symbiotic relationship is likely to emerge. In the context of developing and evaluating large populations needed for functional genomics, none excel in this area more than plant breeders. While genetic studies have long relied on dedicated, well-structured populations, the resources dedicated to these populations in the context of readily available, inexpensive genotyping is making this philosophy less tractable relative to directly focusing functional genomics on material in breeding programs. Through shifting effort for basic genomic studies from dedicated structured populations, to capturing the entire scope of genetic determinants in breeding lines, we can move towards not only furthering our understanding of functional genomics in plants, but also rapidly improving crops for increased food security, availability and nutrition.

  14. Mosquito transgenesis: what is the fitness cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, Mauro T; Moreira, Cristina K; Kelly, David; Alphey, Luke; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2006-05-01

    The generation of transgenic mosquitoes with a minimal fitness load is a prerequisite for the success of strategies for controlling mosquito-borne diseases using transgenic insects. It is important to assemble as much information as possible on this subject because realistic estimates of transgene fitness costs are essential for modeling and planning release strategies. Transgenic mosquitoes must have minimal fitness costs, because such costs would reduce the effectiveness of the genetic drive mechanisms that are used to introduce the transgenes into field mosquito populations. Several factors affect fitness of transgenic mosquitoes, including the potential negative effect of transgene products and insertional mutagenesis. Studies to assess fitness of transgenic mosquitoes in the field (as opposed to the laboratory) are still needed.

  15. Wash resistance and repellent properties of Africa University mosquito blankets against mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    N. Lukwa; A. Makuwaza; T. Chiwade; Mutambu, S L; M. Zimba; P. Munosiyei

    2013-01-01

    The effect of permethrin-treated Africa University (AU) mosquito blankets on susceptible female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes was studied under laboratory conditions at Africa University Campus in Mutare, Zimbabwe. Wash resistance (ability to retain an effective dose that kills ≥80% of mosquitoes after a number of washes) and repellence (ability to prevent ≥80% of mosquito bites) properties were studied. The AU blankets were wash resistant when 100% mortality was recorded up t...

  16. Comparative susceptibility to permethrin of two Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Southern Benin, regarding mosquito sex, physiological status, and mosquito age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nazaire Azoun; Rock Akpon; Roseric Azondekon; Alex Asidi; Martin Akogbto

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate what kind of mosquito sample is necessary for the determination of insecticide susceptibility in malaria vectors. Methods:Larvae and pupae of Anopheles gambiae s.l. (An. gambiae) mosquitoes were collected from the breeding sites in Littoral and Oueme departments. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) susceptibility tests were conducted on unfed male and female mosquitoes aged 2-5 days old. CDC susceptibility tests were also conducted on unfed, blood fed and gravid female mosquitoes aged 2-5 days old. These susceptibility tests were also conducted on unfed and blood fed female mosquitoes aged 2-5 days old and 20 days old. CDC biochemical assay using synergist was also carried out to detect any increase in the activity of enzyme typically involved in insecticide metabolism. Results:Female An. gambiae Ladji and Sekandji populations were more susceptible than the males when they were unfed and aged 2-5 days old. The mortality rates of blood fed female An. gambiae Ladji and Sekandji populations aged 2-5 days old were lower than those obtained when females were unfed. In addition, the mortality rates of gravid female An. gambiae Ladji and Sekandji populations aged 2-5 days old were lower than those obtained when they were unfed. The mortality rate obtained when female An. gambiae Sekandji populations were unfed and aged 20 days old was higher than the one obtained when these populations were unfed and aged 2-5 days old. The results obtained after effects of synergist penicillin in beeswax on F1 progeny of An. gambiae Ladji populations resistant to permethrin showed that mono-oxygenases were involved in permethrin resistant F1 progeny from Ladji. Conclusions: The resistance is a hereditary and dynamic phenomenon which can be due to metabolic mechanisms like overproduction of detoxifying enzymes activity. Many factors influence vector susceptibility to insecticide. Among these factors, there are mosquito sex, mosquito age, its

  17. Investigation and analysis of the seasonal change of mosquito during 2006 to 2008 in Ningbo city of Zhejiang province%2006-2008年宁波市蚊虫季节消长调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白勇; 林寅君; 徐荣

    2009-01-01

    accounted for 99.17%, and Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhychus accounted for 0.49%, 0.20% and 0.13% respectively. The peak of adult occurred usually from June to July and October to November. As many as 7886 resting mosquitoes were captured indoor habitat and the ratio of male and female was 1 : 1.83. Cx. pipiens accounted for 99.35%, Ae. albopictus, An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhychus accounted for 0.33%, 0.18% and 0.14%, respectively. About 312 lamps were placed in the urban, and 11 881 adult mosquitoes were captured. The ratio of male and female ratio was 1.09:1, the average density index was 3.17/lamp·hour. The density index in the park was the highest with the value of 6.27, followed by residential areas(2.10) and hospital (1.16). Cx. pipiens pallens was the dominant specie, accounting for 90.60%, Cx. tritaeniorhychus, Ae. albopictus, An. sirtensis, and other species mosquitoes accounted for 0.36%, 0.17%, 8.73% and 0.14% respectively. The peak occurred usually from June to July. There were 71 lamps placed in the farmhouse, and 3078 adult mosquitoes were captured. The ratio of male and female was 4.76:1. The average density index was 3.61/lamp. hour. Cx. tritaeniorhychus was the dominant specie, accounting for 73.91%, followed by Cx. pipiens pallens (20.47%),An. sinensis (3.54%), Ae. albopictus (1.23%) and other mosquitoes species (0.84%). The peak of density occurred usually from July to August. There were 23 912 larvae (pupa) collected, and the container index was 1992.67 mosquito/container. Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens pallens accounted for 75.17% and 24.42% respectively, and the other mosquitoes species accounted for 0.41%. The peak of density occurred usually from May to September. Conclusion The seasonal fluctuation of mosquitoes was obvious in Ningbo, and it should put the emphasis on the mosquito control to control mosquito-borne disease especially the management of mosquito breeding sites

  18. Green Nanoparticles for Mosquito Control

    OpenAIRE

    Namita Soni; Soam Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl). Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquef...

  19. Improvised microinjection technique for mosquito vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Sampath, Kumar S.; H.P.Puttaraju

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Bio-manipulation technique is of primary importance during the development of transgenic mosquitoes. The study describes the variable factors that influence the viability of medically important mosquito vectors during microinjection. Methods: Three mosquito vectors belonging to the genus Aedes, Anopheles and Culex were microinjected at different developmental stages of their life cycle viz., egg, larvae, pupae and adult. Results: The improvisations revealed an increas...

  20. Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst-Jan Scholte; KNOLS, BART G. J.; Samson, Robert A.; Willem Takken

    2004-01-01

    Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. There are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. The discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito...

  1. Louisiana ESI: HABITATS (Habitat and Plant Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for coastal habitats in Louisiana. Vector polygons represent various habitats, including marsh types,...

  2. The impact of transgenic mosquitoes on dengue virulence to humans and mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlock, Jan; Luz, Paula M; Struchiner, Claudio J; Galvani, Alison P

    2009-10-01

    Dengue is a major public health concern in the tropics and subtropics. Innovative transgenic strategies to render Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the primary vector of dengue, incompetent for dengue transmission are under development. We modeled the evolutionary impact of different transgenic mosquito strategies on dengue-induced mortality, that is, dengue virulence, to both humans and mosquitoes. This model incorporates various evolutionary trade-offs in dengue virus epidemiological traits, for example, a trade-off between dengue transmission rate and its virulence to humans. Our results indicate that strategies that block transmission or reduce mosquito biting impose selection on dengue virulence in humans. This selection can be for either higher or lower virulence, depending on the interaction between the effect of the transgene and the trade-offs in epidemiological traits, highlighting the need for detailed quantitative data to understand more fully the impact of mosquito transgenesis on dengue virulence. Dengue virulence in mosquitoes can be selected on by transgenic strategies of blocking transmission, decreased mosquito biting, increased mosquito background mortality, and increased mosquito infection-induced mortality. Our results suggest that dengue control strategies that raise mosquito background mortality or mosquito infection-induced mortality pose less risk of causing increased virulence to humans than strategies that block transmission or reduce mosquito biting.

  3. Landscape Analysis of Adult Florida Panther Habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Frakes

    Full Text Available Historically occurring throughout the southeastern United States, the Florida panther is now restricted to less than 5% of its historic range in one breeding population located in southern Florida. Using radio-telemetry data from 87 prime-aged (≥3 years old adult panthers (35 males and 52 females during the period 2004 through 2013 (28,720 radio-locations, we analyzed the characteristics of the occupied area and used those attributes in a random forest model to develop a predictive distribution map for resident breeding panthers in southern Florida. Using 10-fold cross validation, the model was 87.5 % accurate in predicting presence or absence of panthers in the 16,678 km2 study area. Analysis of variable importance indicated that the amount of forests and forest edge, hydrology, and human population density were the most important factors determining presence or absence of panthers. Sensitivity analysis showed that the presence of human populations, roads, and agriculture (other than pasture had strong negative effects on the probability of panther presence. Forest cover and forest edge had strong positive effects. The median model-predicted probability of presence for panther home ranges was 0.81 (0.82 for females and 0.74 for males. The model identified 5579 km2 of suitable breeding habitat remaining in southern Florida; 1399 km2 (25% of this habitat is in non-protected private ownership. Because there is less panther habitat remaining than previously thought, we recommend that all remaining breeding habitat in south Florida should be maintained, and the current panther range should be expanded into south-central Florida. This model should be useful for evaluating the impacts of future development projects, in prioritizing areas for panther conservation, and in evaluating the potential impacts of sea-level rise and changes in hydrology.

  4. 76 FR 66805 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Final Rulemaking To Designate Critical Habitat for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... or shelter; (4) Sites for breeding, reproduction, rearing of offspring, germination, or seed... Geographical Area Occupied One of the first steps in the critical habitat designation process is to define...

  5. 76 FR 515 - Endangered and Threatened Species, Designation of Critical Habitat for Southern Distinct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... qualify as critical habitat for the southern DPS. We followed a five- step process in order to identify...) Sites for breeding, reproduction, rearing of offspring, germination, or seed dispersal; and...

  6. Modeling Mosquito Distribution. Impact of the Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Y.

    2011-09-01

    In order to use efficiently vector control tools, like insecticides, and mechanical control, it is necessary to provide mosquito density estimate and mosquito distribution, taking into account the environment and entomological knowledges. Mosquito dispersal modeling, together with a compartmental approach, leads to a quasilinear parabolic system. Using the time splitting approach and appropriate numerical methods for each operator, we construct a reliable numerical scheme. Considering various landscapes, we show that the environment can have a strong influence on mosquito distribution and, thus, in the efficiency or not of vector control.

  7. Spatio-temporal Modeling of Mosquito Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Y.; Dufourd, C.

    2011-11-01

    We consider a quasilinear parabolic system to model mosquito displacement. In order to use efficiently vector control tools, like insecticides, and mechanical control, it is necessary to provide density estimates of mosquito populations, taking into account the environment and entomological knowledges. After a brief introduction to mosquito dispersal modeling, we present some theoretical results. Then, considering a compartmental approach, we get a quasilinear system of PDEs. Using the time splitting approach and appropriate numerical methods for each operator, we construct a reliable numerical scheme. Considering vector control scenarii, we show that the environment can have a strong influence on mosquito distribution and in the efficiency of vector control tools.

  8. Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst-Jan Scholte

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. There are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. The discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito-pathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner israelensis (Bti curtailed widespread interest in the search for other suitable biological control agents. In recent years interest in mosquito-killing fungi is reviving, mainly due to continuous and increasing levels of insecticide resistance and increasing global risk of mosquito-borne diseases. This review presents an update of published data on mosquito-pathogenic fungi and mosquito-pathogen interactions, covering 13 different fungal genera. Notwithstanding the potential of many fungi as mosquito control agents, only a handful have been commercialized and are marketed for use in abatement programs. We argue that entomopathogenic fungi, both new and existing ones with renewed/improved efficacies may contribute to an expansion of the limited arsenal of effective mosquito control tools, and that they may contribute in a significant and sustainable manner to the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue and filariasis.

