WorldWideScience

Sample records for morning bad breath

  1. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cabbage. And of course smoking causes its own bad smell. Some diseases and medicines can cause a specific breath odor. Having good dental habits, like brushing and flossing regularly, help fight bad ...

  2. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene (say: HI-jeen), meaning not brushing and flossing regularly smoking and other tobacco use Poor oral hygiene leads to bad breath because when food particles ...

  3. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... floss correctly. Flossing can remove tiny bits of food that can rot and smell bad. Replace your toothbrush every three to four months. Visit your dentist twice a year. He or she will help keep your teeth and your mouth healthy. Eat smart. Avoid foods and drinks that can leave behind strong smells, ...

  4. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth / For Teens / What Causes Bad Breath? Print en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  5. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Burgering, M.; Smit, B.; Noordman, W.; Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  6. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, Johannes; Burgering, Maurits; Smit, Bart; Noordman, Wouter; Tangerman, Albert; Winkel, Edwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Objective: Morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  7. Bad-breath: Perceptions and misconceptions of Nigerian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwhator, S O; Isiekwe, G I; Soroye, M O; Agbaje, M O

    2015-01-01

    To provide baseline data about bad-breath perception and misconceptions among Nigerian adults. Multi-center cross-sectional study of individuals aged 18-64 years using examiner-administered questionnaires. Age comparisons were based on the model of emerging adults versus full adults. Data were recoded for statistical analyses and univariate and secondary log-linear statistics applied. Participants had lopsided perceptions about bad-breath. While 730 (90.8%) identified the dentist as the expert on halitosis and 719 (89.4%) knew that bad-breath is not contagious, only 4.4% and 2.5% associated bad-breath with tooth decay and gum disease respectively. There were no significant sex differences but the older adults showed better knowledge in a few instances. Most respondents (747, 92.9%) would tell a spouse about their bad-breath and 683 (85%) would tell a friend. Participants had lop-sided knowledge and perceptions about bad-breath. Most Nigerian adults are their "brothers' keepers" who would tell a spouse or friend about their halitosis so they could seek treatment.

  8. The efficacy of amine fluoride/stannous fluoride in the suppression of morning breath odour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirynen, Marc; Avontroodt, Pieter; Soers, Catherine; Zhao, Hong; Pauwels, Martine; Coucke, Wim; van Steenberghe, Daniel

    2002-10-01

    Breath odour is a complaint encountered worldwide, often linked to microbial overload in the oral cavity. This double blind, crossover, randomised study assessed the efficacy of several antiseptic mouthrinses or slurry vs. a control solution in the prevention of morning bad breath during an experimental period of 7 days without mechanical plaque control. Sixteen dental students with a healthy periodontium abolished, after a thorough professional cleaning, all means of mechanical plaque control during five experimental periods of 7 days, interleaved by washout periods of at least 3 weeks. During each experimental period, as the only oral hygiene measure, the students rinsed twice a day with one of the following formulations (in a randomised order): a 0.2% chlorhexidine-alcohol mouthrinse (CHX-Alc), a 0.05% CHX + 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride + 0.14% zinc lactate mouthrinse (CHX-CPC-Zn), an amine fluoride/stannous fluoride (125 ppm F-/125 ppm F-) containing mouthrinse (AmF/SnF2Mr), a slurry of a tooth paste (AmF/SnF2Sl) containing amine fluoride (350 ppm F-) and stannous fluoride (1050 ppm F-) and a placebo solution (placebo). At days 0, 3 and 7, morning breath was scored via VSC level measurements of the mouth air, and organoleptic ratings of the mouth air and tongue coating. At the same visits both the degree of gingival inflammation and the de novo plaque formation were rated. At the end of each period a questionnaire for subjective ratings was completed and microbiological samples were taken from the tongue dorsum, the saliva and the supragingival plaque for anaerobic and aerobic culturing. Although oral hygiene during the experimental periods was limited to rinsing, bad breath parameters systematically improved (P bacterial load (aerobic & anaerobic) in the saliva (>or= 0.5 log reduction with a superiority (P bacterial load on the tongue dorsum could only be detected for the CHX-Alc solution (0.5 log). The antibacterial effect of the placebo solution and the

  9. [Bad breath--etiological, diagnostic and therapeutic problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, M; Reiss, G

    2000-01-01

    Oral malodor has many etiologies and is a clinical problem for many people. This paper reviews the causes and management of oral malador. In the majority of cases the problem has been shown to originate in the oral cavity. Oral malodor, a generic descriptor term for foul smells emanating from the mouth, encompasses ozostomia, stomatodysodia, halitosis (both pathological halitosis and physiological halitosis) and fetor oris or fetor ex ore. These latter terms, in turn, denote different sources of oral malodor. All conditions that favour the retention of anaerobic, mainly gram-negative, bacteria will predispose for the development of bad breath. In addition to periodontal pockets, the most important retention site is the dorsum of the tongue with its numerous papillae. During the night and between meals the conditions are optimal for odour production. Systemic pathological states, such as diabetes mellitus, uremia and hepatic diseases, induce metabolic products that are detectable as oral smells. It is always easy to recognize halitosis, but identifying the exact cause is more complex. The clinical labelling and interpretation of different oral malodors both contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of underlying disease. Treatment is directed at the underlying cause.

  10. Bad-breath: Perceptions and misconceptions of Nigerian adults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Key words: Bad‑breath, emerging adults, misconceptions, Nigeria, perceptions. Date of ... negligible minority being attributable to food and ill health. Many cases of ..... Intra‑ and extra‑oral halitosis: finding of a new form of ...

  11. Oral hygiene practices, periodontal conditions, dentition status and self-reported bad mouth breath among young mothers, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumghamba, E G S; Manji, K P; Michael, J

    2006-11-01

    To determine the oral hygiene practices, periodontal conditions, dentition status and self-reported bad mouth breath (S-BMB) among young mothers. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 302 postpartum mothers, aged 14-44 years, were interviewed on oral hygiene practices and S-BMB using structured questionnaire. Oral hygiene, dentition and periodontal status were assessed using the Community Periodontal Index probe and gingival recessions (GR) using Williams Periodontal probe. Tooth brushing practice was 99%; tongue brushing (95%), plastic toothbrush users (96%), chewing stick (1%), wooden toothpicks (76%), dental floss (oral health promotion and periodontal therapy are recommended. This study provides baseline information on oral health status and the complaint on bad mouth breath which necessitates in the future need for objective assessment, diagnosis and management of bad mouth breath for enhanced social and professional interaction without embarrassment.

  12. Oral and non oral diseases and conditions associated with bad breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliario, M; Rimondini, L

    2011-03-01

    The causes of bad breath are numerous and related to conditions dependent or not on oral and general health. The aim of our observational study is the assessment of the simultaneous relationships between halitosis, oral and/or nonoral diseases, and lifestyles using the principal components analysis of categorical data (CATPCA) to identify the main components involved in the detection of the symptom. A sample of 192 patients, who requested general dental examination at the Dental Clinic, participated at the study. Alimentary and voluptuary habits, general health information, drugs assumption, the status of teeth and intraoral medical devices including fillers, lesions of the oral mucosa, tongue coating score (TCS), plaque index (PI), probing bleeding index (PBI) and organoleptic tests were all evaluated. Data were analysed using CATPCA model. A strong relationship between halitosis and plaque, probing bleeding and tongue coating indexes was observed, whereas incongruous fillers, prostheses, systemic pathologies or diet were not clearly associated with halitosis probably because their effects on breath were clinically sheltered by the periodontal condition. The data of our observational study confirm that halitosis is more indicative of tongue coating and periodontal disease, rather than other oral and non oral associated conditions, like systemic pathologies or specific habits of life.

  13. Morning sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not predict how you will feel in future pregnancies. Causes The exact cause of morning sickness is unknown. It may be caused by hormone changes or lower blood sugar during early pregnancy. Emotional stress, fatigue, traveling, or some foods can ...

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to zinc and “the prevention of bad breath by neutralising of volatile sulphur compounds in the mouth and oral cavity” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to zinc and “the prevention of bad breath by neutralising of volatile sulphur compounds in the mouth and oral cavity”. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. The claimed effect is “prevents bad breath......Following an application from EJP Pharmaceutical ApS, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Denmark, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health...... by neutralising of volatile sulphur compounds in the mouth and oral cavity”. The target population, as proposed by the applicant, is adults over the age of 18 who wish to improve their bad breath. The Panel considers that the proposed claim is related to breath odour rather than to a function of the body...

  15. Morning Programs Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Like British morning programs of recent decades, upstate New York program encourages parents and community residents to get involved in children's education. Parents and community residents--watercolor artists, auto mechanics, doll collectors, and others--are welcomed and valued in schools. Program's purpose is learning, not entertainment. Topics…

  16. Feeling bad and seeing bad

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    The emotions of guilt, shame, disappointment and grief, and the bodily states of pain and suffering, have something in common, at least phenomenologically: they are all unpleasant, they feel bad. But how might we explain what it is for some state to feel bad or unpleasant? What, in other words, is the nature of negative affect? In this paper I want to consider the prospects for evaluativist theories, which seek to explain unpleasantness by appeal to negative evaluations or appraisals. In part...

  17. Bad Drawing

    OpenAIRE

    Burgoyne, Greig

    2016-01-01

    "Only when we move do we see the chains" - Rosa Luxemburg Bad drawing / paper cell is a site-specific drawing performance commissioned for The Prison Drawing Project, Scarborough jail, Yorkshire, presented as a film grafted onto the space that is the cell. It takes the notion of drawing as an act of covering and form of measurement, in an immersive act of attempted liberation. Measuring using rolls of paper, the film chronicles what could be seen as a bad day wallpapering a space, no ass...

  18. Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for eliminating malodor. The authors of the General Dentistry article feel that future research is necessary to determine what role undetected odorants may play in oral malodor, as well as more well designed, randomized clinical trials to compare the effectiveness of tongue scrapers, ...

  19. [Significance of bad habits in orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarján, Ildikó

    2002-08-01

    The author is concerned with the etiological role of bad habits in the development. Disturbances caused by pacifier habits, finger sucking, various forms of swallowing habits and their therapeutical possibilities are discussed. The role of mouth breathing, nail biting, bruxism and self-mutilation in development of anomalies and their therapy are also mentioned. The attention is called to the fact that dentists have responsibility and task to diagnose as early as can be the oral bad habits and that the adequate therapy in time in co-operation with other specialists helping the child get out of bad habits, preventing the development of severe anomaly.

  20. Immunologic and clinical responses to "Monday morning miseries" antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernelc, S; Stropnik, Z

    1987-01-01

    Authors analysed 96 workers exposed to air conditioning system (Group A), and 71 workers (Group B) breathing normal ambient air. 38 workers in group A had a positive clinical history of "Monday morning miseries". Eight cases with the diagnosis hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute and chronic form was based on environmental history, clinical investigations, physical examination, Chest-X-ray examination, immunological test "in vivo" and "in vitro" with common allergens and antigen "Monday morning miseries", ELISA, spirometry and PEFR (Peak Expiratory Flow-Rate) measurements. Exposure to contaminated air may be responsible for morbidity and reduced performance of workers.

  1. Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About ACOG Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Morning Sickness: Nausea ... PDF Format Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Pregnancy How common is nausea and vomiting of ...

  2. Socialization at the morning meeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimestad, L.; Gravengaard, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    In this ethnographic study we examine how journalism interns present ideas at morning meetings in the professional environment of a media organization. We analyse not only the idea presentation at the meeting itself, but also how editors treat the idea presentation, and how the interns perceive...

