Sigalla, Geofrey Nimrod; Rasch, Vibeke; Gammeltoft, Tine
Background: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with negative health consequences for women and their pregnancies. While social support has a protective effect against IPV and reduces health consequences of violence, its association with experiencing IPV during...... pregnancy remain less explored. In our study we aimed to determine the effect of social support on IPV during pregnancy among women attending antenatal care in Moshi, Tanzania Methods: The study was part of a prospective cohort study that assessed the impact of violence on reproductive health of 1......,116 participants. Pregnant women were enrolled below 24 weeks of gestation and followed until delivery. The experiences of social support and IPV during pregnancy were assessed at the 34th week of gestation. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between social support and IPV...
Sigalla, Geofrey Nimrod; Rasch, Vibeke; Gammeltoft, Tine
BACKGROUND: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with negative health consequences for women and their pregnancies. While social support has a protective effect against IPV and reduces health consequences of violence, its association with experiencing IPV during...... pregnancy remain less explored. In our study we aimed to determine the effect of social support on IPV during pregnancy among women attending antenatal care in Moshi, Tanzania METHODS: The study was part of a prospective cohort study that assessed the impact of violence on reproductive health of 1...... during pregnancy, AOR 3.57, (95% CI 1.85 - 6.90) and AOR 3.21, (95% CI 1.69 - 6.11) respectively. For social support in terms of communication, talking to a member of the family of origin at least monthly was associated with decreased odds of IPV and repeated episodes of IPV during pregnancy, AOR 0...
Aneth M Mahande
Full Text Available Aim: Understanding vector behavioral response due to ecological factors is important in the control of disease vectors. This study was conducted to determine the knockdown resistance (kdr alleles, dieldrin resistance alleles, and entomological inoculation rates (EIRs of malaria vectors in lower Moshi irrigation schemes for the mitigation of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: The study was longitudinal design conducted for 14 months. Mosquitoes were collected fortnightly by using a CDC miniature light trap in 20 houses. Mosquitoes were identified morphologically in the field, of which 10% of this population was identified to species level by using molecular techniques. Samples from this study population were taken for kdr and resistance to dieldrin (rdl genes detection. Results: A total of 6220 mosquitoes were collected by using a light trap, of which 86.0% (n=5350 were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato and 14.0% (n=870 were Culex quinquefasciatus. Ten percent of the An. gambiae s.l. (n=535 collected were taken for species identification, of which 99.8% (n=534 were identified as An. arabiensis while 0.2% (n=1 were An. gambiae sensu stricto. Of the selected mosquitoes, 3.5% (n=19 were sporozoite positive. None of the mosquitoes tested had the kdr gene. The rdl resistant allele was detected at a frequency of 0.48 throughout the year. EIR was determined to be 0.54 ib/trap/year. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that the homozygous and the heterozygous resistance present in rdl genes demonstrated the effect of pesticide residues on resistance selection pressure in mosquitoes. A better insecticide usage protocol needs to be developed for farmers to use in order to avoid excessive use of pesticides. Key words: An. arabiensis, EIR, Knockdown mutation, Moshi, rdl locus, Tanzania
because, in many parts of the world, there ... Annual prizes are awarded for the student achieving the highest mark in the overall assessment ... 31 No. 7. Dermatology in Tanzania prize). A second training programme (MMed) provides 4-year.
Fiorillo, S.P.; Diefenthal, H.C.; Goodman, P.C.; Ramadhani, H.O.; Njau, B.N.; Morrissey, A.B.; Maro, V.P.; Saganda, W.; Kinabo, G.D.; Mwako, M.S.; Bartlett, J.A.
Aim: To describe chest radiographic abnormalities and assess their usefulness for predicting causes of fever in a resource-limited setting. Materials and methods: Febrile patients were enrolled in Moshi, Tanzania, and chest radiographs were evaluated by radiologists in Tanzania and the United States. Radiologists were blinded to the results of extensive laboratory evaluations to determine the cause of fever. Results: Of 870 febrile patients, 515 (59.2%) had a chest radiograph available; including 268 (66.5%) of the adolescents and adults, the remainder were infants and children. One hundred and nineteen (44.4%) adults and 51 (20.6%) children were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected. Among adults, radiographic abnormalities were present in 139 (51.9%), including 77 (28.7%) with homogeneous and heterogeneous lung opacities, 26 (9.7%) with lung nodules, 25 (9.3%) with pleural effusion, 23 (8.6%) with cardiomegaly, and 13 (4.9%) with lymphadenopathy. Among children, radiographic abnormalities were present in 87 (35.2%), including 76 (30.8%) with homogeneous and heterogeneous lung opacities and six (2.4%) with lymphadenopathy. Among adolescents and adults, the presence of opacities was predictive of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Coxiella burnetii, whereas the presence of pulmonary nodules was predictive of Histoplasma capsulatum and Cryptococcus neoformans. Conclusions: Chest radiograph abnormalities among febrile inpatients are common in northern Tanzania. Chest radiography is a useful adjunct for establishing an aetiologic diagnosis of febrile illness and may provide useful information for patient management, in particular for pneumococcal disease, Q fever, and fungal infections
Kavishe, Theodora Ephrem
This study was conducted in Moshi-Tanzania. The research topic is Coping with Power Interruptions in Tanzania.An Industrial Perspesctive:A Case Study of one Small Scale Animal Food Processing Industry in Moshi Municipality.The objectives are (1) to explore perceptions of staff in the industry and among TANESCO towards interruptions in power supply (2) to describe the coping strategies developed by the industry under study. The study was guided by Resource Dependence Theory (RDT) by Pfeffer an...
Waldon, Meredith; Ibingira, Treasure Joelson; de Andrade, Luciano; Mmbaga, Blandina T; Vissoci, João Ricardo N; Mvungi, Mark; Staton, Catherine A
Road traffic injuries (RTIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries. Investigation of high risk areas for RTIs is needed to guide improvements. This study provides built environmental analysis of road traffic crash hotspots within Moshi, Tanzania. Spatial analysis of police data identified 36 hotspots. Qualitative comparative analysis revealed 40% of crash sites were on local roads without night lighting and increased motorcycle density. Paved narrow roads represented 26% of hotspots and 13% were unpaved roads with uneven roadsides. Roadside unevenness was more predominate in low risk [n = 19, (90.5%)] than high risk sites [n = 7 (46.7%)]. Both low [n = 6 (28.6%)] and high risk [n = 1 (6.7%)] sites had minimal signage. All sites had informal pedestrian pathways. Little variability between risk sites suggests hazardous conditions are widespread. Findings suggest improvement in municipal infrastructure, signage and enforcement is needed to reduce RTI burden.
Helen L Zhang
Full Text Available Zoonoses are common causes of human and livestock illness in Tanzania. Previous studies have shown that brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever account for a large proportion of human febrile illness in northern Tanzania, yet they are infrequently diagnosed. We conducted this study to assess awareness and knowledge regarding selected zoonoses among healthcare providers in Moshi, Tanzania; to determine what diagnostic and treatment protocols are utilized; and obtain insights into contextual factors contributing to the apparent under-diagnosis of zoonoses.We conducted a questionnaire about zoonoses knowledge, case reporting, and testing with 52 human health practitioners and 10 livestock health providers. Immediately following questionnaire administration, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 of these respondents, using the findings of a previous fever etiology study to prompt conversation. Sixty respondents (97% had heard of brucellosis, 26 (42% leptospirosis, and 20 (32% Q fever. Animal sector respondents reported seeing cases of animal brucellosis (4, rabies (4, and anthrax (3 in the previous 12 months. Human sector respondents reported cases of human brucellosis (15, 29%, rabies (9, 18% and anthrax (6, 12%. None reported leptospirosis or Q fever cases. Nineteen respondents were aware of a local diagnostic test for human brucellosis. Reports of tests for human leptospirosis or Q fever, or for any of the study pathogens in animals, were rare. Many respondents expressed awareness of malaria over-diagnosis and zoonoses under-diagnosis, and many identified low knowledge and testing capacity as reasons for zoonoses under-diagnosis.This study revealed differences in knowledge of different zoonoses and low case report frequencies of brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever. There was a lack of known diagnostic services for leptospirosis and Q fever. These findings emphasize a need for improved diagnostic capacity alongside healthcare
Manongi, Rachel; Mahande, Michael; Njau, Bernard
Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) is referred to as routine testing in a clinical setting as part of a standard programme of medical services. PITC is initiated in order to avoid missed opportunities for people to get tested for HIV. While advocated as a strategy, there is dearth of information on patients' views on PITC in a number of districts in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and acceptability to PITC services among patients attending health care facilities in rural and urban settings in Kilimanjaro region A total of 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with 99 (73 female and 26 male) patients enrolled into out-patient clinics in 8 (2 hospitals and 6 primary care centers) health facilities in Moshi Urban and Rombo districts in northern Tanzania. The study explored on knowledge, attitudes and acceptability of PITC, perceived benefits and barriers of PITC, and ethical issues related to PITC. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed, translated, and analyzed using Non-numerical Unstructured Data Indexing and Theorizing (NUDIST) software. Knowledge about PITC services was generally low. Compared to men, women had a more positive attitude towards PITC services, because of its ability to identify and treat undiagnosed HIV cases. HIV stigma was regarded as a major barrier to patients' uptake of PITC. Institutional factors such as lack of supplies and human resources were identified as barriers to successful provision of PITC. In conclusion, the findings highlight both opportunities and potential barriers in the successful uptake of PITC, and underscore the importance of informed consent, counseling and confidentiality and the need for specific strategies on advocacy for the service.
Objectives: The objective of this research was to gain an insight into how having a child with a disability impacts upon participants lives and to examine both negative and positive experiences of care through the use of qualitative methods. Method: This was a qualitative, exploratory study and followed a phenomenological method. Purposive convenience sampling methods were used to recruit 14 carers in Moshi, Tanzania. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with all 14 participants. Results: Five main themes emerged from the data which shed light on the carers experiences, namely, objective challenges in terms of financial challenges, employment issues and demands of care; subjective challenges in the form of stigma, isolation and pity; positive experiences such as the child’s progress, respect and happiness; material and financial needs; and coping mechanisms which included beliefs, support and attitudes. Conclusion: The findings of this research were that objective challenges are common and more significant than subjective challenges. Positive experiences were not as easily identified by the participants as the challenges faced. However, having analysed the data, carers do not experience their roles as entirely negative. They simply need the resources to deal with objective challenges which in a developing context are not easily attainable.
Ryakitimbo, Amon; Philemon, Rune; Mazuguni, Festo; Msuya, Levina
Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is a challenging yet common clinical condition. Children with CP bare the greatest risk of contracting UTI because of their difficulties in neuromotor control which lead to delay of bladder control, causing incomplete bladder emptying and urine retention. Method This was an analytical cross-sectional study that was conducted from September 2016 to March 2017 at Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation in Tanzania – Moshi and Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre Neurological Pediatrics Outpatient Clinic. All children who met the inclusion criteria were studied. Urine samples were collected at one point by catheterization, and urine dipstick and urine culture were done. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results A total of 99 children were enrolled in the study. The median age was 4 years (3–8 years); 53.5% were aged between 2 and 4 years. More than half were male. UTI was detected in 13.1% (n=13) of the children. Five causative agents of UTI were isolated, namely Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. The two most common organisms, E. coli and P. mirabilis, both had low sensitivity to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole while they were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Conclusion UTI is a common finding among children with CP. E. coli and P. mirabilis are the commonest causative agents and are sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone but have low sensitivity to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole. PMID:29774893
Cigarette smoking and use of smokeless tobacco in Moshi rural district of Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. KS Mnyika, E Klouman, K-I Klepp. Abstract. No Abstract. East African Journal of Public Health Vol. 3 (1) April 2006: 24-27. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Tanzania, and factors contributing to this situation need to be identified. The objective of this study was to determine social, behavioral and biological risk factors of HIV infection among pregnant women in Moshi urban, Tanzania. In 2002 – 2004, consenting women (N = 2654, attending primary health clinics for routine antenatal care were interviewed, examined and biological samples collected for diagnosis of HIV and other sexually transmitted/reproductive tract infections. Results The prevalence of HIV was 6.9%. The risk for HIV was greater among women whose male partner; had other sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 15.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.39–27.20, traveled frequently (AOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.22–2.65 or consumed alcohol daily (AOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.06–2.67. Other independent predictors of HIV were age, number of sex partners, recent migration, and presence of bacterial vaginosis, genital ulcer, active syphilis and herpes simplex virus type 2. Conclusion Development of programs that actively involve men in HIV prevention is important in reducing transmission of HIV in this population. Further, interventions that focus on STI control, the mobile population, sexual risk behavior and responsible alcohol use are required.
Biggs, Holly M.; Bui, Duy M.; Galloway, Renee L.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Shadomy, Sean V.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Bartlett, John A.; Onyango, Jecinta J.; Maro, Venance P.; Kinabo, Grace D.; Saganda, Wilbrod; Crump, John A.
We enrolled consecutive febrile admissions to two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed leptospirosis was defined as a ≥ 4-fold increase in microscopic agglutination test (MAT) titer; probable leptospirosis as reciprocal MAT titer ≥ 800; and exposure to pathogenic leptospires as titer ≥ 100. Among 870 patients enrolled in the study, 453 (52.1%) had paired sera available, and 40 (8.8%) of these met the definition for confirmed leptospirosis. Of 832 patients with ≥ 1 serum sample available, 30 (3.6%) had probable leptospirosis and an additional 277 (33.3%) had evidence of exposure to pathogenic leptospires. Among those with leptospirosis the most common clinical diagnoses were malaria in 31 (44.3%) and pneumonia in 18 (25.7%). Leptospirosis was associated with living in a rural area (odds ratio [OR] 3.4, P < 0.001). Among those with confirmed leptospirosis, the predominant reactive serogroups were Mini and Australis. Leptospirosis is a major yet underdiagnosed cause of febrile illness in northern Tanzania, where it appears to be endemic. PMID:21813847
Bouley, Andrew J.; Biggs, Holly M.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Bartlett, John A.; Afwamba, Isaac A.; Maro, Venance P.; Kinabo, Grace D.; Saganda, Wilbrod; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crump, John A.
Acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from febrile inpatients identified at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed brucellosis was defined as a positive blood culture or a ≥ 4-fold increase in microagglutination test titer, and probable brucellosis was defined as a single reciprocal titer ≥ 160. Among 870 participants enrolled in the study, 455 (52.3%) had paired sera available. Of these, 16 (3.5%) met criteria for confirmed brucellosis. Of 830 participants with ≥ 1 serum sample, 4 (0.5%) met criteria for probable brucellosis. Brucellosis was associated with increased median age (P = 0.024), leukopenia (odds ratio [OR] 7.8, P = 0.005), thrombocytopenia (OR 3.9, P = 0.018), and evidence of other zoonoses (OR 3.2, P = 0.026). Brucellosis was never diagnosed clinically, and although all participants with brucellosis received antibacterials or antimalarials in the hospital, no participant received standard brucellosis treatment. Brucellosis is an underdiagnosed and untreated cause of febrile disease among hospitalized adult and pediatric patients in northern Tanzania. PMID:23091197
This paper examines girls' voiced experiences of menstruation, puberty and schooling in northern Tanzania. The study was conducted in Moshi and Rombo Districts of Kilimanjaro, a predominantly Chagga region with historically strong support for girls' education. The major question explored was how the onset of menses and puberty may be impacting on girls' school participation, given societal implications of pubertal onset and potentially gender discriminatory school environments. The methodology included a comparative case study using in-depth interviews and participatory research with young women living in urban and rural Kilimanjaro. Along with important findings about how menstrual onset creates challenges for girls attending school emerged findings about the significant gaps in girls' knowledge about body changes, sexual health and HIV/AIDS. These findings underline the importance of identifying new girl-centred approaches to guidance on bodily development and HIV prevention.
Swai, E S; Moshy, W E; Kaaya, J E; Mtui, P F
A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the occurrence and distribution patterns of rabies cases in northern Tanzania. Data on laboratory confirmed brain samples and associated case reports submitted to the Arusha Veterinary Investigation Centre, for a period of ten years (1993-2002) was retrieved and reviewed. A total of 98 suspected rabies brain specimens from different animal species and geographical areas were submitted and processed during the period under review. Rabies was confirmed using Fluorescent Antibody Technique test. Of the 98 brain specimens processed, 65 (66.3%) were confirmed to be rabies cases. Canine rabies accounted for 73.8% of the cases and was diagnosed in dogs (43), jackals (4) and hyenas (1). Rabies in wildlife accounted for 5 out of 48 canine confirmed cases. Most of the cases were from Arusha Municipality (20) followed by Arumeru (19), Ngorongoro (9) and Moshi (8) districts. Rabies positive cases in other animal species were in the following order of frequencies: bovine (9 out of 11); feline (5 out of 10); equine (1 out of 2); caprine (2 out of 2). One porcine brain specimen was rabies negative. The high proportion of rabies positive cases confirmed suggests the level of their endemicity in the northern regions of Tanzania. Moreover, the findings highlights the need for sustained surveillance and institution of control measures among dog population and awareness creation particularly among general public and children whom are at high risk of contracting rabies because of their close contact with dogs.
Stephen, Grace; Mgongo, Melina; Hussein Hashim, Tamara; Katanga, Johnson; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Msuya, Sia Emmanueli
Anaemia in pregnancy is a public health problem in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and adverse perinatal outcomes of anaemia among pregnant women in Moshi Municipal, Northern Tanzania. This was a follow-up study conducted from October 2013 to June 2015. A total of 539 pregnant women were enrolled in this study. Interviews were conducted followed by determination of haemoglobin level. Women were followed up at delivery and at 7 days and 28 days after delivery. A total of 529 women were included in this analysis. Their mean age was 25.8 (SD 5.73). The prevalence of anaemia was 18.0% and 2% had severe anaemia. The clinic of recruitment and low education level of the women were the factors that were independently associated with anaemia during pregnancy. At delivery, there were 10 stillbirths, 16 low birth weight (LBW) newborns, and 2 preterm birth cases. No association was found between anaemia and LBW, preterm birth, or stillbirths. Anaemia in pregnancy was a mild public health problem in the study setting of Northern Tanzania.
Full Text Available Background and Objective. Anaemia in pregnancy is a public health problem in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and adverse perinatal outcomes of anaemia among pregnant women in Moshi Municipal, Northern Tanzania. Methods. This was a follow-up study conducted from October 2013 to June 2015. A total of 539 pregnant women were enrolled in this study. Interviews were conducted followed by determination of haemoglobin level. Women were followed up at delivery and at 7 days and 28 days after delivery. Results. A total of 529 women were included in this analysis. Their mean age was 25.8 (SD 5.73. The prevalence of anaemia was 18.0% and 2% had severe anaemia. The clinic of recruitment and low education level of the women were the factors that were independently associated with anaemia during pregnancy. At delivery, there were 10 stillbirths, 16 low birth weight (LBW newborns, and 2 preterm birth cases. No association was found between anaemia and LBW, preterm birth, or stillbirths. Conclusion. Anaemia in pregnancy was a mild public health problem in the study setting of Northern Tanzania.
Msuya, Sia E; Hussein, Tamara H; Uriyo, Jacqueline; Sam, Noel E; Stray-Pedersen, Babill
Anaemia during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal and neonatal outcomes. However, there is limited data regarding prevalence and effects of anaemia during pregnancy in northern Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors for anaemia and its effect on perinatal outcomes among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Moshi Municipality in northern Tanzania. A cohort of pregnant women aged 14-43 years and in their 3rd trimester, was recruited from two primary health care clinics between June 2002 and March 2004. Interviews, anthropometric measurements and haematological examinations were conducted on 2654 consenting women. Perinatal outcomes were recorded during delivery and at 1 week after delivery. Of the 2654 participants, 47.4% had anaemia (haemoglobin [Hb] anaemia (Hb= 9-10.9g/dl), 9.9% had moderate anaemia (Hb =7- 8.9g/dl), and 2.1% had severe anaemia (Hb Anaemia was significantly more prevalent in HIV-positive (56.4%) than in HIV-negative women (46.7%), (P = 0.01). In logistic regression anaemia was independently associated with maternal HIV (OR= 1.5), malaria (OR= 5.2), clinic of recruitment (OR= 1.5) and low income (OR= 1.9). Pregnant women with anaemia were more likely to have low birth weight (LBW) infants. Compared with non-anaemic women, the risk of LBW was 1.6 times and 4.8 times higher for children born to women with moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. In conclusion, anaemia in pregnancy is a severe public health problem in northern Tanzania. Control of maternal anaemia may be one important strategy to prevent LBW in this setting. Measures to prevent malaria and to control anaemia among all pregnant women irrespective of HIV status, should be strengthened. Outside of the health sector broader approaches for anaemia prevention targeting women of lower income, are required.
Lyimo, Elizabeth; Todd, Jim; Richey, Lisa Ann
This study describes the social networks of secondary school students in Moshi Municipality, and their association with self-rated risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted among 300 students aged 15–24 years in 5 secondary schools...... participation in bonding and bridging social networks and self-rated HIV risk behavior. More participants participated in bonding networks (72%) than in bridging networks (29%). Participation in bridging networks was greater among females (25%) than males (12%, p
Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte
This paper explores a potential relationship between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern Tanzania. In addition, correlations...... of household reported harvest shocks differs significantly between districts and correspond to the observed variability in local climate patterns. Coping strategies are focused on spreading risks and include reduced consumption, casual employment, new crops, external support and the selling of assets....... There are no large differences in applied coping strategies across the region, but district-level data demonstrate how local strategies differ between localities within the districts. The results emphasize that in order to target rural policies and make them efficient, it is important to take into account the local...
The thesis examines cooperation and participation as modes of institutional action to address women’ social and economic problems and needs in the context of rural Tanzania. It does so against the background of the history of cooperatives in Tanzania and development cooperation. The thesis takes
The thesis examines cooperation and participation as modes of institutional action to address women’ social and economic problems and needs in the context of rural Tanzania. It does so against the background of the history of cooperatives in Tanzania and development cooperation. The thesis takes cooperation in a broad sense as the act or process of people working together; cooperative groups and cooperatives thereby become synonyms in this study. In contrast to literature that only recognise...
This thesis is a study of a modernised irrigation scheme in Tanzania. It aims to
understand how irrigation and agricultural technologies have interacted with local
society to transform production, paying particular attention to gender relations and
changes for women farmers. The
Asantemungu, Raphael Ernest
Despite the efforts and strategies geared towards women in realizing property rights in terms of empowerment, participation and decision making in the global context today many African societies are still characterized by social economic and political inequalities between men and women. This situation is worse in Tanzania rural areas where women land rights are violated as result of culture being regarded as a daily routine that provide the basis and ways in which land is owned and distribute...
Kumburu, Happiness H.; Sonda, Tolbert; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas
Objective. To determine molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in Tanzania using whole genome sequencing. Methods. DNA from 33 Staphylococcus species was recovered from subcultured archived Staphylococcus isolates. Whole genome sequencing was performed on IlluminaMiseq using...... among the 30 S. aureus isolates, with ST-8 (n = seven, 23%) being the most common. Gene detection in S. aureus stains were as follows: mecA, 10 (33.3%); pvl, 5 (16.7%); tst, 2 (6.7%). The SNP difference among the six Tanzanian ST-8MRSA isolates ranged from 24 to 196 SNPs and from 16 to 446 SNPs when...... using the USA300_FPR3757 or the USA500 2395 as a reference, respectively. The mutation rate was 1.38 x 10(-11) SNPs/site/year or 1.4 x 10(-6) SNPs/site/year as estimated by USA300 FPR3757 or the USA500 2395, respectively. Conclusion. S. aureus isolates causing infections in hospitalized patients...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria vector sampling is the best method for understanding the vector dynamics and infectivity; thus, disease transmission seasonality can be established. There is a need to protecting humans involved in the sampling of disease vectors during surveillance or in control programmes. In this study, human landing catch, two cow odour baited resting boxes and an unbaited resting box were evaluated as vector sampling tools in an area with a high proportion of Anopheles arabiensis, as the major malaria vector. Methods Three resting boxes were evaluated against human landing catch. Two were baited with cow odour, while the third was unbaited. The inner parts of the boxes were covered with black cloth materials. Experiments were arranged in latin-square design. Boxes were set in the evening and left undisturbed; mosquitoes were collected at 06:00 am the next morning, while human landing catch was done overnight. Results A total of 9,558 An. arabiensis mosquitoes were collected. 17.5% (N = 1668 were collected in resting box baited with cow body odour, 42.5% (N = 4060 in resting box baited with cow urine, 15.1% (N = 1444 in unbaited resting box and 24.9% (N = 2386 were collected by human landing catch technique. In analysis, the house positions had no effect on the density of mosquitoes caught (DF = 3, F = 0.753, P = 0.387; the sampling technique had significant impact on the caught mosquitoes densities (DF = 3, F 37. 944, P Conclusion Odour-baited resting boxes have shown the possibility of replacing the existing traditional method (human landing catch for sampling malaria vectors in areas with a high proportion of An. arabiensis as malaria vectors. Further evaluations of fermented urine and longevity of the urine odour still need to be investigated.
Makundi, E A; Manongi, R; Mushi, A K
in the list implying that priorities should not only be focused on diseases, but should also include health services and social cultural issues. Indeed, methods which are easily understood and applied thus able to give results close to those provided by the burden of disease approaches should be adopted....... The patients/caregivers, women's group representatives, youth leaders, religious leaders and community leaders/elders constituted the principal subjects. Emphasis was on providing qualitative data, which are of vital consideration in multi-disciplinary oriented studies, and not on quantitative information from....... It is the provision of ownership of the derived health priorities to partners including the community that enhances research utilization of the end results. In addition to disease-based methods, the Nominal Group Technique is being proposed as an important research tool for involving the non-experts in priority...
Mongi, Aika S; Baisley, Kathy; Ao, Trong Thanh-Hoang; Chilongani, Joseph; Aguirre-Andreasen, Aura; Francis, Suzanna C; Shao, John; Hayes, Richard; Kapiga, Saidi
There is growing evidence that alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of HIV infection. To determine factors associated with problem drinking, we analyzed data collected in two prospective cohorts of at-risk female food and recreational facility workers in northern Tanzania. We enrolled HIV seronegative women aged 18-44 years and employed in the towns of Geita, Kahama, Moshi, and Shinyanga. At enrolment, women were interviewed to obtain information about alcohol use, using CAGE and AUDIT screening scales, and risk factors for HIV infection. Blood and genital samples were collected for detection of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We characterized alcohol use, concordance, and agreement of the scales, and examined the associations between characteristics of participants and problem drinking as defined by both scales using logistic regression. Lastly, we assessed problem drinking as a risk factor for recent sexual behavior and prevalent STIs. Among enrollees, 68% women reported ever drinking alcohol; of these 76% reported drinking alcohol in the past 12 months. The prevalence of problem drinking was 20% using CAGE and 13% using AUDIT. Overall concordance between the scales was 75.0% with a Kappa statistic of 0.58. After adjusting for age, independent factors associated with problem drinking, on both scales, were marital status, occupation, facility type, increasing number of lifetime sexual partners, and transactional sex in the past 12 months. In addition, women who were problem drinkers on either scale were more likely to report having ≥ 1 sexual partner (CAGE: aOR = 1.56, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.10-2.23; aOR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.34-3.00) and transactional sex (CAGE: aOR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.26-2.56; aOR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.04-2.18), in the past 3 months. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce problem drinking in this population may reduce high-risk sexual behaviors and contribute in lowering the risk of HIV infection.
Aika S Mongi
Full Text Available There is growing evidence that alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of HIV infection. To determine factors associated with problem drinking, we analyzed data collected in two prospective cohorts of at-risk female food and recreational facility workers in northern Tanzania.We enrolled HIV seronegative women aged 18-44 years and employed in the towns of Geita, Kahama, Moshi, and Shinyanga. At enrolment, women were interviewed to obtain information about alcohol use, using CAGE and AUDIT screening scales, and risk factors for HIV infection. Blood and genital samples were collected for detection of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs. We characterized alcohol use, concordance, and agreement of the scales, and examined the associations between characteristics of participants and problem drinking as defined by both scales using logistic regression. Lastly, we assessed problem drinking as a risk factor for recent sexual behavior and prevalent STIs.Among enrollees, 68% women reported ever drinking alcohol; of these 76% reported drinking alcohol in the past 12 months. The prevalence of problem drinking was 20% using CAGE and 13% using AUDIT. Overall concordance between the scales was 75.0% with a Kappa statistic of 0.58. After adjusting for age, independent factors associated with problem drinking, on both scales, were marital status, occupation, facility type, increasing number of lifetime sexual partners, and transactional sex in the past 12 months. In addition, women who were problem drinkers on either scale were more likely to report having ≥ 1 sexual partner (CAGE: aOR = 1.56, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.10-2.23;aOR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.34-3.00 and transactional sex (CAGE: aOR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.26-2.56;aOR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.04-2.18, in the past 3 months.These findings suggest that interventions to reduce problem drinking in this population may reduce high-risk sexual behaviors and contribute in lowering the risk of HIV
Lyimo, R.A.; Stutterheim, S.E.; Hospers, H.J.; de Glee, T.; van der Ven, A.; de Bruin, M.
This study examines a proposed theoretical model examining the interrelationships between stigma, disclosure, coping, and medication adherence among 158 HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in northern Tanzania. Perceived and self-stigma, voluntary and involuntary disclosure,
Mbizvo Elizabeth M
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs among pregnant women in Moshi, Tanzania and to compare the occurrence of STIs/RTIs among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected and uninfected women. Methods Pregnant women in their 3rd trimester (N = 2654 were recruited from two primary health care clinics between June 2002 and March 2004. They were interviewed, examined and genital and blood samples were collected for diagnosis of STIs/RTIs and HIV. Results The prevalence of HIV, active syphilis and herpes simplex virus – type 2 (HSV-2 were 6.9%, 0.9% and 33.6%, respectively, while 0.5% were positive for N gonorrhoeae, 5.0% for T vaginalis and 20.9% for bacterial vaginosis. Genital tract infections were more prevalent in HIV-seropositive than seronegative women, statistically significant for syphilis (3.3% vs 0.7%, HSV-2 (43.2% vs 32.0%, genital ulcers (4.4% vs 1.4% and bacterial vaginosis (37.2% vs 19.6%. In comparison with published data, a declining trend for curable STIs/RTIs (syphilis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis was noted. Conclusion Rates of STIs and RTIs are still high among pregnant women in Moshi. Where resources allow, routine screening and treatment of STIs/RTIs in the antenatal care setting should be offered. Higher STIs/RTIs in HIV-seropositive women supports the expansion of HIV-counseling and testing services to all centers offering antenatal care. After identification, STIs/RTIs need to be aggressively addressed in HIV-seropositive women, both at antenatal and antiretroviral therapy care clinics.
Kgotlele, T; Macha, E S; Kasanga, C J; Kusiluka, L J M; Karimuribo, E D; Van Doorsselaere, J; Wensman, J J; Munir, M; Misinzo, G
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute viral disease of small ruminants. The disease was first reported in Tanzania in 2008 when it was confined to the Northern Zone districts bordering Kenya. The present study was carried out to confirm the presence of PPR virus (PPRV) in Tanzania and to establish their phylogenetic relationships. Samples (oculonasal swabs, tissues and whole blood) were obtained from live goats with clinical presentation suggestive of PPR and goats that died naturally in Ngorongoro (Northern Tanzania) and Mvomero (Eastern Tanzania) districts. The clinical signs observed in goats suspected with PPR included fever, dullness, diarrhea, lacrimation, matting of eye lids, purulent oculonasal discharges, cutaneous nodules, erosions on the soft palate and gums and labored breathing. Post mortem findings included pneumonia, congestion of the intestines, and hemorrhages in lymph nodes associated with the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. PPRV was detected in 21 out of 71 tested animals using primers targeting the nucleoprotein (N) gene. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the N gene, indicated that PPRV obtained from Northern and Eastern Tanzania clustered with PPRV strains of Lineage III, together with PPRV from Sudan and Ethiopia. The findings of this study indicate that there are active PPRV infections in Northern and Eastern Tanzania, suggesting risks for potential spread of PPR in the rest of Tanzania. © 2014 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
John, Kunda; Fitzpatrick, Julie; French, Nigel; Kazwala, Rudovick; Kambarage, Dominic; Mfinanga, Godfrey S; MacMillan, Alastair; Cleaveland, Sarah
Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. Human brucellosis is a severely debilitating disease that requires prolonged treatment with a combination of antibiotics. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequel, and results in considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A study was conducted in Northern Tanzania to determine the risk factors for transmission of brucellosis to humans in Tanzania. This was a matched case-control study. Any patient with a positive result by a competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) test for brucellosis, and presenting to selected hospitals with at least two clinical features suggestive of brucellosis such as headache, recurrent or continuous fever, sweating, joint pain, joint swelling, general body malaise or backache, was defined as a case. For every case in a district, a corresponding control was traced and matched by sex using multistage cluster sampling. Other criteria for inclusion as a control included a negative c-ELISA test result and that the matched individual would present to hospital if falls sick. Multivariable analysis showed that brucellosis was associated with assisted parturition during abortion in cattle, sheep or goat. It was shown that individuals living in close proximity to other households had a higher risk of brucellosis. People who were of Christian religion were found to have a higher risk of brucellosis compared to other religions. The study concludes that assisting an aborting animal, proximity to neighborhoods, and Christianity were associated with brucellosis infection. There was no association between human brucellosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) serostatus. Protecting humans against contact with fluids and tissues during assisted parturition of livestock may be an important means of reducing the risk of transferring brucellosis from livestock to humans. These can be achieved
Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. Human brucellosis is a severely debilitating disease that requires prolonged treatment with a combination of antibiotics. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequel, and results in considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A study was conducted in Northern Tanzania to determine the risk factors for transmission of brucellosis to humans in Tanzania.This was a matched case-control study. Any patient with a positive result by a competitive ELISA (c-ELISA test for brucellosis, and presenting to selected hospitals with at least two clinical features suggestive of brucellosis such as headache, recurrent or continuous fever, sweating, joint pain, joint swelling, general body malaise or backache, was defined as a case. For every case in a district, a corresponding control was traced and matched by sex using multistage cluster sampling. Other criteria for inclusion as a control included a negative c-ELISA test result and that the matched individual would present to hospital if falls sick.Multivariable analysis showed that brucellosis was associated with assisted parturition during abortion in cattle, sheep or goat. It was shown that individuals living in close proximity to other households had a higher risk of brucellosis. People who were of Christian religion were found to have a higher risk of brucellosis compared to other religions. The study concludes that assisting an aborting animal, proximity to neighborhoods, and Christianity were associated with brucellosis infection. There was no association between human brucellosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV serostatus. Protecting humans against contact with fluids and tissues during assisted parturition of livestock may be an important means of reducing the risk of transferring brucellosis from livestock to humans. These can be
Ijumba, J N; Mosha, F W; Lindsay, S W
Malaria vector Anopheles and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) were monitored for 12 months during 1994-95 in villages of Lower Moshi irrigation area (37 degrees 20' E, 3 degrees 21' S; approximately 700 m a.s.l.) south of Mount Kilimanjaro in northern Tanzania. Adult mosquito populations were sampled fortnightly by five methods: human bait collection indoors (18.00-06.00 hours) and outdoors (18.00-24.00 hours); from daytime resting-sites indoors and outdoors; by CDC light-traps over sleepers. Anopheles densities and rates of survival, anthropophily and malaria infection were compared between three villages representing different agro-ecosystems: irrigated sugarcane plantation; smallholder rice irrigation scheme, and savannah with subsistence crops. Respective study villages were Mvuleni (population 2200), Chekereni (population 3200) and Kisangasangeni (population approximately/= 1000), at least 7 km apart. Anopheles arabiensis Patton was found to be the principal malaria vector throughout the study area, with An. funestus Giles sensu lato of secondary importance in the sugarcane and savannah villages. Irrigated sugarcane cultivation resulted in water pooling, but this did not produce more vectors. Anopheles arabiensis densities averaged four-fold higher in the ricefield village, although their human blood-index was significantly less (48%) than in the sugarcane (68%) or savannah (66%) villages, despite similar proportions of humans and cows (ratio 1:1.1-1.4) as the main hosts at all sites. Parous rates, duration of the gonotrophic cycle and survival rates of An. arabiensis were similar in villages of all three agro-ecosystems. The potential risk of malaria, based on measurements of vectorial capacity of An. arabiensis and An.funestus combined, was four-fold higher in the ricefield village than in the sugarcane or savannah villages nearby. However, the more realistic estimate of malaria risk, based on entomological inoculation rates, indicated that exposure to
Kiwelu, Ireen E; Novitsky, Vladimir; Kituma, Elimsaada; Margolin, Lauren; Baca, Jeannie; Manongi, Rachel; Sam, Noel; Shao, John; McLane, Mary F; Kapiga, Saidi H; Essex, M
A national ART program was launched in Tanzania in October 2004. Due to the existence of multiple HIV-1 subtypes and recombinant viruses co-circulating in Tanzania, it is important to monitor rates of drug resistance. The present study determined the prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations among ART-naive female bar and hotel workers, a high-risk population for HIV-1 infection in Moshi, Tanzania. A partial HIV-1 pol gene was analyzed by single-genome amplification and sequencing in 45 subjects (622 pol sequences total; median number of sequences per subject, 13; IQR 5-20) in samples collected in 2005. The prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes A1, C, and D, and inter-subtype recombinant viruses, was 36%, 29%, 9% and 27%, respectively. Thirteen different recombination patterns included D/A1/D, C/A1, A1/C/A1, A1/U/A1, C/U/A1, C/A1, U/D/U, D/A1/D, A1/C, A1/C, A2/C/A2, CRF10_CD/C/CRF10_CD and CRF35_AD/A1/CRF35_AD. CRF35_AD was identified in Tanzania for the first time. All recombinant viruses in this study were unique, suggesting ongoing recombination processes among circulating HIV-1 variants. The prevalence of multiple infections in this population was 16% (n = 7). Primary HIV-1 drug resistance mutations to RT inhibitors were identified in three (7%) subjects (K65R plus Y181C; N60D; and V106M). In some subjects, polymorphisms were observed at the RT positions 41, 69, 75, 98, 101, 179, 190, and 215. Secondary mutations associated with NNRTIs were observed at the RT positions 90 (7%) and 138 (6%). In the protease gene, three subjects (7%) had M46I/L mutations. All subjects in this study had HIV-1 subtype-specific natural polymorphisms at positions 36, 69, 89 and 93 that are associated with drug resistance in HIV-1 subtype B. These results suggested that HIV-1 drug resistance mutations and natural polymorphisms existed in this population before the initiation of the national ART program. With increasing use of ARV, these results highlight the importance of drug
Helena A Ngowi
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Porcine cysticercosis is caused by a zoonotic tapeworm, Taenia solium, which causes serious disease syndromes in human. Effective control of the parasite requires knowledge on the burden and pattern of the infections in order to properly direct limited resources. The objective of this study was to establish the spatial distribution of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania, to guide control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study is a secondary analysis of data collected during the baseline and follow-up periods of a randomized community trial aiming at reducing the incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis through an educational program. At baseline, 784 randomly selected pig-keeping households located in 42 villages in 14 wards were included. Lingual examination of indigenous pigs aged 2-12 (median 8 months, one randomly selected from each household, were conducted. Data from the control group of the randomized trial that included 21 of the 42 villages were used for the incidence study. A total of 295 pig-keeping households were provided with sentinel pigs (one each and reassessed for cysticercosis incidence once or twice for 2-9 (median 4 months using lingual examination and antigen ELISA. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was computed in Epi Info 3.5. The prevalence and incidence of porcine cysticercosis were mapped at household level using ArcView 3.2. K functions were computed in R software to assess general clustering of porcine cysticercosis. Spatial scan statistics were computed in SatScan to identify local clusters of the infection. The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 7.3% (95% CI: 5.6, 9.4; n = 784. The K functions revealed a significant overall clustering of porcine cysticercosis incidence for all distances between 600 m and 5 km from a randomly chosen case household based on Ag-ELISA. Lingual examination revealed clustering from 650 m to 6 km and between 7.5 and 10 km
The study of Moshi Pumice's phosphorus sorption behaviours and properties was carried out in laboratory scale where by 1-2 mm, 2-4 mm and 4-8 mm grains were tested using batch experiments. The results show that Moshi Pumice has high phosphorus sorption capacity. The sorption capacity for the Moshi Pumice was ...
Miller, Brian W.; Doyle, Martin W.