  9. Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Knols, Bart G J; Samson, Robert A; Takken, Willem

    2004-01-01

    Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. There are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. The discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito-pathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner israelensis (Bti) curtailed widespread interest in the search for other suitable biological control agents. In recent years interest in mosquito-killing fungi is reviving, mainly due to continuous and increasing levels of insecticide resistance and increasing global risk of mosquito-borne diseases. This review presents an update of published data on mosquito-pathogenic fungi and mosquito-pathogen interactions, covering 13 different fungal genera. Notwithstanding the potential of many fungi as mosquito control agents, only a handful have been commercialized and are marketed for use in abatement programs. We argue that entomopathogenic fungi, both new and existing ones with renewed/improved efficacies may contribute to an expansion of the limited arsenal of effective mosquito control tools, and that they may contribute in a significant and sustainable manner to the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue and filariasis.

  10. A Breeding Season Survey of the California Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostritis obsoletus) in South San Francisco Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this project was to determine the densities and nesting success, and to investigate the habitat requirements of California Clapper Rails breeding in...

  11. Diversity of riceland mosquitoes and factors affecting their occurrence and distribution in Mwea, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Shililu, Josephat I; Jacob, Benjamin G; Mwangangi, Joseph M; Mbogo, Charles M; Githure, John I; Novak, Robert J

    2008-09-01

    Knowledge of mosquito species diversity, occurrence, and distribution is an essential component of vector ecology and a guiding principle to formulation and implementation of integrated vector management programs. A 12-month entomological survey was conducted to determine the diversity of riceland mosquitoes and factors affecting their occurrence and distribution at 3 sites targeted for malaria vector control in Mwea, Kenya. Adult mosquitoes were sampled indoors by pyrethrum spray catch and outdoors by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps. Mosquitoes were then morphologically identified to species using taxonomic keys. The characteristics of houses sampled for indoor resting mosquitoes, including number of people sleeping in each house the night preceding collection, presence of bed nets, location of the house, size of eaves, wall type, presence of cattle and distance of the house to the cowshed, and proximity to larval habitats, were recorded. Of the 191,378 mosquitoes collected, 95% were identified morphologically to species and comprised 25 species from 5 genera. Common species included Anopheles arabiensis (53.5%), Culex quinquefasciatus (35.5%), An. pharoensis (4.7%), An. coustani (2.5%), and An. funestus (1.6%). Shannon's species diversity and evenness indices did not differ significantly among the 3 study sites. There was a marked house-to-house variation in the average number of mosquitoes captured. The number of people sleeping in the house the night preceding collection, size of eaves, distance to the cowshed, and the nearest larval habitat were significant predictors of occurrence of either or both An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The peak abundance of An. arabiensis coincided with land preparation and the first few weeks after transplanting of rice seedlings, and that of Cx. quinquefasciatus coincided with land preparation, late stage of rice development, and short rains. After transplanting of rice seedlings, the

  12. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  13. EcologicHabitat_WLH

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wildlife Linkage Habitat Analysis uses landscape scale data to identify or predict the location of potentially significant wildlife linkage habitats (WLH)...

  14. Modelling Rift Valley fever (RVF) disease vector habitats using active and passive remote sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Linthicum, K. G.; Bailey, C. L.; Sebesta, P.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Ames Ecosystem Science and Technology Branch and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases are conducting research to detect Rift Valley fever (RVF) vector habitats in eastern Africa using active and passive remote-sensing. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) calculated from Landsat TM and SPOT data is used to characterize the vegetation common to the Aedes mosquito. Relationships have been found between the highest NDVI and the 'dambo' habitat areas near Riuru, Kenya on both wet and dry data. High NDVI values, when combined with the vegetation classifications, are clearly related to the areas of vector habitats. SAR data have been proposed for use during the rainy season when optical systems are of minimal use and the short frequency and duration of the optimum RVF mosquito habitat conditions necessitate rapid evaluation of the vegetation/moisture conditions; only then can disease potential be stemmed and eradication efforts initiated.

  15. Influence of breeding site availability on the oviposition behaviour of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Vieira Santos de Abreu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in the transmission of arboviruses, such as yellow fever, Chikungunya fever and dengue fever, some aspects of their behaviour remain unknown. In the present study, the oviposition behaviour of Ae. aegypti females that were exposed to different densities of breeding sites (2, 4, 8 and 16 was evaluated in laboratory and semi-field conditions. The number of breeding sites that were used was proportional to the number available, but tended towards stabilisation. Females used four-six breeding sites on average, with a maximum of 11. A high percentage of eggs was observed in the water, along with the presence of a breeding site termed “favourite”, which received at least 40% of the eggs. The results are discussed in ecological, evolutionary and epidemiological approaches.

  16. Anopheles plumbeus (Diptera: Culicidae in Europe: a mere nuisance mosquito or potential malaria vector?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffner Francis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles plumbeus has been recognized as a minor vector for human malaria in Europe since the beginning of the 20th century. In recent years this tree hole breeding mosquito species appears to have exploited novel breeding sites, including large and organically rich man-made containers, with consequently larger mosquito populations in close vicinity to humans. This lead to investigate whether current populations of An. plumbeus would be able to efficiently transmit Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for the most deadly form of malaria. Methods Anopheles plumbeus immatures were collected from a liquid manure pit in Switzerland and transferred as adults to the CEPIA (Institut Pasteur, France where they were fed on P. falciparum gametocytes produced in vitro. Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes served as controls. Development of P. falciparum in both mosquito species was followed by microscopical detection of oocysts on mosquito midguts and by sporozoite detection in the head/thorax by PCR and microscopy. Results A total of 293 wild An. plumbeus females from four independent collections successfully fed through a membrane on blood containing P. falciparum gametocytes. Oocysts were observed in mosquito midguts and P. falciparum DNA was detected in head-thorax samples in all four experiments, demonstrating, on a large mosquito sample, that An. plumbeus is indeed receptive to P. falciparum NF54 and able to produce sporozoites. Importantly, the proportion of sporozoites-infected An. plumbeus was almost similar to that of An. gambiae (31 to 88% An. plumbeus versus 67 to 97% An. gambiae. However, the number of sporozoites produced was significantly lower in infected An. plumbeus. Conclusion The results show that a sample of field-caught An. plumbeus has a moderate to high receptivity towards P. falciparum. Considering the increased mobility of humans between Europe and malaria endemic countries and changes in environment and

  17. Into the environment of mosquito-borne disease: A spatial analysis of vector distribution using traditional and remotely sensed methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heidi E.

    Spatially explicit information is increasingly available for infectious disease modeling. However, such information is reluctantly or inappropriately incorporated. My dissertation research uses spatially explicit data to assess relationships between landscape and mosquito species distribution and discusses challenges regarding accurate predictive risk modeling. The goal of my research is to use remotely sensed environmental information and spatial statistical methods to better understand mosquito-borne disease epidemiology for improvement of public health responses. In addition to reviewing the progress of spatial infectious disease modeling, I present four research projects. I begin by evaluating the biases in surveillance data and build up to predictive modeling of mosquito species presence. In the first study I explore how mosquito surveillance trap types influence estimations of mosquito populations. Then. I use county-based human surveillance data and landscape variables to identify risk factors for West Nile virus disease. The third study uses satellite-based vegetation indices to identify spatial variation among West Nile virus vectors in an urban area and relates the variability to virus transmission dynamics. Finally, I explore how information from three satellite sensors of differing spatial and spectral resolution can be used to identify and distinguish mosquito habitat across central Connecticut wetlands. Analyses presented here constitute improvements to the prediction of mosquito distribution and therefore identification of disease risk factors. Current methods for mosquito surveillance data collection are labor intensive and provide an extremely limited, incomplete picture of the species composition and abundance. Human surveillance data offers additional challenges with respect to reporting bias and resolution, but is nonetheless informative in identifying environmental risk factors and disease transmission dynamics. Remotely sensed imagery supports

  18. Travelling to breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, RJ; Fox, AD; Stahl, J

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, investigation of the dynamics of avian migration has been heavily biased towards the autumn return trip to the wintering quarters. Since the migratory prelude to breeding has direct fitness consequences, the European Science Foundation recently redressed the balance and sponsored a wo

  19. Breeding kennel management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, S

    1992-09-01

    Veterinarians and dog breeders should work together to establish protocols for health care and breeding management that are based on sound scientific principles as well as practical systems. These protocols should involve bitches, stud dogs, and puppies. Tantamount importance must be placed on record keeping so that problems may be identified and solved before they are irreversible.

  20. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,

    1939-01-01

    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great numb

  1. Altered mangrove wetlands as habitat for estuarine nekton: are dredged channels and tidal creeks equivalent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Justin M.; Brame, Adam B.; McIvor, Carole C.

    2007-01-01

    Hasty decisions are often made regarding the restoration of "altered" habitats, when in fact the ecological value of these habitats may be comparable to natural ones. To assess the "value" of altered mangrove-lined habitats for nekton, we sampled for 1 yr within three Tampa Bay wetlands. Species composition, abundance, and spatial distribution of nekton assemblages in permanent subtidal portions of natural tidal creeks and wetlands altered by construction of mosquito-control ditches and stormwater-drainage ditches were quantified through seasonal seine sampling. Results of repeated-measures analysis of variance and ordination of nekton community data suggested differences in species composition and abundance between natural and altered habitat, though not consistently among the three wetlands. In many cases, mosquito ditches were more similar in assemblage structure to tidal creeks than to stormwater ditches. In general, mosquito ditches and stormwater ditches were the most dissimilar in terms of nekton community structure. These dissimilarities were likely due to differences in design between the two types of ditches. Mosquito ditches tend to fill in over time and are thus more ephemeral features in the landscape. In contrast, stormwater ditches are a more permanent altered habitat that remain open due to periodic flushing from heavy runoff. Results indicate that environmental conditions (e.g., salinity, current velocity, vegetative structure) may provide a more useful indication of potential habitat "value" for nekton than whether the habitat has been altered. The type of ditching is therefore more important than ditching per se when judging the habitat quality of these altered channels for fishes, shrimps and crabs. Planning should entail careful consideration of environmental conditions rather than simply restoring for restoration's sake.

  2. Combining Breeding Bird Survey and distance sampling to estimate density of migrant and breeding birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somershoe, S.G.; Twedt, D.J.; Reid, B.

    2006-01-01

    We combined Breeding Bird Survey point count protocol and distance sampling to survey spring migrant and breeding birds in Vicksburg National Military Park on 33 days between March and June of 2003 and 2004. For 26 of 106 detected species, we used program DISTANCE to estimate detection probabilities and densities from 660 3-min point counts in which detections were recorded within four distance annuli. For most species, estimates of detection probability, and thereby density estimates, were improved through incorporation of the proportion of forest cover at point count locations as a covariate. Our results suggest Breeding Bird Surveys would benefit from the use of distance sampling and a quantitative characterization of habitat at point count locations. During spring migration, we estimated that the most common migrant species accounted for a population of 5000-9000 birds in Vicksburg National Military Park (636 ha). Species with average populations of 300 individuals during migration were: Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea), Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum), White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula). Of 56 species that bred in Vicksburg National Military Park, we estimated that the most common 18 species accounted for 8150 individuals. The six most abundant breeding species, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, White-eyed Vireo, Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), accounted for 5800 individuals.