  3. AAS 228: Day 1 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Come visit astrobites at the AAS booth we have swag!Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto hear from undergrads who already know and love the site, educators who want to use it in their classrooms, and students who had not yet been introduced to astrobites and were excited about a new resource!For the rest of the meeting we will be stationed at theAAS booth in the exhibit hall (booth #211-213), so drop by if you want to learn more (or pick up swag: weve got lots of stickers and sunglasses)!Mondaymorning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended this morning.Opening Address(by Susanna Kohler)AAS President Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at 8am with an overview of some of the great endeavors AAS is supporting. We astrobiters had personal motivation to drag ourselves out of bed that early: during this session, Urryannounced the new partnership between AAS and astrobites!Urry touched on some difficult topics in her welcome, including yesterdays tragedy in Orlando. Shereiteratedthe AASs support fortheCommittee for Sexual-Orientation and Gender Minorities in Astronomy (SGMA). She also reminded meeting attendees about the importance ofkeeping conference interactions professional, and pointed to the meetings anti-harassment policy.Partnership Announcement (by Michael Zevin)This morning, the American Astronomical Society announced the new partnership that it will have with Astrobites! We are beyond excited to embark on this new partnership with the

  4. LDL: The "Bad" Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There are two main types of cholesterol: LDL (bad) cholesterol and HDL (good) cholesterol: LDL stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is called the "bad" cholesterol because a high LDL level leads to ...

  5. Breathing Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms. Symptoms associated with weak respiratory muscles: Air “hunger” (gasping, labored breathing) with an without activity Fatigue ... Start your own fundraising event & help create a world without ALS Start an Event Site Map | Press ...

  6. Bad is stronger than good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumeister, R.F.; Bratslavsky, E.; Finkenauer, C.; Vohs, K.D.

    2001-01-01

    The greater power of bad events over good ones is found in everyday events, major life events (e.g., trauma), close relationship outcomes, social network patterns, interpersonal interactions, and learning processes. Bad emotions, bad parents, and bad feedback have more impact than good ones, and bad

  7. Internet Bad Neighborhoods Aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, Giovane; Sadre, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko; Paschoal Gaspary, L.; De Turk, Filip

    Internet Bad Neighborhoods have proven to be an innovative approach for fighting spam. They have also helped to understand how spammers are distributed on the Internet. In our previous works, the size of each bad neighborhood was fixed to a /24 subnetwork. In this paper, however, we investigate if

  8. The Badness of Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2006-01-01

    . In this paper I address these issues. First, I offer a taxonomy of discrimination. I then argue that discrimination is bad, when it is, because it harms people. Finally, I criticize a rival, disrespect-based account according to which discrimination is bad regardless of whether it causes harm....

  9. Morning Receptions in a Danish ECE Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Ida; Gravgaard, Mette Lykke

    This paper focus on a special pedagogical context; morning receptions as a learning environment. The studies of mornings are part of a 3 year long research project in which different types of learning environments were investigated. Few studies have researched morning receptions in this perspecti...... even though pedagogues often emphasize that this particular pedagogical context have implications on the children’s wellbeing and learning possibilities throughout the day....

  10. Appropriate sample bags and syringes for preserving breath samples in breath odor research : a technical note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, E. G.; Tangerman, A.

    It is now generally accepted that the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide are the main contributors to halitosis when of oropharyngeal origin. The VSCs hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are the major causes of bad breath in oral malodour

  11. Medical Issues: Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > breathing Breathing Breathing problems are the most common ...

  12. AAS 228: Day 3 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    massive disks, which in turn produce more gas giants, populating our surveys with such planets.Dr. Knutson shows that ~50% of hot Jupiters have long distance companions.Morning Press Conference Latest News from the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (by Michael Zevin)On December 26th 2015, LIGO detected its second full-fledged gravitational wave event, dubbed GW151226 (the numbers signify the date it was detected). This detection along with the full results ofLIGOs first observing run wereannounced byGabriela Gonzlez, David Reitze, and Fulvio Ricci in the morning press conference. The masses of the two black holes are smaller than those of the first confirmed event (GW150914) about 8 14 solar masses for GW151226 compared to 29 36 solar masses for GW150914. Though less visible by eye in the data, sophisticated search algorithms that match theoretically-produced templates of the gravitational waveform were able to extract it from the data and build up enough statistical confidence to declare it as a detection. The system was estimated to have merged at a distance of 1.4 billion light-years, and, due to its lower mass, stayed in LIGOs detection band for a full second (5 times longer than the more massive GW150914).Time-frequency plot of the second confirmed gravitational waveevent GW151226. Light colors represent higher energy.This discovery further solidifies this nascent field into astronomy, and has given astronomers a new sense to explore the Universe. The next observing run of LIGO will commence later in 2016 and will be more sensitive due to system upgrade, increasing the rate at which LIGO should detect these types of astrophysical events. In addition, more detectors will be joining the network of gravitational wave observatories over the next few years, which will further constrain the location at which these events occur in the cosmos and increase the likelihood of detecting an electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave event. More great discoveries to come

  13. AAS 228: Day 2 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    extremely data-rich. The Galaxy Zoo project also suggests the promising prospect of synergizing the help from citizen scientists and machine learning in analyzing extremely large datasets.Extrasolar Planets: Atmospheres (by Leonardo dos Santos)Antonija Oklopi (Caltech) explains that Raman scattering of light, which works similarly to Rayleigh scattering (the process that makes Earths sky blue), can be used in the future to study the atmospheres of exoplanets. Her work is to create model spectra containing these features, from which we can learn about the presence and altitude of atmospheric clouds. Dr. Carl Melis (University of California, San Diego) studies the inner composition of exoplanets by looking at their remnants after they are destroyed by a dying star. His most recent work suggests that there is a differentiated pollution (from the core and the crust of a planet) in the disk orbiting of a white dwarf star. Samuel Grunblatt (University of Hawaii) introduces us to the main subject of his thesis: a hot-Jupiter observed by Keplers K2 mission transiting an evolved, red giant star. They used some pretty tricky data analysis in order to filter out the noise intrinsic to this type of star.Grunblatt shows the K2 transit before and after removal of granulation effects.Avi Shporer (JPL) asks the question: why are hot Jupiters so large? His research aims to study the correlation between stellar irradiation and planetary radius, and in order to have a more complete picture, they need to detect more gas giants on lower stellar irradiation regions. This idea gave rise to LCOGT K2 Warm Jupiter project, which recently discovered a brown dwarf in a long-period orbit around a Sun-like star. Paul Mason (New Mexico State University) proposes that the Milky Way is evolving to a more habitable galaxy, due to the expansion of the universe, the processing of heavier material inside stars, and the general decrease of ionizing radiation.Evolution of Galaxies (by Ben Cook)Tuesday mornings

  14. Monday Morning Workload Reports (FY15 - 17)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Monday Morning Workload Report (MMWR) displays a snapshot of the Veterans Benefits Administration’s (VBA) workload as of a specified date, typically the previous...

  15. Concept of 'bad death'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Vučković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Following previous research on the linguistic concept of а 'bad death' which lexical expression is the word family of the verb ginuti, I focus my attention in this paper on the relationship between language conceptualization of а 'bad death' and the representation of а 'bad death' in traditional and contemporary culture. Diachronically based language corpus makes possible to trace the changes of referential frame and use of verb ginuti and its derivatives. In the traditional culture а 'bad death' is marked in action code by irregular way of burial and beliefs in demons stemming from the 'impure dead'. In the paper I explore the degree of synonymy of the symbols of all three codes: verbal code, action code and code of beliefs. In the contemporary culture the lack of individual control and choice is considered to be the key element of the concept of a 'bad death'. This change of conceptual content manifests itself in the use of its lexical expressions.

  16. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  17. Good Bye Rush Hour Trains, Hello Morning Walks. Changes in Morning Experience for Japanese Retirees

    OpenAIRE

    Yohko Tsuji

    2014-01-01

    Morning is the "junction between nighttime and daytime" when most people experience the transition from restful sleep to actions. It comes every day with the light dispelling the darkness and human motions and bird chirpings breaking the stillness of the night. While the morning thus described is repeated day after day, people’s experiences of it may change drastically when they retire. In this article, I will examine such changes in morning experiences among Japanese retirees who live in ...

  18. Instorting ijshal Bad Reichenhall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herwijnen, van F.

    2008-01-01

    De dakconstructie van ijshal Bad Reichenhall (D) was met zijn 2,87 m hoge hoofdliggers, uitgevoerd als houten kokerliggers, een bijzondere houtconstructie. Op deze schaal niet eerder uitgevoerd. Een serie fouten, defecten en beschadigingen werd de constructie echter fataal. Op 2 januari 2006 bezweek

  19. Superconductivity in bad metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is argued that many synthetic metals, including high temperature superconductors are ''bad metals'' with such a poor conductivity that the usual mean-field theory of superconductivity breaks down because of anomalously large classical and quantum fluctuations of the phase of the superconducting order parameter. Some consequences for high temperature superconductors are described

  20. Cool city mornings by urban heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeuwes, Natalie E.; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Ronda, Reinder J.; Rotach, Mathias W.; Holtslag, Albert A. M.

    2015-11-01

    The urban heat island effect is a phenomenon observed worldwide, i.e. evening and nocturnal temperatures in cities are usually several degrees higher than in the surrounding countryside. In contrast, cities are sometimes found to be cooler than their rural surroundings in the morning and early afternoon. Here, a general physical explanation for this so-called daytime urban cool island (UCI) effect is presented and validated for the cloud-free days in the BUBBLE campaign in Basel, Switzerland. Simulations with a widely evaluated conceptual atmospheric boundary-layer model coupled to a land-surface model, reveal that the UCI can form due to differences between the early morning mixed-layer depth over the city (deeper) and over the countryside (shallower). The magnitude of the UCI is estimated for various types of urban morphology, categorized by their respective local climate zones.

  1. Morning or evening administration of nasal calcitonin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlemmer, A; Ravn, Pernille; Hassager, C

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of intranasal salmon calcitonin (sCT) administration (200 IE), given either in the morning (8:00) or evening (21:00), on the known circadian variation in biochemical markers of bone turnover. An open, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover......). Serum osteocalcin (sOC) was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The first 24 h study was performed without intervention. Prior to this control study the participants were randomized to either morning (8:00) or evening (21:00) sCT (200 IE). sCT administrations were given 4-5 days prior to and during...... the second study. After a washing-out period of 2 weeks the participants were given 200 IE of sCT at the reverse time of the day 5 days prior to and during the third study. At all timepoints, urinary CrossLaps/Cr exhibited a significant (p

  2. Eggs: good or bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes.

  3. Diophantine approximation and badly approximable sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, S.; Thorn, R.; Velani, S.

    2006-01-01

    . The classical set Bad of `badly approximable' numbers in the theory of Diophantine approximation falls within our framework as do the sets Bad(i,j) of simultaneously badly approximable numbers. Under various natural conditions we prove that the badly approximable subsets of Omega have full Hausdorff dimension...

  4. Basal encephalocele and morning glory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, J; Lesser, R L

    1983-01-01

    Basal encephaloceles are often associated with other midline anomalies such as hypertelorism, broad nasal root, cleft lip, and cleft palate. Optic disc anomalies such as pallor, dysplasia, optic pit, coLoboma, and megalopapilla have been reported to occur in patients with basal encephalocele We report a case of a child with a sphenoethmoidal encephalocele and morning glory syndrome of the optic nerve. The presence of such optic nerve anomalies with facial midline anomalies should alert the clinician to the possible presence of a basal encephalocele. Images PMID:6849854

  5. Resin Glycosides from the Morning Glory Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Rosas-Ramírez, Daniel; Castañeda-Gómez, Jhon

    Resin glycosides are part of a very extensive family of secondary metabolites known as glycolipids or lipo-oligosaccharides and are constituents of complex resins (glycoresins) (1) unique to the morning glory family, Convolvulaceae (2). These active principles are responsible for the drastic purgative action of all the important Convolvulaceous species used in traditional medicine throughout the world since ancient times. Several commercial purgative crude drugs can be prepared from the roots of different species of Mexican morning glories. Their incorporation as therapeutic agents in Europe is an outstanding example of the assimilation of botanical drugs from the Americas as substitutes for traditional Old World remedies (3). Even though phytochemical investigations on the constituents of these drugs were initiated during the second half of the nineteenth century, the structure of their active ingredients still remains poorly known for some examples of these purgative roots. During the last two decades, the higher resolution capabilities of modern analytical isolation techniques used in conjunction with powerful spectroscopic methods have facilitated the elucidation of the active principles of these relevant herbal products.