Researchers have independently documented the effects of land use on rivers and threats to river management institutions, but the relationship between changes in institutional context and river condition is not well described. This study assesses the connections between resource management institutions, land use, and rivers by integrating social science, geospatial analysis, and geomorphology. In particular, we measured hydraulic geometry, sediment size distributions, and estimated sediment yield for four rivers in northern Tanzania and conducted semistructured interviews that assessed corresponding resource management institutions. Communities managed rivers through both customary (traditional, nonstate) and government institutions, but the differences in the resource management policies and practices of the study rivers themselves were fairly subtle. Clearer differences were found at broader scales; the four watersheds exhibited substantial differences in land cover change and sediment yield associated with the location of settlements, roadways, and cultivation. Unexpectedly, these recent land use changes did not initiate a geomorphic response in rivers. The long history of grazing by domestic and wild ungulates may have influenced water and sediment supplies such that river channel dimensions are more resistant to changes in land use than other systems or have already adjusted to predominant changes in boundary conditions. This would suggest that not all rivers will have the anticipated responses to contemporary land use changes because of antecedent land use patterns; over long time scales (centuries to millennia), the presence of grazers may actually increase the ability of rivers to withstand changes in land use. Our findings point to a need for further interdisciplinary study of dryland rivers and their shifts between system states, especially in areas with a long history of grazing, relatively recent changes in land use, and a dynamic social and
Miller, Brian W; Doyle, Martin W
Researchers have independently documented the effects of land use on rivers and threats to river management institutions, but the relationship between changes in institutional context and river condition is not well described. This study assesses the connections between resource management institutions, land use, and rivers by integrating social science, geospatial analysis, and geomorphology. In particular, we measured hydraulic geometry, sediment size distributions, and estimated sediment yield for four rivers in northern Tanzania and conducted semistructured interviews that assessed corresponding resource management institutions. Communities managed rivers through both customary (traditional, nonstate) and government institutions, but the differences in the resource management policies and practices of the study rivers themselves were fairly subtle. Clearer differences were found at broader scales; the four watersheds exhibited substantial differences in land cover change and sediment yield associated with the location of settlements, roadways, and cultivation. Unexpectedly, these recent land use changes did not initiate a geomorphic response in rivers. The long history of grazing by domestic and wild ungulates may have influenced water and sediment supplies such that river channel dimensions are more resistant to changes in land use than other systems or have already adjusted to predominant changes in boundary conditions. This would suggest that not all rivers will have the anticipated responses to contemporary land use changes because of antecedent land use patterns; over long time scales (centuries to millennia), the presence of grazers may actually increase the ability of rivers to withstand changes in land use. Our findings point to a need for further interdisciplinary study of dryland rivers and their shifts between system states, especially in areas with a long history of grazing, relatively recent changes in land use, and a dynamic social and
A multitude of environmental problems abound in Tanzania. The problems range from declining land resources, de-vegetation, urban and air pollution, degradation of the marine environment to the destruction of biological diversity. A thorough analysis of these manifestations of environments decline reveal the presence of linkages to economic, political, cultural and demographic constraints which have been at the crux of Tanzania's efforts towards emancipation. We attested that societies are always dialect and integral parts of the global entity. As such the analysis of any societal problem can not be sufficiently tackled by basing on a 'micro level' societal specific factors. We need to expand our horizon and include 'macro level' elements which impinges on the society under study. Imperatively, influences on any environment, social or biophysical, whether positive or negative, emanates either or both from within the specific society and or from without. In our study we set out to provide an insight into the nature and character of man and environment interaction in Arumeru district, Northern Tanzania. We intended to investigate the extent to which changes in the household production patterns as a result of environmental stress and the consequent resource management strategies influence and are hitherto influenced by population growth. The aspects of demographic changes especially patterns of growth and settlement, agrarian production such as land tenure, food and cash crop interventions, non-farm activities and management of the commons were studies. Further, local adaptation to crisis including environmental stress and emerging markets were explored. he theoretical model adopted in analysing the man-land environment relationship in Arumeru district and the ensuing findings, give legitimacy to the position that issues of population growth or decline cannot be separated from questions of economic and social development, or from the environmental concerns related to
Öberg, Helena; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Westerberg, Lars-Ove
Lake Duluti is a small, topographically closed crater lake located on the flanks of Mt Meru, northern Tanzania. Analyses of diatoms in three short sediment cores and four modern samples from Lake Duluti were used to infer past environmental changes. 210Pb and 137Cs activity profiles combined...
Maro, G.P.; Janssen, B.H.; Msanya, B.M.; Mrema, J.P.
The aim of this work, as an extension to SAFERNAC model, was to establish economically optimum combinations of N, P and K application to Arabica coffee in the Northern coffee zone of Tanzania. The study was conducted in Hai and Lushoto districts between 2010 and 2012. Prices of nutrient inputs and
Maro, G.P.; Mrema, J.P.; Msanya, B.M.; Janssen, B.H.; Teri, J.M.
The aim of this study was to develop a simple and quantitative system for coffee yield estimation and nutrient input advice, so as to address the problem of declining annual coffee production in Tanzania (particularly in its Northern coffee zone), which is related to declining soil fertility. The
John W Stanifer
Full Text Available Traditional medicines are an important part of healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa, and building successful disease treatment programs that are sensitive to traditional medicine practices will require an understanding of their current use and roles, including from a biomedical perspective. Therefore, we conducted a mixed-method study in Northern Tanzania in order to characterize the extent of and reasons for the use of traditional medicines among the general population so that we can better inform public health efforts in the region.Between December 2013 and June 2014 in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, we conducted 5 focus group discussions and 27 in-depth interviews of key informants. The data from these sessions were analyzed using an inductive framework method with cultural insider-outsider coding. From these results, we developed a structured survey designed to test different aspects of traditional medicine use and administered it to a random sample of 655 adults from the community. The results were triangulated to explore converging and diverging themes.Most structured survey participants (68% reported knowing someone who frequently used traditional medicines, and the majority (56% reported using them themselves in the previous year. The most common uses were for symptomatic ailments (42%, chronic diseases (15%, reproductive problems (11%, and malaria/febrile illnesses (11%. We identified five major determinants for traditional medicine use in Northern Tanzania: biomedical healthcare delivery, credibility of traditional practices, strong cultural identities, individual health status, and disease understanding.In order to better formulate effective local disease management programs that are sensitive to TM practices, we described the determinants of TM use. Additionally, we found TM use to be high in Northern Tanzania and that its use is not limited to lower-income areas or rural settings. After symptomatic ailments, chronic diseases were reported as
Andrew M Moon
Full Text Available In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO published updated guidelines emphasizing and expanding recommendations for a parasitological confirmation of malaria before treating with antimalarials. This study aimed to assess differences in historic (2007-2008 (cohort 1 and recent (2011-2012 (cohort 2 hospital cohorts in the diagnosis and treatment of febrile illness in a low malaria prevalence area of northern Tanzania.We analyzed data from two prospective cohort studies that enrolled febrile adolescents and adults aged ≥13 years. All patients received quality-controlled aerobic blood cultures and malaria smears. We compared patients' discharge diagnoses, treatments, and outcomes to assess changes in the treatment of malaria and bacterial infections.In total, 595 febrile inpatients were enrolled from two referral hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Laboratory-confirmed malaria was detected in 13 (3.2% of 402 patients in cohort 1 and 1 (0.5% of 193 patients in cohort 2 (p = 0.041. Antimalarials were prescribed to 201 (51.7% of 389 smear-negative patients in cohort 1 and 97 (50.5% of 192 smear-negative patients in cohort 2 (p = 0.794. Bacteremia was diagnosed from standard blood culture in 58 (14.5% of 401 patients in cohort 1 compared to 18 (9.5% of 190 patients in cohort 2 (p = 0.091. In cohort 1, 40 (69.0% of 58 patients with a positive blood culture received antibacterials compared to 16 (88.9% of 18 patients in cohort 2 (p = 0.094. In cohort 1, 43 (10.8% of the 399 patients with known outcomes died during hospitalization compared with 12 (6.2% deaths among 193 patients in cohort 2 (p = 0.073.In a setting of low malaria transmission, a high proportion of smear-negative patients were diagnosed with malaria and treated with antimalarials despite updated WHO guidelines on malaria treatment. Improved laboratory diagnostics for non-malaria febrile illness might help to curb this practice.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Folate and iron deficiency during pregnancy are risk factors for anaemia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight, and may contribute to poor neonatal health and increased maternal mortality. The World Health Organization recommends supplementation of folic acid (FA and iron for all pregnant women at risk of malnutrition to prevent anaemia. We assessed the use of prenatal folic acid and iron supplementation among women in a geographical area with a high prevalence of anaemia, in relation to socio-demographic, morbidity and health services utilization factors. Methods We analysed a cohort of 21,889 women who delivered at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC, Moshi, Tanzania, between 1999 and 2008. Logistic regression models were used to describe patterns of reported intake of prenatal FA and iron supplements. Results Prenatal intake of FA and iron supplements was reported by 17.2% and 22.3% of pregnant women, respectively. Sixteen percent of women reported intake of both FA and iron. Factors positively associated with FA supplementation were advanced maternal age (OR = 1.17, 1.02-1.34, unknown HIV status (OR = 1.54, 1.42-1.67, a diagnosis of anaemia during pregnancy (OR = 12.03, 9.66-14.98 and indicators of lower socioeconomic status. Women were less likely to take these supplements if they reported having had a malaria episode before (OR = 0.57, 0.53-0.62 or during pregnancy (OR = 0.45, 0.41-0.51, reported having contracted other infectious diseases (OR = 0.45, 0.42-0.49, were multiparous (OR = 0.73, 0.66-0.80, had preeclampsia/eclampsia (OR = 0.48, 0.38-0.61, or other diseases (OR = 0.55, 0.44-0.69 during pregnancy. Similar patterns of association emerged when iron supplementation alone and supplementation with both iron and FA were evaluated. Conclusions FA and iron supplementation are low among pregnant women in Northern Tanzania, in particular among women with co-morbidities before
Sabuni, C.; Aghová, Tatiana; Bryjová, Anna; Šumbera, R.; Bryja, Josef
(2018) ISSN 0025-1461 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : biogeography * Crocidura montis group * cytochrome b * Lophuromys * montane habitats * Northern Highlands of Tanzania Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.805, year: 2016
Kweka, Eliningaya J; Lyaruu, Lucile J; Mahande, Aneth M
Mosquitoes have developed resistance against pyrethroids, the only class of insecticides approved for use on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). The present study sought to evaluate the efficacy of the pyrethroid synergist PermaNet® 3.0 LLIN versus the pyrethroid-only PermaNet® 2.0 LLIN, in an East African hut design in Lower Moshi, northern Tanzania. In this setting, resistance to pyrethroid insecticides has been identified in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Standard World Health Organization bioefficacy evaluations were conducted in both laboratory and experimental huts. Experimental hut evaluations were conducted in an area where there was presence of a population of highly pyrethroid-resistant An. arabiensis mosquitoes. All nets used were subjected to cone bioassays and then to experimental hut trials. Mosquito mortality, blood-feeding inhibition and personal protection rate were compared between untreated nets, unwashed LLINs and LLINs that were washed 20 times. Both washed and unwashed PermaNet® 2.0 and PermaNet® 3.0 LLINs had knockdown and mortality rates of 100% against a susceptible strain of An. gambiae sensu stricto. The adjusted mortality rate of the wild mosquito population after use of the unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 and PermaNet® 2.0 nets was found to be higher than after use of the washed PermaNet® 2.0 and PermaNet® 3.0 nets. Given the increasing incidence of pyrethroid resistance in An. gambiae mosquitoes in Tanzania, we recommend that consideration is given to its distribution in areas with pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors within the framework of a national insecticide-resistance management plan.
Kumburu, Happiness Houka; Sonda, Tolbert; Mmbaga, Blandina Theophil; Alifrangis, Michael; Lund, Ole; Kibiki, Gibson; Aarestrup, Frank M
To determine the causative agents of infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility at a tertiary care hospital in Moshi, Tanzania, to guide optimal treatment. A total of 590 specimens (stool (56), sputum (122), blood (126) and wound swabs (286)) were collected from 575 patients admitted in the medical and surgical departments. The bacterial species were determined by conventional methods, and disc diffusion was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the bacterial isolates. A total of 249 (42.2%) specimens were culture-positive yielding a total of 377 isolates. A wide range of bacteria was isolated, the most predominant being Gram-negative bacteria: Proteus spp. (n = 48, 12.7%), Escherichia coli (n = 44, 11.7%), Pseudomonas spp. (n = 40, 10.6%) and Klebsiella spp (n = 38, 10.1%). Wound infections were characterised by multiple isolates (n = 293, 77.7%), with the most frequent being Proteus spp. (n = 44, 15%), Pseudomonas (n = 37, 12.6%), Staphylococcus (n = 29, 9.9%) and Klebsiella spp. (n = 28, 9.6%). All Staphylococcus aureus tested were resistant to penicillin (n = 22, 100%) and susceptible to vancomycin. Significant resistance to cephalosporins such as cefazolin (n = 62, 72.9%), ceftriaxone (n = 44, 51.8%) and ceftazidime (n = 40, 37.4%) was observed in Gram-negative bacteria, as well as resistance to cefoxitin (n = 6, 27.3%) in S. aureus. The study has revealed a wide range of causative agents, with an alarming rate of resistance to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. Furthermore, the bacterial spectrum differs from those often observed in high-income countries. This highlights the imperative of regular generation of data on aetiological agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns especially in infectious disease endemic settings. The key steps would be to ensure the diagnostic capacity at a sufficient number of sites and implement structures to routinely exchange, compare, analyse and report data. Sentinel sites
school adolescents in Moshi rural district of Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving face-to-face interviews with out-of-school adolescents in eleven rural villages in Moshi district, northern Tanzania.
Peter Ernest Mangesho
Full Text Available Zoonoses account for the most commonly reported emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is limited knowledge on how pastoral communities perceive zoonoses in relation to their livelihoods, culture and their wider ecology. This study was carried out to explore local knowledge and perceptions on zoonoses among pastoralists in Tanzania.This study involved pastoralists in Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania and Kibaha and Bagamoyo districts in eastern Tanzania. Qualitative methods of focus group discussions, participatory epidemiology and interviews were used. A total of 223 people were involved in the study. Among the pastoralists, there was no specific term in their local language that describes zoonosis. Pastoralists from northern Tanzania possessed a higher understanding on the existence of a number of zoonoses than their eastern districts' counterparts. Understanding of zoonoses could be categorized into two broad groups: a local syndromic framework, whereby specific symptoms of a particular illness in humans concurred with symptoms in animals, and the biomedical framework, where a case definition is supported by diagnostic tests. Some pastoralists understand the possibility of some infections that could cross over to humans from animals but harm from these are generally tolerated and are not considered as threats. A number of social and cultural practices aimed at maintaining specific cultural functions including social cohesion and rites of passage involve animal products, which present zoonotic risk.These findings show how zoonoses are locally understood, and how epidemiology and biomedicine are shaping pastoralists perceptions to zoonoses. Evidence is needed to understand better the true burden and impact of zoonoses in these communities. More studies are needed that seek to clarify the common understanding of zoonoses that could be used to guide effective and locally relevant interventions
Mangesho, Peter Ernest; Neselle, Moses Ole; Karimuribo, Esron D; Mlangwa, James E; Queenan, Kevin; Mboera, Leonard E G; Rushton, Jonathan; Kock, Richard; Häsler, Barbara; Kiwara, Angwara; Rweyemamu, Mark
Zoonoses account for the most commonly reported emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is limited knowledge on how pastoral communities perceive zoonoses in relation to their livelihoods, culture and their wider ecology. This study was carried out to explore local knowledge and perceptions on zoonoses among pastoralists in Tanzania. This study involved pastoralists in Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania and Kibaha and Bagamoyo districts in eastern Tanzania. Qualitative methods of focus group discussions, participatory epidemiology and interviews were used. A total of 223 people were involved in the study. Among the pastoralists, there was no specific term in their local language that describes zoonosis. Pastoralists from northern Tanzania possessed a higher understanding on the existence of a number of zoonoses than their eastern districts' counterparts. Understanding of zoonoses could be categorized into two broad groups: a local syndromic framework, whereby specific symptoms of a particular illness in humans concurred with symptoms in animals, and the biomedical framework, where a case definition is supported by diagnostic tests. Some pastoralists understand the possibility of some infections that could cross over to humans from animals but harm from these are generally tolerated and are not considered as threats. A number of social and cultural practices aimed at maintaining specific cultural functions including social cohesion and rites of passage involve animal products, which present zoonotic risk. These findings show how zoonoses are locally understood, and how epidemiology and biomedicine are shaping pastoralists perceptions to zoonoses. Evidence is needed to understand better the true burden and impact of zoonoses in these communities. More studies are needed that seek to clarify the common understanding of zoonoses that could be used to guide effective and locally relevant interventions. Such studies should
Lukambagire, Abdul-Hamid Settenda; Mchaile, Deborah N; Nyindo, Mramba
Human fascioliasis (HF) is a zoonotic disease that has been identified in many countries worldwide. This report concerns the identification and clinical management of cases of human fascioliasis in the suburbs of Arusha city, northern Tanzania in 2013. Fascioliasis is included among the WHO's Neglected Tropical Diseases as a plant transmitted trematode infection. Human fascioliasis has not been described before in the East Africa region, including Tanzania. Patients presenting at a primary healthcare centre in Arusha Region, northern Tanzania provided fresh stool samples for routine ova and parasite screening (saline and iodine preparations). Subsequent stool samples were preserved in 5 % formalin in saline and subjected to ether sedimentation for examination. Out of 1460 patients, 305 (21 %) were diagnosed positive for fascioliasis based on the demonstration of brownish, oval eggs with inconspicuous opercula in stool. Two distinct egg sizes were identified; large 170-212.5 by 115-150 μm (mean 194.5 by 130.5 μm) and smaller eggs 120-150 by 87.5 - 112.5 μm (mean 138.8 by 101 μm). Clinically, patients presented with fever (39 - 40 °C) and abdominal pain. Some patients had pruritis around the mouth and their lips were swollen. 3 patients were treated and cured with single dose Triclabendazole. The remaining 302 patients were treated with Nitazoxanide and 122 (40 %) were cleared of infection with a single course. Snails of the genus Lymnaea were found in the surroundings. This report serves to remind medical professionals in East Africa that HF is a probable differential diagnosis in patients presenting with similar symptoms. It is possible to diagnose fascioliasis by light microscopy although specific antigen tests are required for confirmation. Human fascioliasis however, has not been described or reported in Tanzania before and begs further investigation.
Fieß, Achim; Shah, Peter; Sii, Freda; Godfrey, Furahini; Abbott, Joe; Bowman, Richard; Bauer, Jacqueline; Dithmar, Stefan; Philippin, Heiko
The purpose is to describe the outcome of trabeculectomy with transscleral cyclophotocoagulation (TSCPC) as an initial intervention for secondary childhood glaucoma in Northern Tanzania. A retrospective, consecutive case series was analyzed of all children with secondary childhood glaucoma who underwent initial trabeculectomy or TSCPC between 2000 and 2013 at a referral eye unit in Northern Tanzania. Retrospective data were collected on causes of glaucoma, intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity, complications, and subsequent interventions. Outcomes were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and compared with Cox regression analysis. The main outcome measure was failure (IOP>21 mm Hg). Thirty-six eyes of 27 children (male, 21; median age, 9 y; range, 0.3 to 15 y) with secondary childhood glaucoma underwent trabeculectomy (19 eyes, 53%) or TSCPC (17 eyes, 47%). Causes included ocular trauma (13, 36%), previous cataract surgery (12, 33%), congenital aniridia (5, 14%), Sturge-Weber syndrome (2, 6%), steroid-induced glaucoma (2, 6%), uveitis (1, 3%), and unspecified leucoma (1, 3%). After 12 months, success was achieved in 48% after trabeculectomy and 18% after TSCPC, with visual acuity remaining unchanged in 11 of 14 (79%) and 4 of 5 eyes (80%), respectively. One third of the children did not return for follow-up after 1 year. Distance to the hospital (>100 km) was a significant risk factor for trabeculectomy failure (P=0.031). A high proportion of secondary childhood glaucoma in Northern Tanzania was caused by trauma and previous cataract surgery. Trabeculectomy was associated with better IOP control but also a higher complication rate. The ability to maintain visual function was comparable after both interventions. Failure was associated with a journey to the eye hospital (>100 km) possibly leading to late presentation with advanced disease and erratic follow-up.
Bjork, K E; Averbeck, G A; Stromberg, B E
Fecal samples from 33 lions (Panthera leo) in Serengeti National Park and Ngorongoro Crater Conservation Area in northern Tanzania contained 19 different parasites, 12 of which, including Aelurostrongylus sp., a species of Acanthocephala, a species of Anoplocephalidae, Capillaria sp., Demodex sp., Eimeria sp., Habronema sp., Isospora felis, Isospora rivolta, one species of Isospora that was previously undescribed from lions, one species of Trematoda that was previously undescribed from lions, and Trichuris sp., were new reports for lions. Seven other species had been previously reported from lions.
McCabe, J Terrence; Smith, Nicole M; Leslie, Paul W; Telligman, Amy L
This paper brings together over two decades of research concerning the patterns and processes of livelihood diversification through migration among Maasai pastoralists and agro-pastoralists of northern Tanzania. Two case studies, one from the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and the other from the Simanjiro plains, jointly demonstrate the complexity of migration within a single ethnic group. We analyze the relationship between wealth and migration and examine some of the consequences of migration for building herds, expanding cultivation, and influencing political leadership. We further argue that migration in Maasai communities is becoming a cultural norm and not only a response to economic conditions.
Background notes on Tanzania present a profile of nationality, population count of 26 million, growth rate of 3.5%, ethnic groups (130), religions (33% Muslim, 33% animist, 33% Christian), languages, education (86% primary), literacy (79%), health (infant mortality of 106/1000), and work force (90% agriculture). Geographic data are given for the area, cities, terrain, and climate. The Tanzanian government is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. There is 1 political party and everyone 18 years is eligible to vote. 4% of the gross domestic product (GDP) ($5.9 billion) is devoted to defense. Economic growth is 4.3%/year and person income is $240/capita. Natural resources, agriculture, industry, and trade are identified. $400 million has been received between 1970-92 in US economic aid. The 1992 official exchange rate is 300 Tanzanian shillings to the US dollar. Descriptive text is given for the population, the history of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the government, principal government officials (President, 1st Vice President [VP], 2nd VP and President of Zanzibar, Prime Minister, Foreign Affairs Minister, Ambassador to the US, Ambassador to the UN, and US embassy address and phone number), political conditions, the economy, the defense, foreign relations, and US-Tanzanian relations. Principal US officials are identified for the Ambassador, Deputy Chief of Mission, USAID Director, and Public Affairs Officer; the US embassy address is given also. The population is 80% rural with a density of 1/sq km in arid areas, 51/sq km on the mainland, and 134/sq km on Zanzibar. The new capital will be Dodoma in central Tanzania. Most residents are of Bantu stock; nomadic groups are the Masai and the Luo. 1% are non-Africans. Government has a strong central executive. The current President is Ali Hassan Mwinyi. The Revolutionary Party is in the primary policymaking body and provides all government leaders. The government seeks to foster the
but more so on the socio-economic impact of migration. On the economic consequences of migration a lot of emphasis has been placed on remittances. This is understandable for two main reasons. One, remittances have emerged as a major source of external development finance in recent years. Given their large size, ...
Carugati, Manuela; Biggs, Holly M; Maze, Michael J; Stoddard, Robyn A; Cash-Goldwasser, Shama; Hertz, Julian T; Halliday, Jo E B; Saganda, Wilbrod; Lwezaula, Bingileki F; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Cleaveland, Sarah; Maro, Venance P; Rubach, Matthew P; Crump, John A
Abstract Background Brucellosis causes substantial morbidity among humans and their livestock. There are few robust estimates of the incidence of brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Using cases identified through sentinel hospital surveillance and health care utilization data, we estimated the incidence of brucellosis in Moshi Urban and Moshi Rural Districts, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, for the periods 2007–2008 and 2012–2014. Methods Cases were identified among febrile patients at two sentinel hospitals and were defined as having either a 4-fold increase in Brucella microscopic agglutination test titres between acute and convalescent serum or a blood culture positive for Brucella spp. Findings from a health care utilization survey were used to estimate multipliers to account for cases not seen at sentinel hospitals. Results Of 585 patients enrolled in the period 2007–2008, 13 (2.2%) had brucellosis. Among 1095 patients enrolled in the period 2012–2014, 32 (2.9%) had brucellosis. We estimated an incidence (range based on sensitivity analysis) of brucellosis of 35 (range 32–93) cases per 100 000 persons annually in the period 2007–2008 and 33 (range 30–89) cases per 100 000 persons annually in the period 2012–2014. Conclusions We found a moderate incidence of brucellosis in northern Tanzania, suggesting that the disease is endemic and an important human health problem in this area. PMID:29697848
David W Lawson
Full Text Available The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological
Hertz, Julian T; Lyaruu, Lucille J; Ooi, Eng Eong; Mosha, Franklin W; Crump, John A
Little is known about the presence and distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in northern Tanzania despite the occurence of viruses transmitted by these mosquitoes such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) in the region. Adult and larval mosquitoes were collected from rural and urban settings across a wide range of altitudes in the Kilimanjaro Region using the Mosquito Magnet CO2 Trap for collection of adults and old tires for breeding of larvae. Polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on captured adult mosquitoes to detect the presence of CHIKV and DENV. A total of 2609 Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes were collected; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Mosquito yields were significantly higher in urban settings than rural settings (26.5 vs. 1.9 mosquitoes per day, p = 0.037). A total of 6570 Ae. aegypti larvae were collected from old tires; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Of the 2609 adult mosquitoes collected, none tested positive for CHIKV or DENV. As far as we are aware, this paper reports for the first time the presence of Ae. aegypti in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania. Although CHIKV and DENV were not isolated from any of the collected mosquitoes in this study, the apparent absence of other Aedes species in the area suggests that Ae. aegypti is the primary local vector of these infections.
Nilsson, Josefine; Pembe, Andrea B; Urasa, Miriam; Darj, Elisabeth
Unsafe injections and substandard waste management are public health issues exposing healthcare workers and the community to the risk of infections. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of safe injections and health care waste management among healthcare workers at a regional hospital in northern Tanzania. This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in a regional hospital in northern Tanzania. Data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire with additional observations of the incinerator, injections, waste practices, and the availability of medical supplies. Data was analysed in SPSS descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were performed. A total of 223 of 305 (73%) healthcare workers from different cadres were included in the study. The majority of healthcare workers had adequate knowledge and practice of safe injections, but inadequate knowledge about waste management. The majority of the staff reported knowledge of HIV as a risk factor, however, had less knowledge about other blood-borne infections. Guidelines and posters on post exposure prophylaxes and waste management -were present at the hospital, however, the incinerator had no fence or temperature gauge. In conclusion, healthcare workers reported good knowledge and practice of injections, and high knowledge of HIV transmission routes. However, the hospital is in need of a well functioning incinerator and healthcare workers require sufficient medical supplies. There was a need for continual training about health care waste management and avoidance of blood-borne pathogens that may be transmitted through unsafe injections or poor health care waste management.
Motivation of health workers and availability of working equipments in Moshi rural is highest in religious health facilities, moderate in .... reasons accounting for the observed staffing ... money after office hours(85.7%) and lastly, inadequate ...
Harrison, L.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.; Pedreros, D. H.; Shukla, S.; Husak, G. J.
Here, we present analysis of a new 1900-2014 rainfall record for the Greater Horn of Africa with high station density (CenTrends), and evaluate potential climate change "hot spots" in Tanzania. We identify recent (1981-2014) downward trends in Tanzanian rainfall, use CenTrends to place these in a longer historical context, and relate rainfall in these regions to decadal changes in global sea surface temperatures (SSTs). To identify areas of concern, we consider the potential food security impacts of the recent rainfall declines and also rapid population growth. Looking forward, we consider what the links to SSTs might mean for rainfall in the next several decades based on SST projections. In addition to CenTrends, we use a variety of geographic data sets, including 1981-2014 rainfall from the Climate Hazards group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPSv2.0), simulated crop stress from the USGS Geospatial Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (GeoWRSI) model, NOAA Extended Reconstructed SSTs (ERSST v4), SST projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), and land cover and population maps from SERVIR, WorldPOP, and CIESIN's Gridded Population of the World. The long-term CenTrends record allows us to suggest an interesting dichotomy in decadal rainfall forcing. During the March to June season, SSTs in the west Pacific appear to be driving post-1980 rainfall reductions in northern Tanzania. In the 2000s, northern Tanzania's densely populated Pangani River, Internal Drainage, and Lake Victoria basins experienced the driest period in more than a century. During summer, negative trends in southern Tanzania appear linked to a negative SST trend in the Nino3.4 region. Since the SST trend in the west (east) Pacific appears strongly influenced by global warming (natural decadal variability), we suggest that water resources in northern Tanzania may face increasing challenges, but that this will be less the case in southern Tanzania.
Mutua, Florence; Kihara, Absolomon; Rogena, Jason; Ngwili, Nicholas; Aboge, Gabriel; Wabacha, James; Bett, Bernard
We designed and piloted a livestock identification and traceability system (LITS) along the Northern Tanzania-Narok-Nairobi beef value chain. Animals were randomly selected and identified at the primary markets using uniquely coded ear tags. Data on identification, ownership, source (village), and the site of recruitment (primary market) were collected and posted to an online database. Similar data were collected in all the markets where tagged animals passed through until they got to defined slaughterhouses. Meat samples were collected during slaughter and later analyzed for tetracycline and diminazene residues using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Follow up surveys were done to assess the pilot system. The database captured a total of 4260 records from 741 cattle. Cattle recruited in the primary markets in Narok (n = 1698) either came from farms (43.8%), local markets (37.7%), or from markets in Tanzania (18.5%). Soit Sambu market was the main source of animals entering the market from Tanzania (54%; n = 370). Most tagged cattle (72%, n = 197) were slaughtered at the Ewaso Ng'iro slaughterhouse in Narok. Lesions observed (5%; n = 192) were related to either hydatidosis or fascioliasis. The mean diminazene aceturate residue level was 320.78 ± 193.48 ppb. We used the traceability system to identify sources of animals with observable high drug residue levels in tissues. Based on the findings from this study, we discuss opportunities for LITS-as a tool for surveillance for both animal health and food safety, and outline challenges of its deployment in a local beef value chain-such as limited incentives for uptake.
McCabe, J Terrence; Leslie, Paul W; Deluca, Laura
Over the past four decades, Maasai pastoralists in Tanzania have adopted agriculture, integrating it with their traditional pastoralism. This livelihood diversification has complex origins and profound implications for Maasai social organization, culture, and demography, and ultimately for their health and well being and for the local and regional environment. In this paper, we examine the process by which this engagement with, and increasing dependence upon, agriculture came about in Ngorongoro District, northern Tanzania. The process there was more complex and influenced by a wider variety of factors than has been reported by previous descriptions of Maasai livelihood diversification. It generally involved two stages: planting a garden first, and later expanding the garden to a farm. We found that some households adopted cultivation out of necessity, but far more did so by choice. Among the latter, some adopted cultivation to reduce risk, while for others it was a reflection of changing cultural and social norms. Motivations for adopting cultivation differed among people of different wealth categories. Diversification was part of wider cultural changes, and was also influenced by power differentials among Maasai age sets and by government policies.
Agricultural drought analysis for sustainable smallholder maize production in semi-arid areas: a case study of the Lower Moshi Irrigation Scheme, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Patrick Bell, Didas Kimaro, Rattan Lal ...
Kajeguka, Debora C.; Kaaya, Robert D.; Desrochers, Rachelle
, and all participants were geo-referenced to the household level using a global positioning system. Potential clusters of individual exposed to dengue and chikungunya virus, as well as clusters of Aedes mosquitoes in the wet and dry seasons were detected using SaTScan. All significant clusters (with p≤0.......05) were mapped using ArcGIS. Results: A large, widely dispersed cluster of chikungunya exposed individuals was detected spanning Rundugai and parts of Magadini villages (RR = 2.58, p= 0.01), while no significant clustering was observed in the dry season. Spatial clusters of Aedes aegypti were detected...... and Aedes mosquitoes indicate on-going transmission of chikungunya virus in Hai district of northern Tanzania....
Lewis, Ashley L.; Baird, Timothy D.; Sorice, Michael G.
Throughout the developing world, mobile phones are spreading rapidly into rural areas where subsistence livelihoods, biodiversity conservation, and human-wildlife conflict (HWC) are each common. Despite this trend, little is known about the relationship between mobile phones and HWC in conservation landscapes. This paper examines this relationship within ethnically Maasai communities in northern Tanzania on the border of Tarangire National Park. Mixed qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection and analysis are used to (1) describe how Maasai agro-pastoralists use phones to manage human-wildlife interactions; and (2) assess the relationship between phone use and measures of HWC, controlling for other factors. The findings indicate that households use phones to reduce the number and severity of HWC events and that the relationship between phones and HWC varies according to the type of HWC.
Francis, Joel M; Weiss, Helen A; Mshana, Gerry; Baisley, Kathy; Grosskurth, Heiner; Kapiga, Saidi H
Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD) among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers) in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza) of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB) method. A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users) than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users). Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females) and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females) followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8) than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners. Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual
Joel M Francis
Full Text Available Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD among young people in sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB method.A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users. Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8 than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners.Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual
Stanifer, John W; Lunyera, Joseph; Boyd, David; Karia, Francis; Maro, Venance; Omolo, Justin; Patel, Uptal D
In sub-Saharan Africa, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is being recognized as a non-communicable disease (NCD) with high morbidity and mortality. In countries like Tanzania, people access many sources, including traditional medicines, to meet their healthcare needs for NCDs, but little is known about traditional medicine practices among people with CKD. Therefore, we sought to characterize these practices among community members with CKD in northern Tanzania. Between December 2013 and June 2014, we administered a previously-developed survey to a random sample of adult community-members from the Kilimanjaro Region; the survey was designed to measure traditional medicine practices such as types, frequencies, reasons, and modes. Participants were also tested for CKD, diabetes, hypertension, and HIV as part of the CKD-AFRiKA study. To identify traditional medicines used in the local treatment of kidney disease, we reviewed the qualitative sessions which had previously been conducted with key informants. We enrolled 481 adults of whom 57 (11.9 %) had CKD. The prevalence of traditional medicine use among adults with CKD was 70.3 % (95 % CI 50.0-84.9 %), and among those at risk for CKD (n = 147; 30.6 %), it was 49.0 % (95 % CI 33.1-65.0 %). Among adults with CKD, the prevalence of concurrent use of traditional medicine and biomedicine was 33.2 % (11.4-65.6 %). Symptomatic ailments (66.7 %; 95 % CI 17.3-54.3), malaria/febrile illnesses (64.0 %; 95 % CI 44.1-79.9), and chronic diseases (49.6 %; 95 % CI 28.6-70.6) were the most prevalent uses for traditional medicines. We identified five plant-based traditional medicines used for the treatment of kidney disease: Aloe vera, Commifora africana, Cymbopogon citrullus, Persea americana, and Zanthoxylum chalybeum. The prevalence of traditional medicine use is high among adults with and at risk for CKD in northern Tanzania where they use them for a variety of conditions including other NCDs. Additionally, many of these same people
Premkumar, Ajay; Ying, Xiaohan; Mack Hardaker, W; Massawe, Honest H; Mshahaba, David J; Mandari, Faiton; Pallangyo, Anthony; Temu, Rogers; Masenga, Gileard; Spiegel, David A; Sheth, Neil P
The global burden of musculoskeletal disease and resulting disability is enormous and is expected to increase over the next few decades. In the world's poorest regions, the paucity of information defining and quantifying the current state of access to orthopaedic surgical care is a major problem in developing effective solutions. This study estimates the number of individuals in Northern Tanzania without adequate access to orthopaedic surgical services. A chance tree was created to model the probability of access to orthopaedic surgical services in the Northern Tanzanian regions of Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Tanga, Singida, and Manyara, with respect to four dimensions: timeliness, surgical capacity, safety, and affordability. Timeliness was estimated by the proportion of people living within a 4-h driving distance from a hospital with an orthopaedic surgeon, capacity by comparing number of surgeries performed to the number of surgeries indicated, safety by applying WHO Emergency and Essential Surgical Care infrastructure and equipment checklists, and affordability by approximating the proportion of the population protected from catastrophic out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure. We accounted for uncertainty in our model with one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Data sources included the Tanzanian National Bureau of Statistics and Ministry of Finance, World Bank, World Health Organization, New Zealand Ministry of Health, Google Corporation, NASA population estimator, and 2015 hospital records from Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center, Machame Hospital, Nkoroanga Hospital, Mt. Meru Hospital, and Arusha Lutheran Medical Center. Under the most conservative assumptions, more than 90% of the Northern Tanzanian population does not have access to orthopaedic surgical services. There is a near absence of access to orthopaedic surgical care in Northern Tanzania. These findings utilize more precise country and region-specific data and are consistent with prior published
Metadata only record This paper looks at the challenges emerging when conservation objectives in the Ngorongoro district of northern Tanzania needs to be coordinated with the goal of creation of sustainable livelihoods by the pastoral people living in that area. The paper first gives brief review of pastoralism as it is seen by most ecologists, conservationists, and development practitioners prior to the 1990s. After then the paper examines the diversification of the livestock-based econom...
Lyimo, Beatus; Buza, Joram; Subbiah, Murugan; Temba, Sylivester; Kipasika, Honest; Smith, Woutrina; Call, Douglas R.
The aim of this study was to identify the replicon types of plasmids, conjugation efficiencies, and the complement of antibiotic resistance genes for a panel of multidrug resistant E. coli isolates from surface waters in northern Tanzania. Standard membrane filtration was used to isolate and uidA PCR was used to confirm the identity of strains as E. coli. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by breakpoint assay and plasmid conjugation was determined by filter-mating experiments. PCR and s...
Parker, Melissa; Allen, Tim
This article documents understandings and responses to mass drug administration (MDA) for the treatment and prevention of lymphatic filariasis among adults and children in northern coastal Tanzania from 2004 to 2011. Assessment of village-level distribution registers, combined with self-reported drug uptake surveys of adults, participant observation and interviews, revealed that at study sites in Pangani and Muheza districts the uptake of drugs was persistently low. The majority of people living at these highly endemic locations either did not receive or actively rejected free treatment. A combination of social, economic and political reasons explain the low uptake of drugs. These include a fear of treatment (attributable, in part, to a lack of trust in international aid and a questioning of the motives behind the distribution); divergence between biomedical and local understandings of lymphatic filariasis; and limited and ineffective communication about the rationale for mass treatment. Other contributory factors are the reliance upon volunteers for distribution within villages and, in some locations, strained relationships between different groups of people within villages as well as between local leaders and government officials. The article also highlights a disjuncture between self-reported uptake of drugs by adults at a village level and the higher uptake of drugs recorded in official reports. The latter informs claims that elimination will be a possibility by 2020. This gives voice to a broader problem: there is considerable pressure for those implementing MDA to report positive results. The very real challenges of making MDA work are pushed to one side - adding to a rhetoric of success at the expense of engaging with local realities. It is vital to address the kind of issues raised in this article if current attempts to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in mainland coastal Tanzania are to achieve their goal.
Wight, Daniel; Plummer, Mary L; Mshana, Gerry; Wamoyi, Joyce; Shigongo, Zachayo S; Ross, David A
There has been a long-running debate as to whether sexual cultures in sub-Saharan Africa are permissive or characterised by restrictive rules, rituals and self-restraint. This paper, based on participant observation data, outlines the main features of sexual culture in rural northern Tanzania and highlights both permissive and restrictive norms and expectations for young people. It also illustrates how sexual beliefs are socially constructed and subject to social change. Sexual activity is constrained by clear norms of school pupil abstinence, female sexual respectability and taboos around the discussion of sex. However, these norms are incompatible with several widely held expectations: that sexual activity is inevitable unless prevented, sex is a female resource to be exploited, restrictions on sexual activity are relaxed at festivals, and masculine esteem is boosted through sexual experience. Differential commitment to these norms and expectations reflects conflicts between generations and genders. Young people appear to manage the contradictions in these norms by concealing their sexual relationships. This almost certainly contributes to their short duration and the high levels of partner change, since relationships are not reinforced through social recognition and there is little scope to develop intimacy through non-sexual contacts.
Lennox, Jessica; Petrucka, Pammla; Bassendowski, Sandra
Globally, pregnant women are challenged to meet sufficient and necessary dietary intake in order to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. These challenges are amplified in traditional communities, such as the Maasai, where the historical and cultural practices may further curtail, or impact on this dyad's potential success. The research is intended to enhance understanding of Maasai women's pregnancy and nutrition traditions as well as their beliefs. Interviews with 12 pregnant Maasai women, all originally from the (Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority NCAA) area and have spent most or all of their adult lives in the NCAA, sought to answer two research questions: how do these women describe their current dietary pattern and what do they believe is the role of nutrition during pregnancy. Interpretive description methodology was used to reveal five themes: (1) Eating less food makes baby come easier, (2) Not producing food means more dependence, (3) Working hard harms my baby, (4) Knowing what is needed for a good pregnancy and (5) Preferring our traditional ways for pregnancy and birth. There is an imperative to address nutrition throughout the perinatal period within the Maasai population and the women recognize how important nutrition is for them and their babies. Opportunities to incorporate cultural values and practices must be embedded in programmes/services to achieve success and sustainability. It is important for future prenatal programming with the Maasai in northern Tanzania and other vulnerable groups of pregnant women to build on the women's knowledge of what leads to good pregnancy outcomes.
Elizabeth Eliet Senkoro
Full Text Available Background and Objective. Placenta previa (PP is a potential risk factor for obstetric hemorrhage, which is a major cause of fetomaternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This study aimed to determine frequency, risk factors, and adverse fetomaternal outcomes of placenta previa in Northern Tanzania. Methodology. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using maternally-linked data from Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre birth registry spanning 2000 to 2015. All women who gave birth to singleton infants were studied. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals for risk factors and adverse fetomaternal outcomes associated with PP were estimated in multivariable logistic regression models. Result. A total of 47,686 singleton deliveries were analyzed. Of these, the frequency of PP was 0.6%. Notable significant risk factors for PP included gynecological diseases, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, malpresentation, and gravidity ≥5. Adverse maternal outcomes were postpartum haemorrhage, antepartum haemorrhage, and Caesarean delivery. PP increased odds of fetal Malpresentation and early neonatal death. Conclusion. The prevalence of PP was comparable to that found in past research. Multiple independent risk factors were identified. PP was found to have associations with several adverse fetomaternal outcomes. Early identification of women at risk of PP may help clinicians prevent such complications.