  3. Spatial evaluation of larvae of Culicidae (Diptera from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Piovezan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial evaluation of Culicidae (Diptera larvae from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control. This study investigates the spatial distribution of urban Culicidae and informs entomological monitoring of species that use artificial containers as larval habitats. Collections of mosquito larvae were conducted in the São Paulo State municipality of Santa Bárbara d' Oeste between 2004 and 2006 during house-to-house visits. A total of 1,891 samples and nine different species were sampled. Species distribution was assessed using the kriging statistical method by extrapolating municipal administrative divisions. The sampling method followed the norms of the municipal health services of the Ministry of Health and can thus be adopted by public health authorities in disease control and delimitation of risk areas. Moreover, this type of survey and analysis can be employed for entomological surveillance of urban vectors that use artificial containers as larval habitat.Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores. Este estudo investiga a distribuição espacial da fauna urbana e de Culicidae e informa o monitoramento entomológico de espécies que usam recipientes artificiais como habitat larval. Coletas de larvas de mosquitos foram realizadas no município paulista de Santa Bárbara d' Oeste entre os anos de 2004 e 2006, durante visitas casa-a-casa. Um total de 1.891 amostras foi considerado, com nove espécies diferentes coletadas. A distribuição das espécies foi avaliada através do método de krigagem estatística extrapolando as divisões administrativas do município. O método de coleta adotado no presente estudo está de acordo com os métodos sugeridos aos serviços de saúde municipais pelo Ministério da Saúde e pode, portanto, ser adotado pelas autoridades p

  4. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, R.; Dun, van K.P.M.; Snoo, de B.; Berg, van den M.; Lelivelt, C.L.C.; Voermans, W.; Woudenberg, L.; Wit, de J.P.C.; Reinink, K.; Schut, J.W.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Wijnker, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on re

  5. California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii) movement and habitat use: Implications for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, G.M.; Kleeman, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Nonbreeding habitats are critically important for Rana draytonii, especially for individuals that breed in temporary bodies of water. We radiotracked 123 frogs to evaluate seasonal habitat use. Individual frogs were continuously tracked for up to 16 months. Some individuals remained at breeding ponds all year, but 66% of female and 25% of male frogs moved to nonbreeding areas, even when the breeding site retained water. Frogs at our main study site moved 150 m (median), roughly the distance to the nearest suitable nonbreeding area. The greatest straight-line distance traveled was 1.4 km, although the presumed distance traveled was 2.8 km. Females were more likely than males to move from permanent ponds (38% of females, 16% of males), but among dispersing frogs, males and females did not differ in distance moved. Some frogs left breeding sites shortly after oviposition (median = 12 days for females, 42.5 days for males), but many individuals remained until the site was nearly dry. Fog provided moisture for dispersal or migration throughout the summer. Our data demonstrate that maintaining populations of pond-breeding amphibians requires that all essential habitat components be protected; these include (1) breeding habitat, (2) nonbreeding habitat, and (3) migration corridors. In addition, a buffer is needed around all three areas to ensure that outside activities do not degrade any of the three habitat components. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  6. Insecticidal and repellent activity of Hiptage benghalensis L. Kruz (Malpighiaceae) against mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalrotluanga; Ngente, Lalchawimawii; Nachimuthu, Senthil Kumar; Guruswami, Gurusubramanian

    2012-09-01

    Plant-based insecticides for vector control are urgently needed for Anopheles barbirostris, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes albopictus which are the primary vectors of malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue, respectively, in India and other South East Asian countries. In the present study, larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activities of acetone root bark extract of Hiptage benghalensis were tested against the larvae and adults of the three mosquito vectors. The acetone root bark extracts of H. benghalensis was more effective as larvicides with low LC(50) (11.15-16.78 ppm) and LT50 (1.25-4.84 h at 200 and 400 ppm) values. Results of log probit analysis (at 95 % confidence level) and regression analysis of crude acetone root bark extract of H. benghalensis revealed that lethal concentration (LC(50)) values gradually decreased with the exposure periods; lethal time (LT(50)) decreased with the concentration, and the mortality is positively correlated with the concentration. The order of susceptibility of the three mosquito species was as follows: A. albopictus > A. barbirostris > C. quinquefascitus. Biochemical changes were also evidenced in third instar larvae of three mosquito species following a sublethal exposure for 24 h. The level of sugar, glycogen, lipids, and proteins was significantly (P larvicide against A. albopictus, A. barbirostris, and C. quinquefascitus, which can be recommended to control these mosquito species on its breeding site. However, further investigations are needed to confirm the lethal effects of H. benghalensis in field conditions and its impact on the nontarget organisms.

  7. 78 FR 58923 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Grotto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... five cave systems (Moore Cave, Crevice Cave, Mystery Cave, Rimstone River Cave, and Running Bull Cave... breeding, reproduction, or rearing (or development) of offspring; and (5) Habitats that are protected from..., shelter, and sites for foraging, breeding, reproduction, and growth of offspring for the grotto...

  8. The influence of habitat structure on sexual conflict over care in Penduline Tits Remiz pendulinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Rene E.; Pilon, Arjen E.; Szentirmai, Istvan; Szekely, Tamas; Komdeur, Jan; Kraaijeveld, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distributions of resources and habitats often influence breeding systems. These influences are particularly relevant in those species that exhibit variable breeding systems. We studied such a species, the Penduline Tit Remiz pendulinus. This small passerine bird has sequential p

  9. Mosquito coil emissions and health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weili; Zhang, Junfeng; Hashim, Jamal H; Jalaludin, Juliana; Hashim, Zailina; Goldstein, Bernard D

    2003-09-01

    Burning mosquito coils indoors generates smoke that can control mosquitoes effectively. This practice is currently used in numerous households in Asia, Africa, and South America. However, the smoke may contain pollutants of health concern. We conducted the present study to characterize the emissions from four common brands of mosquito coils from China and two common brands from Malaysia. We used mass balance equations to determine emission rates of fine particles (particulate matter pollutant concentrations resulting from burning mosquito coils could substantially exceed health-based air quality standards or guidelines. Under the same combustion conditions, the tested Malaysian mosquito coils generated more measured pollutants than did the tested Chinese mosquito coils. We also identified a large suite of volatile organic compounds, including carcinogens and suspected carcinogens, in the coil smoke. In a set of experiments conducted in a room, we examined the size distribution of particulate matter contained in the coil smoke and found that the particles were ultrafine and fine. The findings from the present study suggest that exposure to the smoke of mosquito coils similar to the tested ones can pose significant acute and chronic health risks. For example, burning one mosquito coil would release the same amount of PM(2.5) mass as burning 75-137 cigarettes. The emission of formaldehyde from burning one coil can be as high as that released from burning 51 cigarettes.

  10. Recent reduction in the water level of Lake Victoria has created more habitats for Anopheles funestus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futami Kyoko

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The water level of Lake Victoria has fallen more than 1.5 m since 1998, revealing a narrow strip of land along the shore. This study determined whether the recent drop in the water level has created additional breeding grounds for malaria vectors. Methods The recent and past shorelines were estimated using landmarks and a satellite image. The locations of breeding habitats were recorded using a GPS unit during the high and low lake water periods. GIS was used to determine whether the breeding habitats were located on newly emerged land between the new and old shorelines. Results Over half of the breeding habitats existed on newly emerged land. Fewer habitats for the Anopheles gambiae complex were found during the low water level period compared to the high water period. However, more habitats for Anopheles funestus were found during the high water level period, and they were all located on the newly emerged land. Conclusion The recent reduction in water level of Lake Victoria has increased the amount of available habitat for A. funestus. The results suggest that the water drop has substantially affected the population of this malaria vector in the Lake Victoria basin, particularly because the lake has a long shoreline that may harbour many new breeding habitats.

  11. Use of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS and Shredded Waste Polystyrene (SWAP Beads for Control of Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Soltani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mosquitoes transmit several diseases to human. There are several measures for control of larvae. As part of Integrated Vector Management (IVM program, the utility of floating layers of polystyrene beads (EPS is a po­ten­tial alternative in habitats of mosquito larva. EPS beads prevent oviposition of mosquito as well as killing the im­ma­ture stages by forming a tick layer on the water surface.  They are cheap, environmentally safe and do not need fre­quent application and remain on the surface of water for long time. The objective of the current study was to asses the effectiveness of two types of polystyrene beads of (EPS and (SWAP for control of mosquito larvae under labo­ra­tory conditions.Methods: Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus were used for experimental purposes. In each tray 250 lar­vae of late 3rd and early 4th instars were introduced. The experiment was conducted on 4 replicates for An. ste­phensi, Cu. quinquefasciatus and combination of both. Emerging of adult mosquitoes were calculated every day until the end of experiments.Results: Mortality rate and Inhibition of Emerge (IE for Cu. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi and combination of both spe­cies was 97.8%, 100% and 99.07%, respectively using EPS. In average, EPS was able to kill 98.9% of lar­vae. The fig­ures with SWAP were 63%, 91.05% and 72.65%, respectively. The average mortality for mosquitoes was 75.57%Conclusion: EPS and SWAP beads can be very effective and practical for elimination of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefas­ciatus under the laboratory conditions.

  12. Use of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS and Shredded Waste Polystyrene (SWAP Beads for Control of Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Soltani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mosquitoes transmit several diseases to human. There are several measures for control of larvae. As part of Integrated Vector Management (IVM program, the utility of floating layers of polystyrene beads (EPS is a po­ten­tial alternative in habitats of mosquito larva. EPS beads prevent oviposition of mosquito as well as killing the im­ma­ture stages by forming a tick layer on the water surface.  They are cheap, environmentally safe and do not need fre­quent application and remain on the surface of water for long time. The objective of the current study was to asses the effectiveness of two types of polystyrene beads of (EPS and (SWAP for control of mosquito larvae under labo­ra­tory conditions."nMethods: Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus were used for experimental purposes. In each tray 250 lar­vae of late 3rd and early 4th instars were introduced. The experiment was conducted on 4 replicates for An. ste­phensi, Cu. quinquefasciatus and combination of both. Emerging of adult mosquitoes were calculated every day until the end of experiments."nResults: Mortality rate and Inhibition of Emerge (IE for Cu. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi and combination of both spe­cies was 97.8%, 100% and 99.07%, respectively using EPS. In average, EPS was able to kill 98.9% of lar­vae. The fig­ures with SWAP were 63%, 91.05% and 72.65%, respectively. The average mortality for mosquitoes was 75.57%"nConclusion: EPS and SWAP beads can be very effective and practical for elimination of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefas­ciatus under the laboratory conditions.

  13. Free flight of the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    CERN Document Server

    Iams, S M

    2012-01-01

    High speed video observations of free flying male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the dengue and yellow fever vector, along with custom measurement methods, enable measurement of wingbeat frequency, body position and body orientation of mosquitoes during flight. We find these mosquitoes flap their wings at approximately 850 Hz. We also generate body yaw, body pitch and wing deviation measurements with standard deviations of less than 1 degree and find that sideways velocity and acceleration are important components of mosquito motion. Rapid turns involving changes in flight direction often involve large sideways accelerations. These do not correspond to commensurate changes in body heading, and the insect's flight direction and body heading are decoupled during flight. These findings call in to question the role of yaw control in mosquito flight. In addition, using orientation data, we find that sideways accelerations are well explained by roll-based rotation of the lift vector. In contrast, the insect's body pitch...

  14. Mosquito flight failure in heavy fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Andrew; Telljohann, Luke; Thornton, Lee-Ellen; Moyer, Caitlin; Hu, David

    2012-11-01

    Mosquitoes thrive during rainfall and high humidity. We previously found that mosquitoes are successful fliers through rainfall. Heavy fog, consisting of drops three orders of magnitude smaller in mass than raindrops, presents an environment in which mosquitoes cannot maintain flight. Through high-speed videography, we observe mosquitoes reduce wingbeat frequency in heavy fog, but retain the ability to generate sufficient force to lift their bodies, even after significant dew deposition. They are unable, however, to maintain an upright position required for sustainable flight. A mosquito's primary flight control mechanism is its halteres, small knobbed structures evolved from the hind wings, which flap anti-phase with the wings and provide gyroscopic feedback through Coriolis forces. Though the halteres are hydrophobic, repeated collisions with 10-micron fog particles hinders flight control, leading to flight failure.

  15. Asymptomatic humans transmit dengue virus to mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Veasna; Lambrechts, Louis; Paul, Richard E; Ly, Sowath; Lay, Rath Srey; Long, Kanya C; Huy, Rekol; Tarantola, Arnaud; Scott, Thomas W; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-11-24

    Three-quarters of the estimated 390 million dengue virus (DENV) infections each year are clinically inapparent. People with inapparent dengue virus infections are generally considered dead-end hosts for transmission because they do not reach sufficiently high viremia levels to infect mosquitoes. Here, we show that, despite their lower average level of viremia, asymptomatic people can be infectious to mosquitoes. Moreover, at a given level of viremia, DENV-infected people with no detectable symptoms or before the onset of symptoms are significantly more infectious to mosquitoes than people with symptomatic infections. Because DENV viremic people without clinical symptoms may be exposed to more mosquitoes through their undisrupted daily routines than sick people and represent the bulk of DENV infections, our data indicate that they have the potential to contribute significantly more to virus transmission to mosquitoes than previously recognized.