  6. Comparative analysis of general characteristics of ischemic stroke of BAD and non-BAD CISS subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Bin; Liu, Guang-zhi; Yang, Yang; Liu, Yu-min; Cao, Jiang-hui; Zhang, Jun-jian

    2015-12-01

    Based on the recently proposed Chinese ischemic stroke subclassification (CISS) system, intracranial branch atheromatous disease (BAD) is divided into large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and penetrating artery disease (PAD). In the current retrospective analysis, we compared the general characteristics of BAD-LAA with BAD-PAD, BAD-LAA with non-BAD-LAA and BAD-PAD with non-BAD-PAD. The study included a total of 80 cases, including 45 cases of BAD and 35 cases of non-BAD. Subjects were classified using CISS system: BAD-LAA, BAD-PAD, non-BAD-LAA and non-BAD-PAD. In addition to analysis of general characteristics, the correlation between the factors and the two subtypes of BAD was evaluated. The number of cases included in the analysis was: 32 cases of BAD-LAA, 13 cases of BAD-PAD, 21 cases of non-BAD-LAA, and 14 cases of non-BAD-PAD. Diabetes mellitus affected more non-BAD-LAA patients than BAD-LAA patients (P=0.035). In comparison with non-BAD-PAD, patients with BAD-PAD were younger (P=0.040), had higher initial NIHSS score (PBAD, the PAD subtype was associated with smoking (OR=0.043; P=0.011), higher low-density lipoprotein (OR=5.339; P=0.029), ischemic heart disease (OR=9.383; P=0.047) and diabetes mellitus (OR=12.59; P=0.020). It was concluded that large artery atherosclerosis was the primary mechanism of BAD. The general characteristics showed no significant differences between the CISS subtypes of LAA and PAD within BAD, as well as between the BAD and non-BAD within LAA subtype. Several differences between PAD subtypes of BAD and non-BAD were revealed.

  7. Bad Astronomy Goes Hollywood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plait, P.

    2003-05-01

    It can be argued that astronomy is the oldest of all the sciences, so you'd think that after all this time people would have a pretty good understanding of it. In reality, however, misconceptions about astronomy abound, and even basic concepts are misunderstood. There are many sources of these cosmic misconceptions, including incorrect textbooks, parents and/or teachers who don't understand astronomy and therefore spread misinformation, urban legends, and so on. Perhaps the most pervasive source of bad astronomy is Hollywood. Science fiction movies are enormously popular, but are commonly written and directed by people who don't have even a passing familiarity with astronomy. The smash hit "Armageddon" (the number one box office movie of 1998), for example, used vast quantities of incorrect astronomy in the plot. It reinforced such popular misconceptions as huge asteroids impacting the Earth with little warning, small meteorites being hot when they impact, air existing in space, and that a simple bomb can blow up an asteroid the size of a small moon (even when the bomb is buried only 800 feet deep!). However, movie scenes can be used as a hook that engages the student, helping them learn and remember the correct science. In this talk, I will light-heartedly discuss specific examples of common misinformation, using movie clips, diagrams, and a splash of common sense to show just where Hollywood gets it wrong, and what you can do to help students and the public get it right.

  8. Managing away bad habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldroop, J; Butler, T

    2000-01-01

    We've all worked with highly competent people who are held back by a seemingly fatal personality flaw. One person takes on too much work; another sees the downside in every proposed change; a third pushes people out of the way. At best, people with these "bad habits" create their own glass ceilings, which limit their success and their contributions to the company. At worst, they destroy their own careers. Although the psychological flaws of such individuals run deep, their managers are not helpless. In this article, James Waldroop and Timothy Butler--both psychologists--examine the root causes of these flaws and suggest concrete tactics they have used to help people recognize and correct the following six behavior patterns: The hero, who always pushes himself--and subordinates--too hard to do too much for too long. The meritocrat, who believes that the best ideas can and will be determined objectively and ignores the politics inherent in most situations. The bulldozer, who runs roughshod over others in a quest for power. The pessimist, who always worries about what could go wrong. The rebel, who automatically fights against authority and convention. And the home run hitter, who tries to do too much too soon--he swings for the fences before he's learned to hit singles. Helping people break through their self-created glass ceilings is the ultimate win-win scenario: both the individual and the organization are rewarded. Using the tactics introduced in this article, managers can help their brilliantly flawed performers become spectacular achievers.

  9. Development of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease morning symptom diary (COPD-MSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globe, Gary; Currie, Brooke; Leidy, Nancy Kline; Jones, Paul; Mannino, David; Martinez, Fernando; Klekotka, Paul; O'Quinn, Sean; Karlsson, Niklas; Wiklund, Ingela

    2016-07-16

    The morning tends to be the most difficult time of day for many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) when symptoms can limit one's ability to perform even simple activities. Morning symptoms have been linked to higher levels of work absenteeism, thereby increasing the already substantial economic burden associated with COPD. A validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument designed to capture morning symptoms will allow for a more comprehensive approach to the evaluation of treatment benefit in COPD clinical trials. A qualitative interview study was conducted among a sample of symptomatic adults with COPD. Concept elicitation interviews (n = 35) were conducted to identify COPD morning symptoms, followed by cognitive interviews (n = 21) to ensure patient comprehension of the items, instructions and response options of the draft COPD Morning Symptom Diary (COPD-MSD). All interview transcript data were coded using ATLAS.ti software for content analysis. Mean age of the concept elicitation and cognitive interview sample was 65.0 years (±7.5) and 62.3 years (±8.3), respectively. The study sample represented the full range of COPD severity (Global Initiative for Chronic Lung Disease [GOLD] classifications I-IV) and included a mix of racial backgrounds, employment status and educational achievement. During the concept elicitation interviews, the three most frequently reported morning symptoms were shortness of breath (n = 35/35; 100 %), phlegm/mucus (n = 31/35; 88.6 %), and cough (n = 30/35; 85.7 %). A group of clinical and instrument development experts convened to review the concept elicitation data and develop the initial 32-item draft COPD-MSD. Cognitive interviews indicated subjects found the draft COPD-MSD to be comprehensive, clear, and easy to understand. The COPD-MSD underwent minor editorial revisions and streamlining based on cognitive interviews and input from the experts to yield the final 19-item daily

  10. Formulation of morning product using food residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário de Fátima Padilha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there is resistance of the population to the use of stalks, leaves, peels and seeds of vegetables and fruits, leading to trash important parts of the food in good physiological conditions and with the presence of potential nutrients. In this research, a morning product was elaborated using green and dry coconut residue, jerimum and melon seed, crystallized sicilian lemon peel, cashew nut, common rapadura sweet and ginger. The bacteriological tests proved the hygienic-sanitary quality of the product, therefore suitable for consumption, that is, according to RDC 12/2001. It was also observed that the dehydration of all the residues reached the legal levels and accepted by ANVISA that limits in 25% the water content in the dehydrated foods. As for the centesimal composition, it was observed that the elaborated product with residues and other ingredients had a good content of macro nutrients. A use of the type of waste as a new food proposal constitutes an alternative to avoid and reduce: the serious environmental problem caused by the large residual volume generated, and the inadequate places in which they are stored or deposited, aggravating the scenario of food-borne pollutants.

  11. Breath biomarkers in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-11-01

    Exhaled breath has joined blood and urine as a valuable resource for sampling and analyzing biomarkers in human media for assessing exposure, uptake metabolism, and elimination of toxic chemicals. This article focuses current use of exhaled gas, aerosols, and vapor in human breath, the methods for collection, and ultimately the use of the resulting data. Some advantages of breath are the noninvasive and self-administered nature of collection, the essentially inexhaustible supply, and that breath sampling does not produce potentially infectious waste such as needles, wipes, bandages, and glassware. In contrast to blood and urine, breath samples can be collected on demand in rapid succession and so allow toxicokinetic observations of uptake and elimination in any time frame. Furthermore, new technologies now allow capturing condensed breath vapor directly, or just the aerosol fraction alone, to gain access to inorganic species, lung pH, proteins and protein fragments, cellular DNA, and whole microorganisms from the pulmonary microbiome. Future applications are discussed, especially the use of isotopically labeled probes, non-targeted (discovery) analysis, cellular level toxicity testing, and ultimately assessing "crowd breath" of groups of people and the relation to dose of airborne and other environmental chemicals at the population level.

  12. Parallel evolution of storage roots in Morning Glories (Convolvulaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storage roots are an ecologically and agriculturally important plant trait. In morning glories, storage roots are well characterized in the crop species sweetpotato. Storage roots have evolved numerous times across the morning glory family. This study aims to understand whether this was through para...

  13. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Doctor Relaxation is the absence of tension in muscle groups and a minimum or absence ... Drill Meditation Progressive Muscle Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath Visualization This information has been approved by Shelby ...

  14. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.

  15. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled with air (called pneumotho- rax), it will hinder expansion of the lung, resulting in shortness of ... of Chest Physi- cians. Shortness of Breath: Patient Education. http: / / www. onebreath. org/ document. doc? id= 113. ...

  16. Breath-Holding Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reviewed: October 2016 More on this topic for: Parents Is It Normal for Children to Hold Their Breath? Taming Tempers Disciplining Your Child Disciplining Your Toddler Temper Tantrums Separation Anxiety View more About Us Contact Us Partners ...

  17. Internet Bad Neighborhoods temporal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, Giovane; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko

    2014-01-01

    Malicious hosts tend to be concentrated in certain areas of the IP addressing space, forming the so-called Bad Neighborhoods. Knowledge about this concentration is valuable in predicting attacks from unseen IP addresses. This observation has been employed in previous works to filter out spam. In

  18. Internet Bad Neighborhoods Temporal Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, G.C.; Sadre, R.; Pras, A.

    2014-01-01

    Malicious hosts tend to be concentrated in certain areas of the IP addressing space, forming the so-called Bad Neighborhoods. Knowledge about this concentration is valuable in predicting attacks from unseen IP addresses. This observation has been employed in previous works to filter out spam. In

  19. Bad Neighborhoods on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, G.C.; Sadre, R.; Pras, A.

    2014-01-01

    Analogous to the real world, sources of malicious activities on the Internet tend to be concentrated in certain networks instead of being evenly distributed. In this article, we formally define and frame such areas as Internet Bad Neighborhoods. By extending the reputation of malicious IP addresses

  20. How to Tell Bad News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Therapists, physicians, police officers, and emergency staff often are the messengers of bad news. They have to tell a patient, a parent, or a loved one about a death, an accident, a school shooting, a life-threatening diagnosis, a terrorist attack, or a suicide. Usually the messenger bears a heavy responsibility but has little training and seeks…

  1. On badly approximable complex numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esdahl-Schou, Rune; Kristensen, S.

    We show that the set of complex numbers which are badly approximable by ratios of elements of , where has maximal Hausdorff dimension. In addition, the intersection of these sets is shown to have maximal dimension. The results remain true when the sets in question are intersected with a suitably...

  2. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentr...

  3. Changing Morning Report: An Educational Intervention to Address Curricular Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay John Daniels

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morning report is a case-based teaching session common to many residency programs with varying purposes and focuses. At our institution, physicians and residents felt our Internal Medicine morning report had lost its educational focus. The purpose of this project was to improve morning report using a well-known curriculum development framework for medical education. We conducted a focus group of residents to develop and implement changes to morning report. Themes from our focus group led us to split morning report with the first 30 minutes for postgraduate year 3 (PGY-3 residents to give handover, to receive feedback on diagnosis and management, and to either discuss an interesting case or receive teaching aimed at their final certification examination. The second 30 minutes involved PGY-3 residents leading PGY-1 residents in case-based discussions with an attending physician providing feedback on the content and process of teaching. We measured success based on a follow-up survey and comments from resident evaluations before and after the change. Overall, the changes were well received by both faculty and residents; however comments revealed that the success of morning report is preceptor dependent. In summary, we have successfully implemented a split morning report model to enhance resident education with positive feedback.