Full Text Available A multidisciplinary research effort, including geological, hydrogeological, hydro-chemical, geophysical and hydrological investigations, was aimed at locating a source of safe groundwater for a district of northern Tanzania, within the western branch of the East Africa Rift Valley, where water shortage is common and much of the surface water carries unacceptable levels of dissolved fluoride. The 440 km2 study area lies in the northern part of Arumeru district and is dominated by Mt. Meru (4565 m a.s.l.. The local climate is semi-arid, with distinct wet and dry seasons. Four hydrogeological complexes were identified, occurring within different volcanic formations, either alone or superimposed upon one another. The groundwater flow system was interpreted from the spatial distribution of the springs, combined with a lithology- and geometry-based reconstruction of the aquifers. The dominant pattern consists of a multi-directional flow from the higher elevations in the south towards the lower areas in the north, but this is complicated by structures such as grabens, faults, lava domes and tholoids. After the identification of the major fluoride source, an interference pattern between groundwater and high fluoride surface water was drawn. Finally, vertical electrical soundings were performed to define the location of aquifers in regions where release of fluoride was prevented. The methodological approach for the prospecting of safe water in a semi-arid, fluoride polluted region was validated by the drilling of a 60 m deep well capable of supplying at least 3.8 l/s of low fluoride, drinkable water.
Nguma, J F; McCullough, F S; Masha, E
Marisa cornuarietis is a well known ampullarid competitor/predator of Biomphalaria glabrata in Puerto Rico. For the first time in Africa a flourishing population of Marisa has been established in a small, permanent, man-made dam at Kisangara, near Moshi, Tanzania. Prior to the release of M. cornuarietis in June 1977, this dam supported thriving populations of the pulmonate snail hosts Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis; Bulinus tropicus and the melaniid Melanoides tuberculata were also common. Some 24 months after the establishment of Marisa the three pulmonate species had been eliminated; only M. tuberculata remained at about the same population density as originally recorded. Marisa has not caused any obvious adverse environmental impact in the dam. There is at present no valid evidence that this ampullarid would be a threat to local rice production, which is the only crop at risk, but carefully designed field trials should be undertaken to confirm or refute this view. In view of the vast number of permanent, lentic habitats throughout the Afrotropical region, which act as important transmission sites of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, the role of Marisa cornuarietis as a cost-effective biological control agent in integrated control operations deserves henceforth to be energetically explored.
Smiley, R. A.; McGlue, M. M.; Yeager, K. M.; Soreghan, M. J.; Lucas, J.; Kimirei, I.; Mbonde, A.; Limbu, P.; Apse, C.
The combined effects of climate change, overfishing, and sediment pollution are altering Lake Tanganyika's littoral fisheries in profoundly negative ways. One method for conserving critical fish resources and safeguarding biodiversity in Lake Tanganyika is by establishing small-scale nearshore protected zones, which can be administrated by lakeshore villagers organized into beach management units (BMUs). Each BMU endeavors to manage offshore "no-catch" protected zones, prohibit the use of illegal fishing gear, and promote sustainable agriculture that abates erosion in the lake watershed, in order to mitigate sediment pollution in the lake. We adopted a limnogeological approach to assist in characterizing the littoral zone associated with BMUs in the northern Mahale region of Lake Tanganyika (Tanzania), a critical conservation area for the Nature Conservancy's Tuungane Project (https://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/africa/wherewework/tuungane-project.xml). We hypothesized that BMUs with heavy onshore agricultural activity would experience relatively high offshore sedimentation rates, due to enhanced sediment-laden runoff in the wet season. Such changes are predicted to alter benthic substrates and degrade habitat available for fish spawning. We mapped bathymetry and sediment types along a 29 km2 area of the littoral zone using high-resolution geophysical tools, and assessed short-term sedimentation rates using sediment cores and radionuclide geochronology (210Pb). Initial results from 210Pb analyses show that sedimentation rates at the mud-line ( 85-100 m water depth) are relatively slow but spatially variable in the northern Mahale area. Offshore of the Kalilani village BMU, linear sedimentation rates are 0.50 mm/yr. By contrast, sedimentation rates offshore from the Igualula village BMU are 0.90-1.30 mm/yr. Higher sedimentation rates near Igualula are consistent with greater sediment inputs from the nearby Lagosa River and its watershed, which has been
Mana, S.; Mollel, G. F.; Feigenson, M.; Carr, M. J.; Turrin, B. D.; Furman, T.; Swisher, C. C.
Essimingor is the oldest of a line of north-south trending pre-rift volcanoes in northern Tanzania associated with the opening of the southern sector of the Gregory Rift, part of the East African Rift system (EAR). Essimingor is centrally located within the present day rift, on the East-West alignment between the large volcanoes of Kilimanjaro and Ngorongoro. Based on K-Ar data of Bagdasaryan et al. (1973), Essimingor is commonly reported to be about 8 Ma, although Evans et al. (1971) reports it to be between 5 to 3 Ma. Geochemically, Essimingor is characterized by alkaline magmatism and it is compositionally similar to adjacent albeit younger volcanoes (e.g. Burko, Tarosero and Monduli). Although the regional trend in magmatic evolution is from basalt to alkaline basalt, and then to more evolved rock types enriched in alkalis (Dawson, 2008), Essimingor appears to be an exception given its age. In fact, this volcano precedes or is, perhaps, contemporaneous with the dominantly basaltic regional magmatism. Essimingor’s age and geochemistry are crucial to providing the earliest record for the tectonomagmatic reconstruction of the EAR in northern Tanzania. To better characterize this pivotal pre-rift volcano we present new 40Ar/39Ar laser-incremental heating and geochemical analyses (major, minor and trace element compositions, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data) on twelve carefully chosen lava samples. Laser-incremental heating of whole rock matrix, bulk whole rock and nepheline, yield 40Ar/39Ar ages ranging from 5.81±0.01 Ma to 6.20±0.03 Ma. These ages restrict the duration of volcanism of Essimingor to approximately 370 kyr, and its maximum age to about 6.2 Ma, approximately 2 myr earlier than previously considered. Preliminary geochemical data suggest the presence of large variations in radiogenic isotopes: 87Sr/86Sr ranges from 0.7036 to 0.7056, 143Nd/144Nd from 0.5124 to 0.5126 and 206Pb/204Pb are about 20-21. The isotopic and incompatible trace element variations
Lyimo Ramsey A
Full Text Available Abstract Background To design effective, tailored interventions to support antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence, a thorough understanding of the barriers and facilitators of ART adherence is required. Factors at the individual and interpersonal level, ART treatment characteristics and health care factors have been proposed as important adherence determinants. Methods To identify the most relevant determinants of adherence in northern Tanzania, in-depth interviews were carried out with 61 treatment-experienced patients from four different clinics. The interviews were ad-verbatim transcribed and recurrent themes were coded. Results Coding results showed that the majority of patients had basic understanding of adherence, but also revealed misconceptions about taking medication after alcohol use. Adherence motivating beliefs were the perception of improved health and the desire to live like others, as well as the desire to be a good parent. A de-motivating belief was that stopping ART after being prayed for was an act of faith. Facilitators of adherence were support from friends and family, and assistance of home based care (HBC providers. Important barriers to ART adherence were the use of alcohol, unavailability of food, stigma and disclosure concerns, and the clinics dispensing too few pills. Strategies recommended by the patients to improve adherence included better Care and Treatment Centre (CTC services, recruitment of patients to become Home Based Care ( HBC providers, and addressing the problem of stigma through education. Conclusion This study underscores the importance of designing tailored, patient-centered adherence interventions to address challenges at the patient, family, community and health care level.
This study aimed at exploring weaknesses in the biogas value chain that hinder wider dissemination of the technology in Tanzania. The research included assessment of processes and activities carried out by the players, the influencers and business supporters of the biogas value chain. The methodology used is holistic, combining literature review with focus group discussions and interviews with actors and observations of processes across the value chain in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions, where biogas has the longest history in Tanzania.
Mollel, Godwin F.; Swisher, Carl C.; Feigenson, Mark D.; Carr, Michael J.
Ngorongoro Caldera is the largest and best-preserved of nine Plio-Pleistocene volcanoes that make-up the Ngorongoro Volcanic Highlands (NVH) complex situated at the southern bifurcation of Gregory Rift, part of the East African Rift system of northern Tanzania. We report here, major and trace element abundances, Sr-Nd-Pb isotope analyses and 40Ar/ 39Ar laser incremental-heating and total fusion ages on lava and tephra sampled from stratigraphic sections exposed within the Ngorongoro Caldera. Major and trace elements measured on samples collected from the Ngorongoro Caldera wall indicate a stratified magma chamber whose silicic top and basaltic bottom was inverted by sequential eruptions. Samples from the lower part of the exposed Ngorongoro Caldera wall are high in silica, alkalis and HFSE (High Field Strength Elements). The Zr, Nb and Hf concentrations are highly correlated with each other and decrease up-section, indicative of the extent of magma evolution. Modeling of major, trace as well as Sr, Nd and Pb isotope data suggests that assimilation fractional crystallization processes were essential in producing the observed geochemical variations. The Sr and Nd isotope ratios from the Ngorongoro samples are widely dispersed ( 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.70405 to 0.70801, 143Nd/ 144Nd = 0.512205 to 0.512623) and Pb isotope ratios are consistent with previous studies: 206Pb/ 204Pb = 18.73 to 19.37, 207Pb/ 204Pb = 15.64 to 15.69, 208Pb/ 204Pb = 39.52 to 39.55. Although Sr isotopic ratios are similar to Oceanic Island Basalt (OIB), the more radiogenic samples ( 87Sr/ 86Sr > 0.705) from the lower part of the section suggest crust-magma interaction; this is supported by Ce/Pb ratios (Ngorongoro Caldera wall section yield 40Ar/ 39Ar ages of 2.25 ± 0.02 Ma to 2.01 ± 0.02 Ma, constraining a duration of volcanism of the order of ~ 240 kyr. These ages suggest correlation of a normal to reverse geomagnetic polarity transition measured in the Ngorongoro Caldera wall section with the ~ 2
Parisi, L.; Lombardo, L.; Rodriguez-Mustafa, M.; Mai, P. M.
A temporary deployment consisting of sixteen broadband seismic stations is conducted for the first time in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA, Northern Tanzania), located at the boundary between the Tanzanian Craton and East African Rift. A deep knowledge of the faulting systems and tectonics of the area is needed to better understand the contribution of the synsedimentary faults to the deposition of the Olduvai and surrounding basins affecting the landscapes of the Homo Habilis first settlements. Complex fault systems have been mapped in the field but their connection, especially at depth, is not well known. A first batch of ten instruments was installed in June 2016. In June 2017 two stations were dismissed and a second batch of six stations was installed in new locations. The current network of fourteen stations will record until May 2018. Stations are equipped with Nanometrics Trillium Compact Posthole 120 s sensor and Centaur digitiser recording continuously at 200 Hz. The whole network covers 1400 km2 and station interspace ranges from 8 to 15 km. We analyse probabilistic power spectra densities of the seismic noise to obtain insights of its origin and test the performances of the stations. Although factories do not exist in the area and most of the stations are far from roads, ambient noise in the range 0.01 - 1 s is relatively high (between -120 dB and -100dB at 0.1 s) probably because of the abundance of livestock living in the NCA. Ambient noise in the period range 1 - 10 s (secondary microseisms) decreases from east to west. Although the main source of the microseisms is located in the Indian Ocean (east of the study area), a contribution from the low period tremors coming from the nearby active volcano Ol Doinyo Lengai (north-east of the study area) is expected. Whereas the longer period noise (10 - 100 s) is very low in the vertical component seismograms, it is higher than the high noise model in the horizontal components for most of the stations
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Kilimanjaro region the mother-in-law has traditionally had an important role in matters related to reproduction and childcare. The aim of this study was to explore the role of the mothers-in-law in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT service utilization and adherence to infant feeding guidelines. Methods The study was conducted during 2007-2008 in rural and urban areas of Moshi district in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Mixed methods were used and included focus group discussions with mothers-in-law, mothers and fathers; in-depth interviews with mothers-in-law, mothers, fathers and HIV-infected mothers, and a survey of 446 mothers bringing their four-week-old infants for immunisation at five reproductive and child health clinics. Results The study demonstrated that the mother-in-law saw herself as responsible for family health issues in general and child care in particular. However she received limited trust, and couples, in particular couples living in urban areas, tended to exclude her from decisions related to childbearing and infant feeding. Mothers-in-law expected their daughters-in-law to breastfeed in a customary manner and were generally negative towards the infant feeding methods recommended for HIV-infected mothers; exclusive replacement feeding and exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions Decreasing influence of the mother-in-law and increasing prominence of the conjugal couples in issues related to reproduction and child care, reinforce the importance of continued efforts to include male partners in the PMTCT programme. The potential for involving mothers-in-law in the infant feeding component, where she still has influence in some areas, should be further explored.
Wambura, P N; Mollel, J O; Moshy, D W; Mbise, A N; Taylor, W P
In January 1997, serum samples from 1346 adult sheep and goats were tested by a competitive ELISA to determine the prevalence of rinderpest in the northern zone of Tanzania. Seroconversion rates of 20%, 13%, 9%, 7% and 3% in sheep and goats were recorded in Ngorongoro, Monduli, Hai, Arumeru and Simanjiro districts, respectively. The low profile and insidious nature of the rinderpest virus involved caused very mild disease in cattle in some of these area. The mild signs associated with this outbreak of rinderpest resulted in difficulty in its diagnosis. In these circumstances, the presence of rinderpest antibody in sheep and goats served as a valuable and effective indicator of the rinderpest outbreak in cattle.
Andrew Martin Kilale
Full Text Available The current study was conducted to assess experienced risk factors and perceptions of mycobacterial diseases in communities in northern Tanzania.We conducted a cross-sectional study in Arusha and Manyara regions in Northern Tanzania. We enrolled tuberculosis (TB patients attending Mount Meru Hospital, Enduleni Hospital and Haydom Lutheran Hospitals in Arusha municipality, Ngorongoro and Mbulu districts, respectively. Patient addresses were recorded during their first visit to the hospitals. Patients with confirmed diagnosis of TB by sputum smear microscopy and/or culture at central laboratory were followed up and interviewed using pre-tested questionnaires, and selected relatives and neighbors were also interviewed. The study was conducted between June 2011 and May 2013.The study involved 164 respondents: 41(25% were TB patients, 68(41.5% were their relatives and 55(33.5% their neighbors. Sixty four (39% knew a risk factor for mycobacterial disease. Overall, 64(39% perceived to be at risk of mycobacterial diseases. Exposure to potential risks of mycobacterial diseases were: keeping livestock, not boiling drinking water, large family, smoking and sharing dwelling with TB patients. Rural dwellers were more often livestock keepers (p<0.01, more often shared dwelling with livestock (p<0.01 than urban dwellers. More primary school leavers reported sharing dwelling with TB patients than participants with secondary and higher education (p = 0.01.Livestock keeping, sharing dwelling with livestock, sharing household with a TB patient were perceived risk factors for mycobacterial diseases and the participants were exposed to some of these risk factors. Improving knowledge about the risk factors may protect them from these serious diseases.
Kilale, Andrew Martin; Ngadaya, Esther; Kagaruki, Gibson Benard; Lema, Yakobo Leonard; Muhumuza, Julius; Ngowi, Bernard James; Mfinanga, Sayoki Godfrey; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund
The current study was conducted to assess experienced risk factors and perceptions of mycobacterial diseases in communities in northern Tanzania. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Arusha and Manyara regions in Northern Tanzania. We enrolled tuberculosis (TB) patients attending Mount Meru Hospital, Enduleni Hospital and Haydom Lutheran Hospitals in Arusha municipality, Ngorongoro and Mbulu districts, respectively. Patient addresses were recorded during their first visit to the hospitals. Patients with confirmed diagnosis of TB by sputum smear microscopy and/or culture at central laboratory were followed up and interviewed using pre-tested questionnaires, and selected relatives and neighbors were also interviewed. The study was conducted between June 2011 and May 2013. The study involved 164 respondents: 41(25%) were TB patients, 68(41.5%) were their relatives and 55(33.5%) their neighbors. Sixty four (39%) knew a risk factor for mycobacterial disease. Overall, 64(39%) perceived to be at risk of mycobacterial diseases. Exposure to potential risks of mycobacterial diseases were: keeping livestock, not boiling drinking water, large family, smoking and sharing dwelling with TB patients. Rural dwellers were more often livestock keepers (p<0.01), more often shared dwelling with livestock (p<0.01) than urban dwellers. More primary school leavers reported sharing dwelling with TB patients than participants with secondary and higher education (p = 0.01). Livestock keeping, sharing dwelling with livestock, sharing household with a TB patient were perceived risk factors for mycobacterial diseases and the participants were exposed to some of these risk factors. Improving knowledge about the risk factors may protect them from these serious diseases.
Messersmith, Lisa J; Halim, Nafisa; Steven Mzilangwe, Ester; Reich, Naomi; Badi, Lilian; Holmes, Nelson Bingham; Servidone, Maria; Simmons, Elizabeth; Kawemama, Philbert
Intimate partner violence (IPV), including physical, sexual, emotional, and economic violence, has profound immediate and long-term effects on individuals and communities worldwide. To date, few studies have focused on couples' reporting of IPV. The aim of this article is to present the results of a survey of couples' reporting of IPV and the individual, interpersonal, and social correlates of IPV in northern Tanzania. Four hundred fifty couples from Karatu District, Tanzania, completed a questionnaire measuring attitudes on gender norms and relations, men's experience of childhood trauma, and men's perpetration and women's experience of IPV. We found high levels of acceptance and experience of IPV: 72% of men justified a husband's perpetration of IPV, and 54% of men and 76% of women said that a woman should tolerate violence to keep her family together. The majority of women had ever experienced IPV (77.8%), and 73.6% and 69% had experienced IPV in the past 12 and 3 months, respectively. Men were significantly less likely to report that they had committed IPV: 63.6% ever, 48.9% in the past 12 months, and 46.2% in the past 3 months. Multivariate logistic regression found that younger men, men who reported gender inequitable attitudes, childhood trauma, multiple sexual partners, and alcohol use were significantly more likely to report IPV perpetration in the past 3 months. Younger women, and women with low levels of education and reported food shortages were significantly more likely to report IPV in the past 3 months. These results indicate that social and individual acceptance and justification of IPV are common. Experience of violence persists over time in many relationships. This study demonstrates the need for interventions that address individual-, interpersonal-, and community-level determinants of IPV, including attitudes regarding gender equity, exposure to violence as children and intergenerational violence, lack of education, and poverty.
Dotchin Catherine L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson disease (PD causes physical disability that negatively affects the quality of life of the sufferer's and their families. There are no Parkinson's disease (PD social science studies published from Africa. This paper presents findings from a qualitative research study on how PD is perceived and treated in a population of approximately 161,000 within a demographic surveillance site in rural Tanzania. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 28 PD sufferers, 28 carers, 4 health workers and 2 traditional healers. In addition, 6 focus group discussions were conducted in 3 villages to investigate wider community views of PD. Results PD sufferers expressed frustration with the physical, psychological, social and economic consequences of the illness. Feelings of a diminished quality of life characterised by dependency, stigma and social isolation were common. Additionally, a handful of male sufferers related their sexual incompetence to the illness. Carers complained of lost income opportunities and social isolation resulting from caring for sufferers. Misconceptions about the cause, symptoms and appropriated PD treatment were widespread. Only 2 PD sufferers had commenced western type treatment through outsourcing drugs from other parts of the country and outside of Tanzania. Conclusions This study highlights the urgent need for PD awareness and treatment interventions in such settings. Such interventions need to address the concerns and needs of sufferers, their carers and the wider community, including the health care system.
Musiba, Charles M; Tuttle, Russell H; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Webb, David M
Data on footprints and gait of 54 Hadzabe, 6-70 years of age expand understanding of pedal morphology of unshod people and assist the development of ideas about the evolution of hominid bipedality and upright posture. Contrary to published data on gaits and pedal morphology of unshod populations, Hadzabe (also known as Hadza) from northern Tanzania exhibit values of stride length, relative stride length, and walking speeds that exceed those of rural and small-town populations. In all observable plantar features, including foot indices, an interdigital space between the hallux and second toe, fanning of the foot anteriorly, and foot angles (in-toeing and out-toeing), Hadzabe feet are comparable with those of never-shod Machiguengas in Perú. On average, Hadzabe hallucal gaps and ball widths are narrower than those of Machiguengas and other unshod short people. Hadzabe feet are also characterized by valgus halluces versus the varus halluces of never-shod Machiguengas and certain West Africans. Although characterized by a valgus toe, Hadzabe hallucal angles, which do not exceed 20°, are lower than those of Northern Hemispheric urbanites and shod rural populations of the Southern and Northern Hemispheres. Hadzabe also exhibit less medial and lateral rotation of the hip joint than Machiguengas do. The heel and the longitudinal arch impressions of the Hadzabe footprints closely resemble those of the Laetoli bipeds in the manner of weight distribution during locomotion. The striking similarity of footprint impressions, especially the heel and the longitudinal arch, between Hadzabe and Laetoli hominid footprints clearly imply that the pedal features of the Laetoli printmakers are remarkably humanoid. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 9:303-321, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
John W Stanifer
Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs are a leading cause of death among adults in sub-Saharan Africa, and chronic kidney disease (CKD is a growing public health threat. Understanding knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with NCDs is vital to informing optimal policy and public health responses in the region, but few community-based assessments have been performed for CKD. To address this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of adults in northern Tanzania using a validated instrument.Between January and June 2014, we administered a structured survey to a random sample of adults from urban and rural communities. The validated instrument consisted of 25 items designed to measure knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with kidney disease. Participants were also screened for CKD, diabetes, hypertension, and human immunodeficiency virus.We enrolled 606 participants from 431 urban and rural households. Knowledge of the etiologies, symptoms, and treatments for kidney disease was low (mean score 3.28 out of 10; 95% CI 2.94, 3.63. There were no significant differences by CKD status. Living in an urban setting and level of education had the strongest independent associations with knowledge score. Attitudes were characterized by frequent concern about the health (27.3%; 20.2, 36.0%, economic (73.1%; 68.2, 77.5%, and social impact (25.4%; 18.6, 33.6% of kidney disease. Practices included the use of traditional healers (15.2%; 9.1, 24.5% and traditional medicines (33.8%; 25.0, 43.9% for treatment of kidney disease as well as a willingness to engage with mobile-phone technology in CKD care (94.3%; 90.1, 96.8%.Community-based adults in northern Tanzania have limited knowledge of kidney disease. However, there is a modest knowledge base upon which to build public health programs to expand awareness and understanding of CKD, but these programs must also consider the variety of means by which adults in this population meet their healthcare needs
Kibiki Gibson S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduction in neonatal mortality has been slower than anticipated in many low income countries including Tanzania. Adequate neonatal care may contribute to reduced mortality. We studied factors associated with transfer of babies to a neonatal care unit (NCU in data from a birth registry at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC in Tanzania. Methods A total of 21 206 singleton live births registered from 2000 to 2008 were included. Multivariable analysis was carried out to study neonatal transfer to NCU by socio-demographic factors, pregnancy complications and measures of the condition of the newborn. Results A total of 3190 (15% newborn singletons were transferred to the NCU. As expected, neonatal transfer was strongly associated with specific conditions of the baby including birth weight above 4000 g (relative risk (RR = 7.2; 95% confidence interval (CI 6.5-8.0 or below 1500 g (RR = 3.0; 95% CI: 2.3-4.0, five minutes Apgar score less than 7 (RR = 4.0; 95% CI: 3.4-4.6, and preterm birth before 34 weeks of gestation (RR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.5-2.1. However, pregnancy- and delivery-related conditions like premature rupture of membrane (RR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.9-2.7, preeclampsia (RR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.5, other vaginal delivery (RR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.7-2.9 and caesarean section (RR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.8-2.1 were also significantly associated with transfer. Birth to a first born child was associated with increased likelihood of transfer (relative risk (RR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.5, while the likelihood was reduced (RR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3-0.9 when the father had no education. Conclusions In addition to strong associations between neonatal transfer and classical neonatal risk factors for morbidity and mortality, some pregnancy-related and demographic factors were predictors of neonatal transfer. Overall, transfer was more likely for babies with signs of poor health status or a complicated pregnancy. Except for a possibly reduced use of transfer
Kilonzo, B S; Mbise, T J; Mwalimu, D C; Kindamba, L
Commensal and field rodents and wild small carnivores were live-trapped in five villages of Karatu district and one settlement in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area in Ngorongoro district in Tanzania. Blood samples were taken and serologically tested for plague, using the Blocking ELISA technique. Some domestic dogs and cats in the Karatu villages were aseptically bled and similarly tested for plague. Fleas were collected from the examined animals and from randomly selected residential houses. A total of 241 rodents, 1 Crocidura spp, 43 dogs, 12 cats and 4 slender mongooses were involved in the survey. Of the rodents, 14.5% were infested with fleas, which comprised of Xenopsylla brasiliensis (45.8%) and Dinopsyllus lypusus (54.2%), with an overall population density of 0.2 fleas/animal. Thirty one (72.1%) of the dogs were infested with fleas, all of which were Ctenocephalides spp. Thirty five (63.3%) houses were infested with fleas whose population was composed of Ctenocephalides spp, Pulex irritans, Tunga penetrans and Echinophaga gallinacea. Infected rodents were found in all the villages while the infected dog was found at Rhotia-Kati. Nineteen (11%) of the rodents and one (2%) dog harboured specific plague antibodies. It was broadly concluded that sylvatic plague was endemic in Karatu district and Ngorongoro Conservation Area and that outbreaks of the disease can occur in the area any time if and when relevant conditions become favourable. Prompt application of appropriate preventive and control measures and survey for substantiating the status in the Lake Manyara National Park, which is adjacent to some of the infected villages, are recommended.
The aims of the study were to elicit the perceptions of young people in Tanzania on the role of fear appeals in HIV-prevention messages and to identify important contextual factors that may influence young people's perceptions of HIV-prevention posters. A total of 10 focus groups were conducted to investigate the role of fear appeals using the extended parallel process model (EPPM) as a guide. Young people were shown a series of images (mostly posters) with alternating high and low-threat messages (fear appeals), and then asked questions about their overall beliefs about HIV and AIDS, as well as about their response in terms of perceived susceptibility to HIV infection, the severity of the message, and their perceptions of self-efficacy and response efficacy. The images and messages that specifically targeted young people were highest in inducing perceived susceptibility to HIV infection, while pictorial descriptions of the physical consequences of HIV infection and those messages related to the stigma and discrimination faced by HIV-infected or affected people induced greater perceptions of severity. The information-based posters rated high in inducing response efficacy, while none of the images seemed to convince young people that they had the self-efficacy to perform the recommended health behaviours. The young people expressed a preference for fear-based appeals and a belief that this could work well in HIV-prevention efforts, yet they also stated a desire for more information-based messages about how to protect themselves. Finally, the messages evoking the most emotional responses were those that had been locally conceived rather than ones developed by large-scale donor-funded campaigns. Finding the appropriate balance between fear and efficacy in HIV-prevention messages is imperative. Further research is needed to better understand how and when fear appeals work and do not work in African settings, especially among young people.
Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Mayer, Michael; Ombay, Michael; Mathias, Bartholomayo; Schmutzhard, Erich; Jilek-Aall, Louise
Most people with epilepsy (PWE) live in developing countries with limited access to health care facilities. In sub-Saharan Africa with approximately 12 million PWE, 90% do not receive adequate medical treatment. In this context, traditional medicine, being easily accessible, plays an important role. However, in sub- Saharan Africa, studies on the attitude of people (both affected and not affected by epilepsy) towards traditional medicine for treatment of epilepsy are scarce. In this study, 167 people (59 PWE, 62 relatives, 46 villagers) were interviewed at the hospital and in the community with a semi-structured validated questionnaire regarding the prevailing attitude towards traditional medicine for treatment of epilepsy in a rural area of northern Tanzania. Various traditional healing methods (THM) could be ascertained, i.e. traditional herbal medicine, spiritual healing, scarifications and spitting. 44.3% (n=74/167) of the interviewed people were convinced that epilepsy could be treated successfully with THM. Interestingly, 34.1% (n=57/167) thought that Christian prayers could cure the cause and/or treat symptoms of epilepsy. Significantly more PWE and their relatives were in favour of THM compared to villagers not knowing about epilepsy or not being immediately affected by epilepsy (χ(2)-test, p=0.004). Further factors influencing people's attitudes towards THM were gender, tribe, religion and urbanity of people's dwellings. Our study demonstrates that not only THM but also prayers in the Christian sense seem to play an important role in people's beliefs regarding successful treatment of epilepsy. Factors influencing this belief system have been identified and are discussed.
Schmidt, Veronika; Kositz, Christian; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; Carabin, Hélène; Ngowi, Bernard; Naman, Ezra; Wilkins, Patricia P; Noh, John; Matuja, William; Winkler, Andrea Sylvia
The frequency of Taenia solium, a zoonotic helminth, is increasing in many countries of sub-Saharan Africa, where the prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also high. However, little is known about how these two infections interact. The aim of this study was to compare the proportion of HIV positive (+) and negative (-) individuals who are infected with Taenia solium (TSOL) and who present with clinical and neurological manifestations of cysticercosis (CC). In northern Tanzania, 170 HIV+ individuals and 170 HIV- controls matched for gender, age and village of origin were recruited. HIV staging and serological tests for TSOL antibodies (Ab) and antigen (Ag) were performed. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) was determined by computed tomography (CT) using standard diagnostic criteria. Neurological manifestations were confirmed by a standard neurological examination. In addition, demographic, clinical and neuroimaging data were collected. Further, CD4 + cell counts as well as information on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) were noted. No significant differences between HIV+ and HIV- individuals regarding the sero-prevalence of taeniosis-Ab (0.6% vs 1.2%), CC-Ab (2.4% vs 2.4%) and CC-Ag (0.6% vs 0.0%) were detected. A total of six NCC cases (3 HIV+ and 3 HIV-) were detected in the group of matched participants. Two individuals (1 HIV+ and 1 HIV-) presented with headaches as the main symptom for NCC, and four with asymptomatic NCC. Among the HIV+ group, TSOL was not associated with CD4 + cell counts, HAART duration or HIV stage. This study found lower prevalence of taeniosis, CC and NCC than had been reported in the region to date. This low level of infection may have resulted in an inability to find cross-sectional associations between HIV status and TSOL infection or NCC. Larger sample sizes will be required in future studies conducted in that area to conclude if HIV influences the way NCC manifests itself.
Butovskaya, Marina L; Windhager, Sonja; Karelin, Dimitri; Mezentseva, Anna; Schaefer, Katrin; Fink, Bernhard
Previous research has documented associations of physical strength and facial morphology predominantly in men of Western societies. Faces of strong men tend to be more robust, are rounder and have a prominent jawline compared with faces of weak men. Here, we investigate whether the morphometric patterns of strength-face relationships reported for members of industrialized societies can also be found in members of an African pastoralist society, the Maasai of Northern Tanzania. Handgrip strength (HGS) measures and facial photographs were collected from a sample of 185 men and 120 women of the Maasai in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. In young-adults (20-29 years; n = 95) and mid-adults (30-50 years; n = 114), we digitized 71 somatometric landmarks and semilandmarks to capture variation in facial morphology and performed shape regressions of landmark coordinates upon HGS. Results were visualized in the form of thin-plate plate spline deformation grids and geometric morphometric morphs. Individuals with higher HGS tended to have wider faces with a lower and broader forehead, a wider distance between the medial canthi of the eyes, a wider nose, fuller lips, and a larger, squarer lower facial outline compared with weaker individuals of the same age-sex group. In mid-adult men, these associations were weaker than in the other age-sex groups. We conclude that the patterns of HGS relationships with face shape in the Maasai are similar to those reported from related investigations in samples of industrialized societies. We discuss differences between the present and related studies with regard to knowledge about the causes for age- and sex-related facial shape variation and physical strength associations.
Marina L Butovskaya
Full Text Available Previous research has documented associations of physical strength and facial morphology predominantly in men of Western societies. Faces of strong men tend to be more robust, are rounder and have a prominent jawline compared with faces of weak men. Here, we investigate whether the morphometric patterns of strength-face relationships reported for members of industrialized societies can also be found in members of an African pastoralist society, the Maasai of Northern Tanzania.Handgrip strength (HGS measures and facial photographs were collected from a sample of 185 men and 120 women of the Maasai in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. In young-adults (20-29 years; n = 95 and mid-adults (30-50 years; n = 114, we digitized 71 somatometric landmarks and semilandmarks to capture variation in facial morphology and performed shape regressions of landmark coordinates upon HGS. Results were visualized in the form of thin-plate plate spline deformation grids and geometric morphometric morphs.Individuals with higher HGS tended to have wider faces with a lower and broader forehead, a wider distance between the medial canthi of the eyes, a wider nose, fuller lips, and a larger, squarer lower facial outline compared with weaker individuals of the same age-sex group. In mid-adult men, these associations were weaker than in the other age-sex groups.We conclude that the patterns of HGS relationships with face shape in the Maasai are similar to those reported from related investigations in samples of industrialized societies. We discuss differences between the present and related studies with regard to knowledge about the causes for age- and sex-related facial shape variation and physical strength associations.
Howitt, Suzanne C; Jones, Matthew P; Jusabani, Ahmed; Gray, William K; Aris, Eric; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Swai, Mark; Walker, Richard W
The aim of this study was to evaluate changes to, and predictors of, quality of life (QOL) in a community-based cohort of stroke survivors from an earlier stroke incidence study in rural northern Tanzania. Patients were assessed 1-5 years after their incident stroke. The study cohort was compared with an age- and sex-matched control group from the same rural district within a cross-sectional design. Patients and controls were asked a series of questions relating to their QOL [World Health Organization quality of life, abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF)], levels of anxiety and depression [hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale], cognitive function [community screening instrument for dementia (CSI-D) screening tool], socioeconomic status and demographic characteristics (e.g. age, sex, education and abode). Patients were further assessed for functional outcome and disability (Barthel index, modified Rankin scale), post-stroke care and psychosocial functioning. Patients (n = 58) were found to have significantly lower QOL than controls (n = 58) in all six domains of the WHOQOL-BREF. Gender, socioeconomic status, cognitive function and time elapsed since stroke were not associated with QOL. Older patients and those with more impaired motor function and disability (Barthel index, modified Rankin score) had significantly poorer physical health-related QOL. Greater anxiety and depression, reduced muscle power and less involvement in social events were significantly correlated with lower physical and psychological health-related QOL. To our knowledge, this is the first long-term study of QOL in survivors of incident stroke in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Poorer QOL was associated with greater levels of physical disability, anxiety and depression and reduced social interaction. Demographic factors appear to be much less significant. Modifying these QOL predictors could be important in planning effective post-stroke care within a stretched healthcare system.
Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte; Mertz, Ole
Climate variability is an important stress factor for rural livelihoods in most developing countries where households have been adapting to environmental shocks for decades. Climate change results in increased variability and poses new challenges for rural livelihoods, as well as for policymakers...... in adjusting policies to changing conditions. This paper examines the potential relationships between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2,700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern...
Mmbaga Blandina T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal mortality reflects maternal health as well as antenatal, intrapartum and newborn care, and is an important health indicator. This study aimed at classifying causes of perinatal death in order to identify categories of potentially preventable deaths. Methods We studied a total of 1958 stillbirths and early neonatal deaths above 500 g between July 2000 and October 2010 registered in the Medical Birth Registry and neonatal registry at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC in Northern Tanzania. The deaths were classified according to the Neonatal and Intrauterine deaths Classification according to Etiology (NICE. Results Overall perinatal mortality was 57.7/1000 (1958 out of 33 929, of which 1219 (35.9/1000 were stillbirths and 739 (21.8/1000 were early neonatal deaths. Major causes of perinatal mortality were unexplained asphyxia (n=425, 12.5/1000, obstetric complications (n=303, 8.9/1000, maternal disease (n=287, 8.5/1000, unexplained antepartum stillbirths after 37 weeks of gestation (n= 219, 6.5/1000, and unexplained antepartum stillbirths before 37 weeks of gestation (n=184, 5.4/1000. Obstructed/prolonged labour was the leading condition (251/303, 82.8% among the obstetric complications. Preeclampsia/eclampsia was the leading cause (253/287, 88.2% among the maternal conditions. When we excluded women who were referred for delivery at KCMC due to medical reasons (19.1% of all births and 36.0% of all deaths, perinatal mortality was reduced to 45.6/1000. This reduction was mainly due to fewer deaths from obstetric complications (from 8.9 to 2.1/1000 and maternal conditions (from 8.5 to 5.5/1000. Conclusion The distribution of causes of death in this population suggests a great potential for prevention. Early identification of mothers at risk of pregnancy complications through antenatal care screening, teaching pregnant women to recognize signs of pregnancy complications, timely access to obstetric care
Saidi H Kapiga
Full Text Available To prepare for future HIV prevention trials, we conducted prospective cohort studies among women working in food and recreational facilities in northern Tanzania. We examined the prevalence and incidence of HIV and HSV-2, and associated risk factors.Women aged 18-44 years working in food and recreational facilities were screened to determine their eligibility for the studies. Between 2008-2010, HIV-negative women were enrolled and followed for 12 months. At enrolment and 3-monthly, we collected socio-demographic and behavioural data, and performed clinical examinations for collection of biological specimens that were tested for reproductive tract infections. Risk factors for HIV and HSV-2 incidence were investigated using Poisson regression models.We screened 2,229 and enrolled 1,378 women. The median age was 27 years (interquartile range, IQR 22, 33, and median duration working at current facility was 2 years. The prevalences of HIV at screening and HSV-2 at enrolment were 16% and 67%, respectively. Attendance at the 12-month visit was 86%. HIV and HSV-2 incidence rates were 3.7 (95% confidence interval, CI: 2.8,5.1 and 28.6 (95% CI: 23.5,35.0/100 person-years, respectively. Women who were separated, divorced, or widowed were at increased risk of HIV (adjusted incidence rate ratio, aRR = 6.63; 95% CI: 1.97,22.2 and HSV-2 (aRR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.15,3.47 compared with married women. Women reporting ≥3 partners in the past 3 months were at higher HIV risk compared with women with 0-1 partner (aRR = 4.75; 95% CI: 2.10,10.8, while those who had reached secondary education or above were at lower risk of HSV-2 compared with women with incomplete primary education (aRR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.22,0.82.HIV and HSV-2 rates remain substantially higher in this cohort than in the general population, indicating urgent need for effective interventions. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of conducting trials to test new interventions in this
Kemerink, J. S.; Ahlers, R.; van der Zaag, P.
Competition over water resources and related disputes over water are inherently local and context-specific in their manifestations. In Makanya catchment, located in the mid-reaches of the Pangani river basin in northern Tanzania, competition over water is apparent and with increased demands for water disputes are likely to become fiercer in the near future. Negotiations between upstream and downstream users at various levels in the catchment have resulted in water sharing arrangements or are still on-going while other negotiations seem to be stranded in impasses. Why in certain situations water sharing among users evolves, while in other cases mutual agreements can not be reached, is not yet well understood. Insight in the plural legal context in which water sharing arrangement among water users develop could set light on complex resource use and management realities as well as the ability of various water users to influence the negotiations over water. The hydro-solidarity concept is referred to as potential mechanism to reconcile conflicts over water. Hydro-solidarity promotes ethical dimensions as integral part of decision making and is assumed to be based on a universal set of commonly accepted norms and rules. Through analysis of the plural legal context in which water sharing arrangements among the smallholder farmers in the Makanya catchment develop, the paper explores the existence of ethical dimensions in decision making and their legitimacy. In this way the potential of the hydro-solidarity concept as mechanism to reconcile conflicts over water can be assessed in the context-specific plural reality. The paper concludes that, although ethical dimensions in decision making in the Makanya catchment exist, the hydro-solidarity concept as mechanism to reconcile disputes over water has limited potential as long as it does not embrace the plural reality. The authors argue that, instead of searching for a universal normative order, legal plural analysis can serve
WILDLIFE-BASED DOMESTIC TOURISM IN TANZANIA: EXPERIENCES FROM. NORTHERN ... affecting domestic tourism was carried out in northern Tanzania tourist circuit. .... Serengeti Plains are shared by NCA and the SNP. Normally, in .... communication network) and social services .... motivation to conserve nature.
Muzuka, A.N.N.; Nyandwi, N.
The stable isotope compositions for four sediment cores recovered from three shallow lakes located in the Ngorongoro crater (Lake Magat) and head of the Olduvai Gorge (Lakes Ndutu and Messak) are used to document climatic changes in sub-arid northern Tanzania during the late Pleistocene-Holocene period. The two lakes, which are located on the head of the Olduvai Gorge about 1 km apart and 100 km from the Ngorongoro Crater, were probably once one lake during periods of high precipitation. All four cores were collected using a flow-through type of corer, and sub-sampled every 10 cm with each sample representing a homogenate of 1 cm. Two cores (40 cm and 500 cm long) were collected from Lake Magat, and AMS 14 C age on total organic matter (OM) for a nearby core collected about 1 m apart indicate that the sedimentation rate at these sites is approximately 17 cm/ka. Assuming that these sites have a constant rate of sedimentation, the analysed long core represents sediments that were deposited during the late Pleistocene-Holocene period. The δ 13 C for 40 cm long core shows a downcore increase, with δ-values ranging from -21 per mille to -12.5 per mille. A similar downcore increase in 13 C values is observable for the 500 cm long core. Apart from this general tend, this core also shows three peaks of low δ-values centred at 200 cm, 380 cm and 490 cm. A general downcore increase in the 13 C for the two cores from the Ngorongoro crater suggests changes in the relative proportion of C 3 and C 4 , probably indicating changes in precipitation and lake levels in the area. High precipitation and lake levels being associated with deposition of OM depleted in 13 C. Although, diagenetic changes might have contributed to the observed trend, but a change of up to 7 per mille cannot solely be attributed to diagenetic changes. High content of organic carbon and nitrogen in sections enriched in 13 C excludes the possibility of diagenetic effects. Although record from Lake Ndutu is
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sentinel surveillance for HIV in ante-natal clinics (ANC remains the primary method for collecting timely trend data on HIV prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa. We describe prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection and trends over time in HIV prevalence among women attending ante-natal clinics (ANC in Magu district and Mwanza city, part of Mwanza region in Northern Tanzania. HIV prevalence from ANC surveys in 2000 and 2002 was 10.5% and 10.8% respectively. In previous rounds urban residence, residential mobility, the length of time sexually active before marriage, time since marriage and age of the partner were associated with HIV infection. Methods A third round of HIV sentinel surveillance was conducted at ante-natal clinics in Mwanza region, Tanzania during 2006. We interviewed women attending 27 ante-natal clinics. In 15 clinics we also anonymously tested women for syphilis and HIV infection and linked these results to the questionnaire data. Results HIV prevalence was 7.6% overall in 2006 and 7.4% at the 11 clinics used in previous rounds. Geographical variations in HIV prevalence, apparent in previous rounds, have largely disappeared but syphilis prevalence is still higher in rural clinics. HIV prevalence has declined in urban clinics and is stable in rural clinics. The correlates of HIV infection have changed over time. In this round older age, lower gravidity, remarriage, duration of marriage, sexual activity before marriage, long interval between last birth and pregnancy and child death were all associated with infection. Conclusions HIV prevalence trends concur with results from a community-based cohort in the region. Correlates of HIV infection have also changed and more proximate, individual level factors are now more important, in line with the changing epidemiology of infection in this population.
