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Sample records for mosca blanca bemisia

  1. CASOS SELECTOS DE RESISTENCIA A INSECTICIDAS EN MOSCAS BLANCAS (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae EN EL MUNDO

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    Macías-flores A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las moscas blancas (Hemíptera: Aleyrodidae son un problema a escala global. En México, llamó la atención como plaga agrícola en la década de los años 80´s y 90´s del siglo pasado por las pérdidas económicas que ocasionaron en los cultivos agrícolas, debido a los daños directos por la succión de savia y a los daños indirectos por la transmisión de enfermedades de origen viral. El hombre en su intento fallido por erradicarlas ha hecho uso desmedido de insecticidas químicos, quizás por su accesibilidad por costo bajo o por efectos de control inmediatos, por lo cual ha causado daño al medio ambiente y a la salud humana, con la consecuencia de desarrollo de resistencia. En un intento por disminuir los efectos de tales sustancias, muchas investigaciones alrededor del mundo se han conducido para encontrar productos insecticidas más efectivos con el menor impacto ambiental y a la salud humana, y que contribuyan a incrementar las herramientas de control disponibles en los sistemas de producción agrícola.

  2. Whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on wild and cultivated plants in the horticultural region of Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina Especies de moscas blancas (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae sobre plantas silvestres y cultivadas en la región hortícola de Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina

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    Gustavo G. Gonsebatt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Whiteflies of economic importance are polyphagous, being able to develop on a large number of cultivated and spontaneous plants. We recorded the whitefly species on vegetable and flower crops and the wild plants associated, under greenhouse and field conditions, for two years. We observed two species: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood and the Bemisia tabaci complex (Gennadius. T vaporariorum was recorded on 24 plant species (11 families, 12 and 8 of which are new hosts in Argentina and in the world, respectively. The B. tabaci complex was recorded only on flower production systems, on 19 plant species (11 families, 14 and 7 of which are new hosts in Argentina and in the world, respectively. The crops Glycine max (L. and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., the wild species Amaranthus blitum L., Amaranthus quitensis Kunth, Conyza bonariensis (L., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Sonchus oleraceus L. and Wedelia glauca (Ortega O. Hoffm. ex Hicken were hosts of both species. The only parasitoid recorded was Eretmocerus californicus near corni Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae from T. vaporariorum. This study, which is the first systematic survey of host plants in the region, intends to provide a better knowledge of the range of whiteflies host plants in Argentina.Las moscas blancas de importancia económica son polífagas y capaces de desarrollarse sobre numerosas plantas cultivadas y espontáneas. Registramos las especies de moscas blancas sobre cultivos hortícolas y de flores, y sobre las plantas silvestres asociadas. Observamos dos especies: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood y el complejo Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius. T. vaporariorum fue registrada sobre 24 especies de plantas (11 familias, 12 y 8 de las cuales son hospedantes nuevos para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. El complejo B. tabaci fue registrado solo en sistemas de producción de flores, sobre 19 especies de plantas (11 familias, 14 y 7 de las cuales son nuevos hospedantes para

  3. Alternative phytosanitary products to control of whitefly (Bemisia tuberculata (Matile-Ferrero, in cassavaProdutos fitossanitários alternativos no controle da mosca-branca (Bemisia tuberculata (Matile-Ferrero, na mandioca

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    Aline Monsani Miranda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of alternative phytossanitary products on the oviposition and mortality of nymphs and adults of whitefly (Bemisia tuberculata. It was evaluated the insecticidal action of commercial products Plant Clean®, Pironin®, Mattan Plus® and Calda fertilizante foliar® on third instar nymphs, by products direct spraying, being the mortality observed during 10 days. To evaluate the effects of these products in oviposition deterrence and adult mortality, the four upper leaves of 25 plants were treated with products and then were infested with 30 adults of B. tuberculata. The insects were kept in cages adapted to plant leaves and evaluation of the number of dead adults and eggs on the leaves was done 48h after the beginning of the study. Plant Clean® stood out on nymphs control (54% mortality and for adults, the best product was Pironin® (86.8%. All products caused deterrence in oviposition.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de produtos fitossanitários alternativos sobre a oviposição e mortalidade de ninfas e adultos da mosca-branca (Bemisia tuberculata. Foi avaliada a ação inseticida dos produtos comerciais Planta Clean®, Pironin®, Mattan Plus® e Calda fertilizante foliar®, sobre ninfas de terceiro ínstar, por meio da pulverização direta dos produtos, sendo observada a mortalidade durante 10 dias. Para avaliar os efeitos desses produtos na deterrência de oviposição e mortalidade de adultos, as quatro folhas apicais de 25 plantas receberam aplicação dos produtos e foram posteriormente infestadas com 30 adultos de B. tuberculata. Os insetos foram mantidos em gaiolas adaptadas às folhas da planta e a avaliação do número de adultos mortos e o número de ovos nas folhas foi realizada 48h após o início do experimento. Planta Clean® destacou-se no controle de ninfas (54% de mortalidade e para adultos, o melhor produto foi Pironin® (86,8%. Todos os produtos causaram deterr

  4. Indutores de resistência à mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci Biótipo B (GENN., 1889 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em soja Resistance inducers to the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Biotype B (GENN., 1889 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae in soybeans

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    Jair Campos Moraes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito da aplicação de indutores na resistência de duas cultivares de soja à mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci biótipo B. O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Entomologia - UFLA. As sementes de soja, cultivar IAC-19 e MONSOY-8001, foram previamente tratadas com o fungicida captan. Foram testados os seguintes tratamentos: T1- irrigação no solo, ao redor das plantas de cada vaso, de 250 mL de solução de ácido silícico a 1%; T2- pulverização das plantas, até o ponto de escorrimento, com solução a 0,3% de acibenzolar-s-methyl; T3- pulverização das plantas, até o ponto de escorrimento, com calda a 0,24% de pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole e T4- testemunha. As plantas foram infestadas com 100 adultos da mosca-branca por vaso que liberados oito dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Avaliaram-se o número de ovos na face abaxial de cada folha, que foi marcada para posterior avaliação de ninfas; teores de taninos e de lignina; peso seco das raízes e da parte aérea. Não houve diferença para número de ovos e ninfas entre as cultivares de soja, porém, a viabilidade média de B. tabaci foi menor a cultivar IAC-19. O cultivar de soja IAC-19 demonstrou moderada resistência ao biótipo B de B. tabaci. A aplicação de silício ou acibenzolar-s-methyl induz um aumento no teor de lignina na cultivar de soja IAC-19.The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of the application of inducers on the resistance of two soybean cultivars to the whitefly B. tabaci Biotype B. The experiment was carried out at the Entomology Department - UFLA. The soybean seeds of cultivars IAC-19 and MONSOY-8001 were previously treated with Captan fungicide. The following treatments were tested: T1- irrigating the soil around the plants of each pot with 250 mL of solution of 1% silicic acid; T2- spraying of the plants, to the 'point of dripping', with a solution of 0.3% acibenzolar-s-methyl; T3- spraying of

  5. Resposta à mosca-branca (Bemisia tabaci e ao Tomato severe rugose virus de acessos de Solanum subgênero Leptostemonum Reaction to whitefly (Bemisia tabaci and Tomato severe rugose virus of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum accessions

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    Miguel Michereff-Filho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-branca (Bemisia tabaci e a infecção por espécies de Begomovirus são dois graves problemas fitossanitários que afetam a produção e qualidade do tomateiro (Solanum lycopersicum e de outras solanáceas de importância econômica. O presente trabalho foi conduzido sob condições controladas, em casa de vegetação, visando avaliar a resposta ao Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV e à mosca-branca (B. tabaci biótipo B de 36 acessos de espécies relacionadas ao gênero Solanum subgênero Leptostemonum (= grupo das solanáceas providas de espinhos. A inoculação de ToSRV foi realizada em mudas (43 dias após o semeio utilizando-se um colônia virulífera de B. tabaci biótipo B. Duas cultivares de tomateiro foram incluídas como testemunhas suscetíveis. A avaliação ao ToSRV foi feita de acordo com uma escala de severidade de sintomas e a presença de infecção sistêmica foi verificada via reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR com 'primers' universais para espécies de Begomovirus. A maioria dos acessos apresentou uma resposta do tipo resistência ou quase imunidade ao ToSRV, não apresentando sintomas evidentes e nenhum indício de infecção sistêmica ou acumulação viral. Um grupo reduzido de acessos de S. stramonifolium, S. asperolanatum e S. jamaiscense apresentou uma resposta do tipo tolerância, caracterizada por baixa acumulação viral e sintomas suaves. O acesso S. mammosum 'CNPH 035', embora tolerante, foi o único que apresentou sintomas mais evidentes de infecção viral e acumulação de ToSRV. O mesmo grupo de 36 acessos foi avaliado em relação à colonização por B. tabaci em testes de livre escolha. Diferenças significativas foram observadas entre acessos para oviposição e o número de ninfas no quarto instar, indicando a presença de fatores de resistência ao inseto. Dez acessos de S. asperolanatum, S. stramonifolium, S. paniculatum e S. syssimbriifolium se mostraram completamente livres de oviposi

  6. INSETICIDAS APLICADOS VIA TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES VISANDO AO CONTROLE DAS MOSCAS BRANCAS (Bemisia tabaci, GENN. E MINADORA (Liriomyza sp. NA CULTURA DO FEIJOEIRO CHEMICAL CONTROL OF THE WHITE FLY Bemisia tabaci GENN. AND LEAFMINER Liriomyza sp. IN BEAN CROPS BY SEED TREATMENTS

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    Antônio Lopes da Silva

    2007-09-01

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    Realizou-se o presente experimento no campo experimental da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, de março a maio de 1993, para avaliar o controle das moscas brancas (Bemisia tabaci, GENN. e minadora (Liriomyza sp. na fase inicial da cultura do feijoeiro, com produtos aplicados via tratamento de sementes. Os tratamentos constaram de: imidacloprid 700 PM nas dosagens de 140, 210, 280 e 350 gramas de ingrediente ativo (i.a/l00 kg de sementes; carbosulfan + zinco 250 TS nas dosagens de 375 e 500g i.a./100kg de sementes, comparados com o carbofuran 350 TS na dosagem de 525 g i.a./100kg de sementes (padrão. Pelos resultados, concluiu-se que todos os tratamentos foram eficientes no controle da mosca minadora, com porcentagens de eficiência que variaram de 93 a 99%. Imidacloprid, a partir de 280g i.a./100kg de sementes, foi igual aos outros produtos em eficiência no controle da mosca branca, com porcentagens de controle variando entre 83 a 89%.

    A trial to control the white fly Bemisia tabaci, GENN. and leafminer Liriomyza sp. was carried out in Goiânia, state of Goiás. The treatments and dosages of the insecticides per 100kg of seed were: imidacloprid (140, 210, 280 and 350g a.i., carbofuran (525 g a.i., carbosulfan (375 and 500g a.i, plus an untreated check. The application of the treatments were made on the seeds. The results of the experiment showed that all insecticides were efficient in controlling the leafminer at all dosages tested and imidacloprid at the dosages of 280 and 350g a.i. per 100kg seed was similar in controlling the white fly in bean crops.

  7. Avaliação de extratos vegetais no controle de mosca-branca, Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em abóbora Evaluation of plant extracts in the control of whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B in squash

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    Bruno Marcus Freire Vieira Lima

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A abóbora (Cucurbita moschata Duch. é uma cultura de importância para a agricultura familiar da região Nordeste do Brasil. No entanto, a ocorrência do prateamento das folhas da aboboreira ocasionado pela mosca-branca, Bemisia tabaci biótipo B limita sua produção, causando prejuízos aos agricultores. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de extratos vegetais sobre o nível populacional de ninfas de mosca-branca em abóbora cv. Jacarezinho. O experimento foi instalado em campo experimental, em blocos casualizados, constituído de seis tratamentos e três repetições. As aplicações dos extratos vegetais foram feitas com intervalo de sete dias, fazendo-se uso de substâncias extraídas das seguintes plantas: canudo (Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa, mamona (Ricinus communis L., tinguí (Mascagnia rigida Griseb, cardo-santo (Argemone mexicana L., e o óleo comercial Natuneem®. Todos os extratos vegetais obtiveram eficiência no controle de ninfas B. tabaci, sendo o R. communis (75,49%, M. rigida (73,99%, I. carnea (72,24%, óleo de nim (70,4% e A. mexicana (69,16%.The squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch. is an important crop for family farmers in the northeast of Brazil. However, the occurrence of leaf silvering caused by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B, limits production, causing losses to farmers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of plant extracts on the population levels of whitefly nymphs on the squash cv. Jacarezinho. The experiment was conducted at an experimental field, in a randomized block design consisting of six treatments and three replications. Applications of plant extracts were made at an interval of seven days, making use of substances extracted from the following plants: Ipomoea carnea subsp. Fistulosa, castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Tingui (Mascagnia rigida Griseb, cardo-santo (Argemone mexicana L., and the commercial oil product Natuneem ®. All of the plant extracts were

  8. Oviposition behavior of the silver leaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B on tomato; Comportamento de oviposicao da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotipo B em tomateiro

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    Vendramim, Jose D. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: jdvendra@esalq.usp.br; Souza, Antonio P. de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Morfofisiologia. Lab. de Anatomia Humana]. E-mail: apsouza@nin.ufms.br; Ongarelli, Maria das G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Lab. de Fisiologia e Bioquimica Pos-Colheita]. E-mail: mgong@esalq.usp.br

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the leaf surface, the insect geotropic behavior and the type of foliar trichome on Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B oviposition on tomato leaves. Bemisia tabaci females were confined in acrylic boxes in which tomato leaflets were fixed at the bottom and top part of the boxes to allow insects to access the leaf surface to be tested (adaxial and/or abaxial) in both no-choice and free choice tests. Oviposition was always higher when the leaf was offered at the top of the box and preferably at the abaxial leaf surface. The effects of leaf trichomes (glandular and non glandular) on B. tabaci oviposition was evaluated by offering the abaxial surface of tomato leaflets to females after a 70% ethanol wash to remove glandular exsudates against a control treatment (without a ethanol wash). Oviposition was concentrated mostly near to non glandular trichomes, showing whitefly females can discriminate among the trichomes. (author)

  9. Mosca-Branca, Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em feijoeiro: Características gerais, bioecologia e métodos de controle

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    Anderson Silva

    2017-04-01

    Abstract. Common bean plants are infested by insects, which can ultimately affect the crop production before and after harvest, with estimated losses ranging from 33 to 86%. Among the insect pests infesting the common beans the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn. stands out. This species cause direct injury by feeding on the plants and indirect injury by excreting sugary honeydew that is after colonized by the sooty mold. In addition, the most serious damage caused by B. tabaci is the transmission of virus diseases, especially the common bean golden mosaic, responsible for economic losses varying from 30 to 100%. This review aims at providing information on important aspects of B. tabaci including its geographical distribution, bioecology, population dynamics, host plants, and methods of pest control. We expect that this review can provide valuable subsidies for future studies on the whitefly in common beans.

  10. Estudio de la resistencia a Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en germoplasma cultivado y silvestre de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.

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    Yeimy García Valencia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira, en condiciones de campo y casa de malla, se evaluaron por preferencia para oviposición y número de ninfas de mosca blanca (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius varias accesiones silvestres y poblaciones segregantes de tomate resistentes al pasador del fruto, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones, donde se evaluaron como variables el número de huevos y de ninfas del insecto por hoja. En cada observación se incluyeron tres hojas del tercio superior, medio e inferior del tallo de la planta. Las poblaciones de mosca blanca fueron muy bajas en los dos primeros ciclos de cultivo (en campo debido, probablemente, a las altas precipitaciones. Estas condiciones no permitieron una selección de materiales resistentes o susceptibles a este insecto. En el tercer ciclo de cultivo, bajo condiciones de casa de malla, no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los retrocruzamientos respecto al testigo susceptible para la variable preferencia por oviposición. El genotipo 4212P4 presentó el menor número de ninfas, mostrando que tiene posiblemente un mecanismo que le confiere menor atracción para B. tabaci. Se encontró que los genotipos menos preferidos para oviposición y con menor número de ninfas fueron PI 134417, PI 134418 y PI 126449 (Solanum habrochaites var. Glabratum S. Knapp y D. M Spooneer.

  11. Assesing Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B resistance in soybean genotypes: Antixenosis and antibiosis Evaluación de la resistencia de genotipos de soya a Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotipo B: Antixenosis y antibiosis

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    José Paulo Gonçalves Franco da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since it was first reported in Brazil in the 1990s, the B biotype of silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn., Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae has been recognized as an important pest in soybeans (Glycine max L., reducing the productivity of this legume species in some areas of the country. As an alternative to chemical control, the use of resistant genotypes represents an important tool for integrated pest management (IPM. This study evaluated the performance of 10 soybean genotypes prior to whitefly infestation, by testing attractiveness and preference for oviposition in the greenhouse and antibiosis in the laboratory. In a multiple-choice test, 'IAC-17' was the least attractive to insects. In a no-choice test, 'IAC-17' was the least attractive for egg deposition, indicating the occurrence of non-preference for oviposition on this genotype. Trichome density was positively correlated with the oviposition site and may be associated with the resistance of 'IAC-17' to infestation. The genotypes 'IAC-PL1', 'IAC-19', 'Conquista', 'IAC-24' and 'IAC-17' extended the insect's life cycle, indicating the occurrence of a small degree of antibiosis and/or non-preference for feeding.Desde que se registró por primera vez en Brasil en la década de 1990, el biotipo B de la mosca-blanca (Bemisia tabaci Genn., Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, se reconoce como una importante plaga de la soya (Glycine max L. y es lo que reduce la productividad de estas especies de leguminosas en algunas zonas del pais. Como una alternativa al control químico, el uso de genotipos resistentes representa una herramienta importante para la gestión integrada de plagas (MIP. Este trabajo evaluó el comportamiento de 10 genotipos de soya frente al ataque de la mosca-blanca, por medio de ensayos de atractividad y preferencia para ovipostura en invernaderos y antibiosis en laboratorio. En una prueba de elección multiple, 'IAC-17' fue el menos atractivo para los insectos. En una prueba sin elecci

  12. Nuevos registros de especies del género Eretmocerus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, parasitoides de Trialeurodes vaporariorum y el complejo Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en Argentina New records of species of the genus Eretmocerus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, parasitoids of Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae in Argentina

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    Silvia N. López

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es dar a conocer nuevos registros y distribuciones de las especies del género Eretmocerus Haldeman, parasitoides de las dos especies de mosca blanca que tienen mayor importancia económica en cultivos hortícolas y ornamentales en Argentina. Una especie de Eretmocerus Haldeman fue hallada parasitando a Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood en Santa Fe y Buenos Aires; por sus caracteres morfológicos, se encuentra en el grupo californicus, cercana a corni Haldeman, podría tratarse de una nueva especie. Asimismo, se amplía la distribución geográfica de Eretmocerus mundus Mercet, enemigo natural del complejo Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, a las provincias de San Juan y Buenos Aires.The objective of this paper is to report new records of species of the genus Eretmocerus Haldeman, parasitoids of the most important whitefly pest species in vegetables and ornamental crops in Argentina. One species was found parasitizing Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood in Santa Fe and Buenos Aires provinces and it is grouped into californicus group near corni Haldeman, due to its morphological characters. It could be a new species. The known distribution of Eretmocerus mundus Mercet, a parasitoid of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, is enlarged to include the provinces of San Juan and Buenos Aires of Argentina.

  13. Estadísticos vitales de Bemisia tabaci biotipo B en frijol e interacción con el parasitoide Amitus fuscipennis: Life history parameters and absence of hostparasitoid interaction with Amitus fuscipennis Bemisia tabaci biotype B in bean

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    María del Rosario Manzano Martínez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron los estadísticos vitales de la mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci biotipo B en condiciones de laboratorio (26 °C ± 2 °C y 80 ± 5 % de HR en fríjol cultivar ICA-Pijao. Los valores promedios fueron: longevidad 34 ± 1.64 días, fecundidad de 211.4 ± 15.1 huevos/hembra y tasa de oviposición de 6.1 ± 0.28 huevos/día. La tasa neta reproductiva fue de 137.8. El tiempo generacional de 43.8 días y la tasa intrínseca de crecimiento poblacional (r m de 0.125. Estos valores son coincidentes con los reportados en la literatura e indicaron la utilidad del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L ICA-Pijao para la multiplicación de B. tabaci. No se logró la reproducción de Amitus fuscipennis en B. tabaci. Estudios de comportamiento mostraron que el parasitoide permaneció solo 617.3 seg en promedio en foliolos infestados con la mosca blanca, la mayor parte del tiempo lo invirtió en caminar (46.4%, limpiarse el cuerpo (35.6% y permanecer quieta (16.7%. A. fuscipennis solo tocó una vez accidentalmente una ninfa de B. tabaci, pero no la examinó con las antenas ni la ovipositó. Los resultados indican que A. fuscipennis no es un enemigo natural potencial de B. tabaci biotipo B.Life-history parameters of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotipo B were determined at laboratory conditions at 26 °C ± 2 °C y 80 ± 5 % de RH on bean ICA-Pijao. Mean longevity of the whitefly was 34 ± 1,64 days, mean total fecundity was 211,4 ± 15,1 eggs per female with a daily oviposition rate of 6,1 ± 0,28 eggs per day. Net reproduction rate was 137,8. Generation Time was 43,8 days and the intrinsic rate of population increase r m was 0,125. These values are according to previous ones reported and support usefulness of ICA-Pijao bean for B. tabaci rearing. It was not possible to rear Amitus fuscipennis from B. tabaci. Behaviour studies showed that the parasitoid stayed only average 617,3 s on whitefly infested leaflets. It invested most of the time walking (46

  14. Rosa Blanca

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    Gloria Lapeña-Gallego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A través de la Memoria Histórica, la Historia con mayúsculas se ha convertido en una fuente inagotable para narrar grandes historias con minúscula. De manera paralela, el paso de una cultura eminentemente letrada a otra más visual con predominio de la imagen ha favorecido la progresiva incorporación en el ámbito educativo de fuentes procedentes de la cultura popular, cuyos autores se aproximan al hecho histórico desde una perspectiva más íntima y reflexiva. En el presente artículo se fundamenta el potencial del álbum ilustrado como fórmula narrativa complementaria al manual escolar o libro de texto de Historia, especialmente en el tratamiento de temas complejos y delicados, como el holocausto nazi. Además, se propone un modelo de análisis que tiene en cuenta las particularidades de este género artístico en la construcción de la historiografía por medio de la incorporación de imágenes que van más allá de ser una redundancia o aclaración del texto. Para el cumplimiento de ambos objetivos, una vez analizado la concepción actual de la narración histórica, se estudia en detalle el álbum Rosa Blanca, contextualizado en la ocupación nazi durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

  15. Whitefly population dynamics in okra plantations Dinâmica populacional de mosca-branca em quiabo

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. consists primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal population dynamics of the whitefly B. tabaci biotype B on two successive A. esculentus var. "Santa Cruz" plantations. Leaf chemical composition, leaf nitrogen and potassium contents, trichome density, canopy height, plant age, predators, parasitoids, total rainfall and median temperature were evaluated and their relationships with whitefly on okra were determined. Monthly number estimates of whitefly adults, nymphs (visual inspection and eggs (magnifying lens occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence and natural enemies, mainly Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to whitefly reduction. The second okra plantation, 50 m apart from the first, was strongly attacked by whitefly, probably because of the insect migration from the first to the second plantation. No significant effects of the plant canopy on whitefly eggs and adults distribution were found. A higher number of whitefly nymphs was found on the medium part than on the bottom part.O controle da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus L. consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender a dinâmica populacional, espacial e temporal da mosca-branca em dois cultivos sucessivos de quiabeiro "Santa Cruz". Avaliaram-se a composição química foliar, os níveis foliares de nitrogênio e de potássio, a densidade de tricomas, a altura de dossel, a idade de planta, predadores, parasitóides, pluviosidade total

  16. Caracterización in silico de las proteínas del choque térmico Hsp70 y Hsp90 deBemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae y su posible actividad adaptativa

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    Eneida Torres Cabra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La mosca blanca, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae es una de las plagas más destructivas e invasivas en el mundo, ataca una gran cantidad de cultivos. Se adapta fácilmente a plantas hospederas y a nuevas regiones geográficas, lo que sugiere el desarrollo de mecanismos de control a daños producidos por factores estresantes. Las proteínas Hsp se expresanen los organismos como mecanismo de defensa, actúan como chaperonas en el correcto ensamblaje de las proteínas. En este estudio se realizó una caracterizaciónin silico de las proteínas Hsp70 y Hsp90 de B. tabaci, secuencias obtenidas de NCBI. La determinaciónde los perfiles de hidrofobicidad, polaridad, accesibilidady flexibilidad se obtuvieron con “ProScale” de ExPASy, el perfil de antigenicidad con JaMBW. La secuencia aminoacídica se analizó con GOR IV y SOPMA y la composición de aminoácidos con ProtParam. Para analizar el peso molecular, índice deinestabilidad, índice alifático y gradiente hidropático,con GRAVY. La estructura terciaria se obtuvo con HHpred, y ESyPred3D. Para validar las estructuras 3D se utilizó Procheck, What_check y errat. Hsp70 y Hsp90 de B. tabaci presentan valores bajos de hidrofobicidady altos de polaridad, flexibilidad y accesibilidad, características que le permiten a las proteínas extender su capacidad como chaperonas. La Hsp70tiene una estructura secundaria compuesta por 41-45% alfa hélices, 30-43% coil y menos del 6% en hoja plegada y la Hsp90 por 52 y 53% hélices, 26-34% coily 6% hoja plegada. Las Hsp juegan un rol importante en los insectos debido a su tamaño y corto ciclo de vida, pues la temperatura influye en su distribución y abundancia.

  17. Preferência de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em linhagens mutantes de algodoeiro Bemisia tabaci biotype B preference in mutant cotton lines

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    Francisco das Chagas Vidal Neto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de caracteres mutantes morfológicos do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch.: folha okra, bráctea frego e planta vermelha, em relação à resistência à mosca-branca (Bemisia tabaci biótipo B Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, foram avaliados em experimentos com ou sem chance de escolha. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em casa-de-vegetação, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em fatorial 23 + 1, com quatro repetições. O mutante com a característica planta vermelha foi menos atrativo e menos preferido para oviposição, em relação à planta verde, em ambos os ensaios, com ou sem escolha. Não houve preferência quanto à forma da folha e ao tipo de bráctea.The effects of cotton lines (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch. with mutants morphologic characteristics: okra leaf, frego bract and red plant in relation to host plant resistance to whitefly (Bemisia tabaci bioyipe B Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, were evaluated in choice or no choice assays. The assays were carried out in the greenhouse conditions, according to a completely randomized block design, in a 23 + 1 in a factorial arrangement with four replications. The mutant with red plant characteristic was less attractive and less preferred for oviposition than the normal green plant does, in both, whit or without choice tests. It did not have preference in relation to the form of the leaf and bract type.

  18. Insecticidal and repellent effect of extracts of Pluchea sericea (Nutt. on adults of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.

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    Carlos Enrique Ail-Catzim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Para el control de Bemisia tabaci (Genn. en los cultivos agrícolas se usan repetidas aplicaciones de insecticidas, lo que ha provocado problemas de resistencia y contaminación ambiental. Los insumos provenientes de especies vegetales son una alternativa para reducir esta problemática. Las plantas son una fuente de químicos bioactivos, que pueden tener efecto insecticida, repelente, atrayente, antialimenticio o regulador de crecimiento. El objetivo fue determinar la actividad insecticida y repelente de extractos etanólicos, acetónicos y acuosos, tanto de hojas como de tallos de Pluchea sericea (Nutt. sobre Bemisia tabaci (Genn.. Se estimó la CL50 de cada uno de los extractos, mediante bioensayos con la técnica de película residual, sobre adultos de mosquita blanca. Además, se evaluó el efecto repelente a partir de la CL50 de cada extracto, se estimó el índice de repelencia (IR, si IR = 1 el efecto es neutro, IR 1, el efecto es atrayente. Los extractos de hoja-etanol, hoja-agua y hoja-acetona presentaron valores menores de CL50 700, 1,190 y 1,250 ppm respectivamente, lo que indica alta eficiencia sobre B. tabaci, seguidos del extracto tallo-agua, por último los extractos tallo-etanol y tallo-acetona presentaron menor efectividad. Todos los extractos tuvieron acción repelente, independientemente del disolvente y órgano de la planta a 24 y 48 h. Sin embargo, los extractos a base de agua podrían tener mayor potencial para el control de la mosquita blanca en sistemas de manejo integrado de plagas, debido a que presentaron efecto insecticida y repelente, además el disolvente es inocuo y de bajo costo.

  19. Fatores que influenciam o ataque de mosca-branca em jiloeiro Factors affecting attack rate of the whitefly on Solanum gilo

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou determinar os efeitos de pluviosidade e temperatura, predadores e parasitóides, dossel e idade das plantas, tipos e densidades de tricomas foliares, compostos químicos foliares, níveis de N e de K foliares, sobre a intensidade de ataque de mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em jiloeiro Solanum gilo var. 'Gigante Portuguesa'. As densidades de ninfas e de adultos de B. tabaci foram maiores nas folhas baixeiras do que nas apicais das plantas de jiloeiro. Com o aumento da temperatura do ar, observou-se incremento na densidade de adultos de B. tabaci nas folhas de jiloeiro.The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rainfall and temperature, predators and parasitoids, height within the canopy and plant age, chemical composition of leaves, levels of nitrogen and potassium in leaves and density of trichomes in leaves, on attack intensity of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on Solanum gilo var. 'Portuguese giant'. Densities of nymphs and of adults of B. tabaci were higher on leaves of the lower part than on those of the apical parts of plants of S. gilo. The number of adults of B. tabaci on leaves of S. gilo increased with temperature.

  20. Novos acessos de tomateiro resistentes à mosca-branca biótipo B New accessions of tomato resistant to whitefly biotype B

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    Maria Elisa de Sena Fernandes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar novas fontes de resistência a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B, entre 34 acessos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, do Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças da UFV. Avaliaram-se os números de adultos, ovos e ninfas por planta, além da densidade de tricomas. Detectaram-se diferenças entre os acessos nas variáveis avaliadas. Os acessos BGH-166, BGH-616, BGH-850, BGH-990, BGH-2102 e BGH-2125 apresentaram menor número de adultos, ovos e ninfas por planta e tiveram menor densidade de tricomas. A resistência dos acessos de tomate à mosca-branca foi associada a uma menor densidade de tricomas.The objective of this work was to evaluate resistance to Bemisia tabaci biotype B in 34 tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum accessions from the Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças of UFV. The number of adults, eggs and nymphs per plant besides of trichome density were evaluated. Differences between accessions were found for the evaluated variables. Accessions BGH-166, BGH-616, BGH-850, BGH-990, BGH-2102 and BGH-2125 presented less infestation of adults, eggs and nymphs per plant and showed lower trichome density. The resistance of these tomato accessions to whitefly was associated to a lower trichome density.

  1. New experimental tools for bioassays with whitefly in laboratory Novas ferramentas experimentais para ensaios com mosca-branca em laboratório

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    Thiago Luis Martins Fanela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop an experimental kit for assessments of repellency, deterrence for oviposition, and insecticidal activity on adults of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B. The kit, which consisted of arenas and nebulizer, was effective for conducting bioassays, and the application of aqueous extracts by inhaler was adequate. The techniques are simple, cheap, and may contribute to research on this insect.O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um kit experimental para avaliações de repelência, deterrência à oviposição e atividade inseticida a adultos de mosca-branca, Bemisia tabaci biótipo B. O kit, constituído de arenas e nebulizador, foi eficaz para realização dos bioensaios, e a aplicação de extratos aquosos com o inalador foi adequada. As técnicas são simples, baratas e podem contribuir para as pesquisas com este inseto.

  2. Mortality of Bemisia tabaci biotype B (sternorrhyncha: aleyrodidae adults by aliphatic and aromatic synthetic sucrose esters

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    Mariangela Alves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The B-strain of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius is a key pest of several crops and chemical control is the main control method used by growers, although reduction in efficacy due to insecticide resistance has already been reported. The aim of this work was to investigate the insecticidal effect of an array of synthetic sucrose esters with the aliphatic and aromatic groups on whitefly adults. Sucrose butyrate, caprate, octanoate, palmitate, oleate, octaacetate, phthalate, benzoate, and sucrose diacetate hexaisobutyrate were tested. The solutions were prepared and applied on the adults caught on yellow sticky traps using the Potter spray tower. Long-chains sucrose aliphatic esters were more effective against the silverleaf whiteflies and the highest mortality was obtained with sucrose oleate and sucrose octanoate. Since these compounds were tensoactive, sodium dodecylsulphate was also tested for the comparison but no effect was observed. Sucrose butyrate and other aliphatic and aromatic sucrose polyesters showed negligible effect on the silverleaf whiteflies.O biótipo B de B. tabaci Gennadius tem se destacado como uma praga-chave de diversas culturas. O controle químico tem sido a principal tática de controle utilizada, embora já se tenha observado redução na eficiência dos produtos devido ao desenvolvimento de resistência. Assim, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diversos ésteres de sacarose com grupos alifáticos ou aromáticos sobre adultos de mosca-branca. Butirato de sacarose, caprato, octanoato, palmitato, oleato, actaacetato, ftlato, benzoato e diacetato hexaisobutirato de sacarose foram testados. Soluções de éster de sacarose foram preparadas e aplicadas sobre adultos capturados em armadilhas adesivas utilizando Torre de Potter. Ésteres alifáticos de sacarose com longas cadeias foram mais efetivos contra mosca-branca e as maiores taxas de mortalidade foram obtidas com oleato e octanoato de sacarose. Uma vez que

  3. Herida precordial por arma blanca

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    Marcelo F. Jiménez

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Varón de 42 años con esquizofrenia paranoide. Intento de suicidio con tres autolesiones por arma blanca (Fig. 1. Fue traído al hospital en estado consciente, taquicárdico, taquipneico y con tensión arterial (TA de 140/90 mmHg. Fue trasladado al quirófano, donde se practicó una toracotomía axilar izquierda sin extraer el arma. Durante la intervención se apreciaron tres heridas incisas, dos no penetrantes, hemotórax de 150 ml, herida pericárdica de 4 cm, sin lesiones cardíacas. La hoja del arma blanca penetraba a través del diafragma produciendo una herida incisa en el lóbulo hepático izquierdo (Fig. 2. Se extrajo el arma y se suturó la laceración hepática. El paciente fue trasladado el cuarto día a la Unidad de Psiquiatría.

  4. Herida precordial por arma blanca

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo F. Jiménez; Nuria Novoa; José Luis Aranda; Gonzalo Varela

    2005-01-01

    Varón de 42 años con esquizofrenia paranoide. Intento de suicidio con tres autolesiones por arma blanca (Fig. 1). Fue traído al hospital en estado consciente, taquicárdico, taquipneico y con tensión arterial (TA) de 140/90 mmHg. Fue trasladado al quirófano, donde se practicó una toracotomía axilar izquierda sin extraer el arma. Durante la intervención se apreciaron tres heridas incisas, dos no penetrantes, hemotórax de 150 ml, herida pericárdica de 4 cm, sin lesiones cardíacas. La hoja del ar...

  5. Gaetano Mosca e la teoria della classe politica (Gaetano Mosca and the theory of the ruling class

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    N. BOBBIO

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaetano Mosca dedicated much of his life’s work to his theory of the ruling class, developing it in numerous publications. Despite his long meditation on the subject and subsequent revisions, however, Mosca never provided a systematic, properly articulated expose’ of his doctrine, in which the various components were logically arranged and examined from all points of view. The present article gathers together the scattered parts of Mosca’s theories into an organic whole, giving the reader an immediate and fairly precise idea of both the complexity of the research as well as the unfinished state in which the author left it. The author draws freely upon passages from Mosca’s various works in order to illustrate the following aspects of the ruling class: composition and formation; extension; renewal and replacement; organisation and means of exercising power.JEL: B31, B51, B52

  6. Surtos populacionais de Bemisia tabaci no estado de São Paulo Outbreaks of Bemisia tabaci in the São Paulo State, Brazil

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    André Luiz Lourenção

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de 1991, tem sido observada a presença da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae em altas populações em hortaliças e orna-mentais nos municípios paulistas de Paulínia, Holambra, Jaguariúna e Artur Nogueira. Foram constatadas infestações severas em tomateiro, brócolos, berinjela e aboboreira; nesta última, o sintoma observado em plantas infestadas pela mosca-branca é o prateamento da face superior das folhas, em conjunto com queda drástica da produção. Uma lavoura de tomate severamente infestada por B. tabaci apresentava o sintoma referido colo amadurecimento irregular dos frutos do tomateiro; plantas invasoras presentes nessa área também foram intensamente colonizadas, principalmente Sida rhombifolia L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Solanum viarum Dun. e Ipomoea acuminata Roem. & Schult. Em Holambra, verificaram-se ataques intensos em plantas ornamentais, principalmente crisântemo (Chrysantemum morifolium Ramat. e bico-de-papagaio (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.; roseiras foral pouco colonizadas. Nessas hortaliças e nas ornamentais, a aplicação quase diária de inseticidas não reduziu a infestação do inseto. Além dessas plantas, campos de algodão, em Holambra, e de feijão, em Paulínia, também foram infestados por B. tabaci. Nos E.U.A., a capacidade de certas populações de B. tabaci de induzir o prateamento da folha em aboboreira e de colonizar intensamente E. pulcherrima, entre outros fatores, têm levado à distinção do biótipo "B" ou "poinsétia", nome vulgar dessa euforbiácea; todavia, estudos recentes na Califórnia (E.U.A. mostram a possibilidade de se tratar de duas espécies distintas. Dada a similaridade entre as infestações associadas a B. tabaci que vêm ocorrendo naquele país e, mais recentemente, no Brasil, é provável que o biótipo B ou essa nova espécie tenha sido aqui introduzido.Since 1991, an increase in the populations of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Homoptera

  7. Control biológico de moscas blancas en cultivo de tomate: interacciones entre sus enemigos naturales

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Ripoll, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    [spa] Para obtener un control biológico adecuado de las plagas presentes en un cultivo es importante determinar las relaciones tróficas que existen entre los enemigos naturales y su efecto sobre el control de estas plagas. Dos de estas interacciones, la depredación intragremial y el canibalismo, pueden condicionar el éxito de los programas de control biológico produciendo efectos aditivos o negativos sobre las poblaciones de la plaga. Para determinar la ingesta de todos los estados de desarro...

  8. Controle químico de ovos e ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B (Hemiptera: aleyrodidae Chemical control of Bemisia tabaci B biotype (Hemiptera: aleyrodidae eggs and nymphs

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    Giuliana Etore do Valle

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Moscas brancas são pragas de diversas culturas, causam redução na produção e na qualidade do produto. Inseticidas, com diferentes modos de ação vêm sendo utilizados, sem muito sucesso. Neste trabalho avaliou-se a eficiência de inseticidas sobre ovos de diferentes idades (1, 3 e 5 dias e de ninfas de 1° ínstar da mosca branca Bemisia tabaci biótipo B. Os experimentos foram realizados em condições de laboratório, sob temperatura de 25 ± 2°C e fotofase de 12 horas. Piriproxifem (75 mg L-1 atuou como excelente ovicida, sendo altamente eficiente, 3 dias de idade. Cartape (500 mg L-1 não teve efeito satisfatório, mas a 1000 mg L-1 foi eficiente em ovos com até 5 dias de idade. Quanto à ação sobre ninfas de 1° ínstar, para pulverizações na face superior das folhas, piriproxifem, a 75 mg L-1, apresentou eficiência na supressão da emergência de adultos, caracterizando presença de ação translaminar; buprofezim, cartape, acefato e fempiroximate não apresentaram eficiência no controle de ninfas. Quando aplicado na face inferior das folhas, buprofezim (375 mg L-1 apresentou eficiência comparável à de piriproxifem, impedindo a emergência de adultos.Whiteflies are pests of many crops, cause severe yield losses and reduce crop quality. Insecticides of different modes of action have been used without success. In this work, the efficiency of five insecticides on Bemisia tabaci B biotype (= B. argentifolii eggs and nymphs was evaluated under laboratory conditions (T = 25 ± 2°C; 12 h photophase. In relation to the ovicidal effect, pyriproxyfen (75 mg L-1 caused egg hatching inhibition up to three day old eggs. Cartap showed efficiency only at the concentration of 1000 mg L-1, supressing the viability of eggs up to five days. Soybean leaves with first instar nymphs were treated in the upper surface with pyriproxyfen (75 mg L-1, buprofezin (375 mg L-1, cartap (1000 mg L-1, acephate (750 mg L-1 and fenpyroximate (100 mg L-1; in

  9. Moscas minadoras del girasol y sus enemigos naturales

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    VALLADARES, G

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Las “moscas minadoras” se caracterizan por excavar túneles (“minas” en el interior de las hojas, consumiendo el mesófilo y dejando intacta la epidermis foliar o, al menos, su pared externa. Hay especies cuyas larvas, en lugar de realizar estas galerías en las hojas, viven y se alimentan en el interior de otros tejidos vegetales,barrenando tallos, semillas, frutos, etc. Por consiguiente, y desde el punto de vista del posible control biológico de estos organismos perjudiciales, resulta de sumo interés el hecho de poder identificar las distintas especies a través del daño que efectúan a la planta hospedera. En consecuencia, se brinda una clave práctica para el reconocimiento de las especies asociadas al cultivo de girasol, a partir de la observación del daño y también una síntesis de la información disponible sobre cada una de ellas. Por último, y teniendo en cuenta que los enemigos naturales (particularmente los parasitoides, ejercen un efecto importante sobre las poblacionesde las moscas minadoras, se presenta información sobre los organismos benéficos asociados a agromícidos del girasol, como posibles agentes de regulación.

  10. Plano de amostragem do biótipo B de Bemisia tabaci na cultura do pepino

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    Moura Marcelo Fialho de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A adoção de programas de manejo integrado de pragas permite reduzir a aplicação de inseticidas e os planos convencionais de amostragem representam o ponto inicial na geração desses programas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar plano de amostragem convencional para o biótipo B da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae na cultura do pepino. Foram avaliadas as densidades de ninfas e de adultos em dez lavouras comerciais de pepino, Tocantins, MG, estudando nove sistemas amostrais formados pela combinação de três técnicas (batida de folha em bandeja de plástico branco, contagem direta dos insetos na face inferior da folha e coleta de folha em sacola de plástico e três unidades amostrais (folha do terço apical, mediano ou basal do espaldeiramento. A contagem direta em folha do terço basal foi o sistema com maior precisão econômica na amostragem de ninfas, mas não possibilitou a geração de plano de amostragem praticável. As batidas, em bandeja, de folha dos terços apicais, medianos ou basais do espaldeiramento foram os sistemas economicamente mais precisos na amostragem de adultos. Desses, apenas a batida de folha do terço mediano em bandeja gerou plano de amostragem praticável, sendo que este plano é composto de 196 amostras/lavoura.

  11. Natural Analog Studies at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2005-07-11

    The significance of the Pena Blanca uranium deposits in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico as potential natural analogs for a nuclear waste repository in unsaturated welded tuff was first recognized in the 1980s. In the 1970s, the Pena Blanca region was a major target of uranium exploration and exploitation by the Mexican government. Since then the Nopal I uranium deposit has been studied extensively by researchers in the U.S., Mexico, and Europe. The Nopal I deposit represents an environment similar to that of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain in many ways. Both are located in semi-arid regions. Both are located in Tertiary rhyolitic tuffs overlying carbonate rocks that have been subjected to basin and range-style tectonic deformation. Both are located in a chemically oxidizing, unsaturated zone 200 m or more above the water table. The alteration of uraninite to secondary minerals at Nopal I may be similar to the alteration of uranium fuel rods in this type of setting. Investigations at Nopal I and in the surrounding Sierra Pena Blanca have included detailed outcrop mapping, hydrologic and isotopic studies of flow and transport, studies of mineral alteration, modeling, and performance assessment.

  12. Natural Analog Studies at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.M. Simmons

    2005-01-01

    The significance of the Pena Blanca uranium deposits in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico as potential natural analogs for a nuclear waste repository in unsaturated welded tuff was first recognized in the 1980s. In the 1970s, the Pena Blanca region was a major target of uranium exploration and exploitation by the Mexican government. Since then the Nopal I uranium deposit has been studied extensively by researchers in the U.S., Mexico, and Europe. The Nopal I deposit represents an environment similar to that of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain in many ways. Both are located in semi-arid regions. Both are located in Tertiary rhyolitic tuffs overlying carbonate rocks that have been subjected to basin and range-style tectonic deformation. Both are located in a chemically oxidizing, unsaturated zone 200 m or more above the water table. The alteration of uraninite to secondary minerals at Nopal I may be similar to the alteration of uranium fuel rods in this type of setting. Investigations at Nopal I and in the surrounding Sierra Pena Blanca have included detailed outcrop mapping, hydrologic and isotopic studies of flow and transport, studies of mineral alteration, modeling, and performance assessment

  13. Controle de mosca-branca com extratos vegetais, em tomateiro cultivado em casa-de-vegetação Use of plant extracts on whitefly control in tomato grown in greenhouse

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    Edson LL Baldin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando buscar métodos alternativos no controle da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B em tomateiro, foram realizados testes de atratividade e preferência para oviposição em casa-de-vegetação, utilizando-se quatorze extratos aquosos a 3% (peso/volume. Os extratos foram preparados com partes de Azadirachta indica, Trichilia pallida,Chenopodium ambrosioides,Piper nigrum,Melia azedarach,Ruta graveolens,Ricinus communis,Mentha pulegium,Tagetes erecta,Eucalyptus citriodora,Cymbopogon nardus e Coriandrum sativum. Numa segunda etapa, os extratos mais eficientes em casa-de-vegetação foram observados em laboratório, a fim de avaliar o possível efeito sistêmico dos mesmos sobre ninfas da mosca-branca. Constatou-se que as plantas de tomateiro pulverizadas com extratos à base de folhas de M. pulegium e folhas e sementes de A. indica foram menos atrativas aos adultos do inseto. Plantas pulverizadas com extratos de folhas de A. indica e folhas + ramos de R. communis mostraram efeitos deterrentes à oviposição do inseto, reduzindo o número de ovos; em contrapartida, o extrato à base de folhas de C. nardus estimulou a oviposição da mosca-branca sobre as plantas. O uso dos extratos por via sistêmica não afetou o período de desenvolvimento (ovo-adulto da mosca-branca; entretanto, a presença de extratos de sementes e folhas de A. indica e de folhas de M. pulegium provocou aumento significativo na mortalidade de ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B.Looking for alternative methods of control to silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B in tomato, attractiveness and oviposition preference tests were accomplished in greenhouse using fourteen aqueous extracts at 3% (weight/volume. The extracts were prepared with parts from Azadirachta indica,Trichilia pallida,Chenopodium ambrosioides,Piper nigrum,Melia azedarach,Ruta graveolens,Ricinus communis,Mentha pulegium,Tagetes erecta,Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon nardus and

  14. HOST PLANT PREFERENCES OF BEMISIA TABACI GENNADIUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINGYing; HUANGJian; MARui-yan; HANJu-cai

    2003-01-01

    The preferences of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius for five host plants:poinsettia, tomato, cabbage,sweet potato and flowering Chinese cabbage, was tested using a Y-tube olfactometer and a desiccator in the labo-ratory. The results show that B. tabaci adults were attracted by the odors of the five plants. The order of prefer-ence was poinsettia > flowering Chinese cabbage > sweet potato > cabbage > tomato. Preference was extremely sig-nificant between poinsettia and the other four plants, and between flowering Chinese cabbage, cabbage and toma-to. There was no significant difference in preference for flowering Chinese cabbage and sweet potato, sweet pota-to, cabbage and tomato or between cabbage and tomato.

  15. Toxicidade do extrato aquoso das folhas de Anacardium humile para Bemisia tuberculata Toxicity of aqueous extract of Anacardium humile leaves on Bemisia tuberculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nézio Nery de Andrade Filho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-branca Bemisia tuberculata (Bondar, 1923 (Hem.: Aleyrodidae é uma das principais pragas da cultura da mandioca no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul; no entanto, não há produtos registrados para seu controle. Produtos vegetais podem constituir em alternativa viável de controle de insetos e, por sua fotodegradabilidade, diminuir os riscos ao ambiente e ao homem. Objetivou-se, por meio deste trabalho, avaliar o efeito do extrato aquoso do "cajuzinho-do-cerrado" Anacardium humile St Hill (Anacardeaceae, nas concentrações de 2,0; 0,8; 0,4 e 0,05%, sobre a biologia de B. tuberculata, bem como identificar a classe de metabólitos secundários presentes no referido extrato. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, sob temperatura de 26±4°C. O extrato aquoso de A. humile causou aumento da duração da fase larval e mortalidade significativamente superior à testemunha em todas as concentrações testadas. Concluiu-se que o extrato aquoso de folhas de A. humile provoca mortalidade em ninfas de B. tuberculata e alongamento da fase das ninfas sobreviventes. O extrato aquoso de folhas de A. humile apresenta taninos, açúcares redutores e saponinas, e o seu índice de espuma (Índice Afrosimétrico é de 1250.The whitefly Bemisia tuberculata (Bondar, 1923 (Hem.: Aleyrodidae is the main pest of cassava crops in Mato Grosso do Sul state, however there are no products registered for its control. Plant products may represent a viable alternative for insect pest control and, due to their photo-degradability, they may reduce risks to the environment and to man. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of "cajuzinho-do-cerrado" Anacardium humile St Hill (Anacardeaceae aqueous leaf extract on the biology of B. tuberculata at the concentrations 2.0; 0.8; 0.4; 0.05%, as well as to identify the class of secondary metabolites present in the referred extract. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at a temperature of 26±4°C. The

  16. La España de Rosas Blancas = The Spain of Rosas Blancas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Gual Boronat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la lectura del cuaderno femenino español Rosas blancas, publicado por la editorial Toray entre 1958 y 1965, tratamos de estudiar la capacidad del cómic para reflejar el papel de la mujer durante una de las etapas clave de la dictadura franquista. Tras trazar un recorrido por los tebeos sentimentales de la década de 1940 (Azucena y las primeras revistas modernas para niñas (Florita y Sissi, analizaremos el contenido de dicha publicación. En ese análisis percibiremos cómo Rosas blancas prolongará determinados mitos de aquellas historietas al tiempo que introducirá nuevas perspectivas en consonancia con lo que estaba sucediendo en la sociedad española.Through the reading of the Spanish female comic-book Rosas blancas, published by Editorial Toray between 1958 and 1965, we try to explore the ability of comics to reflect the role of women during the key stages of the Franco dictatorship. After a study of the sentimental comics of the 1940s (Azucena and the first modern magazines for girls (Florita and Sissi, we analyse the content of this publication. In this analysis we perceive how Rosas blancas extend certain myths while those cartoons introduce new perspectives in line with what was happening in the Spanish society.

  17. Efeito de extratos aquosos de meliáceas sobre Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em tomateiro Effect of aqueous extracts of meliaceous plants on Bemisia tabaci B biotype on tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO PANCRÁCIO DE SOUZA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a bioatividade de extratos aquosos a 3% (p/v de três meliáceas, Melia azedarach L. (frutos verdes, Trichilia pallida Swartz (ramos e Azadirachta indica A. Juss (sementes, em relação à mosca branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B, criada em tomateiro. No primeiro experimento os extratos foram aplicados sobre ovos e sobre ninfas com três dias de idade, avaliando-se a mortalidade e a duração das fases de ovo e de ninfa. No segundo experimento os extratos foram aplicados apenas sobre as ninfas, avaliando-se a mortalidade nessa fase e a longevidade e fecundidade dos adultos. Em relação à fase de ovo, o extrato de T. pallida foi o que provocou maior mortalidade, seguindo-se os de A. indica e M. azedarach. A maior mortalidade ninfal foi constatada com o extrato de A. indica, seguindo-se os de T. pallida e M. azedarach. Nenhum dos extratos afetou a duração das fases de ovo e de ninfa, assim como a longevidade e fecundidade.The objective of this research was to compare the effect of aqueous extracts of fresh fruits of Melia azedarach L., twigs of Trichilia pallida Swartz and seeds of zadirachta indica A. Juss, on eggs and nymphs of silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius B biotype reared on tomato plants. The extracts were tested at a concentration of 3%. In the first experiment, the extracts were applied on eggs and 3-day-old nymphs. Records were taken on mortality, duration of egg and nymphal stages. In the second experiment the extracts were applied on 3-day-old nymphs and records were taken on nymphal mortality, adult longevity and fecundity. The extracts of T. pallida were the most effective on eggs, followed by A. indica and M. azedarach. The extracts of A. indica were the most effective on nymphs followed by T. pallida and M. azedarach. In both experiments, the duration of egg and nymph stages, longevity and fecundity were not affected by the extracts.

  18. Metamorfosis, ciencia y horror : en torno a La Mosca, de David Cronenberg (1986)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Biosca, Vicente

    1993-01-01

    A diferencia del resurgir animista que orienta buena parte de las películas de terror modernas, La mosca (David Cronenberg, 1986) presenta una convergencia entre los temas que ocupan a la biología y la genética y las fantasías de despedazamiento del cuerpo humano. Utilizando como soporte la idea de metamorfosis, La mosca se revela como fa cara despiadada de esa otra fantasía de cuerpos ligeros y bien formaados de la que nos habla la publicidad. La tesis de este artículo consiste en sostener q...

  19. Control biológico de moscas: un método con futuro

    OpenAIRE

    Zapater, M.; Mazzoli, J.; Martínez Rey, C.

    1993-01-01

    La presencia de moscas, al igual que la de muchas otras plagas, es en parte el resultado de desequilibrios ecológicos provocados por el hombre, al generar las condiciones artificiales necesarias para el desarrollo de diferentes actividades productivas. En los establecimientos pecuarios, se generan desechos orgánicos como bosta o guano en forma continua, favoreciendo el desarrollo de un complejo de moscas entre las que suele predominar la común (doméstica) y la de los establos (Stomoxys calcit...

  20. Avaliação da preferência de Bemisia argentifolii por diferentes espécies de plantas Evaluation of Bemisia argentifolii preference for different plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni Litvin Villas Bôas

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a preferência de Bemisia argentifolii em relação a algumas plantas hospedeiras potenciais como: abobrinha, feijão, repolho, tomate, mandioca, pepino, soja, pimentão, milho, poinsétia, brócolos e berinjela. Utilizou-se a metodologia de, em testes de livre escolha, expor uma população de mosca-branca previamente criada em plantas de poinsétia, às diversas espécies botânicas. Após 48h de exposição às diferentes espécies, insetos adultos e ovos presentes nas folhas foram contados e a área foliar medida, calculando-se o número de adultos e de ovos por cm² de área foliar. Em outro experimento, após três gerações de associação de uma população de mosca-branca com berinjela, repolho e mandioca, avaliou-se a utilização destas plantas como substrato para o desenvolvimento pré-imaginal de B. argentifolii. De maneira geral, as plantas abobrinha, tomate, feijão, pepino, berinjela, repolho e soja atraíram adultos de B. argentifolii, que efetuaram posturas nestas plantas. Mandioca, milho e pimentão foram as plantas menos preferidas. Uma relação positiva entre o número de adultos presentes, a área foliar e o número de posturas, sugere que o mecanismo de escolha do hospedeiro para alimentação e abrigo do adulto, envolve a conseqüente seleção do hospedeiro para oviposição. O número de adultos e ninfas foi maior em repolho e a porcentagem de ninfas vivas foi semelhante para repolho e berinjela. Em mandioca, uma elevada porcentagem de ninfas mortas demonstra não ser esta planta adequada para a sobrevivência do inseto.We evaluated the preference of Bemisia argentifolii for potential host plants such as zucchini, dry bean, cabbage, tomato, cassava, cucumber, soybean, sweet-pepper, corn, poinsettia, broccoli and eggplant. An insect population previously reared on poinsettia plants was placed in the presence of host plants during 48 hours in free-choice tests. The number of

  1. Cordillera Blanca: glaciares en la historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available CORDILLERE BLANCHE - DES GLACIERS DANS L’HISTOIRE. La plus vaste couverture glaciaire de l’entre-tropiques n’apparaît comme un objet d’études que très tard, à la fin du XIXème siècle et, surtout grâce aux expéditions austro-allemandes, à partir des années 1930-1940. Le développement de l’alpinisme et un grand nombre de catastrophes meurtrières associées à la dynamique de ces glaciers (rupture de lacs de barrage morainique, avalanches ont attiré l’attention sur eux et suscité des recherches glaciologiques. En 1980, ils comptent parmi les mieux surveillés des glaciers tropicaux, d’abord grâce à un programme d’étude développé par les Péruviens eux-mêmes. à un moment où le réchauffement global fait craindre un recul très important de la glaciation dans la zone tropicale, les glaciers de la Cordillère Blanche deviennent d’excellents indicateurs de l’évolution climatique en cours et la ressource en eau qui leur est associée constitue à la fois un sujet d’étude et un enjeu économique de haute importance. La más vasta cobertura glaciar situada entre los trópicos aparece como objeto de estudio relativamente tarde, a fines del siglo XIX, sobre todo gracias a las expediciones austro alemanas a partir de los años 1930-1940. El desarrollo del alpinismo y un gran número de catástrofes mortales asociadas a la dinámica de estos glaciares (rotura de lagunas de represa morrénica, avalanchas atrajeron la atención y suscitaron investigaciones glaciológicas. En 1980, se encuentran entre los mejor monitoreados de los glaciares tropicales, primero, gracias a un programa de estudio desarrollado por los peruanos. En un momento en que el recalentamiento global hace temer un retroceso muy importante de la glaciación en la zona tropical, los glaciares de la Cordillera Blanca se convierten en excelentes indicadores de la evolución climática en curso y el recurso hídrico que se les asocia constituye a la vez un tema

  2. Bemisia tabaci : the whitefly vector of cassava mosaic geminiviruses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecology of the Bemisia tabaci/cassava/African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) pathosystem is reviewed briefly with special attention given to the parameters affecting the pattern of population development of B. tabaci. Significant gaps in our understanding of this system remain, particularly concerning the importance of ...

  3. Effects of insecticides used in Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B control and their selectivity to natural enemies in soybean cropEfeitos dos inseticidas utilizados no controle de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B e sua seletividade aos inimigos naturais na cultura da soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Silva Vieira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent crop seasons, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B has become a serious pest in soybean crops due to high infestations and its control difficulties. Therefore, it is important to search control alternatives in the integrated pest management approach. Thus, it was evaluated in this study the efficacy of the whitefly control using different insecticides in greenhouse conditions and their selectivity to the parasitoids Encarsia formosa, Trichogramma pretiosum and Telenomus remus. Buprofezin 150 g. a.i.ha-1 + mineral oil 0.2% v/v and pyriproxyfen 100 g. a.i.ha-1 were considered the best options for the whitefly management due to combine good pest control efficacy with higher selectivity to the parasitoids except Encarsia formosa for which no treatment was classified as harmless. Betacyflutrin 9.375 + imidacloprid 75 g. i.a. ha-1 was efficient on controlling whiteflies nymphs but was not harmless to the studied natural enemies. In general, the treatments including pyretroids compounds (betacyflutrin 9.375 + imidacloprid 75 + spiromesifen 60, betacyflutrin 9.375 + imidacloprid 75 and lambda-cyhalothrin 26.5 + thiametoxan 35.25 g. a.i. ha-1 were the most harmful to the evaluated parasitoids and therefore it use should be avoid whenever possible. Nas últimas safras a mosca-branca, Bemisia tabaci biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae tornou-se praga de importância econômica para a cultura da soja devido à ocorrência de altas infestações e à dificuldade de controle desta praga. Sendo assim, é importante buscar alternativas de manejo com base em um programa de manejo integrado de pragas. Assim, avaliaram-se neste trabalho a eficiência de diferentes inseticidas no controle da mosca-branca em casa-de-vegetação e a seletividade destes aos parasitoides Encarsia formosa, Trichogramma pretiosum e Telenomus remus. Buprofezina 150 g i.a. ha-1 + óleo mineral 0,2% v/v e piriproxifem 100 g. i.a. ha-1 foram consideradas as melhores opções para

  4. EFICIÊNCIA DO CONTROLE QUÍMICO SOBRE A MOSCA BRANCA Bemisia tabaci biótipo B (HEMIPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE EM MELOEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Lindemberg Martins Mesquita

    2007-01-01

    efficient to control eggs, nymphs and adults of the whitefly, while the insect growth regulators buprofezin and pyriproxyfen did not control eggs and adults, but they controled nymphs, being pyriproxyfen more efficient than buprofezin.

  5. Buprofezin inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity in B-biotype Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottage, Emma L A; Gunning, Robin V

    2006-01-01

    B-biotype Bemisia tabaci is a severe insect pest worldwide in many ornamental, agricultural, and horticultural industries. Control of this insect is hampered by resistance to many acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibiting insecticides, such as organophosphates and carbamates. Consequently, insect growth regulators such as buprofezin, which act by inhibiting chitin synthesis, are being investigated for use against B-biotype B. tabaci in Australia. This study discusses the effects of buprofezin on B. tabaciAChE.

  6. EVALUATION DE LA SENSIBILITE A Bemisia tabaci (GEN) DE 13 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    champ, le comportement de 13 variétés de tomate contre la pression de Bemisia tabaci (Gen), une mouche vecteur du virus de la jaunisse en cuillère des ... en saison sèche il y a une vingtaine d'années atteignaient 100 % et les pertes de production ... semaines. Le semis s'est effectué sur une planche de 9 m2 (9 x 1 m2).

  7. Dinâmica populacional de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em tomate monocultivo e consorciado com coentro sob cultivo orgânico e convencional Population dynamic of Benisua tabaci B biotype in monoculture tomato crop and consortium with coriander in organic and conventional crop system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro HB Togni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci Biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, é um herbívoro de difícil controle devido à alta plasticidade genotípica da espécie. No tomateiro pode causar danos severos principalmente pela transmissão de diversas viroses. O manejo do sistema de produção e o consórcio de culturas podem ter um efeito direto nas populações desse herbívoro, sem que seja necessária a aplicação de inseticidas. Avaliou-se a influência dos sistemas de produção orgânico e convencional e o consórcio tomate-coentro na dinâmica populacional da mosca-branca no campo experimental da Embrapa Hortaliças, de maio a setembro/06. O monitoramento dos adultos da mosca-branca e de seus inimigos naturais foi realizado utilizando-se armadilhas adesivas amarelas fixadas nas bordas e no interior das parcelas experimentais e a amostragem de ninfas foi realizada por observação direta das folhas de tomate no campo. Embora as populações ao redor dos diferentes tratamentos fossem equivalentes, a abundância de adultos de mosca-branca foi significativamente menor nas parcelas de tomate consorciado com coentro, tanto no sistema convencional como orgânico. Apenas o consórcio tomatecoentro em sistema orgânico apresentou redução significativa na quantidade de ninfas por planta em relação aos demais tratamentos. Os inimigos naturais foram significativamente mais abundantes em sistema orgânico e foi verificada uma correlação negativa da abundância dos inimigos naturais e a quantidade de ninfas por planta. A associação tomate-coentro e o manejo orgânico do agroecossistema favoreceram ao controle biológico natural da mosca-branca.Due to its high genotypic plasticity, the control of the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, is difficult. This insect may cause severe damage to the tomato crop as a vector of several viruses. The management of the production system and the consortium with other crops may have a

  8. Efeito de derivados de nim aplicados por pulverização sobre a mosca-branca em meloeiro Effects of neem derivatives sprayed on melon crop to control silverleaf whitefly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervino Bleicher

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-branca é uma das principais pragas do meloeiro na região Nordeste do Brasil. Estudou-se neste trabalho o efeito de extratos aquosos de folhas e de sementes de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. e uma formulação à base de azadiractina comparados com o inseticida buprofezin, aplicados por pulverização, sobre ninfas da mosca-branca, Bemisia tabaci biotipo B, em melão cv. Torreon, sob condições de casa de vegetação. Três experimentos independentes foram realizados no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e número variável de cinco a sete repetições. Cada planta constituiu uma unidade experimental. No primeiro experimento, os tratamentos foram: testemunha absoluta (água, Neemazal® (1,2% de azadiractina nas doses 12; 24; 48; 96 e 192 ppm de azadiractina. No segundo: testemunha absoluta (água, extrato de semente a 1; 2; 4; 8 e 16 g/100ml. No terceiro, o extrato de folhas foi aplicado nas mesmas proporções que o de sementes. Para cada experimento aplicou-se como testemunha positiva, o produto comercial Applaud® (buprofezin na dose de 1,5g. p.c./L, que corresponde a 0,375 g de ingrediente ativo(i.a/L de calda. A azadiractina foi eficiente em todas as doses causando redução de até 98% na média de ninfas vivas. Quando aplicado acima de 24 ppm, este composto apresentou desempenho semelhante ao inseticida padrão buprofezin. Os extratos de sementes a 1; 2; 4; 8 e 16g/100 ml reduziram significativamente a média de ninfas vivas, não diferindo da ação do inseticida padrão. Os extratos de folha não foram eficientes no controle de ninfas.Whitefly is one of the main pests of melon in the Northeast area of Brazil. In this research, the effect of leaf and seed aqueous extracts of the neem plant (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and a formulation containing azadirachtin compared to buprofezin were studied as a spray application against nymphs of the silverleaf, Bemisia tabaci biotype B, whitefly in greenhouse

  9. Repelência e deterrência na oviposição de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B pelo uso de extratos vegetais em Cucurbita pepo L Repellence and deterrence on oviposition of Bemisia tabaci biotype B by the use of vegetal extracts in Cucurbita pepo L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.G.F. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci biótipo B é um dos principais insetos-praga na cultura da abobrinha (Cucurbita pepo L.. O manejo dessa mosca-branca tornou-se grande desafio aos agricultores, uma vez que esta apresenta rápida capacidade de desenvolver resistência a diferentes classes de inseticidas. Como alternativa vem sendo investigado o uso de extratos vegetais com atividades inseticida e/ou insetistática, os quais têm revelado resultados promissores no combate a inseto. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os possíveis efeitos de sete extratos provenientes de cinco espécies vegetais, Ruta graveolens L. (folhas, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas + ramos, Trichilia pallida Swartz (ramos, T. pallida (folhas, A. indica (amêndoas, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (inflorescências + ramos+ folhas e Mentha pulegium L. (folhas, sobre Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em abobrinha, por meio de testes de repelência e deterrência para oviposição. Em teste com chance de escolha, avaliou-se a atratividade e determinou-se o índice de repelência após 6, 24 e 48 horas da aplicação dos extratos. A oviposição foi verificada após a terceira contagem do número de adultos. O extrato à base de folhas de M. pulegium mostrou repelência e deterrência à oviposição de B. tabaci biótipo B, podendo ser recomendado como alternativa para o manejo do inseto.Bemisia tabaci biotype B is one of the main pests in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.. The management of this whitefly has become a major challenge to growers, since they have the ability to quickly develop resistance to different classes of insecticides. Alternatively, the use of plant extracts with insecticide and/or insectistatic activities has been investigated, showing promising results for the whitefly control. The present study evaluated the possible effects of seven extracts from five plant species, Ruta graveolens L. (leaves, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (leaves + branches, Trichilia pallida Swartz (branches

  10. Dietas larvais alternativas para criação massal da mosca da bicheira, Cochliomyia hominivorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Mastrangelo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A criação massal da mosca da bicheira, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae, para programas que utilizam a Técnica do Inseto Estéril nas Américas faz parte de um dos maiores programas do mundo de criação de insetos em larga escala. A maior parte do custo e do trabalho necessários para a produção massal está relacionada com a dieta larval, o que torna importante o seu aprimoramento levando-se em conta sua eficiência, custo e praticidade. Neste trabalho, foram realizados dois bioensaios com dietas alternativas feitas a partir de produtos disponíveis no mercado brasileiro com o objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade e eficiência dessas dietas para criações de mosca da bicheira no Brasil. Foram testadas duas dietas líquidas (tendo como bulking agents bagaço de cana ou fibra de coco, uma de carne, e outra de gel. Os parâmetros biológicos (peso das larvas, viabilidade larval, peso de pupas, porcentagem de emergência de adultos e razão sexual estiveram, em todos os casos, dentro de parâmetros satisfatórios para a criação laboratorial de C. hominivorax e as dietas não diferiram estatisticamente entre si. Devido a vantagens importantes, como alta viabilidade larval e menor custo, recomenda-se a dieta de gel para as criações de larvas da mosca da bicheira no Brasil.

  11. Parasitoide Opius sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) no manejo integrado da mosca minadora na cultura do meloeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Carlos Henrique Feitosa

    2012-01-01

    Os estados do Rio Grande do Norte e Ceará são os principais produtores de melão do Brasil. São responsáveis por cerca de 90% da produção nacional, o que faz do cultivo do meloeiro Cucumis melo L. um dos principais segmentos da cadeia do agronegócio nesses estados. Apesar da alta tecnologia empregada para o cultivo desta olerícola, essa cultura vem sofrendo sérios danos devido ao ataque da mosca minadora Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae). O método de controle utilizado pelos produtores ...

  12. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.J. Saulnier Jr; W. Statham

    2006-03-10

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. the Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site. (1) Analogous source: UO{sub 2} uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geologic setting: fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs overlying carbonate rocks; (3) Analogous climate: Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous geochemistry: Oxidizing conditions; and (5) Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table. The Nopal I deposit is approximately 8 {+-} 0.5 million years old and has been exposed to oxidizing conditions during the last 3.2 to 3.4 million years. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model considers that the uranium oxide and uranium silicates in the ore deposit were originally analogous to uranium-oxide spent nuclear fuel. The Pena Blanca site has been characterized using field and laboratory investigations of its fault and fracture distribution, mineralogy, fracture fillings, seepage into the mine adits, regional hydrology, and mineralization that shows the extent of radionuclide migration. Three boreholes were drilled at the Nopal I mine site in 2003 and these boreholes have provided samples for lithologic characterization, water-level measurements, and water samples for laboratory

  13. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.J. Saulnier Jr; W. Statham

    2006-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. the Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site. (1) Analogous source: UO 2 uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geologic setting: fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs overlying carbonate rocks; (3) Analogous climate: Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous geochemistry: Oxidizing conditions; and (5) Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table. The Nopal I deposit is approximately 8 ± 0.5 million years old and has been exposed to oxidizing conditions during the last 3.2 to 3.4 million years. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model considers that the uranium oxide and uranium silicates in the ore deposit were originally analogous to uranium-oxide spent nuclear fuel. The Pena Blanca site has been characterized using field and laboratory investigations of its fault and fracture distribution, mineralogy, fracture fillings, seepage into the mine adits, regional hydrology, and mineralization that shows the extent of radionuclide migration. Three boreholes were drilled at the Nopal I mine site in 2003 and these boreholes have provided samples for lithologic characterization, water-level measurements, and water samples for laboratory analysis

  14. Comparative susceptibility of bemisia tabaci to imidacloprid in field- and laboratory-based bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemisia tabaci biotype B is a resistance-prone pest of protected and open agriculture. Systemic uptake bioassays used in resistance monitoring programs have provided important information on susceptibility to neonicotinoid insecticides, but have remained decoupled from field performance. Simultaneou...

  15. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Saulnier and W. Statham

    2006-04-16

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following analogous characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site: (1) Analogous source--UO{sub 2} uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geology--(i.e. fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs); (3) Analogous climate--Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous setting--Volcanic tuffs overlie carbonate rocks; and (5) Analogous geochemistry--Oxidizing conditions Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table.

  16. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Saulnier; W. Statham

    2006-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following analogous characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site: (1) Analogous source--UO 2 uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geology--(i.e. fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs); (3) Analogous climate--Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous setting--Volcanic tuffs overlie carbonate rocks; and (5) Analogous geochemistry--Oxidizing conditions Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table

  17. Contribución al conocimiento de las moscas de las frutas (tephritidae) y sus parasitoides en el departamento de antioquia

    OpenAIRE

    Yepes R., Francisco; Vélez A., Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Las moscas de las frutas constituyen, como grupo, la plaga insectil mas importante de estos cultivos en Colombia y en el mundo. Además de Anastrepha spp., la especie más dañina dentro de las verdaderas moscas de las frutas (Tephritidae), la mosca del Mediterráneo, fue detectada por primera vez en Colombia en 1986 y confirmada su presencia en Antioquia en abril de 1987. El trabajo se realizó en tres fases simultáneamente; una de campo (11 regiones), otra de laboratorio (procesamiento de ...

  18. Efectividad de una mezcla de cipermetrina y clorpirifós para el control de la mosca Haematobia irritans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo López V.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la eficacia de una mezcla de Cipermetrina y Clorpirifós contra la mosca de los cuernos Haematobia irritans. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 24 novillas Holstein con infestación natural de moscas Haematobia irritans y se asignaron aleatoriamente a dos grupos, tratado y control, de 12 animales cada uno. El grupo tratado recibió el producto por aspersión en dilución 1:800, utilizando 1 litro por cada 100 kilos de peso. Se hicieron conteos de moscas antes del tratamiento y en los días 7, 14 y 21 post-aplicación para evaluar la eficacia del producto. Resultados. Los porcentajes de eficacia del producto fueron de 89.9, 97.4 y 99.5%, para los días 7, 14 y 21 post-tratamiento, respectivamente. Conclusiones. La mezcla de Cipermetrina y Clorpirifós resultó altamente eficaz contra la mosca de los cuernos Haematobia irritans y surge como una nueva alternativa para el control del parásito, especialmente donde se presente resistencia a las diferentes moléculas que contienen los productos comerciales.