  16. High Resolution Spatial Analysis of Habitat Preference of Aedes Albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Urban Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cianci, D.; Hartemink, N.; Zeimes, C.B.; Vanwambeke, S.O.; Ienco, A.; Caputo, B.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895)) has emerged in many countries, and it has colonized new environments, including urban areas. The species is a nuisance and a potential vector of several human pathogens, and a better understanding of the habitat prefere

  17. High Resolution Spatial Analysis of Habitat Preference of Aedes Albopictus (Diptera Culicidae) in an Urban Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cianci, Daniela; Hartemink, Nienke; Zeimes, Caroline B; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Ienco, Annamaria; Caputo, Beniamino

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895)) has emerged in many countries, and it has colonized new environments, including urban areas. The species is a nuisance and a potential vector of several human pathogens, and a better understanding of the habitat prefere

  18. Toxicity and effects of mosquito larvicides methoprene and surface film (Agnique® MMF) on the development and fecundity of the tadpole shrimp Triops newberryi (Packard) (Notostraca: Triopsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianyun; Jiang, Yonxing; Mulla, Mir S

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the interactions of tadpole shrimp, a mosquito biological control agent, with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene and a monomolecular surface film. In laboratory assays, the tadpole shrimp (TPS) Triops newberryi (Packard) was able to tolerate high concentrations of methoprene without negative impacts on its growth, longevity, and fecundity when exposed to 1 to 10 mg/liter, or 90-900 fold, of the IE(90) levels against a laboratory colony of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The same held true in field trials when the habitats were treated with Altosid(®) Liquid Larvicide (Altosid(®) LL, 5% methoprene) at 0.3-1.2 liters/ha. or 1-4 fold of the label rates for mosquito control. However, some significant impacts on the TPS occurred when they were exposed to Agnique(®) Monomolecular Film (Agnique(®) MMF) at the label rates for mosquito control ranging from 1.89-9.45 liters/ha. under laboratory and field conditions. To avoid the negative impact of Agnique MMF on tadpole shrimp, it appears that 1.89 liters/ha. would be the maximum rate when Agnique MMF is used to control mosquitoes in the habitats where the TPS is employed as a biological control agent, or prevailing in the aquatic habitats with potential for suppressing mosquito larval populations.

  19. Green Nanoparticles for Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

    2014-01-01

    Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl). Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs). The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito. PMID:25243210

  20. Green nanoparticles for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

    2014-01-01

    Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl). Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs). The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito.

  1. Green Nanoparticles for Mosquito Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Soni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag and gold (Au nanoparticles (NPs were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl. Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM. The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs. The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito.

  2. Habitat-specific population growth of a farmland bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Arlt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess population persistence of species living in heterogeneous landscapes, the effects of habitat on reproduction and survival have to be investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a matrix population model to estimate habitat-specific population growth rates for a population of northern wheatears Oenanthe oenanthe breeding in farmland consisting of a mosaic of distinct habitat (land use types. Based on extensive long-term data on reproduction and survival, habitats characterised by tall field layers (spring- and autumn-sown crop fields, ungrazed grasslands displayed negative stochastic population growth rates (log lambda(s: -0.332, -0.429, -0.168, respectively, that were markedly lower than growth rates of habitats characterised by permanently short field layers (pastures grazed by cattle or horses, and farmyards, log lambda(s: -0.056, +0.081, -0.059. Although habitats differed with respect to reproductive performance, differences in habitat-specific population growth were largely due to differences in adult and first-year survival rates, as shown by a life table response experiment (LTRE. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that estimation of survival rates is important for realistic assessments of habitat quality. Results also indicate that grazed grasslands and farmyards may act as source habitats, whereas crop fields and ungrazed grasslands with tall field layers may act as sink habitats. We suggest that the strong decline of northern wheatears in Swedish farmland may be linked to the corresponding observed loss of high quality breeding habitat, i.e. grazed semi-natural grasslands.

  3. Habitat use of barnacle geese at a subarctic salt marsh in the Kolokolkova Bay, Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, AJ; Lavrinenko, OV; Elsakov, [No Value; van Eerden, MR; Stahl, J

    2004-01-01

    Along the east Atlantic migratory flyway, goose and swan species rely on the availability of suitable coastal habitats as staging sites during migration and for breeding. Especially for the Russian part of the flyway, detailed descriptions of these habitats in relation to use by herbivores are lacki

  4. Evaluation of immature mosquitocidal properties ofXanthium strumarium Linn. plant extracts against Culex mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kasim Roba; Getinet Masresha; Wondmeneh Jemberie; Raja Nagappan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate immature mosquitocidal properties ofXanthium strumarium plant extracts againstCulex mosquitoes at Entomology Laboratory, Maraki Campus, University of Gondar. Methods: The immature mosquitocidal activity of plant extracts was tested by following World Health Organization recommended protocol. Acetone, methanol and water extracts were prepared at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L concentrations and tested against third and fourth instar larvae and pupae ofCulex mosquitoes. The mortality rate of immature mosquitoes was recorded after 24, 48 and 72 h exposure period continuously. Results: Third instar larvae after 24 h exposure period, maximum mortality of 77.80% was recorded at 250 mg/L concentration of acetone extract. After 48 h and 72 h exposure period, maximum mortality of 88.90% was recorded in acetone extract in all the tested concentration. The maximum mortality of fourth instar larvae was 88.90% in acetone extract at 200 and 250 mg/L concentrations. Pupal mortality was also greater in acetone extract. The percentage of mortality in all the stage of mosquitoes was higher in acetone extract followed by methanol and water extract. Conclusions: The percentage of mortality is associated with concentration of the extracts tested and exposure period. This laboratory study confirmed immature mosquitocidal activity of Xanthium strumarium leaf extracts againstCulex mosquitoes. The aqueous leaf extract can be used by applying on small man-made breeding places to prevent adult emergence.

  5. A study on the resting preference of mosquito species in wells in Vellore in Tamilnadu, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, V; Elango, S; Jeykumar, K; Madhavan, J; Alamelu, M; Shanthi, S

    2010-03-01

    The resting preferences of mosquito species was investigated in domestic wells. In addition to the routine adult surveys in human dwellings, adult collections were also made in domestic wells using an innovated equipment operating on the principles of spray sheet collections. Above the water surface, wells provide humid and dark microclimate along the inner walls. It has been observed that this microclimate provides very congenial resting place for few mosquito species; specially for the males and for the females between their gonotropic cycles. Larval collections in the wells did not reveal breeding of majority of the mosquito species collected by this technique. Investigations were conducted in 87 wells in 11 localities during 2005. A total of 4969 mosquitos were collected of which 69.1% (3441) were males and 30.9% (1528) were females. From among the mosquitos collected 96.5% were Cu. quinquifasciatus, 0.26% All stephensi, 3.0% Aedes agypti and 0.24% Armegeres sp. The results of the analysis of the physical and chemical parameter of water samples of the study wells before and after the surveys endorsed the utility of this technique for entomological investigations in outbreak situations, for monitoring the liquidation of outbreak foci and for other research purposes.

  6. Clark's Nutcracker Breeding Season Space Use and Foraging Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taza D Schaming

    Full Text Available Considering the entire life history of a species is fundamental to developing effective conservation strategies. Decreasing populations of five-needle white pines may be leading to the decline of Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana. These birds are important seed dispersers for at least ten conifer species in the western U.S., including whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis, an obligate mutualist of Clark's nutcrackers. For effective conservation of both Clark's nutcrackers and whitebark pine, it is essential to ensure stability of Clark's nutcracker populations. My objectives were to examine Clark's nutcracker breeding season home range size, territoriality, habitat selection, and foraging behavior in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, a region where whitebark pine is declining. I radio-tracked Clark's nutcrackers in 2011, a population-wide nonbreeding year following a low whitebark pine cone crop, and 2012, a breeding year following a high cone crop. Results suggest Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii communities are important habitat for Clark's nutcrackers because they selected it for home ranges. In contrast, they did not select whitebark pine habitat. However, Clark's nutcrackers did adjust their use of whitebark pine habitat between years, suggesting that, in some springs, whitebark pine habitat may be used more than previously expected. Newly extracted Douglas-fir seeds were an important food source both years. On the other hand, cached seeds made up a relatively lower proportion of the diet in 2011, suggesting cached seeds are not a reliable spring food source. Land managers focus on restoring whitebark pine habitat with the assumption that Clark's nutcrackers will be available to continue seed dispersal. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, Clark's nutcracker populations may be more likely to be retained year-round when whitebark pine restoration efforts are located adjacent to Douglas-fir habitat. By extrapolation, whitebark

  7. Home Range, Habitat Selection, and Foraging Rhythm in Mauritanian Spoonbills (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Hacen, E.-H.M.; Overdijk, O.; Lok, T.; Olff, H.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    Mauritanian Spoonbills (Platalea leucorodia balsaci) only breed at Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania, West Africa. Their populations have declined; however, nothing is known about possible ecological factors involved, including their primary food and foraging habits. Home range sizes, habitat selection, and

  8. Larval habitat for the avian malaria vector culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in altered mid-elevation mesic-dry forests in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Effective management of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in Hawai'i's endemic honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) requires the identification and subsequent reduction or treatment of larval habitat for the mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). We conducted ground surveys, treehole surveys, and helicopter aerial surveys from 20012003 to identify all potential larval mosquito habitat within two 100+ ha mesic-dry forest study sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i; 'Ainahou Ranch and Mauna Loa Strip Road. At 'Ainahou Ranch, anthropogenic sites (43%) were more likely to contain mosquitoes than naturally occurring (8%) sites. Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were predominately found in anthropogenic sites while Aedes albopictus larvae occurred less frequently in both anthropogenic sites and naturally-occurring sites. Additionally, moderate-size (???20-22,000 liters) anthropogenic potential larval habitat had >50% probability of mosquito presence compared to larger- and smaller-volume habitat (<50%). Less than 20% of trees surveyed at ' Ainahou Ranch had treeholes and few mosquito larvae were detected. Aerial surveys at 'Ainahou Ranch detected 56% (95% CI: 42-68%) of the potential larval habitat identified in ground surveys. At Mauna Loa Strip Road, Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were only found in the rock holes of small intermittent stream drainages that made up 20% (5 of 25) of the total potential larval habitat. The volume of the potential larval habitat did not influence the probability of mosquito occurrence at Mauna Loa Strip Road. Our results suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance, and subsequently avian malaria, may be controlled by larval habitat reduction in the mesic-dry landscapes of Hawai'i where anthropogenic sources predominate.

  9. Captive breeding, reintroduction, and the conservation of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2008-08-01

    The global amphibian crisis has resulted in renewed interest in captive breeding as a conservation tool for amphibians. Although captive breeding and reintroduction are controversial management actions, amphibians possess a number of attributes that make them potentially good models for such programs. We reviewed the extent and effectiveness of captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians through an analysis of data from the Global Amphibian Assessment and other sources. Most captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians have focused on threatened species from industrialized countries with relatively low amphibian diversity. Out of 110 species in such programs, 52 were in programs with no plans for reintroduction that had conservation research or conservation education as their main purpose. A further 39 species were in programs that entailed captive breeding and reintroduction or combined captive breeding with relocations of wild animals. Nineteen species were in programs with relocations of wild animals only. Eighteen out of 58 reintroduced species have subsequently bred successfully in the wild, and 13 of these species have established self-sustaining populations. As with threatened amphibians generally, amphibians in captive breeding or reintroduction programs face multiple threats, with habitat loss being the most important. Nevertheless, only 18 out of 58 reintroduced species faced threats that are all potentially reversible. When selecting species for captive programs, dilemmas may emerge between choosing species that have a good chance of surviving after reintroduction because their threats are reversible and those that are doomed to extinction in the wild as a result of irreversible threats. Captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians require long-term commitments to ensure success, and different management strategies may be needed for species earmarked for reintroduction and species used for conservation

  10. Breeding ecology of the redhead duck in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokemoen, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    The habits of the redhead duck (Aythya americana) were studied in the Flathead Valley of western Montana in 1960 and 1961 to determine their habitat preferences in this pothole breeding ground. The 2,600-acre study area, surrounding the Ninepipe Reservoir, contained 686 potholes. Redheads usually were paired by the time they arrived on the study area in March. The average density of redhead breeding pairs was 25 pairs per square mile. For all spring activities except nesting, the birds used large, deep, open potholes or breeding-pair potholes. The several breeding-pair potholes and the nesting pothole utilized by the pair comprised their home range. Starting in late April, the pairs moved about the home range as the hens selected nesting sites, usually in the dense emergent vegetation of small, shallow potholes. Hard-stem bulrush (Scirpus acutus) and cat-tail (Typha latifolia) were preferred nesting cover. Redhead nesting success was only 15 percent, a low rate apparently caused by degenerate nesting behavior complicated by high redhead density, a lack of suitable nest hosts, and certain habitat deficiencies. By late June most drakes and unsuccessful hens had moved from the potholes to nearby reservoirs. All successful hens led their newly hatched broods from the nesting potholes to larger brood potholes and many eventually moved to the reservoir. By mid-July virtually all redheads had moved from the potholes to the reservoirs, where they remained until fall migration.