Stellah G. Mpagama
Full Text Available In Tanzania sputum culture for tuberculosis (TB is resource intensive and available only at zonal facilities. In this study overnight pooled sputum collection technique was compared with standard spot morning collection among pulmonary TB suspects at Kibong’oto National TB Hospital in Tanzania. A spot sputum specimen performed at enrollment, an overnight pooled sputum, and single morning specimen were collected from 50 subjects and analyzed for quality, quantity, and time to detection in Bactec MGIT system. Forty-six (92% subjects’ overnight pooled specimens had a volume ≥5 mls compared to 37 (37% for the combination of spot and single morning specimens (P<0.001. Median time to detection was 96 hours (IQR 87–131 for the overnight pooled specimens compared to 110.5 hours (IQR is 137 right 137–180 for the combination of both spot and single morning specimens (P=0.001. In our setting of limited TB culture capacity, we recommend a single pooled sputum to maximize yield and speed time to diagnosis.
Magoha, Happy; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Kimanya, Martin; Hipolite, Danstan; Lachat, Carl; Kolsteren, Patrick
The carry-over of fumonisin B1 from contaminated feed into dairy milk also suggests its carry-over from contaminated food into breast milk. This study assessed fumonisin B1 contamination in breast milk and associated exposures of infants under 6 months of age. Breast milk samples were collected from 131 lactating mothers and the weight of their infants was measured during the first month of lactation. Fumonisin B1 was extracted using methanol:acetone, cleaned up with Strong Anion Exchange columns and quantified by HPLC. Fumonisin B1 exposure in each child was estimated using deterministic approach. Out of the 131 samples, 58 (44.3%) contained fumonisin B1 at levels ranging from 6.57 to 471.05 ng/ml. Of the contaminated samples, 10.3% had fumonisin B1 levels above the EU limit of 200 ppb for fumonisins in infants' food. Exposure in the infants ranged from 0.78 to 64.93 µg/kg body weight (bw) per day (median, 3 µg/kg bw/day) and exceeded the provisional maximum tolerable limit of 2 µg/kg bw/day in 29% of the infants. In conclusion, breast milk from mothers in Northern Tanzania is contaminated with fumonisins at levels that lead to unacceptable exposures in infants. Strategies to prevent lactating mothers from fumonisin exposure are urgently needed to minimise fumonisin exposure in infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ostermann, Jan; Njau, Bernard; Mtuy, Tara; Brown, Derek S; Mühlbacher, Axel; Thielman, Nathan
In order to maximize the effectiveness of "Seek, Test, and Treat" strategies for curbing the HIV epidemic, new approaches are needed to increase the uptake of HIV testing services, particularly among high-risk groups. Low HIV testing rates among such groups suggest that current testing services may not align well with the testing preferences of these populations. Female bar workers and male mountain porters have been identified as two important high-risk groups in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. We used conventional survey methods and a discrete choice experiment (DCE), a preference elicitation method increasingly applied by economists and policy-makers to inform health policy and services, to analyze trade-offs made by individuals and quantify preferences for HIV testing services. Bivariate descriptive statistics were used to analyze differences in survey responses across groups. Compared to 486 randomly selected community members, 162 female bar workers and 194 male Kilimanjaro porters reported 2-3 times as many lifetime sexual partners (p porters preferred testing in venues where antiretroviral therapy was readily available. Both high-risk groups were less averse to traveling longer distances to test compared to their community counterparts. These results expose systematic differences in HIV testing preferences across high-risk populations compared to their community peers. Tailoring testing options to the preferences of high-risk populations should be evaluated as a means of improving uptake of testing in these populations.
Katale, Bugwesa Z; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Mjingo, Eblate E; Sayalel, Kuya; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K; Matee, Mecky I; Keyyu, Julius D; Muumba, Justice; Mdaki, Maulid; Mbugi, Erasto V; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Mpanduji, Donald G
In the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA), Tanzania, where wildlife and livestock interaction is intense, greater potential for intra- and interspecies disease transmission is expected. We assessed the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) residing on the valley floor of the crater in the NCA. Apparently healthy animals were randomly selected from herds in nine sites of the Ngorongoro Crater. Syncerus caffer buffalo herds were located using very high-frequency radio-aided rangers positioned in various observation points around the crater in the NCA. A total of 102 African buffalo from 16 herds were immobilized from the ground using a cocktail of 4-10 mg etorphine hydrochloride (M99) and 60-150 mg azaperone tartrate. The M99 was reversed using 10-25 mg diprenorphine hydrochloride depending on age of animals. An interferon gamma assay was performed on harvested plasma samples using sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Of the 102 animals sampled, two (2%) African buffalo tested positive for bovine tuberculosis. These results corroborate those of the skin test done recently in cattle in the NCA. The presence of bovine tuberculosis in livestock and wildlife suggested the possibility of cross-species transmission of the disease, indicating the need for appropriate intervention measures.
(Fertilizers and Pesticides) in the Tanzanian horticulture industry especially the Northern regions ... It is apparent that most of the horticultural farms in Northern Tanzania are located on gently .... evaluate any potential for polluting such water.
Rwakarema, Mechtilda; Premji, Shahirose S; Nyanza, Elias Charles; Riziki, Ponsiano; Palacios-Derflingher, Luz
Psychosocial health problems, specifically depression during pregnancy, can have negative impact on birth outcomes, postnatal mental health of the mother, and infant health. Antenatal depression is more prevalent among women in low- and middle-income countries than among women in high-income countries. Risk factors for antenatal depression reported in the literature relate to pregnant women in South Asia. Consequently, this study assessed depression in pregnancy and related psychosocial risk factors among select pregnant women residing in Mwanza region, Northern Tanzania. We analysed data from 397 pregnant women recruited from three antenatal clinics for the period June-August 2013 for this cross-sectional study. Women provided data at one time point during their pregnancy by completing the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and a structured questionnaire assessing psychosocial, demographic, and behavioural risk factors related to antenatal depression. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between risk factors examined and antenatal depression. Overall, 33.8 % (n = 134) of pregnant women had antenatal depression. Pregnancy-related anxiety was associated with antenatal depression (odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.23 to 1.5). Pregnant women with poor relationship with partner and low/moderate socio-economic status had the highest OR for antenatal depression (82.34, 95 % CI 4.47, 1516.60) after adjusting for other covariates. Pregnant women with poor relationship with partner and high socio-economic status had an OR of 13.48 (95 % CI 1.71, 106.31) for antenatal depression. "Reference" pregnant women were those with very good relationship with partner and high socio-economic status. High proportion of self-reported depression among select pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Mwanza, Tanzania merit integrating depression assessment into existing antenatal care services. Health care providers
van Soolingen Dick
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a major health problem and HIV is the major cause of the increase in TB. Sub-Saharan Africa is endemic for both TB and HIV infection. Determination of the prevalence of M. tuberculosis strains and their drug susceptibility is important for TB control. TB positive culture, BAL fluid or sputum samples from 130 patients were collected and genotyped. The spoligotypes were correlated with anti-tuberculous drug susceptibility in HIV-infected and non-HIV patients from Tanzania. Results One-third of patients were TB/HIV co-infected. Forty-seven spoligotypes were identified. Fourteen isolates (10.8% had new and unique spoligotypes while 116 isolates (89.2% belonged to 33 known spoligotypes. The major spoligotypes contained nine clusters: CAS1-Kili 30.0%, LAM11- ZWE 14.6%, ND 9.2%, EAI 6.2%, Beijing 5.4%, T-undefined 4.6%, CAS1-Delhi 3.8%, T1 3.8% and LAM9 3.8%. Twelve (10.8% of the 111 phenotypically tested strains were resistant to anti-TB drugs. Eight (7.2% were monoresistant strains: 7 to isoniazid (INH and one to streptomycin. Four strains (3.5% were resistant to multiple drugs: one (0.9% was resistant to INH and streptomycin and the other three (2.7% were MDR strains: one was resistant to INH, rifampicin and ethambutol and two were resistant to all four anti-TB drugs. Mutation in the katG gene codon 315 and the rpoB hotspot region showed a low and high sensitivity, respectively, as predictor of phenotypic drug resistance. Conclusion CAS1-Kili and LAM11-ZWE were the most common families. Strains of the Beijing family and CAS1-Kili were not or least often associated with resistance, respectively. HIV status was not associated with spoligotypes, resistance or previous TB treatment.
Simiyu, Irene N; Mchaile, Deborah N; Katsongeri, Kahindo; Philemon, Rune N; Msuya, Sia E
Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) remains a problem of great concern worldwide especially in developing countries. The occurrence of a neurological syndrome can be an indicator of insult to the brain. We aimed to determine the prevalence, HIE proportions, neurological signs and early outcomes of newborns that developed birth asphyxia at KCMC Tanzania. A prospective study was conducted at KCMC from November 2014 to April 2015 among newborns with birth asphyxia. Sarnat and Sarnat score was used to assess newborns immediately after birth to classify HIE and were later followed daily for 7 days or until discharge. Of the 1752 deliveries during the study period, 11.5% (n = 201) had birth asphyxia. Of the 201 newborns, 187 had HIE. Of these 187 with HIE; 39.0% had moderate HIE and 10.2% had severe HIE according to the Sarnat and Sarnat classification. Neurological signs that were observed during the study period were; weak/absent reflexes (46.0%), hypotonia (43.3%) and lethargy (42.2%). Mortality was 9.1% among the 187 newborns with HIE. Mortality was higher among newborns with severe HIE 84.2% (16/19) compared to those with moderate HIE 1.4% (1/73). On the 7th day after delivery, 17.1% (32/187) of the newborns did not show any change from the initial score at delivery. Prevalence of birth asphyxia is high in our setting and most of the newborns (49%) end up with moderate/severe HIE. Good obstetric care and immediate resuscitation of newborns are vital in reducing the occurrence of HIE and improving the general outcome of newborns.
Kweka Eliningaya J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The reduction of malaria parasite transmission by preventing human-vector contact is critical in lowering disease transmission and its outcomes. This underscores the need for effective and long lasting arthropod/insect repellents. Despite the reduction in malaria transmission and outcomes in Tanzania, personal protection against mosquito bites is still not well investigated. This study sought to determine the efficacy of menthol propylene glycol carbonate (MR08, Ocimum suave as compared to the gold standard repellent N, N-diethyl-methylbenzamide (DEET, either as a single dose or in combination (blend, both in the laboratory and in the field against Anopheles gambiae s.l and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods In the laboratory evaluations, repellents were applied on one arm while the other arm of the same individual was treated with a base cream. Each arm was separately exposed in cages with unfed female mosquitoes. Repellents were evaluated either as a single dose or as a blend. Efficacy of each repellent was determined by the number of mosquitoes that landed and fed on treated arms as compared to the control or among them. In the field, evaluations were performed by human landing catches at hourly intervals from 18:00 hr to 01:00 hr. Results A total of 2,442 mosquitoes were collected during field evaluations, of which 2,376 (97.30% were An. gambiae s.l while 66 (2.70% were Cx. quinquefaciatus. MR08 and DEET had comparatively similar protective efficacy ranging from 92% to 100 for both single compound and blends. These findings indicate that MR08 has a similar protective efficacy as DEET for personal protection outside bed nets when used singly and in blends. Because of the personal protection provided by MR08, DEET and blends as topical applicants in laboratory and field situations, these findings suggest that, these repellents could be used efficiently in the community to complement existing tools. Overall, Cx
The stable isotope compositions of organic carbon (OC), and contents of OC and nitrogen for four sediment cores recovered from lakes Makat (located in the Ngorongoro Crater), Ndutu and Masek (located in the Serengeti Plains) are used to document sources of organic matter (OM) and climatic changes in sub-arid northern Tanzania during the late Pleistocene-Holocene period. Accelerate mass spectrometer (AMS) 14 C ages on total OM for sediments collected from the Ngorongoro Crater Lake indicate that the sedimentation rate is approximately 17 cm/ka. The δ 13 C values from the 20 cm long core (short core) show a downcore increase, whereas that of 500 cm long core (long core), show two peaks enriched in 13 C and three peaks depleted in 13 C. A general downcore increase in the δ 13 C values for the short core suggests changes in the relative proportion of C 3 and C 4 fraction increasing downcore. Similarly, low and high peaks in the long core suggest changes in the relative proportion of C 3 and C 4 with low values having high proportion of C 3 type of material, probably indicating changes in precipitation and lake levels in the area. Deposition of OM depleted in 13 C took place during periods of high precipitation and high lake levels. Although high content of OC and nitrogen in some core sections are associated with elevated C/N ratio values, diagenetic alteration of isotope signature is unlikely to have caused OC and isotope enrichment in sections having high contents of OC and nitrogen. The OC isotope record from Lake Ndutu shows a general downcore decrease in δ 13 C values and contents of OC and nitrogen. (author)
Elibariki R. Mwakapeje
Full Text Available Background: Anthrax is an infectious fatal zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax outbreak was confirmed in samples of wild animals following rumors of the outbreak in wild animals, livestock, and humans in Selela ward, Monduli district of Northern Tanzania. Therefore, a multi-sectorial team was deployed for outbreak response in the affected areas. Objectives: The aim of the response was to manage the outbreak in a One Health approach and specifically: (i To determine the magnitude of anthrax outbreak in humans, livestock, and wild animals in Selela ward, (ii to assess the outbreak local response capacity, (iii to establish mechanisms for safe disposal of animal carcasses in the affected areas, and (iv to mount effective control and preventive strategies using One Health approach in the affected areas. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional field survey using: (i Active searching of suspected human cases at health facilities and community level, (ii physical counting and disposal of wild animal carcasses in the affected area, (iii collection of specimens from suspected human cases and animal carcasses for laboratory analysis, and (iv meetings with local animal and human health staff, political, and traditional leaders at local levels. We analyzed data by STATA software, and a map was created using Quantum GIS software. Results: A total of 21 humans were suspected, and most of them (62% being from Selela ward. The outbreak caused deaths of 10 cattle, 26 goats, and three sheep, and 131 wild animal carcasses were discarded the majority of them being wildebeest (83%. Based on laboratory results, three blood smears tested positive for anthrax using Giemsa staining while two wildebeest samples tested positive and five human blood samples tested negative for anthrax using quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques. Clinical forms of anthrax were also observed in humans and livestock which suggest that wild animals may
This paper investigates the reasons why young people in urban and rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania do not attend school, their socio-demographic characteristics, AIDS knowledge and risk perception. A structured face-to-face interview was conducted with 1007 young people between the ages of 13 and 18. Findings suggest that non-attendance is the product…
Shekalaghe, Seif A; Bousema, J Teun; Kunei, Karaine K
. In this study, we investigated submicroscopic asexual parasitaemia and gametocytaemia in inhabitants of an area of hypoendemic and seasonal malaria in Tanzania. METHODS: Two cross-sectional malariometric surveys were conducted in the dry and wet seasons of 2005 in villages in lower Moshi, Tanzania. Finger prick...... blood samples were taken to determine the prevalence of P. falciparum parasites by microscopy, rapid diagnostic test and real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (QT-NASBA). RESULTS: 2752 individuals participated in the surveys, of whom 1.9% (51/2721) had microscopically confirmed asexual...... reveal that carriage of submicroscopic asexual parasite and gametocyte densities is relatively common in this low transmission area. Submicroscopic gametocytaemia is likely to be responsible for maintaining malarial transmission in the study area....
International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... It is apparent that most of the horticultural farms in Northern Tanzania are located on gently ... Thus discharges of wastewaters from horticulture farms may affect the quality of water ...
Kajeguka, Debora C; Kaaya, Robert D; Mwakalinga, Steven
BACKGROUND: In spite of increasing reports of dengue and chikungunya activity in Tanzania, limited research has been done to document the general epidemiology of dengue and chikungunya in the country. This study aimed at determining the sero-prevalence and prevalence of acute infections of dengue......-like symptoms at health facilities at Bondo dispensary (Bondo, Tanga), Hai hospital (Hai, Kilimanjaro) and TPC hospital (Lower Moshi). Participants who were malaria negative using rapid diagnostic tests (mRDT) were screened for sero-positivity towards dengue and chikungunya Immunoglobulin G and M (IgG and Ig......M) using ELISA-based kits. Participants with specific symptoms defined as probable dengue and/or chikungunya by WHO (fever and various combinations of symptoms such as headache, rash, nausea/vomit, and joint pain) were further screened for acute dengue and chikungunya infections by PCR. RESULTS: Out...
World Bank Group
Over the past 18 months, the World Bank has been working on a comprehensive plan to address the challenge of productive jobs in Tanzania. This study represents a step towards a better understanding of how to promote job creation in Tanzania. Indeed, the growth of productive jobs is vital for alleviating poverty and promoting shared prosperity - two important goals of Tanzania's economic st...
Sleeth, Jessica; Hopman, Wilma; Ginsburg, Ophira; Heus, Katharine; Andrews, Linda; Giattas, Mary Rose; Yuma, Safina; Macheku, Godwin; Msuya, Aziz; Oneko, Olola
Purpose Almost nine of 10 deaths resulting from cervical cancer occur in low-income countries. Visual inspection under acetic acid (VIA) is an evidence-based, cost-effective approach to cervical cancer screening (CCS), but challenges to effective implementation include health provider training costs, provider turnover, and skills retention. We hypothesized that a smartphone camera and use of cervical image transfer for real-time mentorship by experts located distantly across a closed user group through a commercially available smartphone application would be both feasible and effective in enhancing VIA skills among CCS providers in Tanzania. Methods We trained five nonphysician providers in semirural Tanzania to perform VIA enhanced by smartphone cervicography with real-time trainee support from regional experts. Deidentified images were sent through a free smartphone application on the available mobile telephone networks. Our primary outcomes were feasibility of using a smartphone camera to perform smartphone-enhanced VIA and level of agreement in diagnosis between the trainee and expert reviewer over time. Results Trainees screened 1,072 eligible women using our methodology. Within 1 month of training, the agreement rate between trainees and expert reviewers was 96.8%. Providers received a response from expert reviewers within 1 to 5 minutes 48.4% of the time, and more than 60% of the time, feedback was provided by regional expert reviewers in less than 10 minutes. Conclusion Our method was found to be feasible and effective in increasing health care workers’ skills and accuracy. This method holds promise for improved quality of VIA-based CCS programs among health care providers in low-income countries. PMID:28717721
Quereshi, Charlotte; Standing, Holly C; Swai, Amina; Hunter, Ewan; Walker, Richard; Owens, Stephen
Educational outcomes for young people with epilepsy (YPE) in Hai District, Tanzania, are poor, as is commonly observed elsewhere in Sub-Saharan Africa. The reasons for this finding are not well understood, though stigma arising from supernatural concepts of epilepsy is frequently cited as a barrier to YPE accessing education. In this study, we aimed to explore the reasons why many YPE in Tanzania experience poor access to education, and elicit ways in which education could be improved for YPE according to teachers, parents and YPE. Ten focus group discussions with teachers were organized in Hai schools between March and May 2016. The themes arising from these discussions were identified, coded, analyzed and tested in semi-structured interviews with 19 YPE and 17 parents identified from a prevalent cohort of YPE identified in 2009. Behavioral problems and learning difficulties were cited as the main barriers to education for YPE. Other barriers included parental stigmatization, teachers' inadequate seizure management, and limited access to specialist schools. Teachers perceived that parents and YPE believe in spiritual etiology and traditional management for epilepsy. However, the majority of teachers, parents, and YPE cited biological etiology and management options, although understanding of epilepsy etiology and management could be improved amongst all groups. A multidimensional approach is needed to improve educational access, and hence outcomes, for YPE. Widespread community education is needed to improve knowledge of epilepsy etiology and management. Teachers require seizure management training, and parents need help to recognize YPE's right to education. Educational needs assessments would help to identify YPE requiring specialist schooling, and access to this could be improved. These interventions will likely reduce stigma, ensure appropriate academic and pastoral care at school, and thus enable YPE to attend, and succeed, in education. Copyright © 2017
Mwidunda, Sylvester A.; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B. M.; Winkler, Andrea S.; Ngowi, Helena A.
Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children’s knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general
Mweya, Clement N; Kimera, Sharadhuli I; Karimuribo, Esron D; Mboera, Leonard E G
We investigated mosquito sampling techniques with two types of traps and attractants at different time for trapping potential vectors for Rift Valley Fever virus. The study was conducted in six villages in Ngorongoro district in Tanzania from September to October 2012. A total of 1814 mosquitoes were collected, of which 738 were collected by CDC light traps and 1076 by Mosquito Magnet trapping technique. Of the collected mosquitoes, 12.46% (N = 226) were Aedes aegypti and 87.54% (N = 1588) were Culex pipiens complex. More mosquitoes were collected outdoors using Mosquito Magnets baited with octenol attractant, 36.38% (N =660) followed by indoor trapping using CDC light traps without attractant, 29.60% (N = 537). Most of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected outdoor using Mosquito Magnets, 95% (N = 214) whereas Cx. pipiens complex were trapped both indoor using CDC light traps without attractant and outdoors using both CDC light traps baited with carbon dioxide (CO2) sachets and Mosquito Magnets. Analysis on the differences in abundance of mosquitoes trapped by different techniques using Generalized Linear Models was statistically significance at p-value < 0.05 for both species. Three hours mosquito collections show differing patterns in activity, most Ae. aegypti species were collected primarily during the first and last quarters of the day. Cx pipiens complex was active throughout the night, early evening and early morning then decreased markedly during the day time. The results presented in this paper emphasize the possibility of using Mosquito Magnets in order to efficiently capture these potential RVF vectors.
Kajeguka, Debora C; Desrochers, Rachelle E; Mwangi, Rose; Mgabo, Maseke R; Alifrangis, Michael; Kavishe, Reginald A; Mosha, Franklin W; Kulkarni, Manisha A
To investigate knowledge and prevention practices regarding dengue and chikungunya amongst community members, as well as knowledge, treatment and diagnostic practices among healthcare workers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 125 community members and 125 healthcare workers from 13 health facilities in six villages in the Hai district of Tanzania. A knowledge score was generated based on participant responses to a structured questionnaire, with a score of 40 or higher (of 80 and 50 total scores for community members and healthcare workers, respectively) indicating good knowledge. We conducted qualitative survey (n = 40) to further assess knowledge and practice regarding dengue and chikungunya fever. 15.2% (n = 19) of community members had good knowledge regarding dengue, whereas 53.6%, (n = 67) of healthcare workers did. 20.3% (n = 16) of participants from lowland areas and 6.5% (n = 3) from highland areas had good knowledge of dengue (χ 2 = 4.25, P = 0.03). Only 2.4% (n = 3) of all participants had a good knowledge score for chikungunya. In the qualitative study, community members expressed uncertainty about dengue and chikungunya. Some healthcare workers thought that they were new diseases. There is insufficient knowledge regarding dengue and chikungunya fever among community members and healthcare workers. Health promotion activities on these diseases based on Ecological Health Mode components to increase knowledge and improve preventive practices should be developed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mwidunda, Sylvester A; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B M; Winkler, Andrea S; Ngowi, Helena A
Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general
Sylvester A Mwidunda
Full Text Available Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and
Hirani, Birjna A; Mchome, Bariki L; Mazuguni, Nicholaus S; Mahande, Michael J
Decision delivery interval (DDI) is the time line between a decision to conduct an emergency caesarean section and actual delivery of the baby. Prolong DDI constitute a third phase delay in provision of emergency obstetric care. Intervention designed to minimize DDI are vital, in attempt to prevent maternal morbidity and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The feasibility and practicability of the recommended DDI in recent studies have been questioned especially in limited resource setting and therefore the objective of our study was to determine the DDI and its associated fetalmaternal outcomes at a tertiary referral hospital in Tanzania. This was a retrospectivecross-sectional study of inpatient cases who underwent emergency caesarean section from January to September 2014. Data were collected from birth registry and case files of patients. Data analysis was performed using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 22.0. Odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence interval for maternal and fetal outcomes associated with DDI were estimated using Logistic regression models. A p-value of less than 5% was considered statistically significant. A total of 598 women who underwent emergency caesarean section were recruited. The median Decision Delivery Interval was 60 min [IQR 40-120]. Only 12% were operated within 30 min from decision time. Shortest DDI was seen in patients with Cephalopelvic Disproportion (CPD) and uterine rupture (40 min and 45.5 min) as compared to other conditions. Cases with impending uterine rupture, cord prolapse, APH and fetal distress showed to have shorter DDI. There was no significant association between DDI and neonatal transfer,1st and 5 th minute Apgar score, maternal blood loss (OR: 5.79; 95% CI 0.63-1.64) and hospital stay (OR: 1.02; 95% 0.63-1.64). Contrary to the recommended DDI by ACOG & AAP of 30 min is not feasible in our setting, time frame of 75 min could be acceptable but clinical judgment is required to assess on the
Felichesmi Selestine Lyakurwa
Full Text Available Environmental information systems are essential platforms for the provision of adequate and relevant information necessary for the planning and decision making for greener production. Corporate use of Environmental Information Systems gained several benefits in the global and local markets. Nevertheless, there was no documentation to explain the extent to which corporate organizations utilize available Environmental Information Systems in Tanzania. This study used purposive sampling with informants being workers from the strategic, tactical and control functions of the corporate organization. Moreover, data collection involved survey of 50 corporate organizations in Dar es Salaam, Arusha, Moshi and Morogoro councils, with 71 respondents. The collected data includes exploration of the extent to which corporate management functions utilize available Environmental Information Systems in Tanzania. The study identified various corporate environmental management functions performed at all levels of the corporate organization, in which workers spends less than one hour on the environmental information systems available. The results also revealed that, there is adequate utilization of available Environmental Information Systems for environmental management. Therefore, the research outcomes provides inputs to corporate organization unit managers, corporate owners and other environmental stakeholders on the extent of the systems’ use as well as sharing experience on different environmental management systems used worldwide. Keywords: Environmental information system, corporate organization, Tanzania, management
PRINS, HHT; VANDERJEUGD, HP
Because little is known of growth rates of shrubs in East Africa, the growth rates of Acalypha fructicosa, Gardenia jovis-tonantis, Justicia cordata, Maerua triphylla, and Ocimum suave were measured in Lake Manyara National Park, northern Tanzania. Branch diameter increments and branch length
Prins, H.H.T.; Jeugd, van der H.P.
Because little is known of growth rates of shrubs in East Africa, the growth rates of Acalypha fructicosa, Gardenia jovis-tonantis, Justicia cordata, Maerua triphylla, and Ocimum suave were measured in Lake Manyara National Park, northern Tanzania. Branch diameter increments and branch length
Comparison of sampling techniques for Rift Valley Fever virus potential vectors, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex, in Ngorongoro District in northern Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Clement N. Mweya, Sharadhuli I. Kimera, Esron D.
Westeneng, J.; D'Exelle, B.S.H.
This article uses data from Northern Tanzania to analyse how economic empowerment helps women reduce their reproductive health (RH) vulnerability. It analyses the effect of women's employment and economic contribution to their household on health care use at three phases in the reproductive cycle:
Millennium Challenge Corporation — Social Impact (SI) has been contracted by MCC to carry out an impact evaluation (IE) of the Tanzania Water Sector Project. This IE examines the effect of the WSP...
The journal publishes any contribution that advances medical science or ... these core objectives the journal publishes papers on original scientific research, short ... The Tanzania Medical Journal is an international Journal - ISSN: 0856-0719 ...
Mwanga Joseph R
Full Text Available Abstract Background A thorough understanding of the contexts of sexual behaviour of the people who are vulnerable to HIV infection is an important component in the battle against AIDS epidemic. We conducted a qualitative study to investigate perceptions, attitudes and practices of sexually active people in three districts of northern Tanzania with the view of collecting data to inform the formulation of appropriate complementary interventions against HIV and AIDS in the study communities. Methods We conducted 96 semi-structured interviews and 48 focus group discussions with sexually active participants (18-60 years of age who were selected purposively in two fishing and one non-fishing communities. Results The study revealed a number of socio-economic and cultural factors which act as structural drivers of HIV epidemic. Mobility and migration were mentioned to be associated with the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission. Sexual promiscuous behaviour was common in all study communities. Chomolea, (a quick transactional sex was reported to exist in fishing communities, whereas extramarital sex in the bush was reported in non-fishing community which was predominantly Christian and polygamous. Traditional practices such as Kusomboka (death cleansing through unprotected sex was reported to exist. Other risky sexual behaviour and traditional practices together with their socio-economic and cultural contexts are presented in details and discussed. Knowledge of condom was low as some people mistook them for balloons to play with and as decorations for their living rooms. Acute scarcity of condoms in some remote areas such as vizingani (fishing islands push some people to make their own condoms locally known as kondomu za pepsi using polythene bags. Conclusions HIV prevention efforts can succeed by addressing sexual behaviour and its socio-economic and cultural contexts. More innovative, interdisciplinary and productive structural approaches to HIV
Mwanga, Joseph R; Mshana, Gerry; Kaatano, Godfrey; Changalucha, John
A thorough understanding of the contexts of sexual behaviour of the people who are vulnerable to HIV infection is an important component in the battle against AIDS epidemic. We conducted a qualitative study to investigate perceptions, attitudes and practices of sexually active people in three districts of northern Tanzania with the view of collecting data to inform the formulation of appropriate complementary interventions against HIV and AIDS in the study communities. We conducted 96 semi-structured interviews and 48 focus group discussions with sexually active participants (18-60 years of age) who were selected purposively in two fishing and one non-fishing communities. The study revealed a number of socio-economic and cultural factors which act as structural drivers of HIV epidemic. Mobility and migration were mentioned to be associated with the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission. Sexual promiscuous behaviour was common in all study communities. Chomolea, (a quick transactional sex) was reported to exist in fishing communities, whereas extramarital sex in the bush was reported in non-fishing community which was predominantly Christian and polygamous. Traditional practices such as Kusomboka (death cleansing through unprotected sex) was reported to exist. Other risky sexual behaviour and traditional practices together with their socio-economic and cultural contexts are presented in details and discussed. Knowledge of condom was low as some people mistook them for balloons to play with and as decorations for their living rooms. Acute scarcity of condoms in some remote areas such as vizingani (fishing islands) push some people to make their own condoms locally known as kondomu za pepsi using polythene bags. HIV prevention efforts can succeed by addressing sexual behaviour and its socio-economic and cultural contexts. More innovative, interdisciplinary and productive structural approaches to HIV prevention need to be developed in close collaboration with
Mchaile, Deborah N; Philemon, Rune N; Kabika, Sonia; Albogast, Evelyn; Morijo, Kikoti J; Kifaro, Emmanuel; Mmbaga, Blandina T
Diarrhoea is a main cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 responsible for approximately four billion cases and 1.1 million deaths annually. In developing countries, it causes two million deaths each year. The major causative organism responsible is Rotavirus which is responsible for one-third of hospitalizations with approximately 40% mortality. The prevalence of Rotavirus infection was 26.4% (73/277). The predominant strain of Rotavirus found was G1 21/73 (53.8%), followed by G8 9/73 (23.1%), G12 5/73 (12.8%), G9 3/73(7.7%) and G4 1/73 (2.6%). All serotypes identified were in children who had completed Rotavirus vaccination except for one who had G8 in whom the vaccine was introduced after they had completed immunizations. The overall prevalence of rotavirus has reduced from 33.2% in 2009 to 26.4% in 2016. We have found G1 to be the predominant serotype as well as other circulating serotypes namely G4, G8, G9 and G12. Despite a reduction in prevalence, there is a need for further rotavirus surveillance in the region.
Background: Irrational antibiotic use is an important factor for development and spread of resistance to currently used antibiotics. This study was carried out to assess antibiotic prescribing practices among cases diagnosed as malaria at three hospitals in Moshi Municipality in northern Tanzania. Methods: This was a cross ...
Committee of Tanzania Dental. Association would like to Thank. [fUfNJfNJU[[j)~ for its magnanimity towards meeting the cost of this Journal ... ceps is token out of the dental kit and the tooth is removed out of its socket. The tooth is dropped into the waste bucket. The fareceps is placed in the water basin. The socket site is ...
Some 17.5 millionTanzanians are between 15 and 34 years of age. This number is expected to almost double by 2035. For more information, please refer to Haji, Mahjabeen (2015) Tanzania: Skills and youth employment, a scoping paper commissioned by IDRC and the MasterCard Foundation. Young self-employed.
worth CA$60 million since 1973. By identifying the major causes of death and disease, IDRC-supported research has helped to significantly reduced child and adult mortality rates in ... mental conditions in communities in. Tanzania and Malawi. Researchers and com- munity members will use the survey results to design ...
The Tanzania Journal of Science (Tanz. J. Sci.) was established in 1975 as a forum for communication and co-ordination between and among scientists and allied professionals. It is also intended as a medium for dissemination of scientific knowledge among scientists and the public at large to promote the advancement of ...
The Tanzania Medical Journal is a multi – disciplinary journal published two times a year in March - June and September – December. ... To achieve its objectives the journal invites papers on original scientific research, short communications, case reports and letters to the editor, in any branch of medical science. Original ...
Ijani, A.S.M.; Katondo, J.M.; Malulu, J.M.
Preliminary studies to investigate the effects of organochlorine pesticides on birds was conducted in Lower Moshi, NAFCO West Kilimanjaro, Arusha seed farm, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) farms, Manyara ranch and areas around Lake Victoria as well as in the TPRI laboratory in Tanzania. Large quantities of the pesticides particularly DDT, endosulfan, dieldrin, lindane and toxaphene are still being applied against pests of cotton, coffee, maize, beans and other crops as well as disease vectors in the country. Several groups of birds including waterbirds, African Fish Eagles, Marabou storks, Oxpecker, ducks, etc. were found feeding, roosting and swimming in the water and exposed to other substances that were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and were presumably at risk. Analytical results from the tissues of the African Fish Eagles collected from Lake Victoria areas showed that the kidneys were contaminated with p,p' DDE and o,p' DDE at levels of 0.4 ng g -1 and 1.45 ng g -1 respectively. These organochlorine insecticides as well as β-HCH were also present in the brain and liver tissues. The levels of the organochlorine residues were well below the lethal and sublethal levels for bird raptors reported in the literature. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs
Full Text Available Alexis C Dennis1 Sarah M Wilson1–3 Mary V Mosha4 Gileard G Masenga4 Kathleen J Sikkema1,5,6 Korrine E Terroso1 Melissa H Watt1 1Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, 2Department of Veterans Affairs, Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center, 3Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 4Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center, Moshi, Tanzania; 5Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 6Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Objective: An obstetric fistula is a childbirth injury resulting in uncontrollable leakage of urine and/or feces and can lead to physical and psychological challenges, including social isolation. Prior to and after fistula repair surgery, social support can help a woman to reintegrate into her community. The aim of this study was to preliminarily examine the experiences of social support among Tanzanian women presenting with obstetric fistula in the periods immediately preceding obstetric fistula repair surgery and following reintegration.Patients and methods: The study used a mixed-methods design to analyze cross-sectional surveys (n=59 and in-depth interviews (n=20.Results: Women reported widely varying levels of social support from family members and partners, with half of the sample reporting overall high levels of social support. For women experiencing lower levels of support, fistula often exacerbated existing problems in relationships, sometimes directly causing separation or divorce. Many women were assertive and resilient with regard to advocating for their fistula care and relationship needs.Conclusion: Our data suggest that while some women endure negative social experiences following an obstetric fistula and require additional resources and services, many women report high levels of social support from family members and partners, which may be harnessed to improve the holistic
Meena, H E [Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)
An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)
An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)
Feinstein, Sheryl; Mwahombela, Lucas
The purpose of this survey was to acquire descriptive information regarding corporal punishment in Tanzania's O-level secondary schools. 448 individuals participated in the study: 254 teachers and 194 students, all from government or private secondary schools in the Iringa Region of Tanzania. In addition, 14 students and 14 teachers were…
Maternal mortality rates in rural Tanzania are high. In preparation for the introduction of an intervention to reduce maternal deaths by distribution of misoprostol and erythromycin to women living in rural Rorya District, Mara Region, Tanzania, we conducted a limited verbal autopsy by surveying family members of women ...
Full Text Available Tanzania is primarily an agro-based economy, characterized by subsistence agricultural production that employs more than 80% of the population and contributes up to 45% of the GDP (2005. This country is endowed with a cattle population of 21.3 M, composed mainly of indigenous Zebu breeds and about 680 000 improved dairy animals. About 70% of the milk produced comes from the traditional sector (indigenous cattle kept in rural areas, while the remaining 30% comes from improved cattle, mainly kept by smallholder producers. In Northern Tanzania and particularly in Hai district of Kilimanjaro Region, some dairy farmers organize themselves into small producer groups for the purpose of milk collecting, marketing and general promotion of the dairy sector in their community. Nronga Women Dairy Cooperative Society (NWDCS Limited is one of such organizations dedicated to improve the well-being of the Nronga village community through promoting small-scale dairy farming and its flow-on benefits. Milk flows out of the village, and services for investment and dairy production flow into the village, ensuring a sustainable financial circulation necessary for poverty reduction, rural development and better life for the rural community. In 2001 NWDCS introduced a school milk feeding program that has attracted Australian donors since 2005. Guided by Global Development Group, a multi-faceted project, integrating micro-enterprises, business, education and child health/nutrition, was proposed and initiated by building a dairy plant in Hai District headquarters, the Boma plant. In March 2013, the Australian High Commission to East Africa approved Direct Aid Program funding of AUD 30 000 towards the NWDCS - Biogas Pilot Project in Tanzania, which included the renovation of zero-grazing cow shade units, the construction of 6-m3 biodigester plants on each farm, and encouragement of the use of bioslurry for pasture production and home gardens.
KIFANGA, L.D.; GYIMBI, H.; MLOWOLA, V.; KASONGWA, M.
Discusses overview of incidents and developments involving illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials in Tanzania.13 cases have been recorded between 1996 and 2008. All cases occurred in Dar Es Salam. Police, customs and security staff intercepted the sources and culprits arrested. The latest incident occurred in May 2008 and involved illegal possession of a capsule labelled nuclear material (U-238). A total of 14 sources were seized . Types of sources seized were u-238, Caesium-137, Strontium-90 and Radium-226.
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Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of plant repellents against nuisance biting insects is common and its potential for malaria vector control requires evaluation in areas with different level of malaria endemicity. The essential oils of Ocimum suave and Ocimum kilimandscharicum were evaluated against malaria vectors in north-eastern Tanzania. Methodology An ethnobotanical study was conducted at Moshi in Kilimanjaro region north-eastern Tanzania, through interviews, to investigate the range of species of plants used as insect repellents. Also, bioassays were used to evaluate the protective potential of selected plants extracts against mosquitoes. Results The plant species mostly used as repellent at night are: fresh or smoke of the leaves of O. suave and O. kilimandscharicum (Lamiaceae, Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae, Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae and Lantana camara (Verbenaceae. The most popular repellents were O. kilimandscharicum (OK and O. suave (OS used by 67% out of 120 households interviewed. Bioassay of essential oils of the two Ocimum plants was compared with citronella and DEET to study the repellence and feeding inhibition of untreated and treated arms of volunteers. Using filter papers impregnated with Ocimum extracts, knockdown effects and mortality was investigated on malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae, including a nuisance mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. High biting protection (83% to 91% and feeding inhibition (71.2% to 92.5% was observed against three species of mosquitoes. Likewise the extracts of Ocimum plants induced KD90 of longer time in mosquitoes than citronella, a standard botanical repellent. Mortality induced by standard dosage of 30 mg/m2 on filter papers, scored after 24 hours was 47.3% for OK and 57% for OS, compared with 67.7% for citronella. Conclusion The use of whole plants and their products as insect repellents is common among village communities of north-eastern Tanzania and the results
Wilson, R Trevor
Equines are minor species in Tanzania's array of domestic livestock. Attempts to use them for transport by early explorers from the mid-nineteenth century usually failed. Donkeys were used extensively as pack animals to complement human porters by both British and German forces in the First World War, but their advantages were often outweighed by slow progress and competition with troops and porters for water, and they died in huge numbers. The British had regular cavalry troops in their campaign and mules found limited use as individual mounts for officers. In modern times, there are very few horses in Tanzania but they find several uses. Exotic safaris are made on horseback, they are used as stock horses on ranches, there is a polo club in northern Tanzania and there are leisure riding activities around the capital city. Official census records for donkeys estimate numbers at under 300,000 with concentrations in the northern pastoral and agropastoral areas where they are used as pack animals with water being the main commodity transported. Elsewhere donkeys are used to a limited extent in transport and traction work. There is little interest in equines by the central and local governments or the general public and the status quo can be expected to continue.