  19. Contribución al Estudio de las Moscas Anastrephas en Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Mendoza Rafael

    1952-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. Colombia tiene amplias posibilidades de desarrollar una industria frutícola floreciente dadas las excepcionales condiciones de ubicación geográfica, diversidad de climas y de suelos. 2. La deficiente producción frutera actual es el resultado de una reunión de factores adversos, entre los que resalta el desconocimiento de los problemas científicos que afectan a dicha industria. En este aspecto, los problemas fitosanitarios, abandonados y faltos de investigación, ocupan lugar preponderante. 3. Las moscas Anastrephas constituyen la plaga más importante de la fruticultura nacional, y por esta razón, un estudio sobre estos insectos es un tema de importancia. 4. Las principales "moscas de las frutas" pertenecen dentro de la familia Trypetidae, a los géneros: Dacus, Rhaglethis, Ceratitis, Dactrocera y Anastrepha. 5. Los nombres comunes con que se conocen las moscas Anastrephas varían de un país a otro y se relacionan particularmente con el lugar de origen de las distintas especies o la fruta determinada como preterida por la mosca en una localidad. En Colombia la denominación vernácula más difundida es la de "gusano de las frutas". También se nombra el insecto como "mosca o gusano del mango" o "gusano de la guayaba". 6. Los nombres científicos de las moscas distinguen a una, gran cantidad de especies. En Colombia, varios autores han reportado la existencia de las especies A.fraterculus, A. ludens, A. mombinpracoptans, A. pikeli y A. serpentina. Todas estas especies inciden en las regiones colombianas comprendidas entre 0 y 2000 metros de altura, es decir, en casi todas las regiones agrícolas importantes (frutales, café, cacao de temperaturas entre 14° y 30° C. 7. Las moscas Anastrephas están confinadas casi exclusivamente al continente americano entre las latitudes 27° N. y 35° S. Particularmente, la especie A. fraterculus, una de las más difundidas en Colombia, fué determinada por Wiedemann (1830

  20. Geology along Mosca Pass Trail, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, David A.; Klein, Terry L.; Valdez, Andrew; Webster, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Mosca Pass Trail takes the hiker on a journey into the Earth's crust. Here you can see the results of tremendous tectonic forces that bend and tear rocks apart and raise mountain ranges. The trail begins near the Sangre de Cristo fault, which separates the Sangre de Cristo Range from the San Luis Valley. The valley is part of the Rio Grande rift, a series of fault basins extending from southern New Mexico to central Colorado, wherein the Earth's crust has been pulled apart during the last 30 million years. Thousands of feet of sediment, brought by streams mostly from the Sangre de Cristo Range, fill the San Luis Valley beneath the Great Sand Dunes. The trail ends at Mosca Pass overlooking Huerfano Park. The park is part of the larger Raton Basin, formed by compression of the Earth's crust during the Laramide orogeny, which occurred 70–40 million years ago. Massive highlands, the remnants of which are preserved in the Sangre de Cristo Range, were uplifted and pushed over the western side of the Raton Basin. Streams eroded the highland as it rose and filled the Raton Basin with sediment. After the sediment was compacted and cemented to form sedimentary rock, the Huerfano River and other streams began to excavate the basin. Over an unknown but long timespan that probably lasted millions of years, relatively soft sedimentary rocks were removed by the river to form the valley we call "Huerfano Park." Between the ends of the trail, the hiker walks through an erosional "window," or opening, into red sedimentary rocks overridden by gneiss, a metamorphic rock, during the Laramide orogeny. This window gives the hiker a glimpse into the Laramide highland of 70–40 million years ago that preceded the present-day Sangre de Cristo Range. The window is the focus of this trail guide. At the east end of the trail, near Mosca Pass, another trail follows the ridgeline south to Carbonate Mountain. Immediately after reaching the first summit above tree line, this trail crosses a

  1. Mentiras por omisión en la "raza blanca"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Silvia Simesen de Bielke

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La razón instrumental blanca es hija legítima de la sociedad capitalista y, como tal, ha diseñado todos los ámbitos de la organización burocrática, el método científico, los distintos dispositivos del cuerpo social y los aparatos jurídicos e ideológicos. El reduccionismo liberticida, por ejemplo, no es un accidente epistemológico, sino que su vocación homogeneizadora ha respondido y responde a una forma particular de organización económica y política: la concepción reduccionista del mundo, la revolución industrial y la economía capitalista son los componentes filosófico, tecnológico y económico de un mismo proceso excluyente. El mismo, a través de sus avances científico-tecnológicos y su mentira civilizatoria, es quien va destruyendo paulatinamente nuestro oikos, nuestra simbiosis originaria con lo natural, nuestra sensibilidad, nuestra diversidad, únicos sustentos para la conservación de toda vida sobre el planeta. Quienes, como intelectuales, han desmontado esta estructura de la Razón Blanca falócrata colonizadora a través de sus dicotomías (humanidad y naturaleza, hombre y mujer, ciudad y pueblo, metrópolis y colonia, trabajo y vida, naturaleza y cultura, deben plantearse el imperativo moral de comprometerse con la denuncia pública acerca de este maridaje entre ciencia y fuerza, ciencia y militarismo, ciencia y patriarcado. Es el momento del desmontaje también de todas las ‘razones’ descendientes de la Razón Blanca: ¿porqué no pensar también en nuestra ‘razón académica’?

  2. Whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on wild and cultivated plants in the horticultural region of Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo G. GONSEBATT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las moscas blancas de importancia económica son polífagas y capaces de desarrollarse sobre numerosas plantas cultivadas y espontáneas. Registramos las especies de moscas blancas sobre cultivos hortícolas y de flores, y sobre las plantas silvestres asociadas. Observamos dos especies: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood y el complejo Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius. T. vaporariorum fue registrada sobre 24 especies de plantas (11 familias, 12 y 8 de las cuales son hospedantes nuevos para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. El complejo B. tabaci fue registrado solo en sistemas de producción de flores, sobre 19 especies de plantas (11 familias, 14 y 7 de las cuales son nuevos hospedantes para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. Los cultivos Glycine max (L. y Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., las especies silvestres Amaranthus blitum L., Amaranthus quitensis Kunth, Conyza bonariensis (L., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Sonchus oleraceus L. y Wedelia glauca (Ortega O. Hoffm. ex Hicken fueron hospedantes de ambas especies. El único parasitoide registrado fue Eretmocerus californicus cercano a corni Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae sobre T. vaporariorum. Este estudio que constituye el primer relevamiento sistemático de plantas hospedantes en la región, aporta un mayor conocimiento sobre el rango de plantas hospedantes de las moscas blancas en Argentina.

  3. Ocorrência de mosca-branca em Annona squamosa no estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José De Marchi Garcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, é restrito o conhecimento sobre distribuição geográfica e plantas hospedeiras de moscas-brancas (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, principalmente em plantas cultivadas. Nesta comunicação, é registrada a ocorrência de Aleurodicus mirabilis (Cockerell, 1898 em altas infestações em fruta-do-conde (Annona squamosa Linnaeus, 1753 no estado de São Paulo, Brasil.

  4. Hongos de importancia agrícola presentes en moscas de la fruta del valle de Ica, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Tipismana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue aislar e identificar hongos de especímenes de moscas de la fruta de los géneros Ceratitis (Macleay y Anastrepha (Schiner, del valle de Ica, Perú. Se aislaron hongos pertenecientes a los géneros Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizoctonia, Rhizopus y Trichoderma;así como levaduras y micelios estériles. Los recuentos de hongos presentaron rangos entre 8x103 a 8x104 UFC/g para el género Ceratitis; y 7x103 a 7x104 UFC/g para el género Anastrepha. El IVI% (Índice de Valor de Importancia demostró que Cladosporium es el género con mayor valor ecológico con un 78,05%. El Índice de Similitud de especies de hongos entre ambos géneros de mosca de la fruta analizados fue 0,5. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la presencia de hongos en moscas de la fruta; y se deduce el posible impacto de estos dípteros en el área agrícola como potenciales agentes vectores de enfermedades fúngicas para los cultivos locales de importancia económica.

  5. Moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae em um pomar de goiabeira, no semiárido brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Lucio Araujo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae são pragas-chave na cultura da goiabeira Psidium guajava L., com predominância de diferentes espécies de acordo com a região produtora no Brasil. Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram conhecer a diversidade e analisar parâmetros faunísticos das moscas-das-frutas obtidas em um pomar de goiabeira, no município de Cruzeta, Rio Grande do Norte, situado no semiárido brasileiro. As moscas-das-frutas foram coletadas semanalmente, com auxílio de armadilhas McPhail, tendo como atrativo proteína hidrolisada a 5% v/v. Foram registradas cinco espécies no pomar estudado: Ceratitis capitata (Wied., Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi, Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart e Anastrepha dissimilis Stone. Ceratitis capitata foi a espécie mais frequente, constante e dominante, considerada como uma praga invasiva, potencial em pomares de goiabeira no semiárido brasileiro.

  6. Efeito inseticida sistêmico de nanoformulações à base de nim sobre Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae biótipo B em tomateiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Salles de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a ação inseticida sistêmica e o efeito residual de nanoformulações à base de derivados de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Meliaceae sobre ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, espécie-praga de diversas culturas de importância econômica. Suspensões coloidais contendo nanocápsulas carregadas com produtos derivados de A. indica foram preparadas utilizando polímeros biodegradáveis como poli-ε-caprolactona (PCL e poli-β-hidroxibutirato (PHB. A matriz encapsulada era composta por uma formulação comercial contendo uma quantidade enriquecida e conhecida dos limonoides azadiractina e 3-tigloilazadiractol (Azamax® 1,2 CE. Inicialmente foi estimada a CL50, para ninfas de B. tabaci, de soluções contendo óleo de nim, que foram aplicadas via água de irrigação (solo em tomateiro. Posteriormente, dois lotes de nanoformulações, com variação no tipo e quantidade dos polímeros e na quantidade do óleo comercial, foram testados quanto à ação sistêmica. As nanoformulações NC L5-2 (com nanocápsulas de PCL e NC L6-1 (com nanocápsulas de PHB, as mais eficazes entre as testadas, foram avaliadas quanto ao efeito residual. A CL50 estimada foi de 180,67 mg L–1 de azadiractina. Constatou-se também que a ação sistêmica de óleos e nanoformulações contendo compostos de nim dependem das condições ambientais em que são aplicados. O Azamax® não apresenta efeito deterrente sobre a oviposição, nem age sobre o desenvolvimento embrionário da mosca-branca quando aplicado via água de irrigação no solo no momento da infestação. As nanoformulações selecionadas são bioativas mesmo cerca de 30 dias após a aplicação, não diferindo do produto comercial.

  7. Pena Blanca uranium deposits and ash-flow tuffs relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magonthier, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Pena Blanca uranium deposits (Chihuahua, Mexico) are associated with a Tertiary sequence of ash-flow tuffs. Stratigraphic control is dominant and uranium mineralization occurs in stratiform and fracture-controlled deposits within 44 My-old units: Nopal Rhyolite and Escuadra Rhyolite. These units consist of highly vapor-phase crystallized ash-flow tuffs. They contain sanidine, quartz and granophyric phenocrysts, and minor ferromagnesian silicates. Nopal and Escuadra units are high-silica alkali-rich rhyolites that have a primary potassic character. The trace-element chemistry shows high concentrations in U-Th-Rb-Cs and low contents in Ba-Sr-Eu. These chemical properties imply a genetic relationship between deposits and host-units. The petrochemical study show that the Nopal Rhyolite and Escuadra Rhyolite are the source of U and of hydrothermal solutions [fr

  8. Eficiência de Azadiractina no controle de mosca-branca em meloeiro sob condições de casa de vegetação e de campo Efficiency of Azadirachtin against whitefly in melon crop in greenhouse and field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo D. da Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O melão é um dos principais produtos agrícolas de exportação do nordeste brasileiro, sendo, atualmente, sua produção gravemente afetada pela mosca-branca (Bemisia argentifolii, que por sua vez só é controlada por inseticidas convencionais. Estudou-se a potencialidade de um inseticida formulado à base de Azadiractina a 1% para o controle desta praga em meloeiro sob condições de casa de vegetação e de campo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Avaliou-se a média de ninfas no ensaio de casa de vegetação e a média de adultos e de ninfas no campo. Obteve-se uma resposta progressiva de controle de ninfas em casa de vegetação. No campo, os melhores resultados foram obtidos com do uso de Azadiractina, a 4 e 8 ml/L de calda, com eficiência de 67,83 e 70,13%, respectivamente, para controle de adultos, e Azadiractina a 8,0 ml/L, com eficiência de 88,10% e Azadiractina + Permethrin, cuja eficência foi de 85,71%, para controle de ninfas.Melons are of great importance for exportation by the Brazilian northeast region, actually being threatened by the whitefly pest, which is only controlled by the use of the conventional chemical insecticides actually used in the crop. In this study a potential botanical insecticide containing 1% Azadirachtin was evaluated against Bemisia argentifolii on melon, under greenhouse and field conditions. A randomized complete block design was used in both cases, with four replicates. Evaluating nymphs in greenhouse and nymphs and adults in field, we observed an increase in mortality by increasing dosages. In field, efficiency was 67.83 and 70.13% for adults and 80.36 and 88.10% for nymphs using 4.0 and 8.0 ml/L of the commercial Azadirachtin formulation, respectively.

  9. Proglacial Groundwater Flux and Storage in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, D.; McKenzie, J. M.; Baraer, M.; Mark, B. G.

    2012-12-01

    As tropical glaciers continue to rapidly retreat in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, dry-season water resources are becoming more dependent on groundwater baseflow. Therefore, understanding the flux and storage of proglacial groundwater is necessary to forecast how groundwater storage can offset decreasing water resources. Recent studies of the Rio Santa Watershed, which drains the western slopes of the Cordillera Blanca, have identified that groundwater is the largest contributor to outflow from many watersheds during the dry season and that the flux of groundwater is temporarily available (clay to silt sized glaciolacustrine material at each drill site. This layer was typically less than 5 m in thickness and had a low hydraulic conductivity (clay layer were water bearing units of course material (either well-sorted sand/gravel or talus deposits) with an average hydraulic conductivity of 10-5 m/s. Additionally numerous discontinuous sand lenses and localized glaciofluvial gravel deposits were observed within the clay layer. The glaciolacustrine deposits behave as confining units that were capable of generating localized artesian conditions in the coarse grain units. The occurrence of the clay units adjacent to the main stream channels suggests that the flatness of the valley floors is not the result of river meander. The coarse grained units have the potential to act as important aquifers with significant groundwater storage and flow. Our preliminary findings indicate that the course grained units are important hydrogeological conduits with the ability to buffer low flow conditions in proglacial streams during the dry season. We present a new schematic model of how groundwater moves through these important proglacial environments, providing temporal storage of glacial meltwater and precipitation.

  10. Effect of foliar application of pymetrozine on Bemisia tabaci (MED whitefly) and Amblyseius swirskii, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemisia tabaci is a polyphagous pest known to feed upon over 900 plant taxa, and is an effective vector of more than 100 plant damaging viruses. Among different biotypes of this cryptic species complex, MEAM1 and MED whitefly are the two most destructive members posing threats of several crops of ec...

  11. Pathogenicity of Aschersonia spp. against whiteflies Bemisia argentifolii and Trialeurodes vaporariorum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meekes, E.T.M.; Fransen, J.J.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi of the genus Aschersonia are specific for whitefly and scale insects. They can be used as biological control agents against silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii and greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Forty-four isolates of Aschersonia spp. were tested for

  12. Psicoanalisi ed educazione: il lavoro di Vera Schmidt e di Sabina Spielrein nell’asilo sperimentale di Mosca (1921-1925

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Amann Gainotti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Negli anni 1921-1923 a Mosca, sulla scia delle profonde trasformazioni politiche e sociali innescate dalla Rivoluzione di ottobre si colloca un esperimento educativo originale, promosso da Vera Schmidt, una pedagogista formata alle idee psicoanalitiche, che si proponeva di cercare nuove vie educative per la prima infanzia sulla base delle recenti conquiste e conoscenze fornite dalla teoria psicoanalitica di S. Freud. Obiettivo di questo contributo è di fornire un breve excursus storico relativo alla diffusione della psicoanalisi in Unione sovietica e alla fondazione dell'asilo sperimentale di Mosca, di ricordare le figure delle due studiose Vera Schmidt e Sabina Spielrein che hanno animato l'iniziativa, il cui lavoro scientifico è rimasto in ombra rispetto a quello dei loro più famosi colleghi S. Freud e di C.G. Jung; infine si intende rendere conto dei principi educativi che esse cercarono di mettere in pratica nell'asilo sperimentale di Mosca.

  13. Compatibility of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with neem against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, on eggplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study on the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) with neem was conducted against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on eggplant. Initially, three concentrations of B. bassiana (106, 1...

  14. Bromuro de metilo como tratamiento cuarentenario para cítricos infestados por la mosca del Mediterráneo

    OpenAIRE

    Zapater, Miguel Carlos

    1992-01-01

    p.171-176 Distintas variedades de naranjas, mandarinas y pomelos Infestadas por la mosca del Mediterráneo, Ceratitis capitata, fueron expuestas al bromuro de metilo (BM) para determinar la posibilidad de su empleo como tratamiento cuarentenario interno. 32 g-m3 de BM a 26 °C aplicados durante 2 hs. a fruta infestada artificialmente, alcanzaron el nivel de mortalidad correspondiente al standard probit 9, indicando su aptitud como fumigante adecuado para el tratamiento de las variedades cítr...

  15. Injúrias causadas por mosca-das-frutas sul-americana em cultivares de videira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-das-frutas sul-americana, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae, é uma das principais pragas da fruticultura no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a suscetibilidade quanto à queda e deformação de bagas de diferentes cultivares/espécies de uva pela injúria causada pela oviposição de A. fraterculus. O trabalho foi realizado em vinhedos das cultivares 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera, 'Moscato Embrapa' (75% de V. vinifera e 'Isabel' (Vitis labrusca, localizados em Bento Gonçalves (RS, na safra 2006/2007. Dois casais de A. fraterculus foram confinados por cacho, em gaiolas de tecido voile, durante os estádios fenológicos de grão ervilha, início da compactação, início da maturação e maturação plena dos cachos. Queda significativa de bagas devido ao ataque de A. fraterculus foi registrada na cultivar 'Cabernet Sauvignon' quando a infestação foi realizada nos estádios fenológicos de grão ervilha e início da compactação de cacho; estádios de grão ervilha em 'Moscato Embrapa'; e nos estádios de grão ervilha, início da compactação e início da maturação do cacho na cultivar 'Isabel'. Foi registrada deformação de bagas quando as infestações foram realizadas nos estádios de grão ervilha e início da compactação de cacho em 'Cabernet Sauvignon', 'Moscato Embrapa' e 'Isabel'. O desenvolvimento larval até a fase de pupa foi observado somente na cultivar 'Moscato Embrapa'.

  16. Role of erosion and isostasy in the Cordillera Blanca uplift: Insights from landscape evolution modeling (northern Peru, Andes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margirier, Audrey; Braun, Jean; Robert, Xavier; Audin, Laurence

    2018-03-01

    The processes driving uplift and exhumation of the highest Peruvian peaks (the Cordillera Blanca) are not well understood. Uplift and exhumation seem closely linked to the formation and movement on the Cordillera Blanca normal fault (CBNF) that delimits and shapes the western flank of the Cordillera Blanca. Several models have been proposed to explain the presence of this major normal fault in a compressional setting, but the CBNF and the Cordillera Blanca recent rapid uplift remain enigmatic. Whereas the Cordillera Blanca morphology demonstrates important erosion and thus a significant mass of rocks removal, the impact of erosion and isostasy on the evolution of the Cordillera Blanca uplift rates has never been explored. We address the role of erosion and associated flexural rebound in the uplift and exhumation of the Cordillera Blanca with numerical modeling of landscape evolution. We perform inversions of the broad features of the present-day topography, total exhumation and thermochronological data using a landscape evolution model (FastScape) to provide constraints on the erosion efficiency factor, the uplift rate and the temperature gradient. Our results evidence the not negligible contribution of erosion and associated flexural rebound to the uplift of the Cordillera Blanca and allow us to question the models previously proposed for the formation of the CBNF.

  17. Ocorrência precoce da mosca das frutas em ameixas Incidence of the southamerican fruit fly on plums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Salles

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar qual o estágio fenológico mais precoce da fruta de ameixeira em que ocorreria o ataque de mosca das frutas Anastrepha fraterculus. Os estudos foram conduzidos em plantas adultas de ameixeira, expondo-se fêmeas grávidas da mosca das frutas, confinadas em gaiolas com frutos protegidos do ataque natural. Cinco cultivares de ameixeira foram estudados (Amarelinha, Pluma 7, Reubennel, Santa Rosa e Wade. Essa praga ataca frutos de qualquer um dos cultivares logo nos primeiros estádios do desenvolvimento, quando os mesmos têm somente cerca de 2 a 3cm de diâmetro.The incidence of the southamerican fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, on plum cultivars is reported. The objective of this study was to know the earliest fruit phase that fly attack could occur. Fertilized females were confined with fruits in plum trees in an orchard. Five plums cultivars were studied: Amarelinha; Pluma 7; Reubennel; Santa Rosa and Wade. This pest attack fruits during first stages of their development, mainly they have only from 2 to 3 centimeters of diameter.

  18. Proceso del control integrado de moscas de la fruta (Díptera: Tephritidae) en los cítricos de exportación a los Estados Unidos, Huaral – Lima, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Cornejo Campos, José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación titulada: “Proceso del control integrado de moscas de la fruta (Díptera: Tephritidae) en los cítricos de exportación a los Estados Unidos, Huaral – Lima, 2014.”, tuvo como objetivo general: Describir el nivel del proceso del control integrado de moscas de la fruta en los cítricos de exportación a los Estados Unidos, Huaral – Lima, 2014. Esto como respuesta al problema: ¿Cuál es el nivel del proceso del control integrado de moscas de la fruta en los ...

  19. Structure of Sierra Blanca (Alpujarride Complex, west of the Betic Cordillera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreo, B.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Sierra Blanca, situated in the SW of Málaga, forms part of the Blanca unit, belonging to the Alpujarride Complex of the Betic Cordillera. Its lithologic sequences are made up of a group of migmatites, gneisses and schists and an upper formation of marbles (white dolomitic and the bottom and blue calcareous towards the top, linked with a transitional contact. The structure of Sierra Blanca is comprised of folds, generally isoclinal, with reversed limbs and with important tectonic transpositions, the direction of which is approximately E-W in the eastern area and N-S and E-W in the West. In both areas the folds present opposing vergences, consistently towards the interior of the sierra. The origin of these structures is explained with a model of westerly movements of the Blanca unit, in relation to the Los Reales unit, with the formation of frontal and lateral folds. In its advancement, the western part of Sierra Blanca underwent an important anti-clockwise rotation responsible for the co-existence of folds in N-S and E-W directions. These structures occurred under ductile conditions, owing to the presence of important overthrusting peridotitic masses of the Los Reales unit. This model of westerly displacement is inserted in the process undergone by the Betic-Rif Internal Zones (with Blanca and Los Reales units included which occurred at the end of the Oligocene-Early Miocene when the Gibraltar arch began to be formed.Sierra Blanca, situada al SW de Málaga, forma parte de la unidad de Blanca que pertenece al complejo Alpujárride de la Cordillera Bética. Su secuencia litológica está compuesta por un conjunto inferior de migmatitas, gneises y esquistos, y por una formación superior de mármoles, blancos dolomíticos en la base y mármoles calizos azules hacia la parte superior, entre los que existe un tránsito gradual. La estructura de Sierra Blanca está formada por pliegues, generalmente isoclinales, con flancos invertidos que muestran

  20. Lack of resistance development in Bemisia tabaci to Isaria fumosorosea after multiple generations of selection

    OpenAIRE

    Tianni Gao; Zhaolei Wang; Yü Huang; Nemat O. Keyhani; Zhen Huang

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of insecticide resistant insect pests is of significant concern worldwide. The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is an important agricultural pest and has shown incredible resilience developing resistance to a number of chemical pesticides. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Isaria fumosorosea offer an attractive alternative to chemical pesticides for insect control, and this fungus has been shown to be an effective pathogen of B. tabaci. Little is known concerning the potential for the dev...

  1. Efecto de dos agentes remineralizantes en lesiones de mancha blanca: Estudio in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Maribel Chicaiza Naranjo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available La caries dental continúa siendo la enfermedad con mayor prevalencia en el mundo, es importante diagnosticarla y tratarla desde su estadio inicial de mancha blanca ya que es una lesión reversible. La aparición de nuevos materiales como el fosfopéptido de caseína- estabilizado de fosfato de calcio amorfo (Recaldent para remineralizar las manchas blancas nos brindan más opciones terapéuticas en Odontopediatria. Objetivo: Evaluar in-vitro la remineralización de la mancha blanca a partir de la aplicación de las pastas dentales a base de Recaldent: Mi Paste y Mi Paste Plus en dientes temporales. Materiales y métodos: Fueron utilizados 30 dientes temporales sanos obtenidos por movilidad fisiológica, divididos en Grupo A 15 dientes, Grupo B 15 dientes, en ambos grupos se generó la mancha blanca con un agente desmineralizante, para la remineralización  al grupo A se le aplicó Mi Paste, al grupo B Mi Paste Plus, se evaluó el grado de desmineralización y remineralización mediante un láser, Diagnodent, después de 10 días de la aplicación de las pastas dentales. Resultados: Se demostró que en ambos grupos existió remineralización de la mancha blanca, 14.73 grados de fluorescencia con Mi Paste y 15.67 grados con Mi Paste Plus, siendo mayor el grupo B. Conclusión: Concluyendo que, si existe remineralización de la mancha blanca a partir de la aplicación de pasta dental, Mi Paste y Mi Paste Plus con derivados de la caseína (Recaldent en dientes temporales, estudio in vitro. Logrando mejores resultados al utilizar Mi Paste Plus. 

  2. Bemisia tabaci MED (Q biotype) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)is on the move in Florida to residential landscapes and may impact open field agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemisia tabaci MED (Mediterranean) have been in the United States for approximately a dozen years spreading to 26 states since it was first detected in Arizona at a retail outlet on poinsettia in 2004. Indistinguishable morphologically from silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Middle Eastern A...

  3. Las arquitecturas pintadas, cuando Málaga no era blanca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Asenjo Rubio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se atribuye a Confucio la cita, Todo tiene belleza, pero no todos la ven, y Rosario Camacho Martínez hace justicia a ese memento filosófico, pues con su magisterio ejercido desde el Departamento de Historia del Arte de la Universidad de Málaga, y su amplio conocimiento sobre las arquitecturas pintadas, hizo que muchas personas e instituciones que no veían más allá de la imperfección e incorrección técnica de este legado cultural comenzaran a valorarlo de forma positiva. Precisamente, el artículo «Cuando Málaga no era blanca: La arquitectura pintada del siglo XVIII», publicado en la revista Boletín de Arte en el año 1993 fue el inicio de muchas cosas positivas que Rosario Camacho ha aportado, no solo al conocimiento científico, sino también a la propia ciudad de Málaga. Desde esa tribuna literaria que tanta satisfacciones personales y académicas le ha dado durante toda su vida explicó su característica forma de abordar este singular patrimonio: rigor científico, análisis del dato, metodología clara y comunicación del conocimiento de forma asequible y comprensible, características ampliamente elogiadas por el desaparecido y añorado maestro Juan Antonio Ramírez, a quien le unía una estrecha amistad y un profundo reconocimiento.

  4. Deposit of molybdenum associated with uranium in Pena Blanca, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Cortes, M.

    1985-01-01

    The uranium-molybdenum deposits are in the Sierra Pena Blanca, 45 km north of the city of Chihuahua. The largest amounts of uranium-molybdenum ore are found in the area of Las Margaritas-Puerto III. The ratio of molybdenum mineralization to uranium is 2:1 in this area and the deposits are distributed at depths of 55-100 m in ignimbritic rocks of the so called Escuadra Formation. This volcanic unit consists of an altered crystalline-lithic ash-flow tuff of Oligocene age. The molybdenum mineral occurs as powellite (CaMoO 4 ) and is found predominantly in two size ranges: phenocrysts 0.1-20 mm in diameter are abundant in the upper part of the deposit, while a material which varies between cryptocrystalline and amorphous predominates in the lower part. This latter material can easily be identified inside the mine by its strong orange fluorescence; it is also easy to recover by leaching. In contrast, the metallurgical process of recovery by leaching of the phenocrystalline portion of the powellite has so far presented problems. Powellite is generally found in association with carnotite, margaritasite and uranophane, and its mineralization consists of disseminated lumps, druses, crustifications and veins; frequently, it partially replaces the phenocrysts of argillized feldspars of the Escuadra Formation. Fractured and brecciated zones with intense oxidation of jarosite, haematite, limonite and goethite sometimes show high U-Mo concentrations; on other occasions the concentration is found with alunite at the contact between the ignimbrite and the layers of argillized vitrophyre. The mineralizations of fluorite, pyrite, jarosite, alunite and opal are indicative of hydrothermal deposition, possibly at low temperature with supergene or geothermal alterations. (author)

  5. Aspectos biológicos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae alimentada com Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae criada em três hospedeiros Biological aspects of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae fed on Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae reared in three hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Gonçalves Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se alguns aspectos biológicos de adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen oriundos de larvas alimentadas com ninfas da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B, criadas em folhas de pepino (Cucumis sativus var. caipira, couve (Brassica oleraceae var. acephala e na planta invasora leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla. Discos foliares dos hospedeiros contendo ninfas de terceiro e quarto estádios da mosca-branca foram acondicionados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água a 1%. Em cada placa foi colocada uma larva de C. externa recém-eclodida, onde permaneceram até a emergência dos adultos. Foram avaliados o peso logo após a emergência, os períodos de pré-oviposição, oviposição, efetivo de oviposição, pós-oviposição, número total de ovos produzidos por fêmea e longevidade. Avaliaram-se, também, o período embrionário e a viabilidade dos ovos, coletando-se, uma vez por semana, uma amostra de 10% do total de ovos produzidos no dia, ao longo de todo o período reprodutivo. O peso de machos e fêmeas não diferiu significativamente em função do hospedeiro da presa, sendo em média de 4,7 mg. De maneira geral, adultos de C. externa oriundos de larvas alimentadas com ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B criadas em leiteiro apresentaram performance inferior em relação àqueles oriundos do pepino e da couve. O período de oviposição foi, em média, de 49,5 dias para o pepino e a couve, e de 31,6 dias para o leiteiro. A produção de ovos foi reduzida em aproximadamente 50% em leiteiro, sendo de 293,8 ovos; no pepino e couve, a média foi de 591,3 ovos. Ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B criadas em leiteiro causaram uma redução da viabilidade dos ovos de C. externa, que foi 62,8% e 57,7% inferior ao verificado para o pepino e a couve, respectivamente.The aim was to study some biological aspects of adults of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, from larvae fed on nymphs of third and fourth stages of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B

  6. STRATIGRAPHY OF THE PB-1 WELL, NOPAL 1 URANIUM DEPOSIT, PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Dobson

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Stratigraphic study part of integrated research project examining migration of radionuclides at Pena Blanca; (2) Immediate objectives of study include: locate stratigraphic contacts in third dimension; measure rock properties (matrix permeability, porosity, mineralogy, cation exchange capacity) of cored section; determine fracture frequency and orientation; (3) Results of study serve as primary inputs to flow and transport models

  7. STRATIGRAPHY OF THE PB-1 WELL, NOPAL 1 URANIUM DEPOSIT, PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dobson

    2005-09-14

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Stratigraphic study part of integrated research project examining migration of radionuclides at Pena Blanca; (2) Immediate objectives of study include: locate stratigraphic contacts in third dimension; measure rock properties (matrix permeability, porosity, mineralogy, cation exchange capacity) of cored section; determine fracture frequency and orientation; (3) Results of study serve as primary inputs to flow and transport models.

  8. Glacial lake outburst floods in the area of Huarás, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilímek, V.; Zapata, M. L.; Klimeš, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 39, - (2005), s. 115-124 ISSN 0081-6434 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LA 157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : GLOFs * Cordillera Blanca * Peru Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  9. Vascular plants and a brief history of the Kiowa and Rita Blanca National Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald L. Hazlett; Michael H. Schiebout; Paulette L. Ford

    2009-01-01

    Administered by the USDA Forest Service, the Kiowa and Rita Blanca National Grasslands occupy 230,000 acres of public land extending from northeastern New Mexico into the panhandles of Oklahoma and Texas. A mosaic of topographic features including canyons, plateaus, rolling grasslands and outcrops supports a diverse flora. Eight hundred twenty six (826) species of...

  10. Diversity analysis of Bemisia tabaci biotypes: RAPD, PCR-RFLP and sequencing of the ITS1 rDNA region

    OpenAIRE

    Rabello, Aline R.; Queiroz, Paulo R.; Simões, Kenya C.C.; Hiragi, Cássia O.; Lima, Luzia H.C.; Oliveira, Maria Regina V.; Mehta, Angela

    2008-01-01

    The Bemisia tabaci complex is formed by approximately 41 biotypes, two of which (B and BR) occur in Brazil. In this work we aimed at obtaining genetic markers to assess the genetic diversity of the different biotypes. In order to do that we analyzed Bemisia tabaci biotypes B, BR, Q and Cassava using molecular techniques including RAPD, PCR-RFLP and sequencing of the ITS1 rDNA region. The analyses revealed a high similarity between the individuals of the B and Q biotypes, which could be distin...

  11. Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt Spatial distribution of Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae on Bt and non-Bt cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rojas Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt. O estudo da distribuição espacial de adultos de Bemisia tabaci e de Aphis gossypii nas culturas do algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt é fundamental para a otimização de técnicas de amostragens, além de revelar diferenças de comportamento de espécies não-alvo dessa tecnologia Bt entre as duas cultivares. Nesse sentido, o experimento buscou investigar o padrão da distribuição espacial dessas espécies de insetos no algodoeiro convencional não-Bt e no cultivar Bt. As avaliações ocorreram em dois campos de 5.000 m² cada, nos quais se realizou 14 avaliações com contagem de adultos da mosca-branca e colônias de pulgões. Foram calculados os índices de agregação (razão variância/média, índice de Morisita e Expoente k da Distribuição Binomial Negativa e realizados os testes ajustes das classes numéricas de indivíduos encontradas e esperadas às distribuições teóricas de freqüência (Poisson, Binomial Negativa e Binomial Positiva. Todas as análises mostraram que, em ambas as cultivares, a distribuição espacial de B. tabaci ajustou-se a distribuição binomial negativa durante todo o período analisado, indicando que a cultivar transgênica não influenciou o padrão de distribuição agregada desse inseto. Já com relação às análises para A. gossypii, os índices de agregação apontaram distribuição agregada nas duas cultivares, mas as distribuições de freqüência permitiram concluir a ocorrência de distribuição agregada apenas no algodoeiro convencional, pois não houve nenhum ajuste para os dados na cultivar Bt. Isso indica que o algodão Bt alterou o padrão normal de dispersão dos pulgões no cultivo.The study of spatial distribution of the adults of Bemisia tabaci and the colonies of Aphis gossypii on Bt and non-Bt cotton crop is fundamental for

  12. Regional Analysis of the Hazard Level of Glacial Lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, Rachel E.; Jhon Sanchez Leon, Walter; McKinney, Daene C.; Cochachin Rapre, Alejo

    2016-04-01

    The Cordillera Blanca mountain range is the highest in Peru and contains many of the world's tropical glaciers. This region is severely impacted by climate change causing accelerated glacier retreat. Secondary impacts of climate change on glacier retreat include stress on water resources and the risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) from the many lakes that are forming and growing at the base of glaciers. A number of GLOFs originating from lakes in the Cordillera Blanca have occurred over the last century, several of which have had catastrophic impacts on cities and communities downstream. Glaciologists and engineers in Peru have been studying the lakes of the Cordillera Blanca for many years and have identified several lakes that are considered dangerous. However, a systematic analysis of all the lakes in the Cordillera Blanca has never before been attempted. Some methodologies for this type of systematic analysis have been proposed (eg. Emmer and Vilimek 2014; Wang, et al. 2011), but as yet they have only been applied to a few select lakes in the Cordillera Blanca. This study uses remotely sensed data to study all of the lakes of the Glacial Lake Inventory published by the Glaciology and Water Resources Unit of Peru's National Water Authority (UGRH 2011). The objective of this study is to assign a level of potential hazard to each glacial lake in the Cordillera Blanca and to ascertain if any of the lakes beyond those that have already been studied might pose a danger to nearby populations. A number of parameters of analysis, both quantitative and qualitative, have been selected to assess the hazard level of each glacial lake in the Cordillera Blanca using digital elevation models, satellite imagery, and glacier outlines. These parameters are then combined to come up with a preliminary assessment of the hazard level of each lake; the equation weighting each parameter draws on previously published methodologies but is tailored to the regional characteristics

  13. Contribución al Conocimiento de las Moscas de las Frutas (Tephritidae y sus Parasitoides en el Departamento de Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yepes R. Francisco

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Las moscas de las frutas constituyen, como grupo, la plaga insectil mas importante de estos cultivos en Colombia y en el mundo. Además de Anastrepha spp., la especie más dañina dentro de las verdaderas moscas de las frutas (Tephritidae, la mosca del Mediterráneo, fue detectada por primera vez en Colombia en 1986 y confirmada su presencia en Antioquia en abril de 1987. El trabajo se realizó en tres fases simultáneamente; una de campo (11 regiones, otra de laboratorio (procesamiento de muestras y la tercera consistió en la obtención de la identificación de las especies (moscas y parasitoides Los resultados fueron: 1.la especie más distribuida y frecuentemente registrada en mayor número de hospedantes fue Anastrepha striata; fue reportada por primera vez en guayabo anselmo (Campomanesia cornifolia y guayabo de mono (Bellucia axinanthera, 2.la especie que ataca a B. axinanthera en el nordeste y oriente antioqueños es A sp. "F-]", aparentemente no descrita y considerada dentro de un grupo actualmente bajo revisión, 3.en total se encontraron 13 especies diferentes de Tephritidae (incluyendo los géneros de Anastrepha, Ceratitis y Toxotrypana y siete especies de Lonchaeidae (Neosilba spp. y Dasiops spp., 4.dentro de los parasitoides de larva-pupa de Anastrepha spp. se destacan: Doryctobracon areolatus y D. crawfordi¡ Opius anastrephae, Asobara anastrephaey Microcrasis sp. pertenecientes a la familia Braconidae y Aganaspis pelleranoi (Eucoilidae y Aceratoneuromyia indicum (Eulophidae.

  14. Effectiveness of BPMC Application against Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius Population and CMMV Disease Incidence on Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wartono Wartono

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Control of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius is the starting point in suppressing the CMMV disease (cowpea mild mottle virus. This study aims to determine the influence of applications BPMC (500 g a.i./l against B. tabaci populations and disease incidence of CMMV on soybean plants. Research was conducted in the field with randomized complete block design consisting of 5 treatments i.e. five concentration levels: 0.75, 1.50,2.25, and 3.00 ml/l including control (untreated with 5 replications. The results showed that BPMC is effective in suppressing the adult population of B. tabaci and disease incidence of CMMV.

  15. Geologic studies in the Sierra de Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Cortes, Ignacio Alfonso

    The Sierra del Cuervo has been endowed with uranium mineralization, which has attracted many geological studies, and recently the author was part of a team with the goal of selecting a site of a radioactive waste repository. The first part of the work adds to the regional framework of stratigraphy and tectonics of the area. It includes the idea of a pull apart basin development, which justifies the local great thickness of the Cuervo Formation. It includes the regional structural frame work and the composite stratigraphic column of the Chihuahua Trough and the equivalent Cretaceous Mexican Sea. The general geologic features of the NE part of the Sierra del Cuervo are described, which include the folded ignimbrites and limestones in that area; the irregular large thicknesses of the Cuervo Formation; and the western vergence of the main folding within the area. Sanidine phenocrystals gave ages of 54.2 Ma and 51.8 Ma ± 2.3 Ma. This is the first time these dates have been reported in print. This age indicates a time before the folded structures which outcrop in the area, and 44 Ma is a date after the Cuervo Formation was folded. The Hidalgoan orogeny cycle affected the rocks between this lapse of time. Since then the area has been partially affected by three tensional overlapped stages, which resulted in the actual Basin and Range physiography. The jarosite related to the tectonic activity mineralization has been dated by the Ar-Ar method and yields an age of 9.8 Ma. This is the first report of a date of mineralization timing at Pena Blanca Uranium District in the Sierra del Cuervo. These are some of the frame work features that justify the allocation of a radioactive waste repository in the Sierra del Cuervo. An alluvial fan system within the Boquilla Colorada microbasin was selected as the best target for more detailed site assessment. The study also included the measurement of the alluvium thicknesses by geoelectric soundings; studies of petrography and weathered

  16. Mitigating trans-boundary movement of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Mentha sp. by pre-shipping treaments of biopesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of several important crops including vegetables, cereals, fruits, and ornamentals grown worldwide. One important mode of its dispersal is through the trans-boundary movement of infested plant materials. In order to prevent the sprea...

  17. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus can be acquired and transmitted by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) from tomato fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delatte, H.; Dalmon, A.; Rist, D.; Soustrade, I.; Wuster, G.; Lett, J.M.; Goldbach, R.W.; Peterschmitt, M.; Reynaud, B.

    2003-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is an insect pest causing worldwide economic losses, especially as a vector of geminiviruses such as Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Currently, imported and exported tomato fruit are not monitored for TYLCV infection because they are not considered to represent a

  18. Infection of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci with Rickettsia spp. alters its interactions with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous animal and plant viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors in a persistent, circulative manner. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is transmitted by the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Here we report that infection with Rickettsia spp., a facultative endosymbiont of whiteflies...

  19. Life-history parameters of Encarsia formosa, Eretmocerus eremicus and E. Mundus, aphelinid parasitoids of Bemisia argentifolii (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Drost, Y.C.; Posthuma-Doodeman, J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Life-history parameters (juvenile development time, adult longevity, host instar preference and rate of parasitism) offour parasitoids of Bemisia argentifolii (two strains of Encarsia formosa (D and B), Eretmocerus eremicus and Eretmocerus mundus) Were Studied in the laboratory. At 15degreesC

  20. Danos de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritidae em citros, manejados no sistema orgânico de produção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Felisberto da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas são as principais pragas da fruticultura mundial. Consideradas chaves para a produção de citros, torna-se necessário o seu monitoramento, visando a evitar os danos diretos. O experimento teve como objetivos conhecer a variação populacional de Anastrepha fraterculus e a relação de sua população com danos em pomares orgânicos de Citrus sinensis, cultivar Céu e de C. sinensis x Citrus reticulata tangor 'Murcott'. Os dados foram coletados em 2003 e 2004 durante o período de maturação dos frutos, na região do vale do Caí, RS, Brasil. O número de moscas-das-frutas foi registrado, semanalmente, por meio de armadilhas McPhail, contendo suco de uva, a 25%. Danos aos frutos foram determinados pela razão entre frutos sadios e frutos danificados pela mosca. Registros meteorológicos de temperatura, umidade relativa e precipitação pluviométrica foram obtidos, em estação meteorológica distante 30 km das áreas experimentais. Verificou-se que, em condições ideais de precipitação pluvial, maiores foram as populações de A. fraterculus, espécie predominante na região. A população estimada capaz de causar danos aos frutos variou de acordo com o cultivar, sendo a laranjeira 'Céu' a mais susceptível. Os maiores picos populacionais ocorrem na fase de mudança de coloração dos frutos. Porém, na fase de maturação, as moscas causaram os maiores danos, dada a intolerância dos frutos ao ataque. Conclui-se que a infestação dos frutos de citros por A. fraterculus está relacionada com espécie e cultivar e com fatores climáticos, principalmente com a precipitação pluvial. O monitoramento constante da população de mosca-das-frutas é importante na determinação da infestação na colheita.

  1. Lichenometry in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru: “Little Ice Age” moraine chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomina, Olga; Jomelli, Vincent; Kaser, Georg; Ames, Alcides; Berger, Bernhard; Pouyaud, Bernard

    2007-10-01

    This paper is a comparison and compilation of lichenometric and geomorphic studies performed by two independent teams in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, in 1996 and 2002 on 66 "Little Ice Age" moraines of 14 glaciers. Using eleven new control points, we recalibrated the initial rapid growth phase of the previously established Rhizocarpon subgenus Rhizocarpon growth curve. This curve was then used to estimate the age of "Little Ice Age" moraines. The time of deposition of the most prominent and numerous terminal and lateral moraines on the Pacific-facing side of the Cordillera Blanca (between AD 1590 and AD 1720) corresponds to the coldest and wettest phase in the tropical Andes as revealed by ice-core data. Less prominent advances occurred between AD 1780 and 1880.

  2. [Aquatic insects and water quality in Peñas Blancas watershed and reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Meyer Guevara

    2011-06-01

    The aquatic insects have been used to evaluate water quality of aquatic environments. The population of aquatic insects and the water quality of the area were characterized according to the natural and human alterations present in the study site. During the monthly-survey, pH, DO, temperature, water level, DBO, PO4 and NO3 were measured. Biological indexes (abundance, species richness and the BMWP-CR) were used to evaluate the water quality. No relation between environmental and aquatic insects was detected. Temporal and spatial differences attributed to the flow events (temporal) and the presence of Peñas Blancas reservoir (spatial). In the future, the investigations in Peñas Blancas watershed need to be focused on determining the real influence of the flows, sediment release and the possible water quality degradation because of agriculture activities.

  3. Oviposition behavior of the silver leaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B on tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendramim, Jose D.; Souza, Antonio P. de; Ongarelli, Maria das G.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the leaf surface, the insect geotropic behavior and the type of foliar trichome on Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B oviposition on tomato leaves. Bemisia tabaci females were confined in acrylic boxes in which tomato leaflets were fixed at the bottom and top part of the boxes to allow insects to access the leaf surface to be tested (adaxial and/or abaxial) in both no-choice and free choice tests. Oviposition was always higher when the leaf was offered at the top of the box and preferably at the abaxial leaf surface. The effects of leaf trichomes (glandular and non glandular) on B. tabaci oviposition was evaluated by offering the abaxial surface of tomato leaflets to females after a 70% ethanol wash to remove glandular exsudates against a control treatment (without a ethanol wash). Oviposition was concentrated mostly near to non glandular trichomes, showing whitefly females can discriminate among the trichomes. (author)

  4. Genome sequencing of the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci MED/Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen; Chen, Chunhai; Yang, Zezhong; Guo, Litao; Yang, Xin; Wang, Dan; Chen, Ming; Huang, Jinqun; Wen, Yanan; Zeng, Yang; Liu, Yating; Xia, Jixing; Tian, Lixia; Cui, Hongying; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xu, Baoyun; Li, Xianchun; Tan, Xinqiu; Ghanim, Murad; Qiu, Baoli; Pan, Huipeng; Chu, Dong; Delatte, Helene; Maruthi, M N; Ge, Feng; Zhou, Xueping; Wang, Xiaowei; Wan, Fanghao; Du, Yuzhou; Luo, Chen; Yan, Fengming; Preisser, Evan L; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Coates, Brad S; Zhao, Jinyang; Gao, Qiang; Xia, Jinquan; Yin, Ye; Liu, Yong; Brown, Judith K; Zhou, Xuguo Joe; Zhang, Youjun

    2017-05-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a highly destructive agricultural and ornamental crop pest. It damages host plants through both phloem feeding and vectoring plant pathogens. Introductions of B. tabaci are difficult to quarantine and eradicate because of its high reproductive rates, broad host plant range, and insecticide resistance. A total of 791 Gb of raw DNA sequence from whole genome shotgun sequencing, and 13 BAC pooling libraries were generated by Illumina sequencing using different combinations of mate-pair and pair-end libraries. Assembly gave a final genome with a scaffold N50 of 437 kb, and a total length of 658 Mb. Annotation of repetitive elements and coding regions resulted in 265.0 Mb TEs (40.3%) and 20 786 protein-coding genes with putative gene family expansions, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on orthologs across 14 arthropod taxa suggested that MED/Q is clustered into a hemipteran clade containing A. pisum and is a sister lineage to a clade containing both R. prolixus and N. lugens. Genome completeness, as estimated using the CEGMA and Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs pipelines, reached 96% and 79%. These MED/Q genomic resources lay a foundation for future 'pan-genomic' comparisons of invasive vs. noninvasive, invasive vs. invasive, and native vs. exotic Bemisia, which, in return, will open up new avenues of investigation into whitefly biology, evolution, and management. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Wind Transport of Radionuclide- Bearing Dust, Peña Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, R.; Goodell, P. C.; Gill, T. E.; Arimoto, R.

    2007-05-01

    This investigation evaluates radionuclide fractionation during wind erosion of high-grade uranium ore storage piles at Peña Blanca (50km north of Chihuahua City), Chihuahua, Mexico. The aridity of the local environment promotes dust resuspension by high winds. Although active operations ceased in 1983, the Peña Blanca mining district is one of Mexico`s most important uranium ore reserves. The study site contains piles of high grade ore, left loose on the surface, and separated by the specific deposits from which they were derived (Margaritas, Nopal I, and Puerto I). Similar locations do not exist in the United States, since uranium mining sites in the USA have been reclaimed. The Peña Blanca site serves as an analog for the Yucca Mountain project. Dust deposition is collected at Peña Blanca with BSNE sediment catchers (Fryrear, 1986) and marble dust traps (Reheis, 1999). These devices capture windblown sediment; subsequently, the sample data will help quantify potentially radioactive short term field sediment loss from the repository surface and determine sediment flux. Aerosols and surface materials will be analyzed and radioactivity levels established utilizing techniques such as gamma spectroscopy. As a result, we will be able to estimate how much radionuclide contaminated dust is being transported or attached geochemically to fine grain soils or minerals (e.g., clays or iron oxides). The high-grade uranium-bearing material is at secular equilibrium, thus the entire decay series is present. Of resulting interest is not only the aeolian transport of uranium, but also of the other daughter products. These studies will improve our understanding of geochemical cycling of radionuclides with respect to sources, transport, and deposition. The results may also have important implications for the geosciences and homeland security, and potential applications to public health. Funding for this project is provided in part via a NSF grant to Arimoto.

  6. REGIONAL HYDROLOGY OF THE NOPAL I SITE, SIERRA DE PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Rodriguez-Pineda; P. Goodell; P.F. Dobson; J. Walton; R. Oliver; De La Garza; S. Harder

    2005-07-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored the drilling of three wells in 2003 near the Nopal I uranium deposit at the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico. Piezometric information is being collected to understand groundwater flow at local and regional levels as part of an ongoing natural analogue study of radionuclide migration. Water level monitoring reported at these and other wells in the region is combined with archival data to provide a better understanding of the hydrology at Nopal I. Initial results suggest that the local hydrology is dependent on the regional hydrologic setting and that this groundwater system behaves as an unconfined aquifer. The region is dominated by an alternating sequence of highlands and basins that step down from west to east. The Sierra de Pena Blanca was downdropped from the cratonic block to the west during Cenozoic extension. The Nopal I area is near the intersection of two large listric faults, and the questa of ash flow tuffs that hosts the deposit has been subjected to complex structural events. The Pena Blanca Uranium District was originally characterized by 105 airborne radiometric anomalies, indicating widespread uranium mineralization. The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Sierra del Pena Blanca between the Encinillas Basin to the west, with a mean elevation of 1560 m, and the El Cuervo Basin to the east, with a mean elevation of 1230 m. The Nopal I + 10 level is at an intermediate elevation of 1463 m, with a corresponding groundwater elevation of approximately 1240 m. The regional potentiometric surface indicates flow from west to east, with the El Cuervo Basin being the discharge zone for the regional flow system. However, it appears that the local groundwater potential beneath the Nopal I site is more in accordance with the water table of the El Cuervo Basin than with that of the Encinillas Basin. This might indicate that there is limited groundwater flow between the Encinillas Basin and the Nopal I area.

  7. REGIONAL HYDROLOGY OF THE NOPAL I SITE, SIERRA DE PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Pineda, J.A.; Goodell, P.; Dobson, P.F.; Walton, J.; Oliver, R.; De La Garza; Harder, S.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored the drilling of three wells in 2003 near the Nopal I uranium deposit at the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico. Piezometric information is being collected to understand groundwater flow at local and regional levels as part of an ongoing natural analogue study of radionuclide migration. Water level monitoring reported at these and other wells in the region is combined with archival data to provide a better understanding of the hydrology at Nopal I. Initial results suggest that the local hydrology is dependent on the regional hydrologic setting and that this groundwater system behaves as an unconfined aquifer. The region is dominated by an alternating sequence of highlands and basins that step down from west to east. The Sierra de Pena Blanca was downdropped from the cratonic block to the west during Cenozoic extension. The Nopal I area is near the intersection of two large listric faults, and the questa of ash flow tuffs that hosts the deposit has been subjected to complex structural events. The Pena Blanca Uranium District was originally characterized by 105 airborne radiometric anomalies, indicating widespread uranium mineralization. The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Sierra del Pena Blanca between the Encinillas Basin to the west, with a mean elevation of 1560 m, and the El Cuervo Basin to the east, with a mean elevation of 1230 m. The Nopal I + 10 level is at an intermediate elevation of 1463 m, with a corresponding groundwater elevation of approximately 1240 m. The regional potentiometric surface indicates flow from west to east, with the El Cuervo Basin being the discharge zone for the regional flow system. However, it appears that the local groundwater potential beneath the Nopal I site is more in accordance with the water table of the El Cuervo Basin than with that of the Encinillas Basin. This might indicate that there is limited groundwater flow between the Encinillas Basin and the Nopal I area

  8. Final report of the Peña Blanca natural analogue project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Schön S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goldstein, Steven Joel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Abdel-Fattah, Amr I. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Amato, Ronald S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anthony, Elizabeth [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Cook, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dobson, Patrick F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fayek, Mostafa [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada); French, Diana [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Garza, Rodrigo de [Univ. Autonoma de Chihuahua (Mexico); Ghezzehei, Teamrat [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goodell, Philip C. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Harder, Steven H. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Ku, Teh-Lung [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Luo, Shangde [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Murrell, Michael Tildon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norman, Deborah E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nunn, Andrew J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oliver, Ronald [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pekar-Carpenter, Katrina [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Rearick, Michael Sean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ren, Minghua [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Reyes-Cortes, Ignacio [Univ. Autonoma de Chihuahua (Mexico); Pineda, Jose Alfredo [El Instituto de Ecologia (INECOL) (Mexico); Saulnier, George [AREVA Federal Services LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Tarimala, Sowmitri [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Walton, John [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2016-10-04

    The Peña Blanca region, 50 km north of Chihuahua City, Chihuahua, México, was a target of uranium exploration and mining by the Mexican government. After mining ceased in 1981, researchers became interested in this region as a study area for subsurface uranium migration with relevance to geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Many studies related to this concept were conducted at the Nopal I mine site located on a cuesta (hill) of the Sierra Peña Blanca. This site has geologic, tectonic, hydrologic, and geochemical similarities to Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a formerly proposed site for a high-level nuclear-waste repository in the unsaturated zone. The U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), sponsored studies at Nopal I in the 1990s and supported the drilling of three research wells – PB1, PB2, and PB3 – at the site in 2003. Beginning in 2004, the Peña Blanca Natural Analogue Project was undertaken by U.S. DOE, OCRWM to develop a three-dimensional conceptual model of the transport of uranium and its radiogenic daughter products at the Nopal I site.

  9. Role of erosion and isostasy in the Cordillera Blanca uplift: insights from Low-T thermochronology and landscape evolution modeling (northern Peru, Andes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margirier, A.; Robert, X.; Braun, J.; Laurence, A.

    2017-12-01

    The uplift and exhumation of the highest Peruvian peaks seems closely linked to the Cordillera Blanca normal fault that delimits and shape the western flank of the Cordillera Blanca. Two models have been previously proposed to explain the occurrence of extension and the presence of this active normal fault in a compression setting but the Cordillera Blanca normal fault and the uplift and exhumation of the Cordillera Blanca remain enigmatic. Recent studies suggested an increase of exhumation rates during the Quaternary in the Cordillera Blanca and related this increase to a change in climate and erosion process (glacial erosion vs. fluvial erosion). The Cordillera Blanca granite has been significantly eroded since its emplacement (12-5 Ma) indicating a significant mass of rocks removal. Whereas it has been demonstrated recently that the effect of eroding denser rocks can contribute to an increase of uplift rate, the impact of erosion and isostasy on the increase of the Cordillera Blanca uplift rates has never been explored. Based on numerical modeling of landscape evolution we address the role of erosion and isostasy in the uplift and exhumation of the Cordillera Blanca. We performed inversions of the present-day topography, total exhumation and thermochronological data using a landscape evolution model (FastScape). Our results evidence the contribution of erosion and associated flexural rebound to the uplift of the Cordillera Blanca. Our models suggest that the erosion of the Cordillera Blanca dense intrusion since 3 Ma could also explain the Quaternary exhumation rate increase in this area. Finally, our results allow to question the previous models proposed for the formation of the Cordillera Blanca normal fault.

  10. Sublethal effects of some synthetic and botanical insecticides on Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeily Saeideh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to direct mortality caused by insecticides, some biological traits of insects may also be affected by sublethal insecticide doses. In this study, we used the age-stage, two-sex life table method to evaluate the sublethal effects of the four synthetic insecticides: abamectin, imidacloprid, diazinon, and pymetrozin as well as the botanical insecticide taken from Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae extract, on eggs of the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hem.: Aleyrodidae. The lowest and highest survival rates and oviposition periods were observed in whiteflies treated by diazinon and imidacloprid, respectively. We found significant differences in the net reproductive rate (R0, the intrinsic rate of increase (r, the finite rate of increase (?, and the gross reproductive rate (GRR among different insecticides. Altogether, our results showed that pymetrozin and C. procera induced the most sublethal effects, thus they may be suitable candidates for use in integrated pest management programs of B. tabaci.

  11. Evaluation of insecticides against cotton whitefly, bemisia tabachi (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razaq, M.; Aslam, M.; Sharif, K.; Salman, B.; Aleem, F.

    2003-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of lmidacloprid (Confidor 200SL), Acetamaprid (Mospilon 20SP), Methamidophos (Tamaron 600SL), Endosulfan (Thioluxon 35EC), Buprofezin (Sitara 25WP), Fenpropathrin (Fenthrin 20EC) and Diafenthiuron (Polo 500 SC) against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) on cotton variety CIM-473 during the crop year 2002. The crop was sprayed twice in September. After seven days of the first spray, the lowest population (0.6/leaf) of whitefly was observed in plots treated with Endosulfan 35EC followed by Acetamaprid 20SP(1.1/leaf), while the plots receiving Buprofezin 25 WP + Fenpropathrin 20 EC, Methamidophos 600SL and Imidacloprid 200SL had population of whitefly statistically similar. Seven days after second spray Acetamaprid 20SP and Diafenthiuron 500SC treated plots had the lowest population (1.4 per leaf) of whitefly followed by Imidacloprid 200SL (1.8 per leaf) and Fenpropathrin 20EC (1.9 per leaf).(author)

  12. Compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium and insecticides for eradication of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Walters, Keith F A; Deppe, Carola

    2005-08-01

    The compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium and chemical insecticides used to control the second instar stages of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, was investigated. The effect on spore germination of direct exposure for 24 h to the insecticides imidacloprid, buprofezin, teflubenzuron and nicotine was determined. Only exposure to buprofezin was followed by acceptable spore germination. However, all chemicals significantly reduced spore germination when compared to a water control. Infectivity of L. muscarium in the presence of dry residues of buprofezin, teflubenzuron and nicotine (imidacloprid is a systemic pesticide) on foliage were also investigated. No significant detrimental effects on the level of control of B. tabaci was recorded when compared with fungi applied to residue free foliage on either tomato or verbena plants. Fungi in combination with imidacloprid gave higher B. tabaci mortality on verbena foliage compared to either teflubenzuron or nicotine and fungi combinations. Use of these chemical insecticides with L. muscarium in integrated control programmes for B. tabaci is discussed.

  13. Efecto de Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria brongniartii y la aplicación de gasoil en el control de moscas caseras en galpones avícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Cova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela, con el objetivo de evaluar en condiciones de campo la patogenicidad de Beauveria bassiana y Beauveria brongniartii (cepa: LF- 08 y LF-05, respectivamente en comparación con la práctica común de usar gasoil alrededor de los galpones de cría de pollos, como control temporal de Musca domestica. Esporas de B. bassiana y B. brongniartii nebulizadas en el interior de galpones de cría con siete pollos/m2, a dosis de 9 x 107 conidias/ml en 15 L de agua para cada 1200 m2, redujeron significativamente la densidad de moscas adultas. El porcentaje de reducción poblacional se indujo tras nebulizar B. bassiana y B. brongniartii una vez por semana, durante tres semanas, en un 80, 81 y 100% y 24, 85 y 95 %, respectivamente; con presiónentomicida adicional de 94 y 80% a las tres semanas siguientes, respectivamente. La nebulización con agua y aditivos inocuos, en galpones vecinos arrojó valores de reducción de densidad de moscas de 67, 94 y 61%, respectivamente,con presión entomicida adicional de 91%. En los galpones tratados sólo con gasoil, se registró una densidad de moscas de -55, 70 y -115 %, respectivamente, con presión entomicida adicional de 91%. Los resultados permiten concluir que el uso de ambos hongos entomopatógenos es factible para controlar a M. domestica en galpones avícolas, mediante una aplicación semanal durante tres semanas.

  14. The Downstream Fate of Glacial Runoff and Groundwater in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, J. M.; Gordon, R.; Chavez, D.; Maharaj, L.; Baraer, M.; Mark, B. G.; Lautz, L. K.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid glacier recession in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, is raising concerns about current and future water resources for the inhabitants of the Rio Santa watershed. Glacier meltwater buffers stream discharge throughout the range, reducing the variability of annual runoff and maintaining stream flows during the dry season. Groundwater is also an important component of dry season runoff as it can contribute as much as 50-70% to outflow in some Rio Santa tributaries. A better understanding of groundwater dynamics in high elevation watersheds is needed, including quantification of recharge, subsurface processes, and available storage. We present the results from recent groundwater studies in the Cordillera Blanca where numerous investigative techniques have been used, including ground penetrating radar, hydraulic conductivity measurements, tracer tests, and hydrochemical mixing models. Our research focuses primarily on the low-relief pampa valley floors across which glacial-melt derived rivers flow. Across the Cordillera, these valley systems cover approximately 65 km2 and are comprised of unconsolidated glacial, talus, and lacustrine deposits and wetlands. The valleys commonly have buried, permeable, talus aquifers that are overlain by relatively impermeable, glaciolacustrine deposits. Glaciofluvial outwash deposits also act as aquifers (hydraulic conductivity of 10-4 m/s). The travel time of water stored in these systems is generally less than 3-4 years and the maximum observed dry season groundwater velocity is 60 cm/day. While groundwater represents an important component of dry season water resources source of water in the Cordillera Blanca, it is also potentially vulnerable to climate change including changes in the precipitation regime and decrease in glacially derived recharge.

  15. Seasonal changes in reproductive activity, sperm variables and sperm freezability in Blanca Andaluza bucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Gallego-Calvo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the preservation of endangered breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat, has increased and some steps should be therefore taken to ensure it. The study was designed to determine the seasonal reproductive pattern of Blanca Andaluza bucks, and whether this affects the quality of their semen and its freezability over the year. Seven bucks were used and their body weight, testicular weight, plasma testosterone concentration and fresh sperm quality determined every week. The collected sperm was cryopreserved and stored; it was then thawed and the same sperm quality variables measured every fortnight. High plasma testosterone concentrations were recorded during the summer and autumn, and low concentrations were recorded during winter and spring (p<0.001. No differences were seen between seasons in terms of the percentage of bucks ejaculating, the percentage of active bucks, or ejaculate volume. However, the sperm concentration, the total number of sperm per ejaculate, and the values for most fresh sperm variables were lower during the winter period (at least p<0.05. After freezing-thawing, the quality of winter-collected sperm was better, in some respects, than that of summer-collected sperm (at least p<0.05. These results reveal that Blanca Andaluza bucks show seasonal reproductive activity in terms of their plasma testosterone concentration, but no clear change in their sexual behaviour between seasons was observed. The values of fresh sperm variables also vary over the year, reaching their lowest during winter. However, after freezing-thawing, winter-collected sperm is of overall better quality than sperm collected during the summer.

  16. Empirical downscaling of atmospheric key variables above a tropical glacier surface (Cordillera Blanca, Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, M.; Kaser, G.; Mölg, T.; Juen, I.; Wagnon, P.

    2009-04-01

    Glaciers in the outer tropical Cordillera Blanca (Peru, South America) are of major socio-economic importance, since glacier runoff represents the primary water source during the dry season, when little or no rainfall occurs. Due to their location at high elevations, the glaciers moreover provide important information about climate change in the tropical troposphere, where measurements are sparse. This study targets the local reconstruction of air temperature, specific humidity and wind speed above the surface of an outer tropical glacier from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data as large scale predictors. Since a farther scope is to provide input data for process based glacier mass balance modelling, the reconstruction pursues a high temporal resolution. Hence an empirical downscaling scheme is developed, based on a few years' time series of hourly observations from automatic weather stations, located at the glacier Artesonraju and nearby moraines (Northern Cordillera Blanca). Principal component and multiple regression analyses are applied to define the appropriate spatial downscaling domain, suitable predictor variables, and the statistical transfer functions. The model performance is verified using an independent data set. The best predictors are lower tropospheric air temperature and specific humidity, at reanalysis model grid points that represent the Bolivian Altiplano, located in the South of the Cordillera Blanca. The developed downscaling model explaines a considerable portion (more than 60%) of the diurnal variance of air temperature and specific humidity at the moraine stations, and air temperature above the glacier surface. Specific humidity above the glacier surface, however, can be reconstructed well in the seasonal, but not in the required diurnal time resolution. Wind speed can only be poorly determined by the large scale predictors (r² lower than 0.3) at both sites. We assume a complex local interaction between valley and glacier wind system to be the main

  17. Integrating Multiple Geophysical Methods to Quantify Alpine Groundwater- Surface Water Interactions: Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glas, R. L.; Lautz, L.; McKenzie, J. M.; Baker, E. A.; Somers, L. D.; Aubry-Wake, C.; Wigmore, O.; Mark, B. G.; Moucha, R.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater- surface water interactions in alpine catchments are often poorly understood as groundwater and hydrologic data are difficult to acquire in these remote areas. The Cordillera Blanca of Peru is a region where dry-season water supply is increasingly stressed due to the accelerated melting of glaciers throughout the range, affecting millions of people country-wide. The alpine valleys of the Cordillera Blanca have shown potential for significant groundwater storage and discharge to valley streams, which could buffer the dry-season variability of streamflow throughout the watershed as glaciers continue to recede. Known as pampas, the clay-rich, low-relief valley bottoms are interfingered with talus deposits, providing a likely pathway for groundwater recharged at the valley edges to be stored and slowly released to the stream throughout the year by springs. Multiple geophysical methods were used to determine areas of groundwater recharge and discharge as well as aquifer geometry of the pampa system. Seismic refraction tomography, vertical electrical sounding (VES), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) seismic methods were used to determine the physical properties of the unconsolidated valley sediments, the depth to saturation, and the depth to bedrock for a representative section of the Quilcayhuanca Valley in the Cordillera Blanca. Depth to saturation and lithological boundaries were constrained by comparing geophysical results to continuous records of water levels and sediment core logs from a network of seven piezometers installed to depths of up to 6 m. Preliminary results show an average depth to bedrock for the study area of 25 m, which varies spatially along with water table depths across the valley. The conceptual model of groundwater flow and storage derived from these geophysical data will be used to inform future groundwater flow models of the area, allowing for the prediction of groundwater

  18. Seasonal changes in reproductive activity, sperm variables and sperm freezability in Blanca Andaluza bucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego-Calvo, L.; Gatica, M.C.; Santiago-Moreno, J.; Guzmán, J.L.; Zarazaga, L.

    2015-07-01

    Interest in the preservation of endangered breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat, has increased and some steps should be therefore taken to ensure it. The study was designed to determine the seasonal reproductive pattern of Blanca Andaluza bucks, and whether this affects the quality of their semen and its freezability over the year. Seven bucks were used and their body weight, testicular weight, plasma testosterone concentration and fresh sperm quality determined every week. The collected sperm was cryopreserved and stored; it was then thawed and the same sperm quality variables measured every fortnight. High plasma testosterone concentrations were recorded during the summer and autumn, and low concentrations were recorded during winter and spring (p<0.001). No differences were seen between seasons in terms of the percentage of bucks ejaculating, the percentage of active bucks, or ejaculate volume. However, the sperm concentration, the total number of sperm per ejaculate, and the values for most fresh sperm variables were lower during the winter period (at least p<0.05). After freezing-thawing, the quality of winter-collected sperm was better, in some respects, than that of summer-collected sperm (at least p<0.05). These results reveal that Blanca Andaluza bucks show seasonal reproductive activity in terms of their plasma testosterone concentration, but no clear change in their sexual behaviour between seasons was observed. The values of fresh sperm variables also vary over the year, reaching their lowest during winter. However, after freezing-thawing, winter-collected sperm is of overall better quality than sperm collected during the summer. (Author)

  19. NSR&D FY17 Report: CartaBlanca Capability Enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Christopher Curtis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dhakal, Tilak Raj [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zhang, Duan Zhong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-19

    Over the last several years, particle technology in the CartaBlanca code has been matured and has been successfully applied to a wide variety of physical problems. It has been shown that the particle methods, especially Los Alamos's dual domain material point method, is capable of computing many problems involves complex physics, chemistries accompanied by large material deformations, where the traditional finite element or Eulerian method encounter significant difficulties. In FY17, the CartaBlanca code has been enhanced with physical models and numerical algorithms. We started out to compute penetration and HE safety problems. Most of the year we focused on the TEPLA model improvement testing against the sweeping wave experiment by Gray et al., because it was found that pore growth and material failure are essentially important for our tasks and needed to be understood for modeling the penetration and the can experiments efficiently. We extended the TEPLA mode from the point view of ensemble phase average to include the effects of nite deformation. It is shown that the assumed pore growth model in TEPLA is actually an exact result from the theory. Alone this line, we then generalized the model to include finite deformations to consider nonlinear dynamics of large deformation. The interaction between the HE product gas and the solid metal is based on the multi-velocity formation. Our preliminary numerical results suggest good agreement between the experiment and the numerical results, pending further verification. To improve the parallel processing capabilities of the CartaBlanca code, we are actively working with the Next Generation Code (NGC) project to rewrite selected packages using C++. This work is expected to continue in the following years. This effort also makes the particle technology developed with CartaBlanca project available to other part of the laboratory. Working with the NGC project and rewriting some parts of the code also given us an

  20. Original Article. An evaluation of some eco-friendly biopesticides against Bemisia tabaci on two greenhouse tomato varieties in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Razek Atef S.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has two main approaches. First, it exploits the susceptibility of tomato cultivars as a prophylactic measure to detect auto resistance characters of the tested tomato varieties against Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae. Secondly, it evaluates the efficacy of different bio-rational insecticides against B. tabaci under greenhouse conditions. The results exhibited a special significance in B. tabaci infestation suitability between the two tomato varieties with a high infestation significance found in the Shifa F1 hybrid tomato variety compared to the Savera F1 hybrid tomato variety in the first plantation period. Subsequently, in the second plantation period, there was a significant difference between the two tomato varieties. Bemisia tabaci showed a preference for the Shifa F1 hybrid over the Savera F1 hybrid tomato variety. These differences occurred during the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 10th weeks. In the experimental trial for the efficacy of eco-friendly biorational insecticides, spinosad, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, there were significant differences between the treated and untreated plants during the two plantation periods. A high efficacy of spinosad on the B. tabaci population was found. Bemisia tabaci infestation under all the applications was reduced from 50 to 94.61% for the two plantation periods. This obvious decrease in B. tabaci population increase attention to benefits of the different bio-rational insecticides.

  1. Major QTLs Control Resistance to Rice Hoja Blanca Virus and Its Vector Tagosodes orizicolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Luz E.; Lozano, Ivan; Garavito, Andrea; Carabali, Silvio J.; Triana, Monica; Villareal, Natalia; Reyes, Luis; Duque, Myriam C.; Martinez, César P.; Calvert, Lee; Lorieux, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Rice hoja blanca (white leaf) disease can cause severe yield losses in rice in the Americas. The disease is caused by the rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV), which is transmitted by the planthopper vector Tagosodes orizicolus. Because classical breeding schemes for this disease rely on expensive, time-consuming screenings, there is a need for alternatives such as marker-aided selection. The varieties Fedearroz 2000 and Fedearroz 50, which are resistant to RHBV and to the feeding damage caused by T. orizicolus, were crossed with the susceptible line WC366 to produce segregating F2:3 populations. The F3 families were scored for their resistance level to RHBV and T. orizicolus. The F2:3 lines of both crosses were genotyped using microsatellite markers. One major QTL on the short arm of chromosome 4 was identified for resistance to RHBV in the two populations. Two major QTL on chromosomes 5 and 7 were identified for resistance to T. orizicolus in the Fd2000 × WC366 and Fd50 × WC366 crosses, respectively. This comparative study using two distinct rice populations allowed for a better understanding of how the resistance to RHBV and its vector are controlled genetically. Simple marker-aided breeding schemes based on QTL information can be designed to improve rice germplasm to reduce losses caused by this important disease. PMID:24240781

  2. Margaritasite: a new mineral of hydrothermal origin from the Pena Blanca uranium district, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenrich, K.J.; Modreski, P.J.; Zielinski, R.A.; Seeley, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Margaritasite, (Cs,K,H3O)2(UO2)2V2O8.nH2O (where Cs > K, H3O and n approx 1), a 10.514, b 8.425, c 7.25 A, beta 106.01o, P21/a, Z = 2, is a newly recognized uranium ore mineral named for the Margaritas deposit, Pena Blanca uranium district, Chihuahua, Mexico, at which it was discovered. A Cs-rich analogue of carnotite, margaritasite is the natural equivalent of synthetic Cs-uranyl vanadate (A.M. 43- 799, 50-825). A fine-grained yellow mineral, it is most easily distinguished from carnotite by XRD; X-ray powder patterns (CuKalpha radiation) show that the (001) reflection of margaritasite lies at 12.7o (2theta ), while that of carnotite is found at 13.8o (2theta ). The shift of the (001) reflection in margaritasite reflects the structural changes caused when Cs occupies the sites filled by K in carnotite. Synthesis experiments indicate that margaritasite also differs from carnotite in a higher-T hydrothermal origin. Chemical analyses and XRD data for margaritasite and synthetic Cs- carnotite, and chemical analyses for rocks from Sierra Pena Blanca and vicinity, are tabulated.-J.A.Z.

  3. Seismic Stratigraphy of Pleistocene Deltaic Deposits in Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALVADOR ALIOTTA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bahía Blanca estuary (Argentina has a morphological configuration resulting from hydrological and sedimentary processes related to Late Quaternary sea level changes. This estuarine system occupies a large coastal plain with a dense net of tidal channels, low-altitude islands and large intertidal flats. Little is known about the sedimentary units of the marine subbottom. Therefore, a stratigraphical analysis of the northern coast of Bahía Blanca estuary was carried out using high resolution seismic (3.5 kHz in order to: i define Quaternary sequences, ii describe sedimentary structures, and iii determine the paleoenvironmental conditions of sedimentation. The seismic stratigraphic data collected and their correlation with drilling lithological data show five seismic sequences (S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5, of which S1-S2 were found to be associated with a continental paleoenvironment of Miocene-Pleistocene age. Sequences S3 and S4, whose lithology and seismic facies (paleochannel structures and prograding reflection configurations, were defined on these materials, to evidence the development of an ancient deltaic environment which was part of a large Pleistocene drainage system. The S5 sequence was formed during the Holocene transgressive-regressive process and complete the seismostratigraphic column defined in the present study.

  4. Geomorphologically effective floods from moraine-dammed lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Adam

    2017-12-01

    Outburst floods originating in moraine-dammed lakes represent a significant geomorphological process as well as a specific type of threat for local communities in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru (8.5°-10° S; 77°-78° W). An exceptional concentration of catastrophic floods has been reported from the Cordillera Blanca in the first half of 20th Century (1930s-1950s), leading to thousands of fatalities. The main objective of this paper is to provide a revised and comprehensive overview of geomorphologically effective floods in the area of interest, using various documentary data sources, verified by analysis of remotely sensed images (1948-2013) and enhanced by original field data. Verified events (n = 28; 4 not mentioned before) are analysed from the perspective of spatiotemporal distribution, pre-flood conditions, causes, mechanisms and geomorphological impacts as well as socioeconomical consequences, revealing certain patterns and similar features. GLOFs are further classified according to their magnitude: 5 extreme events, 8 major events and 15 minor events are distinguished, referring to the quantified geomorphological and socioeconomical impacts. Selected moraine dams and flood deposits are dated using lichenometric dating. Special attention is given to moraine dam breaches - the most frequent type of water release with the most significant consequences. Selected major events and their consequences are studied in detail in a separate section. Finally, a general schematic model of lake formation, growth and post-flood evolution reflecting initial topographical setting and glacier retreat is introduced and the utilization of the obtained results is outlined.