  4. 42 CFR 413.178 - Bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bad debts. 413.178 Section 413.178 Public Health...) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.178 Bad debts. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 49199, Aug. 12, 2010. (a) CMS will reimburse each facility its allowable Medicare bad debts, as defined in...

  5. Predicting perceived safety to drive the morning after drinking: The importance of hangover symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Elaine; French, David P

    2016-07-01

    People driving the day after drinking are at risk of impaired performance and accidents due to continued intoxication or the effects of alcohol hangover. Drivers are poor at estimating their own blood alcohol concentration, and some drive despite believing they are over the legal limit. It is therefore important to identify other factors influencing perceived ability to drive 'the morning after'. This study tested how accurately participants estimated their legal driving status, and the contribution of beliefs and hangover symptoms to the prediction of perceived driving safety. This cross-sectional study involved 193 students completing a questionnaire and alcohol breath test the morning after heavy alcohol consumption. Indicators of subjective intoxication, severity of hangover symptoms, estimated legal status and perceived safety to drive were measured. A hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted. No participants thought they were under the English legal limit when they were not, and 47% thought they were over the limit when they were in fact legally permissible to drive. However, 20% of those believing they were over the limit nevertheless rated themselves as safe to drive. Hangover symptoms added 17% variance to the prediction of perceived safety to drive, over and above objective and subjective measures of intoxication. Perceived severity of hangover symptoms influence beliefs about driving ability: When judging safety to drive, people experiencing less severe symptoms believe they are less impaired. If this finding is robust, health promotion campaigns should aim to correct this misapprehension. [Cameron E, French D. Predicting perceived safety to drive the morning after drinking: The importance of hangover symptoms. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:442-446]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Imposed Work of Breathing and Breathing Comfort of Nonintubated Volunteers Breathing with Three Portable Ventilators and a Critical Care Ventilator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Austin, Paul

    2001-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to assess the imposed inspiratory work of breathing and breathing comfort of nonintubated healthy volunteers breathing spontaneously through three portable ventilators...

  7. Morning reduction of photosynthetic capacity before midday depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kohei; Takemoto, Shuhei

    2014-03-17

    Midday depression of photosynthesis has important consequences for ecosystem carbon exchange. Recent studies of forest trees have demonstrated that latent reduction of photosynthetic capacity can begin in the early morning, preceding the midday depression. We investigated whether such early morning reduction also occurs in an herbaceous species, Oenothera biennis. Diurnal changes of the photosynthetic light response curve (measured using a light-emitting diode) and incident sunlight intensity were measured under field conditions. The following results were obtained: (1) the light-saturated photosynthetic rate decreased beginning at sunrise; (2) the incident sunlight intensity on the leaves increased from sunrise; and (3) combining (1) and (2), the net photosynthetic rate under natural sunlight intensity increased from sunrise, reached a maximum at mid-morning, and then showed midday depression. Our results demonstrate that the latent morning reduction of photosynthetic capacity begins at sunrise, preceding the apparent midday depression, in agreement with previous studies of forest trees.

  8. Cancer: Bad Luck or Punishment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, A V

    2017-01-01

    Contrasting opinions on the role of extrinsic and intrinsic factors in cancer etiology (Tomasetti, C., and Vogelstein, B. (2015) Science, 347, 78-81; Wu, S., et al. (2016) Nature, 529, 43-47) variously define priorities in the war on cancer. The correlation between the lifetime risk of several types of cancer and the total number of divisions of normal self-renewing cells revealed by the authors has given them grounds to put forward the "bad luck" hypothesis. It assumes that ~70% of cancer variability is attributed to random errors arising during DNA replication in normal, noncancerous stem cells, i.e. to internal factors, which is impossible either to expect or to prevent. This assumption caused many critical responses that emphasize, on the contrary, the defining role of extrinsic factors in cancer etiology. The analysis of epidemiological and genetic data presented in this work testifies in favor of the "bad luck" hypothesis.

  9. Breathing, feeding, and neuroprotection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Homma, Ikuo; Shioda, S

    2006-01-01

    ... of knowledge of brain functions and morphology. Akiyoshi Hosoyamada, M.D., Ph.D. President Showa University, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan December 2005Preface Brain research is on the march, with several advanced technical developments and new findings uncovered almost daily. Within the brain-research fields, we focus on breathing, neuroprotection, an...

  10. Breathing Like a Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  11. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other conditions that lead to it) Panic disorder Sleep apnea Snoring Home Care Your health care provider may recommend self-care measures. For example, weight loss may be suggested if you are obese. When to Contact a Medical Professional If you have any unexplained difficulty in breathing ...

  12. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  13. Breath-Hold Diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz-Clarke, John R

    2018-03-25

    Breath-hold diving is practiced by recreational divers, seafood divers, military divers, and competitive athletes. It involves highly integrated physiology and extreme responses. This article reviews human breath-hold diving physiology beginning with an historical overview followed by a summary of foundational research and a survey of some contemporary issues. Immersion and cardiovascular adjustments promote a blood shift into the heart and chest vasculature. Autonomic responses include diving bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and splenic contraction, which help conserve oxygen. Competitive divers use a technique of lung hyperinflation that raises initial volume and airway pressure to facilitate longer apnea times and greater depths. Gas compression at depth leads to sequential alveolar collapse. Airway pressure decreases with depth and becomes negative relative to ambient due to limited chest compliance at low lung volumes, raising the risk of pulmonary injury called "squeeze," characterized by postdive coughing, wheezing, and hemoptysis. Hypoxia and hypercapnia influence the terminal breakpoint beyond which voluntary apnea cannot be sustained. Ascent blackout due to hypoxia is a danger during long breath-holds, and has become common amongst high-level competitors who can suppress their urge to breathe. Decompression sickness due to nitrogen accumulation causing bubble formation can occur after multiple repetitive dives, or after single deep dives during depth record attempts. Humans experience responses similar to those seen in diving mammals, but to a lesser degree. The deepest sled-assisted breath-hold dive was to 214 m. Factors that might determine ultimate human depth capabilities are discussed. © 2018 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 8:585-630, 2018. Copyright © 2018 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Giving bad news: a qualitative research exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aein, Fereshteh; Delaram, Masoumeh

    2014-06-01

    The manner in which healthcare professionals deliver bad news affects the way it is received, interpreted, understood, and dealt with. Despite the fact that clinicians are responsible for breaking bad news, it has been shown that they lack skills necessary to perform this task. The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian mothers' experiences to receive bad news about their children cancer and to summarize suggestions for improving delivering bad news by healthcare providers. A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 mothers from two pediatric hospitals in Iran. Five major categories emerged from the data analysis, including dumping information, shock and upset, emotional work, burden of delivering bad news to the family members, and a room for multidisciplinary approach. Effective communication of healthcare team with mothers is required during breaking bad news. Using multidisciplinary approaches to prevent harmful reactions and providing appropriate support are recommended.

  15. Deep Learning versus Professional Healthcare Equipment: A Fine-Grained Breathing Rate Monitoring Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In mHealth field, accurate breathing rate monitoring technique has benefited a broad array of healthcare-related applications. Many approaches try to use smartphone or wearable device with fine-grained monitoring algorithm to accomplish the task, which can only be done by professional medical equipment before. However, such schemes usually result in bad performance in comparison to professional medical equipment. In this paper, we propose DeepFilter, a deep learning-based fine-grained breathing rate monitoring algorithm that works on smartphone and achieves professional-level accuracy. DeepFilter is a bidirectional recurrent neural network (RNN stacked with convolutional layers and speeded up by batch normalization. Moreover, we collect 16.17 GB breathing sound recording data of 248 hours from 109 and another 10 volunteers to train and test our model, respectively. The results show a reasonably good accuracy of breathing rate monitoring.

  16. Mapleson's Breathing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

    2013-09-01

    Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification) are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.

  17. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health (NCCDPHP, DACH).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  18. Effect of evening exposure to bright or dim light after daytime bright light on absorption of dietary carbohydrates the following morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Naoko; Sone, Yoshiaki; Tokura, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    We had previously reported on the effect of exposure to light on the human digestive system: daytime bright light exposure has a positive effect, whereas, evening bright light exposure has a negative effect on the efficiency of dietary carbohydrate absorption from the evening meal. These results prompted us to examine whether the light intensity to which subjects are exposed in the evening affects the efficiency of dietary carbohydrate absorption the following morning. In this study, subjects were exposed to either 50 lux (dim light conditions) or 2,000 lux (bright light conditions) in the evening for 9 h (from 15:00 to 24:00) after staying under bright light in the daytime (under 2,000 lux from 07:00 to 15:00). We measured unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates using the breath-hydrogen test the morning after exposure to either bright light or dim light the previous evening. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two conditions in the amount of breath hydrogen. This indicates that evening exposure to bright or dim light after bright light exposure in the daytime has no varying effect on digestion or absorption of dietary carbohydrates in the following morning's breakfast.

  19. 25 CFR 11.421 - Bad checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 11.421 Section 11.421 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.421 Bad checks. (a) A person who issues or passes a check or similar sight order for..., and the issuer failed to make good within 10 days after receiving notice of that refusal. ...

  20. 27 CFR 70.101 - Bad checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 70.101 Section....101 Bad checks. If any check or money order in payment of any amount receivable under Title 26 of the... appropriate TTB officer that such check was tendered in good faith and that such person had reasonable cause...

  1. Morning versus evening induction of labour for improving outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Jannet J. H.; van der Goes, Birgit Y.; Pel, Maria; Mol, Ben Willem J.; van der Post, Joris A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Induction of labour is a common intervention in obstetric practice. Traditionally, inmost hospitals induction of labour with medication starts early in the morning, with the start of the working day for the day shift. In human and animal studies spontaneous onset of labour is proven to

  2. Suppressing the Morning Rise in Cortisol Impairs Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Meier, Flurina; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid levels impair memory retrieval. We investigated whether retrieval under naturally elevated glucocorticoid levels, i.e., during the morning rise in cortisol can be improved by suppressing cortisol. In a crossover study 16 men retrieved emotional and neutral texts and pictures (learned 3 d earlier) 30 min after morning…

  3. No more moody mornings : Alarm clock anticipates sleepers' emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensveen, S.; Overbeeke, K.; Van Kasteren, J.

    2002-01-01

    More eloquent alternatives to the harsh tones of the oldfashioned alarm-clock bells abound, including a newsreaders voice summing up last nights disasters, or a tape of your favourite early morning music. Still, getting out of bed has its difficult moments. All this could well change in the near

  4. Morning glory disc anomaly: A case report | Saraswat | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morning glory disc anomaly: A case report. Neeraj K. Saraswat, Ravi Ranjan, Dipendra Shukla, Sushil Ojha. Abstract. A rare case of congenital anomaly of the optic disc is presented to draw attention to the occurrence of this anomaly in rural India. The typical case presented with excavated, enlarged colobomatous optic ...

  5. Breaking Bad Habits | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Bad Habits Breaking Bad Habits: Why It's So Hard to Change Past Issues / ... News in Health ( http://newsinhealth.nih.gov/ ) Break Bad Habits Avoid temptations. If you always stop for a ...