Megan K Ramaiya
Full Text Available Although 85% of HIV-positive adolescents reside in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the psychosocial and mental health factors affecting their daily well-being. Identifying these contextual variables is key to development of culturally appropriate and effective interventions for this understudied and high-risk population. The purpose of this study was to identify salient psychosocial and mental health challenges confronted by HIV-positive youth in a resource-poor Tanzanian setting. A total of 24 qualitative interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of adolescents aged 12-24 receiving outpatient HIV care at a medical center in Moshi, Tanzania. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded using thematic analysis. Psychosocial challenges identified included loss of one or more parents, chronic domestic abuse, financial stressors restricting access to medical care and education, and high levels of internalized and community stigma among peers and other social contacts. Over half of youth (56% reported difficulties coming to terms with their HIV diagnosis and espoused related feelings of self-blame. These findings highlight the urgent need to develop culturally proficient programs aimed at helping adolescents cope with these manifold challenges. Results from this study guided the development of Sauti ya Vijana (The Voice of Youth, a 10-session group mental health intervention designed to address the psychosocial and mental health needs of HIV-positive Tanzanian youth.
Tanzania Journal of Health Research (TJHR) aims to facilitate the advance of health sciences by publishing high quality research and review articles that communicate new ideas and developments in biomedical and health research. TJHR is ...
Nov 18, 2010 ... A model for success. The effects have ... health systems. Globally, there is a growing acceptance of the TEHIP lessons. ... has ended." — Hassan Mshinda, Director General, Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology ...
This book, the result of a collaborative study carried out by researchers from Tanzania, Israel and the Netherlands, assesses the sustainability of urban agriculture in two medium-sized towns in Tanzania: Morogoro and Mbeya. It first gives an overview of urban agriculture in Tanzania and a
African Technology Policy Studies - Tanzania (ATPS-Tanzania) was registered as a national nongovernmental organization in 2001. ... While resource flows to ATPS-Tanzania from ATPS headquarters in Nairobi were reliable, the organization produced a larger volume of research outputs than most other ATPS national ...
Objectives of this study are to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass, as well as other forestry products. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without and in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. Analysis of the mitigation scenario has been based on Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis (COMAP). This study has analysed the forestry and land use sector behaviour on the basis of the current policies on land and environment. Furthermore three scenarios have been developed on the basis of what is expected to happen in the sectors, the worse scenario being a catastrophic one where if things takes the business as usual trend then the forest resources will easily be depleted. The TFAP scenario takes into account the implementation of the current plans as scheduled while the mitigation scenario takes into account the GHG mitigation in the implementation of the plans. A Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) has been used to analyse the GHG and cost implications of the various programmes under the mitigation scenario. (au) 30 refs.
Ostermann, Jan; Brown, Derek S; Mühlbacher, Axel; Njau, Bernard; Thielman, Nathan
Despite substantial public health efforts to increase HIV testing, testing rates have plateaued in many countries and rates of repeat testing for those with ongoing risk are low. To inform policies aimed at increasing uptake of HIV testing, we identified characteristics associated with individuals' willingness-to-accept (WTA) an HIV test in a general population sample and among two high-risk populations in Moshi, Tanzania. In total, 721 individuals, including randomly selected community members (N = 402), female barworkers (N = 135), and male Kilimanjaro mountain porters (N = 184), were asked in a double-bounded contingent valuation format if they would test for HIV in exchange for 2000, 5000 or 10,000 Shillings (approximately $1.30, $3.20, and $6.40, respectively). The study was conducted between September 2012 and February 2013. More than one quarter of participants (196; 27 %) stated they would be willing to test for Tanzania Shilling (TSH) 2000, whereas one in seven (98; 13.6 %) required more than TSH 10,000. The average WTA estimate was TSH 4564 (95 % Confidence Interval: TSH 4201 to 4927). Significant variation in WTA estimates by gender, HIV risk factors and other characteristics plausibly reflects variation in individuals' valuations of benefits of and barriers to testing. WTA estimates were higher among males than females. Among males, WTA was nearly one-third lower for those who reported symptoms of HIV than those who did not. Among females, WTA estimates varied with respondents' education, own and partners' HIV testing history, and lifetime reports of transactional sex. For both genders, the most significant association was observed with respondents' perception of the accuracy of the HIV test; those believing HIV tests to be completely accurate were willing to test for approximately one third less than their counterparts. The mean WTA estimates identified in this study suggest that within the study population, incentivized universal HIV
The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000, acquired elevation measurements for nearly all of Earth's landmass between 60oN and 56oS latitudes. For many areas of the world SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional observation of landforms at regional scales. SRTM data were used to generate this view of the Crater Highlands along the East African Rift in Tanzania. Landforms are depicted with colored height and shaded relief, using a vertical exaggeration of 2X and a southwestwardly look direction. Lake Eyasi is depicted in blue at the top of the image, and a smaller lake occurs in Ngorongoro Crater. Near the image center, elevations peak at 3648 meters (11,968 feet) at Mount Loolmalasin, which is south of Ela Naibori Crater. Kitumbeine (left) and Gelai (right) are the two broad mountains rising from the rift lowlands. Mount Longido is seen in the lower left, and the Meto Hills are in the right foreground. Tectonics, volcanism, landslides, erosion and deposition -- and their interactions -- are all very evident in this view. The East African Rift is a zone of spreading between the African (on the west) and Somali (on the east) crustal plates. Two branches of the rift intersect here in Tanzania, resulting in distinctive and prominent landforms. One branch trends nearly parallel the view and includes Lake Eyasi and the very wide Ngorongoro Crater. The other branch is well defined by the lowlands that trend left-right across the image (below center, in green). Volcanoes are often associated with spreading zones where magma, rising to fill the gaps, reaches the surface and builds cones. Craters form if a volcano explodes or collapses. Later spreading can fracture the volcanoes, which is especially evident on Kitumbeine and Gelai Mountains (left and right, respectively, lower center). The Crater Highlands rise far above the adjacent savannas, capture moisture from passing air masses, and host rain
Jiddawi, Narriman S; Ohman, Marcus C
Fishery resources are a vital source of food and make valuable economic contributions to the local communities involved in fishery activities along the 850 km stretch of the Tanzania coastline and numerous islands. Small-scale artisanal fishery accounts for the majority of fish catch produced by more than 43 000 fishermen in the country, mainly operating in shallow waters within the continental shelf, using traditional fishing vessels including small boats, dhows, canoes, outrigger canoes and dinghys. Various fishing techniques are applied using uncomplicated passive fishing gears such as basket traps, fence traps, nets as well as different hook and line techniques. Species composition and size of the fish varies with gear type and location. More than 500 species of fish are utilized for food with reef fishes being the most important category including emperors, snappers, sweetlips, parrotfish, surgeonfish, rabbitfish, groupers and goatfish. Most of the fish products are used for subsistence purposes. However, some are exported. Destructive fishing methods such as drag nets and dynamite fishing pose a serious problem as they destroy important habitats for fish and other organisms, and there is a long-term trend of overharvested fishery resources. However, fishing pressure varies within the country as fishery resources are utilized in a sustainable manner in some areas. For this report more than 340 references about Tanzanian fishery and fish ecology were covered. There are many gaps in terms of information needed for successful fishery management regarding both basic and applied research. Most research results have been presented as grey literature (57%) with limited distribution; only one-fifth were scientific publications in international journals.
Agricultural Policy Analysis Studies in Tanzania: A Historical and Thematic Perspective with Implications on Future Policy Research for Crop Production and Marketing · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A.C. Isinika, G.M. Mibavu, J.J. VanSickle ...
This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR)intends to determine the compatibility of national procurement law, and practices, with the principles of economy, and with international procurement practices. This CPAR, the second of its kind in Tanzania, looks at the legislative framework, the performance of regulatory functions, the enforcement regime, and the capacity of public sector ...
Focus and Scope. The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and developments in Veterinary Medicine. The target readers of the ...
Full Text Available Mussa N Sweya,1 Sia E Msuya,2,3 Michael J Mahande,2 Rachel Manongi1,3 1Community Health Department, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University, 3Community Health Department, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania Background: Previous studies have shown that knowledge of contraceptives, especially among the youth in universities, remains limited, and the rate of premarital sexual activity, unwanted pregnancies, and illegal abortions remains higher among university students. This study aimed to assess contraceptive knowledge, sexual behavior, and factors associated with contraceptive use among female undergraduate university students in Kilimanjaro region in Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted from May to June 2015 among undergraduate female students in four universities in Kilimanjaro region. A self-administered questionnaire was given to the participants. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. An odds ratio with 95% confidence interval for factors associated with modern contraceptive use was computed using multiple logistic regression models. A P-value of <5% (two-tailed was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 401 students were involved in the study. Two-thirds (260, 64.8% of the participants had had sexual intercourse. The majority (93.8% of the participants had knowledge of contraception. One hundred and seventy-five (43.6% sexually active women reported that they used contraceptives in the past, while 162 (40.4% were current contraceptive users. More than half (54.2% of the sexually active group started sexual activity between the ages of 20–24 years. The most popular methods of contraception used were condoms, withdrawal, and periodic abstinence. The main
Mahapatra, Mana; Sayalel, Kuya; Muniraju, Murali; Eblate, Ernest; Fyumagwa, Robert; Shilinde, Ligge; Mdaki, Maulid; Keyyu, Julius; Parida, Satya; Kock, Richard
We tested wildlife inhabiting areas near domestic livestock, pastures, and water sources in the Ngorongoro district in the Serengeti ecosystem of northern Tanzania and found 63% seropositivity for peste des petits ruminants virus. Sequencing of the viral genome from sick sheep in the area confirmed lineage II virus circulation.
Full Text Available This study explores the contribution of community empowerment to the sustainability of ecotourism in Tanzania using education programmes, access to information and language. Through the survey approach data was collected from Tanzania’s ecotourism stakeholders (N=250 in the eight selected regions of Dar es Salaam, Pwani, Morogoro, Tanga and Zanzibar (for the eastern tourism circuit and Arusha, Kilimanjaro and Manyara (for the northern circuit and thereafter a qualitative analysis was employed complemented by estimation of the multinomial logistic regression model. The findings show that tourism stakeholders lack sufficient knowledge on ecotourism conservation and preservation. Likewise community members have poor access to information due to insufficient ecotourism publications, tourist information centres, a reliable mechanism for communicating with stakeholders and the use of foreign languages in most of the publications. It is therefore the study’s recommendation that community members be empowered through being provided with adequate education programmes and access to relevant information and the use of a language that is understood by them in order to broaden their level of understanding, enhance their management skills and contribute significantly to ecotourism-related activities.
Banzi, F.P.; Bundala, F.M.; Nyanda, A.M.; Msaki, P.
Radioactive waste, like many other hazardous wastes, is of great concern in Tanzania because of its undesirable health effects. The stochastic effects due to prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation produce cancer and hereditary effects. The deterministic effects due to higher doses cause vomiting, skin reddening, leukemia, and death to exposed victims. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the status of radioactive wastes in Tanzania, how they are generated and managed to protect humans and the environment. As Tanzania develops, it is bound to increase the use of ionizing radiation in research and teaching, industry, health and agriculture. Already there are more than 42 Centers which use one form of radioisotopes or another for these purposes: Teletherapy (Co-60), Brach-therapy (Cs-137, Sr-89), Nuclear Medicine (P-32, Tc-99m, 1-131, 1-125, Ga-67, In-111, Tl-206), Nuclear gauge (Am-241, Cs- 137, Sr-90, Kr-85), Industrial radiography (Am-241, C-137, Co-60, lr-92), Research and Teaching (1-125, Am241/Be, Co-60, Cs-137, H-3 etc). According to IAEA definition, these radioactive sources become radioactive waste if they meet the following criteria: if they have outlived their usefulness, if they have been abandoned, if they have been displaced without authorization, and if they contaminate other substances. Besides the origin of radioactive wastes, special emphasis will also be placed on the existing radiation regulations that guide disposal of radioactive waste, and the radioactive infrastructure Tanzania needs for ultimate radioactive waste management. Specific examples of incidences (theft, loss, abandonment and illegal possession) of radioactive waste that could have led to serious deterministic radiation effects to humans will also be presented. (author)
We have a rich history of supporting research in Tanzania, a politically stable democracy. ... importance of improving health and agriculture in order to reduce poverty. ... For more than a decade, we have provided grants that foster the capacity to ... fellowships and foster links between researchers and institutions in Tanzania ...
Poverty reduction through growth is the idea behind the market-oriented reforms that Tanzania has undertaken since the mid-1980s. However, poverty is still ... Outputs. Papers. Private sector development in Tanzania : opportunities, challenges and strategic interventions to enhance competitiveness; final report. 42201.
Alexander Soucy is correct to identify insecticide-treated bednets and inexpensive anti-malarial drugs as crucial to the global fight against malaria ('An easy way to save three million lives,' April 26). Read more about Tanzania ... Legislation on competition brings productivity and business investment to Tanzania. Increasing ...
This paper aims at identifying research gaps and needs and recommendations for a research agenda on water resources management in Tanzania. We reviewed published literature on water resources management in Tanzania in order to highlight what is currently known, and to identify knowledge gaps, and suggest ...
Language French. Read more about Quality Improvement for Maternal and Newborn Health in Mtwara Region, Tanzania (IMCHA). Language English. Read more about Building an Enhanced Cadre of Community Health Workers to Improve Maternal and Newborn Health in Rural Tanzania (IMCHA). Language English.
Industrializing Secondary Schools in Tanzania through Scientific Innovations. ... Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania ... Through review of various innovations developed by universities including SUA, it was established that there are several innovations in different fields especially in crop cultivation, animal ...
their waste assimilative capacity is a threat to both ecology of the ecosystems and health of the ... pesticide residues in river water and sediments from northern Tanzania. .... Pangani River Basin Water Board (PBWB). ..... release of Ni in the environment are forest fires and .... Atlantic Ocean: natural and human influences.
Full Text Available Tourism activities occurring on communal lands such as Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs are increasing in Tanzania. This is the result of natural resources governance reforms aimed to empower communities to manage and benefit directly from resources found in their jurisdictions. This article explores the impacts of taxes imposed on tourism activities occurring on communal lands and the emerging politics of resource and revenue sharing among WMA member villages. In the process, we use empirical data gathered from two WMAs in northern Tanzania between 2006 and 2016. We find that while the current high tax rates on tourism businesses occurring at the grassroots level reduce revenue earned by communities, the main challenge facing the studied WMAs is the model of revenue sharing among WMA member villages. Currently, as the result of WMA regulations, villages which had prior arrangement with tour operators in their land have suffered revenue losses as they have to share revenue equally with other members of the WMA. We argue that the current tax regime coupled with the contested cost and benefit sharing model not only lower returns to grassroots communities--which in turn discourage their much needed participation in conservation-tourism initiatives--but also generate new forms of struggles over resource control.
Haagen Larsen, Pernille; Schack Wiedenbeien, Emma; Nørreager Christensen, Martin; Høj Brunn, Christoffer; Ferklov, Vladik
In our group, it has been decided to write about the growth in Africa. We believe a conflict can be seen between the year of focus to effort an improvement in Africa’s growth and the lack of change. However it is to be seen that there is a noticeable change compared to the time minimal effort spent. As case we have chosen to look at the conditions of establishing further expanding, development and growth of one of the poorest countries in the world, Tanzania. We have chosen to look into the e...
Benson, J S
In the late 1980s, many developing countries were forced to adopt structural adjustment policies as a condition for securing loans from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. One of the World Bank's recommended policies was to change the mix of private and public health facilities. This study, based on fieldwork done in Tanzania in 1993, examines the impact of this policy on health-care accessibility in two northern Tanzanian districts, one rural and one urban. Accessibility was measured in terms of equality and equity of coverage. The placement of the very few government clinics opened during the years 1985-1993 did much more to improve coverage than the haphazard location of many new private clinics. Equity was not improved as very few clinics were placed in demographically needy areas.
Sawe, S.F.; Sungita, Y.Y.
Nuclear information management and the applications of nuclear technology in Tanzania are limited to medical, agriculture, research and some industrial applications. It is demanding that the National database for nuclear information be established to keep the track of the information on radiation facilities, manpower development, radiation sources and radioactive waste management. In this paper the current status of nuclear information management in Tanzania is presented. The development, setbacks and future plans for establishment of national database with consequent improvement of nuclear information management are discussed. The National Radiation Commission (NRC) which is an official government body responsible for atomic energy matters in collaboration with other institutions applying nuclear technology keeps the records and inventory of facilities, manpower development and projects related to the nuclear field. The available information about nuclear application activities has been obtained through possessors' declaration, monitoring at entry/exit points, periodic reports from the licensees, radiation safety inspections, and the available link with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In order to facilitate the dissemination of information, five ICT centres to serve in the fields of research, nuclear instrumentation, human health and agriculture have been established. The inventory of radiation facilities/materials and human resource is being build up as an initial input to the National database. Establishment of INIS centre is expected to improve the nuclear information management system in the country. The government and the IAEA are encouraged to support nuclear information management especially by strengthening ICT centres and facilitating the establishment of INIS National centre. (author)
Sawe, S.F.; Sungita, Y.Y.
Full text: Nuclear information management and the applications of nuclear technology in Tanzania are limited to medical, agriculture, research and some industrial applications. It is demanding that the National database for nuclear information be established to keep the track of the information on radiation facilities, manpower development, radiation sources and radioactive waste management. In this paper the current status of nuclear information management in Tanzania is presented. The development, setbacks and future plans for establishment of national database with consequent improvement of nuclear information management are discussed. The National Radiation Commission (NRC) which is an official government body responsible for atomic energy matters in collaboration with other institutions applying nuclear technology, keeps the records and inventory of facilities, manpower development and projects related to the nuclear field. The available information about nuclear application activities has been obtained through possessors' declaration, monitoring at entry/exit points, periodic reports from the licensees, radiation safety inspections, and the available link with the International Atomic Agency (IAEA). In order to facilitate the dissemination of information, five ICT centers to serve in the fields of research, nuclear instrumentation, human health and agriculture have been established. The inventory of radiation facilities/materials and human resource is being build up as an initial input to the National database. Establishment of INIS center is expected to improve the nuclear information management system in the country. The government and the IAEA are encouraged to support nuclear information management especially by strengthening ICT centers and facilitating the establishment of INIS National center. (author)
Subsequent stool samples were preserved in 5% formalin in saline and subjected to ether sedimentation for microscopic examination and identification. Of 1460 patients, 305 (20.9 %) were diagnosed positive for fascioliasis based on the demonstration of brownish, oval eggs with inconspicuous opercula. Two distinct egg ...
Hellings, B.F.; Romijn, H.A.; Franken, Y.J.
This study investigates the carbon sequestration capacity of Jatropha curcas, a tropical tree-like shrub that is widely cultivated for the production of oilseeds for biodiesel and biokerosene. It applies a destructive research approach on fifteen Jatropha trees of different ages growing in the field
Aug 20, 2007 ... gypsum significantly (p≤0.05) improved pH, electrical conductivity of the saturated paste (ECe), ... Owing to the problems of land shortage, some farmers in this area ... Longoi village in the east, Tanganyika Planting Company sugar estate in the south, .... was followed by FYM and gypsum supplied alone.
Dec 27, 2013 ... in Tanzania: a breeding record in a traditional beehive ... Scimitarbills Rhinopomastus minor entering a hole on the bottom of one of the bee- ... resident of open bushed and wooded habitats in lower rainfall areas east of Lake.
But the quality of formal education in Tanzania is poor. Less than 12 percent ... NGOs offer a broad range of services and training for youth, including fostering ..... Service workers. 20.6 ..... customer/market validation training provided by profes-.
Financial institutions in Tanzania have operated under a competitive financial system ... to move away from the tenets of a centrally planned economy towards free-market orientation. ... They have also favored traders rather than producers.
industry in Tanzania economy, it has been shown repeatedly ... What factors restrain faster growth of domestic .... needs (i.e. food, clothing and shelter) is no longer ... communication network) and social services ..... Advertising, Promotion and.
Tanzania Journal of Science (TJS), is professional, peer reviewed journal, published in ... Optics, Thin films, Zoography, Military sciences, Biological sciences, Biodiversity, ... animal and veterinary sciences, Geology, Agricultural Sciences, Cytology, ... available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.
by human-induced activities. Over the past ... Review of water resources management in Tanzania; Global literature review on water resources ..... requirements for biodiversity and human health. .... Global warming is altering regional climates.
example, the contribution from vegetable products fell by 7%, and that from textiles .... 43 -‐ Furskins and artificial fur, manufactures thereof ... example, while Tanzania has comparative advantage in raw hides and skins (see Figure 6), it.
A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in four regions of Tanzania with a total of 160 sellers ... washing; and (iii) marketing: retail markup, price variation by season, year and region, ..... and endosulfan and metalaxyl/mencozeb mix as.
US Agency for International Development — MEMS II is a two-year project to enable USAID/Tanzania and a number of its partners to meet their multifold performance reporting responsibilities; upgrade,...
Hutton, Mary Olivia; Leach, Allison M.; Leip, Adrian; Galloway, James N.; Bekunda, Mateete; Sullivan, Clare; Lesschen, Jan Peter
We present the first nitrogen footprint model for a developing country: Tanzania. Nitrogen (N) is a crucial element for agriculture and human nutrition, but in excess it can cause serious environmental damage. The Sub-Saharan African nation of Tanzania faces a two-sided nitrogen problem: while there is not enough soil nitrogen to produce adequate food, excess nitrogen that escapes into the environment causes a cascade of ecological and human health problems. To identify, quantify, and contribute to solving these problems, this paper presents a nitrogen footprint tool for Tanzania. This nitrogen footprint tool is a concept originally designed for the United States of America (USA) and other developed countries. It uses personal resource consumption data to calculate a per-capita nitrogen footprint. The Tanzania N footprint tool is a version adapted to reflect the low-input, integrated agricultural system of Tanzania. This is reflected by calculating two sets of virtual N factors to describe N losses during food production: one for fertilized farms and one for unfertilized farms. Soil mining factors are also calculated for the first time to address the amount of N removed from the soil to produce food. The average per-capita nitrogen footprint of Tanzania is 10 kg N yr-1. 88% of this footprint is due to food consumption and production, while only 12% of the footprint is due to energy use. Although 91% of farms in Tanzania are unfertilized, the large contribution of fertilized farms to N losses causes unfertilized farms to make up just 83% of the food production N footprint. In a developing country like Tanzania, the main audiences for the N footprint tool are community leaders, planners, and developers who can impact decision-making and use the calculator to plan positive changes for nitrogen sustainability in the developing world.
Kazaura, Method R; Masatu, Melkiory C
Abstract Background Sexual activities are increasingly changing from the cultural point of view what they used to be. Knowledge of these practices among adolescents may be a basis to create awareness among adolescents on practices that involve risks. This study aims to assess sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among in-school and out-of-school but unmarried adolescents aged 10 to 19 in five locations in Tanzania. A question...
Across Africa, postharvest losses along the food chain from farm to fork jeopardize the food ... Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Benin, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania ... Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania.
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Tanzania Veterinary Journal - Vol 32, No 1 (2017) ... factors for porcine cysticercosis transmission and animal welfare in selected villages in Nyasa, Tanzania ... Thoracic radiographic anatomy in sheep · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT
Socio-economic Status and Women Empowerment in Rural Tanzania: A Case of Onion ... Tanzania Journal of Development Studies ... Therefore the government, nongovernmental organisations and development programmes espousing to ...
Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard
A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania......A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania...
Mweya, Clement N.; Kimera, Sharadhuli I.; Mellau, Lesakit S. B.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.
Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis that primarily affects ruminants but also has the capacity to infect humans. Objective: To determine the abundance and distribution of mosquito vectors in relation to their potential role in the virus transmission and maintenance in disease epidemic areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional entomological investigation was carried out before the suspected RVF outbreak in October 2012. Mos...
Gregory, T.; Sewando, P.
Adoption of technology is an important factor in economic development. The thrust of this study was to establish factors affecting adoption of QPM technology in Northern zone of Tanzania. Primary data was collected from a random sample of 120 smallholder maize farmers in four villages. Data collected were analysed using descriptive and quantitative methods. Logit model was used to determine factors that influence adoption of QPM technology. The regression results indicated that education of t...
Sindato, Calvin; Stevens, Kim B.; Karimuribo, Esron D.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Paweska, Janusz T.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.
Background Despite the long history of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Tanzania, extent of its suitable habitat in the country remains unclear. In this study we investigated potential effects of temperature, precipitation, elevation, soil type, livestock density, rainfall pattern, proximity to wild animals, protected areas and forest on the habitat suitability for RVF occurrence in Tanzania. Materials and Methods Presence-only records of 193 RVF outbreak locations from 1930 to 2007 together with potential predictor variables were used to model and map the suitable habitats for RVF occurrence using ecological niche modelling. Ground-truthing of the model outputs was conducted by comparing the levels of RVF virus specific antibodies in cattle, sheep and goats sampled from locations in Tanzania that presented different predicted habitat suitability values. Principal Findings Habitat suitability values for RVF occurrence were higher in the northern and central-eastern regions of Tanzania than the rest of the regions in the country. Soil type and precipitation of the wettest quarter contributed equally to habitat suitability (32.4% each), followed by livestock density (25.9%) and rainfall pattern (9.3%). Ground-truthing of model outputs revealed that the odds of an animal being seropositive for RVFV when sampled from areas predicted to be most suitable for RVF occurrence were twice the odds of an animal sampled from areas least suitable for RVF occurrence (95% CI: 1.43, 2.76, p < 0.001). Conclusion/Significance The regions in the northern and central-eastern Tanzania were more suitable for RVF occurrence than the rest of the regions in the country. The modelled suitable habitat is characterised by impermeable soils, moderate precipitation in the wettest quarter, high livestock density and a bimodal rainfall pattern. The findings of this study should provide guidance for the design of appropriate RVF surveillance, prevention and control strategies which target areas with
Muro, Florida; Meta, Judith; Renju, Jenny; Mushi, Adiel; Mbakilwa, Hilda; Olomi, Raimos; Reyburn, Hugh; Hildenwall, Helena
Pneumonia is among the leading causes of avoidable deaths for young children globally. The main burden of mortality falls on children from poor and rural families who are less likely to obtain the treatment they need, highlighting inequities in access to effective care and treatment. Caretakers' illness perceptions and care-seeking practices are of major importance for children with pneumonia to receive adequate care. This study qualitatively explores the caretaker concepts of childhood pneumonia in relation to treatment seeking behaviour and health worker management in Moshi urban district, Tanzania. In May - July 2013 data was gathered through different qualitative data collection techniques including five focus group discussions (FGDs) with mothers of children under-five years of age. The FGDs involved free listing of pneumonia symptoms and video presentations of children with respiratory symptoms done, these were triangulated with ten case narratives with mothers of children admitted with pneumonia and eleven in-depth interviews with hospital health workers. Transcripts were coded and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Mothers demonstrated good awareness of common childhood illnesses including pneumonia, which was often associated with symptoms such as cough, flu, chest tightness, fever, and difficulty in breathing. Mothers had mixed views on causative factors and treatments options but generally preferred modern medicine for persisting and severe symptoms. However, all respondent reported access to health facilities as a barrier to care, associated with transport, personal safety and economic constraints. Local illness concepts and traditional treatment options did not constitute barriers to care for pneumonia symptoms. Poor access to health facilities was the main barrier. Decentralisation of care through community health workers may improve access to care but needs to be combined with strengthened referral systems and accessible hospital care for
variation (Seebeck, 1973: Mackinnon-e't ar: 1990): Majority of paststlidies"on' reproductive performance from' tropicar-are'as have been' largely limited to'the assessment of effects of>. ·no'n.,genetk factors and breed difference's : '(Galiila. and Arthur, 1989), Genetic parameter es-, timates and infonnation. on the'extent of ...
Nandonde, Felix Adamu
In the last decade, the economy of African continent and Tanzania in particular has witnessed a business boom of the tourism sector. While the sector has continued to grow and become a dependable source of direct and indirect employment to youths in urban and rural areas, the sector has been awash...... with challenges. These challenges include terrorism attacks, energy crises and poor infrastructure. However, the impact of these challenges on the image of Tanzania as a tourist destination has not received the deserved attention. This study explores the perception of visitors towards Tanzania as a tourist....... Front line employees, various tourist sites and access to services emerged to be strong tourist destination image factors. This implies that the efforts of marketing tourism destination should focus on promoting all the sites the country has....
Kandi Catherine Muze
Full Text Available Tanzania is located in east Africa with a population of 45 million. The country′s population is growing at 2.5% annually. The International Diabetes Federation Child Sponsorship Program was launched in Tanzania in 2005. The number of type 1 diabetes mellitus children enrolled in the changing diabetes in children program in Tanzania has augmented from almost below 50 in 2005 to over 1200 in 2014. The country had an overall trend of HbA1c value of 14% in 2005 while the same has reduced over the years to 10% in 2012-13. The program has been able to reduce the proportion of patients with HbA1c values of 11-14%; from 71.9% in 2008 to 49.8% in 2012-13. The challenges, which CDiC faces are misdiagnosis, low public awareness, and stigma especially in the reproductive age/adolescent groups.
Catalano, Deborah; Biasibetti, Elena; Lynen, Godelieve; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; De Meneghi, Daniele; Tomassone, Laura; Valenza, Federico; Capucchio, Maria Teresa
"Ormilo" disease is a neurological disorder of cattle described by Maasai herders in Tanzania. It is attributed to infection by Theileria species, although no detailed data are available in the literature. The authors describe the macroscopical and histological changes observed in 30 brains of indigenous short-horn zebu cattle from Northern Tanzania, aged 2-9 years, with the characteristic neurological signs of "Ormilo". Moreover, the ultrastructural details observed in 14 selected brain samples were reported. Areas of congestion and hemorrhages, associated with the obstruction of the cerebral vessels with large numbers of parasitized lymphoid cells, were observed. Electron microscopy showed the presence of intralymphocytic parasites morphologically comparable to flagellated protozoa, not previously described in the lymphoid cells of cattle, but only reported during the sexual stages within the vector. Theileria taurotragi was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot (RLB) in nine samples. The authors hypothesize that the parasite detected by electron microscopy could be a strain of a Theileria endemic to this region till now not investigated, having an intralymphocytic phase and being associated with other Theileria spp. infestation. Further studies are needed to better understand the etiology of "Ormilo" disease and to characterize the morphology of the observed parasite, clarifying its role in the disease in Tanzania.
Kweka, Eliningaya J; Nkya, Watoky M M; Mahande, Aneth M
. Sporozoite infectivity rates, mosquito host blood meal source, bed net coverage and mosquito abundance were assessed in this study. METHODOLOGY: A longitudinal survey was conducted in four villages in two regions of Tanzania. Malaria vectors were sampled using the CDC light trap and pyrethrum spray catch...... methods. In each village, ten paired houses were selected for mosquitoes sampling. Sampling was done in fortnight case and study was undertaken for six months in both Kilimanjaro (Northern Tanzania) and Dodoma (Central Tanzania) regions. RESULTS: A total of 6,883 mosquitoes were collected including: 5......,628 (81.8%) Anopheles arabiensis, 1,100 (15.9%) Culex quinquefasciatus, 89 (1.4%) Anopheles funestus, and 66 (0.9%) Anopheles gambiae s.s. Of the total mosquitoes collected 3,861 were captured by CDC light trap and 3,022 by the pyrethrum spray catch method. The overall light trap: spray catch ratio was 1...
Muhogora, W.E.; Nyanda, A.M.; Ngaile, J.E.; Lema, U.S.
This paper describes the present status of occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers in Tanzania from 1986 to 1997. The analysis of dose records observes over this period, a fluctuating trend both in the individual and collective doses. The trend is more related to the fluctuations of the number of radiation workers than to the possible radiation safety changes of the working conditions. It has been found that, the maximum annual dose for the worker in all work categories was about 18 mSv y -1 . This suggests that the occupational radiation exposure in all practices satisfies the current dose limitation system. The national exposure summary shows that, the highest collective dose of 12.8 man-Sv which is 90% of the total collective dose, was due to medical applications. The applications in industry and research had a contribution of nearly 0.8 and 0.7 man-Sv respectively. From the professional point of view, the medical diagnostic radiographers received the highest collective dose of 11.2 man-Sv. Although the medical physicists recorded the minimum collective dose of nearly 0.07 man-Sv, the data shows that this profession received the highest mean dose of about 33 mSv in 12 years. Some achievements of the personnel monitoring services and suggestions for future improvement are pointed out. (author)
A transcultural nursing course in Tanzania was offered in fall 2010 at Williston State College, located in North Dakota. Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care: Diversity and Universality Theory (Principles of Developing Cultural Competence) was the framework used for the experience. The course provided nursing students the opportunity to learn about the culture, health, and illness beliefs of Tanzanians; their values and practices; the prevalence of HIV/AIDS; and the differences and similarities between the healthcare systems, hospice/palliative care, and home visits in Tanzania as compared to the United States.
Lyimo, Frida S; Beran, Tanya N
Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, which comprises approximately 12% of all cancers in women. In Tanzania, the estimated incidence rate is 30 to 40 per 100,000 women, indicating a high disease burden. Cervical cancer screening is acknowledged as currently the most effective approach for cervical cancer control, and it is associated with reduced incidence and mortality from the disease. The aim of the study was to identify the most important factors related to the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania. A cross sectional study was conducted with a sample of 354 women aged 18 to 69 years residing in Moshi Rural District. A multistage sampling technique was used to randomly select eligible women. A one-hour interview was conducted with each woman in her home. The 17 questions were modified from similar questions used in previous research. Less than one quarter (22.6%) of the participants had obtained cervical cancer screening. The following characteristics, when examined separately in relation to the uptake of cervical cancer screening service, were significant: husband approval of cervical cancer screening, women's level of education, women's knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention, women's concerns about embarrassment and pain of screening, women's preference for the sex of health provider, and women's awareness of and distance to cervical cancer screening services. When examined simultaneously in a logistic regression, we found that only knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention (OR = 8.90, 95%CI = 2.14-16.03) and distance to the facility which provides cervical cancer screening (OR = 3.98, 95%CI = 0.18-5.10) were significantly associated with screening uptake. Based on the study findings, three recommendations are made. First, information about cervical cancer must be presented to women. Second, public education of the disease must include specific information on how to prevent it
Lyimo Frida S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, which comprises approximately 12% of all cancers in women. In Tanzania, the estimated incidence rate is 30 to 40 per 100,000 women, indicating a high disease burden. Cervical cancer screening is acknowledged as currently the most effective approach for cervical cancer control, and it is associated with reduced incidence and mortality from the disease. The aim of the study was to identify the most important factors related to the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted with a sample of 354 women aged 18 to 69 years residing in Moshi Rural District. A multistage sampling technique was used to randomly select eligible women. A one-hour interview was conducted with each woman in her home. The 17 questions were modified from similar questions used in previous research. Results Less than one quarter (22.6% of the participants had obtained cervical cancer screening. The following characteristics, when examined separately in relation to the uptake of cervical cancer screening service, were significant: husband approval of cervical cancer screening, women's level of education, women's knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention, women's concerns about embarrassment and pain of screening, women's preference for the sex of health provider, and women's awareness of and distance to cervical cancer screening services. When examined simultaneously in a logistic regression, we found that only knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention (OR = 8.90, 95%CI = 2.14-16.03 and distance to the facility which provides cervical cancer screening (OR = 3.98, 95%CI = 0.18-5.10 were significantly associated with screening uptake. Conclusions Based on the study findings, three recommendations are made. First, information about cervical cancer must be presented to women. Second, public education of
A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the occurrence and distribution patterns of rabies cases in northern Tanzania. Data on laboratory confirmed brain samples and associated case reports submitted to the Arusha Veterinary Investigation Centre, for a period of ten years (1993-2002) was retrieved and ...
The construction industry generates a lot of construction and demolition (C&D) waste which puts some challenges to its management. For example, currently, in many towns in Tanzania, there are no landfill sites for solid waste disposal; and as a consequence open air dumping sites are used. Dumping C&D waste puts ...
Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Marketing Dental Services. R Tuominen. Abstract. No Abstract.
Dec 16, 2015 ... Return to main page, Addressing the youth employment challenge in Africa. Related links: Youth Employment Promotion a Priority Agenda for Tanzania, The Guardian; Report: National Stakeholders Consultative Workshop on Youth Employment (PDF, 1.74 MB); Watch the workshop video on YouTube ...
Cuaron, A.; Hance, R.; Yurtsever, Y.; Maudarbocus, V.
This document provides a review of past and present IAEA Technical Co-operation Activities in Tanzania and gives descriptions of the current status of nuclear applications in food and agriculture, human health, water resources and industrial applications/nuclear instrumentation
Home · South of Sahara. Tanzania. Tanzanie. Read more about Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change in Africa. Language English. Read more about Free and Open Source Management Information Systems and Microfinance - Phase II. Language English. Read more about La microfinance et les TIC : systèmes ...
Natural products 'historically' and 'today' have vast importance. This article describes the course 'Natural Product Chemistry', a new course in the 2011/2012 academic year in the Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences at St. John's University of Tanzania. It reveals how the course has been applied to the African and ...
Corn, cassava and pulses are the main food sources in rural Tanzania. Meat is scarce for rural populations, and don't expect to find carrots, kale or squash at the local market! Animal products – particularly offal –, green vegetables and orange fruits and vegetables are the best sources of vitamin A. As a result, Tanzanians ...
Researchers working in Tanzania's Morogoro and Dodoma districts have made an important discovery. By fortifying hay with cassava tops and sweet potato vines, they provided dairy goats with a cheap, protein-rich feed that enabled them to produce more milk. Read more about Better feed for animals means better food for ...
Introducing dairy goats in semi-arid regions of Tanzania has led to farmers earning US$160 from milk sales during the first lactation, as well as an increase in household milk consumption. In these trials led by Canadian and Tanzanian researchers, cassava and sweet potato leaves are a significant feed supplement.
Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (1989) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. AIDS in dentistry. RJ Muya. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.
Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (1989) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...
Read more about Promoting locally fortified sunflower oil using e-vouchers. Language English. Read more about Affordable natural product reduces fruit losses, increases incomes. Language English. Read more about Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania. Language English. Read more about Élevage de la ...
Introduction. Agriculture is a key sector of economy in Tanzania. ... media to reach a wide audience, newspapers have additional advantages of being in permanent form ... advertisements, politics, entertainment, and crime events while ignoring developmental topics such as ..... Social Sciences, 3(8): 578–582. Kayode, J.
The Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation accommodates the current diverse and multidisciplinary approaches towards ecosystem conservation at national and global levels. The journal is published biannually and accepts research and review papers covering technological, physical, biological, social and ...
This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR)intends to determine the compatibility of national procurement law, and practices, with the principles of economy, and with international procurement practices. This CPAR, the second of its kind in Tanzania, looks at the legislative framework, the performance of regulatory functions, the enforcement regime, and the capacity of public sector ...
Increasing demand for biofuels as a component of climate change mitigation, energy security, and a fossil fuel alternative attracts investors to developing countries like Tanzania. Ample unused land is critical for first generation biofuels production and an important feature to attract foreign direct investments that can contribute towards agricultural modernization and poverty reduction initiatives. Despite the economic justifications, the existing institutional and infrastructural capacities dictate the impacts of biofuels market penetrations. Furthermore, exogenous factors like global recessionary pressure depressed oil prices below the level at which biofuel production were profitable in 2007, making Tanzania's competitiveness and potential benefits questionable. This paper investigates the extent that first generation, jatropha-based biofuels industry development in Tanzania observed during fieldwork in Kisarawe and Bahi may fulfill policy objectives. This paper argues that without strong regulatory frameworks for land, investment management, and rural development, biofuel industrialization could further exacerbate poverty and food insecurity in Tanzania. The paper concludes with policy recommendations for first generation biofuel development while keeping in mind implications of second generation production. Since the topic is broad and multifaceted, a multidisciplinary approach is used that includes political, institutional, and agricultural economics to analyze and conceptualize biofuel industry development and food security.
Tobacco consumption in Tanzania rose by 20% between 2002 and 2007, and is predicted to increase by a further 46% by 2016. The impact of this increase in consumption on public health and economic development is likely to be serious. Experience elsewhere has shown that the single most effective way to reverse this ...
Language English. Read more about Taxes sur les cigarettes en Tanzanie. Language French. Read more about Cigarette Taxation in Tanzania. Language English. Read more about Réseau des développeurs - logiciels d'exploitation libre pour assistants numériques personnels utilisés dans la collecte de données sur la ...
Language English. Read more about Bourses de recherche pour la lutte antitabac en Afrique. Language French. Read more about Tobacco Control Research Scholarships in Africa. Language English. Read more about Leveraging Indigenous Knowledge to Create Jobs for Women in Rural Areas of Tanzania and Rwanda.
Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 2 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...
The Kenyan sociologist and gender specialist at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) has heard the stories first-hand from her work in hundreds of communities throughout Kenya, Tanzania, and southern Africa. Read more about Empowering African women and communities through agriculture. Language ...
In addition, the rules and regulations of the public administrative system do not allow for an effective and efficient management of road maintenance. Lack of equipment and adequate qualified personnel in the field of road maintenance is too an added deficiency. As a consequence, Tanzania has started to put road ...
However, these many-legged animals are not insects (which have three .... Simon Stuart, who was carrying out studies on birds, contributed many specimens ... Diversity Project of November 1994 provided a series of millipede specimens. ... Tanzania records: Morogoro Region, Morogoro Rural Distr., Uluguru Mts, Lupanga.
Simonsen, Paul Erik; Derua, Yahya A.; Magesa, Stephen M.
BackgroundLymphatic filariasis (LF) control started in Tanga Region of Tanzania in 2004, with annual ivermectin/albendazole mass drug administration (MDA). Since then, the current project has monitored the effect in communities and schools in rural areas of Tanga District. In 2013, after 8 rounds...