  5. House Fly (Musca domestica L. (Diptera Muscidae Development in Different Types of Manure Desarrollo de la Mosca Doméstica (Musca domestica L. (Díptera Muscidae en Distintos Tipos de Estiércol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Larraín S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal production units with different management systems can be found along the Huasco Valley, Region of Atacama, Chile. These constitute sources of house flies (Musca domestica L. and other vector fly species that cause damage to animals and nuisance problems in urban areas. In order to asses the importance of fly breeding sources, an experiment was carried out under laboratory conditions to evaluate different types of animal manure and composted swine manure. Time of larval development, larva mortality, pupa size, and weight and time of development to the adult stage were assessed. Results show that swine, poultry and calf manure produced a significantly higher number of adult flies, shorter life cycles and larger and heavier pupae. Cow, dog, goat and horse manure follow in effectiviveness for fly production. Composted swine manure was totally ineffective for domestic fly development.En algunas comunas del Valle del Huasco, Región de Atacama, Chile, se encuentran diversas explotaciones pecuarias con diferentes sistemas de manejo, las cuales constituyen focos generadores de mosca doméstica, Musca domestica L., y otras especies de moscas con importancia sanitaria y médica. Estos insectos provocan pérdidas económicas en dichos planteles afectando además el bienestar de poblaciones urbanas cercanas. Con el objetivo de cuantificar la importancia de dichos focos en la generación de mosca doméstica, se realizó un ensayo de laboratorio donde se evaluó como sustrato de desarrollo del insecto estiércol de diferentes especies animales y estiércol de cerdo compostado. La calidad de estos sustratos en la producción del insecto se evaluó a través de los siguientes parámetros biológicos: tiempo de desarrollo de larvas, mortalidad de larvas, tamaño y peso de pupas, y tiempo hasta la emergencia de moscas adultas. Los resultados indicaron que el estiércol de cerdo, gallina y ternero produce significativamente más moscas adultas, con un

  6. Landslide and glacial lake outburst flood hazard in the Chucchún river basin, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Jan; Vilímek, V.; Benešová, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2015), s. 173-180 ISSN 0300-5402 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1000 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : landslide hazard * GLOFs * flood hazard * Cordillera Blanca * Peru Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  7. Grain size distribution of soils within the Cordillera Blanca, Peru: An indicator of basic mechanical properties for slope stability evaluation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, J.; Klimeš, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2014), s. 563-577 ISSN 1672-6316 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1000 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : moraines * grain size distribution * shear strength * hydraulic conductivity * Cordillera Blanca Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2014

  8. Pobreza por Ingresos en Argentina y Bahía Blanca: Estimaciones de referencia y cuestiones metodológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Emma Santos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estima la indigencia y pobreza por ingresos en 2014 y 2015 para el total de aglomerados urbanos de Argentina y para el caso particular de Bahía Blanca, una ciudad intermedia, eminentemente industrial y comercial, con altos niveles de desempleo e indigencia recientes. Se encuentra que a mediados de 2015 una de cada diez personas estaba en situación de indigencia y casi tres de cada diez estaba en situación de pobreza, lo cual equivale a 11.6 millones de personas aproximadamente. En el caso del aglomerado de Bahía Blanca, una de cada 20 personas era indigente, y el 18% era pobre, lo cual se traduce en 15 mil y 54 mil personas en situación de indigencia y pobreza. El trabajo también expone algunos puntos críticos de la metodología de medición de pobreza por ingresos que requieren reflexión y mejoramiento en el proceso de restitución de las estadísticas oficiales de pobreza.Palabras clave: pobreza, indigencia, Argentina, Bahía Blanca.Código JEL: I32. Income Poverty in Argentina and Bahía Blanca: Reference estimates and methodological issuesAbstractIn this paper we estimate the indigence and poverty by income in 2014 and 2015 for the total urban agglomerations of Argentina and for the particular case of Bahía Blanca, an intermediate city, eminently industrial and commercial, with high levels of recent unemployment and indigence. It is found that by the middle of 2015 one in ten people was in a situation of indigence and almost three out of ten were in poverty, which is equivalent to approximately 11.6 million people. In the case of the Bahía Blanca agglomerate, one in 20 people were indigent, and 18% were poor, which translates into 15,000 and 54,000 people living in extreme poverty and poverty. The paper also presents some critical points of the methodology for measuring poverty by income that require reflection and improvement in the process of restitution of official poverty statistics.Keywords: poverty

  9. Genetic diversity of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. Populations in Brazil revealed by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H.C. Lima

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci (Genn. was considered a secondary pest in Brazil until 1990, despite being an efficient geminivirus vector in beans and soybean. In 1991, a new biotype, known as B. tabaci B biotype (=B. argentifolii was detected attacking weed plants and causing phytotoxic problems in Cucurbitaceae. Nowadays, B. tabaci is considered one of the most damaging whitefly pests in agricultural systems worldwide that transmits more than 60 different plant viruses. Little is known about the genetic variability of these populations in Brazil. Knowledge of the genetic variation within whitefly populations is necessary for their efficient control and management. The objectives of the present study were to use RAPD markers (1 to estimate the genetic diversity of B. tabaci populations, (2 to study the genetic relationships among B. tabaci biotypes and two other whitefly species and (3 to discriminate between B. tabaci biotypes. A sample of 109 B. tabaci female individuals obtained from 12 populations in Brazil were analyzed and compared to the A biotype from Arizona (USA and B biotype from California (USA and Paraguay. Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Aleurodicus cocois samples were also included. A total of 72 markers were generated by five RAPD primers and used in the analysis. All primers produced RAPD patterns that clearly distinguished the Bemisia biotypes and the two other whitefly species. Results also showed that populations of the B biotype have considerable genetic variability. An average Jaccard similarity of 0.73 was observed among the B biotype individuals analyzed. Cluster analysis demonstrated that, in general, Brazilian biotype B individuals are scattered independently in the localities where samples were collected. Nevertheless, some clusters were evident, joining individuals according to the host plants. AMOVA showed that most of the total genetic variation is found within populations (56.70%, but a significant portion of the variation is found

  10. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species.

  11. Biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) B biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on six bean genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriani, Maria A. de G.

    2008-01-01

    The silverleaf whitefly is one of the most harmful pests that attack bean crops, mainly for extracting large quantities of phloem sap and transmitting the bean golden mosaic virus. Resistant germplasm plants can be an important method for controlling this pest. The biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci B biotype on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes were evaluated. The tests were conducted under laboratory conditions, with the following genotypes: Arc 1, Arc 3s, Arc 5s, G13028, G11056 and Porrillo 70. The bean plants in a stage IV-1 were infested during one day with silverleaf white flies. Afterwards the eggs and nymphs were observed until adult emergence. Longevity and fecundity of emerged insects were also evaluated. The longest development time occurred for nymphs fed on Arc 3s genotype (26.5 days), following by G11056 (25.9 days) and G13028 (25.3 days). The development period was 5.5 days longer in Arc 3s when compared with Porrillo 70. Also, the wild genotypes Arc 3s and G11056 showed higher mortality rates (94.7% and 83.1%, respectively), which may suggest antibiosis and/or feeding non preference resistance type. For this reason, although longevity and fecundity were not influenced when the whitefly fed on resistant genotypes (Arc 3s, G11056, G13028 and Arc 5s), those genotypes can be used for bean breeding program towards B. tabaci B biotype. (author)

  12. Factors affecting oviposition of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in sweet pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Larissa C. de; Campos, Alcebiades R.

    2008-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gen.) biotype B is considered a pest of economical importance for several vegetables. The oviposition behaviour of the while fly was evaluated in sweet pepper plants. The trials were carried out under greenhouse condition and in the Laboratory of Entomology of DEFERS/ UNESP, Campus of Ilha Solteira-SP, with the sweet pepper Magali-R genotype. The effect of plant age on the whitefly oviposition was evaluated in free-choice tests, in plants, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45- day-old, as egg distribution in the plant and on the leaf blade was evaluated in 35-days-old plants. In a no-choice tests, 35-day-old plants were used to evaluate the effect of the densities of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 adults per plant on the number of eggs laid by insects. The silver leaf whitefly preferred to oviposition the third to sixth leaflets, of the medium and superior part of plants of sweet pepper; the leaf blade areas, located in the lobes right and left close the base of the leaf were the preferential site for whitefly oviposition. Older plants, 40- and 45-day-old, were preferentially used for oviposition, and 200 and 250 adults per plant were both enough to lay a number of eggs that allowed to differentiate among sweet pepper genotypes with different whitefly resistance levels. (author)

  13. Biological Invasions of Geminiviruses: Case Study of TYLCV and Bemisia tabaci in Reunion Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péréfarres, Frédéric; Thierry, Magali; Becker, Nathalie; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Reynaud, Bernard; Delatte, Hélène; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    In the last 20 years, molecular ecology approaches have proven to be extremely useful to identify and assess factors associated with viral emerging diseases, particularly in economically and socially important tropical crops such as maize (maize streak disease) and cassava (cassava mosaic disease). Molecular ecology approaches were applied in Reunion Island to analyze the epidemic of tomato yellow leaf curl disease, which has been affecting the island since the end of the 1990s. Before the invasive biotype B (currently known as Middle East-Asia Minor 1 cryptic species) of Bemisia tabaci spread across the world, Reunion Island (South West Indian Ocean) only hosted an indigenous biotype of B. tabaci, Ms (currently known as Indian Ocean cryptic species). Wild hybrids between invasive and indigenous species were subsequently characterized over multiple generations. Endosymbiont analysis of the hybrid population indicated that matings were non-random. Similarly, while no indigenous begomoviruses have ever been reported on Reunion Island, the two main strains of one of the most damaging and emerging plant viruses in the world, the Mild and Israel strains of the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-Mld and TYLCV-IL), were introduced in 1997 and 2004 respectively. While these introductions extensively modified the agricultural landscape of Reunion Island, they also provided an invaluable opportunity to study the ecological and genetic mechanisms involved in biological invasion and competition. PMID:23235470

  14. Lack of resistance development in Bemisia tabaci to Isaria fumosorosea after multiple generations of selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianni; Wang, Zhaolei; Huang, Yü; Keyhani, Nemat O.; Huang, Zhen

    2017-02-01

    The emergence of insecticide resistant insect pests is of significant concern worldwide. The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is an important agricultural pest and has shown incredible resilience developing resistance to a number of chemical pesticides. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Isaria fumosorosea offer an attractive alternative to chemical pesticides for insect control, and this fungus has been shown to be an effective pathogen of B. tabaci. Little is known concerning the potential for the development of resistance to I. fumosorosea by B. tabaci. Five generations of successive survivors of B. tabaci infected by I. fumosorosea were assayed with I. fumosorosea. No significant differences in susceptibility to I. fumosorosea, number of ovarioles, or ovipostioning were seen between any of the generations tested. Effects of I. fumosorosea and cell-free ethyl acetate fractions derived from the fungus on the B. tabaci fat body, ovary, and vitellogenin were also investigated. These data revealed significant deformation and degradation of ovary tissues and associated vitellogenin by the fungal mycelium as well as by cell-free ethyl acetate fungal extracts. These data indicate the lack of the emergence of resistance to I. fumosorosea under the conditions tested and demonstrate invasion of the insect reproductive tissues during fungal infection.

  15. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Commercial Watermelon Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Carlos H O; Sarmento, Renato A; Galdino, Tarcísio V S; Pereira, Poliana S; Silva, Joedna; Souza, Danival J; Dos Santos, Gil R; Costa, Thiago L; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2018-04-16

    Spatiotemporal dynamics studies of crop pests enable the determination of the colonization pattern and dispersion of these insects in the landscape. Geostatistics is an efficient tool for these studies: to determine the spatial distribution pattern of the pest in the crops and to make maps that represent this situation. Analysis of these maps across the development of plants can be used as a tool in precision agriculture programs. Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae), is the second most consumed fruit in the world, and the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most important pests of this crop. Thus, the objective of this work was to determine the spatiotemporal distribution of B. tabaci in commercial watermelon crops using geostatistics. For 2 yr, we monitored adult whitefly densities in eight watermelon crops in a tropical climate region. The location of the samples and other crops in the landscape was georeferenced. Experimental data were submitted to geostatistical analysis. The colonization of B. tabaci had two patterns. In the first, the colonization started at the outermost parts of the crop. In the second, the insects occupied the whole area of the crop since the beginning of cultivation. The maximum distance between sites of watermelon crops in which spatial dependence of B. tabaci densities was observed was 19.69 m. The adult B. tabaci densities in the eight watermelon fields were positively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity, whereas wind speed negatively affected whiteflies population.

  16. Cryptic Species Identification and Composition of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Complex in Henan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Wang, Lun-Ji; Dong, Jun-Feng; Song, Yue-Qin; Sun, Hui-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex, causing significant crop losses in China during the last decade. Although knowledge of cryptic species composition and dynamics within B. tabaci complex is critical for developing sustainable pest management strategies, limited information is available on this pest in the Henan province of China. A systematic survey of the cryptic species composition and distribution of B. tabaci complex in different locations of Henan province was conducted in 2012. The results of RAPD-PCR and the gene for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (mtCOI) based phylogenetic relationships established using Bayesian method indicated there were four known cryptic species MEAM1, MED, Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and a new cryptic species named China 6 in Henan province. In the survey, the invasive cryptic species MED and MEAM1 were found to be predominant with wide spread distribution across the surveyed regions. On the contrary, the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species including Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and China 6 remained with low prevalence in some surveyed regions. Cryptic species MEAM1 and MED have not completely displaced the native B. tabaci in Henan province. This current study for the first time unifies our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of B. tabaci across Henan province of China. PMID:28973577

  17. Transcriptomic dissection of sexual differences in Bemisia tabaci, an invasive agricultural pest worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen; Guo, Litao; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Yang, Nina; Yang, Xin; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-02-14

    Sex difference involving chromosomes and gene expression has been extensively documented. In this study, the gender difference in the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci was investigated using Illumina-based transcriptomic analysis. Gender-based RNAseq data produced 27 Gb reads, and subsequent de novo assembly generated 93,948 transcripts with a N50 of 1,853 bp. A total of 1,351 differentially expressed genes were identified between male and female B. tabaci, and majority of them were female-biased. Pathway and GO enrichment experiments exhibited a gender-specific expression, including enriched translation in females, and enhanced structural constituent of cuticle in male whiteflies. In addition, a putative transformer2 gene (tra2) was cloned, and the structural feature and expression profile of tra2 were investigated. Sexually dimorphic transcriptome is an uncharted territory for the agricultural insect pests. Molecular understanding of sex determination in B. tabaci, an emerging invasive insect pest worldwide, will provide potential molecular target(s) for genetic pest control alternatives.

  18. Facultative symbiont Hamiltonella confers benefits to Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), an invasive agricultural pest worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qi; Oliver, Kerry M; Pan, Huipeng; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Liu, Baiming; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Xu, Baoyun; White, Jennifer A; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial symbionts infect most insect species, including important pests such as whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), and often exert important effects on host ecology. The facultative symbiont Hamiltonella is found at high frequencies in the B. tabaci MED (type: Mediterranean-MED) in China. The prevalence of this symbiont in natural populations suggests beneficial effects of infection or manipulation of host reproduction. To date, however, no empirical studies on the biological role of Hamiltonella on the host B. tabaci have been reported. Here, we investigated the effects of Hamiltonella infection on the sex ratio and several fitness parameters in B. tabaci MED by comparing Hamiltonella-infected whiteflies with Hamiltonella-free ones. We found that Hamiltonella-infected whiteflies produced significantly more eggs, exhibited significantly higher nymphal survival, faster development times, and larger adult body size in comparison with Hamiltonella-free whiteflies, while no evidence of reproductive manipulation by Hamiltonella were found in B. tabaci MED. In conclusion, Hamiltonella infection substantially enhanced B. tabaci MED performance. This beneficial role may, at least partially, explain the high prevalence of Hamiltonella in B. tabaci MED populations and may also contribute to their effectiveness in spread of the plant pathogens tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

  19. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  20. Cryptic Species Identification and Composition of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Complex in Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiu, Min; Hu, Jian; Wang, Lun-Ji; Dong, Jun-Feng; Song, Yue-Qin; Sun, Hui-Zhong

    2017-05-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex, causing significant crop losses in China during the last decade. Although knowledge of cryptic species composition and dynamics within B. tabaci complex is critical for developing sustainable pest management strategies, limited information is available on this pest in the Henan province of China. A systematic survey of the cryptic species composition and distribution of B. tabaci complex in different locations of Henan province was conducted in 2012. The results of RAPD-PCR and the gene for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (mtCOI) based phylogenetic relationships established using Bayesian method indicated there were four known cryptic species MEAM1, MED, Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and a new cryptic species named China 6 in Henan province. In the survey, the invasive cryptic species MED and MEAM1 were found to be predominant with wide spread distribution across the surveyed regions. On the contrary, the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species including Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and China 6 remained with low prevalence in some surveyed regions. Cryptic species MEAM1 and MED have not completely displaced the native B. tabaci in Henan province. This current study for the first time unifies our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of B. tabaci across Henan province of China. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  1. Feasible sampling plan for Bemisia tabaci control decision-making in watermelon fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Carlos Ho; Sarmento, Renato A; Pereira, Poliana S; Galdino, Tarcísio Vs; Santos, Fábio A; Silva, Joedna; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2017-11-01

    The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci is one of the most important pests of watermelon fields worldwide. Conventional sampling plans are the starting point for the generation of decision-making systems of integrated pest management programs. The aim of this study was to determine a conventional sampling plan for B. tabaci in watermelon fields. The optimal leaf for B. tabaci adult sampling was the 6 th most apical leaf. Direct counting was the best pest sampling technique. Crop pest densities fitted the negative binomial distribution and had a common aggregation parameter (K common ). The sampling plan consisted of evaluating 103 samples per plot. This sampling plan was conducted for 56 min, costing US$ 2.22 per sampling and with a 10% maximum evaluation error. The sampling plan determined in this study can be adopted by farmers because it enables the adequate evaluation of B. tabaci populations in watermelon fields (10% maximum evaluation error) and is a low-cost (US$ 2.22 per sampling), fast (56 min per sampling) and feasible (because it may be used in a standardized way throughout the crop cycle) technique. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effect of Zohar LQ-215, a biorational surfactant, on the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (biotype b).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaaya, I; Khasdan, V; Horowitz, A Rami

    2006-01-01

    Zohar LQ-215, a surfactant based on plant oils, able to control nymphs of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), under laboratory and field conditions. To evaluate the effects of the surfactant on the nymph stages of whitefly under laboratory conditions, potted cotton seedlings infested with 1st- or 3rd-instars were treated with the compound aqueous solutions. LC90 values of Zohar LQ-215 on 1st and 3rd-nymphs, based on mortality curves, were 0.78% and 1.14%, respectively. Adult mortality of 12% and 19% was obtained at concentrations of 0.5% and 1%, respectively. Under both laboratory and, in some cases, under field conditions, greater mortality was achieved when combining Zohar LQ-215 with the insect growth regulator buprofezin than when either insecticide was applied separately. Our results indicate that Zohar LQ-215 could serve as a potential compound for controlling whiteflies under light to moderate infestation and could be used in combination with other rational insecticides such as buprofezin for controlling whiteflies in integrated pest management programs.

  3. Factors affecting population dynamics of maternally transmitted endosymbionts in Bemisia tabaci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huipeng Pan

    Full Text Available While every individual of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae harbors the primary symbiont (P-symbiont Portiera, the infection frequencies of the six secondary symbionts (S-symbionts including Hamiltonella, Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, Rickettsia and Fritschea vary greatly among different populations. To characterize the factors influencing the infection dynamics of the six S-symbionts in B. tabaci, gene-specific PCR were conducted to screen for the presence of the P-symbiont Portiera and the six S-symbionts in 61 (17 B and 44 Q biotypes field populations collected from different plant species and locations in China. All individuals of the 61 populations hosted the P-symbiont Portiera, but none of them harbored Arsenophonus and Fritschea. The presence and infection rates of Hamiltonella, Cardinium, Rickettsia, Wolbachia and their co-infections Rickettsia + Hamiltonella (RH, Rickettsia + Cardinium (RC, Hamiltonella + Cardinium (HC and Rickettsia + Hamiltonella + Cardinium (RHC varied significantly among the 61 field populations; and the observed variations can be explained by biotypes, sexes, host plants and geographical locations of these field populations. Taken together, at least three factors including biotype, host plant and geographical location affect the infection dynamics of S-symbionts in B. tabaci.

  4. Transovarial Transmission of Rickettsia spp. and Organ-Specific Infection of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumin, Marina; Levy, Maggie

    2012-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a cosmopolitan insect pest that harbors Portiera aleyrodidarum, the primary obligatory symbiotic bacterium, and several facultative secondary symbionts. Secondary symbionts in B. tabaci are generally associated with the bacteriome, ensuring their vertical transmission; however, Rickettsia is an exception and occupies most of the body cavity, except the bacteriome. The mode of Rickettsia transfer between generations and its subcellular localization in insect organs have not been investigated. Using electron and fluorescence microscopy, we show that Rickettsia infects the digestive, salivary, and reproductive organs of the insect; however, it was not observed in the bacteriome. Rickettsia invades the oocytes during early developmental stages and resides in follicular cells and cytoplasm; it is mostly excluded when the egg matures; however, some bacterial cells remain in the egg, ensuring their transfer to subsequent generations. Rickettsia was localized to testicles and the spermatheca, suggesting a horizontal transfer between males and females during mating. The bacterium was further observed at large amounts in midgut cells, concentrating in vacuole-like structures, and was located in the hemolymph, specifically at exceptionally large amounts around bacteriocytes and in fat bodies. Organs further infected by Rickettsia included the primary salivary glands and stylets, sites of possible secretion of the bacterium outside the whitefly body. The close association between Rickettsia and the B. tabaci digestive system might be important for digestive purposes. The vertical transmission of Rickettsia to subsequent generations occurs via the oocyte and not, like other secondary symbionts, the bacteriome. PMID:22660706

  5. Investigating contact toxicity of Geranium and Artemisia essential oils on Bemisia tabaci Gen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Yarahmadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gen. (B. tabaci, is one of the most important pests of various greenhouse crops in Iran. Nowadays, chemical insecticides are broadly used for control of the pests that causes risk to consumer's health. For the first time, contact toxicity of Pelargonium roseum Andrews and Artemisia sieberi Besser essential oils on B. tabaci and its possible application against the whitefly was evaluated in 2012. Materials and Methods: Essential oil with concentrations of 2500, 1250, 125, and 12 ppm were used. Infested leaves of greenhouse cucumber were treated by mentioned concentrations. After 24 hours, mortality of B. tabaci was recorded and compared after correcting by Abbot's formula. Results: Results showed that all concentrations of the essential oil could significantly reduce population of B. tabaci compared with the control treatment. Phytotoxicity of the treated leaves were recorded after 24, 48, and 72 hours and compared with the control. Concentrations of 2500, 1250, and 125 ppm caused severe phytotoxicity on greenhouse cucumber leaves and therefore are not suitable for greenhouse application. Phytotoxicity of 12 ppm was relatively low. Conclusions: This data implicated suitable protective effects of the essential oils to the pest infestation. Therefore, essential oils distillated from Geranium and Artemisia could be applied to control B. tabaci in greenhouse cucumber at V/V 12 ppm.

  6. RNAi-mediated resistance to whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in genetically engineered lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdulrazak B; Monteiro, Tatiane R; Cabral, Glaucia B; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2017-10-01

    RNA interference (RNAi)-based transgenic technologies have evolved as potent biochemical tools for silencing specific genes of plant pathogens and pests. The approach has been demonstrated to be useful in silencing genes in insect species. Here, we report on the successful construction of RNAi-based plasmid containing an interfering cassette designed to generate dsRNAs that target a novel v-ATPase transcript in whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), an important agricultural pest in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The presence of the transgene was confirmed in T 0 and T 1 generations of transgenic lettuce lines, segregating in a Mendelian fashion. Seven lines were infested with whiteflies and monitored over a period of 32 days. Analysis of mortality showed that within five days of feeding, insects on transgenic plants showed a mortality rate of 83.8-98.1%. In addition, a reduced number of eggs (95 fold less) was observed in flies feeding on transgenic lettuce plants than insects on control lines. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR showed decreased expression level of endogenous v-ATPase gene in whiteflies feeding on transgenic plants. This technology is a foundation for the production of whitefly-resistant commercial crops, improving agricultural sustainability and food security, reducing the use of more environmentally aggressive methods of pest control.

  7. The Salicylic Acid-Mediated Release of Plant Volatiles Affects the Host Choice of Bemisia tabaci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Shi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae causes serious crop losses worldwide by transmitting viruses. We have previously shown that salicylic acid (SA-related plant defenses directly affect whiteflies. In this study, we applied exogenous SA to tomato plants in order to investigate the interaction between SA-induced plant volatiles and nonviruliferous B. tabaci B and Q or B- and Q-carrying tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV. The results showed that exogenous SA caused plants to repel nonviruliferous whiteflies, but the effect was reduced when the SA concentration was low and when the whiteflies were viruliferous. Exogenous SA increased the number and quantity of plant volatiles—especially the quantity of methyl salicylate and δ-limonene. In Y-tube olfactometer assays, methyl salicylate and δ-limonene repelled the whiteflies, but the repellency was reduced for viruliferous Q. We suggest that the release of plant volatiles as mediated by SA affects the interaction between whiteflies, plants, and viruses. Further studies are needed to determine why viruliferous Q is less sensitive than nonviruliferous Q to repellent plant volatiles.

  8. Foraging behavior and prey interactions by a guild of predators on various lifestages of Bemisia tabaci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Hagler

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius is fed on by a wide variety of generalist predators, but there is little information on these predator-prey interactions. A laboratory investigation was conducted to quantify the foraging behavior of the adults of five common whitefly predators presented with a surfeit of whitefly eggs, nymphs, and adults. The beetles, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville and Collops vittatus (Say fed mostly on whitefly eggs, but readily and rapidly preyed on all of the whitefly lifestages. The true bugs, Geocoris punctipes (Say and Orius tristicolor (Say preyed almost exclusively on adult whiteflies, while Lygus hesperus Knight preyed almost exclusively on nymphs. The true bugs had much longer prey handling times than the beetles and spent much more of their time feeding (35-42% than the beetles (6-7%. These results indicate that generalist predators vary significantly in their interaction with this host, and that foraging behavior should be considered during development of a predator-based biological control program for B. tabaci.

  9. Cross-resistance, inheritance and biochemical mechanisms of imidacloprid resistance in B-biotype Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Yao, Mingde; Wu, Yidong

    2009-11-01

    The B-type Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) has become established in many regions in China, and neonicotinoids are extensively used to control this pest. Imidacloprid resistance in a laboratory-selected strain of B-type B. tabaci was characterised in order to provide the basis for recommending resistance management tactics. The NJ-Imi strain of B-type B. tabaci was selected from the NJ strain with imidacloprid for 30 generations. The NJ-Imi strain exhibited 490-fold resistance to imidacloprid, high levels of cross-resistance to three other neonicotinoids, low levels of cross-resistance to monosultap, cartap and spinosad, but no cross-resistance to abamectin and cypermethrin. Imidacloprid resistance in the NJ-Imi strain was autosomal and semi-dominant. It is shown that enhanced detoxification mediated by cytochrome-P450-dependent monooxygenases contributes to imidacloprid resistance to some extent in the NJ-Imi strain. Results from synergist bioassays and cross-resistance patterns indicated that target-site insensitivity may be involved in imidacloprid resistance in the NJ-Imi strain of B. tabaci. Although oxidative detoxification mediated by P450 monooxygenases is involved in imidacloprid resistance in the NJ-Imi strain of B-type B. tabaci, target-site modification as an additional resistance mechanism cannot be ruled out. Considering the high risk of cross-resistance, neonicotinoids should be regarded as a single group when implementing an insecticide rotation scheme in B. tabaci control. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. U-Series Transport Studies at the Pena Blanca, Mexico Natural Analog Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Simmons; M. T. Murrell

    2001-05-31

    Natural analogs provide a line of evidence that supports the understanding of how natural and engineered processes would occur over long time frames and large spatial scales at a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Studies of U-series disequilibria within and around uranium deposits can provide valuable information on the timing of actinide mobility and hence the stability of a potential repository over geologic time scales. The Nopal I uranium deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, is situated in unsaturated tuff that is similar in composition to the Topopah Spring Tuff of Yucca Mountain and closely matches other evaluation criteria for suitable natural analogs. By modeling the observed radioactive isotope disequilibria at Nopal I, we can estimate the rates of sorption-desorption and dissolution-precipitation of the radionuclides over time. Such information is vital to the testing or validation of performance assessment models for geologic nuclear waste disposal.

  11. Soil-water retention curve and beginning of monitoring in Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, Jose; Lopez, Reynaldo; Kopecky, Lubomir; Landaverde, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The areas covered by the volcanic tephras Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ) in El Salvador, was suffered mass movements, liquefaction and erosion during the rainy season or when major earthquakes occur, causing important environmental, social and economic losses. A pressure plate, centrifuge and filter paper were used to build a Soil-Water Retention Curve, obtain the characterization of these unsaturated soil, suction values of the fall unit of TBJ. The use of this curve into finite elements software can help to acquire shear strength and permeability properties. The filter paper showed to be a practical method but close to saturation the pressure plate is needed.Scatter results were observed with the centrifuge. The Quickdraw tensiometre (suction) and TMS3 (soil moisture content) are being used in field test to proposed a field methodology for an early warning system for the slopes, that could help in urban planning and risk assessment. (author)

  12. Soil-water retention curve and beginning of monitoring in Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, Jose A.; Lopez, Reynaldo; Kopecky, Lubomir; Landaverde, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The areas covered by the Tierra Blanca Joven volcanic tephra (TBJ) have suffered hillside movements, liquefaction and erosion causing important environmental, social and economic losses during the rainy season or when earthquakes occur in El Salvador. Suction values of a TBJ drop unit were obtained with the pressure cooker, centrifuge and filter paper to construct the Soil-Water Retention Curve to initiate the characterization of these partially saturated soils. The use of this curve in finite element programs has helped to know the shear stresses and permeability. The filter paper has proved to be a practical method but it is necessary to use the pressure cooker as it becomes saturated. Field tests with tensiometer (suction) and TMS3 (humidity) have been carried out to propose field methodology for an early warning system for hillsides, which can help urban planning and risk studies. (author)

  13. U-Series Transport Studies at the Pena Blanca, Mexico Natural Analog Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A. M.; Murrell, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    Natural analogs provide a line of evidence that supports the understanding of how natural and engineered processes would occur over long time frames and large spatial scales at a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Studies of U-series disequilibria within and around uranium deposits can provide valuable information on the timing of actinide mobility and hence the stability of a potential repository over geologic time scales. The Nopal I uranium deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, is situated in unsaturated tuff that is similar in composition to the Topopah Spring Tuff of Yucca Mountain and closely matches other evaluation criteria for suitable natural analogs. By modeling the observed radioactive isotope disequilibria at Nopal I, we can estimate the rates of sorption-desorption and dissolution-precipitation of the radionuclides over time. Such information is vital to the testing or validation of performance assessment models for geologic nuclear waste disposal

  14. Surface runoff fluxes of nutrients in montane forests in Piedras Blancas region, Antioquia (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Suescun, Oscar Andres; Acosta Jaramillo, Juan Jose; Leon Pelaez, Juan Diego

    2005-01-01

    In natural montane oak forests (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl.), pine (Pinus patula Schltdl and cham.) and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica Mill.) plantations in the region of Piedras Blancas, Antioquia, surface runoff flows (SRF) were measured over 16 months. Runoff was measured using 2 m wide x 10 m long runoff bounded plots, collector tanks and a volumetric counter system. Nutrient flows for the oak forest, pine and cypress plantations were, respectively: P total (0,51, 0,08 and 0,42 kg ha-y), Ca (0,13, 0,21 and 1,27 kg ha- y); Mg (0,07, 0,07 and 0,34 kg ha-y); K (0,89, 0,71 and 2,60 kg ha-y); Fe (0,04, 0,04 and 0,47 kg ha-y) and Mn (0,01, 0,01 and 0,08 kg ha-y)

  15. Numerical analysis of a proposed percolation experiment at the Pena Blanca natural analog site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.T.; Rice, G.

    1995-01-01

    A field-scale percolation test is proposed for the Pena Blanca natural analog site near Chihuahua, MX. To aid in design of the field test, the V-TOUGH two-phase flow simulator was applied to model percolation of water through 8 to 10 m of partially saturated fractured tuff. The rock was characterized as a composite medium using measured hydraulic properties for the rock matrix and estimated values for the fractures. Measured matrix permeability varied over four orders of magnitude and fracture apertures were estimated to range from 10 to 1,000 μm. Water arrival times were predicted to vary between one day to 10,000 yr. The utility of the composite model and other representations of flow through fractured porous media can be tested using results from the field scale infiltration test data

  16. Offshore geology and geomorphology from Point Piedras Blancas to Pismo Beach, San Luis Obispo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Janet Tilden; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Roberts, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Marine geology and geomorphology were mapped along the continental shelf and upper slope between Point Piedras Blancas and Pismo Beach, California. The map area is divided into the following three (smaller) map areas, listed from north to south: San Simeon, Morro Bay, and Point San Luis. Each smaller map area consists of a geologic map and the corresponding geophysical data that support the geologic mapping. Each geophysical data sheet includes shaded-relief multibeam bathymetry, seismic-reflection-survey tracklines, and residual magnetic anomalies, as well as a smaller version of the geologic map for reference. Offshore geologic units were delineated on the basis of integrated analysis of adjacent onshore geology, seafloor-sediment and rock samples, multibeam bathymetry and backscatter imagery, magnetic data, and high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles. Although the geologic maps are presented here at 1:35,000 scale, map interpretation was conducted at scales of between 1:6,000 and 1:12,000.

  17. [Drunk driving in professional drivers in the Vía Blanca highway in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanche Garcell, Humberto; Suárez Enríquez, Tomás; Gutiérrez García, Francisco; Martínez Quesada, Carlos; Mendoza Pérez, Ramón

    2006-01-01

    To determine the frequency of drunk driving in professional drivers (Via Blanca, Havana City), we carried out a descriptive study of 832 drivers selected by multistage stratified sampling. A structured interview with each driver was carried out to record the variables under study, and a breath alcohol test was subsequently performed. The frequency of drunk driving was 8.18% (95% CI, 5.94%-10.42%), with a predominance of drivers with alcohol levelsDrunk driving was more frequent in "high risk" hours, in drivers aged between 40 and 49 years old (10.3%), and in those with 15 to 24 years of experience (11.02%). The frequency of drunk driving found in this study highlights the need to design traffic accident prevention strategies.

  18. Fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissues of organic and conventional Blanca Andaluza suckling kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De la Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the preservation of autochthonous breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat (meat breed, raised under grazing-based management, has recently increased among Spanish farmers. A study of the possibilities of transformation to organic production needs to analyze the quality of their products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid (FA composition of muscle and adipose tissues of Blanca Andaluza goat kids under organic and conventional grazing–based management system. Twenty-four twin kids (12 males, 12 females were selected from each system. The FA profile was determined in the longissimus thoracis muscle, kidney and pelvic fat. The percentages of C17:0, C17:1, C20:1, C20:4 n-6, C22:2 and several n-3 FAs were higher in organic meat; C12:0, C18:1 trans-11, CLA and C20:5 n-3 were lower in organic meat. The fat depots from the conventional kids showed lower percentages of C12:0, C14:0, C15:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:3 n-3 and atherogenicity index, and higher percentage of C18:0. In the pelvic fat, the conventional kids displayed lower percentages of C16:0, C18:2 n-6 cis, PUFA, n-3 and n-6 FAs, and greater percentages of C18:1 n-9 cis and MUFA. The conventional kids displayed a major n6:n3 ratio in the kidney fat. No gender differences were observed. Significant differences were found only in some FA percentages of muscle and adipose tissues of suckling kids raised in organic and conventional livestock production systems, and due to this reason conventional grazing–based management farms could easily be transformed into organic production.

  19. Cultivo de cachama blanca en altas densidades y en dos sistemas cerrados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Poleo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la tolerancia de la cachama blanca, Piaractus brachypomus, a cultivos en altas densidades en sistemas cerrados. Novecientos alevines de 44,3±26 g de peso, se distribuyeron en seis tanques de concreto, con 4,8 m³ de agua. Tres tanques presentaron cero recambio de agua (SCR, y en otros tres, el agua se hizo circular a través de un bioclarificador (SRA. Ambos tratamientos presentaron fuerte aireación para mantener los sólidos en suspensión y suministrar aire. Los peces se alimentaron a saciedad con pienso comercial por 192 días. Los parámetros de calidad de agua como: oxígeno disuelto, amonio total, nitritos, nitratos, alcalinidad, dureza, temperatura y pH, se midieron semanalmente. Los peces en el SCR crecieron a una tasa de 2,34±0,05 g por día, y tuvieron conversión alimenticia de 1,5±0,06, densidad final de 12,96±0,53 kg m-3, y peso final de 449,5±99 g. En el SRA, los peces crecieron 2,33±0,03 g por día, con conversión alimenticia de 1,6±0,07, densidad final de 12,13±1,12 kg m-3, y peso final de 446,5±10 g. La cachama blanca puede ser cultivada en sistemas cerrados con cero recambio de agua en altas densidades.

  20. Measurements of light absorbing particulates on the glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C. G.; All, J. D.; Schwarz, J. P.; Arnott, W. P.; Cole, R. J.; Lapham, E.; Celestian, A.

    2014-10-01

    Glaciers in the tropical Andes have been rapidly losing mass since the 1970s. In addition to the documented increase in air temperature, increases in light absorbing particulates deposited on glaciers could be contributing to the observed glacier loss. Here we report on measurements of light absorbing particulates sampled from glaciers during three surveys in the Cordillera Blanca in Peru. During three research expeditions in the dry seasons (May-August) of 2011, 2012 and 2013, two hundred and forty snow samples were collected from fifteen mountain peaks over altitudes ranging from 4800 to nearly 6800 m. Several mountains were sampled each of the three expeditions and some mountains were sampled multiple times during the same expedition. Collected snow samples were melted and filtered in the field then later analyzed using the Light Absorption Heating Method (LAHM), a new technique that measures the ability of particulates on filters to absorb visible light. LAHM results have been calibrated using filters with known amounts of fullerene soot, a common industrial surrogate for black carbon (BC). As sample filters often contain dust in addition to BC, results are presented in terms of effective Black Carbon (eBC). During the 2013 survey, snow samples were collected and kept frozen for analysis with a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Calculated eBC mass from the filter analysis and the SP2 refractory Black Carbon (rBC) results were well correlated (r2 = 0.92). These results indicate that a substantial portion of the light absorbing particulates in the more polluted areas were likely BC. The three years of data show that glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca Mountains close to human population centers have substantially higher levels of eBC (as high as 70 ng g-1) than remote glaciers (as low as 2.0 ng g-1 eBC), indicating that population centers can influence local glaciers by sourcing BC.

  1. Measurements of light-absorbing particles on the glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C. G.; All, J. D.; Schwarz, J. P.; Arnott, W. P.; Cole, R. J.; Lapham, E.; Celestian, A.

    2015-02-01

    Glaciers in the tropical Andes have been rapidly losing mass since the 1970s. In addition to the documented increase in temperature, increases in light-absorbing particles deposited on glaciers could be contributing to the observed glacier loss. Here we report on measurements of light-absorbing particles sampled from glaciers during three surveys in the Cordillera Blanca Mountains in Peru. During three research expeditions in the dry seasons (May-August) of 2011, 2012 and 2013, 240 snow samples were collected from 15 mountain peaks over altitudes ranging from 4800 to nearly 6800 m. Several mountains were sampled each of the 3 years and some mountains were sampled multiple times during the same year. Collected snow samples were melted and filtered in the field then later analyzed using the Light Absorption Heating Method (LAHM), a new technique that measures the ability of particles on filters to absorb visible light. LAHM results have been calibrated using filters with known amounts of fullerene soot, a common industrial surrogate for black carbon (BC). As sample filters often contain dust in addition to BC, results are presented in terms of effective black carbon (eBC). During the 2013 survey, snow samples were collected and kept frozen for analysis with a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Calculated eBC mass from the LAHM analysis and the SP2 refractory black carbon (rBC) results were well correlated (r2 = 0.92). These results indicate that a substantial portion of the light-absorbing particles in the more polluted regions were likely BC. The 3 years of data show that glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca Mountains close to human population centers have substantially higher levels of eBC (as high as 70 ng g-1) than remote glaciers (as low as 2.0 ng g-1 eBC), indicating that population centers can influence local glaciers by sourcing BC.

  2. Spatial distribution of canine zoonotic enteroparasites in Bahía Blanca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano F La Sala

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were: (1 to determine the occurrence of zoonotic enteroparasites in dog feces from Bahía Blanca, Argentina; (2 to characterize the spatial distribution of the parasites found in association with the quality of life index (QLI in neighborhoods of Bahía Blanca; and (3 to determine if the presence of a particular parasite genus in a stool sample was facilitated or impeded by the presence of other parasite genera. Samples of dog stools (n = 475 were collected between December 2012 and December 2013 in areas with varying QLI. The association between QLI values and the presence of parasites was analyzed using logistic regression. Overall enteroparasite occurrence was 36.6%. Parasitic forms found included nematode larvae, cysts of Blastocystis spp., Giardia spp., and oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp., and eggs of Ancylostoma caninum, Toxocara canis, cestodes and Trichuris spp. For certain enteroparasites, we detected significant associations between their occurrence and QLI. Feces collected in areas with medium and low QLI were 2.46 and 5.43 times more likely, respectively, to contain A. caninum than stools from the high-QLI area. Samples from areas with low QLI were 2.36 times more likely to contain Trichuris spp. than those from the high QLI area. Regarding protozoa, feces from areas with low QLI were 2.4 times more likely to be positive than those from areas with high QLI. We demonstrated that canine zoonotic parasites have a wide distribution in the study area, and that occurrence is higher in neighborhoods with lower QLI.

  3. Spatial distribution of canine zoonotic enteroparasites in Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sala, Luciano F; Leiboff, Anastasia; Burgos, Julián M; Costamagna, Sixto R

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were: (1) to determine the occurrence of zoonotic enteroparasites in dog feces from Bahía Blanca, Argentina; (2) to characterize the spatial distribution of the parasites found in association with the quality of life index (QLI) in neighborhoods of Bahía Blanca; and (3) to determine if the presence of a particular parasite genus in a stool sample was facilitated or impeded by the presence of other parasite genera. Samples of dog stools (n=475) were collected between December 2012 and December 2013 in areas with varying QLI. The association between QLI values and the presence of parasites was analyzed using logistic regression. Overall enteroparasite occurrence was 36.6%. Parasitic forms found included nematode larvae, cysts of Blastocystis spp., Giardia spp., and oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp., and eggs of Ancylostoma caninum, Toxocara canis, cestodes and Trichuris spp. For certain enteroparasites, we detected significant associations between their occurrence and QLI. Feces collected in areas with medium and low QLI were 2.46 and 5.43 times more likely, respectively, to contain A. caninum than stools from the high-QLI area. Samples from areas with low QLI were 2.36 times more likely to contain Trichuris spp. than those from the high QLI area. Regarding protozoa, feces from areas with low QLI were 2.4 times more likely to be positive than those from areas with high QLI. We demonstrated that canine zoonotic parasites have a wide distribution in the study area, and that occurrence is higher in neighborhoods with lower QLI. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Torres Blancas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel López-Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nella Madrid degli anni sessanta l’architetto navarro Sáenz de Oíza sperimenta la costruzione di un edificio residenziale a torre in cemento armato. Risultato della felice relazione con un imprenditore mecenate, Juan Huarte, l’edificio si articola nella variazione tipologica di alloggi ad L e duplex, di locali per uffici e servizi, fino agli spazi ad uso comune, come la piscina e il ristorante della terrazza sul tetto, per proporsi come modello di piccola città autosufficiente. / In 1960s Madrid, the Navarrese architect Sáenz de Oíza tried constructing a residential tower in reinforced concrete. The happy result of a partnership with an entrepreneur patron, Juan Huarte, the building is split into L-shaped dwellings and duplexes, rooms for offices and services, as well as communal spaces, such as a swimming pool and a restaurant on the roof terrace, to exemplify a model of a small, self-sufficient town.

  5. UTILIZAÇÃO DA ANÁLISE DISCRIMINANTE EM ESTUDOS TAXONÔMICOS DE MOSCAS-DAS-FRUTAS DO GÊNERO Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARAUJO E.L.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830, A. obliqua (Macquart, 1835, A. sororcula (Zucchi, 1979 e A. zenildae (Zucchi, 1979 foram submetidas a uma análise discriminante. Essas espécies do grupo fraterculus distinguem-se unicamente com base em detalhes do ápice do acúleo, que por serem muito semelhantes, dificultam a identificação específica. A análise discriminante permitiu a separação das quatro espécies de Anastrepha, com base em oito medidas do acúleo. Portanto, essa é mais uma técnica para auxiliar as identificações de espécies de Anastrepha, como já acontece em muitos outros grupos de insetos.

  6. Control físico – etológico de moscas domésticas, usando tres tipos de atrayentes en tres prototipos de trampas

    OpenAIRE

    Villavicencio Machado, César Rafael

    2017-01-01

    En la ganadería tanto de carne, leche o doble propósito, las moscas son un serio problema, ya que pueden ser causa de la disminución en la producción por estrés y desgaste de energía por parte del animal al tratar de espantarlas, también por ser un insecto vector de una variedad de parásitos, algunos de ellos de mucha importancia en la salud animal y humana, pero también son importantes por provocar contaminaciones en la leche al elevar la presencia de células somáticas que merman la calidad,...

  7. Density and Seasonal Dynamics of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Mediterranean on Common Crops and Weeds around Cotton Fields in Northern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiao-ming; Yang, Nian-wan; Wan, Fang-hao

    2014-01-01

    theophrasti Medicus), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), and maize (Zea mays L.). The whitefly species identity was repeatedly tested and confirmed; seasonal dynamics on the various host plants was standardized by the quartile method. B. tabaci MED......The density seasonal dynamics of Bemisia tabaci MED were evaluated over two-years in a cotton-growing area in Langfang, Hebei Province, northern China on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and six other, co-occurring common plants: common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.), piemarker (Abutilon...

  8. First report and differential colonization of Passiflora species by the B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Endson S.; Vieira, Maria L.C.; Lourencao, Andre L.; Piedade, Sonia M.S.

    2008-01-01

    This note is the first report of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B colonizing passionvine in Brazil. We examined the colonization of nine Passiflora species by a wild B type population under greenhouse conditions. P. amethystina Mikan was the most preferred species for oviposition and colonization, whereas P. suberosa L., P. coriacea Juss. and two commercially cultivated species, P. alata Curtis and P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, were mostly uncolonised. P. morifolia Mast., P. cincinnata Mast., P. foetida L. and P. caerulea L. showed intermediate levels of colonization. Such differential colonization might suggest some degree of resistance by certain Passiflora species or oviposition preference by B. tabaci. (author)

  9. First report and differential colonization of Passiflora species by the B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Endson S.; Vieira, Maria L.C. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica]. E-mail: esnunes@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; mlcvieir@esalq.usp.br; Brown, Judith K. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Plant Sciences]. E-mail: jbrown@Ag.arizona.edu; Moreira, Adriana G.; Rezende, Jorge A.M. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mails: agmoreir@esalq.usp.br; amrezen@esalq.usp.br; Watson, Gillian [California Dept. of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, CA (United States)]. E-mail: gwatson@cdfa.ca.gov; Lourencao, Andre L. [Instituto Agronomico, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: andre@iac.sp.gov.br; Piedade, Sonia M.S. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: jsoniamsp@esalq.usp.br

    2008-11-15

    This note is the first report of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B colonizing passionvine in Brazil. We examined the colonization of nine Passiflora species by a wild B type population under greenhouse conditions. P. amethystina Mikan was the most preferred species for oviposition and colonization, whereas P. suberosa L., P. coriacea Juss. and two commercially cultivated species, P. alata Curtis and P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, were mostly uncolonised. P. morifolia Mast., P. cincinnata Mast., P. foetida L. and P. caerulea L. showed intermediate levels of colonization. Such differential colonization might suggest some degree of resistance by certain Passiflora species or oviposition preference by B. tabaci. (author)

  10. Efectos del daño de la mosca del olivo y del atroje sobre la microflora en pasta y la acidez del aceite virgen de oliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez, J. A.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of olive fly damage, olive storage, harvest date, olive grove plot and their interactions on the microflora associated with olive paste and oil acidity were studied. Microflora and oil acidity were significantly affected by the four studied factors and by several interactions between them. Fly damage and olive storage interacted sinergically increasing oil acidity. The relationship between fly damage and oil acidity was lineal although sometimes it was not significant depending on microflora populations. The relationship between microflora populations and oil acidity fitted to a logarithmic model. Major microorganisms in olive paste were bacteria (Xanthomonas, yeasts (mostly Torulopsis and Candida and in a smaller measure moulds (mainly Fusarium and Penicillium. Results overall suggest that a qualitative damage threshold based on the percentage of damaged fruits in order to infer oil acidity may be unfeasible in most instances.Se estudiaron los efectos del daño de mosca, atroje, fecha de recolección, parcela de olivo y de sus interacciones, sobre la microflora asociada a la pasta de aceituna y la acidez del aceite obtenido. Microflora y acidez se vieron significativamente afectados por los cuatro factores estudiados y por varias de sus interacciones. Daño y atroje interactuaron sinérgicamente para incrementar la acidez. La relación entre el daño de mosca y la acidez fue lineal aunque a veces no fue significativa dependiendo de la microflora. La relación entre la microflora y la acidez se ajustó a un modelo logarítmico. Los microorganismos predominantes en la pasta fueron bacterias (Xanthomonas, levaduras (fundamentalmente Torulopsis y Candida y en menor medida otros hongos (principalmente Fusarium y Penicillium. Los resultados sugieren que un umbral de daño cualitativo basado en el porcentaje de frutos picados para inferir la acidez del aceite es de difícil implementación.

  11. Pre shipping dip treatments using soap, natural oils, and Isaria fumosorosea: potential biopesticides for mitigating the spread of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) invasive insects on ornamental plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyodidae) is an invasive insect pest affecting different crops including vegetables, fruits, cereals, and ornamentals. The efficacy of some products such as commercial soap, natural oils and Preferal® (based on the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea ...

  12. Preferencias de consumo de cuatro forrajes por venado cola blanca (Odocoileus virginianus) mantenidos en cautiverio en Yucatan

    OpenAIRE

    Israel Fernando Castillo-López; Rubén Cornelio Montes-Pérez; Carlos Eduardo Rodríguez-Molano

    2011-01-01

    El  venado cola blanca  (Odocoileus  virginianus.Zimmermann) es uno de los recursos silvestres y cinegéticos más  importantes  en México.  Sin embargo,  los estudios que existen sobre  su crianza en cautiverio son insuficientes para optimizar su producción. El objetivo planteado en este trabajo fue  evaluar  la  preferencia  relativa  de  cuatro forrajes,  comparar  el  consumo  ad  libitum  del forraje nativo preferido contra un pasto de corte, en venados cola blanca mantenidos en cautiverio...

  13. Characterization of Antixenosis in Soybean Genotypes to Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldin, E L L; Cruz, P L; Morando, R; Silva, I F; Bentivenha, J P F; Tozin, L R S; Rodrigues, T M

    2017-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) is one of the most important soybean pest worldwide. Herein, 15 soybean genotypes were evaluated, to characterize the occurrence of antixenosis to B. tabaci biotype B. Initially, a multiple-choice test with all genotypes was carried out, evaluating the settling and oviposition preference at 3 d after infestation, and the colonization by nymphs after 48 d of infestation. Subsequently, a no-choice test, using 14 genotypes, was conducted with infested plants individually, and the number of eggs was counted after 72 h. Then, 10 genotypes were selected (indicative of resistance and susceptibility), which were evaluated for whitefly settling 24, 48, and 72 h after infestation and for oviposition 72 h after infestation. The trichomes of the leaflets were characterized for density, size, and inclination to establish possible correlations with the settling and oviposition in the genotypes. In the first multiple-choice test, involving 15 genotypes, 'IAC-17,' 'IAC-19,' and UX-2569-159 expressed antixenosis against B. tabaci. 'Jackson,' 'P98Y11,' and PI-229358 exhibited the same behavior in the no-choice test. In the multiple-choice test, 'Jackson,' 'P98Y11,' and 'TMG1176 RR' were the least attractive and least used for oviposition. The antixenosis shown by 'Jackson,' 'P98Y11,' and PI-229358 may be related to the characteristics of the trichomes (lower density and inclined). Based on the experiments carried out, 'IAC-17,' 'IAC-19,' 'Jackson,' 'P98Y11,' PI-229358, TMG1176 RR, and UX-2569-159 are considered promising for resistance to B. tabaci biotype B and may be exploited in soybean breeding programs for resistance to insects. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Characterization of a Newly Discovered Symbiont of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Xiao-Li; Yang, Jiao; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Wang, Xiao-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a species complex containing >28 cryptic species, some of which are important crop pests worldwide. Like many other sap-sucking insects, whiteflies harbor an obligatory symbiont, “Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum,” and a number of secondary symbionts. So far, six genera of secondary symbionts have been identified in B. tabaci. In this study, we report and describe the finding of an additional bacterium in the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species China 1 (formerly known as B. tabaci biotype ZHJ3). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA and gltA genes showed that the bacterium belongs to the Alphaproteobacteria subdivision of the Proteobacteria and has a close relationship with human pathogens of the genus Orientia. Consequently, we temporarily named it Orientia-like organism (OLO). OLO was found in six of eight wild populations of B. tabaci China 1, with the infection rate ranging from 46.2% to 76.8%. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of B. tabaci China 1 in nymphs and adults revealed that OLOs are confined to the bacteriome and co-occur with “Ca. Portiera aleyrodidarum.” The vertical transmission of OLO was demonstrated by detection of OLO at the anterior pole end of the oocytes through FISH. Quantitative PCR analysis of population dynamics suggested a complex interaction between “Ca. Portiera aleyrodidarum” and OLO. Based on these results, we propose “Candidatus Hemipteriphilus asiaticus” for the classification of this symbiont from B. tabaci. PMID:23144129

  15. Evaluation of Insecticides and Agril Polyester Cover against Whitefly (Bemisia Tabaci Gennadius in Tomato Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Azam

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted on tomato crops over a two year period to evaluate the efficacy of six insecticides, viz., triazophos, phosphamidon, dimethoate, buprofezin and Aflix (endosulfan + dimethoate each at 0.05% and Repelin (plant insecticide at 1% concentration along With a cultural treatment by covering the plants with Agril (a polyester material for the control of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. The insecticides were applied eight times at weekly interval immediately after transplantation. The whitefly eggs,  nymphal population counts and the per cent incidence of tomato leaf curl virus (TLCV were recorded every week for eight weeks in all the treatments including untreated control. The incidence of whitefly was more severe in the second year (i.e, 1992-93 as compared to the previous season. Among the various treatments, the Agril cover, a newly introduced cultural practice, recorded the least incidence of whitefly and of TLCV. The average of counts of eggs were 0.0 and 5.47 and of nymphs 0.54 and 0.58 per 10 leaflets and TLCV were 4.32% and 4.76% in Agril cover treatment during the first and second year, respectively. Among the insecticides tested only Aflix recorded less incidence of the pest, being 3.46 and 30.4 eggs per 10 leaflets and 0.94 and 5.34 nymphs per 10 leaflets during the two years of study, respectively. The other treatments were less effective in reducing pest and disease incidence. The crop under Agril-cover recorded the maximum yield of 34.57 and 26.15 t/ha of tomatoes as compared to 16.48 and 10.82 t/ha in control during the first and second year, respectively.

  16. Small RNAs from Bemisia tabaci are transferred to Solanum lycopersicum phloem during feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula J.M. Van Kleeff

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The phloem-feeding whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a serious pest to a broad range of host plants, including many economically important crops such as tomato. These insects serve as a vector for various devastating plant viruses. It is known that whiteflies are capable of manipulating host-defense responses, potentially mediated by effector molecules in the whitefly saliva. We hypothesized that, beside putative effector proteins, small RNAs (sRNA are delivered by B. tabaci into the phloem, where they may play a role in manipulating host plant defenses. There is already evidence to suggest that sRNAs can mediate the host-pathogen dialogue. It has been shown that Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold disease, takes advantage of the plant sRNA machinery to selectively silence host genes involved in defense signaling.Here we identified sRNAs originating from B. tabaci in the phloem of tomato plants on which they are feeding. sRNAs were isolated and sequenced from tomato phloem of whitefly-infested and control plants as well as from the nymphs themselves, control leaflets and from the infested leaflets. Using stem-loop RT-PCR, three whitefly sRNAs have been verified to be present in whitefly-infested leaflets that were also present in the whitefly-infested phloem sample. Our results show that whitefly sRNAs are indeed present in tomato tissues upon feeding, and they appear to be mobile in the phloem. Their role in the host-insect interaction can now be investigated.

  17. Genetic networking of the Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex reveals pattern of biological invasions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul De Barro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A challenge within the context of cryptic species is the delimitation of individual species within the complex. Statistical parsimony network analytics offers the opportunity to explore limits in situations where there are insufficient species-specific morphological characters to separate taxa. The results also enable us to explore the spread in taxa that have invaded globally. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a 657 bp portion of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 from 352 unique haplotypes belonging to the Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex, the analysis revealed 28 networks plus 7 unconnected individual haplotypes. Of the networks, 24 corresponded to the putative species identified using the rule set devised by Dinsdale et al. (2010. Only two species proposed in Dinsdale et al. (2010 departed substantially from the structure suggested by the analysis. The analysis of the two invasive members of the complex, Mediterranean (MED and Middle East - Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1, showed that in both cases only a small number of haplotypes represent the majority that have spread beyond the home range; one MEAM1 and three MED haplotypes account for >80% of the GenBank records. Israel is a possible source of the globally invasive MEAM1 whereas MED has two possible sources. The first is the eastern Mediterranean which has invaded only the USA, primarily Florida and to a lesser extent California. The second are western Mediterranean haplotypes that have spread to the USA, Asia and South America. The structure for MED supports two home range distributions, a Sub-Saharan range and a Mediterranean range. The MEAM1 network supports the Middle East - Asia Minor region. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The network analyses show a high level of congruence with the species identified in a previous phylogenetic analysis. The analysis of the two globally invasive members of the complex support the view that global invasion often involve very small portions of

  18. Severity of cotton whitefly (bemisia tabaci genn.) population with special reference to abiotic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, K.; Bashir, M.H.; Khan, B.S.; Khan, R.R.; Hafeez, F.

    2013-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci is serious insect and constantly destabilizing the cotton production. The research was conducted to evaluate cotton cultivars (transgenic and non transgenic) for resistance against whitefly and further correlated with weather factors such as temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, during the cropping seasons 2010 and 2011. However, peak population (6.36 per leaf) was recorded from FH-113 followed FH-167 and FH-114, whereas minimum population was recorded from FH-4243 in transgenic group whereas peak population (5.24 per leaf) was recorded from FH- 941 followed by FH-100 and FH- 901 while minimum population was recorded from FH-207, in non transgenic group of cultivars in the year 2010. The incidence and abundance was much high and reaching towards two folds in the year 2011 but the trend of whitefly varied with peak population (11.03 per leaf) recorded from FH -167 followed by FH- 4243 and FH113 (from transgenic group of cultivars) whereas a peak of 10.77 per leaf population of whitefly, recorded followed by FH-901 and FH-941 (from non transgenic group of cultivars). FH-207 found more resistant from all ten cultivars studied in 2011. Correlation among weather factors and whitefly population showed that rainfall was negatively correlated while temperature and relative humidity were positively correlated with whitefly population. In addition to that situation is becoming worse because of shifting from conventional to more advanced transgenic cultivars that are susceptible and serve as host. Moreover, climatic conditions provide addition favor and helps in population buildup, abundance and incidence. (author)

  19. Diversity and Distribution of Cryptic Species of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) complex in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Mariyam; Amin, Imran; Hassan, Ishtiaq; Mansoor, Shahid; Brown, Judith K; Briddon, Rob W

    2017-12-05

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius; Hempitera: Aleyrodidae) is considered to be a cryptic (sibling) species complex, the members of which exhibit morphological invariability while being genetically and behaviorally distinct. Members of the complex are agricultural pests that cause direct damage by feeding on plants, and indirectly by transmitting viruses that cause diseases leading to reduced crop yield and quality. In Pakistan, cotton leaf curl disease, caused by multiple begomovirus species, is the most economically important viral disease of cotton. In the study outlined here, the diversity and geographic distribution of B. tabaci cryptic species was investigated by analyzing a taxonomically informative fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene (mtCOI-3'). The mtCOI-3' sequence was determined for 285 adult whiteflies and found to represent six cryptic species, the most numerous being Asia II-1 and Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM-1), the later also referred to as the B-biotype, which was previously thought to be confined to Sindh province but herein, was also found to be present in the Punjab province. The endemic Asia I was restricted to Sindh province, while an individual in the Asia II-8 was identified in Pakistan for the first time. Also for the first time, samples were collected from northwestern Pakistan and Asia II-1 was identified. Results indicate that in Pakistan the overall diversity of B. tabaci cryptic species is high and, based on comparisons with findings from previous studies, the distribution is dynamic. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Remote Sensing Analysis of the Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site, Hudspeth County, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeMone, D. V.; Dodge, R.; Xie, H.; Langford, R. P.; Keller, G. R.

    2002-01-01

    Remote sensing images provide useful physical information, revealing such features as geological structure, vegetation, drainage patterns, and variations in consolidated and unconsolidated lithologies. That technology has been applied to the failed Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) shallow burial low-level radioactive waste disposal site selected by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority. It has been re-examined using data from LANDSAT satellite series. The comparison of the earlier LANDSAT V (5/20/86) (30-m resolution) with the later new, higher resolution ETM imagery (10/23/99) LANDSAT VII data (15-m resolution) clearly shows the superiority of the LANDSAT VII data. The search for surficial indications of evidence of fatal flaws at the Sierra Blanca site utilizing was not successful, as it had been in the case of the earlier remote sensing analysis of the failed Fort Hancock site utilizing LANDSAT V data. The authors conclude that the tectonic activity at the Sierra Blanca site is much less recent and active than in the previously studied Fort Hancock site. The Sierra Blanca site failed primarily on the further needed documentation concerning a subsurface fault underneath the site and environmental justice issues. The presence of this fault was not revealed using the newer LANDSAT VII data. Despite this fact, it must be remembered that remote sensing provides baseline documentation for determining future physical and financial remediation responsibilities. On the basis of the two sites examined by LANDSAT remote sensing imaging, it is concluded that it is an essential, cost-effective tool that should be utilized not only in site examination but also in all nuclear-related facilities

  1. Landslides in moraines as triggers of glacial lake outburst floods: example from Palcacocha Lake (Cordillera Blanca, Peru)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Jan; Novotný, J.; Novotná, I.; Urries de, B.J.; Vilímek, V.; Emmer, Adam; Strozzi, T.; Kusák, Michal; Rapre, A.C.; Hartvich, Filip; Frey, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 6 (2016), s. 1461-1477 ISSN 1612-510X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1000 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : landslides * moraines * glacial lakes * slope stability calculation * glacial lake outburst floods * impact wave models * Cordillera Blanca Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography; DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography (UEK-B) Impact factor: 3.657, year: 2016

  2. Biotype Characterization, Developmental Profiling, Insecticide Response and Binding Property of Bemisia tabaci Chemosensory Proteins: Role of CSP in Insect Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxia Liu

    Full Text Available Chemosensory proteins (CSPs are believed to play a key role in the chemosensory process in insects. Sequencing genomic DNA and RNA encoding CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 in the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci showed strong variation between B and Q biotypes. Analyzing CSP-RNA levels showed not only biotype, but also age and developmental stage-specific expression. Interestingly, applying neonicotinoid thiamethoxam insecticide using twenty-five different dose/time treatments in B and Q young adults showed that Bemisia CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 were also differentially regulated over insecticide exposure. In our study one of the adult-specific gene (CSP1 was shown to be significantly up-regulated by the insecticide in Q, the most highly resistant form of B. tabaci. Correlatively, competitive binding assays using tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking demonstrated that CSP1 protein preferentially bound to linoleic acid, while CSP2 and CSP3 proteins rather associated to another completely different type of chemical, i.e. α-pentyl-cinnamaldehyde (jasminaldehyde. This might indicate that some CSPs in whiteflies are crucial to facilitate the transport of fatty acids thus regulating some metabolic pathways of the insect immune response, while some others are tuned to much more volatile chemicals known not only for their pleasant odor scent, but also for their potent toxic insecticide activity.

  3. Efficacy of plant derived oils and extracts against white-fly, bemisia tabaci (gennadius) on sesame crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iram, A.; Irfan, M.; Aslam, S.

    2014-01-01

    Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) is a polyphagous pest and is reported on more than 600 host plants worldwide. Different methods are being used for its control. The present experiment was conducted to determine the effect of some plant extracts of mint (Mentha spp.) and gera-nium (Pelargonium graveolens) and soybean oil (Glycine max), mustard oil (Brassica spp.) and taramera oil (Eruca sativa) against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci on sesame crop. The data were recorded 24h before and 24h, 48h, 72h and 168h after application of each spray material. The results showed that whitefly population was significantly suppressed by both the botanical oils and extracts as compared to the control treatment but in general botanical oils showed significant results as compared to plant extracts. Soybean oil was quite effective in reducing whitefly population per leaf, while after second spray soybean oil and extract of Mentha spp. was more effective in the reducing whitefly population per leaf. The results indicated that plant derived oils and extracts have the potential to be used in plant protection strategies but still more research has to be incorporated in the pest management programmes. (author)

  4. Dinâmica populacional e incidência de moscas-das-frutas e parasitoides em cultivares de pessegueiros (Prunus Persica L. Batsch no município de presidente prudente-sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Nalesso Marangoni Montes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos avaliar a dinâmica populacional e registrar a diversidade de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea em cultivares de pessegueiro Tropical, Talismã, Aurora 2, Aurora 1, Dourado 2 e Doçura 2, enxertadas sobre os porta-enxertos 'Okinawa' e Umê, em Presidente Prudente-SP. Foram realizadas as correlações da dinâmica populacional com a temperatura e a precipitação, e também a infestação com as características químicas dos frutos, Sólidos Solúveis e Acidez Titulável. No período de julho de 2004 a dezembro de 2006, a dinâmica populacional de moscas-das-frutas foi obtida através de coletas semanais de moscas-das-frutas em armadilhas McPhail, e a incidência foi determinada através da coleta de 30 frutos/planta/cultivar. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Ceratitis capitata foi predominante nas cultivares de pessegueiros estudadas. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre população de moscas-das-frutas e as variáveis de temperatura e precipitação, e sólidos solúveis e ácidez titulável. Entre as cultivares de pêssego, Aurora 2 apresentou maior infestação por C. capitata, da ordem de 22 e 23% nos anos 2004 e 2006, respectivamente. Também foi registrada a incidência de Neosilba spp. em frutos de pêssego. Doryctobracon areolatus (Braconidae, Tetrastichus giffardianus (Eulophidae e Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Pteromalidae foram recuperados de pupários de Tephritidae.

  5. Quaternary Slip History for the Agua Blanca Fault, northern Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, P. O.; Behr, W. M.; Rockwell, T. K.; Fletcher, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Agua Blanca Fault (ABF) is the primary structure accommodating San Andreas-related right-lateral slip across the Peninsular Ranges of northern Baja California. Activity on this fault influences offshore faults that parallel the Pacific coast from Ensenada to Los Angeles and is a potential threat to communities in northern Mexico and southern California. We present a detailed Quaternary slip history for the ABF, including new quantitative constraints on geologic slip rates, slip-per-event, the timing of most recent earthquake, and the earthquake recurrence interval. Cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating of clasts from offset fluvial geomorphic surfaces at 2 sites located along the western, and most active, section of the ABF yield preliminary slip rate estimates of 2-4 mm/yr and 3 mm/yr since 20 ka and 2 ka, respectively. Fault zone geomorphology preserved at the younger site provides evidence for right-lateral surface displacements measuring 2.5 m in the past two ruptures. Luminescence dating of an offset alluvial fan at a third site is in progress, but is expected to yield a slip rate relevant to the past 10 kyr. Adjacent to this third site, we excavated 2 paleoseismic trenches across a sag pond formed by a right step in the fault. Preliminary radiocarbon dates indicate that the 4 surface ruptures identified in the trenches occurred in the past 6 kyr, although additional dating should clarify earthquake timing and the mid-Holocene to present earthquake recurrence interval, as well as the likely date of the most recent earthquake. Our new slip rate estimates are somewhat lower than, but comparable within error to, previous geologic estimates based on soil morphology and geodetic estimates from GPS, but the new record of surface ruptures exposed in the trenches is the most complete and comprehensively dated earthquake history yet determined for this fault. Together with new and existing mapping of tectonically generated geomorphology along the ABF, our constraints

  6. Evidence for Multiple Late Quaternary Glaciations in the Southernmost Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Rodbell, D. T.; Ramage, J. M.

    2007-12-01

    Surface-exposure dating with in-situ-produced cosmogenic isotopes has provided the basis for a growing framework of glacial chronologies in the tropical Andes. In the Peruvian Andes, long chronologies (>400 ka) with relatively small local last glacial maximum (LLGM) advances have been reported for the central Cordillera Blanca (ca. 9°30'S) and Junin Plain (11°00'S), whereas preliminary data suggest a shorter record (<40 ka) in the intervening Cordillera Huayhuash (10°15'S). These seemingly contradictory findings raise several questions: Was the LLGM a relatively minor event in the Peruvian Andes, far exceeded by bigger, older advances? Which combination of geographic and geomorphic factors increases the likelihood that evidence of older advances will be preserved? With these questions in mind, we sought a site with both high peaks and a high-altitude plateau. The glaciated Nevado Jeulla Rajo massif (10°00'S, 77°16'W, peaks ca. 5600 masl) marks the southern end of the Cordillera Blanca and the Callejon de Huaylas valley in the central Peruvian Andes. The Conococha Plain (ca. 4050 masl) borders the western side of the massif. Large lateral moraines extend onto the Conococha Plain from the west-facing valleys and multiple moraine loops lie upvalley, closer to active ice margins. Surface-exposure dating (10Be) indicates that the largest lateral moraines from Jeullesh Valley are compound features deposited during the LLGM (ca. 30 ka) and a late-glacial readvance (ca. 16 ka). The LLGM/late-glacial moraines cross-cut an older pair of lateral moraines (ca. 70 ka) that may provide evidence for a smaller advance during marine isotope stage 4. Although the LLGM/late-glacial moraines are impressively large (ca. 150 m high), they do not represent the maximum ice extent in the region. Fluvial outwash deposits beyond the termini of the moraines on the Conococha Plain are underlain by lodgement till that is up to 20 m thick and extends ca. 6 km across the width of the Plain

  7. Downscaling reanalysis data to high-resolution variables above a glacier surface (Cordillera Blanca, Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Marlis; Mölg, Thomas; Marzeion, Ben; Kaser, Georg

    2010-05-01

    Recently initiated observation networks in the Cordillera Blanca provide temporally high-resolution, yet short-term atmospheric data. The aim of this study is to extend the existing time series into the past. We present an empirical-statistical downscaling (ESD) model that links 6-hourly NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data to the local target variables, measured at the tropical glacier Artesonraju (Northern Cordillera Blanca). The approach is particular in the context of ESD for two reasons. First, the observational time series for model calibration are short (only about two years). Second, unlike most ESD studies in climate research, we focus on variables at a high temporal resolution (i.e., six-hourly values). Our target variables are two important drivers in the surface energy balance of tropical glaciers; air temperature and specific humidity. The selection of predictor fields from the reanalysis data is based on regression analyses and climatologic considerations. The ESD modelling procedure includes combined empirical orthogonal function and multiple regression analyses. Principal component screening is based on cross-validation using the Akaike Information Criterion as model selection criterion. Double cross-validation is applied for model evaluation. Potential autocorrelation in the time series is considered by defining the block length in the resampling procedure. Apart from the selection of predictor fields, the modelling procedure is automated and does not include subjective choices. We assess the ESD model sensitivity to the predictor choice by using both single- and mixed-field predictors of the variables air temperature (1000 hPa), specific humidity (1000 hPa), and zonal wind speed (500 hPa). The chosen downscaling domain ranges from 80 to 50 degrees west and from 0 to 20 degrees south. Statistical transfer functions are derived individually for different months and times of day (month/hour-models). The forecast skill of the month/hour-models largely depends on

  8. New geologic slip rates for the Agua Blanca Fault, northern Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, P. O.; Behr, W. M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Hinojosa-Corona, A.; Rockwell, T. K.