  6. Morning versus evening induction of labour for improving outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Jannet J H; van der Goes, Birgit Y; Pel, Maria; Mol, Ben Willem J; van der Post, Joris A M

    2013-02-28

    Induction of labour is a common intervention in obstetric practice. Traditionally, in most hospitals induction of labour with medication starts early in the morning, with the start of the working day for the day shift. In human and animal studies spontaneous onset of labour is proven to have a circadian rhythm with a preference for start of labour in the evening. Moreover, when spontaneous labour starts in the evening, the total duration of labour and delivery shortens and fewer obstetric interventions are needed. Based on these observations one might assume that starting induction of labour in the evening, in harmony with the circadian rhythm of natural birth, is more beneficial for both mother and child. To assess whether induction of labour starting in the evening, coinciding with the endogenous circadian rhythm, improves the outcome of labour compared with induction of labour starting in the early morning, organised to coincide with office hours. We contacted the Trials Search Co-ordinator to search the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 February 2012). In addition, we searched MEDLINE (1966 to 16 February 2012) and EMBASE (1980 to 16 February 2012). We included all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials. We excluded trials that employed quasi-random methods of treatment allocation. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias. Two review authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. Where necessary, we contacted study authors for additional information. The search resulted in 2693 articles that we screened on title and abstract for eligibility.Thirteen studies were selected for full text assessment. We included three randomised trials involving 1150 women. Two trials compared the administration of prostaglandins in the morning versus the evening in women with an unfavourable cervix, and one trial compared induction of labour in the morning versus the evening

  7. Morning akinesia in Parkinson's disease: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambasco N

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Tambasco,1 Simone Simoni,1 Pasquale Nigro,1 Federico Paolini Paoletti,1 Erica Marsili,1 Paolo Calabresi1,2 1Neurology Clinic, Azienda Ospedaliera – Università di Perugia, Perugia, 2Neurophysiology Department, IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome, Italy Abstract: Motor complications of Parkinson's disease (PD have been reported to occur after a few years of treatment with levodopa (L-dopa. Morning akinesia is a delayed ON of the first L-dopa daily dose, occurring in almost 60% of patients on dopaminergic treatment. This is primarily a motor symptom, but has been recently recognized as being correlated with nonmotor fluctuations. Sleep disorders and gastrointestinal dysfunction might be the underlying mechanisms. Over the past 30 years, several pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches have been investigated. Keywords: Parkinson's disease, morning akinesia, motor fluctuation, L-dopa 

  8. Body composition variation following diaphragmatic breathing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body composition variation following diaphragmatic breathing. ... effect of commonly prescribed diaphragmatic breathing training on the body composition ... a non-exercising control (NE) group (n = 22) or diaphragmatic breathing (DB) group.

  9. BREATHE to Understand©

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisa, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BREATHE is an acronym for Breathe, Reflect, Empathize, Accept, Thank, Hearten, Engage. The addition of Understand allows for a holistic approach to living a healthy and balanced life both inside and outside the classroom. This paper took form as a result of my personal, spiritual journey, as well as my teaching practice. I noticed that the…

  10. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-12-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentrating on the technoscientific threatens to occlude other, more affective aspects raised by the literature. In order to supplement the tendency to read SF as a succession of technoscientific accounts of bodily experience, this paper recalls how SF texts draw attention to the affective, non-scientific qualities of breath, both as a metonym for life and as a metaphor for anticipation. Through an engagement with diverse examples from SF literature and films, this article considers the tension between technoscientific and affective responses to breath in order to demonstrate breath's co-determinacy in SF's blending of scientific and artistic discourses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Patient's breath controls comfort devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, M.; Carpenter, B.; Nichols, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Patient assist system for totally disabled persons was developed which permits a person, so paralyzed as to be unable to move, to activate by breathing, a call system to summon assistance, turn the page of a book, ajust his bed, or do any one of a number of other things. System consists of patient assist control and breath actuated switch.

  12. Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench. The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench. This image is presented in approximately true color. The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide. Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    We report on the experimental demonstration of an FMCW radar operating in the 25.7 - 26.6 GHz range with a repetition rate of 500 sweeps per second. The radar is able to track the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance of 1 meter. The experiments have utilized a 50 second recording window...... to accurately track the breathing rate. The radar utilizes a saw tooth modulation format and a low latency receiver. A breath tracking radar is useful both in medical scenarios, diagnosing disorders such as sleep apnea, and for home use where the user can monitor its health. Breathing is a central part of every...... radar chip which, through the use of a simple modulation scheme, is able to measure the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance. A high frequency output makes sure that the radar cannot penetrate solid obstacles which is a wanted feature in private homes where people therefore cannot measure...

  14. Reactionary responses to the Bad Lot Objection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellsén, Finnur

    2017-02-01

    As it is standardly conceived, Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE) is a form of ampliative inference in which one infers a hypothesis because it provides a better potential explanation of one's evidence than any other available, competing explanatory hypothesis. Bas van Fraassen famously objected to IBE thus formulated that we may have no reason to think that any of the available, competing explanatory hypotheses are true. While revisionary responses to the Bad Lot Objection concede that IBE needs to be reformulated in light of this problem, reactionary responses argue that the Bad Lot Objection is fallacious, incoherent, or misguided. This paper shows that the most influential reactionary responses to the Bad Lot Objection do nothing to undermine the original objection. This strongly suggests that proponents of IBE should focus their efforts on revisionary responses, i.e. on finding a more sophisticated characterization of IBE for which the Bad Lot Objection loses its bite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gender inequality: Bad for men's health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-02

    Mar 2, 2013 ... have attributed this risk to men's poorer health-seeking behaviour, which may prevent them from accessing ART, being ... Gender inequality: Bad for men's health ..... New York: United Nations Development Programme, 2005.

  16. Breath of hospitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škof, Lenart

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we outline the possibilities of an ethic of care based on our self-affection and subjectivity in the ethical spaces between-two. In this we first refer to three Irigarayan concepts - breath, silence and listening from the third phase of her philosophy, and discuss them within the methodological framework of an ethics of intersubjectivity and interiority. Together with attentiveness, we analyse them as four categories of our ethical becoming. Furthermore, we argue that self-affection is based on our inchoate receptivity for the needs of the other(s) and is thus dialectical in its character. In this we critically confront some epistemological views of our ethical becoming. We wind up this paper with a proposal for an ethics towards two autonomous subjects, based on care and our shared ethical becoming - both as signs of our deepest hospitality towards the other.

  17. Breaking bad news in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantis, Apostolos; Exiara, Triada

    2015-01-01

    In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59%) had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90%) were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66%) had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61%) delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83%) ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83%) used simple words and 54 (91.53%) checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97%) allowed relatives to determine patient's knowledge about the disease. There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician's speech and their plan were according to current guidelines.

  18. Cinema and the communication of bad news

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Isabel GÓMEZ CORDOBA; Haroldo ESTRADA

    2016-01-01

    Breaking Bad News requires medical professionals possess a range of skills to ensure that the patient has the information required for decision?making, this process occurs without further damage and even has a therapeutic effect, and another, that the doctor is not exposed to legal risk or stress associated with the inability to cope with the feelings of the patient, their families or themselves. This article discusses the aspects of communication of bad news in the field of doctor?patient re...

  19. Breaking bad news in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Konstantis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. Materials and Methods: 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Results: Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59% had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90% were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66% had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61% delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83% ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83% used simple words and 54 (91.53% checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97% allowed relatives to determine patient′s knowledge about the disease. Conclusions: There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician′s speech and their plan were according to current guidelines.

  20. [Bad habits and dysgnathia: epidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, G; Lo Giudice, G; Dolci, E; Romeo, U; Lafronte, G

    1989-01-01

    The authors refer about an epidemiological survey in 651 children in the school-age. The aim of study is to investigate about the frequency of the bad habits and the pathogenetic relations between these and the development of the dento-maxillo-facial deformities. They point out an incidence of these bad habits in the 35,48% with a predominance of mouth breathers (45,45%). After they discuss the necessity of an early detection of anomalous neuromuscular attitudes.

  1. Good and bad practices in pv plants

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Moreno, Francisco; Helleputte, F.; Tyutyundzhiev, N.; Rabal Echeverria, Daniel; Conlon, Michael; Fartaria, Tomás; Oteiza, David

    2013-01-01

    The PVCROPS project (PhotoVolta ic Cost r€duction, Reliability, Operational performance, Prediction and Simulation), cofinanced by European Commission in the frame of Seventh Framework Programme, has compiled in the “Good and bad practices: Manual to improve the quality and reduce the cost of PV systems” a collection of good and bad practices in actual PV plants . All the situations it collects represent the state-of-the-art of existing PV installations all around Europe. They show how ...

  2. Asymmetric News Effects on Volatility: Good vs. Bad News in Good vs. Bad Times

    OpenAIRE

    Laakkonen, Helinä; Lanne, Markku

    2008-01-01

    We study the impact of positive and negative macroeconomic US and European news announcements in different phases of the business cycle on the highfrequency volatility of the EUR/USD exchange rate. The results suggest that in general bad news increases volatility more than good news. The news effects also depend on the state of the economy: bad news increases volatility more in good times than in bad times, while there is no difference between the volatility effects of good news in bad and go...

  3. 26 CFR 1.166-1 - Bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad debts. 1.166-1 Section 1.166-1 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.166-1 Bad debts. (a... shall be allowed in respect of bad debts owed to the taxpayer. For this purpose, bad debts shall...

  4. Delivering bad news in emergency care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Douglas W

    2017-01-01

    Forecasting is a strategy for delivering bad news and is compared to two other strategies, stalling and being blunt. Forecasting provides some warning that bad news is forthcoming without keeping the recipient in a state of indefinite suspense (stalling) or conveying the news abruptly (being blunt). Forecasting appears to be more effective than stalling or being blunt in helping a recipient to "realize" the bad news because it involves the deliverer and recipient in a particular social relation. The deliverer of bad news initiates the telling by giving an advance indication of the bad news to come; this allows the recipient to calculate the news in advance of its final presentation, when the deliverer confirms what the recipient has been led to anticipate. Thus, realization of bad news emerges from intimate collaboration, whereas stalling and being blunt require recipients to apprehend the news in a social vacuum. Exacerbating disruption to recipients' everyday world, stalling and being blunt increase the probability of misapprehension (denying, blaming, taking the situation as a joke, etc.) and thereby inhibit rather than facilitate realization. Particular attention is paid to the "perspective display sequence", a particular forecasting strategy that enables both confirming the recipient's perspective and using that perspective to affirm the clinical news. An example from acute or emergency medicine is examined at the close of the paper.

  5. 'BREAKS' Protocol for Breaking Bad News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Vijayakumar; Bista, Bibek; Koshy, Cheriyan

    2010-05-01

    Information that drastically alters the life world of the patient is termed as bad news. Conveying bad news is a skilled communication, and not at all easy. The amount of truth to be disclosed is subjective. A properly structured and well-orchestrated communication has a positive therapeutic effect. This is a process of negotiation between patient and physician, but physicians often find it difficult due to many reasons. They feel incompetent and are afraid of unleashing a negative reaction from the patient or their relatives. The physician is reminded of his or her own vulnerability to terminal illness, and find themselves powerless over emotional distress. Lack of sufficient training in breaking bad news is a handicap to most physicians and health care workers. Adherence to the principles of client-centered counseling is helpful in attaining this skill. Fundamental insight of the patient is exploited and the bad news is delivered in a structured manner, because the patient is the one who knows what is hurting him most and he is the one who knows how to move forward. Six-step SPIKES protocol is widely used for breaking bad news. In this paper, we put forward another six-step protocol, the BREAKS protocol as a systematic and easy communication strategy for breaking bad news. Development of competence in dealing with difficult situations has positive therapeutic outcome and is a professionally satisfying one.

  6. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you: Watch TV Use your computer Read a newspaper How to do Pursed lip Breathing The steps ... of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Also ...

  7. Evaluation of a simple non-invasive 13C breath test to evaluate diet effects on gastric emptying in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2010-01-01

    to feeding (15.5 h after the previous meal) on the day when the 5 h sample was taken. In the breath test four pregnant sows were placed in respiration chambers and the 13C marker was added in the morning meal and air samples were collected up to 18 h at the outlet from the chambers and detected on an infra...... of the gastric content. Thus, the breath test is applicable for evaluating dietary effects on gastric emptying and potentially improves the behaviour and well being of gestating sows and lends confidence to applicability in clinical human trials....