  11. EFFECTS OF MOSQUITO REPELLENTS ON PULMONARY FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito bite transmits diseases like Malaria, Filaria, Dengue etc. and usage of repellents is very common and has been in use for a long time. The smoke contains Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons, Aldehydes and Ketones. Review of literature has shown ill effects of this smoke. Hence we intended to study the effect of mosquito repellents on lung functions. This study would be important to create awareness regarding usage of mosquito repellent and to adapt to non-harmful methods of preventing mosquito bites. PFT parameters FVC, FEV1, FEV1/ FVC %, FEF 25-75 and PEFR were recorded in mosquito coil users, liquidator’s users and controls that used neither. It was found that FVC and FEV1 were significantly less in coil and liquidators users compared to controls (P < 0.05. Also it was found that in both coil users and liquidator users FVC, FEV1, FEF 25 -75 and PEFR and showed progressive decline with increased duration of usage (P < 0.05. Hence it was concluded that mosquito coils and liquidators can cause progressive decline in lung functions. Alternative methods to combat mosquito menace, like personal and environmental hygiene and non-chemical methods of protection are therefore recommended.

  12. Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anupam; Chowdhury, Nandita; Chandra, Goutam

    2012-01-01

    Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya ferver, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM), emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain and adverse effects on environmental quality and non target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are non-toxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In this article, the current state of knowledge on phytochemical sources and mosquitocidal activity, their mechanism of action on target population, variation of their larvicidal activity according to mosquito species, instar specificity, polarity of solvents used during extraction, nature of active ingredient and promising advances made in biological control of mosquitoes by plant derived secondary metabolites have been reviewed. PMID:22771587

  13. Combining hydrology and mosquito population models to identify the drivers of Rift Valley fever emergence in semi-arid regions of West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Soti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a vector-borne viral zoonosis of increasing global importance. RVF virus (RVFV is transmitted either through exposure to infected animals or through bites from different species of infected mosquitoes, mainly of Aedes and Culex genera. These mosquitoes are very sensitive to environmental conditions, which may determine their presence, biology, and abundance. In East Africa, RVF outbreaks are known to be closely associated with heavy rainfall events, unlike in the semi-arid regions of West Africa where the drivers of RVF emergence remain poorly understood. The assumed importance of temporary ponds and rainfall temporal distribution therefore needs to be investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hydrological model is combined with a mosquito population model to predict the abundance of the two main mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes involved in RVFV transmission in Senegal. The study area is an agropastoral zone located in the Ferlo Valley, characterized by a dense network of temporary water ponds which constitute mosquito breeding sites. The hydrological model uses daily rainfall as input to simulate variations of pond surface areas. The mosquito population model is mechanistic, considers both aquatic and adult stages and is driven by pond dynamics. Once validated using hydrological and entomological field data, the model was used to simulate the abundance dynamics of the two mosquito species over a 43-year period (1961-2003. We analysed the predicted dynamics of mosquito populations with regards to the years of main outbreaks. The results showed that the main RVF outbreaks occurred during years with simultaneous high abundances of both species. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides for the first time a mechanistic insight on RVFV transmission in West Africa. It highlights the complementary roles of Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes in virus transmission, and recommends

  14. An exploratory survey of malaria prevalence and people's knowledge, attitudes and practices of mosquito larval source management for malaria control in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imbahale, S.S.; Fillinger, U.; Githeko, A.; Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.

    2010-01-01

    A large proportion of mosquito larval habitats in urban and rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa are man-made. Therefore, community-based larval source management (LSM) could make a significant contribution to malaria control in an integrated vector management approach. Here we implemented an exp

  15. Plasmodium-mosquito interactions, phage display libraries and transgenic mosquitoes impaired for malaria transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A K; Moreira, L A; Jacobs-Lorena, M

    2002-10-01

    Malaria continues to kill millions of people every year and new strategies to combat this disease are urgently needed. Recent advances in the study of the mosquito vector and its interactions with the malaria parasite suggest that it may be possible to genetically manipulate the mosquito in order to reduce its vectorial capacity. Here we review the advances made to date in four areas: (1) the introduction of foreign genes into the mosquito germ line; (2) the characterization of tissue-specific promoters; (3) the identification of gene products that block development of the parasite in the mosquito; and (4) the generation of transgenic mosquitoes impaired for malaria transmission. While initial results show great promise, the problem of how to spread the blocking genes through wild mosquito populations remains to be solved.

  16. Cubiertas de auto abandonadas como sitios de cría de Culex eduardoi (Diptera: Culicidae en el Parque Provincial Pereyra Iraola, Provincia de Buenos Aires Discarded car tires as breeding sites of Culex eduardoi (Diptera: Culicidae in the Pereyra Iraola Provincial Park, Buenos Aires Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Rubio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento sobre la fauna de mosquitos que se cría en cubiertas de auto es realmente escaso en Argentina. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar una población de inmaduros de Culex eduardoi Casal & Garcia en una acumulación de cubiertas abandonadas en un bosque suburbano de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Entre noviembre 2009 y mayo 2010, se recolectaron mensualmente larvas de mosquitos en 27 cubiertas de auto abandonadas en un sector boscoso del Parque Provincial Pereyra Iraola. Se recolectaron en total 1.009 larvas del tercer y cuarto estadio de Cx. eduardoi, y el índice de contenedores (IC global fue 66,3% (106/160. Culex eduardoi estuvo presente durante todos los meses, aunque el IC difirió significativamente (x²(6 = 15,11; p The knowledge about tire-breeding mosquitoes is truly scarce in Argentina. The objective of this study was to characterize a population of immatures of Culex eduardoi Casal & Garcia, from a pile of abandoned tires located in a suburban forest of Buenos Aires Province. Between November 2009 and May 2010, mosquito larvae were monthly collected in 27 abandoned tires within a woody area of the Parque Provincial Pereyra Iraola. A total of 1009 third and fourth instar larvae of Cx. eduardoi were collected, and the overall container index (CI was 66.3% (106/160. Culex eduardoi was collected every month but the CI differed significantly (x²(6 = 15.11; p < 0.05, reaching maximum values in November and December (76 and 92.5% respectively. In spring, the relative abundance of larvae was also the highest, and the mean number of larvae collected per habitat was 9.5 (min. 3.5 in March; max.15.1 in November. Other mosquito species such as Cx. pipiens Linneo and Toxorhynchites theobaldi Dyar & Knab were also found in the studied containers. The present findings contribute with novel knowledge on culicids of tires in Argentina.

  17. Mosquito species diversity and abundance in relation to land use in a riceland agroecosystem in Mwea, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Shililu, Josephat; Jacob, Benjamin; Gu, Weidong; Githure, John; Novak, Robert

    2006-06-01

    We conducted an entomological survey to determine the mosquito species diversity and abundance in relation to land use in the Mwea rice scheme, Kenya. Adult mosquitoes were collected by indoor spraying of houses and outdoors by CDC light traps in three villages representing planned (Mbuinjeru) and unplanned (Kiamachiri) rice agroecosystems and a non-irrigated agroecosystem (Murinduko). During the 12-month sampling period, a total of 98,708 mosquitoes belonging to five genera and 25 species were collected. The five most common species collected during this study were Anopheles arabiensis Patton (52.5%), Culex quinquefasciatus Say (36.7%), Anopheles pharoensis Theobald (5.2%), Anopheles coustani Laveran (1.4%), and Anopheles funestus Giles (1.3%). Anopheles arabiensis, Cx quinquefasciatus, and An. pharoensis were more abundant in rice agroecosystems than in the non-irrigated agroecosystem, and in planned than in the unplanned rice agroecosystems. In contrast, An. funestus was more abundant in the non-irrigated agroecosystem. The mosquito species diversity (H) and evenness (E(H)) in the non-irrigated agroecosystem (Shannon diversity Index, H = 1.507, EH = 0.503) was significantly higher than in the rice agroecosystems (H) = 0.968, E(H) = 0.313, unplanned; and H= 1.040, E(H) = 0.367 planned). Results of lag cross correlation analysis revealed a strong relationship between rainfall and the abundance of An. arabiensis, and C. quinquefasciatus in the non-irrigated agroecosystem but not in the rice agroecosystems. It is inferred from the data that different levels of habitat perturbations with regard to rice cultivation have different effects on mosquito diversity and abundance. This provides an understanding of how mosquito diversity is impacted by different habitat management and rice cropping strategies.

  18. Can mosquitoes fly in the rain?

    CERN Document Server

    Dickerson, Andrew; Madhavan, Nihar; Hu, David

    2011-01-01

    Collisions with raindrops are one of many obstacles insects face during flight. In this fluid dynamics video, we present a series of high-speed films of impacts between mosquitoes and raindrops. We also present drop impacts upon insect mimics, which are unsupported styrofoam balls of the same mass as mosquitoes. High-speed videography and particle tracking during collision are employed to determine the insect position versus time. We determine the magnitude of acceleration by considering the momentum transfer and impact duration. Experiments with live mosquitoes indicate a surprising ability to quickly recover flight post-collision, despite accelerations of 30-300 gravities over durations of 1 ms.

  19. Mosquito transgenic technologies to reduce Plasmodium transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Silke; Nolan, Tony; Crisanti, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The ability to introduce genetic constructs of choice into the genome of Anopheles mosquitoes provides a valuable tool to study the molecular interactions between the Plasmodium parasite and its insect host. In the long term, this technology could potentially offer new ways to control vector-borne diseases through the suppression of target mosquito populations or through the introgression of traits that preclude pathogen transmission. Here, we describe in detail protocols for the generation of transgenic Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes based on germ-line transformation using either modified transposable elements or the site-specific PhiC31 recombinase.

  20. Spatially targeting Culex quinquefasciatus aquatic habitats on modified land cover for implementing an Integrated Vector Management (IVM program in three villages within the Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Githure John

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous land cover modification is an important part of spatial epidemiology because it can help identify environmental factors and Culex mosquitoes associated with arbovirus transmission and thus guide control intervention. The aim of this study was to determine whether remotely sensed data could be used to identify rice-related Culex quinquefasciatus breeding habitats in three rice-villages within the Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya. We examined whether a land use land cover (LULC classification based on two scenes, IKONOS at 4 m and Landsat Thematic Mapper at 30 m could be used to map different land uses and rice planted at different times (cohorts, and to infer which LULC change were correlated to high density Cx. quinquefasciatus aquatic habitats. We performed a maximum likelihood unsupervised classification in Erdas Imagine V8.7® and generated three land cover classifications, rice field, fallow and built environment. Differentially corrected global positioning systems (DGPS ground coordinates of Cx. quinquefasciatus aquatic habitats were overlaid onto the LULC maps generated in ArcInfo 9.1®. Grid cells were stratified by levels of irrigation (well-irrigated and poorly-irrigated and varied according to size of the paddy. Results Total LULC change between 1988–2005 was 42.1 % in Kangichiri, 52.8 % in Kiuria and and 50.6 % Rurumi. The most frequent LULC changes was rice field to fallow and fallow to rice field. The proportion of aquatic habitats positive for Culex larvae in LULC change sites was 77.5% in Kangichiri, 72.9% in Kiuria and 73.7% in Rurumi. Poorly – irrigated grid cells displayed 63.3% of aquatic habitats among all LULC change sites. Conclusion We demonstrate that optical remote sensing can identify rice cultivation LULC sites associated with high Culex oviposition. We argue that the regions of higher Culex abundance based on oviposition surveillance sites reflect underlying differences in abundance of larval

  1. Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Breeding Site and Territory Summary - 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Scott L.; Sogge, Mark K.; Stump, Shay D.; Walker, Hira A.; Kus, Barbara E.; Sferra, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    The Southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; hereafter references to willow flycatcher and flycatcher refer to E.t. extimus, except where specifically noted) is an endangered bird that breeds only in dense riparian habitats in parts of six Southwestern states (Arizona, New Mexico, southern California, extreme southern Nevada, southern Utah, and southwestern Colorado). Since 1993, hundreds of Southwestern willow flycatcher surveys have been conducted each year, and many new flycatcher breeding sites located. This document synthesizes the most current information available on all known Southwestern willow flycatcher breeding sites. This rangewide data synthesis was designed to meet two objectives: (1) identify all known Southwestern willow flycatcher breeding sites and (2) assemble data to estimate population size, location, habitat, and other information for all breeding sites, for as many years as possible, from 1993 through 2007. This report provides data summaries in terms of the number of flycatcher sites and the number of territories. When interpreting and using this information, it must be kept in mind that a 'site' is a geographic location where one or more willow flycatchers establishes a territory. Sites with unpaired territorial males are considered breeding sites, even if no nesting attempts were documented. A site is often a discrete patch of riparian habitat but may also be a cluster of riparian patches; there is no standardized definition for site, and its use varies within and among states. For example, five occupied habitat patches along a 10-km stretch of river might be considered five different sites in one state but only a single site in another state. This lack of standardization makes comparisons based on site numbers problematic. Researchers for this report generally deferred to statewide summary documents or to local managers and researchers when delineating a site for inclusion in the database. However, to avoid inflating

  2. Habitat selection of the sagebrush Brewer’s sparrow Spizella breweri breweri in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Megan Louise

    2008-01-01

    When animals cluster their territories within larger patches of seemingly appropriate habitat it could mean that they have additional, finer scale habitat requirements or that non-habitat cues play a role in their selection decisions. Sagebrush Brewer’s Sparrows (Spizella breweri breweri) cluster their territories throughout their breeding range. I examined territory-scale selection by the species using two approaches: observation of individual selection for vegetation characteristics, and an...