    2015-12-01

    Within the southern San Andreas transform plate boundary system, relatively little is known regarding active faulting in northern Baja California, Mexico, or offshore along the Inner Continental Borderland. The inner offshore system appears to be fed from the south by the Agua Blanca Fault (ABF), which strikes northwest across the Peninsular Ranges of northern Baja California. Therefore, the geologic slip rate for the ABF also provides a minimum slip rate estimate for the offshore system, which is connected to the north to faults in the Los Angeles region. Previous studies along the ABF determined slip rates of ~4-6 mm/yr (~10% of relative plate motion). However, these rates relied on imprecise age estimates and offset geomorphic features of a type that require these rates to be interpreted as minima, allowing for the possibility that the slip rate for the ABF may be greater. Although seismically quiescent, the surface trace of the ABF clearly reflects Holocene activity, and given its connectivity with the offshore fault system, more quantitative slip rates for the ABF are needed to better understand earthquake hazard for both US and Mexican coastal populations. Using newly acquired airborne LiDAR, we have mapped primary and secondary fault strands along the segmented western 70 km of the ABF. Minimal development has left the geomorphic record of surface slip remarkably well preserved, and we have identified abundant evidence meter to km scale right-lateral displacement, including new Late Quaternary slip rate sites. We verified potential reconstructions at each site during summer 2015 fieldwork, and selected an initial group of three high potential slip rate sites for detailed mapping and geochronologic analyses. Offset landforms, including fluvial terrace risers, alluvial fans, and incised channel fill deposits, record displacements of ~5-80 m, and based on minimal soil development, none appear older than early Holocene. To quantitatively constrain landform ages

  9. ESTUDIO DE LAS VISITAS DE LAS MOSCAS DE LAS FLORES (DIPTERA: SYRPHIDAE EN Salvia bogotensis (LAMIACEAE EN EL JARDÍN BOTÁNICO JOSÉ CELESTINO MUTIS (BOGOTÁ D.C., COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamora Monica

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir la interacción entre Salvia bogotensis (Lamiaceae y las moscas de las flores (Diptera: Syrphidae en un ambiente urbano, el jardín botánico "José Celestino Mutis" (Bogotá D.C.. Una vez comprobada la existencia del síndrome de entomofilia, se caracterizó la morfología floral, la composición taxonómica, la riqueza y la abundancia de las especies de sírfidos identificadas como visitantes florales, así como la morfometría cefálica y bucal. S. bogotensis presenta el síndrome de la entomofilia con ausencia de autofecundación. La comunidad de sírfidos asociada con esta comprende nueve especies, agrupadas en cinco géneros. Las especies son Allograpta neotropica Curran, 1936, Allograpta exotica Wiedermann, 1830, Allograpta annulipes Macquart, 1850, Allograpta aenea Hull, 1937, Lejops mexicana Macquart, 1842, Platycheirus ecuadoriensis Fluke, 1945, Platycheirus fenestrata Macquart, 1842, Syrphus shoree Fluke, 1950 y Toxomerus sp. 1. Las especies de moscas identificadas presentan en su conjunto características conductuales y morfológicas asociadas a polinizadores de baja eficiencia, con una baja tasa de visitas, incapacidad de activación de los balancines y un mínimo contacto corporal del insecto con las anteras y el estigma de la flor. Adicionalmente, las moscas presentan una carga muy baja de granos de polen de S. bogotensis sobre el cuerpo y alta inversión de tiempo en la limpieza de su cuerpo (acicalamiento. Las flores visitadas por estos insectos no dieron origen a frutos. Todo lo anterior permite concluir que dichas moscas no son polinizadores efectivos de S. bogotensis. Además de dípteros, se observaron varias especies de insectos visitantes florales de S. bogotensis pertenecientes a las familias Apidae, Halictidae y Megachilidae. Los sírfidos se benefician por el consumo de polen de S. bogotensis, pero no interfieren en el crecimiento y el desarrollo de la planta, por lo cual

  10. Organotin compounds in Brachidontes rodriguezii mussels from the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas, Pamela Y; Arias, Andrés H; Oliva, Ana L; Domini, Claudia E; Alvarez, Mónica B; Garrido, Mariano; Marcovecchio, Jorge E

    2017-11-01

    Levels of tributyltin and its breakdown compounds, including the first record of monobutyltin (MBT) in history for Latin America, were determined in native mussels (Brachidontes rodriguezii) by means of CG-MS, after extraction/derivatization assisted by ultrasound. The samples were collected in 2013 in Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina) at 6 sites, which reflect different levels of maritime activities. Total butyltins (TBts = TBT+ DBT+ MBT) levels ranged from 19.64 to 180.57ng Sn g -1 dry weight. According to the Oslo-Paris commission, the results indicated that 73.9% of mussels could be under biological effects risks associated with TBT pollution. In accordance with the calculated bioaccumulation factors, approximately 56% of samples appeared to have accumulated TBT through the sediments. All sampling sites were shown to be impacted by organotin compounds (OTCs) showing variable levels through seasons, which could be related with the variation of the water temperature. Degradation index analyses suggested aged inputs of TBT possibly under a general degradation process at the area of study. In addition, the occurrence of DBT and MBT could not be uniquely attributed to the degradation pathway of the TBT; in fact, results outlined the possible contribution of some punctual and diffuse sources at the area such as proximity to plastic industries, industrial effluents, sewage outlets and domestic wastewaters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. PHASE ANALYSES OF URANIUM BEARING MINERALS FROM THE HIGH GRADE ORE, NOPAL I, PENA BLANCA, MEXICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, M.; Goodell, P.; Kelts, A.; Anthony, E.Y.; Fayek, M.; Fan, C.; Beshears, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Pena Blanca district, approximately 40 miles north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The deposit was formed by hydrothermal processes within the fracture zone of welded silicic volcanic tuff. The ages of volcanic formations are between 35 to 44 m.y. and there was secondary silicification of most of the formations. After the formation of at least part of the uranium deposit, the ore body was uplifted above the water table and is presently exposed at the surface. Detailed petrographic characterization, electron microprobe backscatter electron (BSE) imagery, and selected x-ray maps for the samples from Nopal I high-grade ore document different uranium phases in the ore. There are at least two stages of uranium precipitation. A small amount of uraninite is encapsulated in silica. Hexavalent uranium may also have been a primary precipitant. The uranium phases were precipitated along cleavages of feldspars, and along fractures in the tuff. Energy dispersive spectrometer data and x-ray maps suggest that the major uranium phases are uranophane and weeksite. Substitutions of Ca and K occur in both phases, implying that conditions were variable during the mineralization/alteration process, and that compositions of the original minerals have a major influence on later stage alteration. Continued study is needed to fully characterize uranium behavior in these semi-arid to arid conditions

  12. Uranium deposits associated to tertiary acid volcanism of the Pena Blanca Sierra (Chihuahua, Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniel, B.

    1986-12-01

    The uraniferous deposits located in the Sierra de Pena Blanca (Chihuahua, Mexico) are the consequence of successive events that modified acid volcanic rocks. The devitrification of the Nopal Formation, vitroclastic tuffs, is esential in the cooling history because it releases uranium that becomes available. The uranium present in fluids as uranylcarbonate complexes, precipitate along the lamellea of hematite (exsolutions of the ilmenites). The presence of sulfur causes the destabilization of the ilmenites with uranium oxide (pitchblende - titanium oxide - pyrite), the pseudomorph of magnetites (pitchblende - pyrite) and the transformation of hematite into pyrite. The silice coming from the kaolinization of feldspars recristallizes as microcristalline quartz so that the rock appears compact. Fractures cause the uplifting of the lower unit of Nopal formation. It has been altered to montmorillonite. A carbonatation of this tuff has been observed and these two types of alteration occur after kaolinization. The Escuadra formation overlies the Nopal formation. The deposition takes place on an eroded basement where a soil developed. The two formations will together undergo transformations due to the saturation level and the primary ore will be only oxidized or oxidized, transported and reconcentrated. Late and localized thermal activities have been observed and may be the result of tectonic movements occurring after the supergene modification [fr

  13. Estudio farmacognóstico de ocimum basilicum l. (albahaca blanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Sánchez Govín

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum basilicum L. (albahaca blanca es una de las plantas aromáticas que se clasifican por la composición química de su aceite. Se investigó la variedad lactucaefolium que posee propiedades antisépticas, antiinflamatorias y antiespasmódicas. Se determinaron los índices numéricos en esta especie y se estandarizó el perfil cromatográfico a partir de su aceite esencial. El estudio de conservación muestra que el tiempo óptimo de almacenamiento en frasco de vidrio y sobres de polietileno es de 10 meses.Ocimum basilicum L. (white sweet basil is one of the aromatic plants that is classified according to the chemical composition of its oil. The lactucaefolium variety that has antiseptic, antiinflammatory and antispasmodic properties was investigated. The numerical indexes were determined in this species and the chromatographic profile was standardized starting from its essential oil. The conservation study shows that the optimum time of storage in glass flasks and polyethylene bags is of l0 months.

  14. Implication of the Bacterial Endosymbiont Rickettsia spp. in Interactions of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliot, Adi; Cilia, Michelle; Czosnek, Henryk

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Numerous animal and plant viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors in a persistent, circulative manner. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is transmitted by the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci. We report here that infection with Rickettsia spp., a facultative endosymbiont of whiteflies, altered TYLCV-B. tabaci interactions. A B. tabaci strain infected with Rickettsia acquired more TYLCV from infected plants, retained the virus longer, and exhibited nearly double the transmission efficiency compared to an uninfected B. tabaci strain with the same genetic background. Temporal and spatial antagonistic relationships were discovered between Rickettsia and TYLCV within the whitefly. In different time course experiments, the levels of virus and Rickettsia within the insect were inversely correlated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of Rickettsia-infected midguts provided evidence for niche exclusion between Rickettsia and TYLCV. In particular, high levels of the bacterium in the midgut resulted in higher virus concentrations in the filter chamber, a favored site for virus translocation along the transmission pathway, whereas low levels of Rickettsia in the midgut resulted in an even distribution of the virus. Taken together, these results indicate that Rickettsia, by infecting the midgut, increases TYLCV transmission efficacy, adding further insights into the complex association between persistent plant viruses, their insect vectors, and microorganism tenants that reside within these insects. IMPORTANCE Interest in bacterial endosymbionts in arthropods and many aspects of their host biology in agricultural and human health systems has been increasing. A recent and relevant studied example is the influence of Wolbachia on dengue virus transmission by mosquitoes. In parallel with our recently studied whitefly-Rickettsia-TYLCV system, other studies have shown that dengue virus levels in the mosquito vector are inversely correlated with

  15. Evidence of diversity and recombination in Arsenophonus symbionts of the Bemisia tabaci species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouton Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternally inherited bacterial symbionts infecting arthropods have major implications on host ecology and evolution. Among them, the genus Arsenophonus is particularly characterized by a large host spectrum and a wide range of symbiotic relationships (from mutualism to parasitism, making it a good model to study the evolution of host-symbiont associations. However, few data are available on the diversity and distribution of Arsenophonus within host lineages. Here, we propose a survey on Arsenophonus diversity in whitefly species (Hemiptera, in particular the Bemisia tabaci species complex. This polyphagous insect pest is composed of genetic groups that differ in many ecological aspects. They harbor specific bacterial communities, among them several lineages of Arsenophonus, enabling a study of the evolutionary history of these bacteria at a fine host taxonomic level, in association to host geographical range and ecology. Results Among 152 individuals, our analysis identified 19 allelic profiles and 6 phylogenetic groups, demonstrating this bacterium's high diversity. These groups, based on Arsenophonus phylogeny, correlated with B. tabaci genetic groups with two exceptions reflecting horizontal transfers. None of three genes analyzed provided evidence of intragenic recombination, but intergenic recombination events were detected. A mutation inducing a STOP codon on one gene in a strain infecting one B. tabaci genetic group was also found. Phylogenetic analyses of the three concatenated loci revealed the existence of two clades of Arsenophonus. One, composed of strains found in other Hemiptera, could be the ancestral clade in whiteflies. The other, which regroups strains found in Hymenoptera and Diptera, may have been acquired more recently by whiteflies through lateral transfers. Conclusions This analysis of the genus Arsenophonus revealed a diversity within the B. tabaci species complex which resembles that reported on the

  16. Genetic variability of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and its secondary endosymbionts in the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Ragab, Alaa I.

    2013-05-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci species complex has been well documented as one of the most economically important emergent plant virus vectors, through serious feeding damage to its broad range of plant hosts and transmission of plant viruses to important agricultural crops. It has been shown to have associations with endosymbionts which have significant effects on the insect fitness. The purpose of this study was to provide information for the biotype and secondary endosymbiont distribution for B. tabaci populations in the relatively unstudied Arabian peninsula. The geographical localization and variation in endosymbiont populations across the region were identified using a sequence-driven analysis of the population genetics of the secondary endosymbiont. Live field specimens were collected from 22 different locations in the region and preserved in 70% ethanol for genetic studies. Previously established procedures were used to extract and purify total insect DNA from 24-30 individual whiteflies for each location (Frohlich et al., 1999; Chiel et al., 2007). Specimens were subjected to PCR amplification using the respective 16S rDNAprimers for the Rickettsia, Hamiltonella, and Wolbachia to amplify endosymbiont DNA. PCR was run with primers for the highly conserved whitefly mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene for biotyping. Samples were sequenced using the Sanger method and the data analyzed to correlate the presence, prevalence and geographical distribution of endosymbionts in B. tabaci. Phylogenies 5 were constructed to track evolutionary differences amongst the endosymbionts and insects and how they have influenced the evolution of the regional populations. Samples were characterized by differences in the genomes and endosymbionts of common whitefly ‘biotypes’ that have different host plant preferences, vector capacities and insecticide resistance characteristics. It was found that the B biotype is the predominant haplotype, with no evidence of

  17. Pengelolaan Kutu Kebul (Bemisia tabaci Gen. dengan Sistem Barier pada Tanaman Tembakau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Maruto Aji

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, the leaf curl disease was observed on tobacco plants grown under net shadow of PTPN X (Persero and has caused yield losses up to 70%. The disease was likely to be associated with the existence of a high population of the sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gen. and the symptoms resembled that reported for Begomovirus infection on eggplant and tomatoes. This study aimed to know the effectiveness of physical barriers in combination with a biological barrier to avoid B. tabaci in infesting the farm. The research was done by monitoring tobacco diseases to measure the diseases intensity. Research for the management of insect vectorsB. tabaci were done based on two pretexts: (1 physical barrier using the type of net; and (2 combinations of a net with a plant (corn belt. The result showed that an effective control was obtained using a net with higher mesh size rather than using a standard net with low mesh size which was presently used by PTPN X (Persero. Corn barrier did not effective to control B. tabaci except as a wind breaker. INTISARI Peningkatan populasi kutu kebul (B. tabaci Gen. di daerah Klaten, Jawa Tengah pada tahun 2009 ternyata menjadi penyebab mewabahnya penyakit kerupuk pada tanaman Solanaceae di wilayah tersebut. Tanaman tembakau cerutu Vorstenlanden milik PTPN X (Persero yang ditanam di area bawah naungan (TBN yang berada di wilayah tersebut turut terjangkit wabah penyakit kerupuk setelah sebelumnya terindikasi terjadi peningkatan jumlah kutu kebul. Wabah penyakit kerupuk pada tembakau cerutu Vorstenlanden milik PTPN X (Persero telah menurunkan hasil hingga 70%. Gejala penyakit pada tembakau berupa penyakit kerupuk. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas penerapan barier fisik sebagai langkah awal untuk mengendalikan populasi kutu kebul pada pertanaman tembakau cerutu milik PTPN X (Persero. Penelitian dimulai dengan memonitoring populasi kutu kebul dan peningkatan intensitas penyakit kerupuk pada tanaman

  18. Comparative efficacy of some insecticides against cotton whitefly, bemisia tabaci (gennadius) (homoptera: aleyrodidae) under natural field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.K.; Hasnain, M.; Ahmed, S.; Ashfaq, M.

    2011-01-01

    Comparative efficacy of five commonly used insecticides viz., acetamiprid, buprofezin, diafenthiuron, imidacloprid and endosulfan against nymph and adult population of cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) under natural field conditions has been studied. Results showed that buprofezin was the most effective insecticide against nymph population of whitefly among the tested insecticides where nymphal population of B. tabaci was 0.2/leaf after 24h spray as compared to 1.9/leaf in control. Acetamiprid was the most effective against adult population of whitefly (0.3 to 1.3/leaf post 72 h spray, as compared to control with 6.9 to 8.2/leaf) followed by diafenthiuron and imidaclopirid. whereas, endosulfan was found to be the least effective on both populations as adult and nymph of whitefly. From the tested insecticides, acetamaprid gave effective control of both nymph and adult population of B. tabaci. (author)

  19. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly Dietas baseadas em proteína de soja para moscas do Mediterrâneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Braga Sobrinho

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae. Diets containing sugar beet bagase, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagase in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very important substitute for other expensive sources of protein.O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver dietas adequadas e econômicas para a criação massal de moscas de frutas do Mediterrâneo, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae. Foram testados dietas com bagaço de beterraba açucareira, farelo de trigo, levedura de cerveja e outras dietas de farelo de trigo e proteína de soja prensada brasileira. Dietas compostas por proteína de soja apresentaram resultados positivos de recuperação de pupas, pesos de pupa e emergência de adultos. O bagaço de soja, na forma de pellet com 60% de proteína, pode ser um importante substituto de outras fontes de proteína.

  20. Entomología forense: el ciclo de vida de la mosca verde Phaenicia eximia (Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae, como herramienta para estimar el intervalo post-mortem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio B. Cano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el ciclo de vida de la mosca verde Phaenicia eximia (Wiedemann en condiciones controladas de laboratorio a 26 o C, con una humedad relativa de 75% y un período de iluminación de 12 h de luz y 12 h de oscuridad. El tiempo promedio de desarrollo estimado desde la oviposición hasta la salida de los adultos fue de 306 h (una media de casi 13 días. Bajo estas condiciones de temperatura y humedad, los huevos duran cerca de 19 h (0.8 días, las larvas duran unas 170 h (7.1 días y las pupas unas 116 h (4.8 días. En los meses secos y fríos de noviembre y diciembre en condiciones naturales, el ciclo de vida empírico fue de 25 días, implicando que las bajas temperaturas ralentizan el crecimiento y las altas lo aceleran. Se discute acerca de la importancia del ciclo de vida en la estimación del intervalo post-mortem en casos de muertes violentas en Guatemala.

  1. Epithermal uranium deposits in a volcanogenic context: the example of Nopal 1 deposit, Sierra de Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, G.; Angiboust, S.; Fayek, M.; Camacho, A.; Allard, T.; Agrinier, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Peña Blanca molybdenum-uranium field (Chihuahua, Mexico) exhibits over 100 airborne anomalies hosted in tertiary ignimbritic ash-flow tuffs (44 Ma) overlying the Pozos conglomerate and a sequence of Cretaceous carbonate rocks. Uranium occurrences are associated with breccia zones at the intersection of two or more fault systems. Periodic reactivation of these structures associated with Basin and Range and Rio Grande tectonic events resulted in the mobilization of U and other elements by meteoric fluids heated by geothermal activity. Trace element geochemistry (U, Th, REE) provides evidence for local mobilization of uranium under oxidizing conditions. In addition, O- and H-isotope geochemistry of kaolinite, smectite, opal and calcite suggests that argillic alteration proceeded at shallow depth with meteoric water at 25-75 °C. Focussed along breccia zones, fluids precipitated several generations of pyrite and uraninite together with kaolinite, as in the Nopal 1 mine, indicating that mineralization and hydrothermal alteration of volcanic tuffs are contemporaneous. Low δ34S values (~ -24.5 ‰) of pyrites intimately associated with uraninite suggest that the reducing conditions at the origin of the U-mineralization arise from biological activity. Later, the uplift of Sierra Pena Blanca resulted in oxidation and remobilization of uranium, as confirmed by the spatial distribution of radiation-induced defect centers in kaolinites. These data show that tectonism and biogenic reducing conditions can play a major role in the formation and remobilization of uranium in epithermal deposits. By comparison with the other uranium deposits at Sierra Pena Blanca and nearby Sierra de Gomez, Nopal 1 deposit is one of the few deposits having retained a reduced uranium mineralization.

  2. Reinterpretation of the formation of the "crooked moraine" of the debris-covered Hatunraju Glacier (Cordillera Blanca, Perú)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrizaga, L.

    2012-04-01

    The Hatunraju Glacier (9°00'S/70°40'W) is located in the Parón valley in the northern part of the Cordillera Blanca. The almost 4 km long and steeply inclined glacier flows down from the Huandoy-N-Side (6395 m) into the Parón valley to an elevation of 4250 m a.s.l.. The extremely narrow glacier is in its entire ablation area heavily debris-covered. It is one of the few glaciers, which dam with its debris-mantled glacier tongue a main river in this mountain range. In this case the Hatunraju glacier produces the largest glacier-dammed lake in the Cordillera Blanca, the Laguna Parón. In some other aspects, this glacier proves to be distinct from the majority of the glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca: It is flowing on an almost up to 250 m high moraine pedestal ("moraine-dammed raised bed glacier") and the glacier makes a bend of almost 90° when entering into the main valley. The present paper focuses in particular on the last point: the formation of the so called "crooked moraine". It has been explained by Lliboutry (1977) as a result of a glacier lake outburst and the subsequent destruction of the latero-frontal moraine. The later process supposed to be the trigger of the abrupt change in the flow direction of the lower part of the glacier. Recent investigations suggest an alternative genesis of the crooked moraine considering the distinct phases of the glaciation history of the Parón valley. The here proposed formation pattern is also paradigmatic for other crooked debris-covered glaciers, especially in High Asia. Comparative examples will be provided from the Karakoram and Himalayas. The research work on the Hatunraju Glacier is part of a project on the glacial geomorphology in the Tropical Andes financed by the Alexander von Humboldt-Foundation.

  3. El proceso de institucionalización de la música en Bahía Blanca : Una propuesta teórico-metodológica

    OpenAIRE

    Caubet, María Noelia

    2016-01-01

    La formación obtenida en el Conservatorio de Música y el cursado simultáneo del Profesorado y la Licenciatura en Historia en la Universidad Nacional del Sur, me generaron diversas inquietudes acerca de los procesos de conformación de los organismos de enseñanza e interpretación musical en Bahía Blanca, un tema poco explorado por la historiografía local. La tesina Músicos en Red. La creación del Conservatorio Provincial de Música en el proceso de institucionalización cultural de Bahía Blanca (...

  4. Proyecto de producción y comercialización de compota de zanahoria blanca en la ciudad de Guayaquil

    OpenAIRE

    Cedeño Cáceres, Karla Paola; Quimí Lino, Manuel Enrique; Rivera Flores, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    El proyecto a emprender se encuentra enfocado en la elaboración y producción de la compota de zanahoria blanca en la ciudad de Guayaquil, teniendo como materia prima la zanahoria blanca, que con sus propiedades nutritivas aún desconocida por muchos, esta cuenta con un gran valor nutricional el cual con nuestro proyecto pretendemos dar a conocer, de modo que podemos aprovechar la ventaja de que aún no existe en el mercado un producto con estas características. Este sería un prod...

  5. Stratigraphy of the PB-1 well, Nopal I uranium deposit, Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, P.; Fayek, M.; Goodell, P.; Ghezzehei, T.; Melchor, F.; Murrell, M.; Oliver, R.; Reyes-Cortes, I.A.; de la Garza, R.; Simmons, A.

    2008-08-01

    The Nopal I site in the Pena Blanca uranium district has a number of geologic and hydrologic similarities to the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, making it a useful analogue to evaluate process models for radionuclide transport. The PB-1 well was drilled in 2003 at the Nopal I uranium deposit as part of a DOE-sponsored natural analogue study to constrain processes affecting radionuclide transport. The well penetrates through the Tertiary volcanic section down to Cretaceous limestone and intersects the regional aquifer system. The well, drilled along the margin of the Nopal I ore body, was continuously cored to a depth of 250 m, thus providing an opportunity to document the local stratigraphy. Detailed observations of these units were afforded through petrographic description and rock-property measurements of the core, together with geophysical logs of the well. The uppermost unit encountered in the PB-1 well is the Nopal Formation, a densely welded, crystal-rich, rhyolitic ash-flow tuff. This cored section is highly altered and devitrified, with kaolinite, quartz, chlorite, and montmorillonite replacing feldspars and much of the groundmass. Breccia zones within the tuff contain fracture fillings of hematite, limonite, goethite, jarosite, and opal. A zone of intense clay alteration encountered in the depth interval 17.45-22.30 m was interpreted to represent the basal vitrophyre of this unit. Underlying the Nopal Formation is the Coloradas Formation, which consists of a welded lithic-rich rhyolitic ash-flow tuff. The cored section of this unit has undergone devitrification and oxidation, and has a similar alteration mineralogy to that observed in the Nopal tuff. A sharp contact between the Coloradas tuff and the underlying Pozos Formation was observed at a depth of 136.38 m. The Pozos Formation consists of poorly sorted conglomerate containing clasts of subangular to subrounded fragments of volcanic rocks, limestone, and chert

  6. Stratigraphy of the PB-1 well, Nopal I uranium deposit, Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, P.; Fayek, M.; Goodell, P.; Ghezzehei, T.; Melchor, F.; Murrell, M.; Oliver, R.; Reyes-Cortes, I.A.; de la Garza, R.; Simmons, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Nopal I site in the Pena Blanca uranium district has a number of geologic and hydrologic similarities to the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, making it a useful analogue to evaluate process models for radionuclide transport. The PB-1 well was drilled in 2003 at the Nopal I uranium deposit as part of a DOE-sponsored natural analogue study to constrain processes affecting radionuclide transport. The well penetrates through the Tertiary volcanic section down to Cretaceous limestone and intersects the regional aquifer system. The well, drilled along the margin of the Nopal I ore body, was continuously cored to a depth of 250 m, thus providing an opportunity to document the local stratigraphy. Detailed observations of these units were afforded through petrographic description and rock-property measurements of the core, together with geophysical logs of the well. The uppermost unit encountered in the PB-1 well is the Nopal Formation, a densely welded, crystal-rich, rhyolitic ash-flow tuff. This cored section is highly altered and devitrified, with kaolinite, quartz, chlorite, and montmorillonite replacing feldspars and much of the groundmass. Breccia zones within the tuff contain fracture fillings of hematite, limonite, goethite, jarosite, and opal. A zone of intense clay alteration encountered in the depth interval 17.45-22.30 m was interpreted to represent the basal vitrophyre of this unit. Underlying the Nopal Formation is the Coloradas Formation, which consists of a welded lithic-rich rhyolitic ash-flow tuff. The cored section of this unit has undergone devitrification and oxidation, and has a similar alteration mineralogy to that observed in the Nopal tuff. A sharp contact between the Coloradas tuff and the underlying Pozos Formation was observed at a depth of 136.38 m. The Pozos Formation consists of poorly sorted conglomerate containing clasts of subangular to subrounded fragments of volcanic rocks, limestone, and chert

  7. Proglacial hydrology in the tropical Andes: lessons from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, J. M.; Mark, B. G.; Baraer, M.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the complexities of tropical Andean hydrology is critical for managing modern water resources and interpreting paleohydrologic records. Glaciers are the most visible component of these systems, responding to global climate change and acting as critical hydrologic reservoirs. Tropical Andean glaciers are undergoing rapid retreat with complex impacts on the downstream hydrology. Groundwater is also an important component of the Andean regional hydrologic system, but its contribution is difficult to assess due to remote site access, minimal baseline data, and lack of continuous historical discharge and precipitation measurements. We have synthesized hydrochemical data from synoptically sampled glacial melt water, groundwater, precipitation, and stream discharge collected intermittently between 1998 and July 2008 throughout the Callejon de Huaylas, a 5000 km2 watershed that drains the western side of the Cordillera Blanca in northern Perú. Our data from 2004 to 2006 show systematic annual shifts in the isotopic ratios (δ18O and δ2H) of river water, indicating an increase in glacial melt water input, and we are able to use these changes across the Cordillera Blanca to estimate an average increase of 1.6 (± 1.1) % in the specific discharge of the glacierized basins. Enhanced total stream discharge in more glacierized catchments (>20% glacier area) is demonstrated by a significant positive trend in a 43-year discharge anomaly record. Our hydrochemical basin characterization method (HBCM) uses chemical mass balance mixing to quantify the contribution of glacial melt water, groundwater, and surface runoff to streams for different valleys and nested watersheds in the Callejon de Huaylas. The Yanamarey basin (7% glaciated) has been observed since 1998 and the HBCM results show good agreement with measured stream discharge (maximum R2 of 0.99) for monthly cumulative values. These results suggest that for most of the studied years groundwater is the main

  8. Genetic structure of Bemisia tabaci Med populations from home-range countries, inferred by nuclear and cytoplasmic markers : impact on the distribution of the insecticide resistance genes

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, Nathalie; Clouet, C.; Perrakis, A.; Kapantaidaki, D.; Peterschmitt, M.; Tsagkarakou, A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance management in Bemisia tabaci is one of the main issues facing agricultural production today. An extensive survey was undertaken in five Mediterranean countries to examine the resistance status of Med B. tabaci species in its range of geographic origin and the relationship between population genetic structure and the distribution of resistance genes. The investigation combined molecular diagnostic tests, sequence and microsatellite polymorphism studies and mo...

  9. The broadly insecticidal Photorhabdus luminescens toxin complex a (Tca): Activity against the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Michael B.; Domek, John M.; Gelman, Dale B.; Hu, Jing S.

    2005-01-01

    Toxin complex a (Tca), a high molecular weight insecticidal protein complex produced by the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens, has been found to be orally toxic to both the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B. The 48 hour LC50 for Tca against neonate L. decemlineata was found to be 2.7 ppm, and the growth of 2nd instar L. decemlineata exposed to Tca for 72 hours was almost entirely inhibited at concentrat...

  10. Mapping Glacier Dynamics and Proglacial Wetlands with a Multispectral UAV at 5000m in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigmore, O.; Mark, B. G.

    2015-12-01

    The glaciers of the Cordillera Blanca, Peru are rapidly retreating as a result of rising temperatures, transforming the hydrology and impacting the socio-economic and environmental systems of the Rio Santa basin. Documenting the heterogeneous spatial patterns of these changes to understand processes of water storage and flow is hindered by technologic and logistic challenges. Highly complex topography, cloud cover and coarse spatial resolution limit the application of satellite data while airborne data collection remains costly and potentially dangerous. However, recent developments have made Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology a viable and potentially transformative method for studying glacier dynamics and proglacial hydrology. The extreme altitudes (4000-6700m) of the Cordillera Blanca limit the use of 'off the shelf' UAVs. Therefore we developed a low cost multispectral (visible, near-infrared and thermal infrared) multirotor UAV capable of conducting fully autonomous aerial surveys at elevations over 5000m within the glacial valleys of the Cordillera Blanca. Using this platform we have completed repeat aerial surveys (in 2014 and 2015) of the debris covered Llaca Glacier, generating highly accurate 10-20cm DEM's and 5cm orthomosaics using a structure from motion workflow. Analysis of these data reveals a highly dynamic system with some areas of the glacier losing as much as 16m of vertical elevation, while other areas have gained up to 5m of elevation over one year. The magnitude and direction of these changes appears to be associated with the presence of debris free ice faces and meltwater ponds. Additionally, we have mapped proglacial meadow and wetland systems. Thermal mosaics at 10-20cm resolution are providing novel insights into the hydrologic pathways of glacier meltwater including mapping the distribution of artesian springs that feed these wetland systems. The high spatial resolution of these UAV datasets facilitates a better understanding of the

  11. Evaluación de recursos hídricos de las sierras Blanca y Mijas (Málaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadillo, I.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A water balance of Sierras Blanca and Mijas Hydrogeological Unit, the most important aquifer in the Costa del Sol, in the period 1990/91-1993/94, has been made. The recharge is produced by the infiltration of rain water with a total amount of 116.9 hmhm3/year/year: 60.2 hm3/year has been evapotranspirated, 56.7 hm3/year belongs to the useful rain (8 hm3/year as streamflow and 48.7 hm /year as infiltration. The discharge have been measured and gives a total amount of 62.2 hm3/year: 28.2 hm3/year by the springs and 34 hm3/year by the pumpings. The useful rain has been calculated with several methods (Turc, Coutagne, Kessler, chloride method and monthly and daily Thornwaite method -with field capacities of 25 and 50 mm-. The method that fits in a better way with the known volumes of recharge and discharge, for each one of the aquifer system and for the whole Blanca-Mijas Hydrogeological Unit, is the chloride method.Se ha realizado el balance de la Unidad Hidrogeológica Sierra Blanca-Sierra de Mijas, la más importante de la Costa del Sol, para la media del período 1990/911993/ 94. La precipitación media sobre la Unidad es de 116,9 hm3/año: 60,2 hm3/año se evapotranspiran y 56,7 hm3/año constituyen la lluvia útil (8 hm3/año de escorrentía y 48,7 hm3/año de infiltración eficaz. Las salidas controlables ascienden a 62,2 hm3/año: 28,2 hm3/año se descargan por manantiales y 34 hm3/año por bombeos. La lluvia útil se ha calculado mediante varios métodos (Turc, Coutagne, Kessler, balance de cloruros, Thornwhite diario y mensual -con capacidades de campo de 25 y 50 mm-. El método que más se adapta a los volúmenes conocidos de entradas y salidas, para cada uno de los sistemas acuíferos y para la Unidad Hidrogeológica BlancaMijas en su conjunto, es el balance de cloruros.

  12. Use of three joints as predictors of carcass and body fat depots in Blanca Celtibérica goats

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Delfa, R.; González, C.; Gosalvez, L.F.; Tor, M.

    1995-01-01

    Nineteen adult goats of the Blanca Celtibérica breed - in non productive stage - from the experimental flock of Servicio de Investigación Agraria (Diputación General de Aragón) were scored using the lumbar, breast and tail palpation. Sternal triangle joint, lumbar square jointt a ailn tdha t were handled to assess body condition scores were dissected into muscle, bone subcutaneous fat and intermuscular fat. Regression analyses were developed for predicting carcass and body fat dep...

  13. La mujer en el subsector del alojamiento: el caso de la Costa Blanca (Alicante, España)

    OpenAIRE

    Sigüenza, María Carmen

    2011-01-01

    El artículo se acerca, desde la perspectiva de género, al mercado laboral general, y al relacionado con el alojamiento en particular, en la Costa Blanca (España). Dentro de la empresa hotelera, se centra en su organigrama y la integración por género de los diferentes departamentos que lo componen; también se analizará la integración horizontal y vertical, teniendo en cuenta la posición de las mujeres en los puestos operativos, intermedios y directivos. Este artículo propone el estudio de una ...

  14. El Archivo del Centro Socialista “Agustín de Arrieta” de Bahía Blanca

    OpenAIRE

    Cabezas, Gonzalo Ezequiel

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo se centra en el análisis de la documentación albergada por el Centro Socialista “Agustín de Arrieta” de Bahía Blanca. En primer lugar, se reconstruye brevemente el derrotero histórico de la biblioteca y del archivo del partido, derrotero íntimamente relacionado con los vaivenes, principalmente políticos, que afectaron al socialismo argentino. En segundo término, se hace una descripción general del tipo de documentación que contiene el archivo, señalando potenciales usos y...

  15. Basic diagnosis of solid waste generated at Agua Blanca State Park to propose waste management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laines Canepa, José Ramón; Zequeira Larios, Carolina; Valadez Treviño, Maria Elena Macías; Garduza Sánchez, Diana Ivett

    2012-03-01

    State parks are highly sensitive areas of great natural importance and tourism value. Herein a case study involving a basic survey of solid waste which was carried out in 2006 in Agua Blanca State Park, Macuspana, Tabasco, Mexico with two sampling periods representing the high and low tourist season is presented. The survey had five objectives: to find out the number of visitors in the different seasons, to consider the daily generation of solid waste from tourist activities, to determine bulk density, to select and quantify sub-products; and to suggest a possible treatment. A daily average of 368 people visited the park: 18,862 people in 14 days during the high season holiday (in just one day, Easter Sunday, up to 4425 visitors) and 2092 visitors in 43 days during the low season. The average weight of the generated solid waste was 61.267 kg day(-1) and the generated solid waste average per person was 0.155 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). During the high season, the average increased to 0.188 kg person(-1 ) day(-1) and during the low season, the average decreased to 0.144 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). The bulk density average was 75.014 kg m(-3), the maximum value was 92.472 kg m(-3) and the minimum was 68.274 kg m(-3). The sub-products comprised 54.52% inorganic matter; 32.03% organic matter, 10.60% non-recyclable and 2.85% others. Based on these results, waste management strategies such as reuse/recycling, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, the construction of a manual landfill and the employment of a specialist firm were suggested.

  16. Geochronology and Fluid-Rock Interaction Associated with the Nopal I Uranium Deposit, Pena Blanca, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayek, M.; Goodell, P.; Ren, M.; Simmons, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium (U) deposit, Pena Blanca District, Mexico, largely consists of secondary U 6+ minerals, which occur within a breccia pipe mainly hosted by the 44 Ma Nopal and Colorados volcanic formations. These two units overly the Pozos conglomerate formation and Cretaceous limestone. Three new vertical diamond drill holes (DDHs) were recently drilled at Nopal I. DDH-PB1 with continuous core was drilled through the Nopal I deposit and two additional DDHs were drilled ∼50 m on either side of the cored hole. These DDHs terminate 20 m below the current water table, thus allowing the detection of possible gradients in radionuclide contents resulting from transport from the overlying uranium deposit. Primary uraninite within the main ore body is rare and fine-grained (∼50 micrometers), thus making geochronology of the Nopal I deposit very difficult. Uranium, lead and oxygen isotopes can be used to study fluid-uraninite interaction, provided that the analyses are obtained on the micro-scale. Secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) permits in situ measurement of isotopic ratios with a spatial resolution on the scale of a few (micro)m. Preliminary U-Pb results show that uraninite from the main ore body gives an age of 32 ± 8 Ma, whereas uraninite from the uraniferous Pozos conglomerate that lies nearly 100 m below the main ore body and 25 meters above the water table, gives a U-Pb age that is 18 O = -10.8(per t housand), whereas the uraninite within the Pozos conglomerate has a (delta) 18 O = +1.5(per t housand). If it is assumed that both uraninites precipitated from meteoric water ((delta) 18 O = -7(per t housand)), then calculated precipitation temperatures are 55 C for the uraninite from the ore body and 20 C for uraninite hosted by the Pozos conglomerate. These temperatures are consistent with previous studies that calculated precipitation temperatures for clay minerals associated with uraninite

  17. La casa y la mesa de la reina Blanca de Navarra (1433

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano Larrayoz, Fernando

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to amplify a subject not developed enough, for the moment, in the lines of historical research that are being carried out in Navarre. It is divided in two sections. On one hand, aspects as servants, provision, products and prices, among others, have been studied through the organisation in queen Blanca's Hostel. On the other hand, we have approached the symbolic factor that feeding implies. We have also studied questions relating to crockery, feeding paces, religious aspects and beneficiaries from food. At last, in spite of having few and dispersed data, we have tried to give a view about culinary practises in the navarresse court during the first half of the 15th century.[fr] L'étude envisage l'approfondisement d'un sujet jusqu'au présent peu développé, dans les lignes de recherche historique prioritaires en Navarre. Le travail est divisé en deux sections. D'une part, l'organisation de l'Hôtel de la reine Blanche, dont on a analise les serviteurs, les fourniseurs, les produits et les prix, parmis d'autres aspects de l'institution. De l'autre, on s'est approché à l'élément symbolique que la nourriture implique, en touchant des matières comme les vaisselles, les rythmes alimentaires, les aspects religieux et les bénéficiaires des aliments. Enfin, malgré les rares sources disponibles, on a cherché à donner aussi une vision générale des pratiques culinaires de la Cour navarraise au XVᵉ siècle.

  18. Water Resources and Groundwater in a Glaciated Andean Watershed (Cordillera Blanca, Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, J. M.; Gordon, R.; Baraer, M.; Lautz, L.; Mark, B. G.; Wigmore, O.; Chavez, D.; Aubry-Wake, C.

    2014-12-01

    It is estimated that almost 400 million people live in watersheds where glaciers provide at least 10% of the runoff, yet many questions remain regarding the impact of climate change and glacier recession on water resources derived from these high mountain watersheds. We present research from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, an area with the highest density of glaciers in the tropics. While glacier meltwater buffers stream discharge throughout the range, groundwater is a major component of dry season runoff, contributing up to 50-70% of outflow in some tributaries. In order to predict future changes to water resources it is critical to understand how groundwater can offset future hydrologic stress by maintaining stream baseflow, including recharge mechanisms, subsurface pathways, storage, and net fluxes to rivers. We present a synthesis of results based on hydrologic modeling, drilling/piezometers, geophysics, and artificial and natural hydrologic tracers. Our findings show that 'pampas', low-relief mountain valleys, are critical for baseflow generation by storing groundwater on interannual timescales. Pampas have a total area of ~65 km2 and are comprised of unconsolidated glacial, talus, lacustrine and wetland (bofedales) deposits. The valleys commonly have buried talus aquifers that are overlain by low permeability, glaciolacustrine deposits. Glaciofluvial outwash deposits and small wetlands also act as unconfined aquifers. These groundwater systems appear to be primarily recharged by wet season precipitation, and at higher elevations also by glacial meltwater. Additionally a ubiquitous feature in the valleys are springs, often located at the base of talus deposits, which generate a large hydrologic flux within the hydrologic systems. While glaciers are the most visible and vulnerable component of the Andean waterscape, we argue that it is crucial to understand the complete mountain hydrologic cycle, including groundwater, in order to understand the ongoing

  19. Eficácia de atrativos alimentares na captura de moscas-das-frutas em pomar de citros Attractiveness of food baits to the fruit flies in citrus orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalton Raga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea são importantes pragas de frutas cítricas no Estado de São Paulo, principalmente Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. e Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. O objetivo deste estudo foi medir a eficiência dos atrativos alimentares para monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas, em pomar de citros. O delineamento experimental adotado foi de blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. O ensaio foi instalado em 30/9/2003 e desenvolvidopor nove semanas. Os atrativos testados foram: proteínas hidrolisadas comerciais Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca e Aumax®, todas diluídas em água a 5%; melaço a 7% isoladamente e melaço a 7% em mistura com suco de laranja a 10%. Foram utilizados semanalmente, 400mL da solução atrativa por frasco plástico McPhail instalado na copa de laranjeiras da variedade 'Pêra Rio'. As soluções eram renovadas semanalmente, ocasião em que os adultos eram coletados e çevados ao laboratório para contagem, sexagem e identificação. Foram capturados 1.821 adultos de Tephritoidea, sendo 892 de Anastrepha spp., 731 de C. capitata e 198 de Neosilba spp. Para essas espécies, as proteínas Bio Anastrepha e Isca Mosca foram altamente eficientes e semelhantes entre si, capturando 44,5% e 41,3% dos adultos de Tephritidae respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre as espécies de Tephritidae analisadas por sexo capturadas em Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® e melaço. Aumax®, melaço isoladamente e melaço + suco de laranja atraíram apenas 4,6%, 1,3% e 1,2% do total de adultos de Tephritidae, respectivamente. Melaço isoladamente e melaço com suco de laranja foram mais eficazes na atratividade de Zaprionus indianus (Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae.Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea are key pests in citrus production in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, mainly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. The objective of this study was to evaluate food baits to monitor fruit fly

  20. Avaliação de atrativos alimentares utilizados no monitoramento de mosca-das-frutas em pessegueiro na lapa- PR Food attractants used in the monitoring of fruit flies in peach trees in lapa, Paraná (PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha são uma praga-chave na cultura do pessegueiro no Paraná. Atrativos alimentares foram testados para determinar a sua eficiência no monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas capturadas em frascos caça-moscas McPhail. O experimento foi conduzido por três anos, sendo que, em 2002, foram testados como atrativo o suco de uva da marca Maguari®, o hidrolisado enzimático de proteína da marca BioAnastrepha® e o vinagre da marca Chemin Agrin®. Nos dois anos seguintes, o vinagre foi substituído pelo composto protéico hidrolisável da marca Torula®. As substâncias atrativas à base de proteína foram as mais eficientes na captura de Anastrepha spp., e as capturas ocorreram antecipadas em relação ao suco de uva. De acordo com os resultados, recomendam-se atrativos à base de proteína para monitoramento de Anastrepha spp em pessegueiro, na Lapa.Fruit flies of Anastrepha genus are a key pest in peach trees in Paraná. Food attractants were tested to determine their efficiency in monitoring fruit flies captured in McPhail fly traps. The experiment was conducted over a period of three years. In 2002 the following attractors were tested: Maguari® brand grape juice, BioAnastrepha® brand hydrolyzed enzymatic protein and Chemin Agrin® vinegar. Over the next two years, the vinegar was replaced by Torula® hydrolyzed protein compound. Protein-based attractants were the most efficient in trapping Anastrepha spp. and captured flies earlier comparing to grape juice. According to the results, the use of protein-based attractants for monitoring Anastrepha spp in the Lapa peach trees was recommended.

  1. Identificación de virus que afectan el Loroco (Fernaldia pundurata en el Valle de Zapotitán, El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reina Flor Guzm\\u00E1n de Serrano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El loroco (Fernaldia pandurata es una especie hortícola de gran valor comercial y consumo en la dieta del pueblo salvadoreño y guatemalteco. Desafortunadamente, esta especie es afectada por diversas plagas entre las que se encuentran la mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci, áfidos y enfermedades de aparente naturaleza viral. En esta investigación se examinaron plantas de loroco con síntomas de mosaico y deformación foliar e inflorescencias cloróticas con el fin de determinar su etiología y posibles agentes vectores. Las muestras se examinaron mediante microscopía electrónica y serología. La observación de las muestras en el microscopio electrónico reveló la presencia de partículas filamentosas (600-700 nm e isométricas (30 nm de aparente naturaleza viral. Las pruebas serológicas demostraron que el virus filamentoso es una especie del género Potyvirus, y el virus isométrico es una especie del género Cucumovirus. No se encontraron virus del género Begomovirus transmitidos por mosca blanca. Se concluye aquí que este insecto actúa solamente como plaga directa del loroco, mientras que los áfidos se comportan como plaga y posibles vectores de los virus detectados. Este es el primer informe sobre patógenos virales del loroco

  2. Archaeometric study of ceramic figurines from the Maya settlement of La Blanca (Petén, Guatemala)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horcajada, P.; Roldán, C.; Vidal, C.; Rodenas, I.; Carballo, J.; Murcia, S.; Juanes, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, analytical results will be presented and discussed regarding a selected set of figurines from the ancient Maya settlement of La Blanca in Petén, Guatemala. The objective is to characterize the ceramic material by two analytical complementary techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The data obtained by means of both XRD and TXRF were compared and analyzed by multivariate statistical techniques in order to obtain sample groups according to their chemical composition. The results of this archaeometric study have been compared to those that have been obtained through macroscopic characterization by means of the traditional classification system know as Type-Variety. Discordances have been found between the clusters obtained by the Type-Variety classification system and the multivariate classification procedures performed on analytical data. - Highlights: • TXRF and XRD analysis are used in studies of Maya figurines from La Blanca settlement (Guatemala). • Multivariate classification procedures were performed on analytical data to identify figurine groups. • Clustering of analytical data is compared with the traditional Type-Variety classification system

  3. A check list of necrophagous flies (Diptera: Calyptratae from urban area in Medellín, Colombia Lista de moscas necrófagas (Diptera: Calyptratae del área urbana del municipio de Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Salazar-Ortega

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An updated checklist of necrophagous flies (Diptera, Calyptratae occurring in the urban area of Medellín-Colombia is presented. 27 species belonging to 4 families are reported. Data were obtained from field work and recent bibliography references.Se presenta una lista actualizada de moscas necrófagas (Diptera, Calyptratae presentes en el área urbana del municipio de Medellín. Se registran 27 especies incluidas en cuatro familias. Los datos se obtuvieron a partir de recolectas en campo y referencias bibliográficas.

  4. Custos variáveis de produção de Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) para controle de moscas-das-frutas = Variable costs of production for Diachasmimorpha longicaudata to control the fruit flies

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Gisely Camargos; Maria de Lourdes Zamboni Costa; Elisângela de Souza Miranda

    2017-01-01

    O controle biológico aplicado consiste em liberações em massa de predadores ou parasitoides após a criação laboratorial em larga escala. Avaliar o custo de produção do parasitoide Diachasmimorpha longicaudata para controle biológico de moscas-das-frutas irá fornecer uma ferramenta capaz de auxiliar o planejamento, controle e uma forma de apoiar as empresas quanto as suas tomadas de decisão. Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar e analisar os c...

  5. Total fine root mass and nutrient content in forest ecosystems (Pinus patula Schltdl and Cham Cupressus lusitanica Mill and Quercus humboldtii bonpl.) from Piedras Blancas, Antioquia - Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto Sanchez, Luis Hernan; Leon Pelaez, Juan Diego

    2005-01-01

    In the Piedras Blancas region, Antioquia - Colombia, a sampling of fine roots K > Mg > Fe > P this study sought to highlight the importance of fine roots and their concentrations of nutrients in natural forests and plantations and their relationship with nutrient cycling. For this purpose, the methodological approach comprised total root mass, both dead and alive

  6. Crecimientoy metabolismo: la regulación y la vía de la insulina desde la mosca de la fruta, Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyannira Otero-Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster, la mosca de la fruta, es un organismo genético modelo que en años recientes se ha usado exitosamente para estudiar el control del metabolismo y el crecimiento. A pesar de poseer algunas diferencias con las vías de señalización homólogas a las de los vertebrados, las semejanzas son profundas y claras. En D. melanogaster, la vía de la insulina, homóloga a la de los vertebrados, regula tanto el metabolismo como el crecimiento del organismo a través de un receptor membranal único. A su vez, esta vía –que conjunta lo que en vertebrados es la vía de la insulina y la de los péptidos parecidos a la insulina- está regulada por la ingesta de nutrientes (carbohidratos y proteínas y por el control hormonal (hormona del crecimiento, ecdisona, upd2, hormona adipocinética, Ilp8. En consecuencia, normalmente se obtiene un crecimiento adaptable a las condiciones nutricionales que influye, como en los vertebrados, en el promedio de vida y en la capacidad reproductiva con un tamaño típico y una diferenciación armónica, a tono con el bauplandel organismo. Por el contrario las mutaciones y desviaciones dan por resultado partes desproporcionadas, menor capacidad reproductiva, y disminución tanto del tamaño como de la proliferación, y hasta la muerte.

  7. Estudios de laboratorio para el control de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann (Diptera: Tephritidae (Mosca del Mediterráneo con Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Porras

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de seleccionar cepas promisorias de Beauveria bassiana para el control de Ceratitis capitata, se realizó, en condiciones de laboratorio, una serie de ensayos empleando la mosca adulta como estado vulnerable al parasitismo por el hongo entomopatógeno. Para la selección se utilizó una concentración de 5x109 CV.m-2 del hongo. Se determinó la CL90, la sobrevivencia media (SM, la compatibilidad con insecticidas, además de ensayos de producción con el hongo. Así como la compatibilidad de los insecticidas Mercaptotion 100% CE (Lupara® y Dimetoato 40% CE (Sistémico Icona con las cepas seleccionadas. Se cuantificó la viabilidad de los conidios en platos de Petri pos-tratamiento, a 50, 100 y 200% de la dosis comercial del insecticida. A partir de 7 cepas evaluadas (mortalidad 97-14% fueron seleccionadas la Bb 26, la Bb 259, la Bb 132, y la Bb 238. Los valores de CL90 estuvieron entre 1x109 y 3,8 x1011 CV.m-2 (Bb 238 y Bb 26, respectivamente. La SM de las cepas varió de 7-12 días (Bb 238 y Bb 26, respectivamente. La mayor producción fue de 7x109 UFC.mg-1 y 20,7 g.conidios.kg-1 de arroz (Bb 26. Todas las cepas fueron compatibles con Mercaptotion y la Bb 132 presentó la mayor compatibilidad con el Dimetoato. En conclusión, los ensayos en el laboratorio permitieron seleccionar cepas de B. bassiana con potencial para controlar C. capitata.

  8. Dietas artificiais para a criação de larvas e adultos da mosca-das-frutas sul-americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrise Medeiros Nunes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi adequar as dietas artificiais para o desenvolvimento dos estágios de larva e adulto da mosca-das-frutas sul-americana (Anastrepha fraterculus. Para o estágio larval, foram testadas as seguintes dietas: D1, original, com 10 g de ágar; D2, modificada, com 3,6 g de ágar; e, D3, modificada, com bagaço seco de cana-de-açúcar. Para os adultos, foram testadas quatro dietas: A, levedura de cerveja + mel (2:1; B, açúcar refinado + extrato de levedura + gérmen de trigo cru (3:1:1; C, extrato de soja + açúcar mascavo + gérmen de trigo cru (3:1:1; e D, levedura seca de cervejaria + mel (2:1. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros biológicos de duração do período ovo-pupa, duração e viabilidade do estágio de pupa, massa média de pupas, razão sexual e duração e viabilidade do período ovo-adulto. O desenvolvimento larval em D1 e D2 foi semelhante e indicou que a criação de larvas pode ser realizada com 1/3 da quantidade de ágar da utilizada em D1. A utilização do bagaço seco de cana-de-açúcar, na dieta artificial, afetou negativamente o desenvolvimento larval. As dietas artificiais com levedura de cerveja + mel e com açúcar refinado + extrato de levedura + gérmen de trigo cru são as mais adequadas para a criação de adultos.

  9. U-Series Disequilibria in Soils, Pena Blanca Natural Analog, Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. French; E. Anthony; P. Goodell

    2006-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium deposit located in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico. The deposit was mined in the early 1980s, and ore was stockpiled close by. This stockpile area was cleared and is now referred to as the Prior High Grade Stockpile (PHGS). Some of the high-grade boulders from the site rolled downhill when it was cleared in the 1990s. For this study soil samples were collected from the alluvium surrounding and underlying one of these boulders. A bulk sample of the boulder was also collected. Because the Prior High Grade Stockpile had no ore prior to the 1980s a maximum residence time for the boulder is about 25 years, this also means that the soil was at background as well. The purpose of this study is to characterize the transport of uranium series radionuclides from ore to the soil. Transport is characterized by determining the activities of individual radionuclides and daughter to parent ratios. Isotopes of the uranium series decay chain detected include 210 Pb, 234 U, 230 Th, 226 Ra, 214 Pb, and 214 Bi. Peak areas for each isotope are determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy with a Canberra Ge (Li) detector and GENIE 2000 software. The boulder sample is close to secular equilibrium when compared to the standard BL-5 (Beaver Lodge Uraninite from Canada). Results for the soils, however, indicate that some daughter/parent pairs are in secular disequilibrium. These daughter/parent (D/P) ratios include 230 Th/ 234 U, which is greater than unity, 226 Ra/ 230 Th, which is also greater than unity, and 210 Pb/ 214 Bi, which is less than unity. The gamma-ray spectrum for organic material lacks 230 Th peaks, but contains 234 U and 226 Ra, indicating that plants preferentially incorporate 226 Ra. Our results, combined with previous studies require multistage history of mobilization of the uranium series radionuclides. Earlier studies at the ore zone could limit the time span for mobilization only to a few thousand years. The contribution of this study is that the short

  10. U-Sries Disequilibra in Soils, Pena Blanca Natural Analog, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. French; E. Anthony; P. Goodell

    2006-03-16

    The Nopal I uranium deposit located in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico. The deposit was mined in the early 1980s, and ore was stockpiled close by. This stockpile area was cleared and is now referred to as the Prior High Grade Stockpile (PHGS). Some of the high-grade boulders from the site rolled downhill when it was cleared in the 1990s. For this study soil samples were collected from the alluvium surrounding and underlying one of these boulders. A bulk sample of the boulder was also collected. Because the Prior High Grade Stockpile had no ore prior to the 1980s a maximum residence time for the boulder is about 25 years, this also means that the soil was at background as well. The purpose of this study is to characterize the transport of uranium series radionuclides from ore to the soil. Transport is characterized by determining the activities of individual radionuclides and daughter to parent ratios. Isotopes of the uranium series decay chain detected include {sup 210}Pb, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 214}Pb, and {sup 214}Bi. Peak areas for each isotope are determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy with a Canberra Ge (Li) detector and GENIE 2000 software. The boulder sample is close to secular equilibrium when compared to the standard BL-5 (Beaver Lodge Uraninite from Canada). Results for the soils, however, indicate that some daughter/parent pairs are in secular disequilibrium. These daughter/parent (D/P) ratios include {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U, which is greater than unity, {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th, which is also greater than unity, and {sup 210}Pb/{sup 214}Bi, which is less than unity. The gamma-ray spectrum for organic material lacks {sup 230}Th peaks, but contains {sup 234}U and {sup 226}Ra, indicating that plants preferentially incorporate {sup 226}Ra. Our results, combined with previous studies require multistage history of mobilization of the uranium series radionuclides. Earlier studies at the ore zone could limit the time span for mobilization only

  11. Geochronology and Fluid-Rock Interaction Associated with the Nopal I Uranium Deposit, Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Fayek; P. Goodell; M. Ren; A. Simmons

    2005-07-11

    The Nopal I uranium (U) deposit, Pena Blanca District, Mexico, largely consists of secondary U{sup 6+} minerals, which occur within a breccia pipe mainly hosted by the 44 Ma Nopal and Colorados volcanic formations. These two units overly the Pozos conglomerate formation and Cretaceous limestone. Three new vertical diamond drill holes (DDHs) were recently drilled at Nopal I. DDH-PB1 with continuous core was drilled through the Nopal I deposit and two additional DDHs were drilled {approx}50 m on either side of the cored hole. These DDHs terminate 20 m below the current water table, thus allowing the detection of possible gradients in radionuclide contents resulting from transport from the overlying uranium deposit. Primary uraninite within the main ore body is rare and fine-grained ({approx}50 micrometers), thus making geochronology of the Nopal I deposit very difficult. Uranium, lead and oxygen isotopes can be used to study fluid-uraninite interaction, provided that the analyses are obtained on the micro-scale. Secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) permits in situ measurement of isotopic ratios with a spatial resolution on the scale of a few {micro}m. Preliminary U-Pb results show that uraninite from the main ore body gives an age of 32 {+-} 8 Ma, whereas uraninite from the uraniferous Pozos conglomerate that lies nearly 100 m below the main ore body and 25 meters above the water table, gives a U-Pb age that is <1 Ma. Oxygen isotopic analyses show that uraninite from the ore body has a {delta}{sup 18}O = -10.8{per_thousand}, whereas the uraninite within the Pozos conglomerate has a {delta}{sup 18}O = +1.5{per_thousand}. If it is assumed that both uraninites precipitated from meteoric water ({delta}{sup 18}O = -7{per_thousand}), then calculated precipitation temperatures are 55 C for the uraninite from the ore body and 20 C for uraninite hosted by the Pozos conglomerate. These temperatures are consistent with previous studies that calculated precipitation

  12. Delta progradation and Neoglaciation, Laguna Parón, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Geoffrey O.; Rodbell, Donald T.

    2005-10-01

    The history of Holocene glaciation serves as an important record of glacier mass balance and, therefore, of climatic change. The moraine record of Holocene glaciation in the tropical Andes, however, is fragmentary and poorly dated. In contrast, increases in the rate of accumulation of inorganic sediment in glacier-fed lakes have been linked to periods of Neoglaciation in many mountain regions. The interpretation of such a record of Neoglaciation from sediment cores in glacier-fed lakes in the tropical Andes can provide the continuity and chronologic control that is lacking in the existing moraine record. Unusual exposures of glacial lacustrine sediment in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, provide a rare opportunity to assess the link between climatic change, glaciation, and lacustrine sedimentation.Intentional lowering of water levels in Laguna Parón (9°S, 77°44 W, 4200 m a.s.l.) in 1985 resulted in the incision and exposure of at least 20 m of deltaic deposits at the eastern end of the lake. Three deltaic units can be identified: horizontal topset beds, steeply dipping and deformed foreset beds, and horizontally laminated fine-grained sediment. Six radiocarbon ages ranging from 1800 +/- 210 to 465 +/- 95 14C yr BP on wood indicate that the average rate of delta progradation in the late Holocene has been approximately 290 m per 1000 yr. The lake formed during deglaciation at least 10 000 yr ago and if such a rate of progradation of the delta had prevailed over the entire Holocene, then the delta would be at least three times as extensive as it is today. Thus the rate of delta progradation has varied significantly over the Holocene. We suggest that the rate of delta progradation was at least three times greater when glaciers were in advanced positions. These positions are clearly delimited by Neoglacial moraines, which are within 1-2 km of the exposures studied and within 1 km of modern ice limits. The most recent increase in the rate of delta progradation is

  13. Recent glacier retreat and lake formation in the Querecocha watershed, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Moreno, J.; Valero-Garces, B.; Revuelto, J.; Azorín-Molina, C.; Bazo, J.; Cochachin, A.; Fontaneda, S.; Mark, B. G.

    2013-12-01

    In the Andes, and specifically in the Peruvian mountains a marked decrease of the glaciated area has occurred since the end of the Little Ice Age, and it has been accelerated since the last decades of the 20th century. As a result of the glacier retreat new pro-glaciar lakes are originated, and often the area and volume of existing ones increases. The study of these newly-formed lakes and their recent evolution may provide a better understanding of the hydrological and geomorphological evolution of deglaciated areas, and a better evaluation of the risk of glacial lakes outburst floods (GLOFS). In this work, we use 26 annual Landsat Thematic Mapper images from 1975 to 2010 to determine changes of the glaciated surface, snow line elevation and lakes formation in the headwaters of the Querecocha watershed in Cordillera Blanca (Perú). We also present the information derived from 10 short sediment cores (up to 50 cm long) retrieved along several transects in Yanamarey Lake. Both data sets inform of the sediment yield and lake development in recently deglaciated environments of the Andes. Results demonstrate that only one third of the surface covered by ice in 1975 remained in 2010. In this period, snowline has shifted up more than 100 meters in elevation in both, Yanamarey North and South areas respectively. At the same time, new lakes have been formed very quickly in these deglaciated areas. Preliminary 137Cs dating of Yanamarey sediment core indicates that at least the top 50 cm of the lake sequence deposited after 1960. This is coherent with the Landsat image of 1975 that showed the current surface of the lake still covered by ice. The high sediment rate (> 1 cm/yr) in the lake demonstrates the very high sediment yield in these geomorphically active settings. The sediment cores are composed of cm-thick sequences defined by grain-size (silt-clay) common in proglacial lakes reflecting the variability of hydrological response associated to the glacier retreat in the

  14. Evolución de estrellas enanas blancas de Helio de masa baja e intermedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Numerosas observaciones realizadas particularmente en los últimos dos años parecen confirmar que las enanas blancas (EB) de helio de masa baja e intermedia son el resultado de la evolución de sistemas binarios cercanos. Con el objeto de realizar una adecuada interpretación de estos objetos son necesarios modelos de EBs de helio lo más detallado posibles. En este estudio presentamos cálculos detallados de la evolución de EBs de helio con masas entre M=0.1Msolar y M=0.5Msolar a intervalos de 0.05Msolar . Para ello, hemos tenido en cuenta los efectos de temperatura finita mediante un código de evolución estelar lo más actualizado posible. En particular, el transporte de energía es descripto en el marco del nuevo modelo para la convección turbulenta desarrollado por Canuto - Mazzitelli. Además hemos considerado la nueva ecuación de estado para plasmas de helio de Saumon et al. y nuevas opacidades radiativas OPAL. Las pérdidas por neutrinos fueron asimismo tenidas en cuenta. Excepto para las EBs más masivas, nuestros modelos iniciales están ubicados en las cercanías de la correspondiente línea de Hayashi para configuraciones de helio. Nuestros resultados muestran que existe una región prohibida en el diagrama observacional HR donde ninguna EB de helio puede encontrarse. Dicha región es para log{(L/Lsolar )}>= -0.25 and log{Teff} >= 4.45. Hemos encontrado también que los tracks evolutivos en el diagrama HR en el dominio de alta luminosidad (pre - EB) son fuertemente afectados por la eficiencia convectiva y que las pérdidas por neutrinos son importantes en los modelos más masivos. Finalmente hemos analizado la estructura de la zona convectiva externa encontrando que la teoría de Canuto - Mazzitelli conduce a un perfil convectivo muy diferente del dado por cualquier versión de la popular teoría de la mixing length. Si bién este comportamiento es decisivo en el contexto de las inestabilides pulsacionales, los radios y gravedades superficiales de

  15. Antifeedant activity of botanical crude extracts and their fractions on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae adults: I. Gliricidia sepium (Fabaceae

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    Guillermo Flores

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci is an important virus vector on a number of crops worldwide. Therefore, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period. Thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water:methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether of mother-of-cocoa (Gliricidia sepium, Fabaceae were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in Costa Rica. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract and some fractions exerted such effect on the insect. In the former (in sleeve cages, three fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1% (methanol, 0.5% (water:methanol and 1.5% (diethyl ether. However, in the latter (plants exposed in a greenhouse no one of the fractions performed well, suggesting that the deterrent principles somehow decomposed under the experimental conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 2099-2113. Epub 2008 December 12.Mundialmente, Bemisia tabaci es un importante vector de virus en numerosos cultivos. Por tanto, un enfoque preventivo para enfrentar las epidemias virales podría ser el empleo de sustancias repelentes o fagodisuasivas en las etapas tempranas del desarrollo de las plantas (período crítico. Así, tanto el extracto crudo como cuatro fracciones (agua, agua:metanol, metanol y éter dietílico del madero negro (Gliricidia sepium, Fabaceae fueron evaluadas en cuanto a su actividad fagodisuasiva sobre los adultos de B. tabaci en condiciones de invernadero, utilizando plantas de tomate, en Turrialba, Costa Rica. Tanto los experimentos de escogencia restringida como los de escogencia irrestricta revelaron que el extracto crudo y algunas fracciones mostraron dicha actividad. En los primeros experimentos (en jaulas de manga, tres fracciones causaron fagodisuasión a dosis tan bajas como 0.1% (metanol, 0.5% (agua:metanol y

  16. Antifeedant activity of botanical crude extracts and their fractions on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae adults: II. Sechium pittieri (Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Flores

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci is a key pest of vegetables and other crops worldwide, but it is a particularly serious problem in the tropics, due to its ability to transmit several types of viruses, especially begomoviruses (Geminiviridae. Therefore, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period. Thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water: methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether of wild "tacaco" (Sechium pittieri, Cucurbitaceae, were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in Costa Rica. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract as well as some fractions exert such effect on the insect. In the former (in sleeve cages, fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1% (ether and 0.5% (water and water: methanol, with the methanol fraction showing no activity. However, in the latter (plants exposed in a greenhouse no one of the fractions performed well, suggesting that the deterrent principles somehow decomposed under the experimental conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 2115-2129. Epub 2008 December 12.Bemisia tabaci es una plaga clave de hortalizas y otros cultivos, mundialmente, y representa un problema particularmente serio en los trópicos, debido a su habilidad para transmitir varios tipos de virus, especialmente begomovirus (Geminiviridae. Por tanto, un enfoque preventivo para enfrentar las epidemias virales podría consistir en la utilización de sustancias repelentes o disuasivas en las eta-pas tempranas del desarrollo de la planta (período crítico. Así, el extracto crudo y cuatro fracciones (agua, agua: metanol, metanol, y éter dietílico de tacaco cimarrón (Sechium pittieri, Cucurbitaceae, fueron evaluadas por su posible actividad fagodisuasiva sobre B. tabaci en un invernadero, utilizando plantas de tomate, en

  17. Factors affecting oviposition of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in sweet pepper; Fatores que afetam a oviposicao de Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em pimentao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Larissa C. de; Campos, Alcebiades R. [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade, Engenharia Rural e Solos]. E-mail: lclima@aluno.feis.unesp.br; campos@bio.feis.unesp.br

    2008-03-15

    Bemisia tabaci (Gen.) biotype B is considered a pest of economical importance for several vegetables. The oviposition behaviour of the while fly was evaluated in sweet pepper plants. The trials were carried out under greenhouse condition and in the Laboratory of Entomology of DEFERS/ UNESP, Campus of Ilha Solteira-SP, with the sweet pepper Magali-R genotype. The effect of plant age on the whitefly oviposition was evaluated in free-choice tests, in plants, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45- day-old, as egg distribution in the plant and on the leaf blade was evaluated in 35-days-old plants. In a no-choice tests, 35-day-old plants were used to evaluate the effect of the densities of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 adults per plant on the number of eggs laid by insects. The silver leaf whitefly preferred to oviposition the third to sixth leaflets, of the medium and superior part of plants of sweet pepper; the leaf blade areas, located in the lobes right and left close the base of the leaf were the preferential site for whitefly oviposition. Older plants, 40- and 45-day-old, were preferentially used for oviposition, and 200 and 250 adults per plant were both enough to lay a number of eggs that allowed to differentiate among sweet pepper genotypes with different whitefly resistance levels. (author)

  18. Biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) B biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on six bean genotypes; Aspectos biologicos de Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em seis genotipos de feijoeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriani, Maria A. de G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva; Vendramin, Jose D. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola; Brunherotto, Rogerio [Fundacao Municipal de Ensino Superior de Braganca Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2008-03-15

    The silverleaf whitefly is one of the most harmful pests that attack bean crops, mainly for extracting large quantities of phloem sap and transmitting the bean golden mosaic virus. Resistant germplasm plants can be an important method for controlling this pest. The biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci B biotype on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes were evaluated. The tests were conducted under laboratory conditions, with the following genotypes: Arc 1, Arc 3s, Arc 5s, G13028, G11056 and Porrillo 70. The bean plants in a stage IV-1 were infested during one day with silverleaf white flies. Afterwards the eggs and nymphs were observed until adult emergence. Longevity and fecundity of emerged insects were also evaluated. The longest development time occurred for nymphs fed on Arc 3s genotype (26.5 days), following by G11056 (25.9 days) and G13028 (25.3 days). The development period was 5.5 days longer in Arc 3s when compared with Porrillo 70. Also, the wild genotypes Arc 3s and G11056 showed higher mortality rates (94.7% and 83.1%, respectively), which may suggest antibiosis and/or feeding non preference resistance type. For this reason, although longevity and fecundity were not influenced when the whitefly fed on resistant genotypes (Arc 3s, G11056, G13028 and Arc 5s), those genotypes can be used for bean breeding program towards B. tabaci B biotype. (author)

  19. Geologic Mapping in Nogal Peak Quadrangle: Geochemistry, Intrusive Relations and Mineralization in the Sierra Blanca Igneous Complex, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, F.; Kelley, S. A.; Lawrence, J. R.; Cikowski, C. T.; Krier, D. J.; Goff, C. J.; McLemore, V. T.

    2011-12-01

    Nogal Peak quadrangle is located in the northern Sierra Blanca Igneous Complex (SBIC) and contains most of the White Mountain Wilderness (geologic map is available at http://geoinfo.nmt.edu/publications/maps/geologic/ofgm/details.cfml?Volume=134). The geology of the quad consists of a late Eocene to Oligocene volcanic pile (Sierra Blanca Volcanics, mostly alkali basalt to trachyte) intruded by a multitude of dikes, plugs and three stocks: Rialto, 31.4 Ma (mostly syenite), Three Rivers, ca. 29 to 27 Ma (quartz syenite intruded by subordinate alkali granite), and Bonito Lake, 26.6 Ma (mostly monzonite). Three Rivers stock is partially surrounded by alkali rhyolites that geochemically resemble the alkali granites. The circular shape of the stock and surrounding rhyolites suggests they form the root of a probable caldera. SBIC rocks have compositions typical of those found within the Rocky Mountain alkaline belt and those associated with continental rift zone magmatism. Because the volcanic host rocks are deeply eroded, intrusive relations with the stocks are well exposed. Most contacts at stock margins are near vertical. Roof pendants are common near some contacts and stoped blocks up to 700 m long are found within the Three Rivers stock. Contacts, pendants and stoped blocks generally display some combination of hornfelsing, brecciation, fracturing, faulting and mineralization. Sierra Blanca Volcanics display hydrothermal alteration increasing from argillic in the NW sector of the quad to high-temperature porpylitic near stock margins. Retrograde phyllic alteration occurs within breccia pipes and portions of the stocks. Mineral deposits consist of four types: Placer Au, fissure veins (mostly Ag-Pb-Zn±Au), breccia pipes (Au-Mo-Cu), and porphyry Mo-Cu. A singular pipe on the SW margin of Bonito Lake stock contains sapphire-lazulite-alunite. Although Au has been intermittently mined in the quad since 1865, best production of Au originated around the turn of the last

  20. Glacier Changes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, Derived From SPOT5 Imagery, GIS and Field- Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racoviteanu, A.; Arnaud, Y.; Williams, M. W.; Singh Khalsa, S.

    2007-12-01

    There is urgency in deriving an extensive dataset for deriving glacier changes within the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, in a cost-effective and timely manner. Rapid glacial retreat during the last decades in this area poses a threat for water resources, hydroelectric power and local traditions. While there is some information on decadal changes in glacier extents, there still remains a paucity of mass balance measurements and glacier parameters such as hypsometry, size distribution and termini elevations. Here we investigate decadal changes in glacier parameters for Cordillera Blanca of Peru using data from Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) sensor, an old glacier inventory from 1970 aerial photography, field-based mass balance measurements and meteorological observations. Here we focus on: constructing a geospatial glacier inventory from 2003 SPOT scenes; mass balance estimations using remote sensing and field data; frequency distribution of glacier area; changes in termini elevations; hypsometry changes over time; glacier topography (slope, aspect, length/width ratio); AAR vs. mass balance for Artesonraju and Yanamarey benchmark glaciers; precipitation and temperature trends in the region. Over the last 25 years, mean temperatures increases of 0.09 deg.C/yr were greater at lower elevation than the 0.01 deg.C/yr at higher elevations, with little change in precipitation. Comparison of the new SPOT-based glacier inventory with the 1970 inventory shows that glaciers in Cordillera Blanca retreated at a rate of 0.6% per year over the last three decades, with no significant differences in the rate of area loss between E and W side. At lower elevations there is an upward shift of glacier termini along with a decrease in glacier area. Small glaciers are losing more area than large glaciers. Based on the relationship between specific mass balance (bn) and accumulation area ratio (AAR) for the two benchmark glaciers, we predicted a steady-state equilibrium line

  1. Notes on necrophagous flies (Diptera: Calyptratae associated to fish carrion in Colombian Amazon Notas sobre moscas necrófagas (Diptera: Caliptratae associadas a carcaças de peixe na Amazônia Colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Amat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing number of studies on carrion fly communities due to their medical importance and as a consequence of the large number of studies on forensic entomology. Surprisingly few studies have adressed with the asynantropic flies of the Amazon, and none were done in Colombia. A faunistic study of asynantropic flies of the families Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae and Fannidae in three different landscapes of the Colombian Amazon is presented, trapping effectiveness is assessed, and the first record of Mesembrinella batesi (Aldrich, 1922 and Fannia femoralis (Stein, 1897 from Colombia is reported.Apesar de existir uma quantidade considerável de estudos sobre dípteros decompositores devido a sua importância medica e ao avanço da entomologia forense, poucos dizem respeito as moscas asinantrópicas na Amazônia e nada foi feito na Colômbia. No presente trabalho é feito um estudo faunístico sobre moscas, principalmente das famílias Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae e Fanniidae em três diferentes paisagens da Amazônia Colombiana, além do primeiro registro das espécies Mesembrinella batesi (Aldrich, 1922 e Fannia femoralis (Stein, 1897 para Colômbia e avaliação da amostragem utilizada.

  2. Genome-wide analyses of the Bemisia tabaci species complex reveal contrasting patterns of admixture and complex demographic histories.

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    S Elfekih

    Full Text Available Once considered a single species, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is a complex of numerous morphologically indistinguishable species. Within the last three decades, two of its members (MED and MEAM1 have become some of the world's most damaging agricultural pests invading countries across Europe, Africa, Asia and the Americas and affecting a vast range of agriculturally important food and fiber crops through both feeding-related damage and the transmission of numerous plant viruses. For some time now, researchers have relied on a single mitochondrial gene and/or a handful of nuclear markers to study this species complex. Here, we move beyond this by using 38,041 genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, and show that the two invasive members of the complex are closely related species with signatures of introgression with a third species (IO. Gene flow patterns were traced between contemporary invasive populations within MED and MEAM1 species and these were best explained by recent international trade. These findings have profound implications for delineating the B. tabaci species status and will impact quarantine measures and future management strategies of this global pest.