Steven, Ester; Reich, Naomi; Badi, Lilian; Messersmith, Lisa
In recent years, major global institutions have amplified their efforts to address intimate partner violence (IPV) against women—a global health and human rights violation affecting 15–71% of reproductive aged women over their lifetimes. Still, some scholars remain concerned about the validity of instruments used for IPV assessment in population-based studies. In this paper, we conducted two validation analyses using novel data from 450 women-men dyads across nine villages in Northern Tanzania. First, we examined the level of inter-partner agreement in reporting of men’s physical, sexual, emotional and economic IPV against women in the last three and twelve months prior to the survey, ever in the relationship, and during pregnancy. Second, we conducted a convergent validity analysis to compare the relative efficacy of men’s self-reports of perpetration and women’s of victimization as a valid indicator of IPV against Tanzanian women using logistic regression models with village-level clustered errors. We found that, for every violence type across the recall periods of the last three months, the last twelve months and ever in the relationship, at least one in three couples disagreed about IPV occurrences in the relationship. Couples’ agreement about physical, sexual and economic IPV during pregnancy was high with 86–93% of couples reporting concordantly. Also, men’s self-reported perpetration had statistically significant associations with at least as many validated risk factors as had women’s self-reported victimization. This finding suggests that men’s self-reports are at least as valid as women’s as an indicator of IPV against women in Northern Tanzania. We recommend more validation studies are conducted in low-income countries, and that data on relationship factors affecting IPV reports and reporting are made available along with data on IPV occurrences. Keywords: Intimate partner violence; measurement; validity; survey research; Tanzania
Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities
Harrison, Terry; Msuya, Charles P.
Recent paleontological investigations at Laetoli and neighboring localities in northern Tanzania have produced a large collection of fossil ostrich eggshells from the Pliocene-aged Laetolil Beds (˜3.5-4.5 Ma) and Ndolanya Beds (˜2.6-2.7 Ma). A detailed analysis of the morphology of the eggshells and their taxonomic affinities indicates that two different species of Struthio are represented. In the Lower Laetolil Beds and in the Upper Laetolil Beds below Tuff 3 a new species is recognized— Struthio kakesiensis. This is replaced in the Upper Laetolil Beds by Struthio camelus, the modern species of ostrich. Since radiometric age determinations are available for the stratigraphic sequence at Laetoli, it is possible to precisely date the first appearance of S. camelus at ˜3.6-3.8 Ma. Comparisons of the Laetoli material with specimens from the well-dated sequences at Lothagam and Kanapoi in northern Kenya, allow the taxonomic and biochronological analysis to be extended back in time to the late Miocene. At about 6.5 Ma, Diamantornis and elephant birds were replaced in East Africa by ostriches belonging to the genus Struthio. Three time-successive species of ostriches are identified in the fossil record of East Africa, beginning with Struthio. cf. karingarabensis (˜6.5-4.2 Ma), followed by S. kakesiensis (˜4.5-3.6 Ma) and then S. camelus (˜3.8 Ma onwards). A similar sequence of taxa has previously been recorded from localities in Namibia, but at these sites there is no possibility to precisely calibrate the ages of the different species using radiometric dating. Nevertheless, the broadly similar evolutionary sequence and the close correspondence in inferred ages for the succession of species in East Africa and Namibia suggest that ostrich eggshells are a very useful tool for biochronological correlation of paleontological sites in sub-Saharan Africa.
The aim of the study was to investigate a genitally associated disease and to describe its clinical manifestation and aetiology in baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in the United Republic of Tanzania. Lake Manyara National Park is located in the northern part of the country, 160 km northwest of the Mt. Kilimanjaro. It is among the smallest protected areas, but belongs to the extended ecosystem of the Serengeti, Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Lake Manyara and Tarangire National Park. The...
It is 2002. Parents and babies wait patiently to see the community health worker in Mvomero, Tanzania. “People have faith in the services. They are treated well and diagnosed properly,” says Samuel Hassain, here with his sick grandson. Health worker Y.E. Kapito marvels that “it has been six to eight months since I heard of ...
management approaches and strategies implemented by various ICM programs, conservation areas and marine parks in Tanzania. It also provides recommendations for further research and coral reef management strategies. Keywords: coral reefs, threats, management, recent initiatives, Tanzania West Indian Ocean ...
Dr A.S. Samzugi
universities. Kasulwa's (2008) report has mentioned the automation efforts in Tanzania, ... System (EMIS) and E-Library system for All Higher Education and Research Institutions in. Tanzania. ... Both telephone and face-to-face methods were used. ... Qualitative data collected from interviews with directors of libraries, on the.
This paper discusses fiscal space creation and use in the context of development of social sectors in Tanzania. The paper observes that Tanzania is making good progress in creating and using her fiscal space. The priority being accorded to social sectors, especially in education and health is in the right direction. However ...
In Tanzania, the maternal mortality rate of 454 deaths per 100,000 live births means that ... and employment options in poor rural communities in Rwanda and Tanzania. ... of fruit results in post-harvest losses of nearly 40% in tropical countries.
This study traces the development of special needs education in Tanzania from 1950, and discusses the achievements and the persistent challenges that Tanzania is facing as we celebrate 60 years since the first special education school was started. Both documentation and interview methods were used to collect ...
Topic: ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, HEALTH EXPENDITURE, HEALTH FINANCING. Region: South of Sahara, Ghana, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, South Africa. Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 366,015.00. Food Security, Adequate Care and Environment (Tanzania and Malawi). Project.
The paper starts by examining the concept of social security in Tanzania, showing that there are three key issues in social security which have not been adequately addressed by existing social security schemes and need immediate attention. The paper then examines the nature and forms of social security in Tanzania in a ...
Planning a Family: Priorities and Concerns in Rural Tanzania. T Marchant, AK Mushi, R Nathan, O Mukasa, S Abdulla, C Lengeler, JRM Armstrong Schellenberg. Abstract. A fertility survey using qualitative and quantitative techniques described a high fertility setting (TFR 5.8) in southern Tanzania where family planning use ...
Sujet: HIV, MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH, PREGNANCY, VIRUSES, TANZANIA, ZAMBIA, BOTSWANA, DISEASE TRANSMISSION, Gender. Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Botswana, Tanzania, Zambia. Programme: Santé des mères et des enfants. Financement total : CA$ 55,000.00. Les pertes après ...
Clinical manifestations and outcomes of severe malaria among children admitted to Rungwe and Kyela district hospitals in south-western Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL ... Dermatological malignancies at a University teaching Hospital in Northwestern Tanzania: A retrospective review of 154 cases · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ...
Full text: On the occasion of World Cancer Day (4 February), the IAEA announced that its Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) will establish its first Centre of Excellence in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. This low-income East African country has one of the continent's highest cancer rates and only one cancer treatment centre. 'Cancer is a growing crisis all across the developing world,' explains IAEA Director General and Nobel Laureate Mohammed ElBaradei. 'We can save thousands of lives if we put together the tools, the knowledge and the political will to fight cancer effectively,' he said. Cancer is the second most common cause of death worldwide after cardiovascular disease. Over 7 million people died of cancer in 2005, and close to 11 million new cancer cases were diagnosed, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). More than 70 percent of cancer deaths now occur in low and middle income countries - the very countries least able to address this growing burden. Cancer-related deaths are projected to increase to more than 9 million people annually by 2015. Already cancer claims twice the number of lives worldwide as AIDS. Low income nations now face a dual burden of communicable and chronic diseases such as cancer. The IAEA spends about 12 million dollars each year for improving cancer treatment in the developing world. Last year, it established the Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT), to build partnerships with the WHO and other organizations dedicated to controlling cancer. Much of the IAEA's share of the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize Award has been dedicated to helping the developing world deal with the dramatic rise in cancer that is overwhelming limited health resources and equipment. The harsh reality of developing nations is one of overburdened health systems with little cancer screening and unnecessarily late cancer diagnosis and non-curative treatment. The IAEA estimates that approximately 5,000 cancer care centres and systems - plus the
Kimanya, Martin E; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Van Camp, John; Baert, Katleen; Kolsteren, Patrick
Feeding infants with maize can expose them to fumonisin mycotoxins. We assessed fumonisin exposure from complementary foods in rural Tanzania and determined strategies to reduce the exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study in four villages of Tarakea division, Northern Tanzania. We used a repeat 24-hour dietary recall to collect data of maize consumption as complementary food for 254 infants aged 6-8 months. Fumonisin concentrations in the maize were also estimated. Fumonisin exposure was assessed using @risk analysis software. With the software, several maximum fumonisin contamination and maize consumption patterns were combined in order to determine effective strategies for minimizing fumonisin exposure. Of the infants, 89% consumed maize at amounts up to 158g/person/day (mean; 43g/person/day±28). The maize was contaminated with fumonisins at levels up to 3201µgkg(-1) . Risk of fumonisin intake above the provisional maximum tolerable daily limit of 2µgkg(-1) body weight was 15% (95% confidence interval; 10-19). The risk was minimized when the maximum contamination was set at 150µgkg(-1) . The risk was also minimized when the maximum consumption was set at 20g/child/day while keeping the maximum contamination at the European Union (EU) maximum tolerated limit (MTL) of 1000µgkg(-1) . Considering the economical and technological limitations of adopting good agricultural practices in rural Tanzania, it is practically difficult to reduce contamination in maize to 150µgkg(-1) . We suggest adoption of the EU MTL of 1000µgkg(-1) for fumonisins in maize and reduction, by replacement with another cereal, of the maize component in complementary foods to a maximum intake of 20g/child/day. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Swai, Emmanuel Senyael; Kapaga, A; Kivaria, F; Tinuga, D; Joshua, G; Sanka, P
Despite the widespread prevalence of infection with Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) in goats and sheep industry in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, there have been few, if any, structured population-based studies examining the epidemiology of this infection in Tanzania. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence, and risk factors, of Peste des petitis ruminants(PPR) in sheep and goat flocks from seven different geographical administration authorities (Ngorongoro, Monduli, Longido, Karatu, Mbulu, Siha and Simanjiro) located in Northern Tanzania. Serum samples from 657 and 892 sheep and goats, respectively, corresponding to 91 sheep/goat flocks and 43 villages were collected. Competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) was used to detect the presence of antibodies in the serum against PPRV. Chi-square analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors for PPRV seropositivity. Findings suggested that the sero-positive cases were significantly higher in goats than in sheep (49.5% versus 39.8%; P=0.002). The overall seroprevalence of PPRV infection in small ruminants was 45.8%. Highest seroprevalence (42.6-88.02%) was observed in Mbulu, Siha, Longido, Ngorongoro districts, while antibodies less than 40% to none were found in serum from Monduli, Karatu and Simanjiro, respectively. These findings confirm natural transmission of PPRV under field condition for the first time in Tanzania. Results may be correlated with variations in the sheep and goat husbandry practices within different geographic localities, the uncontrolled movement of animals, the levels of natural immunity and the sharing of grazing field amongst agro and pastoralists.
This study describes the social networks of secondary school students in Moshi Municipality, and their association with self-rated risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted among 300 students aged 15–24 years in 5 secondary schools in Moshi, Tanzania.
Sindato, C; Kibona, S N; Nkya, G M; Mbilu, T J N K; Manga, C; Kaboya, J S; Rawille, F
In Tanzania sleeping sickness presents a serious threat to human health with a country-wide average of 400 cases reported annually. Both wild and domestic animals have been found to play a significant role in the epidemiology of sleeping sickness. Serengeti National Park in northern Tanzania, has experienced a number of sleeping sickness epidemics since 1922. The epidemics were associated with abundant game animals in the areas and Glossina swynnertoni was incriminated as the main vector. However since 2001 there has been no case of sleeping sickness reported from the park. This case report highlights on the possibility of resurgence and challenges in the diagnosis and management of sleeping sickness in Serengeti. A 38 years old Tanzanian man working in the Serengeti National Park who had experienced various tsetse bites was presented with a febrile condition and history of unsuccessful case management at different health facilities. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were examined for the presence oftrypanosomes using wet film, Field's stain and concentration techniques. Typanosoma brucei rhodesiense were detected in both the blood and CSF samples. The patient was treated successfully with melarsoprol. The results of this case study highlight the possibility of resurgence of sleeping sickness in the park hence calls for the need to create more awareness among the community and clinicians. There is need for early reporting to health facility and strengthening the diagnostic capacity of healthcare facilities in and around national parks endemic for sleeping sickness.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is known to cause debilitating conditions if not promptly treated. In some rural areas of Tanzania however, practitioners give evidence of seeing brucellosis cases with symptoms of long duration. The purpose of this study was to establish health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania and explore the most feasible ways to improve it. Methods This was designed as a longitudinal study. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from patients who reported to selected hospitals in rural northern Tanzania between June 2002 and April 2003. All patients with conditions suspicious of brucellosis on the basis of preliminary clinical examination and history were enrolled into the study as brucellosis suspects. Blood samples were taken and tested for brucellosis using the Rose-Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and other agglutination tests available at the health facilities and the competitive ELISA (c-ELISA test at the Veterinary Laboratory Agencies (VLA in the UK. All suspects who tested positive with the c-ELISA test were regarded as brucellosis cases. A follow-up of 49 cases was made to collect data on health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases. Results The majority of cases 87.7% gave a history of going to hospital as the first point of care, 10.2% purchased drugs from a nearby drug shop before going to hospital and 2% went to a local traditional healer first. Brucellosis cases delayed going to hospital with a median delay time of 90 days, and with 20% of the cases presenting to hospitals more than a year after the onset of symptoms. Distance to the hospital, keeping animals and knowledge of brucellosis were significantly associated with patient delay to present to hospital. Conclusion More efforts need to be put on improving the accessibility of health facilities to the rural poor people who succumb to most of the diseases including zoonoses. Health education on brucellosis in
Wambura, P N; Moshy, D W; Mbise, A N; Mollel, G O; Taylor, W P; Anderson, J; Bruning, A
A simple chromatographic strip-test based on Clearview technology, is under development as a pen-side test for the detection of rinderpest antigen in eye swabs taken from cattle in the field. An outbreak of rinderpest occurred in the northern zone of Tanzania from late February to June 1997. The affected cattle exhibited very mild clinical signs, which made clinical diagnosis difficult. One hundred and seven eye swabs were collected from cattle suspected of infection with rinderpest. These were tested in the field using a prototype of the pen-side test and 13 (12.15%) of the samples were found to be positive for the presence of rinderpest antigen. These were confirmed by ICE. The positive cases were predominantly found in the Ngorongoro district. This demonstrates the usefulness of such a simple, rapid pen-side diagnostic assay, particularly when clinically 'mild' strains of rinderpest are present.
Full Text Available Tanzania's 1.58 million pigs represent 3.7 per cent of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Some 99.5 per cent of pigs are kept by small producers in units averaging 3.04 animals (range 2-48. About 18 per cent of households with livestock own pigs, 93.7 per cent of these having a herd of less than 19 and 69.2 per cent own 9 or fewer head. Scavenging is the main feed source. Maize bran is the principle supplement but some owners provide oilseed cakes and minerals. Domestic pigs are not indigenous to Tanzania and derive mainly from late 19th/early 20th century introductions. There have been few imports of breeding stock since 1961. Poor management, in-breeding, inadequate nutrition and rudimentary veterinary attention lead to low output from late ages at first farrowing, long inter-birth intervals, small litters, slow growth and high mortality. Government policy is not applied in practice. Animals are slaughtered in primitive private facilities or household compounds with little concern for welfare or hygiene, often with no official inspection. Pigs can make a greater contribution to society but public and private sectors must provide additional support with particular attention to management, nutrition, health, welfare and food safety to achieve this.
Kazaura, Method R; Masatu, Melkiory C
Sexual activities are increasingly changing from the cultural point of view what they used to be. Knowledge of these practices among adolescents may be a basis to create awareness among adolescents on practices that involve risks. This study aims to assess sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among in-school and out-of-school but unmarried adolescents aged 10 to 19 in five locations in Tanzania. A questionnaire was used to collect information and to characterize sexual practices among these adolescents. About 32% of adolescents reported being sexually active; a higher proportion being males than females. The only inquired and reported sexual practices include vaginal sex, masturbation, oral and anal sex. About 15% of sexually active adolescents reported having multiple sexual partners. Significantly more males reported having multiple partners than females. Nearly 42% of sexually active adolescents reported having used a condom during most recent sexual act. Females reported older partners at first sexual act. Adolescents experience several sexual practices that include penetrative and non-penetrative. More males reported being sexually active than females. Despite adolescents reporting having multiple sexual partners, reported condom use during the most recent sexual act was low. We advocate for a more enhanced approach of reproductive health education that includes safer sex to adolescents without forgetting those in-schools.
Masatu Melkiory C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual activities are increasingly changing from the cultural point of view what they used to be. Knowledge of these practices among adolescents may be a basis to create awareness among adolescents on practices that involve risks. This study aims to assess sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among in-school and out-of-school but unmarried adolescents aged 10 to 19 in five locations in Tanzania. A questionnaire was used to collect information and to characterize sexual practices among these adolescents. Results About 32% of adolescents reported being sexually active; a higher proportion being males than females. The only inquired and reported sexual practices include vaginal sex, masturbation, oral and anal sex. About 15% of sexually active adolescents reported having multiple sexual partners. Significantly more males reported having multiple partners than females. Nearly 42% of sexually active adolescents reported having used a condom during most recent sexual act. Females reported older partners at first sexual act. Conclusion Adolescents experience several sexual practices that include penetrative and non-penetrative. More males reported being sexually active than females. Despite adolescents reporting having multiple sexual partners, reported condom use during the most recent sexual act was low. We advocate for a more enhanced approach of reproductive health education that includes safer sex to adolescents without forgetting those in-schools.
Halim, Nafisa; Steven, Ester; Reich, Naomi; Badi, Lilian; Messersmith, Lisa
In recent years, major global institutions have amplified their efforts to address intimate partner violence (IPV) against women-a global health and human rights violation affecting 15-71% of reproductive aged women over their lifetimes. Still, some scholars remain concerned about the validity of instruments used for IPV assessment in population-based studies. In this paper, we conducted two validation analyses using novel data from 450 women-men dyads across nine villages in Northern Tanzania. First, we examined the level of inter-partner agreement in reporting of men's physical, sexual, emotional and economic IPV against women in the last three and twelve months prior to the survey, ever in the relationship, and during pregnancy. Second, we conducted a convergent validity analysis to compare the relative efficacy of men's self-reports of perpetration and women's of victimization as a valid indicator of IPV against Tanzanian women using logistic regression models with village-level clustered errors. We found that, for every violence type across the recall periods of the last three months, the last twelve months and ever in the relationship, at least one in three couples disagreed about IPV occurrences in the relationship. Couples' agreement about physical, sexual and economic IPV during pregnancy was high with 86-93% of couples reporting concordantly. Also, men's self-reported perpetration had statistically significant associations with at least as many validated risk factors as had women's self-reported victimization. This finding suggests that men's self-reports are at least as valid as women's as an indicator of IPV against women in Northern Tanzania. We recommend more validation studies are conducted in low-income countries, and that data on relationship factors affecting IPV reports and reporting are made available along with data on IPV occurrences.
English · Français ... Researchers will test improved cassava and sweet potato varieties to ... Integrating improved goat breeds with new varieties of sweetpotatoes and cassava in the agro-pastoral systems of Tanzania : a gendered analysis.
Stigma and discrimination on HIV/AIDS in Tanzania. W Kisinza, E MakundI, A Mwisongo, G Mubyazi, SM Magesa, H Malebo, J Mcharo, K Senkoro, P Hiza, K Pallangyo, Y Ipuge, AY Kitua, M Malecela-Lazaro ...
... of Mtwara, Tanzania: a biologically impoverished and yet important ecosystem. ... and endemism values in these forests, and high levels of forest disturbance. ... of modest biological importance within the context of the Eastern Arc Mountains ...
, village and chiefdom levels were prevalent throughout Tanzania even before the advent of colonialism. The scope, size and focus of civic societies have increased and changed over time from being primary agents for social service delivery ...
-school adolescents in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S Siziya, P R Ntata, E Rudatsikira, C M Makupe, E Umar, A S Muula, 190-195.
Lugalla, Irene Mkini
Dit proefschrift presenteert empirische resultaten op basis van een kwalitatieve en kwantitatieve studie van vrouwelijke ondernemers in de toerismesector in Tanzania. Door Bourdieu's praktijktheorie en de institutionele theorie van Scott toe te passen, analyseren we de relatie tussen de
Food systems in Tanzania are highly vulnerable to climate change and variability due to poor adaptive capacity of ... available GCMs and downscaling techniques ... water for hydroelectric power generation ... for farm-level decision making.
in Tanzania on agricultural extension systems; review research globally on agricultural ... cal techniques, unique results and major recommendations. .... participation in decision-making, natural .... soil and water management technologies in.
Materials and methods ... The island rises some 10 m above sea level and is c. ... PM a. Greater Sandplover Charadrius leschenaultii. Obs. Littoral. PM a .... terrestrial birds on Pemba Island (Tanzania), with particular reference to six endemic ...
Human-wildlife interaction in Serengeti and Ngorongoro districts of Tanzania: A case study on small mammals · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. FJ Magige, 95-103 ...
Factors associated with child sexual abuse in Tanzania: a qualitative study. Mangi J. Ezekiel, Felix Kisanga, Idda H. Mosha, Amani Anaeli, Switbert R. Kamazima, Rose Mpembeni, Eustace P. Muhondwa ...
Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) from the Usambara Mountains (Tanzania), is described. The morphology of the clypeus and mesoepisternum is discussed, also with reference to other Ceratocanthidae. The affinities of the genus are discussed, and ...
This study examined the training of special education teachers in Tanzania. ... learning materials, few trained teachers, teacher attrition, negative attitudes, barrier to ... Keywords: Special needs education, disability, inclusive education, teacher ...
Attitudes of Community to Urban Traffic Noise in Morogoro, Tanzania. ... which is the daytime governmentally prescribed noise limit for residential-commercial areas. ... The main impacts of exposure to noise were reported to be headache, ...
Tanzania Journal of Health Research ... Methods: Key informant interviews were conducted among adults including parents of the ... factors for child sexual abuse, the type of perpetrators and the context into which these abuses take place.
Urine carcinoembryonic antigen determination in urinary bladder bilharziasis predicts carcinoma in patients with premalignant lesions: Observation of 43 cases ... Participatory involvement of farming communities and public sectors in determining malaria control strategies in Mvomero District, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL ...
Leveraging Indigenous Knowledge to Create Jobs for Women in Rural Areas ... Region: India, Kenya, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies, Canada ... growth rates in East Africa, the effects of growth on poverty reduction and ...
Katikiro, Robert; Kweka, Opportuna; Namkesa, Faraja
The paper examines the experience of sustainability partnerships for the management of coastal resources in Tanzania. It identifies key actors and governance dynamics, with focus on decentralization processes, legitimacy-building and participation of local communities. The paper first provides a ...... of ongoing research under the New Partnerships for Sustainability project (NEPSUS), it provides guidance on research gaps in specific relation to the Mnazi Bay Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park (MBREMP) and selected BMUs in Mtwara region, Southern Tanzania....
The Government of Tanzania is looking for the best policies and institutional designs to turn future petroleum revenues into welfare, development and jobs. This Brief argues that the Tanzanian society will benefit more by investing in infrastructure, health and education, rather than establishing a petroleum sovereign wealth fund and investing in foreign assets. Exploration for oil and gas in Tanzania started in the 1950s. The first discoveries were made in the 1970s, and commercial prod...
Since 1999, Tanzania has been actively pursuing reforms of the way in which the central government finances local government activities. This paper looks at the current incidence of central government allocations to local authorities in Tanzania through: 1) examining of potential problems with the current financing method, 2) showing large variations between local government allocations, and 3) finding that surprisingly what drives t his distribution of resources maybe substantial pro-wealthy...
Elizabeth J. Lyimo
Mar 18, 2014 ... Christian Medical University College, Moshi Tanzania d. PhD Political ... MPH, Public Health Specialist, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College, Department of ..... ecological model (SEM) described by Bronfenbrenner (1994).
Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Makundi, Rhodes H
Domestic fleas were collected in 12 villages in the western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. Of these, 7 are considered villages with high plague frequency, where human plague was recorded during at least 6 of the 17 plague seasons between 1986 and 2004. In the remaining 5 villages with low plague...... frequency, plague was either rare or unrecorded. Pulex irritans, known as the human flea, was the predominant flea species (72.4%) in houses. The density of P. irritans, but not of other domestic fleas, was significantly higher in villages with a higher plague frequency or incidence. Moreover, the P....... irritans index was strongly positively correlated with plague frequency and with the logarithmically transformed plague incidence. These observations suggest that in Lushoto District human fleas may play a role in plague epidemiology. These findings are of immediate public health relevance because...
Within the space of 7 years (1986-93), structural adjustment policies have contributed to a reversal of the gains in economic development achieved in Tanzania in the 1960s and 1970s. Structural adjustment policies have helped large-scale producers and ordinary citizens but have led to a decline in social services which is reflected in drops in primary school enrollment and increases in medical costs. Government revenues are absorbed by foreign debt servicing. The reduction of support for social services has increased women's work; bolstered gender division of labor; and reduced women's access to education, formal employment, and health services. On the other hand, increased participation in market-oriented activities has increased women's mobility and exposure to modern ideas. This has led to changing gender relations which on the positive side can lead to shared decision-making but on the negative side may cause men to abdicate their familial responsibilities. Women suffer, however, from a lack of investment in ways to lighten their household responsibilities and have lost their ability to control food production because of the shift to cash crop production for export. The combination of hard work, low income, and stress has taken a toll on women's health, and both the maternal mortality rate and incidence of HIV infections among teenage girls has increased. In response to this situation, Tanzanian women have formed the Tanzania Gender Networking Programme (TGNP) which seeks to empower women and transform society through such activities as education and training, research, and lobbying and networking. Workshops sponsored by the TGNP have resulted in recommendations for adoption of a people-centered development strategy.
Ngalie, J.E.; Mompome, W.K.; Meza, L.H.
Without adequate and sustainable radiation protection infrastructure, the benefits associated with safe use of nuclear technology and atomic energy might be jeopardized. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the Atomic Energy Act No. 7 of 2003 established the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission as sole regulatory body responsible for regulating and controlling the safe and peaceful utilization of nuclear technology in the country. The Atomic Energy (Protection from ionizing radiation) Regulations, 2004 further specifies practices designed to ensure that unnecessary exposure of persons to ionizing radiation is avoided, that all exposures are kept as low as reasonably achievable and that all the dose limits specified in the radiation protection standards are not exceeded. This is achieved through the systems of notification, authorizations through registration and licensing, safety and security of radiation sources as well as regulatory inspections and enforcements. These activities are performed by the Commission with operational funds allocated by the Government of Tanzania. The Commission further provides other services namely individual monitoring; calibration services; education and training to radiation workers, public as well as law enforcers; and safe management of radioactive waste. Despite such achievement, still there are a lot to be done in order to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure in Tanzania. These include issues such as gaps in our legislations, regulations and guidance, security of sources, enforcement of laws, etc. This paper describes and discusses the current status of the regulatory control activities and radiation protection services provided by the Commission and suggestions for further improvement of radiological protection infrastructure in Tanzania. (author)
Rahman, Rifat; Lesser, Adriane; Mboera, Leonard; Kramer, Randall
Microbial larviciding may be a potential supplement to conventional malaria vector control measures, but scant information on its relative implementation costs and effectiveness, especially in rural areas, is an impediment to expanding its uptake. We perform a costing analysis of a seasonal microbial larviciding programme in rural Tanzania. We evaluated the financial and economic costs from the perspective of the public provider of a 3-month, community-based larviciding intervention implemented in twelve villages in the Mvomero District of Tanzania in 2012-2013. Cost data were collected from financial reports and invoices and through discussion with programme administrators. Sensitivity analysis explored the robustness of our results to varying key parameters. Over the 2-year study period, approximately 6873 breeding sites were treated with larvicide. The average annual economic costs of the larviciding intervention in rural Tanzania are estimated at 2014 US$ 1.44 per person protected per year (pppy), US$ 6.18 per household and US$ 4481.88 per village, with the larvicide and staffing accounting for 14% and 58% of total costs, respectively. We found the costs pppy of implementing a seasonal larviciding programme in rural Tanzania to be comparable to the costs of other larviciding programmes in urban Tanzania and rural Kenya. Further research should evaluate the cost-effectiveness of larviciding relative to, and in combination with, other vector control strategies in rural settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Kipingili, Rose
Tanzania and 42% in rural Tanzania stated that their pregnancy was unwanted. Contraceptive acceptance among women with unwanted pregnancies was high; 93% in urban Tanzania and 71% in rural Tanzania left with a contraceptive method. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of women with unwanted pregnancies in urban...... and rural Tanzania underlines the need of scaling up postabortion contraceptive service....
Mollel, Godwin F.; Swisher, Carl C., III; McHenry, Lindsay J.; Feigenson, Mark D.; Carr, Michael J.
Olmoti Crater is part of the Plio-Pleistocene Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland (NVH) in northern Tanzania to the south of Gregory Rift. The Gregory Rift is part of the eastern branch of the East African Rift System (EARS) that stretches some 4000 km from the Read Sea and Gulf of Aden in the north to the Zambezi River in Mozambique. Here, we (1) characterize the chemistry and mineral compositions of lavas from Olmoti Crater, (2) determine the age and duration of Olmoti volcanic activity through 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of Olmoti Crater wall lavas and (3) determine the genesis of Olmoti lavas and the relationship to other NVH and EARS volcanics and (4) their correlation with volcanics in the Olduvai and Laetoli stratigraphic sequences. Olmoti lavas collected from the lower part of the exposed crater wall section (OLS) range from basalt to trachyandesite whereas the upper part of the section (OUS) is trachytic. Petrography and major and trace element data reflect a very low degree partial melt origin for the Olmoti lavas, presumably of peridotite, followed by extensive fractionation. The 87Sr/ 86Sr data overlap whereas Nd and Pb isotope data are distinct between OLS and OUS samples. Interpretation of the isotope data suggests mixing of enriched mantle (EM I) with high-μ-like reservoirs, consistent with the model of Bell and Blenkinsop [Bell, K., Blenkinsop, J., 1987. Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of East African carbonatites: implications for mantle heterogeneity. Geology 5, 99-102] for East African carbonatite lavas. The isotope ratios are within the range of values defined by Oceanic Island Basalt (OIB) globally and moderate normalized Tb/Yb ratios (2.3-1.6) in these lavas suggest melting in the lithospheric mantle consistent with other studies in the region. 40Ar/ 39Ar incremental-heating analyses of matrix and anorthoclase separates from Olmoti OLS and OUS lavas indicate that volcanic activity was short in duration, lasting ˜200 kyr from 2.01 ± 0.03 Ma to 1.80 ± 0
Full Text Available Background: Acute pesticide poisoning (APP is commonly underdiagnosed in Tanzania. Studies in developing countries suggest that a lack of diagnostic skills among health care providers (HCPs undermines surveillance for APP. This study aimed at characterizing experience and skills of Tanzanian HCPs regarding APP diagnosis and management. Methodology: The population included HCPs responsible for managing APP in Kilimanjaro and Arusha regions (n = 91. The resulting sample included 66 respondents (response rate: 73%. The data were collected in 2005 using a standardized questionnaire. Results: Half of all respondents (50% reported handling at least 1 APP case with 15% reporting handling more than 5 cases in the past. Reported experience of handling an APP case was marginally higher in respondents who reported ⩾4 years of work experience in the health sector compared with those with <4 years of work experience (odds ratio = 1.32; 95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.5. Most of the respondents had high knowledge of exposure routes, reporting awareness of oral (98.5%, inhalational (93.9%, and dermal (77% routes. The study revealed low awareness of pesticide classification by chemical groups (29% or World Health Organization hazard (0% and weak knowledge on pesticide label instructions (55%. Organophosphates accounted for 35% of the pesticide products reported by respondents as being responsible for poisoning. Some treatment options were incorrectly reported as first aid options, and some reported first aid options were wrong or inappropriate. Conclusions: The study revealed that HCPs in northern Tanzania lack adequate skills to diagnose and manage APP. For effective surveillance of APP, there is a need to include training on hazards, classification, diagnosis, and health effects in the training programmes for all HCPs in Tanzania.
Trevisan, Chiara; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Schmidt, Veronika
was to estimate the societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis in Tanzania, by assessing both the health and economic burden. The societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis was assessed in humans and pigs based on data obtained by a systematic review. Experts' opinion was sought in cases where data were...... losses due to porcine cysticercosis. Based on data retrieved from the systematic review and burden assessments, T. solium cysticercosis contributed to a significant societal cost for the population. The annual number of NCC-associated epilepsy incident cases and deaths were 17,853 (95% Uncertainty......Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite prevalent in many low income countries throughout Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. The parasite is recognized as a public health threat; however the burden it poses on populations of Tanzania is unknown. The aim of this study...
Barbara van Koppen,
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the application of the concept of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM in Tanzania. It asks: how did IWRM affect the rural and fast-growing majority of smallholder farmersʼ access to water which contributes directly to poverty alleviation and employment creation in a country where poverty and joblessness are high? Around 1990, there were both a strong government-led infrastructure development agenda and IWRM ingredients in place, including cost-recovery of state services aligning with the Structural Adjustment Programmes, water management according to basin boundaries and the dormant colonial water rights (permits system. After the 1990s, the World Bank and other donors promoted IWRM with a strong focus on hydroelectric power development, River Basin Water Boards, transformation of the water right system into a taxation tool, and assessment of environmental flows. These practices became formalised in the National Water Policy (2002 and in the Water Resources Management Act (2009. Activities in the name of IWRM came to be closely associated with the post-2008 surge in large-scale land and water deals. Analysing 25 years of IWRM, the paper identifies the processes and identities of the losers (smallholders and – at least partially – the government and the winners (large-scale water users, including recent investors. We conclude that, overall, IWRM harmed smallholdersʼ access to water and rendered them more vulnerable to poverty and unemployment.
Arndt, Channing; Farmer, William; Strzepek, Kenneth
Due to their reliance on rain-fed agriculture, both as a source of income and consumption, many low-income countries are considered to be the most vulnerable to climate change. Here, we estimate the impact of climate change on food security in Tanzania. Representative climate projections are used...... as the channel of impact, food security in Tanzania appears likely to deteriorate as a consequence of climate change. The analysis points to a high degree of diversity of outcomes (including some favorable outcomes) across climate scenarios, sectors, and regions. Noteworthy differences in impacts across...
Van Dyk, FE
Full Text Available stream_source_info Van Dyk2_2005.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 10949 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Van Dyk2_2005.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Copyright @ CSIR 2005 www....csir.co.za Implementing farm-to-fork traceability in Tanzania Esbeth van Dyk CSIR Centre for Logistics ORSSA/SAIIE August 2005 Copyright @ CSIR 2005 www.csir.co.za Structure • Why traceability? • Legislation • Tanzania project • Recordkeeping in coffee...
: IDRC / Nichole Sobecki. I first met Memory in Kasungu, in the Northern part of Malawi. Memory, a mother of six, farmed on a one acre piece of land alongside her husband. Read more about Beyond Access: Putting Women First in Agriculture.
Full Text Available Adoption of technology is an important factor in economic development. The thrust of this study was to establish factors affecting adoption of QPM technology in Northern zone of Tanzania. Primary data was collected from a random sample of 120 smallholder maize farmers in four villages. Data collected were analysed using descriptive and quantitative methods. Logit model was used to determine factors that influence adoption of QPM technology. The regression results indicated that education of the household head, farmers’ participation on demonstration trials, attendance to field days, and numbers of livestock owned have positively influenced the rate of adoption of the technology. Access to credit, and poor QPM marketing problem perception by farmers negatively influenced the rate of adoption. The study recommended government to ensure efficiency input-output linkage for QPM production.
The habitat specialists found in Ngumburuni forest and in the forests of the Kichi and Kiwengoma Hills are globally endangered species and require special attention with regard to conservation. Keywords: dragonflies; coastal forest; Tanzania; conservationJournal of East African Natural History Vol. 95 (2) 2006: pp. 139-162 ...
Assessment of concentrations of trace and toxic heavy metals in soil and vegetables grown in the vicinity of Manyoni uranium deposit in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. FA Kapile, IN Makundi, 94-108 ...
This article briefly explores the development of tourism in Tanzania and then focuses primarily on relevant tourism policies adopted by the Tanzanian Government in order to grow the industry in a sustainable manner. Although these policies have been effective for a decade since their introduction, indications are that they ...
... of oral amodiaquine and chloroquine in healthy volunteers with or without Plasmodium falciparum infection in northeast Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JJ Massaga, JP Lusingu, R Makunde, HM Malebo, MM Chile, JA Akida, MM Lemnge, ...
A review of literature was conducted in order to identify knowledge gaps in climate change and food security research in Tanzania. The review focused on published literature covering the past 20 years addressing climate change effects on various components of the food security. The review of literature reveals, among ...
A study was conducted to evaluate the genetic structure of local chicken ecotypes of Tanzania using 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers. A standard PCR was followed by manual genotyping (6% native polyacrylamide gel visualized by silver staining). Phylogenetic analysis of 13 individuals from each of the nine ...
Motorcycle injuries as an emerging public health problem in Mwanza city, Tanzania: A call for urgent intervention · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Phillipo L. Chalya, Joseph B. Mabula, Isidor H. Ngayomela, Emmanuel S. Kanumba, Alphonce B.
This paper identifies some major drivers of per capita public health expenditure growth in Tanzania using nationally representative annual data between 1995 and 2014. It used Bayesian model based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation. The empirical result shows that both the real GDP per capita and ...
The objectives of this study were to determine presence of Leptospira in fish; the prevalent Leptospira serovars and whether are related to serovars reported in animals; and to ascertain potential public health risk. Live tilapia, catfish and eel fish (n=48) were caught in Mindu Dam in Morogoro Municipality in eastern Tanzania ...
Socio-demographic determinants of dengue infection during an outbreak in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Neema Camara, Billy Ngasala, Germana Leyna, Ahmed Abade, Susan F. Rumisha, Ndekya M. Oriyo, Leonard ...
The study used three methodological approaches including documentary search, interviews with relevant stakeholders and limited field visits. Findings from the study have indicated that the awareness, trends, distribution and impacts of the invasive alien species in Tanzania are variable, and similarly are the management ...
Project. The Economic and Social Research Foundation (ESRF) is an independent research organization that was registered in Tanzania in October 1992. Start Date: July 2, 2009 ... Five-City Network to Pioneer Climate Change Adaptation in sub-Saharan Africa. Project ... Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: ...
Reaching the poor through community-based distributors of contraceptives: experiences from Muheza district, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Daudi Simba, Cordula Schuemer, Forester Kate, Merriment Hiza, 1-7.
population (Delany et al. 2009). Britton (1980) mentions only Siguri Falls in the. Selous Game Reserve for Tanzania and while suggesting that it breeds there, no breeding records were admitted in Brown & Britton (1980). Over the last three decades, a number of new observations―including the first breeding record―of this ...
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Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 4 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Modes of delivery assistance in Bangladesh.
Darling, Brianna; Thorp, Laurie; Chung, Kimberly
The Peace Corps Masters International program offers students the opportunity to combine their Peace Corps service with their master's education. This article demonstrates how classroom learning strengthened the author's Peace Corps service in Tanzania, which in turn strengthened her master's thesis. Peace Corps supports an approach to community…
Sritharan, Shakthi; Burgess, Neil David
Analyses of gaps in protected area (PA) coverage of species distributions have been carried out extensively for the past two decades, aiming to better locate new PAs and conserve species. In this study, progress to close gaps in the protection of the Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of Tanzania...
Corruption, Politics and Societal values in Tanzania: An evaluation of the Mkapa administration's anti corruption efforts. Bruce Heilman, Lawrean Ndumbaro. Abstract. (Af. J. Political Science: 2001 7(1): 1-20). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 2 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...
associated with economic and political change in Africa, Asia and Latin America .... notes that in developing countries, internal and international migration is a result of ... 'hut tax' in Tanzania was one of the important factors behind sex differentials in migration. ... The country is located in East Africa, covering 940,000 km2.
Background: Plants still remain a prime source of drugs for the treatment of cancer and can provide leads for the development of novel anticancer agents. Our screening of indigenous medicinal plants from Tanzania has led to the identification of the number of anticancer activity. Material and methods: The current study ...
Preliminary botanical explorations in the little-known Namatimbili–Ngarama forest block located some 35 km inland of Kilwa in south-east Tanzania have rediscovered and further confirmed the presence of two tree species, Erythrina schliebenii Harms and Karomia gigas (Faden) Verdc., that were previously thought to have ...
Human activity spaces and plague risks in three contrasting landscapes in Lushoto District, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Proches Hieronimo, Hubert Gulinck, Didas N. Kimaro, Loth S. Mulungu, Nganga I. Kihupi, Balthazar M. Msanya, ...
Pattern and spatial distribution of plague in Lushoto, north-eastern Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M L Kamugisha, S Gesase, D Minja, S Mgema, T D Mlwilo, B K Mayala, 12-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v9i1.14286 ...
Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania – public health perspectives
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycaemia of variable severity with onset or
Everaarts, A.P.; Putter, de H.; Maerere, A.P.; Amon, W.
In November 2012 and in August 2014 surveys were carried out in field vegetable producing areas in the Lake Zone of Tanzania. The aim of the surveys was to learn the conditions for field vegetable production and marketing in these areas. Recommendations for the development of vegetable production
Patient satisfaction with dental services rendered at School of Dentistry, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. B Mwela, EN Kikwilu, 38-44 ...
Seroprevalence of Leptospira infection in bats roosting in human settlements in Morogoro municipality in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Georgies F. Mgode, Huruma A. Mbugi, Ginethon G. Mhamphi, Dickson Ndanga, Evance L. Nkwama.
The central part of Tanzania, Dodoma, was hit by an Mw= 5.5 earthquake in November 4, 2002. It was part of a swarm of moderate earthquakes that affected the area. This paper, reports the first attempt to investigate significant past earthquakes along one of the known seismically active rift faults (Bubu fault, Gonga ...
by Friedrich Fülleborn at Undis south of Tunduru near the Tanzania – Mozambique border (11°17'S ... and was not included in any reference books or field guides. None of these ... was clearly a dark-eyed leucomelas rather than a pale-eyed.
... agro-based industrial activities. Tanzania being basically an agricultural country such investment will have a multiplier effect in terms of employment generation partly due to the linkages effects which such industries might have to the rest of the economy. African Journal of Finance and Management Vol.8(2) 2000: 46-54 ...