  3. The Impact of Transgenic Mosquitoes on Dengue Virulence to Humans and Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Medlock, Jan; Luz, Paula M; Struchiner,Claudio J.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2009-01-01

    Dengue is a major public health concern in the tropics and subtropics. Innovative transgenic strategies to render Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the primary vector of dengue, incompetent for dengue transmission are under development. We modeled the evolutionary impact of different transgenic mosquito strategies on dengue-induced mortality, that is, dengue virulence, to both humans and mosquitoes. This model incorporates various evolutionary trade-offs in dengue virus epidemiological traits, for ex...

  4. An obligate beach bird selects sub-, inter- and supra-tidal habitat elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmke, Glenn; Maguire, Grainne S.; Bird, Tomas; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Weston, Michael A.

    2016-11-01

    Few habitat models are available for widespread, obligate, high-energy sandy shore vertebrates, such as the Eastern Hooded Plover Thinornis cucullatus cucullatus. We examined habitat attributes which determined the difference between sites where plovers breed and randomly-selected absence sites (determined from long-term systematic monitoring). A variety of habitat variables were derived from aerial photography and bathymetric and terrestrial Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data. Logistic regression against eight candidate variables, in a model selection framework, revealed considerable support for four variables with respect to explaining the presence of breeding territories. In particular, the amount of unvegetated dune and foredune which was unvegetated, and the amount of intertidal and sub-tidal reef were positively associated with the presence of breeding territories. Thus, plovers apparently select certain habitat in which to breed, involving sub-tidal, intertidal and supra-tidal habitat elements. The model also helps explain the virtual absence of breeding plovers from long sections of superficially suitable habitat, such as the fourth longest continuous beach in the world.

  5. Influencing factors of mosquito species investigation in Chengde, Hebei province using multinomial logistic regression analysis%河北省承德地区蚊种调查影响因素的多分类logistic回归分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽华; 高文; 黄钢; 韩晓莉; 王喜明

    2016-01-01

    adults and the pipette method, scoop dipping method for larvae were used. The influencing factors were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Results The mosquitoes that were collected in this study included Anopheles sinensis(45.12%), Culex pipiens pallens(27.44%), Armigeres subalbatus(11.03%), Aedes koreicus (6.90%), Cx. vegans (6.23%), Ae. vexans (2.44%), An. messese (0.42%), and Ae. chemulpoensis (0.42%). Anopheles messese was a new record in Hebei province. The influencing factors of mosquito species investigation included altitudes, habitat types and investigation methods for adults and larvae. With the reference category of Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. vegans, An. sinensis, Ae. koreicus, and Ae. vexans had a higher appearing rate at high altitude, and to the contrary with Ar. subalbatus. Anopheles sinensis, Ar. subalbatus, and Ae. koreicus had a higher appearing rate in breeding and growing areas, An. sinensis had a higher appearing rate in rural residential areas, and to the contrary with Ae. koreicus. Culexvegans, Ar. subalbatus, Ae. chemulpoensis, and Ae. koreicus had a higher capture rate with investigation methods for larvae. Conclusion The population and density of An. sinensis at high altitude areas, and the breeding and growing areas and rural residential areas in Chengde should be particularly concerned. Appropriate mosquito⁃control measures should be taken at areas likely to appear An. sinensis, so as to prevent and control malaria and other infectious diseases by vector mosquitoes.

  6. Bioinsecticide and leaf litter combination increases oviposition and reduces adult recruitment to create an effective ovitrap for Culex mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellile, Katie G; Vonesh, James R

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito egg traps, aquatic habitats baited with oviposition attractant and insecticide, are important tools for surveillance and control efforts in integrated vector management programs. The bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is increasingly used as an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical insecticides and the combination of Bti with a simple oviposition attractant like leaf litter to create an effective egg trap seems appealing. However, previous research suggests that Bti may itself alter oviposition, and that leaf litter may dramatically reduce Bti toxicity. Here we present results from field experiment designed to link the effects of litter and Bti on mosquito oviposition habitat selection and post-colonization survival to production of adult mosquitoes. Tripling litter increased Culex spp. oviposition nearly nine-fold, while Bti had no effect on oviposition. Neither factor altered egg survival, thus larval abundance reflected the effects of litter on oviposition. Both Bti and litter reduced larval survival by ∼60%. We found no evidence that increased litter reduced Bti toxicity. Adult production was dependent upon both litter and Bti. In the absence of Bti, effects of litter on oviposition translated into three-fold more adults. However, in the presence of Bti, initial increases in oviposition were erased by the combined negative effects of Bti and litter on post-colonization survival. Thus, our study provides field evidence that combined litter and Bti application creates an effective ovitrap. This combined treatment had the highest oviposition and the lowest survival, and thus removed the greatest number of mosquitoes from the landscape.

  7. Bug City: Flies & Mosquitoes [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  8. EcologicHabitat_WCV

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — WCV describes the value of the Wildlife Habitat Suitability as it approaches the state highway system. This analysis was designed to use the Wildlife Habitat...

  9. Habitat monitoring plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management of habitat is required in order to achieve the refuge purpose and wildlife objectives. The Upland Habitat Management Plan (1993, Interim Plan) and the...

  10. Predictive Seagrass Habitat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoration of ecosystem services provided by seagrass habitats in estuaries requires a firm understanding of the modes of action of multiple interacting stressors including nutrients, climate change, coastal land-use change, and habitat modification. We explored the application...

  11. California Condor Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These Data identify (in general) the areas where critical habitat for the California Condor occur. Critical habitat for the species consists of the following 10...

  12. Movement patterns and the conservation of amphibians breeding in small, temporary wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C.K.; Cade, B.S.

    1998-01-01

    Many amphibians breed in water but live most of their lives in terrestrial habitats. Little is known, however, about the spatial distribution of these habitats or of the distances and directions amphibians move to reach breeding sites. The amphibian community at a small, temporary pond in northcentral Florida was monitored for 5 years. Based on captures and recaptures of more than 2500 striped newts (Notophthalmus perstriatus) and 5700 eastern narrow-mouthed toads (Gastrophryne carolinensis), we tabulated the angles of orientation that these amphibians entered and exited the pond basin. Our results showed that movements of these species between the pond and terrestrial habitats were nonrandom in orientation, but that narrow corridors did not appear to be used. Differences between the species likely reflect differences in habitat preferences, whereas intraspecific differences among years and between the sexes likely reflect variation among individuals. For terrestrial buffer zones to be effective at conserving pond-breeding amphibian communities, they need both a distance and a directional component. The determination of a directional component may be obscured if studies are carried out over a short time span. Conservation efforts for wetland-breeding amphibians that concentrate solely on the wetland likely will fail without consideration of the adjacent terrestrial habitat.

  13. Scientists Create Mosquitoes Resistant to Dengue Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the dengue virus, which might eventually help control the spread of the disease in humans. The team at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore genetically modified Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to boost their natural ability to fight ...

  14. Slow Death by Many Mosquito Bites

    CERN Document Server

    Redner, S

    2014-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a single diffusing particle (a "man") with diffusivity $D_M$ that is attacked by another diffusing particle (a "mosquito") with fixed diffusivity $D_m$. Each time the mosquito meets and bites the man, the diffusivity of the man is reduced by a fixed amount, while the diffusivity of the mosquito is unchanged. The mosquito is also displaced by a small distance $\\pm a$ with respect to the man after each encounter. The man is defined as dead when $D_M$ reaches zero. At the moment when the man dies, his probability distribution of displacements $x$ is given by a Cauchy form, which asymptotically decays as $x^{-2}$, while the distribution of times $t$ when the man dies asymptotically decays as $t^{-3/2}$, which has the same form as the one-dimensional first-passage probability.

  15. Mosquito, adult feeding on the skin (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many different species of mosquito, which can carry some of the world's most common and significant infectious diseases, including West Nile, Malaria, yellow fever, viral encephalitis, and ...

  16. Habitat fragmentation and reproductive success: a structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tortorec, Eric; Helle, Samuli; Käyhkö, Niina; Suorsa, Petri; Huhta, Esa; Hakkarainen, Harri

    2013-09-01

    1. There is great interest on the effects of habitat fragmentation, whereby habitat is lost and the spatial configuration of remaining habitat patches is altered, on individual breeding performance. However, we still lack consensus of how this important process affects reproductive success, and whether its effects are mainly due to reduced fecundity or nestling survival. 2. The main reason for this may be the way that habitat fragmentation has been previously modelled. Studies have treated habitat loss and altered spatial configuration as two independent processes instead of as one hierarchical and interdependent process, and therefore have not been able to consider the relative direct and indirect effects of habitat loss and altered spatial configuration. 3. We investigated how habitat (i.e. old forest) fragmentation, caused by intense forest harvesting at the territory and landscape scales, is associated with the number of fledged offspring of an area-sensitive passerine, the Eurasian treecreeper (Certhia familiaris). We used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine the complex hierarchical associations between habitat loss and altered spatial configuration on the number of fledged offspring, by controlling for individual condition and weather conditions during incubation. 4. Against generally held expectations, treecreeper reproductive success did not show a significant association with habitat fragmentation measured at the territory scale. Instead, our analyses suggested that an increasing amount of habitat at the landscape scale caused a significant increase in nest predation rates, leading to reduced reproductive success. This effect operated directly on nest predation rates, instead of acting indirectly through altered spatial configuration. 5. Because habitat amount and configuration are inherently strongly collinear, particularly when multiple scales are considered, our study demonstrates the usefulness of a SEM approach for hierarchical partitioning

  17. Nesting ecology and habitat requirements of geese at Kokechik Bay, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska: Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper summarizes the results of the third of a five-year study on the breeding biology and habitat requirements of geese nesting at Kokechik Bay, Alaska. Data...

  18. Vector Competence of Mosquitoes for Arboviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-30

    ml) on the titers of three alphaviruses , Sindbis(A), western equine encephalomyelitis (B), Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (C), and the...population have been delineated and discussed with reference to the mosquito, Culex tarsalis, and the alphavirus , western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE...mechanism that appears to control WEE viral replication (Hardy et al., 1983; Kramer et al., 1989; Ann. Prog. Rpt., 1988). The ability of a mosquito to

  19. Vorticella sp: Prospective Mosquito Biocontrol Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Chandrashekhar Devidas; Narkhede, Chandrakant Prakash; Suryawanshi, Rahul Khushal; Patil, Satish Vitthal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering the disadvantages of chemical insecticides, we aimed to evaluate Vorticella parasites for control of mosquito larvae of Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti at different larval stages. Methods: Vorticella sp infected mosquito larvae were crushed in the 0.85% saline and homogenized well to get Vorticella in suspension. The effects of Vorticella sp infections on larval development were investigated by inoculating protozoan on different larval instars of An. stephensi an...