  3. Morphological characterization of Capsicum annuum L. accessions from southern Mexico and their response to the Bemisia tabaci-Begomovirus complex

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    Horacio Ballina-Gomez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The high diversity of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. in Mexico offers an excellent alternative to search for wild and semi-domesticated genotypes as sources of resistance to the complex Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae-Begomovirus, which has caused enormous losses in commercial production of various horticultural crops. The goal of the present work was to characterize ex situ 18 genotypes of C. annuum from southern Mexico through 47 morphological descriptors, and to evaluate its response to the B. tabaci-Begomovirus complex. Morphological characterization showed the variables calyx annular constriction (CAC, number of branch bifurcation (NBB, and calyx pigmentation (CP had the highest variation. Principal components analysis (PCA of 47 morphological characteristics showed that 12 components were selected as meaningful factors. These components explained 94% of the variation. Cluster analysis showed three major clusters and seven sub-clusters. On the other hand, evaluation of the response to B. tabaci-Begomovirus showed that the genotypes have differential susceptibility to this vector-pathogen complex. Genotypes 'Chawa', 'Blanco', 'Maax' and 'X'catic' were into the low susceptibility to B. tabaci and low severity of viral symptoms. Surprisingly, the genotype 'Simojovel' showed high susceptibility to whitefly, but was grouped into genotypes with low symptom severity. This study shows the potential of native germplasm of pepper to explore sources of resistance to the B. tabaci-Begomovirus complex.

  4. Management of white flies (Bemisia tabaci) in tomato with a combination of plastic mulch and insecticides in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubillo, D.; Hilje, L.; Valverde, B.E.; Carazo, E.

    1999-01-01

    A combination of silver plastic soil cover and application of endosulfan or imidacloprid for the control of whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) in tomato was compared to farmer's practice in Guayabo, Turrialba, Costa Rica. None of the treatments affected the whitefly infestation which was very low, the highest value being 2.25 adults/10 plants. Viral disease incidence amounted only 2.4 to 4.4% by the end of the crop season, the highest incidence levels were consistently observed in control treatments. Such negligible incidence values precluded evaluation of disease severity. Fruit number or weight and total yield were not affected by the treatments. No detectable residues of endosulfan or its metabolites were present in either foliage or fruit tissues. In soil samples, minute amounts of α- and β-endosulfan were found as well as endosulfan sulphate, the most important metabolite. Insecticide residues were always higher in the plots that were treated twice compared to those that were sprayed only once with endosulfan. No endosulfan or metabolites were detected in control plots. The lack of residues in plant tissues and the minute amounts found in soils indicate that endosulfan can be used as part as an integrated program for whitefly control in tomato. (author)

  5. Response of Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B to genotypes of pepper Capsicum annuum (Solanales: Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballina-Gomez, H; Ruiz-Sanchez, E; Chan-Cupul, W; Latournerie-Moreno, L; Hernández-Alvarado, L; Islas-Flores, I; Zuñiga-Aguilar, J J

    2013-04-01

    Bemisia tabaci Genn. biotype B is a widely distributed plant pest that represents one of the major constraints for horticultural crop production. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the oviposition preference, survivorship, and development of B. tabaci biotype B on semi-cultivated genotypes of Capsicum annuum from southeast Mexico. In free-choice experiments to evaluate the oviposition preference, lower number of eggs laid by B. tabaci biotype B was observed in the genotypes Maax and Xcat´ik relative to that in the commercial genotype Parado. Egg hatchability was significantly lower in Pico Paloma, Bolita, Blanco, Chawa, Payaso, and Xcat´ik than in the rest of the genotypes, including the commercial genotype Jalapeño. Likewise, survivorship of nymphs was significantly lower in Pico Paloma, Bolita, and Blanco than in the remaining genotypes. Nymph developmental time and the period of development from egg to adult were the shortest in Amaxito. Therefore, sources of resistance to B. tabaci biotype B by antibiosis (accumulation of plant defense compounds) might be found in the semi-cultivated genotypes Pico Paloma, Bolita, and Blanco.

  6. Taxonomic status of the Bemisia tabaci complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae and reassessment of the number of its constituent species.

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    Wonhoon Lee

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is one of the most important insect pests in the world. In the present study, the taxonomic status of B. tabaci and the number of species composing the B. tabaci complex were determined based on 1059 COI sequences of B. tabaci and 509 COI sequences of 153 hemipteran species. The genetic divergence within B. tabaci was conspicuously higher (on average, 11.1% than interspecific genetic divergence within the respective genera of the 153 species (on average, 6.5%. This result indicates that B. tabaci is composed of multiple species that may belong to different genera or subfamilies. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on 212 COI sequences without duplications revealed that the B. tabaci complex is composed of a total of 31 putative species, including a new species, JpL. However, genetic divergence within six species (Asia II 1, Asia II 7, Australia, Mediterranean, New World, and Sub Saharan Africa 1 was higher than 3.5%, which has been used as a threshold of species boundaries within the B. tabaci complex. These results suggest that it is necessary to increase the threshold for species boundaries up to 4% to distinguish the constituent species in the B. tabaci complex.

  7. Dissipation rate of thiacloprid and its control effect against Bemisia tabaci in greenhouse tomato after soil application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sa; Qiao, Kang; Wang, Hongyan; Zhu, Yukun; Xia, Xiaoming; Wang, Kaiyun

    2014-08-01

    Thiacloprid is a chloronicotinyl insecticide that is quite effective against sucking insects. In this study, when thiacloprid was applied at two different rates (normal rate 15 kg ha(-1) , double rate 30 kg ha(-1) ), the systemic distribution and residue of thiacloprid as well as its control effect against whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) were investigated in greenhouse tomato after soil application. The results showed that thiacloprid was present in the tomato leaves until day 25, and then its amount was less than 0.005 mg kg(-1) and could not be detected. Thiacloprid residue in the tomato stems basically remained at a stable low level throughout the experimental period. Thiacloprid in soil had half-lives of 11.8 and 12.5 days for the normal treatment and the double treatment respectively. The control efficiency of whiteflies was about 90% from day 1 to day 10. This was followed by a slow decline, but efficiency was still higher than 50% until day 21. In addition, no significant differences were noted in the control effect of thiacloprid on whiteflies between the two different rates. Soil application of thiacloprid at the normal rate can effectively control whiteflies, with high efficiency and long persistence. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Studies on the Susceptibility of Different Developmental Stages of [Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius] to Pyriproxyfen and Citowett Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sedighe ashtari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bemisia tabaci is highly polyphagous herbivore. This is one of the most important cotton pests throughout the world. Bemisia tabaci causes noticeable damage to quality and quantity of cotton yield. Due to its special habitat, the present efforts to control of the pest have focused on the application of chemical insecticides. It is well established that the overuse and misuse of these compounds can lead to environemntal disasters and development of resistance. Therefore, undertakening research for a safe and environment- compatible method of control has been warranted. In our research, the degree of sensitivity of different life stages of B. tabaci to a juvenile hormone analogue compound and citowett oil was evaluated. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, specimens were collected from contaminated tomato and tobacco flowerpots in the greenhouse of the Faculty of Agriculture at Urmia University. After immersion of leaves in the pesticide solutions, the sensitivity of different life stages was evaluated. The purpose of this test is to determine the range of concentrations of insecticides which would cause 25-75 percent death rate. The main concentrations were calculated by the concentration of preliminary experiments.The control mortality was corrected using Abbott's formula. Results and Discussion: At the termination of experiments the following results were obtained: in all of the treatments, nymph, pupa and egg stages were the most sensitive ones to this compound, respectively, because the juvenile hormone analogue affected the egg and the immature stages but did not affect the adult insects. In the citowett oil treatment nymph, pupa and egg were the most sensitive stages and the adult insect was the most resistant one. The LC50 value of pyriproxyfen after 24 hours for the adult, egg, nymph along with pupa stages (immature stages were 973.1530, 45.045 and 11.4468 ppm, respectively. The LC50 value of citowett oil after 24 hour

  9. Populations of predators and parasitoids of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) after the application of eight biorational insecticides in vegetable crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Alvin M; Shaaban, Abd-Rabou

    2011-08-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important pest of vegetables and many other crops worldwide. Eight biorational insecticides (based on oil, plant derivatives, insect growth regulator and fungus) were evaluated in the field for their influence on populations of six natural enemies of B. tabaci. Natural populations of two predators [Chrysoperla carnea Stephen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)] and two genera of parasitoids [Encarsia spp. and Eretmocerus spp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)] were evaluated in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Also, augmented field populations of three predators [C. carnea, Coccinella undecimpunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Macrolophus caliginosus (Wagner) (Hemiptera: Miridae)] were evaluated in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). Regardless of natural enemy or crop, jojoba oil, Biovar and Neemix had the least effect on abundance of the natural enemies in comparison with the other insecticides during a 14 day evaluation period. Conversely, Admiral, KZ oil, Mesrona oil, Mesrona oil + sulfur and natural oil had a high detrimental effect on abundance of the natural enemies. These results demonstrate the differential effects of biorational insecticides for whitefly control on predators and parasitoids in the field. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Rapid genetic turnover in populations of the insect pest Bemisia tabaci Middle East: Asia Minor 1 in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsdale, A; Schellhorn, N A; De Barro, P; Buckley, Y M; Riginos, C

    2012-10-01

    Organisms differ greatly in dispersal ability, and landscapes differ in amenability to an organism's movement. Thus, landscape structure and heterogeneity can affect genetic composition of populations. While many agricultural pests are known for their ability to disperse rapidly, it is unclear how fast and over what spatial scale insect pests might respond to the temporally dynamic agricultural landscapes they inhabit. We used population genetic analyses of a severe crop pest, a member of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodoidea: Aleyrodidea) cryptic species complex known as Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (commonly known as biotype B), to estimate spatial and temporal genetic diversity over four months of the 2006-2007 summer growing season. We examined 559 individuals from eight sites, which were scored for eight microsatellite loci. Temporal genetic structure greatly exceeded spatial structure. There was significant temporal change in local genetic composition from the beginning to the end of the season accompanied by heterozygote deficits and inbreeding. This temporal structure suggests entire cohorts of pests can occupy a large and variable agricultural landscape but are rapidly replaced. These rapid genetic fluctuations reinforce the concept that agricultural landscapes are dynamic mosaics in time and space and may contribute to better decisions for pest and insecticide resistance management.

  11. High Level of Nitrogen Makes Tomato Plants Releasing Less Volatiles and Attracting More Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Nazrul; Hasanuzzaman, Abu Tayeb Mohammad; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2017-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) production is seriously hampered by the infestation of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci MEAM 1 (Middle East-Asia Minor 1). The infestation behavior of the whiteflies could be affected by the quantity of plant released volatile organic compounds (VOCs) related to nitrogen concentrations of the plant. In this study, we determined the infestation behavior of B. tabaci to the tomato plants that produced different levels of VOCs after application of different levels of nitrogen with a wind tunnel and an olfactometer. We also analyzed the VOCs released from nitrogen-treated tomato plants using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results revealed that the production of eight VOCs (β-pinene, (+)-4-carene, α-terpinene, p-cymene, β-phellandrene, α-copaene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene) was reduced after the plants were treated with high levels of nitrogen. However, more whiteflies were attracted to the tomato plants treated with high levels of nitrogen than to the plants treated with normal or below normal levels of nitrogen. These results clearly indicated that nitrogen can change the quality and quantity of tomato plant volatile chemicals, which play important roles in B. tabaci host plant selection. PMID:28408917

  12. Detection of resistance, cross-resistance, and stability of resistance to new chemistry insecticides in Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Muhammad; Saeed, Shafqat; Saleem, Mushtaq Ahmad; Denholm, Ian; Shah, Maqbool

    2013-06-01

    Resistance levels in whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) collections from cotton and sunflower (up to four districts) for five neonicotinoids and two insect growth regulators (IGRs) were investigated for two consecutive years. Based on the LC50(s), all collections showed slight to moderate levels of resistance for the tested insecticides compared with the laboratory susceptible population. The data also indicated that cotton and sunflower collections had similar resistance levels. In comparison (four collections), Vehari collections showed higher resistance for acetamiprid, thiacloprid, and nitenpyram compared with those of others. Average resistance ratios for acetamiprid, thiacloprid, and nitenpyram ranged from 5- to 13-, 4- to 8-, and 9- to 13-fold, respectively. Multan and Vehari collections also exhibited moderate levels (9- to 16-fold) of resistance to buprofezin. Furthermore, toxicity of neonicotinoids against immature stages was equal to that of insect growth regulators. The data also suggested that resistance in the field populations was stable. After selection for four generations with bifenthrin (G1 to G4), resistance to bifenthrin increased to 14-fold compared with the laboratory susceptible population. Selection also increased resistance to fenpropathrin, lambdacyhalothrin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and diafenthuron. Cross-resistance and stability of resistance in the field populations is of some concern. Rotation of insecticides having no cross-resistance and targeting the control against immature stages may control the resistant insects, simultaneously reducing the selection pressure imposed.

  13. Action threshold for applying insect growth regulators to tomato for management of irregular ripening caused by Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, D J

    2002-04-01

    The whitefly Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring is a major pest of tomatoes, causing an irregular ripening disorder characterized externally by incomplete or inhibited reddening of fruit, especially in longitudinal sections, and internally by an increase in the amount of white tissue. Experiments were undertaken during the spring and fall of 1997 and 1998 and the spring of 1999 to develop an action threshold for applying the insect growth regulators (IGRs) buprofezin and pyriproxyfen to manage B. argentifolii and irregular ripening. The IGRs were applied when predetermined thresholds were reached and were compared with a high rate of the systemic insecticide imidacloprid, which was applied at transplanting and provided season-long whitefly control. Only plots treated when the numbers of sessile nymphs (second through fourth instars) reached five per 10 leaflets consistently had both external and internal irregular ripening severity ratings similar to the imidacloprid standard. Results were similar for buprofezin and pyriproxyfen even though the modes of action differ. The five nymphs per 10 leaflets threshold lends itself to field scouting because nymphal counts completed in the field using the unaided eye supplemented with a 10x hand lens were linearly and significantly related to counts completed in the laboratory with a dissecting microscope.

  14. Toxicological and biochemical basis of synergism between the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium and the insecticide matrine against Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shaukat; Zhang, Can; Wang, Zeqing; Wang, Xing-Min; Wu, Jian-Hui; Cuthbertson, Andrew G. S.; Shao, Zhenfang; Qiu, Bao-Li

    2017-04-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) was challenged with different combinations of matrine (insecticide) and Lecanicillium muscarium (entomopathogenic fungus). Our results revealed a synergistic relationship between matrine and L. muscarium on mortality and enzyme activities of B. tabaci. To illustrate the biochemical mechanisms involved in detoxification and immune responses of B. tabaci against both control agents, activities of different detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes were quantified. After combined application of matrine and L. muscarium, activities of carboxylestrease (CarE), glutathione-s-transferase (GSTs) and chitinase (CHI) decreased during the initial infection period. Acetylcholinestrase (AChE) activities increased during the entire experimental period, whereas those of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) decreased during the later infection period. The increased mortality and suppression of enzymatic response of B. tabaci following matrine and L. muscarium application suggests a strong synergistic effect between both agents. The strong synergistic effect is possibly related to the disturbance of acetylcholine balance and changes in AchE activities of the whitefly as both matrine and L. muscarium target insect acetylcholine (Ach) receptors which in turn effects AchE production. Therefore, our results have revealed the complex biochemical processes involved in the synergistic action of matrine and L. muscarium against B. tabaci.

  15. Two cytochrome P450 genes are involved in imidacloprid resistance in field populations of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shao-li; Wu, Qing-jun; Pan, Hui-peng; Li, Ru-mei; Yang, Ni-na; Liu, Bai-ming; Xu, Bao-yun; Zhou, Xiaomao; Zhang, You-jun

    2013-11-01

    The sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae), is an invasive and damaging pest of field crops worldwide. The neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid has been widely used to control this pest. We assessed the species composition (B vs. Q), imidacloprid resistance, and association between imidacloprid resistance and the expression of five P450 genes for 14-17 B. tabaci populations in 12 provinces in China. Fifteen of 17 populations contained only B. tabaci Q, and two populations contained both B and Q. Seven of 17 populations exhibited moderate to high resistance to imidacloprid, and eight populations exhibited low resistance to imidacloprid, compared with the most susceptible field WHHB population. In a study of 14 of the populations, resistance level was correlated with the expression of the P450 genes CYP6CM1 and CYP4C64 but not with the expression of CYP6CX1, CYP6CX4, or CYP6DZ7. This study indicates that B. tabaci Q has a wider distribution in China than previously reported. Resistance to imidacloprid in field populations of B. tabaci is associated with the increased expression of two cytochrome P450 genes (CYP6CM1 and CYP4C64). Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Profiling of Sugar Transporter Family in the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

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    Zezhong Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sugar transporters (STs play pivotal roles in the growth, development, and stress responses of phloem-sucking insects, such as the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. In this study, 137 sugar transporters (STs were identified based on analysis of the genome and transcriptome of B. tabaci MEAM1. B. tabaci MEAM1 encodes a larger number of STs than other selected insects. Phylogenetic and molecular evolution analysis showed that the 137 STs formed three expanded clades and that the genes in Sternorrhyncha expanded clades had accelerated rates of evolution. B. tabaci sugar transporters (BTSTs were divided into three groups based on their expression profiles across developmental stages; however, no host-specific BTST was found in B. tabaci fed on different host plants. Feeding of B. tabaci adults with feeding diet containing dsRNA significantly reduced the transcript level of the target genes in B. tabaci and mortality was significantly improved in B. tabaci fed on dsRNA compared to the control, which indicates the sugar transporters may be used as potential RNAi targets for B. tabaci bio-control. These results provide a foundation for further studies of STs in B. tabaci.

  17. How many populations set foot through the Patagonian door? Genetic composition of the current population of Bahía Blanca (Argentina) based on data from 19 Alu polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resano, M; Esteban, E; González-Pérez, E; Vía, M; Athanasiadis, G; Avena, S; Goicoechea, A; Bartomioli, M; Fernández, V; Cabrera, A; Dejean, C; Carnese, F; Moral, P

    2007-01-01

    The city of Bahía Blanca occupies a strategic place in Argentina south of the Pampean region in the north-east corner of the Patagonia. Since 1828, this city has been the historical and political border between Amerindian lands in the south, and the lands of European colonists. Nowadays, Bahía Blanca is an urban population mainly composed by descendents of immigrants from Spain and other European countries with apparently low admixture with Amerindians. In view of the unexpectedly high Amerindian admixture levels (about 46.7%) suggested by mtDNA data, and protein markers (19.5%), we analyzed a set of 19 Alu polymorphisms (18 autosomal, 1 of Chromosome Y) in a well-documented genealogical sample from Bahía Blanca. The genotyped sample was made up of 119 unrelated healthy individuals whose birth place and grandparent origins were fully documented. According to available genealogical records, the total sample has been subdivided into two groups: Bahía Blanca Original (64 individuals with all 4 gandparents born in Argentina) and Bahía Blanca Mix (55 individuals with one to three grandparents born out of Argentina). Allele frequencies and gene diversity values in Bahía Blanca fit well into the European ranges. Population relationships have been tested for 8 Alu markers, whose variation has been described in several Amerindian and European samples. Reynolds genetic distances underline the significant genetic similarity of Bahía Blanca to Europeans (mean distance 0.044) and their differentiation from Amerindians (0.146). Interestingly enough, when the general sample is divided, Bahía Blanca Original appears slightly closer to Amerindians (0.127) in contrast to Bahía Blanca Mix (0.161). Furthermore, the genetic relationships depicted through a principal components analysis emphasize the relative similarity of Bahía Blanca Original to Amerindians. A thorough knowledge of the sample origins has allowed us to make a subtle distinction of the genetic composition of

  18. Eficiencia del transporte urbano de pasajeros en la localidad de Bahía Blanca, Argentina 2007-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Viego, Valentina; Universidad Nacional del Sur; Volonté, Carolina; Universidad Nacional del Sur,

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es evaluar la eficiencia en la prestación del servicio de transporte urbano por colectivo en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Las estimaciones se realizaron mediante la aplicación del método de frontera estocástica a una función de producción con datos de panel para el período 2007-2014. Los resultados indican que el nivel medio de eficiencia no varió significativamente durante el período analizado. Asimismo, las transferencias monetarias y la concentración d...

  19. La educación de las mujeres en dos novelas peruanas del siglo XIX : Herencia y Blanca Sol

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante Oliva, Lita Giannina

    2015-01-01

    Esta investigación describe la situación de la educación de las mujeres peruanas de la élite limeña a partir de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. Analizando los aspectos educativos presentados en las novelas Herencia y Blanca Sol, de Clorinda Matto de Turner y Mercedes Cabello de Carbonera respectivamente, se explican e interpretan las características de la educación que se ofrecía a niñas y jóvenes en la capital del Perú. Por un lado, los colegios privados de la época presentaban tanto un curr...

  20. Nuevo registro del loro frente blanca (Amazona albifrons para la Isla de Cozumel, Quintana Roo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Herminio Plasencia Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos, por primera vez en la literatura científica, al loro frente blanca (Amazona albifrons como especie introducida en áreas urbanas de la Isla de Cozumel, Quintana Roo, durante el trabajo de campo realizado en el mes de abril de 2011. Su presencia sólo en áreas urbanas de la isla, la capacidad de la especie para poder vivir con éxito en áreas urbanas, la abundancia de árboles frutales y su uso como mascota por los isleños nos permite sugerir que los individuos registrados son resultado de escapes o fueron liberados por sus dueños. Es probable que las condiciones sean favorables para el establecimiento de una población dentro del poblado de San Miguel de Cozumel, lo que debe monitorearse en el futuro.

  1. Modeling of U-series Radionuclide Transport Through Soil at Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekar, K. E.; Goodell, P. C.; Walton, J. C.; Anthony, E. Y.; Ren, M.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal I uranium deposit is located at Pena Blanca in Chihuahua, Mexico. Mining of high-grade uranium ore occurred in the early 1980s, with the ore stockpiled nearby. The stockpile was mostly cleared in the 1990s; however, some of the high-grade boulders have remained there, creating localized sources of radioactivity for a period of 25-30 years. This provides a unique opportunity to study radionuclide transport, because the study area did not have any uranium contamination predating the stockpile in the 1980s. One high-grade boulder was selected for study based upon its shape, location, and high activity. The presumed drip-line off of the boulder was marked, samples from the boulder surface were taken, and then the boulder was moved several feet away. Soil samples were taken from directly beneath the boulder, around the drip-line, and down slope. Eight of these samples were collected in a vertical profile directly beneath the boulder. Visible flakes of boulder material were removed from the surficial soil samples, because they would have higher concentrations of U-series radionuclides and cause the activities in the soil samples to be excessively high. The vertical sampling profile used 2-inch thicknesses for each sample. The soil samples were packaged into thin plastic containers to minimize the attenuation and to standardize sample geometry, and then they were analyzed by gamma-ray spectroscopy with a Ge(Li) detector for Th-234, Pa-234, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Pb-214, Bi-214, and Pb-210. The raw counts were corrected for self-attenuation and normalized using BL-5, a uranium standard from Beaverlodge, Saskatchewan. BL-5 allowed the counts obtained on the Ge(Li) to be referenced to a known concentration or activity, which was then applied to the soil unknowns for a reliable calculation of their concentrations. Gamma ray spectra of five soil samples from the vertical profile exhibit decreasing activities with increasing depth for the selected radionuclides

  2. Emerging Glacial Lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru: A Case Study at Arteson Glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, R. E.; Mckinney, D. C.; Gomez, J.; Voss, K.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical glaciers are an essential component of the water resources systems in the mountainous regions where they are located, and a warming climate has resulted in the accelerated retreat of Andean glaciers in recent decades. The shrinkage of Andean glaciers influences the flood risk for communities living downstream as new glacial lakes have begun to form at the termini of some glaciers. As these lakes continue to grow in area and volume, they pose an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Ice thickness measurements have been a key missing link in studying the tropical glaciers in Peru and how climate change is likely to impact glacial melt and the growth of glacial lakes. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has rarely been applied to glaciers in Peru to measure ice thickness, and these measurements can tell us a lot about how a warming climate will affect glacier mass balance. This study presents GPR data taken in July 2012 at the Arteson glacier in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. A new lake has begun to form at the terminus of the Arteson glacier, and this lake has key features, including overhanging ice and loose rock likely to create landslides, that could trigger a catastrophic GLOF if the lake continues to grow. This new lake is part of a series of three lakes that have formed below the Arteson glacier. The two lower lakes, Artesonraju and Paron, are much larger so that if there were an avalanche or landslide into the new lake below Arteson glacier, the impact could potentially be more catastrophic than a GLOF from one single lake. Estimates of how the lake mass balance is likely to evolve due to the retreating glacier are key to assessing the flood risk from this dynamic three-lake system. Because the glacier mass balance and lake mass balance are closely linked, the ice thickness measurements and measurements of the bed slope of the Arteson glacier and underlying bedrock give us a clue to how the lake is likely to evolve. GPR measurements of

  3. Potenciální nebezpečnost vybraných morénami hrazených jezer v pohoří Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Emmer, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Adam Emmer: Potential hazardousness of selected moraine-dammed lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru ABSTRACT: This work is devided into the two parts. Firs part reviews contemporary methods of assessment of potential hazardousness for moraine-dammed lakes (eight qualitative methods and three quantitative methods). Second part has two main aims: 1) Assessment of potential hazardousness of seven selected moraine-dammed lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, and 2) Analysis of suitability of these meth...

  4. Review Article: Lake and breach hazard assessment for moraine-dammed lakes: an example from the Cordillera Blanca (Peru

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    A. Emmer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs and related debris flows represent a significant threat in high mountainous areas across the globe. It is necessary to quantify this threat so as to mitigate their catastrophic effects. Complete GLOF hazard assessment incorporates two phases: the probability of water release from a given glacial lake is estimated through lake and breach hazard assessment while the endangered areas are identified during downstream hazard assessment. This paper outlines a number of methods of lake and breach hazard assessment, which can be grouped into three categories: qualitative, of which we outline eight; semi-quantitative, of which we outline two; and quantitative, of which we outline three. It is considered that five groups of critical parameters are essential for an accurate regionally focused hazard assessment method for moraine-dammed lakes in the Cordillera Blanca. These comprise the possibility of dynamic slope movements into the lake, the possibility of a flood wave from a lake situated upstream, the possibility of dam rupture following a large earthquake, the size of the dam freeboard (or ratio of dam freeboard, and a distinction between natural dams and those with remedial work. It is shown that none of the summarised methods uses all these criteria with, at most, three of the five considered by the outlined methods. A number of these methods were used on six selected moraine-dammed lakes in the Cordillera Blanca: lakes Quitacocha, Checquiacocha, Palcacocha, Llaca, Rajucolta, and Tararhua. The results have been compared and show that each method has certain advantages and disadvantages when used in this region. These methods demonstrate that the most hazardous lake is Lake Palcacocha.

  5. Recalibration of the yellow Rhizocarpon growth curve in the Cordillera Blanca (Peru) and implications for LIA chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomelli, V.; Grancher, D.; Brunstein, D.; Solomina, O.

    2008-01-01

    A new lichen dating method and new moraine observations enabled us to improve the chronology of glacier advances in the Cordillera Blanca (Peru) during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Our results reveal that an early LIA glacial advance occurred around AD 1330 ± 29. However, a second major glacial advance at the beginning of the 17th century overlapped the earlier stage for most glaciers. Hence, this second glacial stage, dated from AD 1630 ± 27, is considered as the LIA maximum glacial advance in the Cordillera Blanca. During the 17th-18th centuries, at least three glacial advances were recorded synchronously for the different glaciers (AD 1670 ± 24, 1730 ± 21, and 1760 ± 19). The moraines corresponding to the two first stages are close to the one in 1630 suggesting a slow recession of about 18% in the total length of the glacier. From the LIA maximum extent to the beginning of the 20th century, the 24 glaciers have retreated a distance of about 1000 m, corresponding to a reduction of 30% in their length. This rate is comparable to that observed during the 20th century. Estimates of palaeo-Equilibrium Line Altitudes show an increase in altitude of about 100 m from the LIA maximum glacial extension at the beginning of the 17th century to the beginning of the 20th century. Because long time series are not available for precipitation and temperature, this glacial retreat is difficult to explain by past climate changes. However, there is a fair correspondence between changes in glacier length and the δ18O recorded in the Quelccaya ice core at a century timescale. Our current knowledge of tropical glaciers and isotope variations leads us to suggest that this common tropical signal reflects a change from a wet LIA to the drier conditions of today. Finally, a remarkable synchronicity is observed with glacial variations in Bolivia, suggesting a common regional climatic pattern during the LIA.

  6. Efficiency of neem oil nanoformulations to Bemisia tabaci (GENN. Biotype B (Hemiptera: AleyrodidaeEficiência de nanoformulações a base de óleo de nim sobre Bemisia tabaci (GENN. Biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Salles Carvalho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The nanotechnology, through encapsulation of active ingredients, has showed an important way to avoid problems with quickly degradation of the pesticide molecules. Thus, neem (Azadirachta indica oil nanoformulations containing ?-ciclodextrin and poli-?-caprolactone (PCL were tested as to their control efficiency against eggs and nymphs of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B reared in soybean. The Lethal Concentration (LC50 was estimated using a commercial neem oil (Organic Neem® on first-instar nymphs to establish the adequate volume of the nanoformulations per treatment. After that, they were sprayed on eggs and first-instar nymphs in laboratory and greenhouse and on third-instar nymphs in greenhouse. The commercial neem oil and distilled water were used as controls. Egg viability was not affected by any treatment. Among six nanoformulations, only one was efficient against the first-instar nymphs in laboratory conditions. However, its effective period was not increased as expected. In greenhouse, first-instar nymphs were more affected by two nanoformulations which were significantly different of the commercial neem oil - the most effective one. No mortality differences among the formulations in the third-instar test were observed. The nanoformulations were less efficient to control the B. tabaci biotype B nymphs than the commercial neem oil. A nanotecnologia, através do encapsulamento de ingredientes ativos, tem-se revelado uma importante estratégia para evitar problemas com a rápida degradação de moléculas inseticidas. Assim, nanoformulações à base de óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica utilizando os polímeros ?-ciclodextrina e poli-?-caprolactona (PCL foram testadas quanto a sua eficiência de controle de ovos e ninfas de Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biótipo B mantidas em soja. Foi estimada a CL50 utilizando uma formulação comecial de óleo de nim (Organic Neem® sobre ninfas em 1º ínstar da qual se estipulou o volume das nanoformula

  7. Toxicity of neem oil to Bemisia tabaci biotype B nymphs reared on dry bean Toxicidade de óleo de nim para ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B criadas em feijoeiro

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    Patricia Valle Pinheiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the most susceptible nymphal stage of Bemisia tabaci biotype B to neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. oil applied to dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a screenhouse. A solution of commercial oil (Dalneem extracted from neem seeds was sprayed directly on each nymphal instar at 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2% concentrations for lethal concentration (LC determination, and at 0, 0.5 and 1% concentrations for lethal time (LT determination. The number of living and dead nymphs was recorded five days after spraying for LC determination, and daily during six days for LT determination. The LC50 estimated for fourth instar nymphs occurred at 0.56% concentration. For all instars, LC50 and LC95 were estimated at 0.32 and 2.78% concentrations, respectively. The estimated values of LT50 at 1% concentration were 2.46, 4.45, 3.02 and 6.98 days for the first to fourth instars, respectively. The LT50 occurred at five days for 0.5% and at four days for 1% concentration in all instars. A mortality rate of over 80% was observed on the 6th day for the first to third instars at 1% concentration. The first three nymphal stages were more susceptible to neem oil when compared to the fourth nymphal stage.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o estágio ninfal de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B mais suscetível ao óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. aplicado em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., em casa telada. Foram avaliados o tempo letal (TL e concentração letal (CL do óleo comercial de sementes de nim Dalneem. Para CL, concentrações de 0, 0,1, 0,25, 0,5, 1 e 2% do produto foram pulverizadas diretamente sobre as ninfas em cada ínstar. Para TL, o produto foi avaliado a 0, 0,5 e 1% de óleo de nim em cada ínstar. Ninfas vivas e mortas foram contadas cinco dias após a pulverização para CL e diariamente para TL durante seis dias. Para o quarto ínstar, a CL50 foi de 0,56% de óleo de nim. Considerando todos os ínstares, CL

  8. Tomato yellow vein streak virus: relationship with Bemisia tabaci biotype B and host range Tomato yellow vein streak virus: interação com a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B e gama de hospedeiros

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    Ana Carolina Firmino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tomato yellow vein streak virus (ToYVSV is a putative species of begomovirus, which was prevalent on tomato crops in São Paulo State, Brazil, until 2005. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the interaction between ToYVSV and its vector Bemisia tabaci biotype B and to identify alternative hosts for the virus. The minimum acquisition and inoculation access periods of ToYVSV by B. tabaci were 30 min and 10 min, respectively. Seventy five percent of tomato-test plants were infected when the acquisition and inoculation access periods were 24 h. The latent period of the virus in the insect was 16 h. The ToYVSV was retained by B. tabaci until 20 days after acquisition. First generation of adult whiteflies obtained from viruliferous females were virus free as shown by PCR analysis and did not transmit the virus to tomato plants. Out of 34 species of test-plants inoculated with ToYVSV only Capsicum annuum, Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, Datura stramonium, Gomphrena globosa, Nicotiana clevelandii and N. tabacum cv. TNN were susceptible to infection. B. tabaci biotype B was able to acquire the virus from all these susceptible species, transmitting it to tomato plants.O Tomato yellow vein streak virus (ToYVSV é uma espécie putativa de begomovirus que infecta o tomateiro (Solanum lycopersicon em diversas regiões do Brasil onde se cultiva essa solanácea, sendo a espécie prevalente no estado de São Paulo até 2005. Estudou-se a interação do ToYVSV com a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B e identificaram-se hospedeiras alternativas deste vírus. Os períodos de acesso mínimo de aquisição (PAA e de inoculação (PAI foram de 30 min e 10 min, respectivamente. A porcentagem de plantas infectadas chegou até cerca de 75% após um PAA e PAI de 24 h. O período de latência do vírus no vetor foi de 16 horas. O ToYVSV foi retido pela B. tabaci até 20 dias após a aquisição do vírus. Não foi detectada transmissão do vírus para prog

  9. Biología de Eretmocerus mundus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, parasitoide del complejo Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae, en condiciones de laboratorio Biology of Eretmocerus mundus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, parasitoid of Bemisia tabaci complex (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerlin Chacón Castro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La estimación de los atributos biológicos de un enemigo natural, previa a su empleo en el campo, constituye un aspecto de importancia en todo proyecto de control biológico. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar los principales parámetros biológicos de Eretmocerus mundus Mercet, parasitoide de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, bajo condiciones de laboratorio.La emergencia del adulto, longevidad y fecundidad de la hembra, proporción sexual de la descendencia, tasa intrínseca de crecimiento poblacional (r m, tasa neta de reproducción (Ro y tiempo generacional (T; se estimaron mediante la técnica de tabla de vida y fecundidad, utilizando el pimiento (Capsicum annuum L. y el tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. como plantas hospederas. Los resultados obtenidos en pimiento y tomate fueron respectivamente: supervivencia pupal: 86.86 ± 1.94 y 83,45 ± 2,13%; longevidad de la hembra: 18,19 ± 1,61 y 17,00 ± 0,92 días; proporción sexual: 0,34 ± 0,06 y 0,47 ± 0,05 hembras/(machos + hembras; l x50: 21 y 18 días; r m: 0,226 ± 0,061 y 0,228 ± 0,057 ninfas parasitadas/hembra/día; Ro: 189,71 ± 24,25 y 154,65 ± 17,58 ninfas parasitadas/hembra; T: 25,88 ± 0,42 y 24,03 ± 0,34 días. Los resultados obtenidos son una contribución al conocimiento de la población local del parasitoide y su posible papel como agente de control biológico de B. tabaci.The estimation of biological attributes of natural enemies prior to its use in the field is an important tool in a biological control program. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the main biological parameters of Eretmocerus mundus Mercet, a parasitoid of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, under controlled laboratory conditions. Parasitoid survival, female longevity, fecundity, sex rate, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m, net reproductive rate (Ro and generational time (T were studied using life tables, with pepper (Capsicum annuum L. and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. as host plants. Results

  10. GAMMA-RAY CHARACTERIZATION OF THE U-SERIES INTERMEDIATE DAUGHTERS FROM SOIL SAMPLES AT THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOG, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. French; E.Y. Anthony; P.C. Goodell

    2005-07-18

    The Pena Blanca natural analog is located in the Sierra Pena Blanca, approximately 50 miles north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The Sierra Pena Blanca is composed mainly of ash-flow tuffs, and the uranium in the region is contained in the brecciated zones of these tuffs. The Pena Blanca site is considered a natural analog to the proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository because they share similar characteristics of structure, volcanic lithology, tectonic activity, and hydrologic regime. One of the mineralized zones, the Nopal I deposit, was mined in the early 1980s and the ore was stockpiled close to the mine. This stockpile area has subsequently been cleared and is referred to as the prior high-grade stockpile (PHGS) site. Soil surrounding boulders of high-grade ore associated with the PHGS site have been sampled. The purpose of this study is to characterize the transport of uranium series radioisotopes from the boulder to the soil during the past 25 years. Transport is characterized by determining the activities of individual radionuclides and daughter to parent ratios. The daughter to parent ratios are used to establish whether the samples are in secular equilibrium. Activities are determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Isotopes of the uranium series decay chain detected by gamma-ray spectroscopy include {sup 210}Pb, {sup 234}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 214}Bi, and {sup 234}Pa. Preliminary results indicate that some daughter to parent pairs appear to be in secular disequilibrium. Thorium is in excess relative to uranium, and radium is in excess relative to thorium. A deficiency appears to exist for {sup 210}Pb relative to {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb. If these results are borne out by further analysis, they would suggest transport of nuclides from the high-grade boulder into its surroundings, followed by continued leaching of uranium and lead from the environment.

  11. GAMMA-RAY CHARACTERIZATION OF THE U-SERIES INTERMEDIATE DAUGHTERS FROM SOIL SAMPLES AT THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOG, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.C.; Anthony, E.Y.; Goodell, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Pena Blanca natural analog is located in the Sierra Pena Blanca, approximately 50 miles north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The Sierra Pena Blanca is composed mainly of ash-flow tuffs, and the uranium in the region is contained in the brecciated zones of these tuffs. The Pena Blanca site is considered a natural analog to the proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository because they share similar characteristics of structure, volcanic lithology, tectonic activity, and hydrologic regime. One of the mineralized zones, the Nopal I deposit, was mined in the early 1980s and the ore was stockpiled close to the mine. This stockpile area has subsequently been cleared and is referred to as the prior high-grade stockpile (PHGS) site. Soil surrounding boulders of high-grade ore associated with the PHGS site have been sampled. The purpose of this study is to characterize the transport of uranium series radioisotopes from the boulder to the soil during the past 25 years. Transport is characterized by determining the activities of individual radionuclides and daughter to parent ratios. The daughter to parent ratios are used to establish whether the samples are in secular equilibrium. Activities are determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Isotopes of the uranium series decay chain detected by gamma-ray spectroscopy include 210 Pb, 234 U, 234 Th, 230 Th, 226 Ra, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, and 234 Pa. Preliminary results indicate that some daughter to parent pairs appear to be in secular disequilibrium. Thorium is in excess relative to uranium, and radium is in excess relative to thorium. A deficiency appears to exist for 210 Pb relative to 214 Bi and 214 Pb. If these results are borne out by further analysis, they would suggest transport of nuclides from the high-grade boulder into its surroundings, followed by continued leaching of uranium and lead from the environment

  12. Analysis of Species, Subgroups, and Endosymbionts of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) From Southwestern Cotton Fields in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karut, Kamil; Mete Karaca, M; Döker, Ismail; Kazak, Cengiz

    2017-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most important insect pests worldwide including Turkey. Although there are substantial data regarding species composition of Turkish B. tabaci populations, the situation is still not clear and further investigations are needed. Therefore, in this study, species and subgroups of B. tabaci collected from cotton fields in southwestern part of Turkey (Antalya, Aydın, Denizli, and Muğla) were determined using microsatellite analysis, AluI-based mtCOI polymerase chain reaction-random length polymorphism, and sequencing. Secondary endosymbionts were also determined using diagnostic species-specific PCR. Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), Mediterranean (MED) Q1, and MED Q2 were the species and subgroups found in this study. The MED species (85.3%) were found to be more dominant than MEAM1. Species status of B. tabaci varied depending on the location. Although all samples collected from Aydın were found to be Q1, three species and subgroups were found in Muğla. Secondary endosymbionts varied according to species and subgroups. Arsenophonus was found only from Q2, while Hamiltonella was detected in MEAM1 and Q1. In addition, high Rickettsia and low Wolbachia infections were detected in MEAM1 and Q1 populations, respectively. In conclusion, for the first time, we report the presence and symbiotic communities of Q1 from Turkey. We also found that the symbiont complement of the Q1 is more congruent with Q1 from Greece than other regions of the world, which may have some interesting implications for movement of this invasive subgroup. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Thermotolerance and Heat-Shock Protein Gene Expression Patterns in Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Mediterranean in Relation to Developmental Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Qi, Lan-Da; Du, Yu-Zhou; Li, Yuan-Xi

    2017-10-01

    Temperature plays an important role in the growth, development, and geographic distribution of insects. There is convincing evidence that heat-shock proteins (HSPs) play important roles in helping organisms adapt to thermal stress. To better understand the physiological and ecological influence of thermal stress on the different development stages of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Mediterranean species (MED), nymphs and adults were shocked with temperatures of 35, 38, and 41℃ for 1 and 2 h, respectively, and the survival rate, fecundity, and developmental duration were investigated in the laboratory. The expression levels of the hsp40, hsp70, and hsp90 genes were assessed using real-time PCR. The results indicate that the survival rates of the nymphs and adults decreased with increased temperature. A 2-h heat shock at 41℃ induced a significant reduction in fecundity in adults and an increase in developmental duration in young nymphs. Hsp90 showed higher temperature responses to thermal stress than hsp40 or hsp70. The expression levels of the hsps in the adults were significantly down-regulated by a 2-h heat shock at 41℃ compared with that by a 1-h treatment. A significant decrease in the expression levels of the hsps also occurred in the adults when the temperature increased from 38 to 41℃ for the 2-h treatment, whereas no significant decrease occurred in the nymphs. Compared with previous studies, we provide some evidence indicating that MED has the potential to adapt to a wider temperature range than the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Physical control possibilities of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) in protected crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapisarda, C.; Cascone, G.; Tropea Garzia, G.; Mazzarella, R.; Colombo, A.; Serges, T.

    2005-01-01

    Among alternatives to chemical control for reducing virus epidemics in protected tomato crops, physical management of vectors populations through the application of insect-proof screens to greenhouse openings has been investigated since many years and satisfactory results have been obtained so far, especially regarding the incidence of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), which is the vector of Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD). Nevertheless, although effective from the phytosanitary point of view, these insect-proof screens negatively affect the climate inside the greenhouse, by reducing ventilation, increasing air temperature, etc.. Recently, a low incidence of whitefly infestations on crops has been observed inside greenhouses which have been covered with photoselective plastic films absorbing the ultra-violet component (200-380 nm) of solar radiation. The present study, carried out in Sicily by means of three trials during three consecutive years, allowed to evaluate the ability of two different UV-absorbing plastic films to reduce B. tabaci infestations, in comparison to UV-unabsorbing plastic films and insect-proof screens commonly used to cover and protect tomato greenhouses. The results show the good efficiency of both the tested UV-absorbing films to reduce the witefly presence on tomato crops and the consequent TYLCD spreading. Furthermore, it may be observed that UV-absorbing films do not determine sensible variations of greenhouse climate conditions, compared to greenhouses covered with conventional films. These data not only confirm the physical validity of the UV-absorbing films, but also show that they may fit properly within strategies of integrated control of pests and viruses in protected cultivations [it

  15. Genome-wide analysis of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lixia; Song, Tianxue; He, Rongjun; Zeng, Yang; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2017-04-26

    ABC transporter superfamily is one of the largest and ubiquitous groups of proteins. Because of their role in detoxification, insect ABC transporters have gained more attention in recent years. In this study, we annotated ABC transporters from a newly sequenced sweetpotato whitefly genome. Bemisia tabaci Q biotype is an emerging global invasive species that has caused extensive damages to field crops as well as ornamental plants. A total of 55 ABC transporters containing all eight described subfamilies (A to H) were identified in the B. tabaci Q genome, including 8 ABCAs, 3 ABCBs, 6 ABCCs, 2 ABCDs, 1 ABCE, 3 ABCFs, 23 ABCGs and 9 ABCHs. In comparison to other species, subfamilies G and H in both phloem- and blood-sucking arthropods are expanded. The temporal expression profiles of these 55 ABC transporters throughout B. tabaci developmental stages and their responses to imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, were investigated using RNA-seq analysis. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of 24 ABC transporters (44% of the total) representing all eight subfamilies was confirmed by the quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Furthermore, mRNA expression levels estimated by RT-qPCR and RNA-seq analyses were significantly correlated (r = 0.684, p analysis of the entire repertoire of ABC transporters in B. tabaci. The identification of these ABC transporters, their temporal expression profiles during B. tabaci development, and their response to a neonicotinoid insecticide lay the foundation for functional genomic understanding of their contribution to the invasiveness of B. tabaci.

  16. Implication of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Cyclophilin B Protein in the Transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakala, Surapathrudu; Ghanim, Murad

    2016-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a single-stranded (ssDNA) begomoviruses that causes severe damage to tomato and several other crops worldwide. TYLCV is exclusively transmitted by the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci in a persistent circulative and propagative manner. Previous studies have shown that the transmission, retention, and circulation of TYLCV in its vector involves interaction with insect and endosymbiont proteins, which aid in the transmission of the virus, or have a protective role in response to the presence of the virus in the insect body. However, only a low number of such proteins have been identified. Here, the role of B. tabaci Cyclophilin B (CypB) in the transmission of TYLCV protein was investigated. Cyclophilins are a large family of cellular prolyl isomerases that have many molecular roles including facilitating protein-protein interactions in the cell. One cyclophilin protein has been implicated in aphid-luteovirus interactions. We demonstrate that the expression of CypB from B. tabaci is altered upon TYLCV acquisition and retention. Further experiments used immunocapture-PCR and co-immunolocalization and demonstrated a specific interaction and colocalization between CypB and TYLCV in the the midgut, eggs, and salivary glands. Membrane feeding of anti-CypB antibodies and TYLCV-infected plants showed a decrease in TYLCV transmission, suggesting a critical role that CypB plays in TYLCV transmission. Further experiments, which used membrane feeding with the CypB inhibitor Cyclosporin A showed decrease in CypB-TYLCV colocalization in the midgut and virus transmission. Altogether, our results indicate that CypB plays an important role in TYLCV transmission by B. tabaci .

  17. Sequencing and comparison of the Rickettsia genomes from the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Middle East Asia Minor I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan-Tong; Xia, Wen-Qiang; Rao, Qiong; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Ghanim, Murad; Wang, Xiao-Wei

    2016-08-01

    The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, harbors the primary symbiont 'Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum' and a variety of secondary symbionts. Among these secondary symbionts, Rickettsia is the only one that can be detected both inside and outside the bacteriomes. Infection with Rickettsia has been reported to influence several aspects of the whitefly biology, such as fitness, sex ratio, virus transmission and resistance to pesticides. However, mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear, largely due to the lack of genomic information of Rickettsia. In this study, we sequenced the genome of two Rickettsia strains isolated from the Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) species of the B. tabaci complex in China and Israel. Both Rickettsia genomes were of high coding density and AT-rich, containing more than 1000 coding sequences, much larger than that of the coexisted primary symbiont, Portiera. Moreover, the two Rickettsia strains isolated from China and Israel shared most of the genes with 100% identity and only nine genes showed sequence differences. The phylogenetic analysis using orthologs shared in the genus, inferred the proximity of Rickettsia in MEAM1 and Rickettsia bellii. Functional analysis revealed that Rickettsia was unable to synthesize amino acids required for complementing the whitefly nutrition. Besides, a type IV secretion system and a number of virulence-related genes were detected in the Rickettsia genome. The presence of virulence-related genes might benefit the symbiotic life of the bacteria, and hint on potential effects of Rickettsia on whiteflies. The genome sequences of Rickettsia provided a basis for further understanding the function of Rickettsia in whiteflies. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Survival of Bemisia tabaci and activity of plant defense-related enzymes in genotypes of Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Latournerie-Moreno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 is a major plant pest of horticultural crops from the families Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Cucurbitaceae in Neotropical areas. The exploration of host plant resistance and their biochemical mechanisms offers an excellent alternative to better understand factors affecting the interaction between phytophagous insect and host plant. We evaluated the survival of B. tabaci in landrace genotypes of Capsicum annuum L., and the activity of plant defense-related enzymes (chitinase, polyphenoloxidase, and peroxidase. The landrace genotypes Amaxito, Tabaquero, and Simojovel showed resistance to B. tabaci, as we observed more than 50% nymphal mortality, while in the commercial susceptible genotype Jalapeño mortality of B. tabaci nymphs was not higher than 20%. The activities of plant defense-related enzymes were significantly different among pepper genotypes (P < 0.05. Basal activities of chitinase, polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase were significantly lower or equal in landrace genotypes than that of the commercial genotype Jalapeño. The activity of plant enzymes was differential among pepper genotypes (P < 0.05. For example, the activity of chitinase enzyme generally was higher in non-infested plants with B. tabaci than those infested. Instead polyphenoloxidase ('Amaxito' and 'Simojovel' and peroxidase enzymes activities ('Tabaquero' increased in infested plants (P < 0.05. We conclude that basal activities of plant defense-related enzymes could be act through other mechanism plant induction, since plant defense-related enzymes showed a different induction response to B. tabaci. We underlined the role of polyphenoloxidase as plant defense in the pepper genotype Simojovel related to B. tabaci.

  19. Status of Resistance of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to Neonicotinoids in Iran and Detoxification by Cytochrome P450-Dependent Monooxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basij, M; Talebi, K; Ghadamyari, M; Hosseininaveh, V; Salami, S A

    2017-02-01

    Nine Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) populations were collected from different regions of Iran. In all nine populations, only one biotype (B biotype) was detected. Susceptibilities of these populations to imidacloprid and acetamiprid were assayed. The lethal concentration 50 values (LC 50 ) for different populations showed a significant discrepancy in the susceptibility of B. tabaci to imidacloprid (3.76 to 772.06 mg l -1 ) and acetamiprid (4.96 to 865 mg l -1 ). The resistance ratio of the populations ranged from 9.72 to 205.20 for imidacloprid and 6.38 to 174.57 for acetamiprid. The synergistic effects of piperonylbutoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) were evaluated for the susceptible (RF) and resistant (JR) populations for the determination of the involvement of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase and carboxylesterase, respectively, in their resistance mechanisms. The results showed that PBO overcame the resistance of the JR population to both imidacloprid and acetamiprid, with synergistic ratios of 72.7 and 106.9, respectively. Carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase were studied biochemically, for the purpose of measuring the activity of the metabolizing enzymes in order to determine which enzymes are directly involved in neonicotinoid resistance. There was an increase in the activity of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase up to 17-fold in the resistant JR population (RR = 205.20). The most plausible activity of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase correlated with the resistances of imidacloprid and acetamiprid, and this suggests that cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase is the only enzyme system responsible for neonicotinoid resistance in the nine populations of B. tabaci.

  20. Biología de Eretmocerus mundus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, parasitoide del complejo Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae, en condiciones de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerlin CHACÓN CASTRO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La estimación de los atributos biológicos de un enemigo natural, previa a su empleo en el campo, constituye un aspecto de importancia en todo proyecto de control biológico. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar los principales parámetros biológicos de Eretmocerus mundus Mercet, parasitoide de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. La emergencia del adulto, longevidad y fecundidad de la hembra, proporción sexual de la descendencia, tasa intrínseca de crecimiento poblacional (r m , tasa neta de reproducción (R o y tiempo generacional (T; se estimaron mediante la técnica de tabla de vida y fecundidad, utilizando el pimiento ( Capsicum annuum L. y el tomate ( Solanum lycopersicum L. como plantas hospederas. Los resultados obtenidos en pimiento y tomate fueron respectivamente: supervivencia pupal: 86.86 ± 1.94 y 83,45 ± 2,13%; longevidad de la hembra: 18,19 ± 1,61 y 17,00 ± 0,92 días; proporción sexual: 0,34 ± 0,06 y 0,47 ± 0,05 hembras/(machos + hembras; l x50 : 21 y 18 días; r m : 0,226 ± 0,061 y 0,228 ± 0,057 ninfas parasitadas/hembra/día; Ro: 189,71 ± 24,25 y 154,65 ± 17,58 ninfas parasitadas/hembra; T: 25,88 ± 0,42 y 24,03 ± 0,34 días. Los resultados obtenidos son una contribución al conocimiento de la población local del parasitoide y su posible papel como agente de control biológico de B. tabaci.

  1. Direct and indirect impacts of infestation of tomato plant by Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae on Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ling Tan

    Full Text Available The impacts of infestation by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae on sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci settling on tomato were determined in seven separate experiments with whole plants and with detached leaves through manipulation of four factors: durations of aphid infestation, density of aphids, intervals between aphid removal after different durations of infestation and the time of whitefly release, and leaf positions on the plants. The results demonstrated that B. tabaci preferred to settle on the plant leaves that had not been infested by aphids when they had a choice. The plant leaves on which aphids were still present (direct effect had fewer whiteflies than those previously infested by aphids (indirect effect. The whiteflies were able to settle on the plant which aphids had previously infested, and also could settle on leaves with aphids if no uninfested plants were available. Tests of direct factors revealed that duration of aphid infestation had a stronger effect on whitefly landing preference than aphid density; whitefly preference was the least when 20 aphids fed on the leaves for 72 h. Tests of indirect effects revealed that the major factor that affected whitefly preference for a host plant was the interval between the time of aphid removal after infestation and the time of whitefly release. The importance of the four factors that affected the induced plant defense against whiteflies can be arranged in the following order: time intervals between aphid removal and whitefly release > durations of aphid infestation > density of aphids > leaf positions on the plants. In conclusion, the density of aphid infestation and time for which they were feeding influenced the production of induced compounds by tomatoes, the whitefly responses to the plants, and reduced interspecific competition.

  2. Implication of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Cyclophilin B protein in the transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapathrudu Kanakala

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV is a single-stranded (ssDNA begomoviruses that causes severe damage to tomato and several other crops worldwide. TYLCV is exclusively transmitted by the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci in a persistent circulative and propagative manner. Previous studies have shown that the transmission, retention and circulation of TYLCV in its vector involves interaction with insect and endosymbiont proteins, which aid in the transmission of the virus, or have a protective role in response to the presence of the virus in the insect body. However, only a low number of such proteins have been identified. Here, the role of B. tabaci Cyclophilin B (CypB in the transmission of TYLCV protein was investigated. Cyclophilins (Cyps are a large family of cellular prolyl isomerases that have many molecular roles including facilitating protein-protein interactions in the cell. One cyclophilin protein has been implicated in aphid-luteovirus interactions. We demonstrate that the expression of CypB from B. tabaci is altered upon TYLCV acquisition and retention. Further experiments used immunocapture-PCR and co-immunolocalization and demonstrated a specific interaction and colocalization between CypB and TYLCV in the the midgut, eggs and salivary glands. Membrane feeding of anti-CypB antibodies and TYLCV infected plants showed a decrease in TYLCV transmission, suggesting a critical role that CypB plays in TYLCV transmission. Further experiments, which used membrane feeding with the CypB inhibitor Cyclosporin A (CsA showed decrease in CypB-TYLCV colocalization in the midgut and virus transmission. Altogether, our results indicate that CypB plays an important role in TYLCV transmission by B. tabaci.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis and inflow route of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Bemisia tabaci in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyejung; Song, Woogeun; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Jae-Deok; Park, Jungan; Auh, Chung-Kyoon; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll; Lee, Sukchan; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2010-11-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a member of the genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae, members of which are characterized by closed circular single-stranded DNA genomes of 2.7-2.8 kb in length, and include viruses transmitted by the Bemisia tabaci whitefly. No reports of TYLCV in Korea are available prior to 2008, after which TYLCV spread rapidly to most regions of the southern Korean peninsula (Gyeongsang-Do, Jeolla-Do and Jeju-Do). Fifty full sequences of TYLCV were analyzed in this study, and the AC1, AV1, IR, and full sequences were analyzed via the muscle program and bayesian analysis. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the Korea TYLCVs were divided into two subgroups. The TYLCV Korea 1 group (Masan) originated from TYLCV Japan (Miyazaki) and the TYLCV Korea 2 group (Jeju/Jeonju) from TYLCV Japan (Tosa/Haruno). A B. tabaci phylogenetic tree was constructed with 16S rRNA and mitochondria cytochrome oxidase I (MtCOI) sequences using the muscle program and MEGA 4.0 in the neighbor-joining algorithm. The sequence data of 16S rRNA revealed that Korea B. tabaci was closely aligned to B. tabaci isolated in Iran and Nigeria. The Q type of B. tabaci, which was originally identified as a viruliferous insect in 2008, was initially isolated in Korea as a non-viruliferous insect in 2005. Therefore, we suggest that two TYLCV Japan isolates were introduced to Korea via different routes, and then transmitted by native B. tabaci.

  4. Comparación entre mujeres blancas y negras víctimas de la violencia de pareja en el nordeste de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazaré Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar los casos de mujeres blancas y negras víctimas de la violencia de pareja en el nordeste de Brasil, así como determinar las diferencias de abuso dentro del marco de una relación de pareja en función de diversas variables sociodemográficas. Una muestra de 386 mujeres (183 blancas y 203 negras con relación de pareja heterosexual desde hacía al menos seis meses contestó al Index of Spouse Abuse. Los resultados encontrados permiten concluir que las mujeres de raza negra sufren más abusos en su relación de pareja que las blancas, y que la edad, el nivel educativo, la ocupación, la práctica religiosa y la ideología política no se relacionan con la frecuencia de abuso físico y no físico.

  5. Efeito da mosca-dos-chifres, Haematobia irritans (L. (Diptera: Muscidae, no ganho de peso de bovinos Nelore Effects of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L. (Diptera: Muscidae in the weight gain on Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Bianchin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A presente investigação foi realizada devido à escassez, no Brasil, de informações sobre os possíveis danos decorrentes da ação hematófaga da mosca-dos-chifres, Haematobia irritans (L., em bovinos da raça Nelore. O estudo foi realizado durante quatro estações chuvosas (outubro a abril, de 1991 a 1995. Em cada ano, 80 bovinos foram utilizados de acordo com os seguintes tratamentos: 28 touros com um ano de idade divididos em quatro grupos; 20 bois com idade de dois anos divididos em quatro grupos, e 32 bois com três anos e divididos em oito grupos. Metade dos grupos de animais de cada idade eram tratados contra H. irritans com intervalos de 28 dias e os demais mantidos como grupos controle. As moscas foram contadas a cada 14 dias e o peso dos bois registrado a cada 28. O número médio de mosca/animal dos grupos controle para o primeiro, segundo, terceiro e quarto anos do estudo foi, respectivamente: cinco, cinco, quatro e cinco, nos animais de um ano; 15, 11, 13 e 27, nos de dois anos e 55, 31, 40 e 51, nos de três anos. Observou-se que maior número de moscas (PThis investigation was carried out due the lack of information about the possible effects of the blood-feeding horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L., on Nellore cattle. Data were recorded during four rainy seasons (October to April from 1991 to 1995. In each year, 80 animals were utilized according to the following treatments: twenty-eight 1-year old bulls divided into four groups; twenty 2-year old cattle divided into four groups and thirty-two 3-year old cattle divided into eight groups. Treatments against H. irritans were conduced at about 28-day intervals on half part of each age groups and the remainders groups maintained without treatment as control. The flies were counted at 14-day intervals and the animals weight registered at each 28-day intervals. The values for the mean flies number on the animals of the control groups in the first, second, third and fourth years of

  6. Infestação da mosca-negra-dos-citros (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby em pomares de citros, em sistemas de plantio convencional e agroflorestal Infestation of citrus blackfly in citrus (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby orchards conventional and agroforestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Gonçalves Da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a infestação da mosca-negra-dos-citros em pomares de citros, em sistemas de plantio convencional e agroflorestal. A área experimental está localizada no município de Capitão Poço-PA, onde foram realizadas 12 amostragens durante o período de setembro de 2008 a outubro de 2009, avaliando a presença ou a ausência da praga nas laranjeiras, em ambos os sistemas de produção. Pelos resultados obtidos, observou-se que o sistema de plantio agroflorestal apresentou maior incidência de plantas com presença de mosca-negra-dos-citros comparado ao convencional, houve influência da temperatura na regulação da população da praga, e precipitações elevadas reduziram o número de plantas com presença de A. woglumi.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the infestation of citrus blackfly the in a citrus orchard in conventional tillage systems and agroforestry. The experimental area is located in the municipality of Capitão Poço, PA, where 12 samples were taken during the period from September 2008 to October 2009, evaluating the presence or absence of the pest in both production systems. The results showed that the system of agroforestry plantation showed higher incidence of plants with presence of citrus blackfly compared to conventional, there was influence of temperature on the regulation of pest population and heavy rain reduced the number of plants with presence of A.woglumi.

  7. Transmissão de begomovírus de plantas daninhas para tomateiros pela mosca-branca Begomovirus transmission from weeds to tomato by the whitefly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.F. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre numerosas enfermidades do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, destacam-se as viroses causadas por begomovírus, os quais são transmitidos pelo vetor Bemisia tabaci biótipo B. Na Chapada da Ibiapaba-CE, os begomovírus têm sido encontrados em várias áreas onde o tomateiro é cultivado, causando sérios danos à produção. Este trabalho teve por objetivos investigar a transmissão de begomovírus a partir de tomateiros infectados para plantas daninhas e verificar seu retorno das plantas daninhas para o tomateiro. Mudas sadias de tomateiro 'Santa Clara' e das plantas daninhas bredo-de-espinho (Amaranthus spinosus, caruru-de-mancha (Amaranthus viridis, mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides e picão-preto (Bidens pilosa foram submetidas à inoculação por dois métodos: com o inseto vetor e por enxertia. Após 15 dias, realizou-se a extração do DNA de amostras foliares dos tomateiros e das espécies daninhas inoculadas. A PCR realizada com oligonucleotídeos degenerados e específicos para begomovírus revelou que na transmissão com o vetor as quatro espécies de plantas daninhas foram infectadas com o begomovírus do tomateiro, enquanto que, por enxertia, apenas o picão-preto foi infectado. O retorno do vírus das plantas daninhas para o tomateiro foi também observado nos dois casos. Percentuais de 70, 50, 20 e 12,5% de transmissão para os tomateiros ocorreram quando o vetor adquiriu o vírus em mentrasto, bredo-de-espinho, picão-preto e caruru-de-mancha, respectivamente. Na enxertia, a transmissão viral para os tomateiros ocorreu apenas quando se empregaram seções de bredo-de-espinho e de picão-preto infectados. As espécies daninhas investigadas demonstraram ser hospedeiras alternativas do begomovírus de tomate da região e, em condiçõs de campo e na presença do vetor, podem constituir importantes fontes do begomovírus para a hortaliça.The viruses caused by begomovirus are considered the most important virus diseases

  8. Insectos acuáticos y calidad del agua en la cuenca y embalse del río Peñas Blancas, Costa Rica

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    Meyer Guevara Mora

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La población de insectos acuáticos y la calidad del agua fueron caracterizadas tomando en cuenta las alteraciones humanas y naturales en el área de estudio. Durante los muestreos mensuales, el pH, OD, temperatura, nivel del agua, DBO, PO4 y NO3 fueron medidos. Los índices biológicos (abundancia, riqueza de especies y el BMWP-CR se evaluaron para determinar la calidad del agua. No se detectaron relaciones entre las variables ambientales y los insectos acuáticos, pero las diferencias espaciales y temporales en la abundancia y riqueza fueron asociadas con las crecidas del río (temporal y a la presencia del embalse Peñas Blancas (espacial. En el futuro las investigaciones en la cuenca Peñas Blancas deben de ser dirigidas a determinar la magnitud de la influencia de los caudales, liberación de sedimentos y la posible degradación de la calidad del agua por efluentes de aguas servidas que se lleguen a ubicar en la cuenca.Aquatic insects and water quality in Peñas Blancas watershed and reservoir. The aquatic insects have been used to evaluate water quality of aquatic environments. The population of aquatic insects and the water quality of the area were characterized according to the natural and human alterations present in the study site. During the monthly-survey, pH, DO, temperature, water level, DBO, PO4 and NO3 were measured. Biological indexes (abundance, species richness and the BMWP-CR were used to evaluate the water quality. No relation between environmental and aquatic insects was detected. Temporal and spatial differences attributed to the flow events (temporal and the presence of Peñas Blancas reservoir (spatial. In the future, the investigations in Peñas Blancas watershed need to be focused on determining the real influence of the flows, sediment release and the possible water quality degradation because of agriculture activities. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 635-654. Epub 2011 June 01.

  9. Control Químico de la Mosca de los Establos, Stomoxys Calcitrans (L y Otros Insectos Asociados con Estipes de Palma Africana en Descomposición

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    Ureta Sandino Eduardo

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available En ensayos para determinar el efecto del diazinon 1% I.A. (ingrediente activo; bromophos 1 % I.A.; dieldrin 0.5% I.A., 2% I.A. y methomyl 0.1 % I.A. sobre larvas de Stomoxys calcilrans y otros insectos asociados con tipes de palma africana (Elaeis guineensis en descomposición, se encontró que los tratamientos con diazinon 1% I.A. y bromophos 1% I.A. fueron los más efectivos para impedir la proliferación en éstos de las larvas de Slomoxys calcilralls. Ambos insecticidas protegieron eficientemente los estipes por lo menos durante dos semanas. El dieldrin al 0.5% I. A. y 2% I. A., aunque inferior al bromophos 1% I.A. y al diazinon 1% I.A. también fue efectivo para impedir la proliferación de larvas de la mosca en los troncos de palma africana en descomposición. El tratamiento con methomyl 0.1 % I. A. al parecer no impidió la multiplicación de las larvas en los estipes, según pudo observarse en muestras tomadas a las dos semanas de haber sido aplicado el producto. El diazinon 1% I.A: bromophos 1 % I.A.; dieldrin 0.5% I.A. y 2% I.A., aparentemente fueron eficaces para controlar los adultos de Limnobaris calandriformis y Metamasius hemipterus, los cuales eran atraídos en grandes cantidades a los trozos de tallo de palma recién rajada, así como también impidieron la proliferación en éstos de las larvas de los dípteros Ormidea obesa y Hermelia sp./Abstract Several tests were carried out to determine the effectiveness of diazinon 1% I.A., bromophos 1% I.A., dieldrin 0.5 and 2% I.A., and methomyl 0.1 % on larvae of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, and other insects associated with dead trunks of the oil palm (Elaeis guineesis.The results showed by the author indicate that diazinon and bromophos were the most effective materials tested. Both insecticides protected well the dead trunks for at least two weeks. Dieldrin (both doses although less efficient than diazinon, was also effective in preventing the development of great numbers of

  10. Distribution, vertical position and ecological implications of shallow gas in Bahía Blanca estuary (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, M. E.; Aliotta, S.; Fiori, S.; Ginsberg, S.

    2018-03-01

    There has been a growing interest in the study of shallow gas due its importance in relation to the marine environment, climate change and human activities. In Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina, shallow gas has a wide distribution. Acoustic turbidity and blanking are the main seismic evidence for the presence of shallow gas in the estuary. The former prevails in the inner sector of the estuary where gas is either near or in contact with the seabed. Gas deposits are generally associated with paleochannels corresponding to the Holocene paleodeltaic environment. Distribution studies of shallow gas in this estuary are necessary because its presence implies not only a geological risk for harbor activities but also because it may have noxious effects on the marine ecosystem, mainly on benthic communities. The comparison of benthic communities at a gas site (GS) with those at a control site (CS) indicated that gas could generate impoverishment in terms of individuals' abundance (GS: N = 357; CS: N = 724). Also, diversity indices showed great differences in the community structure at each site. This indicates that methane gas may act as a natural disturbance agent in estuarine ecosystems. The presence of gas in seabed sediments must therefore be taken into account when distribution studies are conducted of estuarine benthic communities.

  11. PHASE ANALYSES OF URANIUM-BEARING MINERALS FROM THE HIGH GRADE ORE, NOPAL I, PENA BLANCA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ren; P. Goodell; A. Kelts; E.Y. Anthony; M. Fayek; C. Fan; C. Beshears

    2005-07-11

    The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Pena Blanca district, approximately 40 miles north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The deposit was formed by hydrothermal processes within the fracture zone of welded silicic volcanic tuff. The ages of volcanic formations are between 35 to 44 m.y. and there was secondary silicification of most of the formations. After the formation of at least part of the uranium deposit, the ore body was uplifted above the water table and is presently exposed at the surface. Detailed petrographic characterization, electron microprobe backscatter electron (BSE) imagery, and selected x-ray maps for the samples from Nopal I high-grade ore document different uranium phases in the ore. There are at least two stages of uranium precipitation. A small amount of uraninite is encapsulated in silica. Hexavalent uranium may also have been a primary precipitant. The uranium phases were precipitated along cleavages of feldspars, and along fractures in the tuff. Energy dispersive spectrometer data and x-ray maps suggest that the major uranium phases are uranophane and weeksite. Substitutions of Ca and K occur in both phases, implying that conditions were variable during the mineralization/alteration process, and that compositions of the original minerals have a major influence on later stage alteration. Continued study is needed to fully characterize uranium behavior in these semi-arid to arid conditions.

  12. Ichthyoplankton spatial pattern in the inner shelf off Bahía Blanca Estuary, SW Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeyer, Mónica Susana; Clara, Menéndez María; Florencia, Biancalana; Mabel, Nizovoy Alicia; Ramón, Torres Eduardo

    2009-09-01

    This study focuses on the composition, abundance and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the inner shelf area off Bahía Blanca Estuary on the SW Atlantic Ocean during late spring. Eggs and larvae of Brevoortia aurea, Engraulis anchoita, Parona signata, Sciaenidae spp. - such as Cynoscion guatucupa and Micropogonias furnieri -, and Odontesthes argentinensis were found. Species richness was low probably as a result of season and shallow depths. Ichthyoplankton abundance reached values close to 10 000 per 10 m -3 (eggs) and 4000 per 10 m -3 (larvae) and displayed a spatial distribution pattern with maximum abundance values restricted to a band parallel to the coast. Differences between egg and larval patterns, probably derived from a different displacement and hydrodynamic behavior, were observed. Egg and larvae distribution patterns were found related with spawning areas and to directly depend on salinity and mesozooplankton. The larvae distribution pattern, in particular, was found to inversely depend on particulate organic carbon. In addition, the geographic location of egg and larvae maxima strongly coincided with a saline front reported for this area in springtime, thus suggesting a direct relationship with it.

  13. Prototipo de monitoreo y alarma para la detección de heladas blancas en sectores rurales de Sogamoso

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    Willmar Arbey Suarez- Rodrígez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra el diseño de un prototipo de monitoreo y alarma que permite la detección de heladas blancas y sirve de base para el desarrollo de un prototipo que posibilite la detección y predicción de heladas negras. El dispositivo, muestra las variables atmosféricas de temperatura y humedad, las comunica a un servidor local (Broker mediante WiFi y el protocolo MQTT, éste a su vez retransmite la información útil a otros dispositivos finales, como celulares y computadoras. El sistema es capaz de alertar mediante una alarma y permitir la comunicación de estos eventos a los diferentes dispositivos finales. Para lograr ésto, fue necesario seleccionar los dispositivos, tecnologías y protocolos convenientes, realizar un diseño y validarlo por medio de la emulación de las condiciones de temperatura y humedad adecuadas.

  14. The energy balance on the surface of a tropical glacier tongue. Investigations on glacier Artesonraju, Cordillera Blanca, Perú.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juen, I.; Mölg, T.; Wagnon, P.; Cullen, N. J.; Kaser, G.

    2006-12-01

    The Cordillera Blanca in Perú is situated in the Outer Tropics spanning from 8 to 10 ° South. Solar incidence and air temperature show only minor seasonal variations whereas precipitation occurs mainly from October to April. An energy balance station was installed on the tongue of glacier Artesonraju (4850 m a.s.l.) in March 2004. In this study each component of the energy balance on the glacier surface is analysed separately over a full year, covering one dry and one wet season. During the dry season glacier melt at the glacier tongue is app. 0.5 m we per month. In the wet season glacier melt is twice as much with 1 m we per month. This is due to higher energy fluxes and decreased sublimation during the wet season. With an energy balance model that has already been proved under tropical climate conditions (Mölg and Hardy, 2004) each energy flux is changed individually to evaluate the change in the amount of glacier melt. First results indicate that a change in humidity related variables affects glacier melt very differently in the dry and wet season, whereas a change in air temperature changes glacier melt more constantly throughout the year.

  15. The energy balance of tropical Glaciar Artesonraju, Cordillera Blanca, Perú - AWS-measurements and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galos, S.; Mölg, T.; MacDonell, S.; Großhauser, M.; Marzeion, B.

    2012-04-01

    Like in most regions of the world, tropical glaciers in the Peruvian Andes have experienced considerable mass loss during the last decades. In order to better understand and correctly interpret the ongoing glacier changes in this region, we need to examine the driving processes behind these changes. Therefore we installed several automatic weather stations (AWS) in the Cordillera Blanca mountain range. Two of these stations are situated in the ablation area of Glaciar Shallap and Glaciar Artesonraju, while four other stations were established in the vicinity of the two glaciers. The resulting eight year record of meteorological data is analyzed and finally used as input for a physically based numerical energy and mass balance model, which in a first step was applied to the ablation zone of Glaciar Artesonraju (8.96° S / 77.63° W). In July 2010, eddy covariance measurements were carried out on the glacier surface. The resulting data was used to calibrate the parametrization scheme for the turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat. Finally the model output was validated against ablation data from a sonic ranger and from single stake ablation measurements. The model results were interpreted with special respect to the seasonal fluctuation in atmospheric moisture (tropical wet / dry season).

  16. A geologic and geophysic study of the Sierra de Pena Blanca, in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez S, F.A.

    1976-01-01

    Within the sistematic aerial exploration program realized by the Instituto Nacional de Energia Nuclear, an aeroradiometric study was carried out in the zone which includes Sierra de Pena Blanca. This study took into consideration the former and present geological investigations and compromised the sierra together with the bordering valleys. The main objective consists in the localization of areas presenting favorable conditions for the existence of uranium isotopes minerlization, in order to determine a mineralized body or ore deposit. For that purpose the area was explored with an airplane to which a differential gamma rays spectrometer was adapted, this spectrometer will show us clearly the integration of the number of radiations which fall into the detectors obtaining this way a valuable information about the radiometric anomalous sites of the studied zone and also about the existence of bismuth, thallium and the abundant potassium of the igneous rocks. These anomalies are under the stage of ground verification, this stage includes a superficial study and the study of the underlying rocks through drilling, radiometric logs and chemical analysis of the samples. In fact, through this method we can obtain very truthful data. (author)

  17. INOCULACIÓN IN VITRO DE LA ROYA BLANCA (Puccinia horiana HENNINGS EN CRISANTEMO (Dendranthema grandiflora TZVELEV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C\\u00E9sar Vences-Contreras

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como finalidad el desarrollar la técnica de inoculación in vitro de la roya blanca, con el objeto de ahorrar tiempo y espacio en la caracterización de los distintos cultivares de crisantemo respecto al grado de susceptibilidad o resistencia a este patógeno. En Tenancingo, Estado de México, en el periodo 2004-2005 se colectaron hojas de crisantemo que presentaban daños por la enfermedad, se desinfectaron para posteriormente inocular las pústulas sobre plantas creciendo bajo condiciones in vitro. El recipiente de cultivo se mantuvo a una humedad relativa alrededor del 95% y temperaturas entre los 13 y 27 ºC, bajo condiciones de luz y oscuridad. Los daños por la enfermedad se manifestaron a los 20 días después de la inoculación. Los tratamientos a 17 ºC y oscuridad generaron un mayor número de pústulas (18,7. El diámetro de las pústulas fluctuó entre los 0,71 mm (tratamientos con 17 ºC y luz a los 1,79 mm en los tratamientos con 19 ºC y bajo oscuridad.