  8. Electron precipitation in the morning sector of the auroral zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentsch, V.

    1976-01-01

    Auroral electron precipitation in the morning sector is assumed to be the result of an electromagnetic cyclotron instability of a particle distribution that evolves adiabatically as its constituent electrons drift eastward from a source near midnight. The adiabatic distribution is calculated by using Green's function in various magnetospheric field models, and the corresponding growth rates for whistler mode waves are calculated by the method of Kennel and Petschek (1966). The region of maximum calculated wave growth corresponds spatially and temporally to the region of maximum observed electron precipitation only when the magnetospheric electric field is included realistically in the model

  9. New timetable for a Regular morning and evening shuttle

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    Starting from 31 March 2008, for one month, a new timetable for a regular morning and evening shuttle serving LHC Points 2 and 5 will be put in place. You can find all the corresponding details on the FM group WEB page: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/fm/logistique/shuttle_timetable.htm Please note that during April, all other requests for transport from Meyrin and Prévessin to the LHC Points via tel. 76969 during the day (between 8:30 and 17:30) will not be met. TS/FM group Tel. 160239

  10. New timetable for a morning and evening regular shuttle

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    Starting from the 31st of March 2008 and for one month, a new timetable for a morning and evening regular shuttle serving LHC Points 2 and 5, will be put in place. You can find all the corresponding details in the FM group WEB page http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/fm/logistique/shuttle_timetable.htm Please note that during April, every other request of transfer from Meyrin and Prevessin towards LHC Points reaching the 76969 during the day (between 8:30 and 17:30) will not be satisfied. TS/FM group 160239

  11. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  12. Blue breath holding is benign.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life t...

  13. [Breaking bad news in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Andrea; Ríos, Matías; Manríquez, José Manuel; Rojas, Gonzalo

    2014-10-01

    Breaking bad news is a complex task that requires multiple communication skills from health professionals. Clinical practice demands to communicate all type of bad news, from a diagnosis of cancer to adverse effects of a treatment. On the other hand, since the beginning of the health reform in 2003, the need to improve the quality of services was proposed, among which the concern about the rights and duties of patients stands out. Therefore, the health care provider-patient relationship becomes again the subject of discussion and study, and a topic of great importance for clinical work. We revise the consequences of breaking bad news for the patient and for the health care provider, as well as the current protocols available for this purpose. The importance of developing communication skills both for future health professionals as for those who currently work in the area is emphasized.

  14. Breaking bad news among cancer physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Ayed Alshammary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breaking bad news to patients with cancer diagnosis is not an easy task for physicians. The diagnosis must be explicitly stated and understood, and prognosis must be well-discussed in the most gentle and comfortable manner. It is important that the disclosure is performed in a way that patients will not lose all hope and get very depressed, leading them to undergo an abrupt change of their outlook in life. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the physicians' perceptions and perspectives of breaking bad news to cancer patients. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of all comprehensive cancer centre physicians currently working in a university teaching hospital in the Middle East was conducted from August to September 2016. Results: Sixty-eight percent responded to the survey. Eighty-four percent were comfortable with breaking bad news, and 70% had training in breaking bad news. Eighty-six percent of responders stated that patients should be told about their cancer. Almost 30% of the respondents stated that they would still disclose the diagnosis to patients even if it would be against the preference of the relatives. Nearly 61% said that they would only tell the details to the patients if asked while 67% of them disagreed that patients should be told about the diagnoses only if the relatives consent. About 51% of physicians wanted to discuss the bad news with the family members and patient together, whereas 24% stated that the patient alone should be involved in the discussion. Conclusion: Physicians face a dilemma when families do not wish the patient to know the cancer diagnosis and this highlights the necessity of taking into consideration the social circumstances in healthcare. When taking these into considerations, curriculum in the medical school must, therefore, be updated and must integrate the acquisition of skills in breaking bad news early in training.

  15. Time of administration important? Morning versus evening dosing of valsartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappe, Dion H; Crikelair, Nora; Kandra, Albert; Palatini, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    Studies suggest that bedtime dosing of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker shows a more sustained and consistent 24-h antihypertensive profile, including greater night-time blood pressure (BP) reduction. We compared the antihypertensive effects of morning (a.m.) and evening (p.m.) dosing of valsartan on 24-h BP. This 26-week, multicentre, randomized, double-blind study evaluated the efficacy and safety of valsartan 320 mg, dosed a.m. or p.m., versus lisinopril 40 mg (a.m.), a long-acting ACE-inhibitor, in patients with grade 1-2 hypertension and at least one additional cardiovascular risk factor. Patients (n = 1093; BP = 156 ± 11/91 ± 8 mmHg; 62 years, 56% male, 99% white) received (1 : 1 : 1) valsartan 160 mg a.m. or p.m. or lisinopril 20 mg a.m. for 4 weeks, then force-titrated to double the initial dose for 8 weeks. At Week 12, hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg was added for 14 weeks if office BP was more than 140/90 mmHg and/or ambulatory BP more than 130/80 mmHg. Mean 24-h ambulatory SBP change from baseline to Weeks 12 and 26 was comparable between valsartan a.m. (-10.6 and -13.3 mmHg) and p.m. (-9.8 and -12.3 mmHg) and lisinopril (-10.7 and -13.7 mmHg). There was no benefit of valsartan p.m. versus a.m. on night-time BP, early morning BP and morning BP surge. Evening dosing also did not improve BP lowering in patients requiring add-on HCTZ or in nondippers at baseline. All treatments were well tolerated. Once-daily dosing of valsartan 320 mg results in equally effective 24-h BP efficacy, regardless of dosing time. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00241124.

  16. MORN5 expression during craniofacial development and its interaction with the BMP and TGFB pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Cela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available MORN5 (MORN repeat containing 5 is encoded by a locus positioned on chromosome 17 in the chicken genome. The MORN motif is found in multiple copies in several proteins including junctophilins or phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase family and the MORN proteins themselves are found across the animal and plant kingdoms. MORN5 protein has a characteristic punctate pattern in the cytoplasm in immunofluorescence imaging. Previously, MORN5 was found among differentially expressed genes in a microarray profiling experiment of the chicken embryo head. Here, we provided in situ hybridization to analyse, in detail, the MORN5 expression in chick craniofacial structures. The expression of MORN5 was first observed at stage HH17-18 (E2.5. MORN5 expression gradually appeared on either side of the primitive oral cavity, within the maxillary region. At stage HH20 (E3, prominent expression was localised in the mandibular prominences lateral to the midline. From stage HH20 up to HH29 (E6, there was strong expression in restricted regions of the maxillary and mandibular prominences. The frontonasal mass (in the midline of the face expresses MORN5, starting at HH27 (E5. The expression was concentrated in the corners or globular processes, which will ultimately fuse with the cranial edges of the maxillary prominences. MORN5 expression was maintained in the fusion zone up to stage HH29. In sections in situs, MORN5 expression was localised preferentially in the mesenchyme. We examined signals that regulate MORN5 expression in the face based on a previous microarray study. Here we validated the array results with in situ hybridization and QPCR. MORN5 was downregulated 24h after Noggin and/or RA treatment. We also determined that BMP pathway genes are downstream of MORN5 following siRNA knockdown. Based on these results, we conclude that MORN5 is both regulated by and required for BMP signalling. The restricted expression of MORN5 in the lip fusion zone shown here

  17. Impact of morning stiffness on working behaviour and performance in people with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Kalle; Buttgereit, Frank; Tuominen, Risto

    2014-12-01

    Work disability remains a considerable problem for many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Morning stiffness is a symptom of RA associated with early retirement from work and with impaired functional ability. We aimed to explore the patient's perception of the impact of morning stiffness on the working life of patients with RA. A survey was conducted in 11 European countries. Patients of working age, with RA for ≥6 months and morning stiffness ≥3 mornings a week, were interviewed by telephone using a structured questionnaire. Responses were assessed in the total sample and in subgroups defined by severity and duration of morning stiffness and by country. A total of 1,061 respondents completed the survey, 534 were working, 224 were retired and the rest were, i.e. homemakers and unemployed. Among the 534 working respondents, RA-related morning stiffness affected work performance (47 %), resulted in late arrival at work (33 %) and required sick leave in the past month (15 %). Of the 224 retired respondents, 159 (71 %) stopped working earlier than their expected retirement age, with 64 % giving RA-related morning stiffness as a reason. There was a differential impact of increasing severity and increasing duration of morning stiffness on the various parameters studied. There were notable inter-country differences in the impact of RA-related morning stiffness on ability to work and on retirement. This large survey showed that from the patient's perspective, morning stiffness reduces the ability to work in patients with RA and contributes to early retirement.

  18. Morning Glory Syndrome with Carotid and Middle Cerebral Artery Vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezzar, Hachemi; Mbekeani, Joyce N; Dalens, Helen

    2015-12-01

    To report a case of incidental asymptomatic atypical morning glory syndrome (MGS) with concomitant ipsilateral carotid and middle cerebral dysgenesis. A 6-year-old child was discovered to have incidental findings of MGS, with atypia. All visual functions were normal including vision and stereopsis. Neuroimaging revealed ipsilateral carotid and middle cerebral vascular narrowing without associated collateral vessels or cerebral ischemia commonly seen in Moyamoya disease. Subsequent annual examinations have been stable, without signs of progression. This case demonstrates disparity between structural aberrations and final visual and neurological function and reinforces the association between MGS and intracranial vascular disruption. Full ancillary ophthalmic and neuroimaging studies should be performed in all patients with MGS with interval reassessments, even when the patient is asymptomatic and functionally intact.

  19. Early morning – A temporal interstice in urban life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Early morning is a critical threshold in daily urban rhythms1. But exactly, a threshold between what and what? As known, the Western imagination of the city is premised upon some overarching dichotomies, some great divides. In spatial terms, the city/countryside divide, or the city/territory, serves as a distinction which has traditionally informed the way we make sense of the urban experience at large. Indeed, urbanism – as opposed to ruralism – has been classically associated with human density, social heterogeneity, impersonal role-based interaction and segmental human relations. And incidentally, sociology as a discipline was born precisely as an investigation into this divide, then phrased as traditional versus modern, or mechanic versus organic.

  20. [Pediatrician's experience in announcing bad news].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnier-Schoedel, C; Trocmé, N; Carbajal, R; Leverger, G

    2018-02-01

    Few studies are available on pediatricians' experience with announcing bad news. Announcing bad news is an important component of medical practice and is even more complex in pediatrics because parents must be associated. We had 20 hospital pediatricians complete a questionnaire containing 30 questions about their own experience announcing bad news to a child or a teenager. In spite of their experience and the time they have spent practicing medicine, there are many limitations stemming from different factors concerning children, teenagers, their families, and themselves. The difficulties encountered by pediatricians are mainly related to the timing of the announcement, the location, the choice of the words used, and the poor understanding of children and families, due to intellectual, cultural, or psychological limitations. Pediatricians question their own capacity to make such an announcement, wondering if the information has actually been well understood. They indicate that they are themselves affected. Most of them develop and implement strategies to refute the emotional instability caused by the announcement of bad news. Yet many of them feel weak, even talking about a deep sense of loneliness and guilt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer: comparison of free breathing gating with the breath-hold technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia; Pedersen, Anders N; Nøttrup, Trine Jakobi

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer implies a risk of late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity. This is the first study to evaluate cardiopulmonary dose sparing of breathing adapted radiotherapy (BART) using free breathing gating......, and to compare this respiratory technique with voluntary breath-hold. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 17 patients were CT-scanned during non-coached breathing manoeuvre including free breathing (FB), end-inspiration gating (IG), end-expiration gating (EG), deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and end-expiration breath......-hold (EBH). The Varian Real-time Position Management system (RPM) was used to monitor respiratory movement and to gate the scanner. For each breathing phase, a population based internal margin (IM) was estimated based on average chest wall excursion, and incorporated into an individually optimised three...