  20. Vorticella sp: Prospective Mosquito Biocontrol agent

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekhar Devidas Patil; Chandrakant Prakash Narkhede; Rahul Khushal Suryawanshi; Satish Vitthal Patil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering the disadvantages of chemical insecticides, we aimed to evaluate Vorticella parasites for control of mosquito larvae of Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti at different larval stages.Methods: Vorticella sp infected mosquito larvae were crushed in the 0.85% saline and homogenized well to get Vorti­cella in suspension. The effects of Vorticella sp infections on larval development were investigated by inoculat­ing protozoan on different larval instars of An. stephensi a...

  1. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  2. Mosquito-Disseminated Insecticide for Citywide Vector Control and Its Potential to Block Arbovirus Epidemics: Entomological Observations and Modeling Results from Amazonian Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Luz, Sérgio L. B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Mosquito-borne viruses threaten public health worldwide. When the ratio of competent vectors to susceptible humans is low enough, the virus’s basic reproductive number (R0) falls below 1.0 (each case generating, on average, <1.0 additional case) and the infection fades out from the population. Conventional mosquito control tactics, however, seldom yield R0 < 1.0. A promising alternative uses mosquitoes to disseminate a potent growth-regulator larvicide, pyriproxyfen (PPF), to aquatic larval habitats; this kills most mosquito juveniles and substantially reduces adult mosquito emergence. We tested mosquito-disseminated PPF in Manacapuru, a 60,000-inhabitant city (~650 ha) in Amazonian Brazil. Methods and Findings We sampled juvenile mosquitoes monthly in 100 dwellings over four periods in February 2014–January 2016: 12 baseline months, 5 mo of citywide PPF dissemination, 3 mo of focal PPF dissemination around Aedes-infested dwellings, and 3 mo after dissemination ended. We caught 19,434 juvenile mosquitoes (66% Aedes albopictus, 28% Ae. aegypti) in 8,271 trap-months. Using generalized linear mixed models, we estimated intervention effects on juvenile catch and adult emergence while adjusting for dwelling-level clustering, unequal sampling effort, and weather-related confounders. Following PPF dissemination, Aedes juvenile catch decreased by 79%–92% and juvenile mortality increased from 2%–7% to 80%–90%. Mean adult Aedes emergence fell from 1,077 per month (range 653–1,635) at baseline to 50.4 per month during PPF dissemination (range 2–117). Female Aedes emergence dropped by 96%–98%, such that the number of females emerging per person decreased to 0.06 females per person-month (range 0.002–0.129). Deterministic models predict, under plausible biological-epidemiological scenarios, that the R0 of typical Aedes-borne viruses would fall from 3–45 at baseline to 0.004–0.06 during PPF dissemination. The main limitations of our study were

  3. Environmental correlates of abundances of mosquito species and stages in discarded vehicle tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Donald A; Kneitel, Jamie M; Juliano, Steven A

    2010-01-01

    Discarded vehicle tires are a common habitat for container mosquito larvae, although the environmental factors that may control their presence or abundance within a tire are largely unknown. We sampled discarded vehicle tires in six sites located within four counties of central Illinois during the spring and summer of 2006 to determine associations between a suite of environmental factors and community composition of container mosquitoes. Our goal was to find patterns of association between environmental factors and abundances of early and late instars. We hypothesized that environmental factors correlated with early instars would be indicative of oviposition cues, whereas environmental factors correlated with late instars would be those important for larval survival. We collected 13 species of mosquitoes, with six species (Culex restuans, Cx. pipiens, Aedes albopictus, Cx. salinarius, Ae. atropalpus, and Ae. triseriatus) accounting for r95% of all larvae. There were similar associations between congenerics and environmental factors, with Aedes associated with detritus type (fine detritus, leaves, seeds) and Culex associated with factors related to the surrounding habitat (human population density, canopy cover, tire size) or microorganisms (bacteria, protozoans). Although there was some consistency in factors that were important for early and late instar abundance, there were few significant associations between early and late instars for individual species. Lack of correspondence between factors that explain variation in early versus late instars, most notable for Culex, suggests a difference between environmental determinants of oviposition and survival within tires. Environmental factors associated with discarded tires are important for accurate predictions of mosquito occurrence at the generic level.

  4. Spinosad: a biorational mosquito larvicide for use in car tires in southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carlos F

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Car tires are important habitats for mosquito development because of the high density populations they can harbor and their presence in urban settings. Water in experimental tires was treated with one of three insecticides or an untreated control. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled at weekly intervals. Eggs, larval and pupal samples were laboratory-reared to estimate seasonal fluctuations in Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus abundance. Results Spinosad treatments at 1 or 5 ppm (mg a.i./liter provided 6–8 weeks of effective control of Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Culex quinquefasiatus and Cx. coronator larvae, both in the dry season and the rainy season when mosquito populations increased markedly in southern Mexico. Spinosad continued to provide partial control of larvae for several weeks after initial recolonization of treated tires. The larvicidal performance of VectoBac 12AS (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis was relatively poor with one week of complete control of Aedes spp. larvae and no discernible control of Culex spp., whereas the duration of larvicidal activity of 1% temephos mineral-based granules was intermediate between those of VectoBac and spinosad treatments. Populations of chironomids, ostracods and Toxorhynchites theobaldi were generally reduced in spinosad and temephos treatments, but were similar in control and VectoBac treatments. Conclusion The present study is the first to report spinosad as an effective larvicide against Cx. coronator, which is currently invading the southern United States. These results substantiate the use of spinosad as a highly effective mosquito larvicide, even in habitats such as unused car tires that can represent prolific sources of adult mosquitoes.

  5. The Potential Use of Wolbachia-Based Mosquito Biocontrol Strategies for Japanese Encephalitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L Jeffries

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV is a zoonotic pathogen transmitted by the infectious bite of Culex mosquitoes. The virus causes the development of the disease Japanese encephalitis (JE in a small proportion of those infected, predominantly affecting children in eastern and southern Asia. Annual JE incidence estimates range from 50,000-175,000, with 25%-30% of cases resulting in mortality. It is estimated that 3 billion people live in countries in which JEV is endemic. The virus exists in an enzootic transmission cycle, with mosquitoes transmitting JEV between birds as reservoir hosts and pigs as amplifying hosts. Zoonotic infection occurs as a result of spillover events from the main transmission cycle. The reservoir avian hosts include cattle egrets, pond herons, and other species of water birds belonging to the family Ardeidae. Irrigated rice fields provide an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes and attract migratory birds, maintaining the transmission of JEV. Although multiple vaccines have been developed for JEV, they are expensive and require multiple doses to maintain efficacy and immunity. As humans are a "dead-end" host for the virus, vaccination of the human population is unlikely to result in eradication. Therefore, vector control of the principal mosquito vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, represents a more promising strategy for reducing transmission. Current vector control strategies include intermittent irrigation of rice fields and space spraying of insecticides during outbreaks. However, Cx. Tritaeniorhynchus is subject to heavy exposure to pesticides in rice fields, and as a result, insecticide resistance has developed. In recent years, significant advancements have been made in the potential use of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia for mosquito biocontrol. The successful transinfection of Wolbachia strains from Drosophila flies to Aedes (Stegomyia mosquitoes has resulted in the generation of "dengue-refractory" mosquito

  6. "Mosquitoes collected on Weno Island, Romonum Island and Piis Island, Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia (Diptera : Culicidae)"

    OpenAIRE

    "NODA, Shinichi"

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito larval surveys were carried out on Weno Island, Romonum Island and Piis Island in August 2011. Larvae were collected from 133 natural and artificial habitats. A total of 1,761 larvae belonging to nine species including one unidentified species were collected. On Weno Island, eight species, Aedes hensilli, Ae. albopictus, Ae. lamelliferus, Aedes sp., Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. carolinensis, Cx. annulirostris and Lutzia vorax, were collected. On Romonum Island,  four sp...

  7. Modelling and analysis of impulsive releases of sterile mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingzhan; Song, Xinyu; Li, Jia

    2017-12-01

    To study the impact of releasing sterile mosquitoes on mosquito-borne disease transmissions, we propose two mathematical models with impulsive releases of sterile mosquitoes. We consider periodic impulsive releases in the first model and obtain the existence, uniqueness, and globally stability of a wild-mosquito-eradication periodic solution. We also establish thresholds for the control of the wild mosquito population by selecting the release rate and the release period. In the second model, the impulsive releases are determined by the closely monitored wild mosquito density, or the state feedback. We prove the existence of an order one periodic solution and find a relatively small attraction region, which ensures the wild mosquito population is under control. We provide numerical analysis which shows that a smaller release rate and more frequent releases are more efficient in controlling the wild mosquito population for the periodic releases, but an early release of sterile mosquitoes is more effective for the state feedback releases.

  8. Distinguishing individual quality from habitat preference and quality in a territorial passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Ryan R; Arcese, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Theory predicts that animals breeding in heterogeneous landscapes preferentially occupy habitats likely to maximize individual fitness, but identifying those habitats has proved problematic. Many studies develop metrics of habitat quality linked to site-specific reproductive output measured in successive years, but few separate the independent effects of individual "intrinsic quality" from those due solely to the attributes of the habitats themselves. In many populations, processes such as competitive territory defense, longevity, site-fidelity, and variation in breeding density and territory size over time have the potential to limit the degree to which individual and habitat quality will be positively related in nature. However, the effects of these processes on estimates of habitat or site-specific reproductive output have not been thoroughly investigated. We show that, in an insular population of Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia), females nested preferentially in breeding sites with high mean reproductive output assessed over 35 years, and that variation in site-specific reproductive output was positively related to female intrinsic quality, measured here as the lifetime reproductive success of individual females relative to others hatched the same year (rLRS). In contrast, vegetation traits (shrub cover, edge, and soil depth) predicted female preference for breeding sites but did not predict site-specific variation in annual reproductive output. Female quality also did not predict which females occupied more- or less-preferred breeding sites over the study period. However, mean annual reproductive output of breeding sites estimated over 35 years was strongly positively related to the quality of the females that nested in them. Overall, these results indicate that site-specific estimates of habitat quality that do not consider the quality of the individuals occupying those sites may include substantial bias due to variation in occupant quality, and thus may not

  9. Changes in species richness and spatial distribution of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) inferred from museum specimen records and a recent inventory: a case study from Belgium suggests recent expanded distribution of arbovirus and malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoninck, W; Hendrickx, F; Versteirt, V; Coosemans, M; De Clercq, E M; Hendrickx, G; Hance, T; Grootaert, P

    2013-03-01

    Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) distribution data from a recent inventory of native and invading mosquito species in Belgium were compared with historical data from the period 1900-1960 that were retrieved from a revision of the Belgian Culicidae collection at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. Both data sets were used to investigate trends in mosquito species richness in several regions in Belgium. The relative change in distribution area of mosquito species was particularly important for species that use waste waters and used tires as larval habitats and species that recently shifted their larval habitat to artificial larval habitats. More importantly, several of these species are known as vectors of arboviruses and Plasmodium sp. and the apparent habitat shift of some of them brought these species in proximity to humans. Similar studies comparing current mosquito richness with former distribution data retrieved from voucher specimens from collections is therefore encouraged because they can generate important information concerning health risk assessment at both regional and national scale.

  10. Avian Distribution and Habitat, Distribution of Bird Species in Rhode Island; s44nbs96; Breeding season species distribution of birds nesting in Rhode Island as documented in 1982-1987 delineated by kilometer grid cells areas., Published in 1996, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Avian Distribution and Habitat dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1996. It is...

  11. Chikungunya virus and its mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana

    2015-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne alphavirus of increasing public health significance, has caused large epidemics in Africa and the Indian Ocean basin; now it is spreading throughout the Americas. The primary vectors of CHIKV are Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and, after the introduction of a mutation in the E1 envelope protein gene, the highly anthropophilic and geographically widespread Ae. albopictus mosquito. We review here research efforts to characterize the viral genetic basis of mosquito-vector interactions, the use of RNA interference and other strategies for the control of CHIKV in mosquitoes, and the potentiation of CHIKV infection by mosquito saliva. Over the past decade, CHIKV has emerged on a truly global scale. Since 2013, CHIKV transmission has been reported throughout the Caribbean region, in North America, and in Central and South American countries, including Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Nicaragua, Panama, Suriname, and Venezuela. Closing the gaps in our knowledge of driving factors behind the rapid geographic expansion of CHIKV should be considered a research priority. The abundance of multiple primate species in many of these countries, together with species of mosquito that have never been exposed to CHIKV, may provide opportunities for this highly adaptable virus to establish sylvatic cycles that to date have not been seen outside of Africa. The short-term and long-term ecological consequences of such transmission cycles, including the impact on wildlife and people living in these areas, are completely unknown.