  18. Estudio histológico del sistema digestivo en diferentes estadios de desarrollo de la cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus

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    Miguel Ángel Mendoza R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus es la segunda fuente de producción piscícola en Colombia, después de la tilapia roja (Oreochomi ssp. y antes de la trucha arcoíris (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Se destaca, además, como una de las especies con mayor potencial productivo en el país. Se realizó el estudio histológico del sistema digestivo de la Piaractus brachypomus a fin determinar la morfología normal en diferentes estadios de desarrollo. Para ello se clasificaron los animales según la edad, el tamaño y el peso en ovas embrionadas, larvas con saco vitelino, alevinos después de reabsorción de saco vitelino, juveniles (3-5 cm, 5-7 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm y adultos (300 g. La fijación de los tejidos se realizó en formaldehído al 3,7 % y se describió microscópicamente cavidad bucal, faringe, esófago, estómago, ciegos pilóricos, intestinos y las glándulas anexas, hígado y páncreas. Por último, se describió macroscópicamente la organización anatómica de este sistema.

  19. Is agriculture driving the diversification of the Bemisia tabaci species complex (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae)?: Dating, diversification and biogeographic evidence revealed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Laura M; Bell, Charles D; Evans, Gregory; Small, Ian; De Barro, Paul J

    2013-10-18

    Humans and insect herbivores are competing for the same food crops and have been for thousands of years. Despite considerable advances in crop pest management, losses due to insects remain considerable. The global homogenisation of agriculture has supported the range expansion of numerous insect pests and has been driven in part by human-assisted dispersal supported through rapid global trade and low-cost air passenger transport. One of these pests, is the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, a cryptic species complex that contains some of the world's most damaging pests of agriculture. The complex shows considerable genetic diversity and strong phylogeographic relationships. One consequence of the considerable impact that members of the B. tabaci complex have on agriculture, is the view that human activity, particularly in relation to agricultural practices, such as use of insecticides, has driven the diversification found within the species complex. This has been particularly so in the case of two members of the complex, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED), which have become globally distributed invasive species. An alternative hypothesis is that diversification is due to paleogeographic and paleoclimatological changes. The idea that human activity is driving speciation within the B. tabaci complex has never been tested, but the increased interest in fossil whiteflies and the growth in molecular data have enabled us to apply a relaxed molecular clock and so estimate divergence dates for the major lineages within the B. tabaci species complex. The divergence estimates do not support the view that human activity has been a major driver of diversification. Our analysis suggests that the major lineages within the complex arose approximately 60-30 mya and the highly invasive MED and MEAM1 split from the rest of the species complex around 12 mya well before the evolution of Homo sapiens and agriculture. Furthermore, the divergence dates coincide with a period

  20. Age-specific interaction between the parasitoid, Encarsia formosa and its host, the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Strain B

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    Jing S. Hu

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hostage, the instar of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius parasitized, on the growth and development of Encarsia formosa (Gahan was studied. E. formosa was able to parasitize and complete its life cycle no matter which instar of B. tabaci (Strain B, [also identified as B. argentifolii (Bellows and Perring], was provided for oviposition, but parasitoid development was significantly slower when 1st or 2nd instar B. tabaci rather than 3rd or 4th instars were parasitized. Host age influenced the day on which E. formosa nymphs hatching from eggs was first observed. Mean embryonic development was significantly longer when 1st (5.4 days rather than 2nd, 3rd or 4th instars (4.1, 3.4 and 3.5 days, respectively were parasitized. The duration of the 1st instar parasitoid and the pupa, but not the 2nd or 3rd instar parasitoid, were also significantly greater when 1st instars were parasitized than when older host instars were parasitized. Interestingly, no matter which instar was parasitized, the parasitoid did not molt to the 3rd instar until the 4th instar host had reached a depth of about 0.23 mm (Stage 4-5 and had initiated the nymphal-adult molt and adult development. Histological studies revealed that whitefly eye and wing structures had either disintegrated or were adult in nature whenever a 3rd instar parasitoid was present. It appears, then, that the molt of the parasitoid to its last instar is associated with the host whitefly's nymphal-adult molt. However, the initiation of the host's final molt, while a prerequisite for the parasitoid's 2nd-3rd instar molt, did not necessarily trigger this molt. In contrast to its significant effect on various aspects of parasitoid development, host instar did not significantly influence the mean size of the parasitoid larva, pupa, or adult. Larval and pupal length and adult head width were similar for all parasitoids, regardless of which host instar was parasitized as was adult longevity. Adult parasitoid

  1. Pyrosequencing the Bemisia tabaci transcriptome reveals a highly diverse bacterial community and a robust system for insecticide resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius is a phloem-feeding insect poised to become one of the major insect pests in open field and greenhouse production systems throughout the world. The high level of resistance to insecticides is a main factor that hinders continued use of insecticides for suppression of B. tabaci. Despite its prevalence, little is known about B. tabaci at the genome level. To fill this gap, an invasive B. tabaci B biotype was subjected to pyrosequencing-based transcriptome analysis to identify genes and gene networks putatively involved in various physiological and toxicological processes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using Roche 454 pyrosequencing, 857,205 reads containing approximately 340 megabases were obtained from the B. tabaci transcriptome. De novo assembly generated 178,669 unigenes including 30,980 from insects, 17,881 from bacteria, and 129,808 from the nohit. A total of 50,835 (28.45% unigenes showed similarity to the non-redundant database in GenBank with a cut-off E-value of 10-5. Among them, 40,611 unigenes were assigned to one or more GO terms and 6,917 unigenes were assigned to 288 known pathways. De novo metatranscriptome analysis revealed highly diverse bacterial symbionts in B. tabaci, and demonstrated the host-symbiont cooperation in amino acid production. In-depth transcriptome analysis indentified putative molecular markers, and genes potentially involved in insecticide resistance and nutrient digestion. The utility of this transcriptome was validated by a thiamethoxam resistance study, in which annotated cytochrome P450 genes were significantly overexpressed in the resistant B. tabaci in comparison to its susceptible counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: This transcriptome/metatranscriptome analysis sheds light on the molecular understanding of symbiosis and insecticide resistance in an agriculturally important phloem-feeding insect pest, and lays the foundation for future functional genomics research of the

  2. Oviposição e dispersão de ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em genótipos de tomateiro Oviposition and nymphal dispersion of Bemisia tabaci biotype B on tomato genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Fancelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversos métodos têm sido empregados para avaliar a resistência de plantas a moscas-brancas. Todavia, poucos trabalhos têm sido realizados visando determinar a dispersão de ninfas desses insetos sobre as plantas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a oviposição de B. tabaci biótipo B e a dispersão de suas ninfas em folíolos com e sem exsudatos de genótipos de tomateiro. Foram utilizados sete genótipos de tomateiro: LA716, LA1739, PI134417, LA462, LA1584, 'Santa Clara' e P25 (controle suscetível. A oviposição de B. tabaci biótipo B foi avaliada em gaiolas plásticas (2,8 cm² fixadas na face abaxial dos folíolos, nas quais foram inseridos dez casais do inseto. Para avaliação da dispersão das ninfas, considerou-se o deslocamento dos insetos além do limite da área ocupada pelas gaiolas. As variáveis observadas foram: mortalidade de adultos 24 horas após a liberação, número de ovos, viabilidade da fase de ovo, período de incubação, número de ninfas e dispersão. Em folíolos com exsudato, LA716, LA1739 e PI134417 provocaram as maiores mortalidades. Adultos mortos nos folíolos desses genótipos ficaram aderidos aos tricomas glandulares, o que provocou redução na oviposição do inseto. Para dispersão, nos folíolos com exsudato, os máximos valores ocorreram nos genótipos LA716, LA462 e P25. Na condição sem exsudato, LA716 promoveu a menor dispersão das ninfas. A presença do exsudato influencia negativamente a sobrevivência e oviposição do inseto. A dispersão das ninfas também é afetada pelo exsudato, embora outros fatores possam ser importantes para o deslocamento do inseto.Several methods have been employed for evaluating plant resistance to whiteflies. Although, a few researches have been conducted aiming to determine the whitefly nymphal dispersion on crops. The objective of this work was to evaluate the oviposition of B. tabaci biotype B and nymphal dispersion in leaflets with and without

  3. Diatomeas planctónicas de cursos de agua: Cuenca del Río Piedra Blanca (Córdoba, Argentina Diatom communities in the highland water streams. Piedra Blanca River basin (Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luján M. De Fabricius

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó en el arroyo El Chacay y en el río Las Albahacas desde la primavera de 1999 hasta la primavera de 2000. El objetivo de esta investigación fue comparar la composición y abundancia de la comunidad diatómica en ríos y arroyos serranos de la cuenca del río Piedra Blanca, durante un ciclo anual. En total, 121 taxa (especies, variedades y formas fueron registrados a partir del análisis taxonómico. El orden Pennales predominó en número de especies y porcentaje de frecuencia relativa. El género con mayor número de especies fue Navicula. El número de especies osciló entre un mínimo de 21 en invierno de 2000 en el río Las Albahacas (aguas arriba del balneario y un máximo de 49 en verano de 2000 en el arroyo El Chacay y en primavera de 2000 en el río Las Albahacas (aguas arriba del balneario, respectivamente. El mayor número de especies corresponde a los menores porcentajes de frecuencia. La densidad osciló entre 1 org.ml-1 en otoño de 2000 en el río Las Albahacas, aguas arriba del balneario y 1596,40 org.ml-1 registrados en primavera de 1999 en el arroyo El Chacay. Los parámetros fisicoquímicos y la composición de especies determinaron una mayor afinidad entre los sitios en la estación de primavera.The present work was developed in El Chacay Creek and Las Albahacas River from 1999 spring to 2000 spring. The aim of this investigation was to compare the composition and abundance of the diatom communities of a highland water stream and a river within the Piedra Blanca River basin, during an annual cycle. As a result of a taxonomic analysis a total of 121 taxa (species, varieties and forms were recorded. The Order Pennales predominated in number of species and relative frequency. The genus with the highest number of species was Navicula. The total number of species varied from a minimum of 21 in 2000 winter season in the Las Albahacas River (upstream riverside resort to a maximun of 49 in 2000 summer

  4. Drinking water: problems related to water supply in Bahía Blanca, Argentina Agua potable: problemas en el abastecimiento de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Argentina

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    Ricardo Echenique

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In April 2000, alterations in drinking water quality, such as turbidity and odors similar to those of organochloride pesticides, were detected at Bahía Blanca (Argentina. This fact was associated to reports of dermic reactions and respiratory problems in the population. Samples drawn from Paso de las Piedras reservoir, two water treatment plants of at inlet and outlet points and at several particular houses were analyzed. Total phytoplankton in the reservoir varied between 49440 and 84832 cells.ml-1, while dominant species was, Anabaena circinalis. Efficiency to remove microorganisms (ER by the treatment plants considering cell number of total phytoplankton was analyzed. Bacteriological analysis, qualitative and quantitative studies of phytoplankton, pesticides, THM (trihalomethanes and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene analysis were carried out in samples of domestic supply and in the treatment plants. Even though samples were bacteriological potable, Anabaena circinalis and Microcystis aeruginosa algae were found at high concentrations in some cases. No pesticides were detected. THM and BTEX were below guideline values into recommendations for drinking water. Geosmin was responsible for detected odors. Besides, Copaene, another volatile metabolite, which on account in its structure could be considered a Geosmin precursor, was also detected. In Argentina, this was the first report of Cyanobacteria presence in drinking water.En abril de 2000, en Bahía Blanca (Argentina, se detectaron alteraciones en el agua de bebida, turbidez y olor semejante a "Gamexane". Esto coincidió con la aparición de problemas dérmicos y respiratorios en la población. Para determinar el origen del problema, se analizaron muestras, tomadas en el embalse Paso de las Piedras, en las plantas potabilizadoras y en varios domicilios particulares. En el embalse, la densidad celular del fitoplancton, fluctuó entre 49440 y 84832 cél/ml-1, muy por encima de

  5. Invertebrados asociados al coral constructor de arrecifes Pocillopora damicornis en Playa Blanca, Bahía Culebra, Costa Rica Invertebrates associated with the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis at Playa Blanca, Bahía Culebra, Costa Rica

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    Juan José Alvarado

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Los arrecifes coralinos son uno de los ecosistemas más diversos en el planeta, tanto por los organismos constructores como por aquellos que viven encima, sobre, dentro y debajo de ellos. Los corales del genero Pocillopora son reconocidos mundialmente por albergar una importante fauna de invertebrados entre sus ramas, los cuales son considerados como simbiontes obligatorios en una gran cantidad de casos. La presente investigación describe la fauna de invertebrados asociados al coral Pocillopora damicornis en Bahía Culebra, Costa Rica, describiendo sus densidades, frecuencias, riquezas y diversidades a través del tiempo. Para esto se colectaron 5 colonias cada 3-4 meses en Playa Blanca, Bahía Culebra. En total se encontraron 448 individuos en 35 especies, siendo Harpiliopsis depressa, Lithophaga aristata, Trapezia ferruginea, Alpheus lottini, Fennera chacei, y Petrolisthes haigae las especies predominantes. Noviembre fue el mes en el que se encontraron los mayores valores en los índices de riqueza, diversidad y diferenciación taxonómica, mientras que agosto fue el que presento los valores más bajos de todos. En términos generales, la época lluviosa mostro mayor riqueza de especies que la época seca. Así mismo, las especies colectados y los valores obtenidos son muy similares a otras zonas del Pacifico Oriental Tropical. Culebra ha venido sufriendo una perdida en la cobertura coralina, que podría tener consecuencias en la diversidad y abundancia de organismos asociados a corales. Estas consecuencias incluyen perdida en la fecundidad de estos organismos, una reducción en su función como limpiadores y protectores de depredadores del coral, poniendo en riesgo su diversidad, lo que puede afectar los stocks de peces depredadores que depende de ellos. Realizar monitoreos permanentes de la criptofauna asociada al coral Pocillopora va a ser determinante para cuantificar perdidas o recuperaciones en la composición de invertebrados asociados

  6. The role of the smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and associated sediments in the heavy metal biogeochemical cycle within Bahia Blanca estuary salt marshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, M. [Dept. of Environmental Process Engineering, International Graduate School Zittau, Zittau (Germany); Botte, S.E. [Area de Oceanografia Quimica, Inst. Argentino de Oceanografia (IADO), CCT-CONICET, Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Dept. de Biologia, Bioquimica y Farmacia (DBBF), Univ. Nacional del Sur (UNS), Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Negrin, V.L.; Chiarello, M.N. [Area de Oceanografia Quimica, Inst. Argentino de Oceanografia (IADO), CCT-CONICET, Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Marcovecchio, J.E. [Area de Oceanografia Quimica, Inst. Argentino de Oceanografia (IADO), CCT-CONICET, Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca (UTN-FRBB), Univ. Tecnologica Nacional, Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Univ. FASTA, Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2008-10-15

    Background, aim, and scope Bahia Blanca estuary is characterized by the occurrence of large intertidal areas, including both naked tidal flats and salt marshes densely vegetated with Spartina alterniflora. The estuary is strongly affected by human activities, including industrial and municipal discharges, harbor maintenance, cargo vessels and boat navigation, oil storage and processing, etc. Even numerous studies have reported the occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in sediments and biota from this estuary, although the function of the halophyte vegetation on metals distribution was at present not studied. The main objective of the present study was to understand the potential role of the salt marshes as a sink or source of metals to the estuary, considering both the obtained data on metal levels within sediments and plants from the studied areas at naked tidal as well as vegetated flats. Conclusions and recommendations Considering the comments on the previous paragraphs, salt marshes from Bahia Blanca estuary are sources or sinks for metals? It can be sustained that both are the case, even if it is often stated that wetlands serve as sinks for pollutants, reducing contamination of surrounding ecosystems (Weis and Weis, Environ Int 30:685-700, 2004). In the present study case, the sediments (which tend to be anoxic and reduced) act as sinks, while the salt marshes can become a source of metal contaminants. This is very important for this system because the macrophytes have been shown to retain the majority of metals in the underground tissues, and particularly in their associated sediments. This fact agreed well with previous reports, such as that from Leendertse et al., (Environ Pollut 94:19-29, 1996) who found that about 50% of the absorbed metals were retained in salt marshes and 50% was exported. Thus, keeping in mind the large spreading of S. alterniflora salt marshes within Bahia Blanca estuary, it must be carefully considered as a redistributor of

  7. Texto y figuras preparatorios del Capítulo 11 (Tomo I) de la Histología del Sistema Nervioso de Cajal: [ESTRUCTURA DE LA SUBSTANCIA BLANCA DE LA MÉDULA].

    OpenAIRE

    Freire, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    [ESTRUCTURA DE LA SUBSTANCIA BLANCA DE LA MÉDULA]. Tubos nerviosos, [fibras sin mielina,] células neuróglicas y colaterales nerviosas. ─ Variedades de colaterales distinguidas por el área gris en que se terminan ─ Fibras nerviosas terminales. ─ Fascículos dislocados de la substancia blanca. [Ver: Freire, Miguel. Metodología usada en la presente edición. Metodología e historia de la edición en la correspondencia de Cajal. https://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/150245

  8. Testing Pixel Translation Digital Elevation Models to Reconstruct Slip Histories: An Example from the Agua Blanca Fault, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J.; Wetmore, P. H.; Malservisi, R.; Ferwerda, B. P.; Teran, O.

    2012-12-01

    We use recently collected slip vector and total offset data from the Agua Blanca fault (ABF) to constrain a pixel translation digital elevation model (DEM) to reconstruct the slip history of this fault. This model was constructed using a Perl script that reads a DEM file (Easting, Northing, Elevation) and a configuration file with coordinates that define the boundary of each fault segment. A pixel translation vector is defined as a magnitude of lateral offset in an azimuthal direction. The program translates pixels north of the fault and prints their pre-faulting position to a new DEM file that can be gridded and displayed. This analysis, where multiple DEMs are created with different translation vectors, allows us to identify areas of transtension or transpression while seeing the topographic expression in these areas. The benefit of this technique, in contrast to a simple block model, is that the DEM gives us a valuable graphic which can be used to pose new research questions. We have found that many topographic features correlate across the fault, i.e. valleys and ridges, which likely have implications for the age of the ABF, long term landscape evolution rates, and potentially provide conformation for total slip assessments The ABF of northern Baja California, Mexico is an active, dextral strike slip fault that transfers Pacific-North American plate boundary strain out of the Gulf of California and around the "Big Bend" of the San Andreas Fault. Total displacement on the ABF in the central and eastern parts of the fault is 10 +/- 2 km based on offset Early-Cretaceous features such as terrane boundaries and intrusive bodies (plutons and dike swarms). Where the fault bifurcates to the west, the northern strand (northern Agua Blanca fault or NABF) is constrained to 7 +/- 1 km. We have not yet identified piercing points on the southern strand, the Santo Tomas fault (STF), but displacement is inferred to be ~4 km assuming that the sum of slip on the NABF and STF is

  9. El tópico del hambre como construcción metafórica del sentido en la poesía de blanca varela

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    Mara Donat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Into the poetic of descent proposed by the literary critic Cárcamo-Huechante, Blanca Varela developes a poetry in relation with corporality and deterioration. Existencialism thought connects with the search of a material poetic word, fill with corporal, byologic elements. Hunger is the privileged metaphor in the process of materialization of poetic writing. It is social and linguistic demand against unjustice and the impoverished language system, also into literary tradition. We propose an exegesis of metaphoric configuration of hunger through a thematic and a stylistic line of research, which embodies sense and sound of poetic word.

  10. Reseña de "Los trajines callejeros. Memoria y vida cotidiana" (Eduardo Kingman Garcés y Blanca Muratorio, 2014

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    María Ángela Cifuentes Guerra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruto de un trabajo conjunto, Eduardo Kingman Garcés y Blanca Muratorio exploran a lo largo de los diferentes textos que comprenden este libro el significado cultural de los trajines callejeros y otras formas de entender y estudiar las culturas urbanas. El relato, la imagen visual y el objeto se presentan como sus recursos centrales para un análisis compartido entre la historia y la antropología. Quito en su primera modernidad, entre los siglos XIX y XX, es el objeto de gran parte de sus análisis aquí expuestos.

  11. Análisis del Clima Laboral a través de la Comunicación Interna: "Caso Industria de Línea Blanca"

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Ochoa, Melania Francisca

    2013-01-01

    La presente es una investigación de campo realizada en una empresa productora de línea blanca, la misma que cuenta con su matriz en la ciudad de Cuenca, La investigación está basada en el impacto de contar con un proceso de comunicación interna, inmersa en los procesos estratégicos de la organización, para conseguir un mejor resultado en el Clima Laboral organizacional. La investigación ha sido sustentado en un marco teórico práctico establecidos en lineamentos y políticas instituidas en la o...

  12. Assessing the variability of glacier lake bathymetries and potential peak discharge based on large-scale measurements in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochachin, Alejo; Huggel, Christian; Salazar, Cesar; Haeberli, Wilfried; Frey, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Over timescales of hundreds to thousands of years ice masses in mountains produced erosion in bedrock and subglacial sediment, including the formation of overdeepenings and large moraine dams that now serve as basins for glacial lakes. Satellite based studies found a total of 8355 glacial lakes in Peru, whereof 830 lakes were observed in the Cordillera Blanca. Some of them have caused major disasters due to glacial lake outburst floods in the past decades. On the other hand, in view of shrinking glaciers, changing water resources, and formation of new lakes, glacial lakes could have a function as water reservoirs in the future. Here we present unprecedented bathymetric studies of 124 glacial lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Huallanca, Huayhuash and Raura in the regions of Ancash, Huanuco and Lima. Measurements were carried out using a boat equipped with GPS, a total station and an echo sounder to measure the depth of the lakes. Autocad Civil 3D Land and ArcGIS were used to process the data and generate digital topographies of the lake bathymetries, and analyze parameters such as lake area, length and width, and depth and volume. Based on that, we calculated empirical equations for mean depth as related to (1) area, (2) maximum length, and (3) maximum width. We then applied these three equations to all 830 glacial lakes of the Cordillera Blanca to estimate their volumes. Eventually we used three relations from the literature to assess the peak discharge of potential lake outburst floods, based on lake volumes, resulting in 3 x 3 peak discharge estimates. In terms of lake topography and geomorphology results indicate that the maximum depth is located in the center part for bedrock lakes, and in the back part for lakes in moraine material. Best correlations are found for mean depth and maximum width, however, all three empirical relations show a large spread, reflecting the wide range of natural lake bathymetries. Volumes of the 124 lakes with bathymetries amount to 0

  13. Plan estratégico para la producción de electrodomésticos de línea blanca en el Perú.

    OpenAIRE

    Cervantes Choquehuayta, Anny Stephanie; Chuquicondor Pinto, Nohelia; Gonzales Cruz, Juan Carlos; Ortiz Siu, Paul Alonso

    2016-01-01

    En el presente documento se elabora el Planeamiento Estratégico para la Producción de Electrodomésticos de Línea Blanca en el Perú. En el mismo se realiza una exhaustiva revisión y análisis de las variables que mueven a los productores para hacer más competitivos en un mercado dominado principalmente por la producción extranjera. El análisis de los factores internos y externos que permitieron desarrollar la matriz FODA han sido el punto de partida para analizar la situación act...

  14. Efecto de la combinación de clorhexidina y fluoruro de sodio sobre Streptococcus mutans en preescolares con manchas blancas.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala, Grascely; Álvarez, María; Nuñez, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar el efecto de la combinación de los barnices diacetato de clorhexidina 1 % y fluoruro de sodio 5 % sobre Streptococcus mutans en saliva de niños de 3 a 5 años con manchas blancas. Material y métodos: Se incluyeron 45 niños, divididos en 3 grupos: combinación clorhexidina 1 % y fluoruro de sodio 5 % (n=15), fluoruro de sodio 5 % (n=15) y placebo (n=15). Después de 8 semanas se evaluó microbiológicamente. Resultados: Todos los grupos redujeron significativamente los S. muta...

  15. [Distribution patterns and bioerosion of the sea urchin Centrostephanus coronatus (Diadematoida: Diadematidae), at the reef of Playa Blanca, Colombian Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Cantera, Jaime R; Londoño-Cruz, Edgardo; Orozco, Carlos; Neira, Raul

    2004-03-01

    Regular sea-urchins are one of the main bioeroding organisms affecting coral reefs around the world. The abundance, distribution and bioerosion rate of the sea-urchin Centrostephanus coronatus, were determined in different reef zones of Playa Blanca fringing reef (Gorgona Island, Colombian pacific coast) during 1997 and 1998. The erosion rates were determined calcinating the gut content of the sea-urchins to eliminate all organic components and preserve the inorganic portion of calcium carbonate. C. coronatus showed the highest densities towards the central zones of the reef (plain-crest and front) (12.4 ind/m2; range 0-48 ind/m2). The highest mean bioerosion rate was 0.103 kgCaCO3/m2/yr in the reef plain-crest (0-0.69 kgCaCO3/m2/yr). In the other zones, (back reef and reef front) the mean bioerosion rates were 0.071 (range 0-0.39) and 0.052 (range 0-0.31) kgCaCO3/m2/yr respectively. According to the present data, it can be seen that the destruction of coralline skeletons, produced in this reef by sea-urchins is rather low, compared with the abrasion caused by these organisms in other places of the world. However, the combined action of C. coronatus and other bioeroding organisms (borers and grazers). along with some adverse environmental factors to corals, can be causing a negative balance between normal processes of reef accretion-destruction in Gorgona Island reefs.

  16. Role of body condition score and body weight in the control of seasonal reproduction in Blanca Andaluza goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Calvo, L; Gatica, M C; Guzmán, J L; Zarazaga, L A

    2014-12-30

    The reproductive activity of 84 female Blanca Andaluza goats was monitored over 17 months to determine the role of body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in its control. Following a 3×2 factorial experimental design, the animals were allocated to three groups: low BCS (≤2.50, n=24), medium BCS (BCS=2.75-3.00, n=31) and high BCS (≥3.25, n=29). The same animals, irrespective of the BCS group categorization, were also divided into two groups depending on BW: low BW (≤40kg, n=44) and high BW (>40kg, n=40). Oestrus was evaluated daily using vasectomised males. The ovulation rate was assessed by trans-rectal ultrasonography after the identification of oestrus. Ovulations were determined by monitoring the plasma progesterone concentration weekly. The BCS and BW were recorded once a week and nutritional status adjusted to maintain the initial differences in BW and BCS between the groups. Both BCS and BW had a significant (at least Preproductive activity recorded in does with a BCS of ≥2.75 and BW of >40kg. No significant interaction between these variables was observed. Some (11.7%) of the does in the groups with animals of BCS≥2.75 had ovulations during seasonal anoestrus. None of the does with a BCS of ≤2.5 had ovulations during seasonal anoestrus. The ovulation rate of the first and last oestrus was influenced by BW (Preproductive seasonality that is clearly and independently modulated by BCS and BW. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring tropical debris-covered glacier dynamics from high-resolution unmanned aerial vehicle photogrammetry, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

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    O. Wigmore

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The glaciers of the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, are rapidly retreating and thinning as a result of climate change, altering the timing, quantity and quality of water available to downstream users. Furthermore, increases in the number and size of proglacial lakes associated with these melting glaciers is increasing potential exposure to glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs. Understanding how these glaciers are changing and their connection to proglacial lake systems is thus of critical importance. Most satellite data are too coarse for studying small mountain glaciers and are often affected by cloud cover, while traditional airborne photogrammetry and lidar are costly. Recent developments have made unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs a viable and potentially transformative method for studying glacier change at high spatial resolution, on demand and at relatively low cost.Using a custom designed hexacopter built for high-altitude (4000–6000 m a. s. l.  operation, we completed repeat aerial surveys (2014 and 2015 of the debris-covered Llaca Glacier tongue and proglacial lake system. High-resolution orthomosaics (5 cm and digital elevation models (DEMs (10 cm were produced and their accuracy assessed. Analysis of these datasets reveals highly heterogeneous patterns of glacier change. The most rapid areas of ice loss were associated with exposed ice cliffs and meltwater ponds on the glacier surface. Considerable subsidence and low surface velocities were also measured on the sediments within the pro-glacial lake, indicating the presence of extensive regions of buried ice and continued connection to the glacier tongue. Only limited horizontal retreat of the glacier tongue was observed, indicating that measurements of changes in aerial extent alone are inadequate for monitoring changes in glacier ice quantity.

  18. Unraveling Tropical Mountain Hydroclimatology by Coupling Autonomous Sensor Observations and Climate Modeling: Llanganuco Valley, Cordillera Blanca, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrom, R. A.; Fernandez, A.; Mark, B. G.; Covert, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Northern Peru will face critical water resource issues in the near future as permanent ice retreats. Much of current global and regional climate research neglects the meteorological forcing of lapse rates and valley wind dynamics on critical components of the Peruvian Andes' water-cycle. In 2004 and 2005 we installed an autonomous sensor network (ASN) within the glacierized Llanganuco Valley, Cordillera Blanca (9°S), consisting of discrete, cost-effective, automatic temperature loggers located along the valley axis and anchored by two automatic weather stations. Comparisons of these embedded atmospheric measurements from the ASN and climate modeling (CM) by dynamical downscaling using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model elucidate distinct diurnal and seasonal characteristics of the mountain valley winds and lapse rates. Wind, temperature, humidity, and cloud simulations by WRF suggest that thermally driven valley winds converging with easterly flow aloft enhance late afternoon and evening cloud development which helps explain detected nocturnal precipitation maxima measured by the ASN. We attribute sustained evapotranspiration (ET), as estimated by the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith model, to an abundance of glacial melt-water during the dry season and strong pre-noon solar heating during the wet season. Furthermore, the extreme diurnal variability of along-valley-axis lapse rates and valley wind detected from ground observations and confirmed by dynamical downscaling demonstrate the importance of realistic scale parameterizations of the boundary layer to improve regional CM projections in mountainous regions. Our findings portray ET as an integral yet poorly represented process in Andean hydroclimatology. We show that coupling ASN and CM can improve understanding of multi-scale atmospheric and associated hydrological processes in mountain valleys.

  19. Diferentes niveles de energía metabolizable y aminoácidos azufrados en dietas para gallinas Bovans blancas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Tepox Pérez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de evaluar el comportamiento productivo de la gallina Bovans blanca de primer ciclo alimentadas con dietas con niveles diferentes de energía metabolizable (EM y de metionina+cistina digestible (AAD, para lograr disminuir el porcentaje de huevo pequeño (<42 g, al inicio de la producción se utilizaron 384 gallinas de 19 semanas de edad. Se usó un diseño completamente al azar, en un arreglo factorial de 4 X 2, donde el primer factor fueron los niveles de EM (2700, 2800, 2900, 3000 Kcal/kg y el segundo factor fue la inclusión de diferentes porcentajes de AAD (0.45, 0.61. Cada tratamiento, contó con cuatro repeticiones de 12 gallinas cada uno. Durante ocho semanas se llevaron registros semanales, del porcentaje de postura, peso promedio del huevo, consumo de alimento; masa de huevo/ave/día y conversión alimenticia; además, se clasificó el huevo de acuerdo al peso. Los resultados obtenidos, no mostraron respuesta a los factores de estudio ni a la interacción entre nivel de EM y AAD, para ninguna de las variables productivas. Se encontró un efecto sobre el consumo de alimento del nivel de energía y aminoácidos azufrados (P<0.05. Se disminuyó el porcentaje de huevo pequeño en los niveles más altos de EM de 2900 y 3000 Kcal/Kg (29.6 y 30.4 % respectivamente. Se incrementó (P<0.05 el porcentaje de huevo grande en 3 % al usar dietas con el nivel de AAD de 0.61 %.

  20. EVALUACIÓN DE ACTIVIDADES ENDOGLUCANASA, EXOGLUCANASA, LACASA Y LIGNINA PEROXIDASA EN DIEZ HONGOS DE PUDRICIÓN BLANCA

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    SANDRA MONTOYA B.

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una vía de rastreo de producción de enzimas lignocelulolíticas en diez especies de hongos de pudrición blanca: Lentinula edodes, Schizophyllum commune, Trametes trogii, Coriolus versicolor, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus ostreatus y Auricularia delicata. Estas especies primero fueron rastreadas sobre medios de cultivo sólido que contienen carboximetil celulosa, celulosa cristalina, ABTS (2,2´-azino-bis(3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfonato y azure B, los cuales evidenciaron la producción de las enzimas endoglucanasa, exoglucanasa, lacasa y lignina peroxidasa (LiP. Las actividades celulolíticas fueron detectadas a los cinco días de incubación con el indicador rojo congo, formándose un halo claro-blanco en las zonas donde se degrada la celulosa. Para las ligninasas, este rastreo consistió en el seguimiento a la formación de halos verdes por oxidación del ABTS para lacasa y halos de decoloración sobre el azure B para la LiP durante 14 días de incubación. De este rastreo cualitativo, se seleccionaron cuatro cepas (G. lucidum, L. edodes, C. versicolor y T. Trogii, como las mejores productoras de enzimas celulolíticas y ligninolíticas. Estas cuatro especies fueron inoculadas sobre un sustrato de aserrín de roble, obteniéndose 51,8% de lignina degradada por L. edodes y 22% de celulosa degrada por C. versicolor.

  1. Caracterización de Daños de Moscas del Género Dasiops (Diptera: Lonchaeidae en Passiflora spp. (Passifloraceae Cultivadas en Colombia / Characterization of Damage of the Genus Dasiops Flies (Diptera: Lonchaeidae from Cultivated Passiflora (Passiflor

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    Maikol Yohanny Santamaría Galindo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Las moscas del género Dasiops Rondani constituyen la plaga más limitante en cultivos de pasifloras en Colombia, por lo que el reconocimiento de especies es importante para la toma de decisiones de vigilancia y control. Se caracterizaron los síntomas y daños producidos por moscas Dasiops spp.. en botones florales y frutos de maracuyá (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Sims, gulupa (Passiflora edulis f. edulis Sims, granadilla (Passiflora ligularis Juss y curuba (Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima Nielsen y Jorgensen. En botones florales de maracuyá, gulupa y granadilla con longitud mayor a 1 cm, la infestación se manifestó con amarillamiento y arrugamiento general. En frutos de gulupa y granadilla, la infestación se evidenció por arrugamiento del epicarpio en frutos inmaduros. En curuba, la infestación en frutos se caracterizó por un estrechamiento en la parte basal, apical o media del fruto. La infestación en botones florales estuvo entre 0,0 y 9,9% en tanto que en frutos presentó un rango entre 0,3 y 28,5%. No obstante, en maracuyá y gulupa se registraron botones florales infestados pero sin los síntomas descritos; en tanto que en gulupa y granadilla se observó el mismo fenómeno en frutos. Este estudio provee a agricultores y técnicos herramientas para el reconocimiento de infestación por moscas Dasiops spp. en cultivos de pasifloras como elemento fundamental para la toma decisiones para la vigilancia y control fitosanitario. / Abstract. The flies of the gender Dasiops Rondani are the most limiting plague in pasifloras crops in Colombia, thus species identification is important for decision making for monitoring and control. The symptoms and damage caused by Dasiops spp. flies in flower buds and fruits of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Sims, purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. edulis Sims, sweet passion fruit (Passiflora ligularis Juss and banana passion fruit (Passiflora tripartita

  2. Ação de fungos entomopatogênicos em larvas e adultos da mosca do figo Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae Action of entomopathogenic fungi on the larvae and adults of the fig fly Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae

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    Virgínia Michelle Svedese

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A mosca do figo, Zaprionus indianus, vem se disseminando no Brasil e causou nos últimos anos perdas de até 50% na produção de figos. Uma alternativa viável de controle desta mosca pode ser a utilização de fungos entomopatogênicos. Este trabalho foi conduzido em laboratório (27±1°C, UR 70±10% e fotoperíodo de 12h para avaliar a suscetibilidade dos estágios de larva e adulto de Z. indianus a cinco concentrações (10(8 a 10(4 conídios mL-1 de B. bassiana (URM2915; ESALQ447 e M. anisopliae (URM3349; URM4403. Não houve mortalidade larval e o período de pré-pupa não sofreu alteração em relação ao grupo controle, já o estágio de pupa foi aumentado em até três dias quando se utilizou B. bassiana. A emergência de adultos diminuiu em relação ao grupo controle: 10,6% quando as larvas foram tratadas com a maior concentração de B. bassiana URM2916 e 2,0% com M. anisopliae URM4403. No bioensaio com adultos, a mortalidade máxima atingiu 98,7% com B. bassiana e 100,0% com M. anisopliae. Os menores valores da CL50 foram de 1,09x10(5 conídios mL-1 para B. bassiana URM2916 e de 1,94x10(4 conídios mL-1 para M. anisopliae URM4403. O tempo letal médio (TL50 variou de 4,5 a 6,12 dias. Os resultados demonstraram que ambos os fungos são eficientes e mostram ser promissores agentes biocontroladores da mosca do figo, com destaque para M. anisopliae URM4403.The "fig fly", Zaprionus indianus, has spread by in Brazil and in recent years and has caused losses of up to 50% in the production of figs. A viable alternative to control this fly may be the use of entomopathogenic fungi such. The present study was developed in laboratory (27±1°C, RH 70±10% and 12h photoperiod, to assess the susceptibility of larval and adult stages of Z. indianus to five concentrations (10(8 to 10(4 conidia mL-1 of B. bassiana (URM2915; ESALQ447 and M. anisopliae (URM3349; URM4403. There was no larval mortality and the pre-pupal period did not change compared

  3. Ciclo biológico, exigências térmicas e parasitismo de Muscidifurax uniraptor em pupas de mosca doméstica Life cycle, thermal requirements and parasitism of Muscidifurax uniraptor on house fly pupae

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    Marcílio José Thomazini

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Os parasitóides pupais estão entre os principais responsáveis pela redução populacional de mosca doméstica em aviários, e Muscidifurax uniraptor Kogan & Legner (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae é um dos principais parasitóides presentes nestes ambientes no Estado de São Paulo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a duração do ciclo biológico, as exigências térmicas e o parasitismo de M. uniraptor em pupas de Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae em temperaturas constantes. Os testes foram realizados em câmaras climatizadas nas temperaturas de 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 e 32 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% U.R. e 14 h de fotofase. Em cada câmara 200 pupas de mosca doméstica, com 24 a 48 h de idade, foram expostas a 40 parasitóides fêmeas partenogenéticas, com 0 a 24 h de idade, por 24 h. A temperatura influenciou o desenvolvimento e a reprodução de M. uniraptor. O menor valor do período de ovo a adulto foi a 30°C (17 dias e as porcentagens de parasitismo e de emergência de descendentes foram maiores a 28°C, com 87 e 63,5%, respectivamente. A temperatura base encontrada para fêmeas do parasitóide foi de 9,43°C, com uma constante térmica de 366,62 graus-dia (GD. A elevação da temperatura diminui a duração do período de ovo a adulto (entre 18 e 30°C e aumenta o parasitismo (entre 18 e 28°C de M. uniraptor. A faixa de temperatura entre 28 e 30°C é considerada a mais adequada para criação de M. uniraptor em pupas de mosca doméstica.The pupal parasitoids are among the most important organisms responsible for house fly population reduction in poultry farms. Muscidifurax uniraptor Kogan & Legner (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae is one of the main parasitoids that occur in poultry farms at São Paulo State, Brazil. The objective of this study was to determine the life cycle duration, the thermal requirements and the parasitism of M. uniraptor on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae pupae under constant temperatures. The experiment was

  4. Primeiro registro de Trichopria anastrephae, parasitoide de moscas-das-frutas, no Rio Grande do Sul First record of Trichopria anastrephae, parasitoid of fruit flies, in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Patrícia Postalli Cruz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucas informações sobre as espécies nativas de himenópteros parasitoides de moscas-das-frutas da Região Neotropical, o que objetivou a realização do presente trabalho. Assim, coletas de goiaba (Psidium guajava L. foram realizadas de janeiro a março de 2009 na Área Experimental em Estudos de Produção Agroecológica (AEEPA da Universidade Federal de Pelotas, no município de Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul. Os frutos foram levados ao laboratório, contados, pesados e acondicionados individualmente em potes plásticos contendo areia umedecida e telado na parte superior. Semanalmente, o substrato foi peneirado, os pupários recolhidos e acondicionados em placas de Petri com papel filtro umedecido com água destilada. Os pupários foram mantidos em sala climatizada (26±2°C, 60±10% de umidade relativa e 12h fotofase onde foram efetuadas observações semanais para verificar a emergência de moscas e/ou parasitoides e posterior identificação das espécies. Trichopria anastrephae Lima (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae foi obtida de pupários de Anastrepha fraterculus, com parasitismo de 5,8%.There is little information on native species of hymenopteran parasitoids of fruit flies from the Neotropical region. Collections of guava (Psidium guajava L. were conducted from January to March 2009 at the Experimental Area of Agroecological Production studies (AEEPA, Federal University of Pelotas, Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul. Fruits were taken individually to the laboratory, counted, weighed and packaged in plastic pots containing moist sand and mesh on top. Weekly substrate was sieved, the pupae collected and placed in Petri dishes with filter paper moistened with distilled water. The pupae were placed in a room (26±2°C, 60±10% RH and 12h photophase where observations were made weekly to check the emergence of adult flies or parasitoids and subsequent species identification. Trichopria anastrephae Lima was obtained from Anastrepha

  5. Compatibilidad in vitro de Isaria fumosorosea (Wize Brown y Smith (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae con plaguicidas comerciales

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    Érika Paola Grijalba Bernal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los agricultores colombianos utilizan productos químicos con categorías toxicológicas I, II y III para el control de insectos como la mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae; pero su uso indiscriminado genera un riesgo para la salud y el medio ambiente. El control microbiológico con hongos entomopatógenos surge como alternativa de control ambientalmente sostenible. No obstante, su empleo exitoso dentro de una estrategia de manejo integrado de plagas (MIP depende, en gran parte, del efecto de los productos químicos sobre el bioplaguicida. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la compatibilidad in vitro de un bioplaguicida con base en el hongo Isaria fumosorosea formulado como polvo mojable con cuatro fungicidas y cinco insecticidas comerciales. Para esto, se evaluó el efecto de tres concentraciones de los productos químicos: FR = dosis recomendada en campo, 0.5 x FR y 0.25 x FR sobre la germinación de los conidios y el número de unidades formadoras de colonia UFC/g de I. fumosorosea. Los cuatro fungicidas (Benlate, Carboxin Captan, Metalaxil-Mancozeb y Mancozeb en las tres dosis evaluadas fueron incompatibles con el bioplaguicida, mientras que el insecticida Thiametoxam fue compatible cuando se utilizó la dosis de 0.25 x FR.

  6. Empirical-statistical downscaling of reanalysis data to high-resolution air temperature and specific humidity above a glacier surface (Cordillera Blanca, Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Marlis; MöLg, Thomas; Marzeion, Ben; Kaser, Georg

    2010-06-01

    Recently initiated observation networks in the Cordillera Blanca (Peru) provide temporally high-resolution, yet short-term, atmospheric data. The aim of this study is to extend the existing time series into the past. We present an empirical-statistical downscaling (ESD) model that links 6-hourly National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis data to air temperature and specific humidity, measured at the tropical glacier Artesonraju (northern Cordillera Blanca). The ESD modeling procedure includes combined empirical orthogonal function and multiple regression analyses and a double cross-validation scheme for model evaluation. Apart from the selection of predictor fields, the modeling procedure is automated and does not include subjective choices. We assess the ESD model sensitivity to the predictor choice using both single-field and mixed-field predictors. Statistical transfer functions are derived individually for different months and times of day. The forecast skill largely depends on month and time of day, ranging from 0 to 0.8. The mixed-field predictors perform better than the single-field predictors. The ESD model shows added value, at all time scales, against simpler reference models (e.g., the direct use of reanalysis grid point values). The ESD model forecast 1960-2008 clearly reflects interannual variability related to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation but is sensitive to the chosen predictor type.

  7. Relación masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretación de recientes mediciones hechas por Hipparcos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas por Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un núcleo compuesto de hierro para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y oxígeno como predice la teoría standard de evolución estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aquí, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones químicas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el código de evolución estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho código resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evolución estelar mediante la técnica de relajación de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripción física muy detallada y actualizada.

  8. ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DE LOS COMPUESTOS VOLÁTILES DE TRES VARIEDADES DE GUAYABA BLANCA (Psidium guajava L. DURANTE SU MADURACIÓN

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    Johanna Cantillo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Regional Blanca (RB y Ráquira (RQ. Seutilizó el método Headspace-Microextracciónen Fase Sólida (HS-MEFS paracomparar los perfiles olfativos de tres variedadesde guayaba blanca de la regiónde la hoya del río Suárez (Santander, Colombiadurante tres etapas de maduración(verde, pintón y maduro. En las tresvariedades se presentó un comportamientosimilar, los aldehídos C-6 (hexanal,(Z-3-hexenal y (E-2-hexenal responsablesde la nota verde disminuyen durantela maduración, mientras que el contenidode ésteres (acetato de hexilo y acetato de(Z-3-hexenilo aumenta produciéndoselas notas dulce y frutal características dela fruta madura. Los compuestos ácidos,furánicos y alcoholes se observan en bajasproporciones durante las tres etapas.El análisis de los compuestos volátilesmediante HS-MEFS permitió estableceruna relación entre la transformación decompuestos aldehídos C6, responsablesde la nota verde, en ésteres análogos, alos cuales se les atribuye la nota frutalcaracterística durante el proceso demaduración.

  9. The reconstruction of a glacial lake outburst flood using HEC-RAS and its significance for future hazard assessments: an example from Lake 513 in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Jan; Benešová, M.; Vilímek, V.; Bouška, P.; Rapre, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 3 (2014), s. 1617-1638 ISSN 0921-030X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1000 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : GLOFs * debris flow * natural hazard * HEC-RAS * Cordillera Blanca Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.719, year: 2014

  10. Comportamiento temporal de la radiación solar global en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Argentina

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    María Eugenia Fernández

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available La energía que irradia el Sol es la principal causa de las diferencias climáticas en nuestro planeta y sustenta todos los procesos vitales. Si bien dicha emisión es prácticamente constante para escalas temporales breves, la radiación incidente en cada sitio es variable y depende en gran medida de los estados atmosféricos. En este sentido, la cantidad de cielo cubierto por nubes es un factor primordial, ya que por su capacidad de absorción y reflexión estas pueden reducir sustancialmente la radiación que alcanza la superficie terrestre. El objetivo del presente trabajo es caracterizar el comportamiento de la radiación solar global en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca (Argentina para el período 2001-2011 y comparar los valores radiativos registrados en los años 2007-2011 con datos referidos a coberturas nubosas a fin de establecer relaciones entre ambas variables. La radiación promedio para el intervalo analizado fue de 187,36 W/m 2 . En enero y en diciembre todos los días se registraron radiaciones mayores a 227,4 W/m 2 y en junio y julio la radiación siempre osciló entre 51,5 W/m 2 y 110,1 W/m 2 . En el transcurso del día la radiación alcanza su máximo valor entre las 13:00 h y 13:30 h. En lo que respecta a la relación entre la cobertura nubosa y la radiación global se observaron reducciones de hasta un 10,86 % entre cielos despejados (0 octas y parcialmente nublados (1-5 octas y de hasta 44,35 % entre cielos despejados y cubiertos (6-8 octas. En término medio, los días claros reciben alrededor de un 16 % más de radiación que todos los días en conjunto.

  11. Arte Público y Memoria Ferroviaria II Paseo de las Esculturas, Bahía Blanca, República Argentina.

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    Diana I. Ribas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available En los noventa, la degradación final del sistema ferroviario estatal impulsada por el Presidente Carlos Menem en el marco de una serie de normas neoliberales implicó, paradójicamente, que los restos materiales se convirtieran en una atracción para el arte público regional. En ese entonces, el Museo Municipal de Arte de Bahía Blanca impulsó un Simposio Nacional de Escultura Monumental invitando a diez artistas a utilizar la chatarra de hierro desde el paradigma moderno de arte autónomo. Las obras fueron instaladas en una parte del entubamiento del arroyo Napostá, que fue integrado a otras acciones de planeamiento urbano que valorizaron la zona norte de la ciudad. El nuevo parque lineal comenzó a ser llamado Paseo de las Esculturas. Dos variables reafirman la categoría de arte público en esta activación de la memoria ferroviaria. En primer lugar, el espacio en donde están emplazadas es público, en tanto es de propiedad estatal y, sobre todo, por ser de libre acceso. A su vez, los debates posteriores suscitados por el soporte artístico no tradicional, por la colocación de cercos en tres de las obras y por los costos de la puesta en valor del sector en 2016/17, implican una operación que ha superpuesto una dimensión ideológico-política (esfera pública a la territorial. Por otro lado, en las fuentes documentales la palabra “público” ha sido utilizada en referencia a representaciones sociales vinculadas con la exhibición y la recepción. El carácter duradero de los viejos hierros ferroviarios ha permitido que las formas instaladas en el parque lineal sean constructoras de distintos esquemas intelectuales que, según lo registrado, en su mayoría no han remitido a las historias que han atravesado al material ni a las acciones que desarticularon el sistema de transporte. En síntesis, si bien las esculturas del Paseo introdujeron la no figuración monumental en un sector de la trama urbana bahiense y cumplieron un rol pedag

  12. Incidence of begomoviruses and climatic characterisation of Bemisia tabaci-geminivirus complex in soybean and bean in Argentina Incidencia de begomovirus y caracterización climática del complejo Bemisia tabaci-geminivirus en soja y poroto en Argentina

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    V. Alemandri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s geminiviruses have emerged as devastating pathogens in tropical and subtropical regions as well as in temperate regions. Recent studies accomplished molecular hybridization-based detection of three begomoviruses infecting soybean and bean crops in Argentina, Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV, Soybean blistering mosaic virus (SbBMV and Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV. The aims of the present study were to determine incidence and prevalence of the three known geminiviruses in soybean and bean crops in Argentina following the same procedure and to characterize the sites where Bemisia tabaci-geminivirus complex was found based on climate data. The highest incidence values were observed in Salta province. BGMV exhibited the highest prevalence and incidence values in the bean crop, followed by SbBMV. In the soybean crop, SbBMV showed the highest prevalence and incidence values, followed by ToYSV. One hundred and three soybean and bean plots distributed in Argentina, where the Bemisia tabaci-geminivirus complex was detected, were characterized employing a Geographic Information System (GIS. The complex was found in warm and low rainfall areas; these climatic characteristics are consistent with those identified in a previously described model. A map with the probability of occurrence of B. tabaci-geminivirus, based on the climatic characteristics, was obtained.Desde la década de 1990, los geminivirus han emergido como patógenos devastadores en regiones tropicales, subtropicales y templadas. En estudios recientes, se ha desarrollado un método de detección de tres begomovirus infectando cultivos de soja y poroto en la Argentina, Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV, Soybean blistering mosaic virus (SbBMV y Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la incidencia y prevalencia de estos tres geminivirus y caracterizar los sitios donde se encontró el complejo Bemisia tabaci-geminivirus basándose en datos

  13. Hessian Fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say, Populations in the North of Tunisia: Virulence, Yield Loss Assessment and Phenological Data Poblaciones de Mosca de Hess, Mayetiola destructor (Say, en el Norte de Túnez: Virulencia, Evaluación de Pérdida de Producción y Datos Fenológicos

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    Hanem Makni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say, is a destructive pest of wheat worldwide and an endemic pest in Tunisia. Two natural populations of this insect from the North of Tunisia were evaluated, in the field, for their virulence, based on response developed by bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars carrying H3, H5, H6, H7H8, H11, H13 and H16 resistance genes. H11, H13 and H16 showed a high effectiveness against both populations; therefore, their implication in Hessian fly breeding programs would be of interest. The level of infestation, as well as the yield loss, was assessed, based on the percentage of infested plants and variation in growth parameters due to infestation. The percentage of infested plants, over a 2-yr period in Mateur, averaged 18.82% for durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf. Husn. and 32.50% for bread wheat. For the improved durum wheat cv. Karim used as reference, the plant height, number of internodes, number of productive tillers per plant, and 100-seed weight were negatively affected by infestation, while the number of tillers per plant was positively affected. Aiming to update information about the annual number of the fly generations occurring on wheat, we surveyed infestation in Jédéida. At least three Hessian fly generations were detected on bread wheat and durum wheat. Continued regular surveying of Hessian fly populations in terms of virulence, impact on yield and annual generations is required for optimal deployment of resistance genes and integrated management of Hessian fly across all wheat production areas.La mosca de Hess, Mayetiola destructor (Say, es una plaga mundial destructiva del trigo y endémica en Túnez. Se evaluaron dos poblaciones naturales de este insecto desde el Norte de Túnez, en el campo, por su virulencia, basado en la respuesta desarrollada por cultivares de trigo panadero (Triticum aestivum L. portando los genes de resistencia H3, H5, H6, H7H8, H11, H13 y H16. H11, H13

  14. CENTROS HISTÓRICOS NO CONSOLIDADOS: un desafío para la gestión patrimonial. El caso de Bahía Blanca (Argentina

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    Carlos Andrés Pinassi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo incluye una serie de reflexiones relativas a diferentes investigaciones realizadas en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca (Rep. Argentina, concernientes al patrimonio cultural y su gestión. El área de estudio la configura el centro histórico de la localidad, definido en el año 1986 en uno de los primeros instrumentos de planificación a escala local, y luego legitimado por el Inventario de Patrimonio Urbano Municipal, llevado a cabo en 1992. Los caracteres propios del espacio determinan la convivencia de sitios patrimoniales con aquellos derivados del proceso de crecimiento de la aglomeración, articulando usos y actividades dispares en un mismo lugar. En este contexto, se identifica un “centro histórico no consolidado” estructurado sobre criterios rígidos, en el que se superponen funcionalidades y se visualizan disímiles unidades de paisaje urbano que carecen de integración.   CENTROS HISTÓRICOS NÃO CONSOLIDADOS: Um desafio para a gestão do patrimônio. O caso de Bahía Blanca (Argentina Resumo Este trabalho inclui uma série de reflexões relacionadas a diferentes investigações realizadas na cidade de Bahía Blanca (Rep. Argentina, concernentes ao patrimônio cultural e à sua gestão. A área de estudo é configurada pelo centro histórico da cidade, definido em 1986, em um dos primeiros instrumentos de planejamento em escala local, e legitimada pelo Inventário do Patrimônio, realizado em 1992. As características específicas do setor mostram a convivência de espaços patrimoniais com aqueles derivados do processo de crescimento da aglomeração, articulando usos e atividades díspares num mesmo sítio. Neste contexto, se identifica um “centro histórico não consolidado” estruturado a partir de parâmetros rígidos, em que se superpõem funcionalidades e se visualizam diferentes unidades de paisagem urbana que carecem de integração.

  15. Efeito de terra de diatomáceas e óleo essencial de citronela, Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, sobre a incidência de mosca-das-frutas, Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae), em cultivares de ameixeira em sistema orgânico.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Paulo Antonio de Souza; Santos, Janaína Pereira dos; Nesi, Cristiano Nunes

    2007-01-01

    A mosca-das-frutas, Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) é considerada uma das principais pragas no sistema de produção orgânica de fruteiras temperadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar produtos alternativos sobre a incidência deste inseto em cultivares de ameixeira em sistema orgânico. A pesquisa foi conduzida na Epagri/Estação Experimental de Ituporanga de outubro a janeiro de 2006/2007. Os tratamentos foram (1) terra de diatomáceas 1% associada a óleo essencial de citronela,...

  16. Desarrollo de herramientas moleculares para la evaluación de la calidad genética y productividad en la cría artificial de Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, agente de control biológico de moscas plaga de los frutos

    OpenAIRE

    Mannino, María Constanza

    2016-01-01

    Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) es un endoparasitoide solitario de estadios larvales de moscas de la fruta perteneciente a la familia Tephritidae. Es criado a nivel masivo en bioplantas y utilizado en diversas partes del mundo para las estrategias de control biológico (CB) principalmente de dípteros de importancia económica de los géneros Ceratitis, Anastrepha y Bactrocera. Actualmente, se estudia su implementación en nuestro país para el control de Ceratitis ca...

  17. Biochemical evaluation of interactions between synergistic molecules and phase I enzymes involved in insecticide resistance in B- and Q-type Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panini, Michela; Tozzi, Francesco; Zimmer, Christoph T; Bass, Chris; Field, Linda; Borzatta, Valerio; Mazzoni, Emanuele; Moores, Graham

    2017-09-01

    Metabolic resistance is an important consideration in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, where an esterase-based mechanism has been attributed to pyrethroid resistance and over-expression of the cytochrome P450, CYP6CM1, has been correlated to resistance to imidacloprid and other neonicotinoids. In vitro interactions between putative synergists and CYP6CM1, B and Q-type esterases were investigated, and structure-activity relationship analyses allowed the identification of chemical structures capable of acting as inhibitors of esterase and oxidase activities. Specifically, methylenedioxyphenyl (MDP) moieties with a polyether chain were preferable for optimum inhibition of B-type esterase, whilst corresponding dihydrobenzofuran structures were potent for the Q-esterase variation. Potent inhibition of CYP6CM1 resulted from structures which contained an alkynyl chain with a terminal methyl group. Synergist candidates could be considered for field control of B. tabaci, especially to abrogate neonicotinoid resistance. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Sensitivity of Bemisia Tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to Several New Insecticides in China: Effects of Insecticide Type and Whitefly Species, Strain, and Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen; Liu, Yang; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Pan, Huipeng; Yang, Xin; Guo, Litao; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Whitefly biotypes B and Q are the two most damaging members of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) species complex. Control of B. tabaci (and especially of Q) has been impaired by resistance to commonly used insecticides. To find new insecticides for B. tabaci management in China, we investigated the sensitivity of eggs, larvae, and adults of laboratory strains of B and Q (named Lab-B and Lab-Q) and field strains of Q to several insecticides. For eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci and for six insecticides (cyantraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, buprofezin, acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam), LC 50 values were higher for Lab-Q than for Lab-B; avermectin LC 50 values, however, were low for adults of both Lab-Q and Lab-B. Based on the laboratory results, insecticides were selected to test against eggs, larvae, and adults of four field strains of B. tabaci Q. Although the field strains differed in their sensitivity to the insecticides, the eggs and larvae of all strains were highly sensitive to cyantraniliprole, and the adults of all strains were highly sensitive to avermectin. The eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci Q were generally more resistant than those of B. tabaci B to the tested insecticides. B. tabaci Q eggs and larvae were sensitive to cyantraniliprole and pyriproxyfen, whereas B. tabaci Q adults were sensitive to avermectin. Field trials should be conducted with cyantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, and avermectin for control of B. tabaci Q and B in China. PMID:25434040

  19. Salicylic acid is required for Mi-1-mediated resistance of tomato to whitefly Bemisia tabaci, but not for basal defense to this insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, C I; López-Climent, M F; Gómez-Cadenas, A; Kaloshian, I; Nombela, G

    2015-10-01

    Plant defense to pests or pathogens involves global changes in gene expression mediated by multiple signaling pathways. A role for the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway in Mi-1-mediated resistance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to aphids was previously identified and its implication in the resistance to root-knot nematodes is controversial, but the importance of SA in basal and Mi-1-mediated resistance of tomato to whitefly Bemisia tabaci had not been determined. SA levels were measured before and after B. tabaci infestation in susceptible and resistant Mi-1-containing tomatoes, and in plants with the NahG bacterial transgene. Tomato plants of the same genotypes were also screened with B. tabaci (MEAM1 and MED species, before known as B and Q biotypes, respectively). The SA content in all tomato genotypes transiently increased after infestation with B. tabaci albeit at variable levels. Whitefly fecundity or infestation rates on susceptible Moneymaker were not significantly affected by the expression of NahG gene, but the Mi-1-mediated resistance to B. tabaci was lost in VFN NahG plants. Results indicated that whiteflies induce both SA and jasmonic acid accumulation in tomato. However, SA has no role in basal defense of tomato against B. tabaci. In contrast, SA is an important component of the Mi-1-mediated resistance to B. tabaci in tomato.

  20. Bemisia tabaci females from the Mediterranean (Q) species detect and avoid laying eggs in the presence of pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshitzky, Pnina; Morin, Shai

    2014-10-01

    Pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analogue, disrupts embryogenesis, metamorphosis and adult formation in Bemisia tabaci, but does not directly affect adult females. The effect of pyriproxyfen on egg-laying preference and performance of B. tabaci females and the influence of resistance to pyriproxyfen on these reproductive behaviours were studied. Choice experiments utilising cotton plants treated and not treated with pyriproxyfen revealed a significant preference for egg laying on non-treated plants both by resistant and susceptible females. No-choice assays indicated a reduction of ∼60% in the number of eggs laid on pyriproxyfen-treated plants by both resistant and susceptible females. The reduction in oviposition on treated plants was not accompanied with reduced expression of the vitellogenin gene or a delay in oocyte maturation, but significant accumulation of mature oocytes in the ovaries was observed, and could be reversed by transferring the females to non-treated plants. Pyriproxyfen caused reduced oviposition and enhanced mature oocyte accumulation in pyriproxyfen-resistant and pyriproxyfen-susceptible females. These findings can be explained by two alternative mechanisms: pyriproxyfen-regulated physiological arrest of oviposition, involving hormonal regulation of myotrophic factors, or the hierarchy-threshold behavioural theory of host choice, in which pyriproxyfen-treated plants are defined as low-quality hosts. Aspects of application are discussed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Keanekaragaman dan Kelimpahan Musuh Alami Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae pada Pertanaman Cabai Merah di Kecamatan Pakem, Kabupaten Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

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    Hendrival Hendrival

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci was conducted in the chili pepper fields in Sub-district of Pakem, District of Sleman, The Special Province of Yogyakarta during the dry season of May-October 2009. The aims of this research were to study the diversity and abundance of parasitoid and predator species associated with B. tabaci. Samplings of insect species were done using yellow pan trap, sweep net, direct observation of insects colonized young leaves, and collection of nymphs for B. tabaci. Measurement of insect diversity was calculated using Shannon’s index diversity and Evenness index. Nine species of insect predator were identified, i.e. Harmonia octomaculata (Fabricius, Menochilus sexmaculata (Fabricius, Scymnus sp., Micraspis inops Mulsant, Coccinella sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Paederus fuscipes Curtis (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Orius sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Linyphiidae sp.1 (Araneae, and Syrphidae sp.1 (Diptera. Eretmocerus sp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae was the only parasitoid found in the nymphs B. tabaci collected and has the potential to control B. tabaci in the red pepper fields.

  2. Asymmetric consequences of host plant occupation on the competition between the whiteflies Bemisia tabaci cryptic species MEAM1 and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-Fen; Lövei, Gábor L; Hu, Man; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2014-12-01

    The two common whitefly species, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) MEAM1 and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), often co-occur on their host plants. The effect of host plant occupation by one species on later-arriving conspecific individuals or on the other competing species was examined. Resource preoccupied by T. vaporariorum had mostly negative effects on the life history parameters of later-arriving conspecifics. Red-eyed nymph and immature survival of T. vaporariorum decreased when resource was preoccupied by conspecifics, irrespective of the previous occupation scenario. However, resource preoccupied by T. vaporariorum had only minor detrimental effects on the performance of later-arriving B. tabaci MEAM1. In the opposite colonisation sequence, previous occupation by B. tabaci MEAM1 had no significant effects on the life history parameters of later-arriving conspecifics, but severe detrimental effects were observed on the performance of later-arriving T. vaporariorum. Total immature survival of T. vaporariorum decreased in both weak and strong previous occupation situations by B. tabaci MEAM1. The interspecific interactions between B. tabaci MEAM1 and T. vaporariorum were asymmetric, with B. tabaci MEAM1 being the superior competitor. This superiority could partially explain the rapid spread of B. tabaci MEAM1 in China. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Genetic structure of Bemisia tabaci Med populations from home-range countries, inferred by nuclear and cytoplasmic markers: impact on the distribution of the insecticide resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Nathalie; Clouet, Cécile; Perrakis, Andreas; Kapantaidaki, Despoina; Peterschmitt, Michel; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia

    2014-10-01

    Insecticide resistance management in Bemisia tabaci is one of the main issues facing agricultural production today. An extensive survey was undertaken in five Mediterranean countries to examine the resistance status of Med B. tabaci species in its range of geographic origin and the relationship between population genetic structure and the distribution of resistance genes. The investigation combined molecular diagnostic tests, sequence and microsatellite polymorphism studies and monitoring of endosymbionts. High frequencies of pyrethroid (L925I and T929V, VGSC gene) and organophosphate (F331W, ace1 gene) resistance mutations were found in France, Spain and Greece, but not in Morocco or Tunisia. Sequence analyses of the COI gene delineated two closely related mitochondrial groups (Q1 and Q2), which were found either sympatrically (Spain) or separately (France). Only Q1 was observed in Greece, Morocco and Tunisia. Bayesian analyses based on microsatellite loci revealed three geographically delineated genetic groups (France, Spain, Morocco/Greece/Tunisia) and high levels of genetic differentiation even between neighbouring samples. Evidence was also found for hybridisation and asymmetrical gene flow between Q1 and Q2. Med B. tabaci is more diverse and structured than reported so far. On a large geographic scale, resistance is affected by population genetic structure, whereas on a local scale, agricultural practices appear to play a major role. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Members of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Cryptic Species and the Status of Two Invasive Alien Species in the Yunnan Province (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Jiang, Zhi-Lin; Nardi, Francesco; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Luo, Xiao-Rong; Li, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Zhong-Kai

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex that includes some of the most significant pests of agriculture and horticulture worldwide. To understand the diversity and distribution of B. tabaci cryptic species in Yunnan, a famous biodiversity hotspot in China, a large-scale sampling was conducted from year 2010 to 2013 in 10 prefectures. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences were used to identify different cryptic species. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using Bayesian methods to assess the position of a new B. tabaci cryptic species in the context of the B. tabaci diversity in Asia. The survey indicates at least eight B. tabaci cryptic species are present in Yunnan, two invasive (MEAM1 and MED) and six indigenous (China 2, China3, China 4, Asia I, Asia II 1, and Asia II 6), MEAM1, MED, and Asia I being the three predominant cryptic species in Yunnan. Compared with MEAM1, MED has a wider distribution. Based on molecular data, a new cryptic species, here named China 4, was identified that appears to be related to China 1, China 2, and China 3. Future efforts should focus on the interactions between predominant B. tabaci cryptic species and begomoviruses and on the development of effective control strategies. PMID:25502045

  5. The immune strategy and stress response of the Mediterranean species of the Bemisia tabaci complex to an orally delivered bacterial pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Rong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, a notorious agricultural pest, has complex relationships with diverse microbes. The interactions of the whitefly with entomopathogens as well as its endosymbionts have received great attention, because of their potential importance in developing novel whitefly control technologies. To this end, a comprehensive understanding on the whitefly defense system is needed to further decipher those interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a comprehensive investigation of the whitefly's defense responses to infection, via oral ingestion, of the pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, using RNA-seq technology. Compared to uninfected whiteflies, 6 and 24 hours post-infected whiteflies showed 1,348 and 1,888 differentially expressed genes, respectively. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed that the mitogen associated protein kinase (MAPK pathway was activated after P. aeruginosa infection. Three knottin-like antimicrobial peptide genes and several components of the humoral and cellular immune responses were also activated, indicating that key immune elements recognized in other insect species are also important for the response of B. tabaci to pathogens. Our data also suggest that intestinal stem cell mediated epithelium renewal might be an important component of the whitefly's defense against oral bacterial infection. In addition, we show stress responses to be an essential component of the defense system. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We identified for the first time the key immune-response elements utilized by B. tabaci against bacterial infection. This study provides a framework for future research into the complex interactions between whiteflies and microbes.

  6. The Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Knottin-1 Gene Is Implicated in Regulating the Quantity of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Ingested and Transmitted by the Insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza Hariton Shalev

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a major pest to agricultural crops. It transmits begomoviruses, such as Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, in a circular, persistent fashion. Transcriptome analyses revealed that B. tabaci knottin genes were responsive to various stresses. Upon ingestion of tomato begomoviruses, two of the four knottin genes were upregulated, knot-1 (with the highest expression and knot-3. In this study, we examined the involvement of B. tabaci knottin genes in relation to TYLCV circulative transmission. Knottins were silenced by feeding whiteflies with knottin dsRNA via detached tomato leaves. Large amounts of knot-1 transcripts were present in the abdomen of whiteflies, an obligatory transit site of begomoviruses in their circulative transmission pathway; knot-1 silencing significantly depleted the abdomen from knot-1 transcripts. Knot-1 silencing led to an increase in the amounts of TYLCV ingested by the insects and transmitted to tomato test plants by several orders of magnitude. This effect was not observed following knot-3 silencing. Hence, knot-1 plays a role in restricting the quantity of virions an insect may acquire and transmit. We suggest that knot-1 protects B. tabaci against deleterious effects caused by TYLCV by limiting the amount of virus associated with the whitefly vector.

  7. RESULTS OF THE THREE-YEAR MONITORING (2001.-2003. OF TOBACCO WHITEFLY Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889, (HOMOPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE IN CROATIA

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    Tatjana Masten

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The quarantine pest tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 was for the first time found in Croatia in 2000 on some culture and weed plants in greenhouses and in the open field in the area from Trogir to Omiš. Monitoring of tobacco whitefly was organized in all counties (21. Eventual presence of tobacco whitefly adults on the plants in glasshouses was established by the hanging of yellow sticky traps. In the course of monitoring the undersides of leaves on host plants were inspected for the purpose of discovering pest nymphal and pupal stages. The plants of poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima produced as pest free plants have been used as catch plants in the conditions of lower infestation of host plants by tobacco whitefly adults. In three-year monitoring it was found out that poinsettia is the most atractive host plant for this pest between 38 host plants being registered during this monitoring. The fact that tobacco whitefly during the summer was found on the vegetables, ornamentals and weeds in the open fields in Dalmatia indicate that tobacco whitefly became domesticated and it can successfully overwinter in mediteranean climate conditions. During the monitoring tobacco whitefly was detected in 13 counties in our country, indicating shows that tobacco whitefly has been spreading progresivly since it was found in Croatia for the first time.

  8. Development of a lateral flow test to detect metabolic resistance in Bemisia tabaci mediated by CYP6CM1, a cytochrome P450 with broad spectrum catalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauen, Ralf; Wölfel, Katharina; Lueke, Bettina; Myridakis, Antonis; Tsakireli, Dimitra; Roditakis, Emmanouil; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Stephanou, Euripides; Vontas, John

    2015-06-01

    Cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major sucking pest in many agricultural and horticultural cropping systems globally. The frequent use of insecticides of different mode of action classes resulted in populations resisting treatments used to keep numbers under economic damage thresholds. Recently it was shown that resistance to neonicotinoids such as imidacloprid is linked to the over-expression of CYP6CM1, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase detoxifying imidacloprid and other neonicotinoid insecticides when recombinantly expressed in insect cells. However over-expression of CYP6CM1 is also known to confer cross-resistance to pymetrozine, an insecticide not belonging to the chemical class of neonicotinoids. In addition we were able to demonstrate by LC-MS/MS analysis the metabolisation of pyriproxyfen by recombinantly expressed CYP6CM1. Based on our results CYP6CM1 is one of the most versatile detoxification enzymes yet identified in a pest of agricultural importance, as it detoxifies a diverse range of chemical classes used to control whiteflies. Therefore we developed a field-diagnostic antibody-based lateral flow assay which detects CYP6CM1 protein at levels providing resistance to neonicotinoids and other insecticides. The ELISA based test kit can be used as a diagnostic tool to support resistance management strategies based on the alternation of different modes of action of insecticides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. How to Start with a Clean Crop: Biopesticide Dips Reduce Populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on Greenhouse Poinsettia Propagative Cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarije Buitenhuis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Global movement of propagative plant material is a major pathway for introduction of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae into poinsettia greenhouses. Starting a poinsettia crop with high pest numbers disrupts otherwise successful biological control programs and widespread resistance of B. tabaci against pesticides is limiting growers’ options to control this pest; (2 This study investigated the use of several biopesticides (mineral oil, insecticidal soap, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea, Steinernema feltiae and combinations of these products as immersion treatments (cutting dips to control B. tabaci on poinsettia cuttings. In addition, phytotoxicity risks of these treatments on poinsettia cuttings, and effects of treatment residues on mortality of commercial whitefly parasitoids (Eretmocerus eremicus and Encarsia formosa were determined; (3 Mineral oil (0.1% v/v and insecticidal soap (0.5% + B. bassiana (1.25 g/L were the most effective treatments; only 31% and 29%, respectively, of the treated B. tabaci survived on infested poinsettia cuttings and B. tabaci populations were lowest in these treatments after eight weeks. Phytotoxicity risks of these treatments were acceptable, and dip residues had little effect on survival of either parasitoid, and are considered highly compatible; (4 Use of poinsettia cutting dips will allow growers to knock-down B. tabaci populations to a point where they can be managed successfully thereafter with existing biocontrol strategies.

  10. Detection of Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus from Bemisia tabaci captured on sticky traps using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and simple template preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Mitsuru; Okuda, Shiori; Iwai, Hisashi

    2015-09-01

    Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) of the genus Crinivirus within the family Closteroviridae is an emerging infectious agent of cucurbits leading to severe disease and significant economic losses. Effective detection and identification methods for this virus are urgently required. In this study, a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed to detect CCYV from its vector Bemisia tabaci. LAMP primer sets to detect CCYV were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity, and a primer set designed from the HSP70h gene with corresponding loop primers were selected. The RT-LAMP assay was applied to detect CCYV from viruliferous B. tabaci trapped on sticky traps. A simple extraction procedure using RNAsecure™ was developed for template preparation. CCYV was detected in all of the B. tabaci 0, 1, 7 and 14 days after they were trapped. Although the rise of turbidity was delayed in reactions using RNA from B. tabaci trapped for 7 and 14 days compared with those from 0 and 1 day, the DNA amplification was sufficient to detect CCYV in all of the samples. These findings therefore present a simple template preparation method and an effective RT-LAMP assay, which can be easily and rapidly performed to monitor CCYV-viruliferous B. tabaci in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The ability to manipulate plant glucosinolates and nutrients explains the better performance of Bemisia tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 than Mediterranean on cabbage plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongying; Guo, Litao; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2017-08-01

    The performance of herbivorous insects is greatly affected by host chemical defenses and nutritional quality. Some herbivores have developed the ability to manipulate plant defenses via signaling pathways. It is currently unclear, however, whether a herbivore can benefit by simultaneously reducing plant defenses and enhancing plant nutritional quality. Here, we show that the better performance of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1; formerly the "B" biotype) than Mediterranean (MED; formerly the "Q" biotype) on cabbage is associated with a suppression of glucosinolate (GS) content and an increase in amino acid supply in MEAM1-infested cabbage compared with MED-infested cabbage. MEAM1 had higher survival, higher fecundity, higher intrinsic rate of increase ( r m ), a longer life span, and a shorter developmental time than MED on cabbage plants. Amino acid content was higher in cabbage infested with MEAM1 than MED. Although infestation by either biotype decreased the levels of total GS, aliphatic GS, glucoiberin, sinigrin, glucobrassicin, and 4OH-glucobrassicin, and the expression of related genes in cabbage, MED infestation increased the levels of 4ME-glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, progoitrin, and glucoraphanin. The GS content and expression of GS-related genes were higher in cabbage infested with MED than with MEAM1. Our results suggest that MEAM1 performs better than MED on cabbage by manipulating host defenses and nutritional quality.