In Tanzania, as in many other developing countries, banks play a predominant role in the financial sector of the country as far as mobilisation and allocation of financial resources is concerned. The question that deserves attention however, is whether and to what extent foreign banks have been playing a positive role in the ...
Community-based wildlife management (CWM) approach – known to others as community-based conservation – was first introduced in Tanzania in 1987/88. The approach intends to reconcile wildlife conservation and rural economic development. In the 1990s Tanzanians witnessed a rush by government Ministries and ...
Sabai, M.M.; Cox, M.G.D.M.; Mato, R.R.A.M.; Egmond - de Wilde De Ligny, van E.L.C.; Lichtenberg, J.J.N.
In Tanzania, construction and demolition (C&D) waste is not recycled and knowledge on how it can be recycled especially into valuable products like building materials are still limited. This study aimed at investigating the possibility of recycling the C&D waste (mainly cementitious rubble) into
In Tanzania, HIV counselling and testing practices are now widely accepted as the cornerstone of HIV prevention programmes. Within HIV testing and counselling, emphasis is placed on the importance of individuals to disclose their HIV status. Despite increasing focus on disclosure of HIV status, relatively little is known ...
Integrating reproductive and child health and HIV services in Tanzania: Implication to policy, systems and services. ... Experts around the world recognize the central role of Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) services in preventing HIV infection. Evidence suggests that improving access to contraception for women to ...
Adhvaryu, Achyuta R.; Nyshadham, Anant
We study the effects of accessing better healthcare on the schooling and labor supply decisions of sick children in Tanzania. Using variation in the cost of formal-sector healthcare to predict treatment choice, we show that accessing better healthcare decreases length of illness and changes children's allocation of time to school and work.…
Kondylis, Florence; Manacorda, Marco
Is improved school accessibility an effective policy tool for reducing child labor in developing countries? We address this question using microdata from rural Tanzania and a regression strategy that attempts to control for nonrandom location of households around schools as well as classical and nonclassical measurement error in self-reported…
High rate of maternal death is one of the major public health concerns in Tanzania. ... had been on a downward trend from 453 to 200 per 100,000 live births. ... Current statistics indicate that maternal mortality ratio has dropped slightly in 2010 ...
How do civil servants in district water and sanitation departments address problems of water access in rural communities in Tanzania? What are the bureaucratic procedures they follow? How do the bureaucratic procedures around formulating budgets, managing money, and interacting with communities impede or enhance their ability to manage water projects? This report addresses these and related ...
Rick, Tara J; Deming, Cassondra M; Helland, Janey R; Hartwig, Kari A
Cervical and breast cancer are responsible for the highest cancer-related mortality in Tanzania, although both are preventable or curable if diagnosed at an early stage. Limited knowledge of cervical cancer by clinic and dispensary level healthcare providers in Tanzania is a barrier for prevention and control strategies. The purpose of the study was to provide basic oncology training to frontline healthcare workers with a focus on cervical and breast cancer in order to increase knowledge. A 1-day cancer training symposium was conducted in Arusha, Tanzania, with 43 clinicians. Pre- and post-intervention surveys assessed cancer knowledge and confidence of clinicians in risk assessment. Sixty-nine percent of the participants reported never receiving any cervical cancer training in the past. A significant difference was found between the pre- and post-test in a majority of knowledge questions and in reported confidence recognizing signs and symptoms of breast and cervical cancer (p < 0.05). The 1-day community oncology training symposium was effective in delivering and increasing basic knowledge about cervical and breast cancers to these healthcare providers. The low level of baseline cancer knowledge among frontline medical providers in Tanzania illustrates the need for increased training around the country.
Assessment of heavy metal concentration in water around the proposed Mkuju River Uranium Project in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Firmi P. Banzi, Peter K. Msaki, Najat K. Mohammed, 8-18 ...
This paper presented various international indices and how Tanzania is judged by them. The purpose was to reveal to different stakeholders and policy makers how this country is perceived by outsiders such as foreign donor countries, investors, tourist or international bodies. The methodology involved empirical review of ...
Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.
Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.
gramme have been reactivated. Three of these projects deal with prevention only and more specifically with dental health education of the population. These projects are the. Tanzania School Health Programme, our work. 8 with the MCH system and, the continuing educa- tion of dental personnel to reorient them towards.
mosquito survived much better and the scientists had a total of 467 mosquitoes to run the insecticide susceptibility tests. Innovative ways are necessary under field conditions for mosquito breeding in susceptibility studies. Key words: Malaria, Anopheles gambiae complex, larvae, fabric, resistance, susceptibility, Tanzania.
Agricultural Policy Analysis Studies in Tanzania: A Historical and Thematic Perspective with Implications on Future Policy Research for Crop Production and Marketing · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A.C. Isinika, G.M. Mibavu, J.J. VanSickle ...
Increased memory phenotypes of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in children with sickle cell anaemia in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Emmanuel Balandya, Teri Reynolds, Said Aboud, Stephen Obaro, Julie Makani ...
A slaughterhouse survey was conducted in five regions of Tanzania to determine the prevalence of the nematode in domestic pigs slaughtered for human consumption in the framework of an OIE Twinning project. At least five grams of diaphragm muscle was taken from each sampled carcass. A total of 1,078 adult pigs were ...
Makala hii inajaribu kuelezea mchango wa fasihi ya Kiswahili katika kuijadili rushwa. Kwa kurejea kwenye Riwaya ya Thomas A.R. Kamugisha Kitu Kidogo tu! makala hii inasawilisha miongo takribani mitatu ya dhana ya “kitu kidogo” na athari zake kwa jamii ya Tanzania. Kwa kuijadili riwaya ya Kitu Kidogo tu! makala hii ...
Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editoria: EBOLA: Fear of the unknown. C. Comoro, J.
Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...
Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Meilby, Henrik
premiums are paid for particular species this needs to be considered. This paper investigates these issues in the Kilombero Valley of Tanzania, based on one year of market data and interviews with 80 hunters, 169 traders and 67 retailers. Motivations were overwhelmingly commercial and the bushmeat trade...
This project, supported by IDRC and GAC through the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), will improve food security and nutrition in Tanzania through an integrated breeding and management program that will increase goat milk and meat production. Researchers will test improved cassava and ...
The new generic taxon Calyptomastix is proposed to accommodate the type species Odontopyge kakandae Kraus, 1958, and, tentatively, Odontopyge dorsalis Carl, 1909, Haplothysanus leviceps Attems, 1909, and Spirostreptus pardalis Gerstäcker, 1873, all from Tanzania. This genus is defined by the broad basal ...
The practice of uvulectomy and related complications among children aged below 6 years in Ilemela district, Mwanza, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. F Taylor. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tdj.v15i1.48377 ...
Adherence to the policy guidelines and standards is necessary for family planning services. We compared public and private facilities in terms of provision of family planning services. We analyzed data from health facility questionnaire of the 2006 Tanzania Service Provision Assessment survey, based on 529 health ...
The paper discusses some of the library and information provision research and evaluation aspects in the distance education context in Tanzania. It explores some current and potential areas that can be considered for research and evaluation by library and information personnel, scholars and researchers. It does so by ...
Saunders, Murray; Vulliamy, Graham
Discusses the origins and policy characteristics of the Education for Self Reliance project in Tanzania and the Secondary Schools Community Extension Project in Papua New Guinea. Compares the sociopolitical climate, the policy characteristics, the role of academic assessment, policy change, and examples of the existing policy in the two countries.…
This study sought to establish whether financial statements from Tanzania parastatals were availed on time, and if not, whether the delay was significant. Using the Normal Approximation Rule to test for significance in mean time difference, it was found that parastatals delayed in releasing financial statements. The difference ...
Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2006) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...
Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 1 (2005) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...
Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...
In particular routine facility data collected as part of the Health Management .... There is established evidence that introduction of even small amounts of user ... A major factor affecting coverage remains the perceived low quality ... Tanzania today faces a challenge of both population outstripping social services such as.
Lewis, Kelly M.; Robkin, Navit; Gaska, Karie; Njoki, Lillian Carol
Why do many African women continue to use damaging skin-bleaching cosmetics that contain dangerous chemicals (e.g., mercury) that may increase their rates of infertility, skin cancer, and serious skin/brain/kidney disease? To address this question, our study investigated motivations driving the preservation of skin-bleaching practices in Tanzania.…
Community participation in forest management has existed in the United Republic of Tanzania for a long time, but on a small scale. It is common to find trees of certain species are being protected and managed for traditional reasons. It has been observed that forests and woodlands that are managed using traditional ...
This shift, which had more to do with the surge of neoliberalism than domestic conditions, resulted in a simplified and more interactive planning, and lesser dependency on foreign experts than before. While Tanzania experienced rapid economic growth under the new planning regime, this was not without serious trade-offs, ...
The importance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) as a food and cash crop in Eastern Africa, is increasing, but its value chain is becoming complex. In 2012/13, rice value chain analysis was conducted in rice farming systems of Lake, Eastern and Southern-Highlands zones of Tanzania. A sample of 240 producers, 60 traders and 30 ...
This study examines the functioning of tobacco value-chain in Urambo district in Tanzania, focusing mainly on the critical analysis of the value-chain agents and their functions, chain governance and the institutional environment in which the chain operates. It starts by mapping up the chain to have a pictorial representation ...
Identifying Gaps in Knowledge, Prevalence and Care of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Tanzania – a Qualitative Review article · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. KP Manji, MN Hogan, 7-17 ...
In 2003 Tanzania established 16 pilot Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs), with the aim of enhancing conservation and poverty alleviation through sustainable utilization of natural resources. This study examines the opportunities and challenges of this policy initiative with reference to the proposed WMAs. Data were ...
The development of any country Tanzania included depends on availability and effective utilization of human resources, which in turn are predicated on the level, quantity and quality of education, especially vocational and technical education and skills attained through formal and informal education, living and working ...
Poverty reduction through growth is the idea behind the market-oriented reforms that Tanzania ... GROWTH, ECONOMIC BEHAVIOUR, MICROECONOMICS, Poverty alleviation ... Donor organizations increasingly support the idea that civil society ... the growth of private health care as a key element of health sector reform.
Chonde, T. M.; Basra, D.; Mfinanga, S. G. M.; Range, N.; Lwilla, F.; Shirima, R. P.; van Deun, A.; Zignol, M.; Cobelens, F. G.; Egwaga, S. M.; van Leth, F.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in a national representative sample of tuberculosis (TB) patients in Tanzania according to recommended methodology. DESIGN: Cluster survey, with 40 clusters sampled proportional to size, of notified TB patients from all
Masanyiwa, Z.S.; Niehof, A.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.
This article examines the impact of decentralization reforms on improving access to domestic water supply in the rural districts of Kondoa and Kongwa, Tanzania, using a users' and a gender perspective. The article addresses the question whether and to what extent the delivery of gender-sensitive
Johnson, Megan Patricia
The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…
The study has revealed that the use of a comprehensive, school-based programme, emphasising peer collaboration, can be a promising scenario for professional development of mathematics teachers in Tanzania. Such a comprehensive approach has the potential of supporting teachers with diverse levels of
Studies on genotype-environment interaction (GxE) in half-sib progenies of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. PAL Masawe, EP Cundall, PDS Caligari ...
Osoro, Otieno; Kahyarara, Godius; Knoben, Joris; Vermeulen, P.A.M.
In this paper we analyse the impact of different sources of knowledge on product innovation in Tanzania using firm level data from 543 firms. Specifically, we assess the separate impacts of internal knowledge and external knowledge and the combined impact of both on a firm’s likelihood of
Osoro, O.; Vermeulen, P.A.M.; Knoben, J.; Kahyarara, G.
This paper analyses the impact of different sources of knowledge on product and process innovation in Tanzania using firm-level data. We specifically analyse the separate impacts of internal knowledge, external knowledge and the combined impact of both types of knowledge on firms’ product and
Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership
The Newsletter of the Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership - Pwani Yetu - 'our coast', is produced every other month in both Kiswahili and English and circulated to all coastal management partners from national level, coastal communities and the private sector. Pwani Yetu reports on coastal and marine activities, including issues on conservation, environment, and social economic development. 'Research Group' TCMP.
Mapping of cholera risks using Geographical Information System in Ilala District, Tanzania, EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. BK Mayala, LEG Mboera, F Gwacha, 8-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v5i1.14197 ...
(14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19); Togo (1); Tunisia (2); Uganda (12); Zambia (2) ...
HIV patients presenting common adverse drug events caused by highly active antiretroviral therapy in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. OMS Minzi, H Irunde, C Moshiro. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v11i1.43243 ...
December 2004 to February 2005 in 12 laboratories which were conveniently selected to represent all the zones of Tanzania. The questionnaires comprised of questions on laboratory particulars, internal and external quality control for HIV testing and quality control of reagents. Source and level of customer satisfaction of ...
Tanzania is hardest hit by daily accident deaths and casualties on the roads. Although various measures have been taken by the government, enforcement agencies and NGOs, accidents and fatalities keep growing at a rate above that of killer diseases like malaria, tuberculosis and HIV. The main causes observed were ...
Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children aged 6-12 years in Dodoma and Kinondoni Municipalities, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL ... Thyroid hormones profile in students of Makerere College of Health Sciences in Kampala Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Most homicide deaths in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (DSM) are a result of violence arising from within the community. This type of violence is commonly called, by perpetrators and victims, “mob justice”. Unilateral non-state collective violence can take four forms: lynching, vigilantism, rioting, and terrorism. The purpose of this ...
Taking oral health in Tanzania a step forward. Paschalis Ntome Rugarabamu. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...
Utilisation of health management information system in disease surveillance in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. L.E.G. Mboera, S.F. Rumisha, S.M. Magesa, A.Y. Kitua, 15-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v3i2.14213 ...
This paper investigates the consequence of export earnings instability on growth in Tanzania. Applying time-series econometric technique on annual data for the period 1968-2008, a long-run relationship between export instability and growth is confirmed to be negative for aggregate exports. However, the relationship is ...
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important public health problems in ... knowledge and perception on the transmission of TB in Tanzania. ... Although all age groups are at risk, the disease mostly affects young ... used to assess the distributional characteristics of the data and as the prerequisite information.
Coffee insect pests are one of the major factors which affect coffee production and quality. globally, coffee insect pests are estimated to cause losses of about 13%. However in Africa, yield losses can be much higher, particularly where Arabica and Robusta coffee are grown for a long time. In Tanzania the major insect pests ...
Background: This paper presents and analyses the trend of maternal mortality ratio in Tanzania against major events, policy, economic and political decisions which may have influenced this trend. The impact of several initiatives related to Health Systems Strengthening are discussed and alternative strategies for effective ...
A study was carried out between April and October 2014 to investigate the amount of water used by Eucalypt clones grown at Kongowe, Tanzania. Sap flow sensors using heat pulse velocity were deployed across GC 167, GC 15 and GC 940 in wet and dry seasons. Data on water use were analysed using sap flow software ...
The Role of Livestock Keeping in Human Brucellosis Trends in Livestock Keeping Communities in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. G. M. Shirima, J. M. Fitzpatrick, J. S. Kunda, G. S. Mfinanga, R. R. Kazwala, D. M. Kambarage, S. C. ...
4Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 447, Arusha, Tanzania; ... and other stakeholders invested heavily in ... 1a), the other at Kunduchi near .... (features) that were clearly identifiable in both ... determine the intra- and inter-annual trends in ..... sea level (as seen in Google Earth imagery).
Ward, Tara; Samuel, Moody; Maoz, Dorit; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Boyce, Ross; Toledo, Joao; Velayudhan, Raman; Horstick, Olaf
Although there is evidence that dengue virus is circulating in Tanzania, the country lacks a dengue surveillance system. Consequently, the true estimate of dengue seroprevalence, as well as the incidence in the population, the frequency and magnitude of outbreaks is unknown. This study therefore sought to systematically review available dengue data from Tanzania. The systematic review was conducted and reported using the PRISMA tool. Five databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, WHOLIS and Google Scholar) were searched for articles using various keywords on the illness, data and geographical location. Identified articles were assessed for inclusion based on predefined eligibility criteria. Data were extracted from included articles, analysed and reported. Based on the 10 seroprevalence studies in defined populations with estimates of acute confirmed infections that were included in the review, the estimated seroprevalence of past dengue infection in Tanzania ranged from 50.6% in a health facility-based study to 11% in a population-based study. Acute confirmed infections of dengue were estimated to be as high as 38.2% of suspected cases. Only one study reported on an outbreak. It is evident that dengue needs to become part of regular disease surveillance in Tanzania. Control measures need to be instituted with a focus on building human resource capacity and integrating dengue control measures in ongoing health programmes, for both preventive and curative interventions. Systematic reviews are valuable in assessing health issues when surveillance data are not available. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sujet: ECONOMIC REFORM, ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION, ECONOMIC GROWTH, ECONOMIC BEHAVIOUR, MICROECONOMICS, Poverty alleviation. Région: Africa, South of Sahara, Tanzania. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total : CA$ 193,000.00. Ghana, Afrique du Sud et Tanzanie : Stratégies de ...
Sujet: ECONOMIC REFORM, ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION, ECONOMIC GROWTH, ECONOMIC BEHAVIOUR, MICROECONOMICS, Poverty alleviation. Région: Tanzania, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total : CA$ 193,000.00. Pauvreté et systèmes de technologie de ...
During this scientific event more that 23 papers were presented by local researchers from academia and Research and Development (R&D) institutions and 13 papers presented under the Tanzania - South Africa joint research activities. The conference was organized along specific themes of common grounds to suit the ...
Determination of radioactivity in maize and mung beans grown in the neighborhood of Minjingu phosphate mine, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Leonid L Nkuba, Najat K Mohammed, 51-59 ...
Mweya, Clement N; Kimera, Sharadhuli I; Mellau, Lesakit S B; Mboera, Leonard E G
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis that primarily affects ruminants but also has the capacity to infect humans. To determine the abundance and distribution of mosquito vectors in relation to their potential role in the virus transmission and maintenance in disease epidemic areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania. A cross-sectional entomological investigation was carried out before the suspected RVF outbreak in October 2012. Mosquitoes were sampled both outdoors and indoors using the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) light traps and Mosquito Magnets baited with attractants. Outdoor traps were placed in proximity with breeding sites and under canopy in banana plantations close to the sleeping places of animals. A total of 1,823 mosquitoes were collected, of which 87% (N=1,588) were Culex pipiens complex, 12% (N=226) Aedes aegypti, and 0.5% (N=9) Anopheles species. About two-thirds (67%; N=1,095) of C. pipiens complex and nearly 100% (N=225) of A. aegypti were trapped outdoors using Mosquito Magnets. All Anopheles species were trapped indoors using CDC light traps. There were variations in abundance of C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti among different ecological and vegetation habitats. Over three quarters (78%) of C. pipiens complex and most (85%) of the A. aegypti were trapped in banana and maize farms. Both C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti were more abundant in proximity with cattle and in semi-arid thorn bushes and lower Afro-montane. The highest number of mosquitoes was recorded in villages that were most affected during the RVF epidemic of 2007. Of the tested 150 pools of C. pipiens complex and 45 pools of A. aegypti, none was infected with RVF virus. These results provide insights into unique habitat characterisation relating to mosquito abundances and distribution in RVF epidemic-prone areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania.
Clement N. Mweya
Full Text Available Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis that primarily affects ruminants but also has the capacity to infect humans. Objective: To determine the abundance and distribution of mosquito vectors in relation to their potential role in the virus transmission and maintenance in disease epidemic areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional entomological investigation was carried out before the suspected RVF outbreak in October 2012. Mosquitoes were sampled both outdoors and indoors using the Centre for Disease Control (CDC light traps and Mosquito Magnets baited with attractants. Outdoor traps were placed in proximity with breeding sites and under canopy in banana plantations close to the sleeping places of animals. Results: A total of 1,823 mosquitoes were collected, of which 87% (N=1,588 were Culex pipiens complex, 12% (N=226 Aedes aegypti, and 0.5% (N=9 Anopheles species. About two-thirds (67%; N=1,095 of C. pipiens complex and nearly 100% (N=225 of A. aegypti were trapped outdoors using Mosquito Magnets. All Anopheles species were trapped indoors using CDC light traps. There were variations in abundance of C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti among different ecological and vegetation habitats. Over three quarters (78% of C. pipiens complex and most (85% of the A. aegypti were trapped in banana and maize farms. Both C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti were more abundant in proximity with cattle and in semi-arid thorn bushes and lower Afro-montane. The highest number of mosquitoes was recorded in villages that were most affected during the RVF epidemic of 2007. Of the tested 150 pools of C. pipiens complex and 45 pools of A. aegypti, none was infected with RVF virus. Conclusions: These results provide insights into unique habitat characterisation relating to mosquito abundances and distribution in RVF epidemic-prone areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania.
Haruna, Hussein; Mtoroki, Majaliwa; Gerendasy, Dan D; Detlefsen, Ellen G
The intention of the Government of Tanzania is to establish more health information resource canters in all health facilities. With this regard, health information science personnel are needed to provide adequate and accurate health information services. However, availability of these personnel remains to be a challenge because of their non-existence. To identify the current status and local impact of health sciences libraries and user perception of these libraries, as a prerequisite to the development of a competence-based curriculum for health information science training in Tanzania. A needs assessment was carried out using a convenience sample of local respondents, including librarians, trainers, academicians, students, health care providers, and patients and families, drawn from national, referral, regional, district hospitals, health training institutions, and universities from both government and nongovernment entities in Tanzania. A focus group approach was used to gather data from respondents. Results from this assessment revealed that health science libraries in Tanzania are faced with the challenges of insufficient infrastructure, old technology, limited facilities and furniture, inadequate and incompetent library staff, lack of health sciences librarians, outdated and insufficient resources, and low knowledge and use of information technologies by library clients. Most respondents would prefer to have both physical and electronic libraries, as well as librarians with specialized health information science skills, to cope with changing nature of the medical field. The findings obtained from this assessment are strong enough to guide the development of a curriculum and training strategy and an operational plan and training packages for health information professionals. The development of a training curriculum for health information science professionals will mean better health information service delivery for Tanzania. Copyright © 2016 Icahn School of
Economic Update: Raising the Game , Can Tanzania Eradicate Extreme Poverty? The World Bank Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Unit Africa Region. No...poverty threshold were exceptionally modest and based on the minimum caloric requirement, which excludes meat and fish.259 The Zambian government...Tanzania Economic Update: Raising the Game , Can Tanzania Eradicate Extreme Poverty? The World Bank Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Unit Africa
High-risk sexual behaviour, adolescent girls, induced abortion, sugar-daddies, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania......High-risk sexual behaviour, adolescent girls, induced abortion, sugar-daddies, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania...
René P. Mbanguka
Full Text Available We develop and present a novel integrated water balance model that accounts for lake water—groundwater interactions, and apply it to the semi-closed freshwater Lake Babati system, Northern Tanzania, East Africa. The model was calibrated and used to evaluate the lake level sensitivity to changes in key hydro-climatic variables such as temperature, precipitation, humidity and cloudiness. The lake response to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5 output on possible future climate outcomes was evaluated, an essential basis in understanding future water security and flooding risk in the region. Results show high lake level sensitivity to cloudiness. Increased focus on cloud fraction measurement and interpretation could likely improve projections of lake levels and surface water availability. Modelled divergent results on the future (21st century development of Lake Babati can be explained by the precipitation output variability of CMIP5 models being comparable to the precipitation change needed to drive the water balance model from lake dry-out to overflow; this condition is likely shared with many other East African lake systems. The developed methodology could be useful in investigations on change-driving processes in complex climate—drainage basin—lake systems, which are needed to support sustainable water resource planning in data scarce tropical Africa.
Mwangi, Rose; Chandler, Clare; Nasuwa, Fortunata
User and provider perceptions of quality of care are likely to affect both use and provision of services. However, little is known about how health workers and mothers perceive the delivery of care in hospital paediatric wards in Africa. Paediatric staff and mothers of paediatric inpatients were...... interviewed to explore their opinions and experience of the admission process and conditions on the ward. Overcrowding, unsanitary conditions and lack of food were major concerns for mothers on the ward, who were deterred from seeking treatment earlier due to fears that hospital admission posed a significant...... risk of exposure to infection. While most staff were seen as being sympathetic and supportive to mothers, a minority were reported to be judgemental and authoritarian. Health workers identified lack of trained staff, overwork and low pay as major concerns. Staff shortages, lack of effective training...
Mowo, J.G.; Janssen, B.H.; Oenema, O.; German, L.A.; Mrema, J.P.; Shemdoe, R.S.
The objective of this paper is to compare soil fertility evaluation based on experience and knowledge of smallholder farmer communities with the evaluation by scientists based on soil analysis and model calculations. The role of the smallholder farmer community in soil fertility evaluation and
Coosje J. Tuijn
Conclusions: Hospital managers, clinicians and laboratory workers need to recognise the critical and complementary roles each professional plays and the importance of addressing the gap between them. Field application of the framework proved successful, justifying the expansion of this study to a larger geographical area to include additional healthcare institutions
Roggeveen, Yadira; Schreuder, Renske; Zweekhorst, Marjolein; Manyama, Mange; Hatfield, Jennifer; Scheele, Fedde; van Roosmalen, Jos
To study whether data on maternal mortality can be gathered while maintaining local ownership of data in a pastoralist setting where a scarcity of data sources and a culture of silence around maternal death amplifies limited awareness of the magnitude of maternal mortality. As part of a participatory action research project, investigators and illiterate traditional birth attendants (TBAs) collaboratively developed a quantitative participatory tool-the Pictorial Sisterhood Method-that was pilot-tested between March 12 and May 30, 2011, by researchers and TBAs in a cross-sectional study. Fourteen TBAs interviewed 496 women (sample), which led to 2241 sister units of risk and a maternal mortality ratio of 689 deaths per 100000 live births (95% confidence interval 419-959). Researchers interviewed 474 women (sample), leading to 1487 sister units of risk and a maternal mortality ratio of 484 (95% confidence interval 172-795). The Pictorial Sisterhood Method is an innovative application that might increase the participation of illiterate individuals in maternal health research and advocacy. It offers interesting opportunities to increase maternal mortality data ownership and awareness, and warrants further study and validation. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Birks, L K; Powell, C D; Thomas, A D; Medard, E; Roggeveen, Y; Hatfield, J M
HIV/AIDS prevention strategies often neglect traditions and cultural practices relevant to the spread of HIV. The role of women in the HIV/AIDS context has typically been relegated to high-risk female groups such as sex workers, or those engaged in transactional sex for survival. Consequently, these perceptions are born out in the escalation of HIV/AIDS among communities, and female populations in particular where prevention frameworks remain culturally intolerant. We have attempted to address these issues by using an adapted Rapid Assessment Response and Evaluation (RARE) model to examine the impact of HIV/AIDS in the Maasai community of Ngorongoro. Our adapted RARE model used community engagement venues such as stockholder workshops, key informant interviews, and focus groups. Direct observations and geomapping were also done. Throughout our analysis, a gender and a pastoralist-centered approach provided methodological guidance, and served as value added contributions to out adaptation. Based in the unique context of a rural pastoralist community, we made recommendations appropriate to the cultural setting and the RARE considerations.
Parisi, Laura; Lombardo, Luigi; Tang, Zheng; Mai, P. Martin
The Olduvai Gorge and Laetoli basins, located within the Ngorogoro Conservation Area (NCA), are a cornerstone for understanding the evolution of early humans and are two paleo-antropological excavation sites of global importance. NCA is located at the boundary between the Tanzanian Craton and East African Rift (EAR), in the vicinity of Ngorongoro Crater and other major volcanic edifices. Thus, understanding the geology and tectonics of the NCA may shed light onto the question why early Hominins settled in this region. Environmental and geological conditions in the Olduvai and Laetoli region that promoted human settlement and development are still debated by geologists and paleo-anthropologists. Paleo-geographical reconstructions of the study area of the last 2 million years may take advantage of modern passive seismology. Therefore, we installed a dense seismic network covering a surface of approximately 30 x 40 km within the NCA to map the depth extent of known faults, and to identify seismically active faults that have no surface expression. Our ten seismic stations, equipped with Trillium Compact 120 s sensors, started to operate in June 2016 and will continue for a total of 2 years. At the end of the first year, other 5 stations will densify our network. Here we analyse data quality of the first four months of continuous recordings. Our network provides good quality 3-C waveforms in the frequency range of 0.7-50 Hz. Vertical component seismograms record frequencies reliably down to 8 mHz. Preliminary results of the seismicity obtained with standard location procedures show that NCA is characterised by frequent tectonic seismicity (not volcano-related) with Ml between 0.5 and 2.0. Seismic activity is more frequent in the South (Laetoli region) where major fault systems have not been recognised at the surface yet.
Tiberi, C.; Albaric, J.; Deschamps, A.; Deverchere, J.; Ebinger, C. J.; Ferdinand, R. W.; Gautier, S.; Lambert, C.; Msabi, M.; Mtelela, K.; Muzuka, A.; Perrot, J.; Rasendra, N.; Roecker, S. W.; Rodzianko, A.; Witkin, E.
The East African Rift (EAR) is the site of stretching and breakup of the lithosphere in response to a combination of regional pulling forces and mantle upwellings. Deformation results from complex interactions between magmatic intrusions, faulting, asthenospheric dynamism and far field stresses. It thus involves both deep processes and local inherited fabrics. In the frame of two international projects CRAFTI (NSF) and CoLiBrEA (ANR), we gather our skills to lead a multidisciplinary project in order to characterize the factors involved in continental rifting. We target the first 5 My of a magmatic rift initiating in thick (>150 km) continental lithosphere, where we can directly image and detect fault and magma interactions, the role of inherited and rheological heterogeneities of the lithosphere on rift localisation. We deployed 35 broadband seismic stations in Natron and Ngorongoro areas in January 2013 to characterize crustal and mantle structures of the rift. The stations were equipped by 3 component sensors and Reftek Recorders to continuously record teleseisms as well as local seismicity. We present here a receiver function analyse on the teleseismic events recorded during the first 6 months of the experiment. Both P- and S-waves receiver functions were proceeded to document the modification of the crust and the mantle due to plate stretching and magmatic processes. The Vp/Vs ratio informs on the state of the crust, which is affected by magmatic and fluids intrusions at different depths. The S-wave receiver function gives insight into the lithosphere state and the nature of the mantle beneath the rift (archean or plume affected).
Lyimo, R.A.; de Bruin, M.; Boogaard, J. van den; Hospers, H.J.; Ven, A. van der; Mushi, D.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To design effective, tailored interventions to support antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, a thorough understanding of the barriers and facilitators of ART adherence is required. Factors at the individual and interpersonal level, ART treatment characteristics and health
Lyimo, R.A.; Bruin, de M.; Boogaard, van den J.; Hospers, H.J.; Ven, van der A.; Mushi, D.
Background - To design effective, tailored interventions to support antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, a thorough understanding of the barriers and facilitators of ART adherence is required. Factors at the individual and interpersonal level, ART treatment characteristics and health care factors
Lyimo, R.A.; de Bruin, M.; van den Boogaard, J.; Hospers, H.J.; van der Ven, A.; Mushi, D.
Background To design effective, tailored interventions to support antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, a thorough understanding of the barriers and facilitators of ART adherence is required. Factors at the individual and interpersonal level, ART treatment characteristics and health care factors
A case study of Rundugai river catchment, Pangani basin Hzai District. ... content and structural-functional analysis techniques were used for qualitative data analysis. Five types of key stakeholders/actors involved in regulating and negotiating ...
Kumburu, Happiness Houka; Sonda, Tolbert; Mmbaga, Blandina Theophil
a total of 377 isolates. A wide range of bacteria was isolated, the most predominant being Gram-negative bacteria: Proteus spp. (n=48, 12.7%), Escherichia coli (n=44, 11.7%), Pseudomonas spp. (n=40, 10.6%), and Klebsiella spp (n=38, 10.1%). Wound infections were characterised by multiple isolates (n=293......, 77.7%), with the most frequent being Proteus spp. (n=44, 15%), Pseudomonas (n=37, 12.6%), Staphylococcus (n=29, 9.9%), and Klebsiella spp. (n=28, 9.6%). All S. aureus tested were resistant to penicillin (n=22, 100%) and susceptible to vancomycin. Significant resistance to cephalosporins...
Roggeveen, Yadira; Schreuder, Renske; Zweekhorst, Marjolein; Manyama, Mange; Hatfield, Jennifer; Scheele, Fedde; van Roosmalen, Jos
Objective To study whether data on maternal mortality can be gathered while maintaining local ownership of data in a pastoralist setting where a scarcity of data sources and a culture of silence around maternal death amplifies limited awareness of the magnitude of maternal mortality. Methods As part
Mark A Caudell
Full Text Available Frequent and unregulated use of antimicrobials (AM in livestock requires public health attention as a likely selection pressure for resistant bacteria. Studies among small-holders, who own a large percentage of the world's livestock, are vital for understanding how practices involving AM use might influence resistance. We present a cultural-ecological mixed-methods analysis to explore sectors of veterinary care, loosely regulated AM use, and human exposure to AMs through meat and milk consumption across three rural to peri-urban Tanzanian ethnic groups (N = 415 households. Reported use of self-administered AMs varied by ethnic group (Maasai: 74%, Arusha: 21%, Chagga: 1% as did consultation with professional veterinarians (Maasai: 36%, Arusha: 45%, Chagga: 96% and observation of withdrawal of meat and milk from consumption during and following AM treatment (Maasai: 7%, Arusha: 72%, Chagga: 96%. The antibiotic oxytetracycline was by far the most common AM in this sample. Within ethnic groups, herd composition differences, particularly size of small-stock and cattle herds, were most strongly associated with differences in lay AM use. Among the Arusha, proxies for urbanization, including owning transportation and reliance on "zero-grazing" herds had the strongest positive associations with veterinarian consultation, while distance to urban centers was negatively associated. For Maasai, consultation was negatively associated with use of traditional healers or veterinary drug-shops. Observation of withdrawal was most strongly associated with owning technology among Maasai while Arusha observance displayed seasonal differences. This "One-Health" analysis suggests that livelihood and cultural niche factors, through their association with practices in smallholder populations, provide insight into the selection pressures that may contribute to the evolution and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance.
Caudell, Mark A; Quinlan, Marsha B; Subbiah, Murugan; Call, Douglas R; Roulette, Casey J; Roulette, Jennifer W; Roth, Adam; Matthews, Louise; Quinlan, Robert J
Frequent and unregulated use of antimicrobials (AM) in livestock requires public health attention as a likely selection pressure for resistant bacteria. Studies among small-holders, who own a large percentage of the world's livestock, are vital for understanding how practices involving AM use might influence resistance. We present a cultural-ecological mixed-methods analysis to explore sectors of veterinary care, loosely regulated AM use, and human exposure to AMs through meat and milk consumption across three rural to peri-urban Tanzanian ethnic groups (N = 415 households). Reported use of self-administered AMs varied by ethnic group (Maasai: 74%, Arusha: 21%, Chagga: 1%) as did consultation with professional veterinarians (Maasai: 36%, Arusha: 45%, Chagga: 96%) and observation of withdrawal of meat and milk from consumption during and following AM treatment (Maasai: 7%, Arusha: 72%, Chagga: 96%). The antibiotic oxytetracycline was by far the most common AM in this sample. Within ethnic groups, herd composition differences, particularly size of small-stock and cattle herds, were most strongly associated with differences in lay AM use. Among the Arusha, proxies for urbanization, including owning transportation and reliance on "zero-grazing" herds had the strongest positive associations with veterinarian consultation, while distance to urban centers was negatively associated. For Maasai, consultation was negatively associated with use of traditional healers or veterinary drug-shops. Observation of withdrawal was most strongly associated with owning technology among Maasai while Arusha observance displayed seasonal differences. This "One-Health" analysis suggests that livelihood and cultural niche factors, through their association with practices in smallholder populations, provide insight into the selection pressures that may contribute to the evolution and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance.
Wind Energy is one of the renewable power sources that is currently used in a commercial scale for various end-uses such as pumping water deep wells and electricity generation. A precise knowledge of wind speed characteristics is an essential for the efficient planning and implementation of any wind energy project. In Tanzania the use of wind energy in generating electricity has not yet taken place due to lack of knowledge on prospective sites with high wind energy potential. The main objective of this paper is to review some attempts that have been made to explore the wind energy potential in Tanzania and the corresponding prospective sites that have been earmarked so far. (author)
Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Y.M.; Meilby, Henrik
Over the past 20 years, Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has become a dominant forest management strategy in Tanzania, covering more than 4.1 million hectares. Sustainable forest use and supply of wood products to local people are major aims of PFM. This paper assesses the sustainability...... of forest utilisation under PFM, using estimates of forest condition and extraction rates based on forest inventories and 480 household surveys from 12 forests; seven under Community Based Forest Management (CBFM), three under Joint Forest Management (JFM) and two under government management (non......-PFM). Extraction of products is intense in forests close to Dar es Salaam, regardless of management regime. Further from Dar es Salaam, harvesting levels in forests under PFM are, with one prominent exception, broadly sustainable. Using GIS data from 116 wards, it is shown that half of the PFM forests in Tanzania...
Mdoe, S.L. [Nuclear Technology Applications Directorate, Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 743, Arusha (Tanzania)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Kimaro, E. [Nuclear Technology Applications Directorate, Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 743, Arusha (Tanzania)]. E-mail: email@example.com
Peaceful application of nuclear technology has contributed to socio-economic resource development in Tanzania. The Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission has taken some active steps for the incorporation and or adoption of ICT-based training modules in nuclear science and technology and its applications. The overall objective of this programme is to establish a sustainable national capability for using the potential of information communication technologies (ICTs) for training and education in the field of nuclear science and technology. This paper reviews some of the experience which the authors gained in the area of ICT based training in nuclear technology applications, it describes some of the challenges experienced, and some proposals to address the issues involved. (author)
Full Text Available Research initiatives and practical experiences have demonstrated that forest-related data collected by local communities can play an essential role in the development of national REDD+ programs and its' measurement, reporting, verification (MRV systems. In Tanzania, the national REDD+ Strategy aims to reward local communities participating in forest management under Participatory Forest Management (PFM. Accessing carbon finances requires among other things, accurate measurements of carbon stock changes through conventional forest inventories, something which is rarely done in PFM forests due to its high cost and limited resources. The main objective of this paper is to discuss experiences of Participatory Forest Carbon Assessment (PFCA in Tanzania. The study revealed that villagers who participated in PFCA were able to perform most steps for carbon assessment in the field. A key challenge in future is how to finance PFCA and ensure the technical capacity at local level.
Mdoe, S.L.; Kimaro, E.
Peaceful application of nuclear technology has contributed to socio-economic resource development in Tanzania. The Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission has taken some active steps for the incorporation and or adoption of ICT-based training modules in nuclear science and technology and its applications. The overall objective of this programme is to establish a sustainable national capability for using the potential of information communication technologies (ICTs) for training and education in the field of nuclear science and technology. This paper reviews some of the experience which the authors gained in the area of ICT based training in nuclear technology applications, it describes some of the challenges experienced, and some proposals to address the issues involved. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs are recommended for use against uncomplicated malaria in areas of multi-drug resistant malaria, such as sub-Saharan Africa. However, their long-term usefulness in these high transmission areas remains unclear. It has been suggested that documentation of the S769N PfATPase6 mutations may indicate an emergence of artemisinin resistance of Plasmodium falciparum in the field. The present study assessed PfATPase6 mutations (S769N and A623E in 615 asymptomatic P. falciparum infections in Tanzania but no mutant genotype was detected. This observation suggests that resistance to artemisinin has not yet been selected in Tanzania, supporting the Ministry of Health's decision to adopt artemether+lumefantrine as first-line malaria treatment. The findings recommend further studies to assess PfATPase6 mutations in sentinel sites and verify their usefulness in monitoring emergency of ACT resistance.
Full Text Available International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management An analysis of climatic impacts and adaptation strategies in Tanzania Mercy M. Ojoyi School of Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa... of feedback results from analysis of variance tests conducted. Major indicators of climate variability and change include: increased dry spells (39.7 per cent), drying of rivers (34.7 per cent), a reduction in water flows (14.6 per cent) and poor economy...
Bakshi, Fatma A.; Jaka, Hyasinta
Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world with high prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa countries. The complexity in its diagnosis and treatment poses a significant management challenge in the resource-limited settings including Tanzania, where most of the tests and drugs are either unavailable or unaffordable. This mini review aims at demonstrating the current status of the disease in the country and discussing the concomitant challenges in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. PMID:29666656
Kilonzo, Semvua B.; Gunda, Daniel W.; Mpondo, Bonaventura C. T.; Bakshi, Fatma A.; Jaka, Hyasinta
Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world with high prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa countries. The complexity in its diagnosis and treatment poses a significant management challenge in the resource-limited settings including Tanzania, where most of the tests and drugs are either unavailable or unaffordable. This mini review aims at demonstrating the current status of the disease in the country and discussing the concomitant challenges in diagnosis, treatm...
Joyce-Gibbons, Andrew; Galloway, David; Mollel, Andrew; Mgoma, Sylvester; Pima, Madeleke; Deogratias, Enos
Mobile phone technology in Tanzania has grown rapidly but there is insufficient data on its application in schools. This paper aims to show how students in the first and third year (F1 and F3) teachers in two rural secondary schools perceived its use. F1 and F3 students completed a questionnaire. Teachers and students in F1 and F3 discussed the…
Large rural-urban wage gaps observed in many developing countries are suggestive of barriers to migration that keep potential migrants in the rural areas. Using long panel data spanning nearly two decades, I study the extent to which migration rates are constrained by liquidity constraints in rural Tanzania. The analysis begins by quantifying the impact of weather variation on household welfare. The results show how household consumption co-moves with temperature rendering households vulnerab...
This bachelor’s thesis was researched and written under the consent and authority of Tanzania Telecommunication Company Limited (TTCL), with the purpose to find out ways of improving sales and profits of its mobile service department. The mobile service department of TTCL is performing poorly as compared to its competitors despite being managed by a strategically positioned and experienced company in tele-communication services. It was also meant to find out the positive contribution of compe...