  2. 48 CFR 31.205-3 - Bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bad debts. 31.205-3... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-3 Bad debts. Bad debts, including actual or estimated losses arising from uncollectible accounts receivable due...

  3. 26 CFR 1.166-4 - Reserve for bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the bad debts reserves of certain mutual savings banks, domestic building and loan associations, and... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserve for bad debts. 1.166-4 Section 1.166-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.166-4 Reserve for bad...

  4. ACTIVE CYCLE BREATHING TECHNIQUES IN HEART FAILURE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    Pulmonary Function Responses to Active Cycle. Breathing ... Key Words: Heart Failure, Active Cycle of Breathing ... cough, fatigue, reduced respiratory muscle mass, and. [5] ... an amount of exercise which is said to lower disease. [9].

  5. Oral breathing and speech disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia F. Hitos

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Mouth breathing can affect speech development, socialization, and school performance. Early detection of mouth breathing is essential to prevent and minimize its negative effects on the overall development of individuals.

  6. Periaqueductal Gray Control of Breathing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, Hari H.; Holstege, Gert; Homma,; Onimaru, H; Fukuchi, Y

    2010-01-01

    Change of the basic respiratory rhythm (eupnea) is a pre-requisite for survival. For example, sudden escape from danger needs rapid shallow breathing, strenuous exercise requires tachypnea for sufficient supply of oxygen and a strong anxiety reaction necessitates gasping. Also for vocalization (and

  7. Relationships between breath ratios, spirituality and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality ...

  8. Bad phosphorylation as a target of inhibition in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Ngoc-Linh-Chi; Pandey, Vijay; Zhu, Tao; Ma, Lan; Basappa; Lobie, Peter E

    2018-02-28

    Bcl-2 agonist of cell death (BAD) is a BH3-only member of the Bcl-2 family which possesses important regulatory function in apoptosis. BAD has also been shown to possess many non-apoptotic functions closely linked to cancer including regulation of glycolysis, autophagy, cell cycle progression and immune system development. Interestingly, BAD can be either pro-apoptotic or pro-survival depending on the phosphorylation state of three specific serine residues (human S75, S99 and S118). Expression of BAD and BAD phosphorylation patterns have been shown to influence tumor initiation and progression and play a predictive role in disease prognosis, drug response and chemosensitivity in various cancers. This review aims to summarize the current evidence on the functional role of BAD phosphorylation in human cancer and evaluate the potential utility of modulating BAD phosphorylation in cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Recommendations for how to communicate bad news

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Villa López

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The communication, along with the control of the symptoms and the emotional support are the basic instruments that are used in the daily development of our profession. To be little capable at the time of notifying bad news can generate an added suffering unnecessary in the person who receives the new and a deterioration in the relation professional-patient.In many occasions, at the time of approaching these situations, the professional of the health usually feels anguish, fear and restlessness, this is because during is scared and restlessness this happens because during his stage of studies in the faculty the student has received a formation based on the binomial health-disease from a totally biological perspective forgetting the abilities communication.Supported in different bibliographical sources, this article tries to analyze the factors that influence when communicating the bad news and, to suggest some preventatives ideas on how giving them trying to prevent the burnout syndrome.

  10. Hello Sunday Morning: Alcohol, (non)consumption and selfhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennay, Amy; MacLean, Sarah; Rankin, Georgia

    2016-02-01

    Hello Sunday Morning (HSM) is an online program that encourages people to commit to a period of non-drinking and blog about their experiences. The purpose of this paper is to explore how HSM members negotiated their periods of abstention, with a focus on how not drinking influenced their narratives of selfhood. Thematic analysis was undertaken of 2844 blog posts from 154 Victorians who signed up to HSM in 2013 or 2014. Analysis revealed three key narratives of selfhood offered by participants: (1) abstinence resulting in a disrupted sense of self, (2) non-consumption facilitating the development of a new healthy self, and (3) anti-consumption facilitating the development of a resistant self. Individuals construct and maintain their sense of self through consumption (or non-consumption) activities, and this occurs within the broader context of the relationship between selfhood, consumption and culture. HSM members developed narratives of self by drawing on a range of wider discursive structures concerning pleasure, healthism and resistance. The typologies of non-drinking selves identified in this paper could be disseminated through platforms such as HSM to support people who are new to non-drinking in choosing how they might construct and enact alternative selfhoods in contexts where alcohol consumption is deeply embedded. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An extremely high altitude plume seen at Mars morning terminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Garcia-Muñoz, Antonio; Garcia-Melendo, Enrique; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Gomez-Forrellad, Josep M.; Pellier, Christophe; Delcroix, Marc; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Gonzalez-Galindo, Francisco; Jaeschke, Wayne; Parker, Donald C.; Phillips, James H.; Peach, Damian

    2014-11-01

    We report the occurrence in March and April 2012 of two bright very high altitude plumes at the Martian terminator at 250 km or more above the surface, thus well into the ionosphere and bordering on the exosphere. They were located at about 195 deg West longitude and -45 deg latitude (at Terra Cimmeria) and lasted for about 10 days. The features showed day-to-day variability, and were seen at the morning terminator but not at the evening limb, which indicates rapid evolution in less than 10 hours and a cyclic behavior. Photometric measurements are used to explore two possible scenarios to explain their nature. If the phenomenon is due to suspended particles (dust, CO2 or H2O ice clouds) reflecting solar radiation, the mean size is about 0.1 microns with a nadir optical depth > 0.06. Alternatively, the plume could be auroral emission above a region with a strong magnetic anomaly and where aurora has previously been detected. Importantly, both explanations defy our current understanding of the Mars upper atmosphere.AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by the Spanish MINECO projects AYA2012-36666 with FEDER support, CONSOLIDER program ASTROMOL CSD2009-00038 and AYA2011-30613-CO2-1. Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT765-13 and UPV/EHU UFI11/55.

  12. Effects of load on good morning kinematics and EMG activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew David Vigotsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many strength and conditioning coaches utilize the good morning (GM to strengthen the hamstrings and spinal erectors. However, little research exists on its electromyography (EMG activity and kinematics, and how these variables change as a function of load. The purpose of this investigation was to examine how estimated hamstring length, integrated EMG (IEMG activity of the hamstrings and spinal erectors, and kinematics of the lumbar spine, hip, knee, and ankle are affected by changes in load. Fifteen trained male participants (age = 24.6 ± 5.3 years; body mass = 84.7 ± 11.3 kg; height = 180.9 ± 6.8 cm were recruited for this study. Participants performed five sets of the GM, utilizing 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM in a randomized fashion. IEMG activity of hamstrings and spinal erectors tended to increase with load. Knee flexion increased with load on all trials. Estimated hamstring length decreased with load. However, lumbar flexion, hip flexion, and plantar flexion experienced no remarkable changes between trials. These data provide insight as to how changing the load of the GM affects EMG activity, kinematic variables, and estimated hamstring length. Implications for hamstring injury prevention are discussed. More research is needed for further insight as to how load affects EMG activity and kinematics of other exercises.

  13. Glucocorticoid management in rheumatoid arthritis: morning or night low dose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Paolino

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Morning symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA are linked to circadian increase of night inflammation, supported by inadequate cortisol secretion in active disease. Therefore, exogenous glucocorticoid administration in RA is recommended by EULAR and ACR from the beginning of the diagnosis, since may partially act like a “replacement therapy”. In addition, the prevention/treatment of the night up-regulation of the immune/inflammatory reaction has been shown more effective when exogenous glucocorticoid administration is managed with a night-time-release formulation. Despite a considerably higher cost than conventional prednisone (immediate release, chronotherapy with night-time-release prednisone has been recognized a cost-effective option for RA patients not on glucocorticoids who are eligible for therapy with biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs. Interestingly, since different cell populations involved in the inflammatory process are particularly activated during the night (i.e. monocytes, macrophages, other therapeutical approaches used in RA, such as conventional DMARDs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs should follow the same concepts of glucocorticoid chronotherapy. Therefore, bedtime methotrexate chronotherapy was found to better manage RA symptoms, and several available NSAIDs (i.e. indomethacin, aceclofenac, ketoprofen, flurbiprofen, lornoxicam have been recently modified in their formulation, in order to obtain more focused night action.

  14. Extinction of conditioned fear is better learned and recalled in the morning than in the evening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Spencer, Rebecca M C; Vijayakumar, Shilpa; Ahmed, Nafis A K; Verga, Patrick W; Orr, Scott P; Pitman, Roger K; Milad, Mohammed R

    2013-11-01

    Sleep helps emotional memories consolidate and may promote generalization of fear extinction memory. We examined whether extinction learning and memory might differ in the morning and evening due, potentially, to circadian and/or sleep-homeostatic factors. Healthy men (N = 109) in 6 groups completed a 2-session protocol. In Session 1, fear conditioning was followed by extinction learning. Partial reinforcement with mild electric shock produced conditioned skin conductance responses (SCRs) to 2 differently colored lamps (CS+), but not a third color (CS-), within the computer image of a room (conditioning context). One CS+ (CS + E) but not the other (CS + U) was immediately extinguished by un-reinforced presentations in a different room (extinction context). Delay durations of 3 h (within AM or PM), 12 h (morning-to-evening or evening-to-morning) or 24 h (morning-to-morning or evening-to-evening) followed. In Session 2, extinction recall and contextual fear renewal were tested. We observed no significant effects of the delay interval on extinction memory but did observe an effect of time-of-day. Fear extinction was significantly better if learned in the morning (p = .002). Collapsing across CS + type, there was smaller morning differential SCR at both extinction recall (p = .003) and fear renewal (p = .005). Morning extinction recall showed better generalization from the CS + E to CS + U with the response to the CS + U significantly larger than to the CS + E only in the evening (p = .028). Thus, extinction is learned faster and its memory is better generalized in the morning. Cortisol and testosterone showed the expected greater salivary levels in the morning when higher testosterone/cortisol ratio also predicted better extinction learning. Circadian factors may promote morning extinction. Alternatively, evening homeostatic sleep pressure may impede extinction and favor recall of conditioned fear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bad Loans and Loan Write-Offs

    OpenAIRE

    福田, 慎一; 鯉渕, 賢

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate who bears the burden when writing off bad loans in Japan. Traditionally, Japanese main banks bore large burdens in saving their customers. We still find that some main banks bear a large burden in saving their customers. However, in most cases, main banks became very reluctant to bear large burdens when bailing out their customers. In the transition from the bank-based system to a market-based system, traditional implicit rules are collapsing dramatically. We sug...

  16. A short guide to giving bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jeffrey T

    2008-01-01

    Approaching an individual or a family with bad news, but without an appropriate plan to present the information in a structured manner, is almost a guarantee of greater emotional pain and disruption for the recipients of the news. Crisis interveners must develop a strategic plan for the announcement of bad news. That plan should entail a lead-up phase, a transmission phase, and a followup phase. The lead-up phase encompasses the gathering of accurate, verifiable information and the clear identification of the targets of the information. The transmission phase includes immediate preparation for the presentation of the information, the actual announcement, and the presentation of additional details as questions arise. The follow-up phase includes a range of supportive interventions to assist people in the immediate crisis reaction. It also includes a system of referrals for people who might benefit from additional professional care. This article provides practical guidelines for providing bad news to the loved ones of injured, ill, or deceased people.