  12. “Eres muy blanca para ser de allá”: racialización y blanquitud en instituciones de educación superior, Colombia

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    Adriana Marcela Pérez Rodríguez

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo exploro aspectos de mi trayectoria de blanquitud, por medio de un análisis de la racialización del género en Cúcuta y Bogotá, Colombia. A partir de un ejercicio autoetnográfico de la memoria, consigno experiencias en mi diario de campo para interpretar mi proceso de constitución como sujeta blanca y mi participación en la construcción de representaciones lícitas y sancionables de feminidades racializadas. Estos procesos estaban análogamente vinculados a las luchas por la racialización de los espacios, como mi barrio o la institución de educación superior en la que estudié, y la designación de sus legítimos propietarios.

  13. Belonging out of Context: the Intersection of Place, Networks and Ethnic Identity among Retired British Migrants Living in the Costa Blanca

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    Anya AHMED

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Intra-European migration is now a well-documented phenomenon among older people and for UK retirees, Spain is the most popular choice. ‘Belonging’ is particularly important when attempting to understand experiences of migration since often people become aware that they need to belong precisely when they realise that they do not. However, although belonging is a recurrent theme in identity and migration discourse it is rarely defined. This paper explores the concept of belonging in relation to the experiences of a group of retired women living in the Costa Blanca in Spain and considers its multiple and overlapping representations. The myriad forms of belonging that these ‘lifestyle migrants’ construct through narrative in relation to place, networks and ethnic identity and the central intersecting role of language are considered and discussed.

  14. Communication strategies in civil movements: «Marea Blanca», «Marea Verde» and Telemadrid’s mobilization

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    Antón Álvarez Ruiz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the importance of the communication strategies applied by three significant social movements: Telemadrid workers’ mobilization (Madrid’s public television, the «Marea Blanca» («White Tide», which grouped up the healthcare professionals, and the «Marea Verde» («Green Tide», which was done by teachers. These movements are a practical application of the «indignados» («outraged» movement and, following the 15-M steps, they improved these strategies in what refers to communication and mobilization. For this purpose, we carried out two investigations: twelve in-depth interviews with leading members of these social movements; and an online questionnaire passed to strategic planners who are the experts in communication strategies from the advertising agencies.

  15. IMPLANTACIÓN DE ENERGIAS RENOVABLES Y ESTIMACIÓN DE LA HUELLA DE CARBONO EN EL MUNICIPIO DE BLANCA (MURCIA

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    José Molina Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La introducción del concepto de sostenibilidad en el mercado energético implica la potenciación de las energías renovables activando políticas que fomenten su implantación. El éxito de estas políticas se plasmará en el incremento de participación de las energías renovables en el mix energético, en la reducción de emisiones de CO2 y en el cumplimiento de los compromisos internacionales. Este trabajo analiza el grado de implantación de las energías renovables en un municipio de la Región de Murcia (Blanca, valorando la incidencia de la legislación sectorial energética y estimando la huella de carbono derivada del consumo de energía eléctrica.

  16. Environmental cadmium and lead concentrations in the Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina. Potential toxic effects of Cd and Pb on crab larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferrer

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bahía Blanca Estuary includes a large tidal plain with an area close to 1150 km2. Mud is predominant in its sediments, where a significant population of the crab Chasmagnathus granulata lives during the whole year. Moreover, there are important urban and industrial discharges into this environment. Cd and Pb concentrations were determined in samples of water (for both dissolved and suspended particulate matter and surface sediments (total and 63 µm fractions. Organic matter was analysed in the sediments, while temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen were measured in the estuarine water. The metal concentrations determined in this study were: 1.47 ± 1.08 µg Cd g–1 and 14.68 ± 4.31 µg Pb g–1 in surface sediments; 2.21 ± 1.33 µg Cd g–1 and 25.70 ± 7.09 µg Pb g–1 in the –1 and below the analytical detection limit of Pb in suspended particulate matter. Furthermore, dissolved Cd and Pb were lower than the norms for marine and estuarine waters (2 µg dm–3 for Cd and 5 µg dm–3 for Pb, E.P.A.. Simultaneously, the effects of Cd and Pb were studied on recently hatched larvae of Ch. granulata, through 96-hour semi-static acute assays. Viability was the criterion assessed in the assays. LC50 (96 h for Cd was 46.43 µg dm–3 (36.92 - 56.34 µg dm–3, whilst that for Pb was 1.00 mg m–3 (0.79 - 1.23 mg dm–3, which demonstrates that Cd is more toxic towards larvae. Finally, both LC50 values determined for Cd and Pb were higher than the corresponding metal concentrations measured in the Bahía Blanca environment.

  17. Variabilidad temporal del PM10 en Bahía Blanca (Argentina y su relación con variables climáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M. Campo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación atmosférica afecta a ciudades y países de todo el planeta. Uno de los conta- minantes atmosféricos más comunes es el material particulado atmosférico, que tiene directa incidencia sobre la salud de la población (OMS, 2006. Las condiciones meteorológicas definen en gran medida su concentración a nivel troposférico. Por consiguiente, el objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la variabilidad temporal del PM10 de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca (Argentina, estableciendo posibles relaciones entre dicho comportamiento y variables físicas y antropogéni- cas que pueden incidir en su dinámica. Se observó que la concentración del material particulado en Bahía Blanca se relaciona con factores naturales y antropogénicos. El flujo vehicular y las actividades portuarias, principalmente el transporte y almacenamiento de granos, favorecen la producción del contaminante. Esto se manifiesta en una distribución diferencial a lo largo del día y entre días laborables y no laborables. La alta concentración de PM10 se ve afectada por la presencia de vientos de componente Norte y de altas velocidades, que suelen estar acompañados de nubes de polvo y humo. También fenómenos naturales, como la erupción del Complejo Vol- cánico Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, inciden en los valores hallados.

  18. La construcción televisiva de la identidad valenciana contemporánea: memoria y costumbrismo regionalista en l’Alqueria Blanca

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    Àlvar Peris Blanes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar de qué modo la ficción valenciana L’Alqueria Blanca, uno de los grandes fenómenos de la televisión pública autonómica de los últimos años, ha consolidado la “naturalización” de una identidad valenciana regionalista que, desde la Transición democrática, es aceptada por una mayoría social como la identidad colectiva preferente. Observaremos cómo la serie elabora un discurso memorístico sobre el pasado que entronca con el relato sobre la identidad valenciana surgido en el siglo XIX y lo lanza al presente, reforzando proyectos políticos e ideológicos concretos.Palabras clave: identidad valenciana, nacionalismo banal, ficción televisiva, Canal 9, memoria._______________________Abstract: This article aims to analyze how Valencian fiction L'Alqueria Blanca, one of the great phenomena of the regional public television in recent years, has naturalized a Valencian regionalist identity which, since the democratic Transition, is accepted by most as the preferred social collective identity. We’ll try to observe how the series develops a rote speech about the past that connects with the story of the Valencian identity emerged in the nineteenth century which has been thrown to the present, strengthening political and ideological concrete projects.Keywords: Valencian identity, banal nationalism, TV drama, Canal 9, memory.

  19. Spatiotemporal variability and differentiation between anthropogenic and natural contamination of heavy metals of surface water: a case study in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittard, A.; Baraer, M.; McKenzie, J. M.; Mark, B. G.; Fernandez, A.; Walsh, E.; Santos Perez, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Rio Santa, Peru, drains the western slopes of the glacierized Cordillera Blanca and provides water resources at almost all levels of the watershed. As it flows away from the valleys of the Cordillera Blanca, the Rio Santa takes out pollution from numerous sources, including acid mine drainage and natural sulfide oxidation by-products. The Rio Santa dry season discharge decline that is projected to be a consequence of glaciers retreat will probably have implications for the evolution of water pollution. This threat makes the characterization of the actual contamination mechanisms of primary importance. The present study focuses, first, on the spatiotemporal variability of heavy metal contamination across the entire Rio Santa Watershed and secondly on differentiating anthropogenic and natural contaminated sites. First, a macroscale sampling has been done during the summer 2013 to provide an overview of the contamination by trace metal, in water, suspended sediments and riverbed sediments. In addition, 30 water samples were taken from a point next to the city of Huaraz at a frequency of once every 2 weeks and analyzed for trace metals. Secondly, in order to identify hydrochemical contaminant origin dependant signatures in the Rio Santa watershed, 5 areas of known contamination origins were sampled during the summer 2014.Spatially speaking, we observed that most pollution is located in the south of the watershed, and that a large part of the arsenic that reaches the Santa in an aqueous phase does not make it to the outlet but remains trapped in the riverbed. Annual variation in water shows a very unusual fluctuation in Mn compare to other trace metal which are relatively stable. By differencing anthropogenic and natural sites and by considering glaciers melt and decrease water in future what would be the impact of the part of natural contaminated sites versus anthropogenic, mining and cities, on the water quality? Preliminary results show that anthropogenic sites

  20. La norma y la práctica en el centro socialista de Bahía Blanca: afiliaciones, cotizaciones, bajas y renuncias (1911-1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabezas, Gonzalo Ezequiel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo es un estudio de caso en clave microanalítica, que analiza las prácticas de afiliación, cotización, baja y renuncia en el centro socialista de Bahía Blanca en 1911-1919, contrastando cómo debía ser el procedimiento formal según las normas y/o costumbres establecidas en el partido y cómo era el habitual, junto con las razones de los afiliados para justificar que la práctica se alejara de la norma. Proponemos entender las prácticas dentro del continuum que va de lo formal a lo informal (de las reglas a los procedimientos cotidianos, en un intento por trascender la dicotomía entre accionar “tradicional y moderno” (signo del atraso y del progreso respectivamente, común en los estudios sobre partidos políticos en general y sobre socialismo en particular. Abstract This article is a case study in microanalytical key, which analyzes the practices of affiliation, contribution, unenlisting and resignation in the socialist center of Bahía Blanca in 1911- 1919, contrasting how should be the formal procedure according to the rules and/or costumes established in the party and how was the usual one, along with the reasons of the affiliates to justify that the practice moved away from the norm. We propose to understand the practices within the continuum that goes from formal to informal (from the rules to the usual procedures, in an attempt to transcend the dichotomy between “traditional and modern” action (sign of backwardness and progress respectively, common in studies of political parties in general and of socialism in particular.

  1. Fenología de la floración de Ulmus pumila L. (Ulmaceae en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca (Argentina

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    Lucia Saveanu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La fenología es el estudio de los fenómenos periódicos que ocurren en los seres vivos y sus relaciones con condiciones ambientales como luz, temperatura, humedad, etc. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron describir las fases fenológicas durante la fl oración deUlmus pumilaL. para la ciudad de Bahía Blanca y relacionar la floración con datos meteorológicos de temperaturas mínimas y máximas. Durante dos periodos de floración (julio a septiembre, de 2007 y de 2008 se realizaron observaciones fenológicas semanales de ejemplares deU. pumilapresentes en el arbolado urbano de la ciudad. La fl oración se observó en los meses de julio y agosto, registrándose la máxima floración el 23 y el 7 de agosto de 2007 y 2008, respectivamente. Durante la floración del año 2007 la cantidad de flores registradas y la duración de la fase de floración fueron superiores a lo ocurrido en 2008. Estos resultados ayudan a conocer la dinámica de floración de U. pumila en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, y a largo plazo contribuirá a la interpretación de los cambios climáticos de la región y a una mejor prevención de las alergias.

  2. Knockdown resistance in pyrethroid-resistant horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae populations in Brazil Resistência Knockdown em populações de mosca-dos-chifres do Brasil resistentes aos piretróides

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    Gustavo A. Sabatini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the kdr (knockdown resistance resistance-associated gene mutation and determine its frequency in pyrethroid-resistant horn fly (Haematobia irritans populations, a total of 1,804 horn flies of 37 different populations from all Brazilian regions (North, Northeast, Central-West, Southeast, and South were molecular screened through polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The kdr gene was not detected in 87.08% of the flies. However, the gene was amplified in 12.92% of the flies, of which 11.70% were resistant heterozygous and 1.22% were resistant homozygous. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE was found only in 1 ranch with an excess of heterozygous. When populations were grouped by region, three metapopulations showed significant deviations of HWE (Central-West population, South population and Southeast population. This indicates that populations are isolated one from another and kdr occurrence seems to be an independent effect probably reflecting the insecticide strategy used by each ranch. Although resistance to pyrethroids is disseminated throughout Brazil, only 48% of resistant populations had kdr flies, and the frequency of kdr individuals in each of these resistant populations was quite low. But this study shows that, with the apparent exception of the Northeast region, the kdr mechanism associated with pyrethroid resistance occurs all over Brazil.Com o objetivo de verificar a ocorrência e determinar a frequência da mutação kdr (knock down resistance em populações de Haematobia irritans (mosca-dos-chifres resistentes aos piretróides, foram analisados 1.804 indivíduos de 37 populações de todas as Regiões do Brasil. Com exceção da Região Nordeste, o kdr (knock down resistance gene foi encontrado em populações de todas as regiões. A mutação não foi detectada em 87,08% dos indivíduos. Entretanto, o gene foi amplificado de 12,92% das moscas, das quais 11,70% se mostraram heterozigotas resistentes e 1

  3. Eficiência de extratos vegetais e urina de vaca no controle de Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée, 1854 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae e Bemisia sp (Hemiptera: Aleurodidae em tomateiro orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Socorro Rocha Melo Peixoto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo do tomateiro (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill ocupa o segundo lugar entre as culturas oleráceas no Brasil (IBGE, 2008, GRAVENA, 1998. Com a expansão da cultura, devido suas qualidades organolépticas, fonte natural de vitaminas, sais minerais e outros metabólitos entre eles o licopeno, os problemas fitossanitários vêm-se agravando. Assim é que, desde a semeadura até a colheita, grande número de pragas e doenças ocorre na cultura do tomateiro. Considerando-se a carência de estudos voltados para utilização de plantas com ação inseticidas e urina de vaca, esse trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar suas eficiências no controle de N. elegantalis e Bemisia sp na cultura do tomate. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida em área experimental da Escola Agrícola “Assis Chateaubriand” e no Núcleo de Manejo de Pragas pertencentes a Universidade Estadual da Paraíba. Resultados: Constatou-se que a associação dos produtos químicos com dipel apresentou maior eficiência no controle para N. elegantalise Bemisia na fase pupal de 95 e 93%, respectivamente em relação aos demais produtos testados. Dentre os tratamentos alternativos a melhor eficiência para N. elegantalis foi obtida com extrato de faveleira (53,6% e extrato de óleo de neem (43,9%, já para a fase pulpal da Bemisia o extrato de óleo de neem apresentou 66,3% de eficiência, em aplicações a cada 4 dias.  Palavras - chave: pragas, extratos vegetais, tomateiro.

  4. INFESTAÇÃO DE MOSCAS-DAS-FRUTAS EM VARIEDADES DE MANGA (Mangifera indica L. NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS INFESTATION OF FRUIT FLY IN VARIETIES OF MANGO IN THE STATE OF GOIÁS

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    Juracy Rocha Braga Filho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A mangueira (Mangifera indica L. é a principal espécie frutífera da família Anacardiaceae cultivada no Brasil. A expansão dessa cultura nos últimos anos, tanto para o consumo in natura como para a exportação, é limitada por diversas pragas, principalmente pelas moscas-das-frutas. No período de setembro de 1999 a fevereiro de 2000 foi estudado o nível de infestação natural de moscas-das-frutas em dez variedades de manga, em três municípios do Estado de Goiás. Foram obtidos 1.195 pupários, dos quais emergiram 484 adultos de Anastrepha (80% dos insetos identificados, 104 lonqueídeos (17,2 % e 17 braconídeos (2,8%. Das fêmeas identificadas, 77,9% pertenciam ao gênero Anastrepha e 22,08%, a Neosilba. As espécies identificadas foram: A. obliqua (48,78%, A. fraterculus (47,97%, A. sororcula (2,03% e A. turpiniae (1,22%, referida pela primeira vez em frutos de manga no Estado. O parasitóide Doryctobracon areolatus foi encontrado em larvas/pupas de moscas-das-frutas, nas variedades Imperial e Tommy Atkins. As variedades com maiores índices de infestação foram Imperial (15,3 pupários/fruto e 73,611 pupários/kg de frutos, em Goiânia, e Tommy Atkins (7,0 pupários/fruto e 17,503 pupários/kg de frutos, no município de Orizona. Em Goiânia, a variedade Bourbon não foi infestada, e a Sabina apresentou um índice de infestação de 0,076 pupários/fruto e 0,363 pupários/ kg de frutos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Insecta; Diptera; Tephritoidea; avaliação de danos; parasitóides.

    Mango (Mangifera indica L. production has expanded greatly in Brazil but several pests, especially fruit flies, have limited both fresh fruit consumption and

  5. La ruta de señalización del acido salicílico juega un papel importante en la resistencia en tomate a Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) mediada por el gen Mi-1

    OpenAIRE

    Muñiz, Mariano; Rodriguez, C.I.; Kaloshian, I.; Nombela, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Es bien conocido que la resistencia en tomate a Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), a Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) y a tres especies de nematodos formadores de nódulos (Meloidogyne spp.) está mediada por el gen Mi-1. Asimismo, está documentado que el ácido salicílico interviene en los mecanismos de resistencia frente a nematodos formadores de nódulos y áfidos. Recientemente se ha descrito que, en Arabidopsis, el biotipo B de B. tabaci induce defensas activadas por este ácido e inhibe las del ácido...

  6. “El marketing turístico del patrimonio cultural como alternativa de desarrollo del centro histórico de Bahía Blanca (Argentina. Diagnóstico de situación.”

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    Andrés Pinassi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo forma parte del Proyecto General de Investigación: “Turismo y desarrollo: nuevos escenarios en la gestión integral de destinos turísticos en el Sudoeste bonaerense. Parte II”, que se lleva a cabo en el Departamento de Geografía y Turismo de la Universidad Nacional del Sur (Bahía Blanca, Argentina. El mismo tiene como objetivo: presentar un diagnóstico integral acerca de la utilización del centro histórico de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca como espacio de ocio, concentrador del patrimonio cultural local. Dicho análisis forma parte del Plan de Marketing Turístico desarrollado para el sector urbano bajo estudio, con el fin de dotarlo de mayor dinamismo y consolidarlo como lugar de encuentro, tanto para residentes como visitantes.

  7. Prospects for area-wide integrated control of tsetse flies (Diptera:Glossinidae and trypanosomosis in sub-Saharan Africa Perspectivas para el control integrado abarcativo del área de moscas tse-tsé (Diptera: Glossinidae y la tripanosomiasis en el África sub-Sahariana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J.B. Vreysen

    2006-07-01

    large scale eradication approaches to localised tsetse control efforts by the local farmer communities, combined with the growing economic crises and political instability in many African countries has most likely contributed to the decline of most tsetse control efforts in the last decades. It is obvious that the sustained removal of the tsetse fly over large geographical areas would result in enormous benefits for the rural farmer community. Tsetse population genetic studies and data derived from satellite remote sensing are providing more and more convincing evidence that tsetse fly populations are not distributed in a continuous belt (at least in East Africa, but in large fragmented pockets. These tsetse 'islands ' (e.g. the Southern Rift Valley in Ethiopia, KwaZulu Natal in South Africa-Mozambique and the Niayes area in West Senegal offer excellent opportunities for the creation of sustainable tsetse-free zones using an AW-IPM approach.Los países del África sub-Sahariana están entre los menos desarrollados del mundo, y el hambre y la pobreza continúan siendo muy extendidos en la mayoría de las comunidades rurales. Se considera que disminuir el hambre y la sub-alimentación mediante la introducción de ganado productivo, como fuente de tracción y abono para la producción agrícola, el transporte, los lácteos y la carne, es un primer paso fundamental hacia un mejor desarrollo rural. La presencia de la mosca tse-tsé en un tercio del continente africano y la tripanosomiasis que transmite, se consideran la principal barrera para el desarrollo del ganado productivo. A pesar de la administración anual de 35 millones de dosis de drogas tripanocidas (a 1 (un dólar por dosis, los granjeros africanos pierden 3 millones de cabezas de ganado por año debido a esta enfermedad, y las pérdidas económicas directas se estiman entre 600 y 1200 millones de dólares. La mosca tse-tsé afecta principalmente a los campesinos pobres, y es considerada una causa fundamental de

  8. Leaf Morphological Characters Can Be a Factor for Intra-Varietal Preference of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae among Eggplant Varieties.

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    Abu Tayeb Mohammad Hasanuzzaman

    Full Text Available The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae MEAM1, is considered a serious pest of horticultural and many other crops. While eggplant (Solanum melongena is one of the most favored host plants, the whiteflies exhibit preferences among different varieties. We hypothesized that certain morphological leaf characteristics of different varieties, like leaf trichome density, trichome length, leaf lamina thickness and leaf color, may affect whitefly landing, feeding and oviposition. In this study, we investigated the variation in leaf morphological characters among selected eggplant varieties and evaluated the effect of these leaf characteristics in rendering eggplant varieties either susceptible or resistant to B. tabaci. We evaluated eight eggplant varieties in choice feeding tests, and we found that the varieties JinSheng Zilongchangqie (JSZ and H149 were the highly preferred varieties with the highest numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. Significantly lower numbers of whitefly adult eggs were found on the resistant variety Tuo Lu Bamu (TLB. The varieties JinGuangbo Luqie (JGL, JinGuangbo Ziquanqie (JGZ, DaYang Ziguanqie (DYZ, QinXing Ziguanqie (QXZ, and QinXing Niuxinqie (QXN were moderately favored by B. tabaci. Leaf trichome density, trichome length and leaf lamina thickness were positively correlated with numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. B. tabaci was less attracted to the leaves that reflect long and middle wavelength light (higher R and G values than to the bright green leaves (medium G value, but the short wavelength light (higher B value had no significant effect on whitefly preference. The degree of hue had a positive effect, and saturation and brightness had a negative effect on whitefly attraction.

  9. Global Population Structure of a Worldwide Pest and Virus Vector: Genetic Diversity and Population History of the Bemisia tabaci Sibling Species Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci sibling species (sibsp.) group comprises morphologically indiscernible lineages of well-known exemplars referred to as biotypes. It is distributed throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes and includes the contemporary invasive haplotypes, termed B and Q. Several well-studied B. tabaci biotypes exhibit ecological and biological diversity, however, most members are poorly studied or completely uncharacterized. Genetic studies have revealed substantial diversity within the group based on a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) sequence (haplotypes), with other tested markers being less useful for deep phylogenetic comparisons. The view of global relationships within the B. tabaci sibsp. group is largely derived from this single marker, making assessment of gene flow and genetic structure difficult at the population level. Here, the population structure was explored for B. tabaci in a global context using nuclear data from variable microsatellite markers. Worldwide collections were examined representing most of the available diversity, including known monophagous, polyphagous, invasive, and indigenous haplotypes. Well-characterized biotypes and other related geographic lineages discovered represented highly differentiated genetic clusters with little or no evidence of gene flow. The invasive B and Q biotypes exhibited moderate to high levels of genetic diversity, suggesting that they stemmed from large founding populations that have maintained ancestral variation, despite homogenizing effects, possibly due to human-mediated among-population gene flow. Results of the microsatellite analyses are in general agreement with published mtCOI phylogenies; however, notable conflicts exist between the nuclear and mitochondrial relationships, highlighting the need for a multifaceted approach to delineate the evolutionary history of the group. This study supports the hypothesis that the extant B. tabaci sibsp. group contains

  10. Susceptibility of MED-Q1 and MED-Q3 Biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Populations to Essential and Seed Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel Fogné, Drabo; Olivier, Gnankine; Bassolé, Imael H N; Nébié, Roger Charles; Laurence, Mouton

    2017-06-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of many agricultural and ornamental crops in tropical and subtropical regions causing damages that result in important economic losses. Insecticides are commonly used in greenhouses or fields to control B. tabaci populations leading to rapid evolution of resistance that render treatments inefficient. Therefore, and for environmental and human health concerns, other approaches must be developed for this pest management. In the present study, we compare, using the leaf dip method, the toxicity of three essential oils (Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum americanum, and Hyptis spicigera) and three seed oils (Lannea microcarpa, Lannea acida, and Carapa procera) with three chemical insecticides (acetamiprid, deltamethrin, and chlorpyrifos-ethyl) on adults. Two B. tabaci biotypes (MED-Q1 and MED-Q3) belonging to the Mediterranean species and collected in Burkina Faso were used. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. We showed that these two biotypes have different levels of resistance to the three insecticides, MED-Q3 being more sensitive than MED-Q1. Moreover, they differ in the frequency of resistance alleles to insecticides, especially for organophosphates, as these alleles are almost fixed in MED-Q1. On the other hand, the two biotypes prove to be more susceptible to the plant extracts than to insecticides except for chlorpyrifos-ethyl, with essential oils that showed the highest insecticidal activities. Monoterpenes content were the most abundant and showed the highest insecticidal activities. Our results indicated that essential oils, but also seed oils, have the potential to constitute an alternative strategy of pest management. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A SURVEY OF SIZES AND WEIGHTS OF BEMISIA TABACI(HOMOPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE)B BIOTYPE LIFE STAGES FROM FIELD GROWN COTTON AND CANTALOUPES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-chiChu; JamesS.Buckner; KamilKarut; ThomasP.Freeman; DennisR.Nelson; ThomasJ.Henneberryl

    2003-01-01

    Size and weight measurements were made for all the life stages of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B biotype from field grown cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) and cantaloupe ( Cucumis melo L., var. cantalupensis )in Phoenix, AZ and Fargo, ND, USA in 2000 and 2001. Nymphal volumes were derived from the measurements.The average nymphal volume increase for settled 1 st to the late 4th instar was exponential. The greatest increase in body volume occurred during development from the 3rd to early 4th instar. Nymphs on cotton leaves were wider,but not longer compared with those on cantaloupe. Ventral and dorsal depth ratios of nymphal bodies from 1st tolate 4th instars from cantaloupe leaves were significantly greater compared with those from cotton leaves. During nymphal development from 1st to 4th instar, the average (from the two host species) ventral body half volume in-creased by nearly 51 times compared with an increase of 28 times for the dorsal body half volume. Adult female and male average lengths, from heads to wing tips, were 1 126 μm and 953 μm, respectively. Average adult fe-male and male weights were 39 and 17 μg, respectively. Average widths, lengths, and weights of eggs from cottonand cantaloupe were, 99 μm, 197 μm, and 0.8 μg, respectively. Average widths, lengths, and weights for exu-viae of non-parasitized nymphs from both cotton and cantaloupe were 492 μm, 673 μm, and 1.20 μg, respective-ly; and widths, lengths, and weights of parasitized nymph exuviae were 452 μm, 665 μm, and 3.62 μg, respec-tively. Both exuviae from non-parasitized and parasitized nymphs from cotton leaves were wider, longer, and heavier than those from cantaloupe leaves.

  12. The Effects of Some Botanical Insecticides and Pymetrozine on Life Table Parameters of Silver Leaf Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Barati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess the effects of extracts of two medicinalplant species: Allium sativum (Linn and Calotropis procera (Aiton, and a formulation containingazadirachtin on life table parameters of silver leaf whitefly (SLW, Bemisia tabaci biotypeB (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, grown on greenhouse tomato plants. Theeffects were compared to that of pymetrozine, a synthetic insecticide. Bioassays were carriedout in a greenhouse under controlled conditions of 27 ± 2°C, R.H. of 55 ± 5% and 16:8h (L:D photo period.All treatments significantly affected the survivorship and fertility of SLW female adults,reducing the net reproduction rate, mean generation time and intrinsic rate of increase ofthis insect.The net reproductive rate [R0] values for the populations treated with garlic extract,milkweed extract, pymetrozine, azadirachtin, control for extracts (ethanol + distilled waterand control for pesticides (distilled water were 23.58, 19.32, 10.78, 8.23, 49.66, 57.55; theintrinsic rate of increases [rm] were 0.134, 0.139, 0.110, 0.090, 0.177, 0.178; the mean generationtimes [T] were 23.49, 21.23, 21.66, 23.50, 22.06, 22.69; the doubling times [DT] were 5.14,4.95, 6.27, 7.56, 3.91, 3.87, and the finite rates of increase [λ] were 1.144, 1.149, 1.116, 1.094, 1.193,1.195, respectively. Azadirachtin had the highest effect on the life table parameters of SLW.Our findings indicated that, although herbal extracts were not effective as much asthe chemical insecticides, they can be effective in pest control. Therefore, they are suitablechoices for replacing chemical insecticides and for alternative use with azadirachtin inSLW IPM program.

  13. Inter-regional differences in baseline toxicity of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) to the two insect growth regulators, buprofezin and pyriproxyfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, N C; Prabhaker, N; Castle, S J; Henneberry, T J

    2001-12-01

    A survey of 53 Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring populations from different agricultural regions in California and Arizona was conducted from 1997 to 1999 to establish baseline toxicological responses to buprofezin and pyriproxyfen. Although both compounds proved to be highly toxic even in minute quantities to specific stages, geographical and temporal differences in responses were detected using a leaf spray bioassay technique. Monitoring for three years revealed that six to seven populations had higher LC50 values but not greater survival when exposed to these two insecticides. A significant difference in relative susceptibility to buprofezin was first observed in late season 1997 in San Joaquin Valley populations with LC50s ranging from 16 to 22 microg (AI)/liter(-1) compared with IC50s of 1 to 3 mg (AI)/liter(-1) in Imperial, Palo Verde Valley and Yuma populations. Whiteflies collected in subsequent years from these and other locations showed an increase in susceptibility to buprofezin. Regional differences in susceptibilities to pyriproxyfen were minimal within the same years. Three years of sampling revealed consistently higher LC50s to pyriproxyfen in populations from Palo Verde Valley, CA, compared with whiteflies from Imperial, San Joaquin Valley or Yuma. As was the case with buprofezin, a decline in LC50s to pyriproxyfen was observed in whiteflies from all locations sampled in 1999. However, no correlation was observed between buprofezin and pyriproxyfen toxicity in any of the strains. The variable toxicities observed to both compounds over a period of 3 yr may be due principally to inherent differences among geographical populations or due to past chemical use which may confer positive or negative cross-resistance to buprofezin or pyriproxyfen.

  14. Sensitivity of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to several new insecticides in China: effects of insecticide type and whitefly species, strain, and stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen; Liu, Yang; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Pan, Huipeng; Yang, Xin; Guo, Litao; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    Whitefly biotypes B and Q are the two most damaging members of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) species complex. Control of B. tabaci (and especially of Q) has been impaired by resistance to commonly used insecticides. To find new insecticides for B. tabaci management in China, we investigated the sensitivity of eggs, larvae, and adults of laboratory strains of B and Q (named Lab-B and Lab-Q) and field strains of Q to several insecticides. For eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci and for six insecticides (cyantraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, buprofezin, acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam), LC50 values were higher for Lab-Q than for Lab-B; avermectin LC50 values, however, were low for adults of both Lab-Q and Lab-B. Based on the laboratory results, insecticides were selected to test against eggs, larvae, and adults of four field strains of B. tabaci Q. Although the field strains differed in their sensitivity to the insecticides, the eggs and larvae of all strains were highly sensitive to cyantraniliprole, and the adults of all strains were highly sensitive to avermectin. The eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci Q were generally more resistant than those of B. tabaci B to the tested insecticides. B. tabaci Q eggs and larvae were sensitive to cyantraniliprole and pyriproxyfen, whereas B. tabaci Q adults were sensitive to avermectin. Field trials should be conducted with cyantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, and avermectin for control of B. tabaci Q and B in China. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  15. Effect of Iranian Bt cotton on life table of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Alyrodidae and Cry 1Ab detection in the whitefly honeydew

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    Solmaz Azimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic cotton expressing the Cry 1Ab protein of Bacillus thuringiensis developing against Helocoverpa armigera may be affect on secondary pest such as Bemisia tabaci. In this study effects of Bt cotton on demographic parameters of B. tabaci were assessed and the data analyzed using the age specific, two-sex life table parameters. Results showed that getting to the adulthood stage, was faster on non-Bt cotton in comparison with Bt cotton. Also the fecundity was higher on non-Bt cotton than that on Bt cotton. Some of the population parameters (r, R0 and T of B. tabaci were affected by the Bt cotton significantly. The intrinsic rate of increase (r on Bt and non-Bt cotton was 0.07 day-1 and 0.1 day-1 , respectively. The net reproductive rate (R0 was 20.68 and 15.04 offspring/individual on Bt and non-Bt cotton, respectively. Mean generation time (T in non-Bt cotton was 27.22 and 34.62 days in Bt cotton. The results indicated that the life history of B. tabaci in the laboratory condition was influenced by host plant quality and Bt cotton was not a suitable host for B. tabaci. The western immunoblot method showed that the Cry protein detection in honeydew was positive which indicated that the Cry protein was ingested. Results revealed that the transgenic cotton could adversely affect the secondary pest and the natural enemies which feed on such pests as a host or their honeydew as a food source should be considered.

  16. [Phagodeterrent activity of the plants Tithonia diversifolia and Montanoa hibiscifolia (Asteraceae) on adults of the pest insect Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnarello, Gina; Hilje, Luko; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Cartín, Victor; Calvo, Marco

    2009-12-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a polyphagous, cosmopolitan and worldwide relevant pest, mainly acting as a virus vector on many crops. A sound preventive approach to deal with it would be the application of repellent or deterrent substances hopefully present in tropical plants, which in turn may contribute to take advantage of the remarkable rich Mesoamerican biodiversity. Therefore, extracts of two wild plants belonging to family Asteraceae, titonia (Tithonia diversifolia) and "tora" (Montanoa hibiscifolia), were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults. The crude leaf extract of each one, as well as four fractions thereof (hexane, dichlorometane, ethyl acetate, and methanol) were tested under greenhouse conditions; in addition, the extracts were submitted to a phytochemical screening to determine possible metabolites causing phagodeterrence. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments were conducted. In the former ones, each fraction was tested at four doses (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v), which were compared with four control treatments: distilled water, endosulfan, an agricultural oil (Aceite Agricola 81 SC), and the emulsifier Citowett. Tomato plants were sprayed and placed inside sleeve cages, where 50 B. tabaci adults were released. The criterion to appraise phagodeterrence was the number of landed adults on plants at 48h. For the unrestricted-choice experiments, only the two highest doses (1.0 and 1.5%) of the crude extracts of each species were tested, and compared to distilled water and the agricultural oil. The titonia and "tora" crude extracts caused phagodeterrence, and for both plant species the methanol fraction stood out. Results suggest that metabolites causing phagodeterrence are several sesquiterpenic lactones, polyphenolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins) and saponins.

  17. Caracterización fisicoquímica y biológica de la calidad de aguas de la cuenca de la quebrada Piedras Blancas, Antioquia, Colombia

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    José A. Posada G.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre abril y diciembre de 1996, se llevó a cabo un estudio limnológico de 17 quebradas ubicada en el área del Parque Piedras Blancas (6° 8' 20''N, 75° 30' 20''Wlocalizado al SE de Medellín a 2 400 m de altura. El estudio se realizó en 35 estaciones de muestreo y se establecieron tres períodos de muestreo: el primero entre abril y mayo, el segundo de agosto a septiembre y el tercero de octubre a diciembre de 1996. La finalidad del mismo era establecer la calidad ecológica de las aguas ubicadas en el área del Parque. Para la recolección cualitativa de los macroinvertebrados se utilizaron las redes D-net y de pantalla. El área de muestreo en cada estación fue de 6 m2. Las variables fisicoquímicas mostraron fluctuaciones bajas a lo largo del estudio, excepto la conductividad y los sólidos totales, cuyos cambios estuvieron relacionados con la alta pluviosidad durante el período de estudio. La comunidad de macroinvertebrados encontrada, estuvo conformada por 113 géneros, pertenecientes a 63 familias y siete Phyla, siendo el orden Tichoptera el más abundante. El área de muestreo en cada estación fue de 6 m². El resultado del estudio muestra como la cuenca de la quebrada Piedras Blancas presenta condiciones que pueden clasificarse en términos generales como oligo-mesotróficas.From April to December 1996 a limnological study was carried out in 17 streams near Medellín, in order to stablish their water quality. The area is located in Piedras Blancas Park (6° 8' 20''N, 75° 30' 20''W SE of Medellín at 2 400 m altitude. Three sampling periods, encompasing wet and dry seasons were selected: April-May, August-September and October-December. For qualitative collection methods hand screen D-net were used. Each station was intensively sampled to collect most macroinvertebrates in all types of habitat. The area sampled in each station was 6 m². Physicochemical variables in general showed small fluctuations along the study; only

  18. Controle de mosca doméstica em área de disposição de resíduos sólidos no Brasil House fly control in solid waste disposal area in Brazil

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    Adair Ferreira Motta Teixeira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se uma metodologia de controle de Musca domestica (L. em áreas de disposição de resíduos sólidos. Dois mosquicidas à base de azametifós foram aplicados em diferentes superfícies: nas verticais, a formulação pó molhável foi aplicada com rolos de pintura e, através de pulverização, na superfície de leiras; nas horizontais, foi empregado o mosquicida na formulação granulada. O nível de infestação de moscas foi avaliado por meio do monitoramento em placas (Scudder Fly Grill. Nas áreas das leiras, reduções de 98,5% e 100% foram atingidas em 18 e 30 dias, respectivamente, após a aplicação do produto. Na estação de transferência do lixo, observaram-se reduções de 85,6% e 98,7% no mesmo período de tempo. A aplicação de azametifós em diferentes formulações mostrou ser eficiente no controle da Musca domestica por um período de 30 dias.A Musca domestica (L. control method in solid waste disposal areas was developed. Two fly control products based on azamethiphos were applied to different surfaces: on vertical surfaces, the wettable powder was used as spray or paint-on and on windrows, as spray; on horizontal surfaces granular bait was used. Fly infestation was evaluated by Scudder Fly Grills. In the windrows areas, reductions of 98,5% and 100 % were achieved 18 and 30 days respectively after application. In the waste transfer station 85,6% and 98,7 % reductions were achieved over the same period of time. Application of azamethiphos in different formulations was effective against M. domestica for 30 days.

  19. ESCORRENTÍA SUPERFICIAL EN BOSQUES MONTANOS NATURALES Y PLANTADOS DE PIEDRAS BLANCAS, ANTIOQUIA (COLOMBIA SURFACE RUNOFF IN NATURAL MONTANE FORESTS AND FOREST PLANTATIONS IN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

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    Oscar Andrés Ruiz Suescún

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available En bosques montanos naturales de roble (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. y plantados de pino pátula (Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham. y ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Mill. de la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, fueron medidos los flujos de escorrentía superficial (ES por un periodo de tiempo de 16 meses. Se implementaron parcelas cerradas de escorrentía superficial de 10 m de largo x 2 m de ancho, tanques colectores y sistemas de registro volumétrico. Los flujos fueron de 23,19 mm año-1 (1,07 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de roble; 35,13 mm año-1 (1,61 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de pino pátula y 230,64 mm año-1 (11,05 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de ciprés. Mediante análisis de componentes principales (ACP se identificaron las relaciones existentes entre las variables hidrológicas y los flujos de ES, y por medio de análisis de regresión lineal múltiple se ajustaron modelos para los flujos de ES por cobertura en función de la precipitación, la precipitación en el bosque y la intensidad de lluvia promedio, variables que mostraron alta relación con la ES según el ACP.In natural montane oak forests (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl., in pine (Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham. and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica Mill. plantations in Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, surface runoff flows (SRF were measured over 16 months. Runoff was measured using 10 m long x 2 m wide runoff bounded plots, collector tanks and a volumetric counter system. SRF were 23,19 mm year -1 (1,07 % of rainfall for oak forest; 35,13 mm year -1 (1,61 % of rainfall for pine and 230,64 mm year-1 (11,05 % of rainfall for cypress plantations. Relationships between hydrological variables and SRF were identified by a principal components analysis (PCA. For each one of the stands, multiple regression analysis was used to fit models of SRF on rainfall, throughfall and mean intensity of rainfall, variables that, according to the PCA

  20. Nueva institucionalidad y proyección local tras la privatización portuaria argentina: Los casos de Bahía Blanca y Rosario

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    Silvia Gorenstein

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina la estructura institucional-regulatoria resultante de la privatización portuaria efectuada en Argentina durante los años noventa, en el marco de las transformaciones sectoriales a escala mundial y del andamiaje conceptual que sostiene nuevos formatos institucionales para reemplazar el rol antes desempeñado por el Estado nacional. ¿Cómo funciona la nueva institución portuaria, con parcelas de poder compartidas entre el sector público y los segmentos privados involucrados en la actividad? ¿En qué medida esta institucionalidad ha operado sobre las condiciones de governance local? Desde estos interrogantes centrales, el artículo se focaliza en las experiencias de los puertos de Bahía Blanca y Rosario, analizando las implicancias de una reconfiguración institucional modelada por la valorización del capital privado y mediada por el ejercicio de un poder público compartido entre dos niveles territoriales (provincia-municipio. De aquí se infieren temas que replantean la visión del puerto como fuerza propulsora del desarrollo económico territorial, y que se discuten revisando la naturaleza de los vínculos ciudad-puerto y los alcances de su proyección en la economía local desde la reformaThis paper analyzes the institutional and regulatory structures emerging from port privatization during the 90s in Argentina. The study departs from main sector transformations taking place at global scale and is based on the conceptual framework that sustains new institutional forms replacing former national government role. This new port institution shares power between public and private actors. How does it function? In what sense this new institution influences on local governance conditions? Departing from these central questions, this article focuses in Bahia Blanca and Rosario ports experiences, analyzing some consequences emerging from an institutional reform modeled by private capital valorization and mediated by a

  1. A ~20,000 year history of glacial variability in the tropical Andes recorded in lake sediments from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansell, N.; Rodbell, D. T.; Moy, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    Pro-glacial lake sediments from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru contain continuous records of climate variability spanning the Last Glacial Maximum to present day. Here we present results from two alpine lake basins in the Queshgue Valley (9.8°S, 77.3°W) that contain high-resolution records of clastic sediment deposition for the last ~20,000 years. Radiocarbon-dated sediment cores were scanned at 0.5 to 1.0 cm resolution using a profiling x-ray fluorescence scanner for major and minor element distributions. In addition, we measured down-core variations in magnetic susceptibility, organic carbon, biogenic silica and calcium carbonate. Samples of bedrock and sediments from glacial moraines in the Queshgue watershed were analyzed using an ICP-MS in order to fingerprint and trace the source of glacial sediments deposited in the lakes. The bedrock is dominated by a combination of granodiorite with high Sr concentrations and meta-sedimentary rocks with high Zr values. Because the glacial sediments proximal to the modern glacier terminus are composed mostly of the granodiorite end-member, we interpret changes in Sr and clastic sediment concentrations in the lake sediment profiles as proxies for past glacial variability. Preliminary results indicate that glaciers retreated soon after ~14,500 cal yr BP and remained less extensive during the remaining late Glacial Stage and early Holocene. Gradually increasing clastic sediments through the middle and late Holocene indicate that glaciers became progressively larger, or more erosive towards present day. However, this overall Holocene trend of increasing glacier extent was interrupted by multiple periods of centennial- to millennial-scale ice margin retreat. For example, relative peaks in clastic sediments occurred from ~14,500 to 6000, 5600 to 5000, 4600 to 4200, 3600 to 3200, 2800 to 2700, 2400 to 2200, 1750 to 1550, 1100 to 900 cal yr BP, and during the Little Ice Age (~700 to 50 cal yr BP), while periods of low clastic

  2. Proglacial Hydrogeology of the Cordillera Blanca (Peru): Integrating Field Observations with Hydrogeophysical Inversions to Inform Groundwater Flow Simulations and Conceptual Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glas, R. L.; Lautz, L.; McKenzie, J. M.; Moucha, R.; Mark, B. G.

    2017-12-01

    Geological and depositional conditions of the glaciated Cordillera Blanca in Peru have given way to proglacial aquifer systems that contribute substantially to regional streams and rivers, particularly during the dry season. As glacial retreat accelerates, the dry season water budget will be increasingly dominated by groundwater inputs, although predictions of future groundwater quantities require estimations of groundwater storage capacity, aquifer extents, and groundwater residence time. We present a characterization of the sediment structure in a prototypical proglacial valley in the central portion of the range, the Quilcayhuanca Valley. Northern and Central valleys of the Cordillera Blanca feature ubiquitous talus deposits that line the steep granite walls, and have become partially buried beneath lacustrine sediments deposited in proglacial lake beds. The portion of the talus still exposed near the valley walls provides recharge to deeper portions of the valley aquifers that underlie lacustrine clay, resulting in a confined aquifer system that is connected to the surface via perennial springs. Seismic refraction surveys reveal an interface separating relatively slow ( 400-800 m/s) and fast ( 2500 m/s) p-wave velocities. The depth of this refractor coincides with the depth to buried talus observed in drilling records. Electrical resistivity tomography profiles of the same transect show depths near the buried talus to be relatively conductive (10-100 Ωm). At these depths, we hypothesize that electrical conductance is elevated by saturated clay particles in the sediment matrix of the talus deposit. The resistivity models all show a more resistive ( 700 Ω m) region at depth, likely corresponding to a more hydraulically conductive material. The resistive zone is interpreted to be a deeper portion of a buried talus deposit that did not accumulate clay in the matrix. Other possibilities include a thick deposit of gravelly glacial outwash, or a relatively clay

  3. Detección molecular y análisis filogenético de Hepatozoon canis (Eucoccidiorida: Haemogregarinidae en perros clínicamente sanos de Bahía Blanca (Buenos Aires

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    CICUTTIN GL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades caninas causadas por protozoarios y transmitidas por garrapatas representan un importante problema en medicina veterinaria. El objetivo del estudio fue detectar molecularmente Hepatozoon spp., Babesia spp. y Theileria spp. en perros clínicamente sanos de distintas regiones de Argentina y analizar la diversidad genética de los hallazgos obtenidos. Se analizaron 163 muestras de ADN de sangre de perros (40 de Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires; 33 de Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires; 15 de Castelli, Chaco; 27 de Salsipuedes, Córdoba; 40 de Merlo, San Luis; y 8 de San Miguel, Corrientes. Mediante una PCR que amplifica un fragmento variable (460-540 pb del gen ARNr 18S incluyendo la región V4 de los géneros Hepatozoon, Babesia y Theileria, el 12,1 % (4/33 de los perros de Bahía Blanca (Buenos Aires resultaron positivos. Las secuencias obtenidas se identificaron como Hepatozoon canis y resultaron filogenéticamente similares a hallazgos en Sudamérica y en el resto del mundo. El estudio de H. canis en Argentina mediante técnicas moleculares de diagnóstico junto con el análisis filogenético resulta de suma importancia para conocer la situación de este patógeno en el país. SUMMARY. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Hepatozoon canis (Eucoccidiorida: Haemogregarinidae infecting healthy dogs from Bahia Blanca (Buenos Aires. Tick-borne protozoan canine diseases represent a major problem in veterinary medicine. The aim of the study was to detect molecularly Hepatozoon spp., Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. in clinically healthy dogs from different regions of Argentina and to analyze the genetic diversity of the findings. DNAs extracted from 163 blood samples from dogs (40 from Buenos Aires city; 33 from Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires; 15 from Castelli, Chaco; 27 from Salsipuedes, Córdoba; 40 from Merlo, San Luis; and 8 of San Miguel, Corrientes were studied by PCR amplifying a variable fragment (460-540 bp of the 18S r

  4. Influência do sexo do animal e do sistema de produção nas características de carcaça de caprinos da raça Blanca Serrana Andaluza Influence of animal gender and production system on the carcass characteristics of goats of the Blanca Serrana Andaluza breed

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    Roberto Germano Costa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência do sexo e do sistema de produção nas características de carcaça de caprinos da raça Blanca Serrana Andaluza. Foram utilizados 31 animais, 12 machos e 19 fêmeas, distribuídos nos sistemas de produção intensivo (15 animais e extensivo (16 animais. Não foi observada diferença no desempenho, no peso de carcaça e no escore corporal entre os sexos nem entre os sistemas de produção, contudo, os rendimentos de carcaça quente e fria foram maiores nos animais terminados em confinamento. As medidas de carcaça não diferiram entre os sistemas de produção, exceto o comprimento interno, que foi maior nos animais criados no sistema intensivo. O percentual dos não-constituintes da carcaça sofreu pouca variação em relação ao sexo e aos sistemas de criação avaliados. As maiores proporções de gordura perirrenal foram encontradas nas fêmeas e nos animais produzidos em confinamento. Pouca variação foi observada para os cortes paleta, pescoço e serrote, embora o percentual de perna tenha sido maior nos animais produzidos a pasto. O sistema extensivo, predominantemente usado por criadores da raça Blanca Serrana Andaluza na Espanha, permite obter carcaças com características similares às dos animais criados em confinamento e, em virtude da significativa redução dos custos com alimentação, obtida com os animais exclusivamente a pasto, pressupõe-se que esse sistema seja mais economicamente viável.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of gender and production system on the carcass characteristics of Blanca Serrana Andaluza goats. Thirty-one animals were used, 12 males and 19 females, distributed in intensive (15 animals and extensive (16 animals production systems. No difference was observed in performance, carcass weight and body score between the gender or production system but the hot and cold carcass yields were greater for the animals finished in a feedlot. The carcass

  5. Moscas frugívoras associadas a mirtáceas e laranjeira "Céu" na região do Vale do Rio Caí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Frugivorous flies in myrtaceans and orange trees 'Céu' in the region of Vale do Rio Caí, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Tacimara Gattelli

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo de reconhecer as espécies de moscas frugívoras em mirtáceas: Eugenia uniflora L., Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg., Psidium cattleianum Sabine, Psidium guajava L. e Acca sellowiana (Berg. Burret., bem como em Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck (Rutaceae, na região do Vale do Caí, RS. Os frutos foram coletados no período de maturação de cada espécie frutífera, entre outubro de 2004 e julho de 2005, levados ao laboratório e acondicionados em potes com areia mantidos a 25 ± 1°C; 80 ± 10% UR e fotofase de 12 horas. Os pupários obtidos foram individualizados e suas características foram registradas. De Tephritidae foi registrada apenas Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann e de Lonchaeidae Neosilba n. sp. 3, Neosilba zadolicha McAlpine & Steyskal e Neosilba certa (Walker. As duas últimas são novos registros para o Rio Grande do Sul. Apenas em P. cattleianum foram registradas todas as espécies de moscas encontradas neste trabalho. Os resultados evidenciam que A. fraterculus é a espécie de mosca-das-frutas de maior ocorrência para a região do Vale do Caí, RS, nas frutíferas estudadas.This study aimed at recognizing frugivorous flies species in Myrtaceae: Eugenia uniflora L., Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg. Psidium cattleianum Sabine, Psidium guajava L. and Acca sellowiana (Berg. Burret., as well as in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck (Rutaceae, at Vale do Cai region, Rio Grande do Sul. Fruits were collected at the maturation stage of each fruit species between October 2004 and July 2005, and at the laboratory they were placed in pots with sand and were kept at 12h photoperiod, 80 ± 10% RH and 25 ± 1°C. Pupae were individualized and their characteristics were recorded. In Tephritidae only Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. was recorded and in Lonchaeidae, Neosilba n. sp. 3, Neosilba zadolicha McAlpine & Steyskal and Neosilba certa (Walker. These last two species were recorded for the first time in Rio Grande do Sul. Only on

  6. Mujeres benefactoras en el sudoeste bonaerense argentino: el caso del Patronato de la Infancia de Bahía Blanca, 1906-1931

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    Lucía Bracamonte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El cuidado de los menores considerados en riesgo moral y material en la Argentina de principios del siglo XX queda muchas veces a cargo de instituciones de caridad en las cuales las benefactoras adquieren especial protagonismo. El objetivo del presente artículo es identificar las funciones asumidas por las mujeres en el periodo de surgimiento y afianzamiento del Patronato de la Infancia de Bahía Blanca, caracterizándolas en el marco de las relaciones que establecen con las personas que las rodean, así como de las representaciones de género emergentes de las mismas. Cabe preguntarse de qué manera se definen, a partir de las prácticas y los discursos vinculados con el caso analizado, los lugares ocupados por las benefactoras en relación a los hombres de su círculo social y a otras mujeres de distintos estratos y ocupaciones que se involucran con la institución, como las amas de leche y las religiosas. Se plantea que la actuación de las propulsoras de este emprendimiento representa en muchos sentidos una transgresión a los modelos imperantes de femineidad pero que, sin embargo, tanto los discursos de los hombres como los de las mujeres asocian sus actividades con esos presupuestos dominantes.

  7. Responsabilidad Social Matriz de indicadores sustentables que refleja el impacto de la forestación en tierras marginales del Partido de Bahía Blanca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina del Carmen Durán Durán

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, se han empezado a considerar otras obligaciones que tienen las empresas para con su comunidad; se trata de aspectos vinculados con las dimensiones sociales y ambientales. Desde este contexto, nuestro trabajo tiene como punto de partida el concepto de responsabilidad social desde la noción de sustentabilidad. El objetivo es evaluar la forestación como instrumento para mejorar la sostenibilidad de los sistemas productivos tradicionales en tierras marginales del Partido de Bahía Blanca, mitigando los impactos del desarrollo no responsable de la producción primaria. Para ello, se han identificado técnicas de manejo generadoras de externalidades positivas en otras actividades agropecuarias complementarias, donde existen limitantes edafológicas, apoyándose en las tres dimensiones del concepto de sustentabilidad: ecológica, económica, sociopolítica y cultural. De igual forma, se diseñó una matriz de evaluación y ponderación de impactos, que contempla indicadores cuantitativos y cualitativos, de cuya aplicación surge la forestación como una alternativa sustentable

  8. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone--A case study using uranium isotopes at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, T.L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S.J.; Murrell, M.T.; Chu, W.L.; Dobson, P.F.

    2009-01-01

    Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and 234 U/ 238 U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and α-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Pena Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced 234 U/ 238 U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using 234 U/ 238 U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

  9. The Sierra Pena Blanca (Mexico) and the Meseta Los Frailes (Bolivia): the uranium concentration mechanisms in volcanic environment during hydrothermal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, J.L.; Aniel, B.; Poty, B.

    1987-01-01

    Tertiary felsic volcanics of the Sierra Pena Blanca in Mexico host potentially economic uranium deposits, and of Meseta Los Frailes in Bolivia contain interesting U anomalies but no significant deposits. A comparative study of the two uranium districts reveals differences that may explain the different degrees of U concentration. The host ignimbrite in Mexico, namely the Nopal Formation dated at 44 Myr. ago, is potassic alkaline rhyolite which is poorly compacted and contains phenocrysts of quartz, orthoclase, ilmenite and magnetite, totalling 30% of the rock. Vapour phase crystallization is well developed in the Mexican tuff, and has led to a primary concentration of labile U not tied up in refractory accessory minerals, as shown by fission-track studies. The Bolivian tuffs lack such vapour phase primary concentration of U. Subsequent hydrothermal alteration, in particular kaolinization is intense in the Mexican district, but is relatively less intense in the Bolivian one. It is postulated that an intense hydrothermal activity, probably of prolonged duration, in rocks displaying primary enrichment of labile U, is essential to form volcanogenic U deposits of the type found in Mexico. 26 refs.; 13 figs.; 3 plates; 3 tabs

  10. La actividad turísticorecreativa en la reestructuración del espacio urbano. El caso de una ciudad media: Bahía Blanca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Valeria Schroeder

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Muchas de las políticas urbanas han incorporado, recientemente, una posición proactiva hacia el turismo y la actividad recreativa, que se ve cada vez más como un sector estratégico para la revitalización urbana en determinados sectores de la ciudad. El presente artículo propone una reflexión acerca de la incidencia de la actividad turístico-recreativa en espacios urbanos, como inductora de un proceso de desarrollo local. Se plantea como caso de estudio Bahía Blanca (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, centro urbano intermedio con preponderancia regional, que procura insertarse entre las ciudades que se orientan a promover actividades propias del turismo y la recreación. Varias son las acciones realizadas en este sentido, poniendo de relieve, por un lado, los diferentes proyectos y planes urbanos que se desarrollaron y, por el otro, los cambios sociales y la renovación urbana que impulsaron. Si bien el estudio de esta temática se encuentra en su etapa inicial1, el trabajo plantea interrogantes acerca de las transformaciones urbanas actuales y cómo éstas se vinculan a la dinamización de un territorio, a partir de la actividad turístico-recreativa.

  11. Rodados bioerosionados en depósitos marinos holocenos del estuario de Bahía Blanca, Argentina: consideraciones paleoambientales y procedencia

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    Jorge O Spagnuolo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En la costa norte del estuario de Bahía Blanca, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, se presentan cordones litorales compuestos por arena conchilífera y elevada proporción de rodados de origen sedimentario. Muchos de estos clastos muestran importantes signos de bieorosión. La procedencia de este material se vincula con las extensas plataformas de abrasión presentes al este del estuario (costas de Pehuén Co. Se determinaron dos icnofacies: la icnofacies de Trypanites integrada por Gastrochaenolites, Maeandropolydora, Trypanites, Gnathichnus y Radulichnus, propia de sustratos duros y la icnofacies de Skolithos representada por galerías de Ophiomorpha desarrollada en sustratos blandos. Ambas, caracterizan un ambiente litoral somero. Durante la transgresión holocena, los sustratos costeros se vieron afectados por el avance marino y los fragmentos erosionados fueron transportados por deriva litoral hacia el interior del estuario. Finalmente, eventos de tormenta depositaron en los cordones litorales el material con signos de bioerosión. En la actualidad, muchos de estos rodados que presentan gradación en tamaño hacia el interior del estuario, se hallan en tránsito en las playas por deriva litoral este-oeste.

  12. Influencia sobre parámetros biológicos de Tagosodes orizicolus relacionados con el Virus Hoja Blanca y su permanencia en invernaderos.

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    Rafael Meneses

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la influencia que ejerce el Virus Hoja Blanca (VHB sobre el insecto, se estudiaron tres colonias de T. orizicolus, procedentes de diferentes zonas arroceras de Colombia (Tolima, Costa y Jamundí En las colonias de Costa (3 años y Tolima, (9 meses, de multiplicación en condiciones semicontroladas de invernadero, no se encontró influencia negativa del virus en la longevidad de machos y hembras, y la fecundidad diaria, no ocurriendo de modo semejante en los insectos de Jamundí (4 meses que si se manifestaron efectos deletéreos en todos los parámetros antes señalados; aspecto éste muy importante en la interacción entre entomólogos, virólogos y mejoradores, en la calidad de las evaluaciones de resistencia a esta plaga y al VHB de las líneas de arroz, depende el grado de resistencia o susceptibilidad de la nuevas variedades comerciales y éste es el principal factor en el Manejo Integrado de T. orizicolus y del VHB.

  13. Para una sociología del racismo: análisis comparativo de las pautas de matrimonio entre personas de raza blanca y negra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUTH AGUILERA

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen diferentes maneras de analizar los prejuicios y las discriminaciones raciales. Uno de los mejores indicadores sociales es el matrimonio interracial (por ejemplo, entre razas negra y blanca, que sobrepasa los límites de los grupos establecidos mediante los procesos de racialización. Ante este fenómeno se hace necesario redefinir las nociones de raza, género y cultura en las vidas individuales, así como a nivel social y político. En el artículo se analizan algunos de esos conceptos e indicadores. Se estudian las tasas de matrimonios interraciales como un indicador significativo de la armonía en las relaciones raciales. A partir de esos datos se exponen las teorías existentes y posibles explicaciones del matrimonio entre blancos y negros, utilizando datos recientes de Estados Unidos y Gran Bretaña, analizando también la dinámica de la racionalización en ambos países. Al final se añaden ideas de algunos de los principales estudios españoles.

  14. ESPACIOS DE SOCIABILIDAD, REDES SOCIALES DE LA RENOVACIÓN CATÓLICA Y MILITANCIA CONTESTARIA EN BAHÍA BLANCA (ARGENTINA ENTRE 1968 Y 1975

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    Virginia Dominella

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo reconstruye las relaciones entre personas y grupos del catolicismo liberacionista en Bahía Blanca (Argentina, entre 1968 y 1975. Describe los espacios de sociabilidad ligados a la renovación eclesial, así como las redes sociales que estos articularon. Analiza los modos en que esos vínculos actuaron en la generación de iniciativas comunes y en la participación de los actores en diversos ámbitos de acción social y política con el fin de aportar a la transformación de la sociedad en un contexto histórico marcado por la efervescencia social y política. Para este abordaje, se ha optado por una metodología cualitativa y, en este sentido, por la utilización de diversas estrategias, desde entrevistas en profundidad hasta el análisis de distintas fuentes empíricas (que incluyen testimonios éditos, prensa, informes de inteligencia y volantes, apelando a estrategias de triangulación para lograr una comprensión en profundidad del problema en cuestión.

  15. ENCUENTROS Y DESENCUENTROS EN UN ESPACIO DE BORDE: el caso del rururbano de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Claudia Avelina Sereno

    2016-08-01

    Because of their boundary condition, rururban areas are subject to mobile and changing phenomena. Said phenomena are caused by the pressure exerted by real estate agents, urban planning policies, and economic sectors agents such as industries or other businesses interested in these types of zones. Rururban areas are also under the influence of economic globalization, productive restructuring, and technological innovations. These last ones stablish a rupture in the, so far, predominant spatial logic by causing changes in the territories’ dynamic. The objective of this article is to analyze Bahia Blanca City’s rururban as a zone where socio-spatial conflicts are generated. Specially, conflicts related to the advance of urbanization over the city’s boundaries and also those that are a consequence of the global logic impact. The main interest is to identify and observe the ways in which residents perceive and experience these missed encounters. To do so, a qualitative methodology is used. This methodology was chosen because it takes into account the observation of the territory and the implementation of semi-structured interviews to the residents of the Bahia Blanca’s rururban. Keywords: Rururban Area; Socio-spatial Conflicts; Experience; Perception.

  16. RELATOS DE VIDA Y RELIGIOSIDAD POPULAR. ORIGEN Y SENTIDOS DE LA FIESTA DE LA VIRGEN DE URKUPIÑA EN BAHÍA BLANCA.

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    Graciela Hernández

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Proponemos conocer el origen e ir identificando los sentidos de una de las manifestaciones de la religiosidad popular que se producen en Bahía Blanca: las festividades en honor a la Virgende Urkupiña. Es una devoción mariana surgida en Bolivia y profesada por migrantes bolivianos y de las provincias del noroeste argentino, como jujeños, salteños y tucumanosradicados en esta ciudad y la zona de influencia.Se trata de una investigación realizada con metodología cualitativa etnográfica. Del trabajo de campo hemos seleccionados relatos de vida que nos resultan significativos en tanto encontramos en ellos las explicaciones que los sujetos entrevistados dan de los procesos sociales. El relato de vida es el fragmento del texto oral que da cuenta de aquellos temas que nos hemos propuesto conocer.Realizamos un breve recorrido por la bibliografía de la última década que toma el tema la fiesta de la Virgen de Urkupiña en distintos lugares del país. Hemos visto que cada uno de los autores focaliza en distintos aspectos de la festividad o en las distintas perspectivas teóricas;nosotros queremos aportar nuevas explicaciones sobre el origen de estas celebraciones y rituales a partir de la interpretación de los relatos de vida seleccionados

  17. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci genome project: analysis of sequenced clones from egg, instar, and adult (viruliferous and non-viruliferous cDNA libraries

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    Czosnek Henryk

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The past three decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in interest in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, owing to its nature as a taxonomically cryptic species, the damage it causes to a large number of herbaceous plants because of its specialized feeding in the phloem, and to its ability to serve as a vector of plant viruses. Among the most important plant viruses to be transmitted by B. tabaci are those in the genus Begomovirus (family, Geminiviridae. Surprisingly, little is known about the genome of this whitefly. The haploid genome size for male B. tabaci has been estimated to be approximately one billion bp by flow cytometry analysis, about five times the size of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. The genes involved in whitefly development, in host range plasticity, and in begomovirus vector specificity and competency, are unknown. Results To address this general shortage of genomic sequence information, we have constructed three cDNA libraries from non-viruliferous whiteflies (eggs, immature instars, and adults and two from adult insects that fed on tomato plants infected by two geminiviruses: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV and Tomato mottle virus (ToMoV. In total, the sequence of 18,976 clones was determined. After quality control, and removal of 5,542 clones of mitochondrial origin 9,110 sequences remained which included 3,843 singletons and 1,017 contigs. Comparisons with public databases indicated that the libraries contained genes involved in cellular and developmental processes. In addition, approximately 1,000 bases aligned with the genome of the B. tabaci endosymbiotic bacterium Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum, originating primarily from the egg and instar libraries. Apart from the mitochondrial sequences, the longest and most abundant sequence encodes vitellogenin, which originated from whitefly adult libraries, indicating that much of the gene expression in this insect is directed toward the production

  18. Bemisia tabaci MED Population Density as Affected by Rootstock-Modified Leaf Anatomy and Amino Acid Profiles in Hydroponically Grown Tomato

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    Katja Žanić

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci is one of the most devastating pests in tomato greenhouse production. Insecticide resistance management for B. tabaci requires a novel approach that maximizes non-chemical methods for pest control. The aim of this study was to test the effects of rootstocks on B. tabaci populations in hydroponically grown tomato plants. In order to contribute to the better understanding of the mechanisms defining the attractiveness of plant to the aerial pest, the effects of rootstocks on leaf anatomy and the amino acid composition of phloem sap were assessed. A two-factorial experimental design was adopted using cultivars (rootstock cultivars and Clarabella grown as either non-grafted or grafted with cultivar Clarabella as a scion. The rootstock cultivars included Arnold, Buffon, Emperador, and Maxifort. A reduction in B. tabaci density was observed using all rootstock cultivars. The number of adult individuals per leaf was 2.7–5.4 times lower on rootstock cultivars than on Clarabella. The number of large nymphs per square centimeter was at least 24% higher on non–grafted Clarabella compared with all other treatments. The leaf lamina thickness and mesophyll thickness were lower in self-grafted Clarabella than in non-grafted or in one grafted on rootstock cultivars; however, the extent of this reduction depended on the rootstock. The leaves with thinner laminae were generally less attractive to B. tabaci. Eighteen amino acids were detected in the exudates of phloem sap. In all treatments, the most abundant amino acid was γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, followed by proline, serine, alanine, and histidine. The scion cultivar Clarabella was the most attractive to B. tabaci and had a higher content of leucine than did rootstock cultivars, and a higher content of lysine compared to Buffon and Maxifort. The features modified by rootstock such are changes in leaf anatomy can affect the attractiveness of plants to B. tabaci. Thus, the grafting of tomato

  19. Insecticide resistance in Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) could compromise the sustainability of malaria vector control strategies in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnankiné, Olivier; Bassolé, Imael H N; Chandre, Fabrice; Glitho, Isabelle; Akogbeto, Martin; Dabiré, Roch K; Martin, Thibaud

    2013-10-01

    Insecticides from the organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid (PY) chemical families, have respectively, been in use for 50 and 30 years in West Africa, mainly against agricultural pests, but also against vectors of human disease. The selection pressure, with practically the same molecules year after year (mainly on cotton), has caused insecticide resistance in pest populations such as Bemisia tabaci, vector of harmful phytoviruses on vegetables. The evolution toward insecticide resistance in malaria vectors such as Anopheles gambiae sensus lato (s.l.) is probably related to the current use of these insecticides in agriculture. Thus, successful pest and vector control in West Africa requires an investigation of insect susceptibility, in relation to the identification of species and sub species, such as molecular forms or biotypes. Identification of knock down resistance (kdr) and acetylcholinesterase gene (Ace1) mutations modifying insecticide targets in individual insects and measure of enzymes activity typically involved in insecticide metabolism (oxidase, esterase and glutathion-S-transferase) are indispensable in understanding the mechanisms of resistance. Insecticide resistance is a good example in which genotype-phenotype links have been made successfully. Insecticides used in agriculture continue to select new resistant populations of B. tabaci that could be from different biotype vectors of plant viruses. As well, the evolution of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae threatens the management of malaria vectors in West Africa. It raises the question of priority in the use of insecticides in health and/or agriculture, and more generally, the question of sustainability of crop protection and vector control strategies in the region. Here, we review the susceptibility tests, biochemical and molecular assays data for B. tabaci, a major pest in cotton and vegetable crops, and An. gambiae, main vector of malaria. The data reviewed was collected in Benin and Burkina

  20. Dinâmica populacional e incidência de moscas-das-frutas e parasitoides em cultivares de pessegueiros (Prunus Persica L. Batsch no município de presidente prudente-sp Population dynamic and occurrence of fruit flies and their parasitoids in peach cultivars (Prunus persica L. Batsch in presidente prudente municipality, sp

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    Sônia Maria Nalesso Marangoni Montes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos avaliar a dinâmica populacional e registrar a diversidade de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea em cultivares de pessegueiro Tropical, Talismã, Aurora 2, Aurora 1, Dourado 2 e Doçura 2, enxertadas sobre os porta-enxertos 'Okinawa' e Umê, em Presidente Prudente-SP. Foram realizadas as correlações da dinâmica populacional com a temperatura e a precipitação, e também a infestação com as características químicas dos frutos, Sólidos Solúveis e Acidez Titulável. No período de julho de 2004 a dezembro de 2006, a dinâmica populacional de moscas-das-frutas foi obtida através de coletas semanais de moscas-das-frutas em armadilhas McPhail, e a incidência foi determinada através da coleta de 30 frutos/planta/cultivar. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Ceratitis capitata foi predominante nas cultivares de pessegueiros estudadas. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre população de moscas-das-frutas e as variáveis de temperatura e precipitação, e sólidos solúveis e ácidez titulável. Entre as cultivares de pêssego, Aurora 2 apresentou maior infestação por C. capitata, da ordem de 22 e 23% nos anos 2004 e 2006, respectivamente. Também foi registrada a incidência de Neosilba spp. em frutos de pêssego. Doryctobracon areolatus (Braconidae, Tetrastichus giffardianus (Eulophidae e Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Pteromalidae foram recuperados de pupários de Tephritidae.The objectives of this research were evaluate the population dynamic and diversity of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea on peach cultivars Tropical, Talisma, Aurora 2, Aurora 1, Dourado 2 and Doçura 2, under the rootstocks 'Okinawa' and Umê, in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil. The dynamic population of fruit flies was correlated with temperature and precipitation. The fruit fly infestation was correlated with chemical characteristics of fruits

  1. Eficiência de substâncias atrativas na captura de moscas-das-frutas (diptera: tephritidae em goiabeiras no município de Itapecuru-Mirim (MA Efficacy of attractants for fruits flies (diptera: tephritidae captures in guava crops in Itapecuru-Mirim (MA, Brazil

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    Raimunda Nonata Santos Lemos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em pomar comercial de goiaba (Psidium guajava L. cultivar 'Pêra Vermelha', localizado no município de Itapecuru-Mirim (MA, na Comunidade Magnificat, visando a adotar um sistema de manejo integrado de moscas-das-frutas através do monitoramento com armadilhas do tipo frasco caça-moscas (modelo garrafa plástica e atraentes de alimentação. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo: suco de laranja (50%, acerola (30%, goiaba (30%, maracujá (30% e solução de açúcar cristal a 10 %. Verificou-se que o suco de maracujá (30% e a solução de açúcar cristal (10% foram mais atrativos para os adultos de Anastrepha distincta Greene, A. sororcula Zucchi, A. striata Schiner, A. obliqua Macquart e A. serpentina Wiedemann.This research was carried out in a commercial guava orchard cv. 'Pera Vermelha' in the Magnificat Community, located at Itapecuru-Mirim (MA County, aiming to adopt an integrated management system for fruit flies, by trapping different food attractants. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design with four replications. The attractants tested were: Sweet orange juice (50%, acerola juice (30%, guava juice (30%, passion fruit juice (30% and sugar solution (10%. The results showed that passion fruit juice (30% and sugar solution (10% were more attractive for adults fruit flies of Anastrepha distincta Greene, A. sororcula Zucchi, A. striata Schiner, A. obliqua Macquart and A. serpentina Wiedemann.

  2. Ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae em mangueiras (Mangifera indica L. em Boa Vista, Roraima = The occurrence of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae in mango (Mangifera indica L. in Boa Vista, Roraima

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    Adriana Bezerra Lima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo foi conduzido no período de junho de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, em pomares comerciais de manga das variedades: Tommy Atkins, Haden e Palmer sendo 3 ha de cada cultivar, localizado na região do Bom Intento no Município de Boa Vista. Os espécimes de moscas-das-frutas foram coletados, por meio de armadilhas, confeccionadas com garrafas pet, que foram penduradas na copa das árvores a 1,60 m de altura. Como atrativo alimentar foi utilizado 200 mL de suco de maracujá a 30%. Foram utilizadas nove armadilhas, sendo uma armadilha por hectare. Semanalmente as armadilhas eram examinadas, ocasião em que se substituía o atrativo e os insetos capturados retirados e colocados em frascos de vidro devidamente etiquetados e transportados ao Laboratório de Entomologia do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Roraima. As identificações dos espécimes foram feitas no Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia - INPA. No período de oito meses foram coletados 24 espécimes adultos do gênero Anastrepha (nove fêmeas e 15 machos. Quatro espécies foram identificadas: A. serpentina, A. striata, A. obliqua e A. turpinae. A maior frequência foi A. serpentina (44,44%, seguida de A. striata e A. obliqua ambas com 22,22% e A. turpinae com 11,11%. Os meses de maior ocorrência de Anastrepha spp. foram junho, julho e agosto. Este é o primeiro registro da espécie Anastrepha turpinae Stone, 1942, em Roraima. The study was done during th period of June 2007 to January of 2008, in commercial mango orchards having: 3 ha of cv. Tommy Atkins, 3 ha of cv. Haden. and 3 ha of cv. Palmer, located at Bom Intento in the municipal district of Boa Vista - RR. The specimens of fruit flies were collected, by trapping, made with transparent bottles pet, which were hung in the cup of the trees at 1.60 m of height. 200 mL of passion fruit juice (30% was used as an attractant feed; 9 traps were used, being one trap for hectare. Weekly The traps were

  3. Custos variáveis de produção de Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead para controle de moscas-das-frutas = Variable costs of production for Diachasmimorpha longicaudata to control the fruit flies

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    Maria Gisely Camargos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available O controle biológico aplicado consiste em liberações em massa de predadores ou parasitoides após a criação laboratorial em larga escala. Avaliar o custo de produção do parasitoide Diachasmimorpha longicaudata para controle biológico de moscas-das-frutas irá fornecer uma ferramenta capaz de auxiliar o planejamento, controle e uma forma de apoiar as empresas quanto as suas tomadas de decisão. Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar e analisar os custos variáveis de produção do parasitoideD. longicaudata, criado em larvas de Anastrepha fraterculus utilizando a ferramenta de Custeio Baseado em Atividade [ABC]. Foi acompanhado o processo produtivo para obter o custo variável total de produção em laboratório de pesquisa e biofábrica de inimigos naturais, localizado em Piracicaba, São Paulo. A capacidade de produção de pupas de A. fraterculus parasitadas por D. longicaudata é de um milhão por semana nesse laboratório, sendo que um milhão de pupas representa 34 L, e um mL contém aproximadamente 30 pupas. O custo variável de produção para produzir um milhão de pupas parasitadas por semana foi de R$ 5.919,65 ou R$0,0059 por pupa. O custo com mão de obra representa 57% do custo total, enquanto o custo com materiais representa 43%. A tomada de decisão do produtor em relação ao controle biológico utilizando D. longicaudatadependerá de estudos prévios sobre o parasitoide e cultura pretendida. = Applied biological control consists in the mass liberation of laboratory reared predators or parasitoids. Evaluating the variable cost of production of the fruit flies parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata for biological control will provide a tool to assist the planning, control and a way to support businesses as their decision-making. This study aims to identify and analyze the variable costs productionof D. longicaudata, created in larvas of Anastrepha fraterculus using the Activity-Based Costing Tool [ABC]. The total

  4. Parásitos en aguas del arroyo Naposta, aguas de recreación y de consumo en la ciudad de Bahia Blanca (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    COSTAMAGNA, SIXTO RAÚL; VISCIARELLI, ELENA; LUCCHI, LEANDRO D; BASUALDO, JUAN A

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue detectar la presencia de parásitos de importancia sanitaria para el hombre, en el arroyo Napostá, en aguas recreacionales (piscinas públicas) y de consumo en Bahía Blanca (Provincia de Buenos Aires) Argentina. Se recolectaron 24.000 litros de agua de diferentes sectores del arroyo Napostá, 2.000 litros de cada una de las tres piscinas públicas y 8.000 litros de agua de consumo, mediante filtros de poro de una micra de diámetro (Cuno Micro Wind). El procesa...