  12. Why are anopheline mosquitoes not present in the Seychelles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Steven M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species of anopheline mosquitoes are largely distributed over emerged lands around the world and, within the tropics, few areas are without these insects, which are vectors of malaria parasites. Among the exceptions is the Seychelles archipelago in the western Indian Ocean. However, in the Aldabra island group, located in the extreme western portion of the archipelago, Anopheles gambiae s.l. was introduced, leading to massive proliferation and then elimination, with the most recent autochthonous malaria cases recorded in 1931. Methods In order to re-examine the absence of anopheline mosquitoes in the Seychelles, an entomological field survey was conducted in December 2008 at 17 sites on four granitic islands, including Mahé and Praslin, and ten sites on coralline atolls in the extreme west, including Aldabra. Results No evidence of larval or adult anophelines was found at the surveyed sites, which supports their absence in the Seychelles. Conclusions In the granitic islands of the Seychelles, the climate is favourable for anophelines. However, these islands are protected by their remoteness and prevailing seasonal winds. In addition, stagnant freshwater, required in anopheline larval development, is relatively uncommon on the granitic islands because of the steep slopes. In the southwestern atolls (Aldabra and Providence-Farquhar groups, the presence of a long dry season of up to nine months and the total absence of permanent natural freshwater prevents the breeding of anophelines and their successful colonization. The Seychelles does not have any native land mammals and like in other parts of the world (Antarctica, Iceland, New Caledonia, Central Pacific islands their absence is associated with the lack of anophelines. This suggests an obligatory relationship for anophelines to feed on terrestrial mammals, without alternative for blood-feeding sources, such as bats, birds and reptiles.

  13. Tornadic storm avoidance behavior in breeding songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M; Kramer, Gunnar R; Peterson, Sean M; Lehman, Justin A; Buehler, David A; Andersen, David E

    2015-01-05

    Migration is a common behavior used by animals of many taxa to occupy different habitats during different periods. Migrant birds are categorized as either facultative (i.e., those that are forced to migrate by some proximal cue, often weather) or obligate (i.e., those that migrate on a regular cycle). During migration, obligate migrants can curtail or delay flights in response to inclement weather or until favorable winds prevail, and they can temporarily reorient or reverse direction when ecological or meteorological obstacles are encountered. However, it is not known whether obligate migrants undertake facultative migrations and make large-scale movements in response to proximal cues outside of their regular migration periods. Here, we present the first documentation of obligate long-distance migrant birds undertaking a facultative migration, wherein breeding golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) carrying light-level geolocators performed a >1,500 km 5-day circumvention of a severe tornadic storm. The birds evacuated their breeding territories >24 hr before the arrival of the storm and atmospheric variation associated with it. The probable cue, radiating >1,000 km from tornadic storms, perceived by birds and influencing bird behavior and movements, is infrasound (i.e., sound below the range of human hearing). With the predicted increase in severity and frequency of similar storms as anthropogenic climate change progresses, understanding large-scale behavioral responses of animals to such events will be an important objective of future research.

  14. A Breeding Bird Survey of the West Mountain Wildlife Management Area and the Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio O. Conte National Fish and Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were to: 1) Create a list of birds occurring in the study area during the breeding season; 2.) Identify species and habitats of...

  15. Spatial clustering of Aedes aegypti related to breeding container characteristics in Coastal Ecuador: implications for dengue control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafrick, Nathaniel H; Milbrath, Meghan O; Berrocal, Veronica J; Wilson, Mark L; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2013-10-01

    Mosquito management within households remains central to the control of dengue virus transmission. An important factor in these management decisions is the spatial clustering of Aedes aegypti. We measured spatial clustering of Ae. aegypti in the town of Borbón, Ecuador and assessed what characteristics of breeding containers influenced the clustering. We used logistic regression to assess the spatial extent of that clustering. We found strong evidence for juvenile mosquito clustering within 20 m and for adult mosquito clustering within 10 m, and stronger clustering associations for containers ≥ 40 L than those Aedes aegypti clusters persisted after adjusting for various container characteristics, suggesting that patterns are likely attributable to short dispersal distances rather than shared characteristics of containers in cluster areas. These findings have implications for targeting Ae. aegypti control efforts.

  16. Research Contributing to Improvements in Controlling Florida’s Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter J. Tabachnick

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases has contributed to improvements in providing effective, efficient, and environmentally proper mosquito control. Florida has benefitted from several research accomplishments that have increased the state’s mosquito control capabilities. Research with Florida’s mosquitoes has resulted in the development of ecologically sound management of mosquito impoundments on Florida’s east coast. This strategy, called Rotational Impoundment Management (RIM, has improved the ability to target the delivery of pesticides and has helped to reduce non-target effects and environmental damage. Research has led to the development of an arbovirus surveillance system which includes sentinel chicken surveillance, real time use of environmental contributing factors like meteorology and hydrology to target mosquito control, as well as public health efforts to mitigate disease outbreaks to areas with risk of disease. These research driven improvements have provided substantial benefits to all of Florida. More research is needed to meet the future challenges to reduce emerging pathogens like Zika virus and the consequences of environmental changes like global climate change that are likely to influence the effects of mosquito-borne pathogens on human health and well-being.

  17. Research Contributing to Improvements in Controlling Florida’s Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    Research on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases has contributed to improvements in providing effective, efficient, and environmentally proper mosquito control. Florida has benefitted from several research accomplishments that have increased the state’s mosquito control capabilities. Research with Florida’s mosquitoes has resulted in the development of ecologically sound management of mosquito impoundments on Florida’s east coast. This strategy, called Rotational Impoundment Management (RIM), has improved the ability to target the delivery of pesticides and has helped to reduce non-target effects and environmental damage. Research has led to the development of an arbovirus surveillance system which includes sentinel chicken surveillance, real time use of environmental contributing factors like meteorology and hydrology to target mosquito control, as well as public health efforts to mitigate disease outbreaks to areas with risk of disease. These research driven improvements have provided substantial benefits to all of Florida. More research is needed to meet the future challenges to reduce emerging pathogens like Zika virus and the consequences of environmental changes like global climate change that are likely to influence the effects of mosquito-borne pathogens on human health and well-being. PMID:27690112

  18. Towards a risk map of malaria for Sri Lanka: the importance of house location relative to vector breeding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Sri Lanka, the major malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies breeds in pools formed in streams and river beds and it is likely that people living close to such breeding sites are at higher risk of malaria than people living further away. This study was done to quantify the importance...... of house location relative to vector breeding sites for the occurrence of malaria in order to assess the usefulness of this parameter in future malaria risk maps. Such risk maps could be important tools for planning efficient malaria control measures. METHODS: In a group of seven villages in north central...... Sri Lanka, malaria cases were compared with community controls for distance from house to breeding sites and a number of other variables, including type of housing construction and use of anti-mosquito measures. The presence of An. culicifacies in bedrooms was determined by indoor insecticide spray...

  19. Rock coasts and seabird breeding sites : a common optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Eveillard-Buchoux

    2014-05-01

    The North-West coasts of Europe support a lot of part of Northern hemisphere breeding seabirds. In that context, Scotland has a preponderant place and Brittany has southernmost limit of these species areas, for most of them. Outside the breeding season these species live mainly on the open sea and when they do visit the land to breed, they nest on a specific sites : almost all the time they breed on the rock coasts, often on seacliffs. This specific habitat are defines by geomorphological characteristics which offer special forms of the coast. The forms of rock coasts are originally and different because of several proprieties of geology, of lithology, of structures. Breeding seabird, occupying these sites, reveals, in a new light, the richness of these forms and the originals geographic location of the coastline : seabirds prefer nest in exposed coastline like rock caps, rocky points or islands. Seabirds and rock coasts are research topics in environmental geography since several years. However, these combination studies is a new approach in this field and enlargement in the heritage field allows supplement scientific approach. For example, it show that in most important touristic sites, environmental protection measures focused on landscape, habitat or bird, but much more rarely on rock coasts for these intrinsic values. Indeed, in Brittany or in Scotland, seabirds are often stars species in lot of coastal nature reserves, where they're considered like greater ecological heritage. We could see it in touristic promotion field : bird is everywhere, cliff is mostly kept in the dark, as well in leaflets as in speech visitor's guides - without, for example, as a part of this landscape. In all cases, combination of these two heritages is extremely rare. Yet, this current research illustrates the interest and the issue of development of this comparative approach seabirds / rock coasts for optimization of nature tourism and geotourism.

  20. Controle los mosquitos que están en el exterior (Controlling Mosquitoes Outside)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-11

    Los mosquitos pueden transmitir virus como el del zika. En este podcast, el Sr. Francisco le enseñará a usted y a su vecina Adriana diferentes maneras para ayudar a reducir la cantidad de mosquitos fuera de su casa. Los consejos incluyen eliminar áreas de agua estancada donde los mosquitos ponen sus huevos, usar larvicidas para matar mosquitos jóvenes, y reparar grietas y cubrir las ventilaciones de los pozos sépticos. También aprenderá cómo se usan los aviones que ayudan a rociar insecticida para los mosquitos.  Created: 7/11/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/11/2016.

  1. Engineered mosquitoes to fight mosquito borne diseases: not a merely technical issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favia, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Malaria, dengue and other mosquito-borne diseases pose dramatic problems of public health, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Historically, vector control has been one of the most successfully strategies to eradicate some mosquito-borne diseases, as witnessed by malaria eradication in Mediterranean regions such as Italy and Greece. Vector control through insecticides has been used worldwide; unfortunately, it is losing effectiveness due to spread of resistances. Control of mosquito-borne diseases through field-releases of genetically engineered mosquitoes is an innovative and now feasible approach. Genetically modified mosquitoes have already been released into the wild in some regions, and protocols for this release are on hand in others. Local authorities are vigilant that transgenic insects in the field are safe for human and animal populations, and the public engagement in every control program is assuming a central role.

  2. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  3. Potato breeding in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de H.

    1953-01-01

    A remarkable feature of potato breeding in the Netherlands is the great number of private breeders who have concentrated their efforts on the improvement of the potato. The author calls attention to some circumstances and measures that have made potato breeding attractive in the Netherlands

  4. Mosquito Larvae in Tires from Mississippi, United States: The Efficacy of Abiotic and Biotic Parameters in Predicting Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Mosquito Populations and Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Donald A; Abuzeineh, Alisa A; Ezeakacha, Nnaemeka F; Schelble, Stephanie S; Glasgow, William C; Flanagan, Stephen D; Skiff, Jeffrey J; Reeves, Ashton; Kuehn, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Container systems, including discarded vehicle tires, which support populations of mosquitoes, have been of interest for understanding the variables that produce biting adults that serve as both nuisances and as public health threats. We sampled tires in six sites at three times in 2012 across the state of Mississippi to understand the biotic and abiotic variables responsible for explaining patterns of larvae of common species, species richness, and total abundance of mosquitoes. From 498 tires sampled, we collected >58,000 immatures representing 16 species, with the most common species including Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Culex quinquefasciatus (L.), Orthopodomyia signifera (Coquillett), Aedes triseriatus (Say), Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis (Coquillett), and Culex territans (Walker) accounting for ∼97% of all larvae. We also documented 32 new county records for resident species and recent arrivals in the state, including Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) and Culex coronator (Dyar & Knab). Cluster analysis, which was used to associate sites and time periods based on similar mosquito composition, did reveal patterns across the state; however, there also were more general patterns between species and genera and environmental factors. Broadly, Aedes was often associated with factors related to detritus, whereas Culex was frequently associated with habitat variables (e.g., tire size and water volume) and microorganisms. Some Culex did lack factors connecting variation in early and late instars, suggesting differences between environmental determinants of oviposition and survival. General patterns between the tire environment and mosquito larvae do appear to exist, especially at the generic level, and point to inherent differences between genera that may aid in predicting vector locations and populations.

  5. Productivity and population density estimates of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C R; Johnson, P H; Ball, T S; Ritchie, S A

    2013-09-01

    New mosquito control strategies centred on the modifying of populations require knowledge of existing population densities at release sites and an understanding of breeding site ecology. Using a quantitative pupal survey method, we investigated production of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Cairns, Queensland, Australia, and found that garden accoutrements represented the most common container type. Deliberately placed 'sentinel' containers were set at seven houses and sampled for pupae over 10 weeks during the wet season. Pupal production was approximately constant; tyres and buckets represented the most productive container types. Sentinel tyres produced the large