Kajuna, Dezidery Theobard
Abstract Healthcare systems around the world have different shapes that are largely affected by socio-economic and political situations of a particular country. It is essential for the population to have better health services which requires the country to have better health policies, enough funding for health care sector, and a well structured delivery system. Tanzania like any other developing countries continue to face different challenges in healthcare sector greatly influenced by poor ec...
Pedersen, Rasmus Hundsbæk; Haule, Scholastica
Tanzania's land reform from 1999 has been evaluated as among the most gender-sensitive of its kind in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is a gap between the legal framework and what is happening on the ground. This working paper analyses the challenges related to the protection of women's rights to land in rural areas. It provides detailed information on reform implementation experiences so far by analysing a number of government and NGO interventions. It furthermore discusses the ambiguous ...
Full Text Available region of Tanzania. Climate change is a vital issue of global concern. Design/methodology/approach - Rain fall data trends collected from different meteorological stations in the region were useful in assessment of climate variability and change... also did not take into consideration institutional arrangements required to successfully implement national adaptation programmes to climate change. Finally, it is important to remember that peoples’ perceptions determine the social mental picture...
No Abstract. Tanzania Dental Journal Vol. 12(1) 2005: iv-v. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tdj.v12i1.37551 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...
Elsner, Harald [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany). Fachbereich Wirtschaftsgeologie der mineralischen Rohstoffe
Tanzania is the rising country in East Africa, to which not least of all the booming mining sector contributes. Many large gold mines, two precious stone mines, three cement works and smaller facilities for extraction of salt, phosphates, gypsum, pozzolana, coal and coloured gemstones currently characterise the mining sector. The high mineral potential of the country combined with the mining legislation favouring investment will also lead in future to the development of further deposits in particular, nickel, gold, coal and graphite. (orig.)
Agrawala, S.; Moehner, A.; Van Aalst, M.; Smith, J.; Hitz, S.; Hemp, A.; Meena, H.; Mwakifwamba, S.M.; Hyera, T.; Mwaipopo, O.U.
This document is an output from the OECD Development and Climate Change project, an activity jointly overseen by the EPOC Working Party on Global and Structural Policies (WPGSP), and the DAC Network on Environment and Development Co-operation (ENVIRONET). The overall objective of the project is to provide guidance on how to mainstream responses to climate change within economic development planning and assistance policies, with natural resource management as an overarching theme. This report presents the integrated case study for Tanzania carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. The report is structured around a three-tiered framework. First, recent climate trends and climate change scenarios for Tanzania are assessed, and key sectoral impacts are identified and ranked along multiple indicators to establish priorities for adaptation. Second, donor portfolios in Tanzania are analyzed to examine the proportion of donor activities affected by climate risks. A desk analysis of donor strategies and project documents as well as national plans is conducted to assess the degree of attention to climate change concerns in development planning and assistance. Third, an in-depth analysis is conducted for climate change impacts and response strategies for Mount Kilimanjaro - a critical ecosystem, biodiversity hotspot, and source of freshwater. This part of the analysis draws upon extended field research by a case study consultant in collaboration with national and international partners
Olesen, Tina Bech; Mwaiselage, Julius; Iftner, Thomas
, although not being statistically significant. In conclusion, HIV is a strong risk factor for HPV among men in Tanzania. Additionally, in HIV-positive men a high BMI seems to be associated with a lower risk of HPV. Finally, we observed a tendency toward a lower risk of HPV both among HIV-positive and HIV......The objective of the study was to assess risk factors for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) among men in Tanzania, both overall and in relation to HIV status. In a cross-sectional study conducted among 1,813 men in Tanzania, penile swabs were tested for HPV using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). Study participants...... were offered HIV testing. Risk factors for HPV (HC2 high-risk and/or low-risk positivity) were assessed using logistic regression with adjustment for age, lifetime number of sexual partners, and HIV status. Altogether, 372 men (20.5%) were HPV-positive. Among men tested for HIV (n = 1,483), the HIV...
In Tanzania, preliminary efforts are underway to protect the human rights of people with HIV/AIDS. Tanzania, which has been criticized for failing to recognize human rights abuses against people with HIV/AIDS, is the 15th country in sub-Saharan Africa to establish a regional network of physicians, lawyers, and nongovernmental organizations seeking to protect the rights of people with HIV/AIDS and those vulnerable to the infection with appropriate legislation and policies. Discrimination, which hastens spread of the disease by forcing it underground, is found even among medical personnel who disclose patient information without consent or refuse to treat patients with HIV/AIDS. Certain laws also compromise the rights of infected people by requiring physicians to tender medical reports before the courts, permitting employers to force employees to undergo HIV testing, or requiring rape victims to provide an excessive burden of proof. Participants at a recent workshop recommended a review of national AIDS policy and changes in the law. A computer database will be used to track HIV/AIDS-related human rights abuses in Tanzania.
Durnez, Lies; Katakweba, Abdul; Sadiki, Harrison
The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms we....... However, because of the high prevalence of mycobacteria in some small mammal species, these infected animals can pose a risk to humans, especially in areas with a high HIV-prevalence as is the case in Tanzania.......The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms were...... and PCR in the small mammals were atypical mycobacteria. Analysis of the presence of mycobacteria in relation to the reactor status of the cattle farms does not exclude transmission between small mammals and cattle but indicates that transmission to cattle from another source of infection is more likely...
Societal ideas and explanations of albinism at the local level in Tanzania are conceived in terms of family history, social relations, economic status, moral-religious positions, global-local flows of information and humanitarian actions on behalf of people with the congenital condition. This paper aims to show how the subjectivities of people with albinism in Tanzania are shaped and re-shaped through local moral conceptions as well as globalizing (bio)medical explanations of albinism. An exemplary case study of a 28-year-old woman, plus episodes from the lives of seven other informants with the condition, are analyzed in order to understand, on the one hand, local social relationships between people with albinism and other individuals in family and community settings, and on the other hand, the interconnections between persons with albinism and global humanitarian actors and the broadcast media. When stigma and marginalizing behaviors are perceived by individuals with albinism in Tanzania as impeding their social lives, they employ different coping strategies and discourses to enhance social acceptance.
Urio, Elisaphinate Moses; Jeje, Benedict; Ndossi, Godwin
Full text: Malnutrition among children under the age of five continues to be a significant public health problem in Tanzania. Despite numerous nutritional interventions that have been implemented, the country still experiences high rates of malnutrition. According to Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey of 2010 the prevalence of underweight was estimated to be 16%, wasting 5% and stunting 42 %. Factors contributing to causes of malnutrition include immediate, underlying and basic causes. All these factors are interlinked and operate synergistically and not independently. Approaches for managing malnourished children in Tanzania evolved from facility based Nutrition Rehabilitation Units (NURU) in the late 1960s to Community Based Nutrition Rehabilitation (CBNR) in late 1980s. In the latter approach, malnourished children are rehabilitated in the same environment (village, home) that precipitated the condition, using resources and infrastructures available in the community. Mothers are taught about child feeding using family foods to make good food mixtures and of the importance of feeding frequency for the young child. Limitations for this approach include inadequate advocacy to leaders from districts down to the community level, few trained health providers and community health workers on knowledge and skills on community based nutrition rehabilitation, inadequate equipment and supplies for identification and categorization of malnutrition, low awareness of parents, care givers and community leaders on home rehabilitation of malnourished children. Nonetheless, Community Based Nutrition Rehabilitation approach has the potential to address malnutrition in children given political will and resources. (author)
The latest Demographic and Health Surveys Report on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice documents an increase in the level of use of modern contraceptive methods in Tanzania between 1991 and 1994 from 5.9% to 11.3% of reproductive-age women. 53.2% of all women of reproductive age were exposed to mass media messages about family planning, which large majorities of men and women consider acceptable. 48.3% were exposed through radio, 22.9% reported listening to the US Agency for International Development-funded family planning promotional radio soap opera "Zinduka]", 22.5% read newspaper items, 17.5% saw posters, and 7.3% saw leaflets. 4.5% were visited by a family planning worker, 24.7% discussed family planning with a friend or relative, and 24.7% discussed family planning with health facility personnel. Zinduka], a popular 52-episode soap opera, depicts how the lives of Bomu wa Kabuma's family, in Msongano Town and Tawanya village in Tanzania, are affected because he is unable to provide for his eight children, parents, wife, mistress, and the mistress's child. The soap was produced with technical assistance from the Johns Hopkins University Center for Communication Programs Population Communication Services project. The 15-minute episodes were first broadcast in Swahili on Radio Tanzania from October 1993 through October 1994. The series was then resumed in September 1995 for another 12 months.
This monograph discusses policies designed to deal with food and nutrition problems in Tanzania. Available information on food supplies and nutritional conditions in Tanzania clearly shows that the country faces nutritional problems; protein energy malnutrition is the most serious and requires priority action. Iron deficiency anemia, goiter, and…
Rushahu, Bernadetha Gabriel
This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS and the Life Skills Education delivery in primary schools in Tanzania. Specifically the study investigated pupils' views about the effect of HIV/AIDS and Life Skills teaching in primary schools in Tanzania; assessed pupils' knowledge related to HIV/AIDS and Life Skills education, and…
*Part of this work was presented at the Tanzania Dental Association, 19th Scientific and Annual General Meeting, 22nd. –24th September 2004, Golden Tulip Hotel, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. ... data on oral health behavior for children and adults ... were randomly selected and among them, sorted the ... to WHO criteria (13).
Raphael, Christina; Mtebe, Joel S.
The adoption of blended learning to widen access, reduce cost, and improve the quality of education is becoming prevalent in higher education in sub-Saharan Africa and Tanzania in particular. University of Dar es Salaam and the Open University of Tanzania offer various blended learning courses using Moodle system via regional centres scattered…
Background. Stunted growth is a major public health issue for children in Tanzania. We examined dietary exposures to aflatoxin and fumonisin and their potential roles in growth impairment in children under 36 months of age in Haydom, Tanzania. Methods. Plasma samples collected at 24 months of age ...
Jul 16, 2013 ... Accidents: Morbidity and Associated Factors in a city of Northeast of Brazil” for review by the. Editorial Board of the Tanzania Journal of Health Research. ... Tanzania Journal of Health Research in the event that such work is published. The undersigned authors declare that they have no proprietary, financial ...
Much remains unknown about the status of early child development and care in Tanzania. The little information available has never been put together to provide a holistic picture of the progress so far made in this important area. This paper intends to synchronise the information available in Tanzania for the purpose of depicting the country's…
Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Boehlert, Brent; Meijer, Karen; Schellekens, Jaap; Magnell, Jan-Petter; Helbrink, Jakob; Kassana, Leonard; Liden, Rikard
Economic costs induced by current climate variability are large for Tanzania and may further increase due to future climate change. The Tanzanian National Climate Change Strategy addressed the need for stabilization of hydropower generation and strengthening of water resources management. Increased hydropower generation can contribute to sustainable use of energy resources and stabilization of the national electricity grid. To support Tanzania the World Bank financed this study in which the impact of climate change on the water resources and related hydropower generation capacity of Tanzania is assessed. To this end an ensemble of 78 GCM projections from both the CMIP3 and CMIP5 datasets was bias-corrected and down-scaled to 0.5 degrees resolution following the BCSD technique using the Princeton Global Meteorological Forcing Dataset as a reference. To quantify the hydrological impacts of climate change by 2035 the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was set-up for Tanzania at a resolution of 3 minutes and run with all 78 GCM datasets. From the full set of projections a probable (median) and worst case scenario (95th percentile) were selected based upon (1) the country average Climate Moisture Index and (2) discharge statistics of relevance to hydropower generation. Although precipitation from the Princeton dataset shows deviations from local station measurements and the global hydrological model does not perfectly reproduce local scale hydrographs, the main discharge characteristics and precipitation patterns are represented well. The modeled natural river flows were adjusted for water demand and irrigation within the water resources model RIBASIM (both historical values and future scenarios). Potential hydropower capacity was assessed with the power market simulation model PoMo-C that considers both reservoir inflows obtained from RIBASIM and overall electricity generation costs. Results of the study show that climate change is unlikely to negatively affect the
www.ees.elsevier.com/afju www.sciencedirect.com. Pattern of presentation and management of patients with undescended testis at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical. Center, Tanzania. G. Afrika Gasana , K.A. Mteta. Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, P.O. Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania. Received 19 February 2012; ...
Tanzania is realizing increase in adolescents engaged in multiple sex partner behaviour and premarital sex. The objective of this study was to assess the awareness of multiple sex partner behaviour and risk factors among secondary school students in Moshi, Tanzania. Anonymously, questionnaires were completed by 360 ...
Barry, P. H.
observed latitudinal isotopic trends in He-CO2. However, the two localities with MORB-like 3He/4He ratios ~6 to 7 RA, δ13C ~ -4 to -5 ‰ and CO2/3He ~ 4 x10^9 are both cold temperature (~ 15°C) CO2 gas vents. The MORB-like characteristics of these cold vents are comparable to MORB-like values observed at Oldoinyo Lengai in northern Tanzania , suggesting that both Rungwe region and Oldoinyo Lengai may derive their volatile compositions from a homogeneous (MORB-like) mantle source common to the entire segment of the southern EAR.  Furman (2007) Journal of African Earth Sciences 48, 147-160.  Ebinger et al. (1989) Journal of Geophysical Research 94, 15,785-15,803.  Pik et al. (2006) Chemical Geology 226, 100-114.  Fisher et al. (2009) Nature 459, 77-80.
Kiwele, P.M.; Mbise, H.A.; Mwihava, N.C.X.; Svenningsson, P.J.
About 90% of the annual total energy consumed in Tanzania is biomass-based, mainly in the form of wood fuel. Small-scale brick-making is one of the major consumers of wood fuel, with Arusha, Iringa and Mbeya being the main areas where brick-making activities take place. In 1993, the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) in collaboration with the Ministry of Energy and Minerals (MEM) proposed a project to undertake studies on fuelwood in small rural industries of Tanzania, particularly brick-making. The study on wood fuel utilisation involved field measurements and analyses with the aim of establishing major sources of energy losses and to recommend measures regarding fuel switching, kiln thermal efficiency improvements, and the yield and quality of bricks. The positive feedback would mean reduced demand for fuelwood and hence reduced deforestation rate and therefore environmental protection. The implementation of the project, which commenced in 1994, involved field measurements in order to establish kiln performances as well as laboratory tests to determine the qualities of the fired bricks. At a later stage of implementation, efforts were made to consider other potential fuels (sawdust and coal) for firing the kilns. The main indicators of kiln performance include thermal efficiency, specific energy consumption (SEC), which is sometimes referred to as specific fuel consumption (SFC; yield; and quality. The average SEC for Mbeya region was found to vary from 1.11 to 1.54 while for Iringa region the range was from 1.21 to 1.84 MJ/kg fired brick. The data for Arusha was in the range of 0.76 to 3.3 MJ/kg of fired brick. The low SEC may not necessarily give a reasonable indication of the kiln performance because kiln operators in Mbeya mould larger size bricks which are unloaded from incomplete firing conditions. The fired bricks at Babati (Arusha), though of work-size, are of low quality and consume very little wood fuel. Findings obtained under the SADC project four
Swai, Emanuel S; Schoonman, Luuk; Daborn, Chris J
Zoonoses are infections naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans. An exploratory questionnaire-based survey of animal health workers(n=36) and livestock keepers(n=43) was carried out from April 2001 to March 2002 in Tanga and Arusha regions, northern Tanzania, to assess local knowledge, attitudes and public awareness for animal zoonoses. A combination of closed and open-ended questions, focus group discussions and ranking techniques were employed to gather information on perceptions concerning the type of zoonotic diseases prevalent in the study area, level of risk, mode of transmission and methods of preventing disease transmission from animals to humans. The results demonstrated that rabies, tuberculosis and anthrax were considered the three most common zoonotic diseases. Sharing living accommodation with animals, consumption of un-treated livestock products (i.e. milk, meat or eggs) and attending to parturition were perceived as routes of transmission. Knowledge about zoonosis was higher in smallholder dairy (92%; 33/36) than traditional livestock keepers (Pzoonosis was significantly higher in traditional livestock (86%; 6/7) than smallholder dairy keepers (Pzoonosis by farm location revealed that rural farms (85%; 7/8) were considered significantly at a higher risk when compared to peri or urban located farms (P<0.05). Most of the respondents stated cooking of meat or boiling of milk as a way to prevent transmission. However, there was a significant difference in the perception of the risk posed by contact with potentially infected animals /or animal products with animal health workers having a much higher level of perception compared to livestock keepers. These results suggest that in the Tanga and Arusha, Tanzania, patchy awareness and knowledge of zoonoses, combined with food consumption habits and poor animal husbandry are likely to expose respondents to an increased risk of contracting zoonoses. Public health promotion on education and
Jelly, Isaya; Peters, Micah D J
The World Health Organization (WHO) has prioritized collaboration with communities in its 2016 "End TB" implementation strategy. Acknowledging the difficulties that some communities face in gaining access to health facilities due to barriers such as stigma, discrimination, healthcare expenditure, transport and income loss, partnering with communities in the roll-out of community-based TB management activities is vital. The aim of this project was to make a contribution to promoting evidence-based practice with regards to the community-based management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) at Kibong'oto National Infectious Disease Hospital, Tanzania, and thereby supporting improvements in patient outcomes and resource utilization. The project utilized the Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System (JBI PACES) program to facilitate the collection of pre- and post-audit data. The Getting Research into Practice (GRiP) module was also used to analyze the potential barriers and for designing the final action plan. This project was conducted in three phases over a three-month period at the MDR-TB unit in a referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. The project showed that there were significant improvements in compliance rates in staff education and documentation of patients' suitability and preferences in receiving community-based care for MDR-TB. The compliance rate of criterion 2, which was already 100% at baseline, was slightly lower at follow-up. The project achieved significant improvements in the delivery of evidence-based practice with regards to community-based management of MDR-TB.
Full Text Available Artisanal half-pearl culture has been shown to provide livelihood and economic opportunities for coastal communities in Tanzania that depend directly on exploitation of marine resources. However, these pilot research studies have been supported by donor organisations and the economic feasibility of such development has not yet been assessed. Furthermore, there is little understanding of the costs required to establish pearl farms and the relative impacts of farm size on production, running costs, profitability and risks involved in production. The aim of this study was to develop economic models for subsistence level half-pearl culture in Tanzania. Models were generated for various scenarios relating to farm size and products (i.e. half-pearls and juvenile oyster or ‘spat’ collection and they give detail on infrastructure costs, operational costs and income generated for various levels of operation. We concluded that the most profitable model for community-based pearl farming is to culture at least 600 oysters for half-pearl production. However, for communities to be able to run a sustainable and profitable enterprise, development of a sustainable source of oysters is crucial. Farmers can also generate income from collection of juvenile oysters and their subsequent sale to pearl farmers, but this is less profitable than half-pearl farming and requires a longer operational period before profits are made. Like pearl farming, there were major benefits or economies of scale with the largest farms tested providing greatest profit and/or a shorter time required to reach profitability. Our results provide a valuable source of information for prospective pearl farmers, donors, funding bodies and other stakeholders, and valuable extension information supporting further development of pearl culture in Tanzania.
Rohli, R. V.; Ates, S.; Rivera-Monroy, V. H.; Polito, M. J.; Midway, S. R.; Gold, A.; Castañeda-Moya, E.; Uchida, E.; Suwa, M.; Mangora, M. M.
Climatic controls are particularly important to the natural and human systems in coastal Tanzania, where mangrove vegetation is a major component of world-renowned biodiversity. This research provides an improved understanding of the climatic features and forcing mechanisms that support the critical mangroves of Tanzania and the livelihoods of its populace, using updated and complete datasets. Updated data confirm that coastal Tanzania falls in the tropical wet-dry Köppen-Geiger climatic type, except for the extreme north, where tropical rain forest exists north of Pangani. The northeast monsoon, known as the kaskazi, largely corresponds to the rainy November-December and March-May months. The southeast monsoon - known as the kusi - overlaps with the drier June-September. Results suggest that El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) are key modulators of precipitation variability in the entire area. More specifically, September-November positive precipitation anomalies occur during positive IOD, especially when combined with El Niño, with slightly negative anomalies during negative IOD, especially when combined with La Niña. The rest of the year tends to show similar precipitation during both IOD phases (March-August) or less precipitation during the positive phase (December-February). Because the literature suggests likelihood of more frequent positive IOD mode and a strengthened relationship of these events to warm-ENSO events, changes to the hydrologic cycle in east Africa may be likely in the future, with a potential for an expanded secondary rainy season and a drier "saddle" between the secondary and primary rainy seasons (i.e., December-February). Therefore, future research should investigate in more detail the influence of the IOD and ENSO on various components of the climatic water balance. Results may be useful to earth, environmental, and social scientists as they seek further understanding of the drivers of ecological and
Shayo, Elizabeth H.; Senkoro, Kesheni P.; Momburi, Romanus
was also found in the provider–client relationship satisfaction level between non-public (89.1%) and public facilities (74.7%) (OR = 2.8, CI: 1.5–5.0), indicating a level of lower trust in the later. Revised strategies are needed to ensure availability of medicines in public facilities, which are used......This study compared the access and utilisation of health services in public and non-public health facilities in terms of quality, equity and trust in the Mbarali district, Tanzania. Interviews, focus group discussions, and informal discussions were used to generate data. Of the 1836 respondents...
Ernest L. Mramba; Ismail J. Ismail
The study was determined to look on the relationship between socio-economic determinants and blood donation in Tanzania. It involved a sample of 128 respondents in which binary logistic regression results showed sex of respondents, level of education and religious beliefs to have a positively relationship with blood donation at 1%, 10%, 10% level respectively, with p values of 0.007, 0.077, 0.094 as theory suggested. Health status, cultural beliefs, fear for HIV test results, and health in...
Trevisan, Chiara; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Schmidt, Veronika; Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Harrison, Wendy; Johansen, Maria Vang
Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite prevalent in many low income countries throughout Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. The parasite is recognized as a public health threat; however the burden it poses on populations of Tanzania is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis in Tanzania, by assessing both the health and economic burden. The societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis was assessed in humans and pigs based on data obtained by a systematic review. Experts' opinion was sought in cases where data were not retrievable. The health burden was assessed in terms of annual number of neurocysticercosis (NCC) associated epilepsy incident cases, deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), while the economic burden was assessed in terms of direct and indirect costs imposed by NCC-associated epilepsy and potential losses due to porcine cysticercosis. Based on data retrieved from the systematic review and burden assessments, T. solium cysticercosis contributed to a significant societal cost for the population. The annual number of NCC-associated epilepsy incident cases and deaths were 17,853 (95% Uncertainty Interval (UI), 5666-36,227) and 212 (95% UI, 37-612), respectively. More than 11% (95% UI, 6.3-17) of the pig population was infected with the parasite when using tongue examination as diagnostic method. For the year 2012 the number of DALYs per thousand person-years for NCC-associated epilepsy was 0.7 (95% UI, 0.2-1.6). Around 5 million USD (95% UI, 797,535-16,933,477) were spent due to NCC-associated epilepsy and nearly 3 million USD (95% UI, 1,095,960-5,366,038) were potentially lost due to porcine cysticercosis. Our results show that T. solium imposes a serious public health, agricultural and economic threat for Tanzania. We urge that a One Health approach, which involves the joint collaboration and effort of veterinarians, medical doctors, agricultural extension officers
Semvua B. Kilonzo
Full Text Available Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world with high prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa countries. The complexity in its diagnosis and treatment poses a significant management challenge in the resource-limited settings including Tanzania, where most of the tests and drugs are either unavailable or unaffordable. This mini review aims at demonstrating the current status of the disease in the country and discussing the concomitant challenges in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.
Mattsson, H. B.; Balashova, A.; Almqvist, B. S. G.; Bosshard-Stadlin, S. A.; Weidendorfer, D.
Oldoinyo Lengai, a stratovolcano in northern Tanzania, is most famous for being the only currently active carbonatite volcano on Earth. The bulk of the volcanic edifice is dominated by eruptive products produced by silica-undersaturated, peralkaline, silicate magmas (effusive, explosive and/or as cumulates at depth). The recent (2007-2008) explosive eruption produced the first ever recorded pyroclastic flows at this volcano and the accidental lithics incorporated into the pyroclastic flows represent a broad variety of different rock types, comprising both extrusive and intrusive varieties, in addition to various types of cumulates. This mix of different accidental lithics provides a unique insight into the inner workings of the world's only active carbonatite volcano. Here, we focus on the magnetic mineralogy and the rock magnetic properties of a wide selection of samples spanning the spectrum of Oldoinyo Lengai rock types compositionally, as well from a textural point of view. Here we show that the magnetic properties of most extrusive silicate rocks are dominated by magnetite-ulvöspinel solid solutions, and that pyrrhotite plays a larger role in the magnetic properties of the intrusive silicate rocks. The natrocarbonatitic lavas, for which the volcano is best known for, show distinctly different magnetic properties in comparison with the silicate rocks. This discrepancy may be explained by abundant alabandite crystals/blebs in the groundmass of the natrocarbonatitic lavas. A detailed combination of petrological/mineralogical studies with geophysical investigations is an absolute necessity in order to understand, and to better constrain, the overall architecture and inner workings of the subvolcanic plumbing system. The results presented here may also have implications for the quest in order to explain the genesis of the uniquely natrocarbonatitic magmas characteristic of Oldoinyo Lengai.
Durant, Sarah M; Craft, Meggan E; Foley, Charles; Hampson, Katie; Lobora, Alex L; Msuha, Maurus; Eblate, Ernest; Bukombe, John; McHetto, John; Pettorelli, Nathalie
1. This study utilizes a unique data set covering over 19 000 georeferenced records of species presence collected between 1993 and 2008, to explore the distribution and habitat selectivity of an assemblage of 26 carnivore species in the Serengeti-Ngorongoro landscape in northern Tanzania. 2. Two species, the large-spotted genet and the bushy-tailed mongoose, were documented for the first time within this landscape. Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA) was used to examine habitat selectivity for 18 of the 26 carnivore species for which there is sufficient data. Eleven ecogeographical variables (EGVs), such as altitude and habitat type, were used for these analyses. 3. The ENFA demonstrated that species differed in their habitat selectivity, and supported the limited ecological information already available for these species, such as the golden jackals' preference for grassland and the leopards' preference for river valleys. 4. Two aggregate scores, marginality and tolerance, are generated by the ENFA, and describe each species' habitat selectivity in relation to the suite of EGVs. These scores were used to test the hypothesis that smaller species are expected to be more selective than larger species [Science, 1989, 243, 1145]. Two predictions were tested: Marginality should decrease with body mass; and tolerance should increase with body mass. Our study provided no evidence for either prediction. 5. Our results not only support previous analyses of carnivore diet breadth, but also represent a novel approach to the investigation of habitat selection across species assemblages. Our method provides a powerful tool to explore similar questions in other systems and for other taxa.
Full Text Available Deterioration of upland soils, demographic growth, and climate change all lead to an increased utilization of wetlands in East Africa. This considerable pressure on wetland resources results in trade-offs between those resources and their related ecosystem services. Furthermore, relationships between catchment attributes and available wetland water resources are one of the key drivers that might lead to wetland degradation. To investigate the impacts of these developments on catchment-wetland water resources, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT was applied to the Kilombero Catchment in Tanzania, which is like many other East African catchments, as it is characterized by overall data scarcity. Due to the lack of recent discharge data, the model was calibrated for the period from 1958–1965 (R2 = 0.86, NSE = 0.85, KGE = 0.93 and validated from 1966–1970 (R2 = 0.80, NSE = 0.80, KGE = 0.89 with the sequential uncertainty fitting algorithm (SUFI-2 on a daily resolution. Results show the dependency of the wetland on baseflow contribution from the enclosing catchment, especially in dry season. Main contributions with regard to overall water yield arise from the northern mountains and the southeastern highlands, which are characterized by steep slopes and a high share of forest and savanna vegetation, respectively. Simulations of land use change effects, generated with Landsat images from the 1970s up to 2014, show severe shifts in the water balance components on the subcatchment scale due to anthropogenic activities. Sustainable management of the investigated catchment should therefore account for the catchment–wetland interaction concerning water resources, with a special emphasis on groundwater fluxes to ensure future food production as well as the preservation of the wetland ecosystem.
Gilman Jackson Nyamubi
Full Text Available This study examined teachers’ job satisfaction in Tanzania. It addressed one research question: what factors determine secondary school teachers’ job satisfaction? The study was conducted in eight secondary schools in two regions of Tanzania. It used focus group discussion as the data collection tool. Results show that teachers were satisfied by both monetary and nonmonetary incentives such as community support. They were pleased with fair remuneration packages that related to their labour input, opportunities for career development, a well-defined individual appraisal system, timely promotion, and requisite workplace conditions. The study also showed that teachers’ friendship and cooperation with coworkers and students as well as the respect of community members also enhanced their satisfaction in teaching. Also important to their satisfaction is their students’ success in and after school, which reveals the teachers’ sense of duty and responsibility. Teachers’ job dissatisfaction can lead to their search for other means to gain economically. It is recommended that care should be given to address teachers’ pertinent issues, especially salaries, workplace conditions, and timely promotion, to enhance teachers’ physical and mental attachment to their workplaces.
Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between current account and government budget deficits in Tanzania. The paper tests the validity of the twin deficits hypothesis, using annual time series data for the 1966-2015 period. The paper is thought to be significant because the concept of the twin deficit hypothesis is fraught with controversy. Some researches support the hypothesis that there is a positive relationship between current account deficits and fiscal deficits in the economy while others do not. In this paper, the empirical tests fail to reject the twin deficits hypothesis, indicating that rising budget deficits put more strain on the current account deficits in Tanzania. Specifically, the Vector Error Correction Model results support the conventional theory of a positive relationship between fiscal and external balances, with a relatively high speed of adjustment toward the equilibrium position. This evidence is consistent with a small open economy. To address the problem that may result from this kind of relationship, appropriate policy variables for reducing budget deficits such as reduction in non-development expenditure, enhancement of domestic revenue collection and actively fight corruption and tax evasion should be adopted. The government should also target export oriented firms and encourage an import substitution industry by creating favorable business environments.
Full Text Available Climatic and environmental changes are expected to affect in particular those regions where the economy is primarily based on the agricultural sector and where the dependency on water availability is high. This study examines how smallholder farmers in rural Tanzania perceived climatic and environmental changes over the past 20 years and the resulting effects on water availability and food security. The study is based on a household survey of 899 farmers in a semi-arid and a sub-humid region in Tanzania. It was found that (a significant differences in perceptions of the environment by farmers can be attributed to agro-climatic location, while the distance to a water source has less impact on individual perception; (b differently perceived changes affect individual water availability and food security; and (c the farm level adaptation methods applied are linked to vulnerability to changes and the household dependence on the immediate environment. The authors conclude that the specific environmental surroundings paired with socio-economic factors can severely compound the negative effects of water scarcity on rural farmers.
Seth, Misago; Saguti, Fredy
The significance of animals in research cannot be over-emphasized. The use of animals for research and training in research centres, hospitals and schools is progressively increasing. Advances in biotechnology to improve animal productivity require animal research. Drugs being developed and new interventions or therapies being invented for cure and palliation of all sorts of animal diseases and conditions need to be tested in animals for their safety and efficacy at some stages of their development. Drugs and interventions for human use pass through a similar development process and must be tested pre-clinically in laboratory animals before clinical trials in humans can be conducted. Therefore, animals are important players in research processes which directly and indirectly benefit animals and humans. However, questions remain as to whether these uses of animals consider the best interests of animals themselves. Various research and training institutions in Tanzania have established some guidelines on animal use, including establishing animal ethics committees. However, most institutions have not established oversight committees. In institutions where there may be guidelines and policies, there are no responsible committees or units to directly oversee if and how these guidelines and policies are enforced; thus, implementation becomes difficult or impossible. This paper endeavours to raise some issues associated with the responsible use of animals in research and training in Tanzania and highlights suggestions for improvement of deficiencies that exist in order to bridge the gap between what ought to be practised and what is practised. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mwandosya, M J [Ministry of Water, Energy and Minerals and Univ. of Dar es Salaam (TZ)
Tanzania's energy policy goals must reconcile the need to ensure continuity and security of oil supplies on one hand and the need to reduce the burden on the economy of imports of petroleum on the other. Petroleum imports account for 40% of the value of the country's export earnings, having risen from 5% in 1964. Therefore, the national energy policy goals, must have the immediate task of overcoming problems caused by this total dependence on imported petroleum. Another immediate goal of the national energy policy should be the minimisation of biomass energy use in order to reduce deforestation and its ecological and social consequences. Although not articulated in a concise form, the development of the energy sector in Tanzania over the last two decades has followed a consistent pattern based on the following principles: the need to exploit the abundant hydroelectric energy sources; the need to develop and utilise other indigenous energy sources such as coal and natural gas; the need to step up petroleum exploration activities; the need to arrest the depletion of wood through the evolution of more appropriate land management practices, wood plantation and woodlot development and use of more efficient woodfuel technologies; the need to minimise energy price fluctuations through strengthening and rationalisation of energy supply sources and infrastructure and a rational energy pricing structure; the need to develop the human resource potential; and the need to develop an indigenous capacity for research and development in energy systems technologies.
Nyamtema, A; Mwakatundu, N; Dominico, S; Mohamed, H; Shayo, A; Rumanyika, R; Kairuki, C; Nzabuhakwa, C; Issa, O; Lyimo, C; Kasiga, I; van Roosmalen, J
To describe the results of increasing availability and quality of caesarean deliveries and anaesthesia in rural Tanzania. Before-after intervention study design. Rural Tanzania. Ten health centres located in rural areas were upgraded to provide comprehensive emergency obstetric care (CEmOC) and the four related district hospitals were supported. Upgrading entailed constructing and equipping maternity blocks, operation rooms and laboratories; installing solar systems, backup generators and water supply systems. Associate clinicians were trained in anaesthesia and in CEmOC. Mentoring and audit of reasons for caesarean section (CS) and maternal deaths were carried out. Measures of interest were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical tests. Trends in CS rates, proportion of unjustified CS, use of spinal anaesthesia, and the risk of death from complications related to CS and anaesthesia. During the audit period (2012-2014), 5868 of 58 751 deliveries were by CS (10%). The proportion of CS considered to be unjustified decreased from 30 to 17% in health centres (P = 0.02) and from 37 to 20% in hospitals (P availability and quality of CS by improving infrastructure, training and audit of reasons for CS is feasible, acceptable and required in low resource settings. Increasing availability and quality of CS in rural Africa is feasible. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Salerno, Jonathan D; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Kefauver, Shawn C
A recent discussion debates the extent of human in-migration around protected areas (PAs) in the tropics. One proposed argument is that rural migrants move to bordering areas to access conservation outreach benefits. A counter proposal maintains that PAs have largely negative effects on local populations and that outreach initiatives even if successful present insufficient benefits to drive in-migration. Using data from Tanzania, we examined merits of statistical tests and spatial methods used previously to evaluate migration near PAs and applied hierarchical modeling with appropriate controls for demographic and geographic factors to advance the debate. Areas bordering national parks in Tanzania did not have elevated rates of in-migration. Low baseline population density and high vegetation productivity with low interannual variation rather than conservation outreach explained observed migration patterns. More generally we argue that to produce results of conservation policy significance, analyses must be conducted at appropriate scales, and we caution against use of demographic data without appropriate controls when drawing conclusions about migration dynamics. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.
Full Text Available This study examines the determinants of Leather and Leather products Exports in Tanzania. We apply Ordinary Least Square (OLS analysis on time series data from 1980 to 2015. The findings show that export of raw hides and skins, and high costs of production are among the deterring factors to leather and leather products export in Tanzania. Export of raw hides and skins and costs of production recorded negative and significant relationship with leather exports. On the other hand, hides and skins collection recorded insignificant relationship while leather price in the world market had negative and significant relationship with leather exports. This suggests that other factors such as low quality of leather and leather products exported, inadequate capital investment, stiff competition with foreign companies for hides and skins and inadequate market information explain the state of current Tanzania’s leather exports. Thus, attracting local and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the leather subsector by providing friendly investment climate and addressing the supply side constraints will enable increased high quality leather and leather products diversification and exports
Dadian, M J
Tanzania has since the mid-1980s experienced some of the highest rates of HIV infection in the world, with data now showing the mean levels of HIV seroprevalence nationwide to be greater than 13%, and even higher than 30% in some districts. By 2000, as many as 2.4 million Tanzanians will be infected with HIV and more than 850,000 Tanzanian children will be orphaned by the epidemic. The Tanzania AIDS Project (TAP), funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), was implemented through the AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project by Family Health International (FHI) during 1993-97. TAP will receive support throughout 1998 through a cooperative agreement between USAID and FHI. Nongovernmental organization (NGO) representatives meet on a regular basis in Dar es Salaam and in 8 other regions of the country to plan and coordinate the major aspects of TAP's HIV/AIDS prevention activities in each area. The author describes the evolution of the idea to bring NGOs together into geographic clusters, the diversity of talents enjoyed from using the cluster concept, building institutional capacity, the challenges facing TAP's 9 clusters, and working with traditional communities.
Gro Th. Lie
Full Text Available Background: North-South Partnership (NSP is the mandated blueprint for much global health action. Northern partners contribute funding and expertise and Southern partners contribute capacity for local action. Potential Northern partners are attracted to Southern organizations that have a track record of participating in well-performing NSPs. This often leads to the rapid ‘scaling up’ of the Southern organization's activities, and more predictable and stable access to resources. Yet, scaling up may also present challenges and threats, as the literature on rapid organization growth shows. However, studies of the impact of scaling up within NSPs in particular are absent from the literature, and the positive and negative impact of scaling up on Southern partners’ functioning is a matter of speculation. Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine how scaling up affects a Southern partner's organizational functioning, in a Southern grassroots NGO with 20 years of scaling up experience. Design: A case study design was used to explore the process and impact of scaling up in KIWAKKUKI, a women's grassroots organization working on issues of HIV and AIDS in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Data included documents, observation notes and in-depth interviews with six participants. The data were analyzed by applying an established systems framework of partnership functioning, in addition to a scaling up typology. Results: KIWAKKUKI has experienced significant scale-up of activities over the past 20 years. Over time, successful partnerships and programs have created synergy and led to further growth. As KIWAKUKKI expanded so did both its partnerships and grassroots base. The need for capacity building for volunteers exceeded the financial resources provided by Northern partners. Some partners did not have such capacity building as part of their own central mission. This gap in training has produced negative cycles within the organization and its
Kempen, Bas; Kaaya, Abel; Ngonyani Mhaiki, Consolatha; Kiluvia, Shani; Ruiperez-Gonzalez, Maria; Batjes, Niels; Dalsgaard, Soren
Soil organic carbon (SOC), held in soil organic matter, is a key indicator of soil health and plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. The soil can act as a net source or sink of carbon depending on land use and management. Deforestation and forest degradation lead to the release of vast amounts of carbon from the soil in the form of greenhouse gasses, especially in tropical countries. Tanzania has a high deforestation rate: it is estimated that the country loses 1.1% of its total forested area annually. During 2010-2013 Tanzania has been a pilot country under the UN-REDD programme. This programme has supported Tanzania in its initial efforts towards reducing greenhouse gas emission from forest degradation and deforestation and towards preserving soil carbon stocks. Formulation and implementation of the national REDD strategy requires detailed information on the five carbon pools among these the SOC pool. The spatial distribution of SOC contents and stocks was not available for Tanzania. The initial aim of this research, was therefore to develop high-resolution maps of the SOC content for the country. The mapping exercise was carried out in a collaborative effort with four Tanzanian institutes and data from the Africa Soil Information Service initiative (AfSIS). The mapping exercise was provided with over 3200 field observations on SOC from four sources; this is the most comprehensive soil dataset collected in Tanzania so far. The main source of soil samples was the National Forest Monitoring and Assessment (NAFORMA). The carbon maps were generated by means of digital soil mapping using regression-kriging. Maps at 250 m spatial resolution were developed for four depth layers: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, and 0-30 cm. A total of 37 environmental GIS data layers were prepared for use as covariates in the regression model. These included vegetation indices, terrain parameters, surface temperature, spectral reflectances, a land cover map and a small
Full Text Available This article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.
Full Text Available his article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.
Agergaard, Jytte; D'haen, Sarah Ann Lise; Birch-Thomsen, Torben
Since the late 1990s, Tanzania has experienced remarkable economic progress. Yet, overall societal benefits have been limited, in particular as to challenging persistent poverty. To counter this shortfall, support for urbanization has been identified as one of three major policy shifts needed...... in Tanzania. In this paper we will take a critical look at trends in demographic shifts in Tanzania with a particular focus on how to identify processes of urban growth, urbanization and internal migration. In this respect we draw on existing analyses of urbanization produced in the context of the 2009 World...... Bank report and supplement these with critical examinations of recent household and panel survey data. From these readings we look for a generic portrait of urban growth dynamics in Tanzania during the 2000s. This leads us to an exploration of one of the particular changes in urbanization...
Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation ... could invite several ecological, socioeconomic, technical, and land insecurity problems. ... to food crops, overuse of water resources, and threaten biodiversity and environmental quality.
Keywords: Central Tanzania, rural poultry, scavengeable feed resources, nutrient composition, crop
contents, season, farming system, chemical composition, supplementary feeding, weaning, egg production,
growth rate, survival rate, laying management, indigenous chickens
Investigations on Risk Factors for Malaria in Rufiji District, Tanzania · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. ESP Kigadye, G Nkwengulila, S Magesa, S Abdulla, 1-12 ...
Soil erosion and sediment yield from the degraded Mzinga River Catchment in Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MK Mulengera, LLL Lulandala, SMS Maliondo, 47-57 ...
Mubyazi, Godfrey M.; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Magnussen, Pascal
To describe the prospects, achievements, challenges and opportunities for implementing intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) in Tanzania in light of national antenatal care (ANC) guidelines and ability of service providers to comply with them....