  5. Pável Valenzuela Arámburo, Santísima muerte : Niña blanca, niña bonita. El culto popular a la Santa Muerte

    OpenAIRE

    Le Luherne, Moran

    2015-01-01

    El documental Santísima muerte : Niña blanca, niña bonita. El culto popular a la Santa Muerte de Pável Valenzuela Arámburo forma parte de un proyecto de investigación titulado « Mística popular transfronteriza. Tradiciones y santos populares en la frontera México-Estados Unidos », coordinado por el Doctor José Manuel Valenzuela Arce y publicado en el Colegio de la Frontera Norte. Se enfoca en el culto de la Santa Muerte, culto religioso que emergió desde principios del siglo veinte en México,...

  6. Humedad crítica y repelencia al agua en andisoles bajo cobertura de cupressus lusitanica y quercus humboldtii en la cuenca de la quebrada piedras blancas (medellín, colombia).

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Mejía, Bibiana; Jaramillo Jaramillo, Daniel Francisco

    2011-01-01

    En dos vertientes de la cuenca de la quebrada Piedras Blancas (Medellín, Colombia) se estudió la relación humedad – persistencia de la repelencia al agua en la parte superficial de andisoles bajo dos coberturas vegetales: Cupressus lusitanica (ciprés) y Quercus humboldtii (roble), en tres posiciones a lo largo de la vertiente de colinas bajas: superior, media e inferior y en dos condiciones de humedad: con la humedad de campo y con la humedad adquirida al equilibrar al aire durante dos días m...

  7. Valorización de arcillas españolas para su incorporación en la formulación de pastas cerámicas de cocción blanca

    OpenAIRE

    Barrachina Albert, Ester

    2011-01-01

    La industria cerámica española mantiene una fuerte dependencia en cuanto a la importación de arcillas de cocción blanca, por carecer de las suficientes reservas mineras de este tipo de minerales. El objetivo de esta tesis se divide en dos partes. Por un lado, se intenta valorizar las arcillas españolas mediante diversas técnicas (hidrociclonado, separación magnética y calcinación) con el fin de eliminar las impurezas de compuestos de hierro y de materia orgánica que presentan, para que pue...

  8. Análisis proximal, evaluación microbiológica y sensorial de carnes para hamburguesas elaboradas con cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus) y soya (Glycine max) texturizada

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar García; Iria Acevedo; Jorge Ruiz Ramírez

    2013-01-01

    La cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus) es una especie económicamente importante en la acuicultura continental de América Latina y una alternativa nacional de producción de pescado para la piscicultura, la industria y el consumo. El objetivo del presente trabajo de investigación fue caracterizar mediante análisis proximal, evaluación microbiológica y sensorial, carnes para hamburguesas elaboradas con pulpa de cachama y diferentes inclusiones porcentuales de harina de soya texturizada (HST) ...

  9. Análisis comparativo y valoración del impacto de las medidas gubernamentales 2009 en salvaguardias, aranceles y cupos a las importaciones de línea blanca y café en el Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Carpio Cordero, Ximena; Orellana Rodas, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo muestra los resultados e impacto real que se dio en el Ecuador en año 2009 luego de la implementación de las medidas gubernamentales en salvaguardias, aranceles y cupos a la importación de Línea Blanca y Línea Café. Para ello se vio en primer lugar la necesidad de realizar un estudio sobre el comportamiento y evolución de las importaciones totales del Ecuador desde el año 2004 hasta el año 2008, con el fin de identificar sus principales socios comerciales, los principales ...

  10. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone--A case study using uranium isotopes at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, T. L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Chu, W. L.; Dobson, P. F.

    2009-06-01

    Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and {alpha}-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Pena Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

  11. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone - A case study using uranium isotopes at Peña Blanca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, T. L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Chu, W. L.; Dobson, P. F.

    2009-10-01

    Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and 234U/ 238U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and α-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Peña Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced 234U/ 238U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using 234U/ 238U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

  12. Short-term variability on mesozooplankton community in a shallow mixed estuary (Bahía Blanca, Argentina): Influence of tidal cycles and local winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, María C.; Piccolo, María C.; Hoffmeyer, Mónica S.

    2012-10-01

    The short-term dynamics of zooplankton in coastal ecosystems are strongly influenced by physical processes such as tides, riverine runoff and winds. In this study, we investigated the short-term changes of the representative taxa within mesozooplankton in relation to the semidiurnal tidal cycles. Also, we evaluated the influence of local winds on this short-term variability. Sampling was carried out bimonthly from December 2004 to April 2006 in a fixed point located in the inner zone of the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina. Mesozooplankton samples were taken by pumps during 14-h tidal cycles at 3-h intervals, from surface and bottom. Vertical profiles of temperature and salinity as well as water samples to determine suspended particulate matter were acquired at each sampling date. All data concerning winds were obtained from a meteorological station and water level was recorded with a tide gauge. Holoplankton dominated numerically on meroplankton and adventitious fraction. Concerning holoplanktonic abundance, the highest values were attained by the calanoid copepods Acartia tonsa and Eurytemora americana. Meroplankton occurred mainly as barnacle larvae while benthic harpacticoids and Corophium sp. dominated the adventitious component. Semidiurnal tide was the main influence on the A. tonsa variability. However, noticeable differences in the abundance pattern as function of wind intensity were detected. Meroplankton abundance did not show a clear variation along the tidal cycle. Distributional pattern of harpacticoids seemed to be mainly modulated by velocity asymmetries in the tidal currents, in the same way as suspended particulate matter. However, the Corophium sp. distribution indicated probable behavioural responses associated with tides. The obtained results show how variable the mesozooplankton community structure can be over short-term time scales in mesotidal temperate estuaries. This variability should be taken into account for any zooplankton monitoring

  13. Desarrollo en armonía ambiental: El caso de la Vereda Peñas Blancas del municipio de Arcabuco, Boyacá.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gómez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de generar un conocimiento aproximado (holístico a la realidad, de un territorio claramente definible, por constituirse en un ecosistema estratégico dentro del conjunto andino; se eligió profundizar en sus condiciones biofísicas, ambientales y antrópicas bajo una mirada construida a través de diálogo de saberes de disciplinas de conjunto y orgánicas. Además, para una valoración metodológica conjunta, y así prospectar un escenario de futuro. El proyecto de investigación busca garantizar su sostenibilidad y evolución en un orden consecuente con la permanencia de la vida diversa, donde el hombre se conforme con ser interventor positivo de la naturaleza y a estar encadenado a la vida como una sola (Odum, 1972. Este artículo ayuda a identificar la problemática y las potencialidades del conjunto, en la relación naturaleza-cultura (Gómez:2009, lo que corresponde sólo a la fase diagnostica y parte de la propuesta metodológica. El fin es propiciar la concreción de acciones en proyectos que sirvan para mejorar las condiciones de vida de los habitantes, con un uso racional del entorno. El artículo presenta resultados preliminares de un primer acercamiento con trabajo de campo, del proyecto piloto titulado “Diagnostico sobre prácticas histórico-sociales y culturales, tecnológicas agropecuarias y participación de la mujer en la Vereda de Peñas Blancas del municipio de Arcabuco. Boyacá”.

  14. Estudio del comportamiento de los recargues multicapas de depósitos soldados de fundición blanca al cromo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Collazo-Carceller

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Se determina la influencia de los parámetros Energía introducida (Hi, Número de capas (Nc y Ancho del depósito (Ad, en la morfología y el incremento de la resistencia al desgaste abrasivo de capas depositadas sobre acero 1020 utilizando el electrodo de fundición blanca al cromo UTP Ledurit – 61. Empleando la microscopia óptica se identificaron y cuantificaron las fases presentes, analizando su efecto en el desgaste. Siendo determinante la influencia de la inclinación de las dendritas y su posición con respecto a 90° en el incremento de la resistencia al desgaste abrasivo. Se caracterizaron los posibles mecanismos de daño superficial provocado por desgaste abrasivo empleando la microscopia electrónica de barrido. Se propusieron modelos lineales para correlacionar la influencia de la cantidad, tamaño, dispersión de los carburos y el ángulo de inclinación de las dendritas, en el incremento de la resistencia al desgaste.The influence of different parameters in layer morphology and abrasion resistance of Fe-Cr-C electrodes UTP Ledurit – 61 on steel 1020 was studied. Introduced Energy (Hi, Number of Layers (Nc, and Deposit Width (Ad were the main parameters considered. The metallographic identification and quantification of metal phases and the determination of their effect in abrasion resistance were made with optical microscopy. The abrasive wear test characterized by scanning electron microscopy, defines a possible mechanism of surface damage. It was found that the angle formed between a normal line to the surface and the dendrite inclination is directly related with the increment of wear resistance. Lineal models that correlate wear resistance with quantity, size, and carbide dispersion and dendrite angle inclination were also developed.

  15. Dieta y disponibilidad de forraje del venado cola blanca Odocoileus virginianus thomasi (Artiodactyla: Cervidae en un campo experimental de Campeche, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Granados

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available En Campeche, México no existen estudios de la dieta de Odocoileus virginianus thomasi; a pesar de la existencia de 122 Unidades de Manejo para la Conservación de la Vida Silvestre (UMAS en donde se realiza aprovechamiento del venado cola blanca. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron conocer la composición botánica de la dieta y su cambio estacional, la disponibilidad de forraje, la capacidad de carga y carga animal de O. virginianus thomasi. El trabajo se realizó de octubre 2010 a mayo 2012 en el Campo Experimental del Colegio de Postgraduados en Campeche, México. La composición de la dieta se determinó mediante el análisis de heces de venado y material de referencia con la técnica microhistológica; la disponibilidad de forraje se estimó con el método de Adelaide; la capacidad de carga utilizando la presión de pastoreo y la carga animal considerando el forraje disponible y 35% de eficiencia de utilización. La dieta incluyó 40 especies de 15 familias. La riqueza de especies más alta fue de 29 especies en la época de lluvia; las arbustivas fueron preferidas en las tres épocas del año y las herbáceas en la época de lluvia. La composición de la dieta, disponibilidad de forraje, la capacidad de carga y carga animal variaron a través del año. La capacidad de carga fluctuó entre 0.04 a 1.08 venados/ha.

  16. Hábitos alimentarios del venado cola blanca Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae en el Parque Natural Sierra Nanchititla, Estado de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises Aguilera-Reyes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El venado cola blanca es una especie con una gran plasticidad conductual y de adaptación en diferentes hábitat. En el Parque Sierra Nanchititla en el Estado de México se realizó un estudio para determinar los hábitos alimentarios en el bosque mesófilo de montaña (BMM y bosque de pino-encino (BPE. De junio 1990 a mayo 1992 se recolectaron 104 muestras de excremento de venado en las dos zonas de estudio. Aplicamos el índice de Morisita y la correlación de Spearman para determinar la preferencia alimentaria. Se utilizó el análisis histológico de heces fecales para herbívoros las cuales se compararon con muestras de tejidos vegetales de plantas de la zona de estudio. Los resultados muestran que consume el 79.44% de especies vegetales del BMM y 20.56% del BPE. Existe cierta tendencia en la selectividad de 12 de las 14 especies de plantas localizadas en el BMM, mientras que para el BPE no se aprecia tal tendencia. Las especies clave que for- man parte de la alimentación elemental del venado fueron: Acalypha setosa, Smilax pringlei, Psidium sartorianum y Dendropanax arborea. El consumo de plantas no varió sig- nificativamente entre la época seca y lluviosa en función de la forma biológica (X2=12, p=0.21. Sin embargo, durante la época seca existe cierta tendencia a consumir árboles y a finales de la época de lluvia a consumir hierbas (Z=1.61, p=0.95. Los datos indican que el venado puede ser selecti- vo con plantas del BMM, mientras que para el BPE tiende a ser oportunista.

  17. Impact of a power plant cooling system on copepod and meroplankton survival (Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina Impacto del sistema de enfriamiento de una central termoeléctrica sobre la supervivencia de copépodos y meroplancton (estuario de Bahía Blanca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Susana Hoffmeyer

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a power plant cooling system in the Bahía Blanca estuary (Argentina on the survival of target zooplanktonic organisms (copepods and crustacean larvae and on overall mesozooplankton abundance was evaluated over time. Mortality rates were calculated for juveniles and adults of four key species in the estuary: Acartia tonsa Dana, 1849 and Eurytemora americana Williams, 1906 (native and invading copepods, and larvae of the crab Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 and the invading cirriped Balanus glandula Darwin, 1854. Mean total mortality values were up to four times higher at the water discharge site than at intake, though for all four species, significant differences were only registered in post-capture mortality. The findings show no evidence of greater larval sensitivity. As expected, the sharpest decrease in overall mesozooplankton abundance was found in areas close to heated water discharge.El impacto del sistema de enfriamiento de una planta termoeléctrica ubicada en el estuario de Bahía Blanca, Argentina, fue evaluado en el tiempo, sobre la supervivencia de especies zooplanctónicas seleccionadas (copépodos y larvas de crustáceos y la abundancia general del meso-zooplancton. Se calcularon tasas de mortalidad de juveniles y adultos de cuatro especies clave en el estuario: Acartia tonsa Dana,1849 y Eurytemora americana Williams,1906 (copépodos nativo e invasor, y larvas del cangrejo Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 y del cirripedio invasor Balanus glandula Darwin, 1854. Los valores medios hallados de la tasa de mortalidad total, fueron hasta cuatro veces más altos en la descarga que en el agua de entrada al sistema. Sin embargo sólo se registraron diferencias significativas entre estos dos sitios, en los valores de mortalidad post-captura obtenidos para las cuatro especies. Los resultados del estudio no demostraron una mayor sensibilidad larval. Como se esperaba, la disminución más pronunciada en la abundancia general

  18. HIDROFOBICIDAD EN ANDISOLES BAJO ROBLEDAL (Quercus humboldtii Y PLANTACIONES FORESTALES (Pinus patula y Cupressus lusitanica EN LA CUENCA DE LA QUEBRADA PIEDRAS BLANCAS (MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA HYDROPHOBICITY OF ANDISOLS OF OAK GROVES (Quercus humboldtii AND TREE PLANTATIONS (Pinus patula and Cupressus lusitanica IN THE PIEDRAS BLANCAS WATERSHED ( MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Raúl Duque Zapata

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En la cuenca de la quebrada Piedras Blancas se evaluó la persistencia de la repelencia al agua en el horizonte A de Andisoles bajo tres coberturas vegetales: Pinus patula, Cupressus lusitanica y Quercus humboldtii y en tres posiciones topográficas diferentes a lo largo de la vertiente de colinas bajas, mediante el método de WDPT, en muestras con la humedad de campo y secas al aire. En todas las coberturas se encontró repelencia al agua en los suelos. Además, cuando las muestras fueron secadas al aire, la persistencia de la repelencia al agua se incrementó. Se encontró diferencia significativa en la distribución de la persistencia de la repelencia al agua entre las coberturas y entre las posiciones en la vertiente de las colinas, sin que se presentara un comportamiento similar para las tres coberturas. Los suelos bajo cobertura de ciprés fueron los que presentaron los mayores valores de WDPT en todas las condiciones de medida, siendo este el primer reporte que se hace en la literatura, con un amplio respaldo muestral, de repelencia al agua en suelos bajo dicha cobertura vegetal. En ninguno de los casos, la humedad de las muestras fue el parámetro que explicara el comportamiento observado en la repelencia al agua de los suelos estudiados.The persistence of water repellency in the A horizon of Andisols was evaluated in the Piedras Blancas watershed under three vegetative covers: Pinus patula, Cupressus lusitanica, and Quercus humboldtii, and in three different topographic conditions across the slope of a low hill, using the WDPT method with samples containing field humidities and airdried samples. In all vegetative covers, water repellency of the soils was documented. Also, when the samples were air-dried, the persistency of the water repellency increased. A significant difference in the distribution of water repellency was documented among the different vegetative covers and topographic conditions, without a consistent pattern for the

  19. Queratitis por Acanthamoeba sp.: primer caso confirmado por aislamiento y tipificación molecular en Bahía Blanca, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Acanthamoeba sp. keratitis: first case confirmed by isolation and molecular typification in Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Gertiser

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Algunas especies del género Acanthamoeba provocan queratitis amebiana (QA, una infección de la córnea muy dolorosa, generalmente unilateral, con compromiso importante de la visión. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 31 años usuaria de lentes de contacto con hábitos inadecuados de higiene y conservación de las lentes. La paciente consultó por enrojecimiento y dolor intenso en el ojo derecho, de dos meses de evolución. Luego del examen oftalmológico y ante la sospecha de una etiología parasitaria se realizó una biopsia de la zona lesionada, que se destinó al análisis bacteriológico y parasitológico en el laboratorio. También se remitieron los líquidos de lavado y el estuche de las lentes. No se detectó crecimiento bacteriano en las muestras. Los cultivos para la búsqueda de Acanthamoeba resultaron positivos en todos los especímenes analizados. Las amebas aisladas fueron clasificadas morfológica y molecularmente como pertenecientes al género Acanthamoeba. El presente trabajo muestra el primer caso de queratitis por Acanthamoeba de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca identificado por el laboratorio mediante procedimientos de alto valor diagnóstico.Some species of the Acanthamoeba genus cause keratitis, a very painful, most likely unilateral corneal infection , associated with eye and vision impairment. We here present a case of a 31-year-old female patient, a regular user of soft contact lenses without good practices of lens hygiene and handling. The patient attended medical consultation after two months of inflammation and pain in her right eye. After ophthalmological studies, and due to suspicion of a parasitic infection, a biopsy was performed and the sample submitted for bacteriological and parasitological analyses. Moreover, contact lens holders and lens cleaning solutions were studied. The samples yielded negative results for bacterial infection. However, cultivation of all samples showed the presence of amoeboid parasites

  20. LA COMPRENSIÓN DEL TERRITORIO A PARTIR DEL MODELO DE FORMACIÓN SOCIO ESPACIAL DESDE LA PRÁCTICA DE LA HORTICULTURA EN EL PERIURBANO DE BAHÍA BLANCA, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Amalia Lorda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de la actividad hortícola en las ciudades argentinas se construye en un entramado que se remonta a la fundación misma de cada lugar, como una actividad propia de quienes buscan originar su propio sustento. Con el crecimiento de las ciudades, el territorio cambia, nuevos usos se observan, así como la llegada de otras personas -inmigrantes- que sin duda impregnan de especificidades a un nuevo territorio en construcción. En el periurbano de Bahía Blanca, la horticultura se nutre de distintas oleadas de inmigrantes, quienes plasman en el territorio saberes y prácticas singulares. El aporte de la geografía social francesa es de gran valor para la comprensión de las distintas lógicas socio-espaciales que suceden. El modelo de formación socio espacial que se aplica permite comprender el territorio, a partir de observaciones en el terreno y entrevistas a los actores que territorializan con sus prácticas un modo de pensar el territorio. Palabras clave: Periurbano; Territorio; Formación Socio-espacial; Actividad Hortícola.   THE COMPREHENSION OF THE TERRITORY FROM THE MODEL OF FORMATION SPATIAL PARTNER FROM THE PRACTICE OF THE HORTICULTURE THE PERIURBANO OF BAHÍA BLANCA, ARGENTINA ABSTRACT The development of horticulture in the Argentine cities is built on a framework that goes back to the very foundation of every place, as an activity of those who seek to lead their own livelihood. With the growth of cities, the territory changes, new uses are observed, and the arrival of others -inmigrantes- undoubtedly imbued with specificities into new territory under construction. In the periurban horticulture Bahia Blanca, is nourished by different waves of immigrants, who reflected on the territory unique knowledge and practices. The contribution of the French social geography is of great value for the understanding of different socio-spatial logics that happen. The model of socio spatial information that applies to understanding the

  1. Criterios de liberación de Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae para el control de Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragón Sandra

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Para la toma adecuada de decisiones en el manejo de la mosca blanca de los invernaderos, se han propuesto diferentes criterios que buscan reducir el impacto producido por el uso indiscriminado de insecticidas. Sin embargo, estos criterios de decisión son aplicables principalmente al control químico de plagas y no se conoce su uso en programas de control biológico. Por lo tanto, con este trabajo se propuso generar unos criterios de decisión para el control biológico de la mosca blanca de los invernaderos T. vaporariorum con el parasitoide Encarsia formosa, teniendo en cuenta su respuesta funcional y porcentaje de control. En un diseño completamente al azar se ubicaron 18 plantas de tomate de 8 semanas de edad infestadas con 500 ninfas de mosca blanca y 3 plantas como control absoluto. En cada planta se liberaron 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 adultos de E. formosa, con tres repeticiones por densidad. Se registró el número de ninfas melanizadas por efectos del parasitismo de E. formosa a los 12; 19 y 26 días después de la primera liberación y, al finalizar la cosecha, se realizó un conteo de las ninfas de mosca blanca totales. Los resultados de este trabajo sugieren que para obtener un control cercano a 80% se debe liberar un parasitoide por cada 17 ninfas de mosca blanca de tercer instar, evaluando el control después de 35 días. Se pueden realizar nuevas liberaciones de E. formosa dirigidas al control de las nuevas ninfas encontradas en los muestreos periódicos del cultivo.

  2. BICULTIVO EN BIOFLOC DE CACHAMA BLANCA -Piaractus brachypomus- Y TILAPIA NILÓTICA -Oreochromis niloticus- ALIMENTADAS CON DIETAS DE ORIGEN VEGETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Brú-Cordero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el desempeño productivo de cachama blanca y tilapia nilótica cultivadas en biofloc y alimentadas con dietas de origen vegetal. Se cultivaron 80 peces/m3 en proporción 1:1 (cachama : tilapia, con tres niveles de proteína bruta (PB: 16% (T16, 24% (T24 y 32% (T32, en tanques de 1.000 l, con aireación permanente durante 120 días. Se estimaron parámetros de crecimiento, rendimiento, calidad de agua, costos de producción y análisis proximal de los flóculos. El oxígeno disuelto se mantuvo con saturación por encima de 100% y los compuestos nitrogenados (NO2 = 0,4-0,5 mg/l, NO3 = 0,4-0,5 mg/l, NH3 = 0,2-0,3 mg/l, TAN = 2,2-2,4 mg/l no presentaron diferencias entre los tratamientos (P > 0,05. Los pesos finales de la cachama (173,5-196,2 g fueron entre dos y cuatro veces los obtenidos por la tilapia (43,0-87,9 g. El mejor rendimiento del bicultivo se obtuvo con la dieta T24 (11,4 ± 1,3 kg/m3, el cual también registró el menor FCA (0,9 ± 0,3. Producir un kilogramo de pescado costó entre COP $3.148 (T24 y COP $4.445 (T32; del cual el alimento representó entre 49,2% (T16 y 63,3% (T32 y la energía, entre 10,3% (T32 y 14,2% (T16 de los costos. El análisis proximal de los flóculos registró niveles de proteína bruta (29-36% PB adecuados para cachama y tilapia; pero con niveles bajos de lípidos (< 1,0%. El desempeño productivo y los costos de producción permiten sugerir la viabilidad que ofrece el sistema biofloc para la producción de carne de pescado con alimento de 24% PB de origen vegetal.

  3. IN-SITU RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT NEAR THE NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT AT PENA BLANCA, MEXICO: CONSTRAINTS FROM SHORT-LIVED DECAY-SERIES RADIONUCLIDES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, S.; Ku, T.L.; Todd, V.; Murrell, M.; Pineda, J. Alfredo Rodriguez; Dinsmoor, J.; Mitchell, A.

    2005-01-01

    For nuclear waste management, an important mechanism by which radioactive waste components are isolated from returning to the human environment, the biosphere, is by the geological barrier in which the effectiveness of the barrier is characterized by in-situ retardation factor, i.e., the transport rate of a radionuclide relative to that of groundwater. As part of natural analog studies of the Yucca Mountain Project of the U. S. Department of Energy, we propose such characterization by using naturally-occurring decay-series radioisotopes as an analog. We collected large-volume (>1000 liters) groundwater samples from three wells (PB, Pozos, and PB4, respectively) near the Nopal I Uranium Ore site at Pena Blanca, Mexico, by using an in-situ Mn-cartridge filtration technique for analysis of short-lived decay-series radionuclides. Results show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes ( 228 Ra, 224 Ra and 223 Ra) and activity ratios of 224 Ra/ 228 Ra and 224 Ra/ 223 Ra are higher at PB and Pozos than at PB4. In contrast, the 210 Po activity is much lower at PB and Pozos than at PB4. The high Ra activities and activities ratios at PB and Pozos are attributable to the high alpha-recoil input from the aquifer rocks, while the high 210 Po activity at PB4 is due to the enhanced colloidal transport. Based on a uranium-series transport model, we estimate that the in-situ retardation factor of Ra is (0.43 ± 0.02) x 10 3 at PB, (1.68 ± 0.08) x 10 3 at Pozos, and (1.19 ± 0.08) x 10 3 at PB4 and that the mean fracture width in the aquifer rocks is about 0.23 (micro)m at PB, 0.37 (micro)m at Posos, and 4.0 (micro)m at PB4, respectively. The large fracture width at PB4 as derived from the model provides an additional evidence to the inference from the Po measurements that particle-reactive radionuclides are transported mainly as colloidal forms through the large fractures in rocks. Our model also suggests that in addition to alpha recoil, decay of 226 Ra from the adsorbed

  4. IN-SITU RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT NEAR THE NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT AT PENA BLANCA, MEXICO: CONSTRAINTS FROM SHORT-LIVED DECAY-SERIES RADIONUCLIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Luo; T.L. Ku; V. Todd; M. Murrell; J. Alfredo Rodriguez Pineda; J. Dinsmoor; A. Mitchell

    2005-07-11

    For nuclear waste management, an important mechanism by which radioactive waste components are isolated from returning to the human environment, the biosphere, is by the geological barrier in which the effectiveness of the barrier is characterized by in-situ retardation factor, i.e., the transport rate of a radionuclide relative to that of groundwater. As part of natural analog studies of the Yucca Mountain Project of the U. S. Department of Energy, we propose such characterization by using naturally-occurring decay-series radioisotopes as an analog. We collected large-volume (>1000 liters) groundwater samples from three wells (PB, Pozos, and PB4, respectively) near the Nopal I Uranium Ore site at Pena Blanca, Mexico, by using an in-situ Mn-cartridge filtration technique for analysis of short-lived decay-series radionuclides. Results show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes ({sup 228}Ra, {sup 224}Ra and {sup 223}Ra) and activity ratios of {sup 224}Ra/{sup 228}Ra and {sup 224}Ra/{sup 223}Ra are higher at PB and Pozos than at PB4. In contrast, the {sup 210}Po activity is much lower at PB and Pozos than at PB4. The high Ra activities and activities ratios at PB and Pozos are attributable to the high alpha-recoil input from the aquifer rocks, while the high {sup 210}Po activity at PB4 is due to the enhanced colloidal transport. Based on a uranium-series transport model, we estimate that the in-situ retardation factor of Ra is (0.43 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup 3} at PB, (1.68 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at Pozos, and (1.19 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at PB4 and that the mean fracture width in the aquifer rocks is about 0.23 {micro}m at PB, 0.37 {micro}m at Posos, and 4.0 {micro}m at PB4, respectively. The large fracture width at PB4 as derived from the model provides an additional evidence to the inference from the Po measurements that particle-reactive radionuclides are transported mainly as colloidal forms through the large fractures in rocks. Our model also suggests that

  5. Uranium-rich opal from the Nopal I uranium deposit, Peña Blanca, Mexico: Evidence for the uptake and retardation of radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Michael; Fayek, Mostafa; Hawthorne, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium deposit of the Sierra Peña Blanca, Mexico, has been the focus of numerous studies because of its economic importance and its use as a natural analog for nuclear-waste disposal in volcanic tuff. Secondary uranyl minerals such as uranophane, Ca[(UO 2)(SiO 3OH)] 2(H 2O) 5, and weeksite, (K,Na) 2[(UO 2) 2(Si 5O 13)](H 2O) 3, occur in the vadose zone of the deposit and are overgrown by silica glaze. These glazes consist mainly of opal A, which contains small particles of uraninite, UO 2, and weeksite. Close to a fault between brecciated volcanic rocks and welded tuff, a greenish silica glaze coats the altered breccia. Yellow silica glazes from the center of the breccia pipe and from the high-grade pile coat uranyl-silicates, predominantly uranophane and weeksite. All silica glazes are strongly zoned with respect to U and Ca, and the distribution of these elements indicates curved features and spherical particles inside the coatings. The concentrations of U and Ca correlate in the different zones and both elements inversely correlate with the concentration of Si. Zones within the silica glazes contain U and Ca in a 1:1 ratio with maximum concentrations of 0.08 and 0.15 at.% for the greenish and yellow glazes, respectively, suggesting trapping of either Ca 1U 1-aqueous species or -particles in the colloidal silica. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), and oxygen-isotope ratios measured by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) indicate higher U 6+/U 4+ ratios, higher proportions of Si-OH groups and lower δ 18O values for the greenish silica glaze than for the yellow silica glaze. These differences in composition reflect increasing brecciation, porosity, and permeability from the center of the breccia pipe (yellow silica glaze) toward the fault (green silica glaze), where the seepage of meteoric water and Eh are higher.

  6. Increased Concentrations of Short-Lived Decay-Series Radionuclides in Groundwaters Underneath the Nopal I Uranium Deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, S.; Ku, T.; Todd, V.; Murrell, M. T.; Dinsmoor, J. C.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal I uranium ore deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, located at > 200 meters above the groundwater table, provides an ideal natural analog for quantifying the effectiveness of geological barrier for isolation of radioactive waste nuclides from reaching the human environments through ground water transport. To fulfill such natural analog studies, three wells (PB1, PB2, and PB3 respectively) were drilled at the site from the land surface down to the saturated groundwater zone and ground waters were collected from each of these wells through large- volume sampling/in-situ Mn-filter filtration for analyses of short-lived uranium/thorium-series radionuclides. Our measurements from PB1 show that the groundwater standing in the hole has much lower 222Rn activity than the freshly pumped groundwater. From this change in 222Rn activity, we estimate the residence time of groundwater in PB1 to be about 20 days. Our measurements also show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes of Th (234Th), Ra (228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra), Rn (222Rn), Pb (210Pb), and Po (210Po) in PB1, PB2, and PB3 are all significantly higher than those from the other wells near the Nopal I site. These high activities provide evidence for the enrichment of long-lived U and Ra isotopes in the groundwater as well as in the associated adsorbed phases on the fractured aquifer rocks underneath the ore deposit. Such enrichment suggests a rapid dissolution of U and Ra isotopes from the uranium ore deposit in the vadose zone and the subsequent migration to the groundwater underneath. A reactive transport model can be established to characterize the in-situ transport of radionuclides at the site. The observed change of 222Rn activity at PB1 also suggests that the measured high radioactivityies in ground waters from the site isare not an artifact of drilling operations. However, further studies are needed to assess if or to what extent the radionuclide migration is affected by the previous mining activities at

  7. Uniform Distribution of Yttrium and Heavy Rare Earth Elements in Round Top Mountain Rhyolite Deposit , Sierra Blanca Texas, USA: Data, Significance, and Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingitore, N. E., Jr.; Clague, J. W.; Gorski, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Round Top Mountain peraluminous rhyolite, exposed at the surface in Sierra Blanca, Hudspeth County, west Texas, USA, is enriched in yttrium and heavy rare earth elements (YHREEs). Other potentially valuable elements in the deposit include Be, Li, U, Th, Sn, F, Nb, and Ta. Texas Rare Earth Resources Corp. proposes to extract the YHREEs from the host mineral variety yttrofluorite by inexpensive heap leaching with dilute sulfuric acid, which also releases some of the Be, Li, U, F, and Th from other soluble minor minerals. Data: Feldspars and quartz comprise 90-95% of the rhyolite, with pheonocrysts of up to 250 microns set in an aphanitic matrix that hosts the typically sub-micron target yttrofluorite. Reverse circulation cuttings from some 100 drill holes, two drill cores, and outcrop and trench observations suggest striking physical homogeneity through this billion-plus ton surface-exposed laccolith, about 1200 feet high and a mile in diameter (375 x 1600 m). Gray to pink, and other minor hues, color variation derives from magnetite—hematite redox reaction. Plots of Y, 13 REEs, U, Th, and Nb analyses from over 1500 samples collected from 64 drill holes (color codes in figure) exhibit remarkably little variation in the concentration of these elements with geographic position or depth within the laccolith. Importance: Uniform mineralization grades help insure against the mining production surprises often associated with vein deposits and heterogeneous open pit deposits. At Round Top, mine feedstock can be relatively constant over the life of the mine (multiple decades), so the mechanical mining process can be optimized early on and not need expensive alterations later. Likewise, the chemical and physical parameters of the heap leach can be perfected. The sensitive and expensive process of extraction of elements and element groups from the pregnant leach solution and purification also can be optimized. Origin: The remarkable homogeneity of the YHREE distribution

  8. Flutuação populacional de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae associadas a variedades de manga no município de José de Freitas-Piauí Population dynamics of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae associated to mango varieties in the city of Jose de Freitas - Piauí - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sávio Silveira Feitosa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O Piauí possui uma área considerável de manga, sendo um grande produtor dessa fruta no Brasil. Contudo, a presença de pragas, como as moscas-das-frutas, tem provocado grandes impactos na cadeia produtiva, pois estes insetos fazem parte de um grupo responsável por grandes prejuízos econômicos na cultura da mangueira. O conhecimento da flutuação populacional e a época de maior ocorrência de uma determinada espécie de inseto de importância econômica são requisitos indispensáveis para o estabelecimento de um controle eficiente e racional. O presente trabalho visou registrar a flutuação populacional das espécies de moscas-das-frutas associadas a variedades de manga, bem como correlacionar a ocorrência das moscas com as médias mensais de temperatura, precipitação e umidade relativa, e também avaliar os atrativos alimentares utilizados na captura dos insetos. A pesquisa foi conduzida de junho de 2004 a maio de 2005, em pomar comercial de manga (Mangifera indica L.-Anacardiaceae, das variedades Tommy Atkins, Keitt, Kent e Palmer, localizado no município de José de Freitas-Piauí-Brasil, na latitude 04º50'S e longitude 42º41'W. Anastrepha obliqua e Anastrepha serpentina são as espécies de tephritídeos predominantes na cultura da manga.Piaui has a considerable mango area, being a great producer of this fruit. However, the presence of plagues like the fruit flies has provoked great impacts in the production chain, so these insects are part of a responsible group of great economic damages in mango tree culture. The knowledge of the population dynamics and the highest occurrence period of specific insect species of economic importance are indispensable requirement to establish an efficient and rational control. The purpose of the present work was to register the population dynamics of the fruit fly species associated to the mango varieties, as well as correlating the fly occurrence with the monthly averages of temperature

  9. Índice de infestação e diversidade de moscas-das-frutas em hospedeiros exóticos e nativos no pólo de fruticultura de Anagé, BA Index of infestation and diversity of fruit-flies in exotic hosts native to the fruitculture area in Anagé, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Falcão de Sá

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae são os principais entraves às exportações de manga nos pólos de fruticultura da Região Sudoeste da Bahia. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar índices de infestação e a diversidade de moscas-das-frutas no pólo de fruticultura de Anagé, BA, visando obter subsídios para o manejo integrado dessas pragas na mangueira, na região. Os estudos foram realizados em 2004 e 2005, nos municípios de Anagé, Belo Campo e Caraíbas, BA, procedendo-se à coleta de frutos de 21 espécies vegetais, nativas e exóticas, e identificação das espécies de moscas associadas. Estimaram-se os índices de infestação em pupários/kg de fruto e pupários/fruto. Os maiores índices de infestação, em pupários/kg de fruto, ocorreram em serigüela (Spondias purpurea L. com 61,3, juá (Ziziphus joazeiro L., 38,3 e umbu (Spondias tuberosa L., 33,1, considerados hospedeiros primários de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann e A. obliqua (Macquart. As maiores infestações em pupários/fruto ocorreram em serigüela (0,9; umbu (0,7 e cajarana (Spondias sp. (0,2. Com base no monitoramento larval, registra-se, para as condições do pólo de fruticultura de Anagé, a ocorrência das espécies Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. dissimilis, A. amita, A. distincta, A. sororcula, A. zenildae e Ceratitis capitata. Registram-se, pela primeira vez, as seguintes associações bitróficas: juá com A. fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. dissimilis e A. distincta; e umbu com A. amita e A. sororcula.Fruit-flies (Diptera: Tephritidae are the main hindrance for mango exportation in the fruitculture areas of the Southwestern Region of Bahia. The purpose of the present work was to study the indexes of infestation and diversity of fruit-flies in the fruitculture area of Anagé, BA, in order to obtain subsidies to the integrated management of these pests in mango, in this region. Studies were carried out in 2004 and 2005 in the

  10. HUMEDAD CRÍTICA Y REPELENCIA AL AGUA EN ANDISOLES BAJO COBERTURA DE Cupressus lusitanica y Quercus humboldtii EN LA CUENCA DE LA QUEBRADA PIEDRAS BLANCAS (MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA CRITICAL MOISTURE AND WATER REPELLENCY ON ANDISOLS UNDER Cupressus lusitanica AND Quercus humboldtii COVER IN THE PIEDRAS BLANCAS WATERSHED ( MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Caballero Mejía

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En dos vertientes de la cuenca de la quebrada Piedras Blancas (Medellín, Colombia se estudió la relación humedad - persistencia de la repelencia al agua en la parte superficial de andisoles bajo dos coberturas vegetales: Cupressus lusitanica (ciprés y Quercus humboldtii (roble, en tres posiciones a lo largo de la vertiente de colinas bajas: superior, media e inferior y en dos condiciones de humedad: con la humedad de campo y con la humedad adquirida al equilibrar al aire durante dos días muestras que habían sido secadas a 105 °C. En cada sitio de la vertiente se ubicó una parcela de 6 m x 5 m y en ella se tomaron 60 muestras de suelo en una malla de 1 m x 0,5 m. La persistencia de la repelencia al agua se evaluó con el método del WDPT en muestras tamizadas a 1 mm. Se presentó un alto número de muestras fuertemente repelentes al agua en todas las condiciones de trabajo, siendo mayor la frecuencia en ciprés que en roble. Tanto la repelencia al agua como la humedad presentaron comportamiento diferencial por cobertura y por posición en la vertiente dentro de la misma cobertura. No se pudo establecer una relación consistente entre el contenido de humedad de las muestras y la persistencia de la repelencia al agua que presentaron, así como tampoco se pudo definir una zona de transición de humedad crítica para que se manifestara la repelencia al agua en ellas, en ninguna de las dos coberturas vegetales y en ninguna posición en la vertiente.In two hillside of the Piedras Blancas watershed ( Medellín, Colombia was studied the relation humidity - persistence of the water repellency on the surface of the andisols under two vegetable covers: Cupressus lusitanica (cypress and Quercus humboldtii (oak groves. These were found in three different positions along the side of low hills: upper, middle and lower grounds, as well as in two conditions of humidity: with the humidity acquired when equilibrated with the air during two days (samples

  11. Sistema interconectado de canales de marea del estuario de Bahía Blanca, Argentina: evaluación de la circulación de sedimento como carga de fondo por métodos acústicos An interconnected system of tidal channels in Bahia Blanca estuary, Argentina: an evaluation of bedload sediment transport through acoustic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia S Ginsberg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El estuario de Bahía Blanca, ubicado al sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina, constituye una costa baja con extensas llanuras de marea, islas y una compleja red de canales de diferentes magnitudes. Estos últimos integran un sistema de canales interconectados. El objetivo de este trabajo es establecer la circulación sedimentaria como carga de fondo en un sistema de canales interconectados (Cabeza de Buey, El Alambre, La Lista y Principal mediante el análisis de los rasgos morfológicos de fondo, utilizando métodos acústicos (ecosonda y sonar lateral. El canal Cabeza de Buey se comunica con el canal La Lista a través del canal El Alambre. Los dos primeros vierten sus aguas en el canal Principal. El canal Cabeza de Buey posee un lecho plano constituido por material pelítico con arena muy fina. En su tramo más interno se presentan dunas medianas compuestas por arena fina, con un perfil asimétrico según el reflujo. Estas formas, continúan su desarrollo ininterrumpidamente hacia el canal El Alambre, donde se originan dunas grandes (altura 1,5 m formadas por arena muy fina. Sus crestas son sinuosas o barjanoides y poseen su talud hacia la corriente de bajante. En el canal La Lista se determinan dunas asimétricas medianas orientadas según el reflujo y grandes linea-ciones sedimentarias (sand ribbons sobre un fondo consolidado. El sedimento movilizado por la corriente corresponde a la fracción limo-arena fina. La distribución y configuración de las geoformas evidencian que el transporte sedimentario como carga de fondo se concentra principalmente en el canal La Lista. Es así como en el sistema de canales estudiado, sólo un canal de marea regula la dispersión de arena, transportando un importante volumen hacia el canal de navegación.Bahia Blanca estuary located in the south of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, is characterized by a low coastal area with large tidal plains, islands, and a complex network of tidal channels of

  12. Primer registro de megafloras y palinología en estratos de la Formación Tarija (Pennsylvaniano, Arroyo Aguas Blancas, Provincia de Salta, Argentina: Descripción de dos especies nuevas First record of megafloras and palynology in the Tarija Formation (Pennsylvanian, Aguas Blancas creek, Salta Province, Argentina: Description of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes di Pasquo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza e ilustra, por primera vez, una tafoflora hallada en estratos de la Formación Tarija que aflora en Arroyo Aguas Blancas, Provincia de Salta, Argentina. Se describen, también, dos especies nuevas: Malanzania starckii (licofita y Grumosisporites delpapae (espora trilete. Se reconocieron improntas de semillas platispérmicas (Sama-ropsis nunezii García emend. A. Archangelsky, Cordaicarpus cesariae Gutiérrez, Ganuza, Morel y Arrondo emend. A. Archangelsky, improntas de tallos articulados {Paracalamites australis Rigby emend. Zampirolli y Bernardes de Oliveira y compresiones/improntas de fragmentos foliares (Cordaites riojanus Archangelsky y Leguizamón, Ginkgo-phyllum sp. cf. G. diazii Archangelsky y Arrondo. Esta asociación es atribuida al Pennsylvaniano s.l. sobre la base de la distribución estratigráfica de las especies seminales. La asociación palinológica se compone de 101 especies, 53 de ellas reconocidas como autóctonas y 48 retrabajadas. El primer conjunto comprende 34 especies de esporas trilete, 11 granos de polen monosacado, un grano bisacado y siete especies de algas. El grupo retrabajado se compone de 27 esporas trilete y criptosporas, 20 especies de acritarcas, prasinofitas y otras algas y un quitinozoario. La presencia de especies exclusivas de la BiozonaD. bireticulatus-C. chacoparanensis (BC (e.g., Dictyotriletes bireticulatus (Ibrahim Potonié y Kremp emend. Smith y Butterworth, Crucisaccites latisulcatus Lele y Maithy, Verrucosisporites morulatus (Knox Potonié y Kremp emend. Smith y Butterworth, permite acotar su edad al Bashkiriano tardío-Moscoviano. La vegetación, compuesta principalmente por licofitas, esfenofitas, pteridofitas y gimnospermas, se habría desarrollado en diferentes ambientes continentales como lagos y ríos alimentados por glaciares de montaña.Fossil plant remains found in the Tarija Formation cropping out at the Aguas Blancas creek, Aguaragüe range, Salta Province, Argentina, are analy

  13. Seis actuaciones del profesional de enfermería para prevenir los falsos diagnósticos de hipertensión: La hipertensión de bata blanca y el efecto de bata blanca Six performances of the nurse in order to prevent an erroneous diagnosis of essential hypertension: white coat hypertension and white coat effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Amigo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available La hipertensión de bata blanca (HBB puede considerarse como un falso diagnóstico de hipertensión que puede provocar tratamientos farmacológicos innecesarios, afectar a la calidad de vida de las personas e incrementar de un modo notable el gasto sanitario. Se calcula que la prevalencia de la HBB se situaría en torno a un 20% de los pacientes diagnosticados como hipertensos. Las investigaciones experimentales subrayan que la enfermera obtiene, en general, medidas más fiables de la presión arterial (PA que los médicos y que por ello puede desempeñar un papel fundamental para prevenir estos falsos diagnósticos. En esta línea se subrayan seis actuaciones profesionales que contribuirían de manera decisiva para prevenir estos errores.White coat hypertension (WCH can be considerated an erroneous diagnosis of essential hypertension and can represents a serious problem when we consider the clinical and pharmacological and economic consequences of an incorrect blood pressure measurement. The prevalence of WCH is situated around 20% of the patients diagnosed as having high blood pressure. The results from different studies point out that the nurses usually obtain more reliable blood pressure readings than the doctors, because of that they can play an important role in the control of WCH. In relation to this a total of six specific recommendations are put forward with the aim of preventing an erroneous diagnosis of essential hypertension.

  14. CIUDAD BLANCA EN BAHÍA DE ALCUDIA. UNA OBRA CON SENTIDO PEDAGÓGICO DEL PROFESOR FRANCISCO JAVIER SÁENZ DE OÍZA. 1961-63 / Ciudad Blanca in Alcudia Bay. An educational work by professor Francisco Javier Sáenz de Oíza. 1961-63

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    Rosa María Añón Abajas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La expansión económica de España en la década de los 60 del pasado siglo XX, se relaciona directamente con el acceso mayoritario de la clase media a las vacaciones estivales y con la explosión del turismo de costa. Entre la multitud de promociones que empezaron a transformar el litoral mediterráneo, Ciudad Blanca proyectada por Sáenz de Oíza en la Bahía de Alcudia, aunque no concluida por completo, ejemplifica cómo un encargo especulativo para acoger a una gran masa de veraneantes, puede aprovechar la euforia del momento, ensayando un modelo residencial ideal, en un contexto próximo a los debates de arquitectura que se estaban dando en el resto de Europa, abordados por los arquitectos de la “Tercera Generación”, que pretendían la superación de los dogmatismos del Movimiento Moderno. La lección que el Oíza profesor nos lega a través de esta experiencia, aparte del modo de proceder, enfrentándose con cierta dosis experimental cual alumno afrontando un ejercicio académico innovador, reside en el valor didáctico de mostrar mediante una serie de mecanismos proyectuales, la vital atención prestada al paisaje y al habitante, a la exterioridad y a la interioridad de la obra, desarrollando una empatía entre el lugar y el momento, que generó un mestizaje interesante entre nuevos conceptos de agrupación, ejecutados con sistemas estructurales racionalistas en los que se introducen elementos puntuales prefabricados, combinando tradición y novedad.

  15. Dictadura militar y represión a la clase trabajadora. La Armada Argentina, marco doctrinario y operaciones represivas en perspectiva regional para los casos de Ensenada y Bahía Blanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Barragán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The last military dictatorship in Argentina (1976-1983, based on the “National Security Doctrine”, developed technologies and repressive ways against its citizens. Repression, based on state terror, was territorially organized by the Argentine Army, which was responsible for a national operational coordination and the construction of a tripartite scheme of power. This article explores Argentina Navy’s action and the configuration actions and repressive practices from a case of regional perspective. Our interest is to discuss those processes in place long-term repression of the Navy in bounded contexts, the towns of Bahía Blanca and Ensenada, and its projections in the democratic era. We are interested in solving, in which ways the Argentina Navy exerted its repressive action on a particular civil sector were what as was the workers?

  16. “Gate and Port of the South of Argentina”? Nuances and Debates in the Image of Bahia Blanca City in Its Regional Context in the Mid-twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana López Pascual

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For over a century the people of Bahia Blanca, Argentinian port city located at the south west of the province of Buenos Aires, they have imagined it and defined it not only as part of the Patagonian territories but also as their legitimate political, economic and cultural center. The aim of historicizing and questioning this idea, trying to account for the interests that were mobilized, the ideological postures that hinted, and the impact it had on the effective regional layout, is what motivates our research. To that end, this article does focus on economic and infrastructural dimension that some debates of mid-twentieth century used simultaneously as evidence and as ultimate goal of this alleged hegemony. For this purpose, we will analyze the writings of Domingo Pronsato and Ricardo M. Ortiz whom, from different geopolitical perspectives, devised specific roles for the city that suited their plans for the regional development of Patagonia.

  17. La memoria de Malvinas y la “batalla por la marca”: Bahía Blanca, la guerra de Malvinas, y la refundación nacional (1982-2012

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    Andrea Belén Rodríguez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende analizar los significados y representaciones condensados en los emprendimientos para establecer lugares de la memoria de Malvinas en Bahía Blanca desde 1982 hasta el 2012, contextualizándolos en las luchas por la memoria de la guerra a nivel local y nacional. Hace foco en tres iniciativas para construir memoriales de Malvinas en esta ciudad del sudoeste bonaerense –que se imaginó históricamente como la “Capital del sur argentino” y “Puerta de la Patagonia”-, haciendo hincapié en los actores que se involucraron en las “batallas por la marca”, sus objetivos y proyectos, así como en las coyunturas de activación memorial.

  18. Hábitos alimentarios del venado cola blanca Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae en el Parque Natural Sierra Nanchititla, Estado de México

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    Ulises Aguilera-Reyes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El venado cola blanca es una especie con una gran plasticidad conductual y de adaptación en diferentes hábitat. En el Parque Sierra Nanchititla en el Estado de México se realizó un estudio para determinar los hábitos alimentarios en el bosque mesófilo de montaña (BMM y bosque de pino-encino (BPE. De junio 1990 a mayo 1992 se recolectaron 104 muestras de excremento de venado en las dos zonas de estudio. Aplicamos el índice de Morisita y la correlación de Spearman para determinar la preferencia alimentaria. Se utilizó el análisis histológico de heces fecales para herbívoros las cuales se compararon con muestras de tejidos vegetales de plantas de la zona de estudio. Los resultados muestran que consume el 79.44% de especies vegetales del BMM y 20.56% del BPE. Existe cierta tendencia en la selectividad de 12 de las 14 especies de plantas localizadas en el BMM, mientras que para el BPE no se aprecia tal tendencia. Las especies clave que for- man parte de la alimentación elemental del venado fueron: Acalypha setosa, Smilax pringlei, Psidium sartorianum y Dendropanax arborea. El consumo de plantas no varió sig- nificativamente entre la época seca y lluviosa en función de la forma biológica (X2=12, p=0.21. Sin embargo, durante la época seca existe cierta tendencia a consumir árboles y a finales de la época de lluvia a consumir hierbas (Z=1.61, p=0.95. Los datos indican que el venado puede ser selecti- vo con plantas del BMM, mientras que para el BPE tiende a ser oportunista.Food habits of the white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae in Nanchititla Natural Park, Mexico. White-tailed deer is a species with a large behavioral plasticity and adapta- tion to different habitats, including their food habits. This study was conducted with the aim to determine the food habits of this species in the cloud (BMM and pine-oak (BPE forests. Deer scats and plant samples were obtained following standard methods, from Sierra

  19. Seguimiento anual de la parasitosis gastrointestinal de venados cola blanca Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae en cautiverio en Yucatán, México

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    Rubén C. Montes Pérez

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar los géneros y estimar la cantidad de huevecillos y ooquistes de parásitos gastrointestinales (PGI excretados durante un año en heces de venados cola blanca (Odocoileus virginianus yucatenensis mantenidos en cautiverio en Yucatán, México. Se recolectaron muestras fecales en tres confinamientos ubicados en la zona centro del estado de Yucatán, de enero a diciembre de 1995. Diez muestras fueron colectadas de cada confinamiento cada dos semanas. Las muestras fueron procesadas mediante la técnica de Flotación Centrifugada y McMaster. Se realizaron cultivos de heces para obtener larvas infectantes L3 mediante la técnica de Corticelli-Lai. Las heces positivas a ooquistes fueron cultivados en dicromato de potasio al 2%. Se determinaron siete géneros (Haemonchus spp, Cooperia spp, Isospora spp, Eimeria spp, Trichuris spp, Strongyloides spp y Moniezia spp correspondientes a cinco órdenes. Haemonchus spp, Isospora spp y Eimeria spp fueron los géneros más frecuentes. El género Isospora se reporta por primera vez en venados de la región, aunque no fue posible explicar el origen de este hallazgo. La frecuencia y nivel de excresión de huevecillos y ooquistes de PGI fue variable durante el año, con incremento en la época de lluvia. Se encontró correlación positiva entre humedad relativa, temperatura ambiente y precipitación pluvial con los órdenes Coccidia y Strongylida. En la zona centro del estado de Yucatán, México, las condiciones meteorológicas en la época de lluvia son propicias para el desarrollo del parasitismo gastrointestinal, lo que permite mayor riesgo de infección en los venados.Gastrointestinal parasites, and egg and oocyst output in the faeces of captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus yucatanensis were recorded in Yucatan, Mexico. Feces were obtained from from January through December 1995 (ten samples every two weeks per place. Samples were processed by

  20. Cenizas del tamo de arroz como substituto del feldespato en la fabricación de cerámica blanca

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    Amigó B, Vicente

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The substitution of raw materials for processing high energy consumption materials by agricultural and agro-industrial wastes causes a positive impacts on the environment preservation. One of these residues is rice straw, which according to FAO estimation, its annual production is about 600 million tons. In this research was studied the use of rice straw ash (RSA as substitute of the use of feldspar in the whiteware production. Clay-feldspar-quartz porcelains are referred to as triaxial whiteware. Specimens of semidry triaxial mixtures, where feldspar was substituted for different percentages of CTA, were prepared by uniaxial pressing, followed by drying and sintering. Physical and mechanical properties of sintered bodies were evaluated. The porosity and the compressive strength of the fired pieces do increase with additions of up to 75% of CTA in substitution of feldspar. Their mineralogical phases were determined by DRX and SEM; grains of quartz, and needles of primary and secondary mullite were identified in a vitreous phase. It was concluded that feldspar can be substituted positively by CTA in whiteware pastes.

    La sustitución de materias primas para procesamiento de materiales -de alto consumo energético- por residuos agrícolas y agroindustriales impacta positivamente el medio ambiente. Uno de estos residuos es la paja o tamo de arroz, del cual la FAO estima que su disponibilidad mundial ronda los 600 millones de toneladas por año. En éste artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la utilización de una ceniza de tamo o paja de arroz (CTA como substituto del feldespato en la fabricación de cerámica blanca de tipo triaxial. Se prepararon mezclas donde la ceniza sustituyó al feldespato en volúmenes distintos. Especímenes de las pastas obtenidas fueron moldeados, secados, y cocidos. Se evaluaron las propiedades físicas y mecánicas de las cerámicas cocidas. La porosidad y la resistencia a la compresi

  1. Lesões da mosca dos chifres (Haematobia irritans Linnaeus,1758 na pele de bovinos e impacto na indústria do couro Lesions of the horn fly (Haematobia irritans Linnaeus, 1758 on the bovine skin and their impact in leather industry

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    Luciana Viero da Silva

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram selecionados 22 bovinos, da raça Ibagé, com idade média de 2 anos. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos de 11 bovinos cada. O grupo testemunha não foi tratado e o grupo experimental foi tratado com produto mosquicida. Após contagem de moscas, a cada 14 dias, num período de 16 meses, quando também era realizada a pesagem dos animais, estes foram abatidos e os respectivos couros remetidos ao curtume onde foram curtidos e avaliados em dois estágios: o Wet-Blue e o curtimento total. Foram realizados estudos sobre peso dos animais, peso de carcaça e rendimento de carcaça nos dois grupos ficando demonstrado que não houve correlação entre a presença do parasita e a variação destes parâmetros. No abate, foram colhidas amostras de pele do flanco e da garupa, dos animais do grupo não tratado, e processadas para histopatologia, o que revelou a presença de infiltrado inflamatório com eosinófilos e poucas células mononucleares (linfócitos e plasmócitos ao redor dos vasos da derme superficial que em 84,21% das amostras foi discreto, em 10,52% foi moderado e em 5,26% foi acentuado. Na fase de curtimento, denominada de Wet-Blue, os couros dos animais do grupo não tratado foram classificados como: 18,18% tipo "A",28,28% tipo "B", e 54,54% tipo "C", já os couros dos animais pertencentes ao grupo tratado obtiveram a seguinte classificação: 45,45% tipo "A", 36,36% tipo "B" e 18,18% tipo "C". Nesta fase, observou-se que, no grupo de animais tratados, as áreas comumente parasitadas pela mosca dos chifres (flancos e garupa apresentavam poucas ou nenhuma lesão enquanto no grupo de animais não tratados essas áreas estavam cobertas por lesões. Após o curtimento total a classificação dos couros dos animais do grupo não tratado passou a ser de 54,54% dos couros tipo "A"36,36% tipo "B" e 9,09% tipo "C"; já os couros dos animais do grupo tratado passaram a receber a seguinte classificação:81,81% tipo "A", 9,09% tipo "B", e 9

  2. Abundancia, tamaño y estructura poblacional del tiburón punta blanca de arrecife, Triaenodon obesus (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae, en Bahía Chatham, Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

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    Ilena Zanella

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Doce especies de tiburones habitan las aguas del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco (PNIC y uno de los más abundantes es el tiburón punta blanca de arrecife, Triaenodon obesus. El presente estudio determinó la abundancia, tallas y estructura de la población de esta especie en la zona de Bahía Chatham, PNIC. Se utilizó el método de marcaje y recaptura y se realizaron conteos subacuáticos visuales, con el fin de determinar su abundancia relativa y contabilizar recapturas visuales. Los tiburones punta blanca de Bahía Chatham no presentan segregación ontogénica espacial definida; pero si una alta fidelidad a los a sitios de residencia dentro de esta bahía. La longitud total promedio de los tiburones marcados fue de 101.8±12.1cm, con una longitud total máxima de 130.0cm y una mínima de 71.0cm. La mediana de las longitudes totales de los tiburones machos (103.5±21.33cm y hembras (100.1±11.2cm no difirieron significativamente (H = 1.78; p=0.1818. La abundancia relativa en Bahía Chatham, PNIC fue de 49.5±10.4 tiburones/h. El tamaño estimado de la población usando el método de de captura-recaptura fue de 408 (IC=181-1050.

  3. Effectiveness of two insect growth regulators against Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their impact on population densities of arthropod predators in cotton in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogi, Muhammad D; Sarfraz, Rana M; Dosdall, Lloyd M; Arif, Muhammad J; Keddie, Andrew B; Ashfaq, Muhammad

    2006-10-01

    Field efficacies of two insect growth regulators (IGRs) at two recommended application rates, buprofezin at 370 and 555 g AI ha(-1) and lufenuron at 37 and 49 g AI ha(-1), were determined against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), in experimental plots of cotton at the Directorate of Cotton Research, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Adverse effects of the IGRs on populations of associated arthropod predators, namely geocorids, chrysopids, coccinellids, formicids and arachnids, were also assessed. Both IGRs significantly reduced populations of B. tabaci at each application rate 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, and higher doses were more effective than lower doses. Buprofezin was not effective against H. armigera at any tested dose for any time of treatment in any spray. Lufenuron applied at 37 and 49 g AI ha(-1) effectively suppressed H. armigera populations, resulting in significant reductions in crop damage. At lower doses, both IGRs appeared safe to predator populations, which did not differ significantly in IGR-treated versus untreated control plots. Population densities of formicids and coccinellids were significantly lower at high concentrations of both IGRs in treatment plots, possibly as a result of reduced prey availability. The potential role of buprofezin and lufenuron for control of B. tabaci and H. armigera in a spray programme and the likelihood of direct toxic effects of IGRs on predatory fauna of cotton are discussed.

  4. Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) e Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV): relações com a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B e eficiência de um inseticida no controle da transmissão do ToSRV

    OpenAIRE

    Debora Maria Sansini Freitas

    2012-01-01

    A cultura do tomateiro (Solanum lycopersicum L.) é importante mundialmente devido ao alto consumo de seus frutos. Nos últimos anos surgiram nesta cultura no Brasil alguns vírus emergentes com altas taxas de disseminação, como begomovírus e crinivírus, transmitidos pela Bemisia tabaci biótipo B, que podem causar danos à produção do tomateiro. A espécie de begomovírus atualmente mais encontrada no Brasil, em plantios de tomateiro, é o Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV). De 2002 a 2004, pesquisa...

  5. Tyrosine Metabolism in the Blowfly, Calliphora Erythrocephala; Metabolisme de la tyrosine dans la Calliphora Erythrocephala; Metabolizm tirozina u myasnoj mukhi, Calliphora Erythrocephala; Metabolismo de la tirosina en la mosca Calliphora Erythrocephala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekeris, C. E. [Physiological Chemistry Institute, University of Munich, Munich (Germany)

    1963-09-15

    la N-acetyl-dopamine sont l'hydroxylation de la tyrosine, qui se transforme en dioxyphenylalamine (dopa), la decarboxylation de la dopa en dopamine et la N-acetylation de la dopamine en N-acetyl-dopamine. Ce processus metabolique de la tyrosine ne se produit qu'au dernier stade de l'etat larvaire; les trois premiers stades produisent le catabolisme de la tyrosine par transamination en acide p-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvique et reduction en acide p-hydroxyphenyl- lactique et propionique. Le processus metabolique de la transamination a l'hydroxylation est provoque par l'hormone de la glande prothoracique, l'ecdyson, et peut etre rendu impossible par la ligature ou l'ablation de la glande annulaire. L'injection d'ecdyson aux animaux ligatures entraine, au bout de 10-14 h, l'activation de la decarboxylase de la dopa, due vraisembleblement a la bioxynthese de la proteine de l'enzyme. L'action de l'hormone sur le mecanisme de biosynthese est indirecte, le premier effet de l'hormone etant d'agir sur les chromosomes (phenomene de gonflage). L'hypothese de travail est que l'hormone qui entre en interaction avec la matiere genetique a pour effet de stimuler la synthese de l'ARN specifique (vecteur) qui est transmis au cytoplasme et produit les proteines d'enzjmnes. (author) [Spanish] La esclerotizacion (transformacion de la cuticula blanda y blanca de la larva en la cubierta dura y oscura de la ninfa) se debe a la accion reciproca de o-quinonas con las proteinas de la cuticula. Empleando aminoacidos marcados se ha comprobado que la N-acetildopamina es el precursor inmediato de las qui nonas esclera tizantes en la Calliphora erythrocephala. Las etapas intermedias en la biosintesis de la N-acetildopamina son la hidroxilacion de la tirosina que da dioxifenil-alanina, la descarboxilacion de esta que da dopamina, y la N-acetilacion de la dopamina que da la N-acetildopamina. Este proceso metabolico de la tirosina se produce solamente en las larvas del ultimo estadio; al principio del tercer

  6. Aspects of radiological safety and protection in the decontamination of the Benefit plant of uranium in Ciudad Aldama and in the storage of its residues in Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico; Aspectos de seguridad y proteccion radiologica en la descontaminacion de la planta de beneficio de uranio en Ciudad Aldama y en el almacenamiento de sus residuos en Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz C, M A [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    Between 1969 and 1971 the National Commission of Nuclear Energy and the Mining Fostering Commission operated coordinately a production plant of uranium and molybdenum concentrates (Benefit plant) at Ciudad Aldama, Chihuahua, Mexico. During two years of operation some 45 tonnes of uranium concentrate and approximately 35,000 tonnes of uranium wetlands were produced. These last were stored in a dam to 120 m. toward West of the plant. Due to the nearness of the population with respect to what was the Benefit plant and over all to the wetland dam, the objective of this work had two main aspects: On the one hand, to carry out the works of radiological decontamination of the benefit plant of uranium, according to the established normative by the Regulatory organization in matter of radiological safety and protection (CNSNS) for the population and the hard workers. After that the works mentioned were realized it was considered that the estate which comprises what was the Benefit plant did not reach the established criteria by the CNSNS for being considered of unrestricted use such estate and it was not allowed any type of construction in the zone which could be showed the residual contamination which remains there. On the other hand, to determine the site where could be stored the radioactive wastes generated by the radiological decontamination and the wetland mobilization for its definitive storage in benefit of the present population and of the future generations due to the radionuclides which are in a such material. The site more adequate technical and economically to storage the wastes generated by this activity was evaluated. Whereby studies about demography, use of soil and water, meteorology, hydrology and ecology were realized. The site selected being in the Pena Blanca mountains, Chihuahua, place where is located one of the uranium zones and the most important of the country. In this work, specific objectives also were treated such as: knowing the radiological

  7. RECUPERACIÓN DE ESPACIOS URBANOS Y PERIURBANOS MEDIANTE LA IMPLEMENTACIÓN DE PARQUES-HUERTAS EN LA CIUDAD DE BAHIA BLANCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jezabel Franza

    2008-12-01

    desarrolla un sentimiento distintivo de territorialidad. El objetivo de la presente comunicación es brindar los fundamentos y bases para la implementación de este tipo de espacios de agricultura urbana y periurbana en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca. Esta clase de proyectos puede ser entendido como una posibilidad de progreso en la gestión ambiental urbana para ciudades como la mencionada donde existe una escasa política en relación con los espacios ociosos y la única respuesta, en el mejor de los casos, es transformar estas tierras en espacios de circulación peatonal. La metodología se sustenta en la recopilación, análisis e interpretación de material bibliográfico y testimonios de informantes claves mediante el empleo de técnicas cualitativas propias de la Geografía Humana. Para ello se emplea como base del análisis la experiencia de la ciudad de Rosario, la cual es pionera en esta modalidad de recuperación de espacios y se incluye en un proyecto integral de desarrollo urbano singular. Creemos conveniente mencionar que el presente trabajo surge como instancia evaluadora final de la Cátedra Curso de Desarrollo Ambiental Urbano dictado por la Dra. María Amalia Lorda, correspondiente a los Ciclos de Orientación Organización y Ordenamiento del Espacio Urbano y Regional y Gestión de los Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente del quinto año de la Licenciatura en Geografía del Departamento de Geografía y Turismo de la Universidad Nacional del Sur. Asimismo el escrito es una inquietud grupal que propone recuperar espacios urbanos degradados mediante la iniciativa de agricultura urbana a través de la implementación de parques-huerta.

  8. Antibacterial activities of multi drug resistant Myroides odoratimimus bacteria isolated from adult flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae are independent of metallo beta-lactamase gene Atividades antibacterianas de Myroides odoratimimus isolada de moscas varejeiras adultas (Diptera: Sarcophagidae são independentes do gene metalo beta lactamase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Dharne

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae are well known cause of myiasis and their gut bacteria have never been studied for antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Antimicrobial studies of Myroides spp. are restricted to nosocomial strains. A Gram-negative bacterium, Myroides sp., was isolated from the gut of adult flesh flies (Sarcophaga sp. and submitted to evaluation of nutritional parameters using Biolog GN, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, susceptibility to various antimicrobials by disc diffusion method and detection of metallo β-lactamase genes (TUS/MUS. The antagonistic effects were tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens, environmental samples and insect mid gut. Bacterial species included were Aeromonas hydrophila, A. culicicola, Morganella morganii subsp. sibonii, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Weissella confusa, Escherichia coli, Ochrobactrum sp., Serratia sp., Kestersia sp., Ignatzschineria sp., Bacillus sp. The Myroides sp. strain was resistant to penicillin-G, erythromycin, streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, gentamycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim and tobramycin. These strain showed antibacterial action against all bacterial strains except W. confusa, Ignatzschineria sp., A. hydrophila and M. morganii subsp. sibonii. The multidrug resistance of the strain was similar to the resistance of clinical isolates, inhibiting growth of bacteria from clinical, environmental and insect gut samples. The metallo β-lactamase (TUS/MUS genes were absent, and resistance due to these genes was ruled out, indicating involvement of other secretion machinery.Moscas varejeiras (Diptera: Sarcophagidae são causa conhecida de miíase e as bactérias de seus intestinos nunca foram estudadas quanto à atividade antibacteriana. Estudos antimicrobianos de Myroides spp restringem-se à cepas hospitalares. Uma bactéria Gram negativa, Myroides sp, foi isolada do intestino de moscas varejeiras adultas (Sarcophaga sp e submetida

  9. First register of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in star fruit in Teresina, Altos and Parnaiba, state of Piaui, Brazil/ Primeiro registro de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae em carambola nos municípios de Teresina, Altos e Parnaíba no estado do Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almerinda Amélia Rodrigues Araújo Soares

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to register the occurrence of the fruit flies associated to star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L. in three counties of the state of Piaui, as well as to determine the frequency and the index of infestation of these insects. The fruits had been collected during the months of August and September 2005, and had been placed in plastic trays with sterilized soil, stored in metal cages, and left in environmental temperature at the laboratory. Until emergency, the adults had been kept in bottles with alcohol 70% and later identified in the species level. The biggest index of infestation (flies/fruit of C. capitata has occurred in the county of Altos (3.66, followed by Teresina and Parnaiba that had presented index of infestation of 2.18 and 0.016, respectively. C. capitata was the most frequent species in all the counties, presenting frequencies of 100%, 96.5%, and 100% in Teresina, Altos and Parnaiba, respectively. Ceratitis capitata is registered for the first time in star fruit in Teresina, Altos and Parnaiba, state of the Piaui. Anastrepha fraterculus is registered for the first time in the county of Altos. A. fraterculus and C. capitata occur simultaneously in star fruits.O presente trabalho visou conhecer as espécies de moscas-das-frutas associadas à carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. em três municípios do Estado do Piauí, bem como determinar a freqüência e o índice de infestação desses insetos. Os frutos foram coletados durante os meses de agosto e setembro de 2005, colocados em bandejas plásticas com solo esterilizado, armazenados em gaiolas metálicas e deixados em temperatura ambiente no laboratório. Até a emergência dos adultos, estes foram acondicionados em frascos contendo álcool 70% e posteriormente identificados em nível de espécie. O maior índice de infestação (moscas/fruto de C. capitata ocorreu no município de Altos (3,66, seguido pelos municípios de Teresina e Parnaíba que apresentaram

  10. Optimizacion de una técnica para la detección de patologías virales en Pleoticus Muelleri (Bate, 1988 en el estuario de Bahía Blanca, Argentina

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    Ana M. Roccamo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La comercialización de animales acuáticos require la implementación de controles sanitarios para la detección de virus patógenos estipulados por la Organización Mundial para la Salud Animal (OIE. De acuerdo con sus normas, y específicamente en lo que se refiere la comercialización de crustáceos, la OIE determina como enfermedades de declaración obligatoria, entre otras, a las denominadas: virus del síndrome de la mancha blanca (WSSV, virus de la cabeza amarilla (YHV y el virus del síndrome de Taura (TSV, las cuales son altamente peligrosas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la presencia o ausencia de estas virosis en poblaciones de langostinos silvestres (Pleoticus muelleri en el estuario de Bahía Blanca, aplicando metodologías bioquímicas, de biología molecular y genéticas. Los resultados demuestran que se ha logrado optimizar la metodología para la extracción y purificación de ADN y ARN de tejido y hemolinfa de langostinos y el correcto manejo en la captura, acondicionamiento y transporte de los animales al laboratorio. Los ensayos fueron debidamente convalidados por reacciones de control negativas y positivas. En las muestras estudiadas de Pleoticus muelleri se descarta la presencia de estas tres enfermedades virales. Esta metodología permite no sólo realizar una detección temprana y un diagnóstico de las tres patologías virales sino también establecer y asegurar un status libre de infección con el consiguiente beneficio sanitario para la región.Trade in aquatic animals calls for the implementation of controls for the detection of pathogenic viruses in line with the regulations of the OIE, the World Organization for Animal Heath. In relation specifically to trade in crustaceans, the OIE identifies the following diseases: White Spot syndrome virus disease (WSSV; Yellow Head Virus disease (YHV; and Taura syndrome virus disease (TSV, all of which are highly dangerous. The purpose of this study was to

  11. Análise faunística e flutuação populacional de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritidae em um fragmento de floresta semidecídua em Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Faunistic study and populational fluctuation of fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae in a fragment of semideciduous forest in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Angela Canesin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a composição das espécies de moscas-das-frutas, realizou-se a análise faunística de adultos de Tephritidae e verificou-se a correlação entre a flutuação populacional com os fatores climáticos: temperatura média, umidade relativa do ar e precipitação pluviométrica, medidos pelo coeficiente de Pearson (p The species composition of adult fruit flies and the faunistic study were determined. The populational fluctuation of fruit flies was correlated to climatic factors, by means of the coefficient of Pearson (p < 0.05. The samplings were carried out in the Picadinha Forest Reserve (22º09'20,5"S and 54º59'03,7"W/22º08'32,6"S and 55º00'01,2"W, at the Fazenda Paradouro II, municipality of Dourados. Eleven McPhail traps were installed at the edges of the Reserve and checked weekly, from May 2001 to May 2002. A check list of the 14 species of fruit flies caught in the traps is given. Anastrepha elegans Blanchard, 1961 was the dominant species. This is the first report of adult populations of Anastrepha amita Zucchi, 1979, A. elegans and Anastrepha pseudoparallela (Loew, 1873 in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Relative humidity was negatively correlated with the capture of A. elegans and Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann, 1830. Precipitation and mean temperature showed a positive correlation with the capture of Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, 1979 and A. pseudoparallela, respectively.