  17. Use of Songs to Promote Independence in Morning Greeting Routines for Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Petra; Wolery, Mark; Aldridge, David

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of individually composed songs on the independent behaviors of two young children with autism during the morning greeting/entry routine into their inclusive classrooms. A music therapist composed a song for each child related to the steps of the morning greeting routine and taught the children's teachers to sing…

  18. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  19. Association Between ICU Admission During Morning Rounds and Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajic, Ognjen; Morales, Ian J.; Keegan, Mark T.; Peters, Steve G.; Hubmayr, Rolf D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: No previous study has evaluated the association between admission to ICUs during round time and patient outcome. The objective of this study was to determine the association between round-time ICU admission and patient outcome. Methods: This retrospective study included 49,844 patients admitted from October 1994 to December 2007 to four ICUs (two surgical, one medical, and one multispecialty) of an academic medical center. Of these patients, 3,580 were admitted to the ICU during round time (8:00 am to 10:59 am) and 46,264 were admitted during nonround time (from 1:00 pm to 6:00 am). The medical ICU had 24-h/7-day per week intensivist coverage during the last 2 years of the study. We compared the baseline characteristics and outcome of patients admitted to the ICU between the two groups. Data were abstracted from the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III database. Results: The round-time and non-round-groups were similar in gender, ethnicity, and age. The predicted hospital mortality rate of the round time group was higher (17.4% vs 12.3% predicted, respectively; p < 0.001). The hospital length of stay was similar between the two groups. The round-time group had a higher hospital mortality rate (16.2% vs 8.8%, respectively; p < 0.001). Most of the round-time ICU admissions and deaths occurred in the medical ICU. Round-time admission was an independent risk factor for hospital death (odds ratio, 1.321; 95% CI, 1.178 to 1.481). This independent association was present for the whole study period except for the last 2 years. Conclusions: Patients admitted to the ICU during morning rounds have higher severity of illness and mortality rates. PMID:19505985

  20. Morning anaerobic performance is not altered by vigilance impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Lericollais

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the role played by vigilance on the anaerobic performance recorded during a Wingate test performed at the bathyphase (nadir of the circadian rhythmicity. Twenty active male participants performed a 60-s Wingate test at 6 a.m. during 3 test sessions in counter-balanced order the day after either (i a normal reference night, (ii a total sleep deprivation night, or (iii a total sleep deprivation night associated with an extended simulated driving task from 9 p.m. to 5 a.m. During this task, the number of inappropriate line crossings (ILCs was used to control and quantify the effective decrease in the level of vigilance. The main findings show that (i vigilance of each participant was significantly altered (i.e., a drastic and progressive increase in ILCs is shown during the 7.5 hours of driving by the sleep deprivation night associated with an extended driving task; (ii the subjective evaluation of vigilance performed by self-rated scale revealed an increased impairment of the vigilance level between the normal reference night, the total sleep deprivation night and the total sleep deprivation night associated with an extended driving task; and (iii the morning following this last condition, during the Wingate test, the recorded cycling biomechanical parameters (peak power, mean power and fatigue index values, power decrease, and cycling kinetic and kinematic patterns were not significantly different from the two other conditions. Consequently, these results show that anaerobic performances recorded during a Wingate test performed at the bathyphase of the circadian rhythmicity are not altered by a drastic impairment in vigilance. These findings seem to indicate that vigilance is probably not a factor that contributes to circadian variations in anaerobic performance.

  1. Mapleson′s breathing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej K Kaul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.

  2. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  3. Antisocial features and "faking bad": A critical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesten, Isabella J M; Nentjes, Lieke; Merckelbach, Harald; Bernstein, David P

    2015-01-01

    We critically review the literature on antisocial personality features and symptom fabrication (i.e., faking bad; e.g., malingering). A widespread assumption is that these constructs are intimately related. Some studies have, indeed, found that antisocial individuals score higher on instruments detecting faking bad, but others have been unable to replicate this pattern. In addition, studies exploring whether antisocial individuals are especially talented in faking bad have generally come up with null results. The notion of an intrinsic link between antisocial features and faking bad is difficult to test and research in this domain is sensitive to selection bias. We argue that research on faking bad would profit from further theoretical articulation. One topic that deserves scrutiny is how antisocial features affect the cognitive dissonance typically induced by faking bad. We illustrate our points with preliminary data and discuss their implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Managing Bad Loans of Domestic Banks under Modern Economic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolhar Tetyana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main methods of management of bad bank loans under modern economic conditions, conducts analysis of internal and external banking methods used by Ukrainian banks, and specifies and identifies their advantages and shortcomings. In the result of the study the article analyses in detail the use of the methods of rehabilitation and liquidation of bad loans. It considers organisation of internal and external banking methods of liquidation of bad loans, considers mechanism of their conduct and identifies advantages and shortcomings of their application both for a bank and a borrower. Prospect of further studies in this direction is improvement of methods of assessment of bad loans, in particular, development of methodological approaches to identification of assessment of profitability of bad loans as an important element of the system of management of bad loans of a bank.

  5. Thoracic radiotherapy and breath control: current prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboul, F.; Mineur, L.; Paoli, J.B.; Bodez, V.; Oozeer, R.; Garcia, R.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) is adversely affected by setup error and organ motion. In thoracic 3D CRT, breathing accounts for most of intra-fraction movements, thus impairing treatment quality. Breath control clearly exhibits dosimetric improvement compared to free breathing, leading to various techniques for gated treatments. We review benefits of different breath control methods -i.e. breath-holding or beam gating, with spirometric, isometric or X-ray respiration sensor- and argument the choice of expiration versus inspiration, with consideration to dosimetric concerns. All steps of 3D-CRT can be improved with breath control. Contouring of organs at risk (OAR) and target are easier and more accurate on breath controlled CT-scans. Inter- and intra-fraction target immobilisation allows smaller margins with better coverage. Lung outcome predictors (NTCP, Mean Dose, LV20, LV30) are improved with breath-control. In addition, inspiration breath control facilitates beam arrangement since it widens the distance between OAR and target, and leaves less lung normal tissue within the high dose region. Last, lung density, as of CT scan, is more accurate, improving dosimetry. Our institutions choice is to use spirometry driven, patient controlled high-inspiration breath-hold; this technique gives excellent immobilization results, with high reproducibility, yet it is easy to implement and costs little extra treatment time. Breath control, whatever technique is employed, proves superior to free breathing treatment when using 3D-CRT. Breath control should then be used whenever possible, and is probably mandatory for IMRT. (authors)

  6. Managing Bad Loans of Domestic Banks under Modern Economic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bolhar Tetyana M.

    2014-01-01

    The article considers main methods of management of bad bank loans under modern economic conditions, conducts analysis of internal and external banking methods used by Ukrainian banks, and specifies and identifies their advantages and shortcomings. In the result of the study the article analyses in detail the use of the methods of rehabilitation and liquidation of bad loans. It considers organisation of internal and external banking methods of liquidation of bad loans, considers mechanism of ...

  7. Competition in Healthcare: Good, Bad or Ugly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goddard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of competition in healthcare is much debated. Despite a wealth of international experience in relation to competition, evidence is mixed and contested and the debate about the potential role for competition is often polarised. This paper considers briefly some of the reasons for this, focusing on what is meant by “competition in healthcare” and why it is more valuable to think about the circumstances in which competition is more and less likely to be a good tool to achieve benefits, rather than whether or not it is “good” or “bad,” per se.

  8. Video games: good, bad, or other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prot, Sara; McDonald, Katelyn A; Anderson, Craig A; Gentile, Douglas A

    2012-06-01

    Video games are a pervasive pastime among children and adolescents. The growing popularity of video games has instigated a debate among parents, researchers, video game producers, and policymakers concerning potential harmful and helpful effects of video games on children. This article provides an overview of research findings on the positive and negative effects of video games, thus providing an empirical answer to the question, are video games good or bad? The article also provides some guidelines to help pediatricians, parents, and other caregivers protect children from negative effects and to maximize positive effects of video games. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Second measurement of morning systolic blood pressure is more closely associated with albuminuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakabe, Kazumi; Fukui, Michiaki; Ushigome, Emi; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Tanaka, Toru; Atsuta, Haruhiko; Ohnishi, Masayoshi; Oda, Yohei; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto

    2012-08-01

    It is important to control blood pressure as well as to control blood glucose for the prevention of diabetic nephropathy. However, to our knowledge, there are no reports investigating which blood pressure, including morning, evening and clinic, is more closely associated with albuminuria and whether one measurement is sufficient or not in patients with Type 2 diabetes. We measured morning, evening and clinic blood pressure and compared the area under the curve (AUC) of blood pressure for urinary albumin excretion equal to or more than 30 mg/g creatinine using receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses and odds ratio for albuminuria defined as urinary albumin excretion equal to or more than 30 mg/g creatinine in 858 patients with Type 2 diabetes. Odds ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)) of morning, evening and clinic systolic blood pressure for albuminuria was 1.034 (1.024 - 1.044), 1.033 (1.023 - 1.043) and 1.013 (1.055 - 1.021), respectively (p AUC of morning, evening and clinic systolic blood pressure was 0.644 (0.628 - 0.700) (p AUC of the second morning systolic blood pressure was greater than the first (p = 0.033). The second measurement of morning systolic blood pressure is more closely associated with albuminuria than the first measurement of the morning in addition to clinic systolic blood pressure.

  10. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, Mette K; Van Vulpen, Marco; Intven, Martijn; Crijns, Sjoerd P M; Lagendijk, Jan J W; Raaymakers, Bas W; Barendrecht, Maurits M; Zonnenberg, Bernard A

    2013-01-01

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney. (paper)

  11. Comparison of overnight, morning and 24-hour urine collections in the assessment of diabetic microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eshøj, O; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Larsen, M L

    1987-01-01

    With the aim of comparing different urine collection periods in the assessment of micro-albuminuria, urinary albumin excretion rates (AERs) were measured in samples from 24 h, overnight, and morning urine collections in 54 patients aged 17 to 62 years with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus...... overnight and morning urine samples. These values were slightly improved by relating AER to the excretion of creatinine and it is concluded that overnight as well as morning urine collections can be used when diagnosing microalbuminuria in insulin-dependent diabetics. Furthermore the results show...

  12. Relationships between hippocampal activity and breathing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, R M; Poe, G R; Rector, D M

    1998-01-01

    Single cell discharge, EEG activity, and optical changes accompanying alterations in breathing patterns, as well as the knowledge that respiratory musculature is heavily involved in movement and other behavioral acts, implicate hippocampal regions in some aspects of breathing control. The control...... is unlikely to reside in oscillatory breathing movements, because such patterns emerge in preparations retaining only the medulla (and perhaps only the spinal cord). However, momentary changes in breathing patterns induced by affect, startle, whole-body movement changes, or compensatory ventilatory changes...... of hippocampal contributions to breathing control should be viewed in the context that significant interactions exist between blood pressure changes and ventilation, and that modest breathing challenges, such as exposure to hypercapnia or to increased resistive loads, bring into action a vast array of brain...

  13. Least bad solutions to the 'drugs problem'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugford, S

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the current difficulties being faced in Australia by policy-makers attempting to regulate the non-medical use of illegal drugs, and it is suggested that the difficulties centre upon two aspects. First, existing prohibitions are unsuccessful, with use levels rising and, in some arenas (e.g. cocaine use in the USA), quite out of control. On the other hand, a move towards decriminalization or legalization is difficult because past propaganda has been so vehement that a change now apparently risks sending the wrong messages to young people. This dilemma means that there is no solution, including inertia, which is risk-free, nor is there one free of difficulties. It is thus relevant to think in terms of 'least bad' rather than 'best' when formulating a system to face these problems. The exploration of what this least bad solution might be begins with the examination of the prominent myths (such as 'the drug-free society', 'the evil pusher', 'the user as victim' and 'the young person as cultural dope') that hinder our reasoning. Secondly, by suggesting that, in a climate of increasing crime related to drugs, inability of prohibitions to control that use and escalating health risks attendant on use (including the AIDS problem), the central policy thrust must be harm reduction and damage minimization rather than illusory goals such as widespread abstinence. The paper concludes with a discussion of some relevant evidence on alternative options.

  14. Cinema and the communication of bad news

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel GÓMEZ CORDOBA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Breaking Bad News requires medical professionals possess a range of skills to ensure that the patient has the information required for decision?making, this process occurs without further damage and even has a therapeutic effect, and another, that the doctor is not exposed to legal risk or stress associated with the inability to cope with the feelings of the patient, their families or themselves. This article discusses the aspects of communication of bad news in the field of doctor?patient relationship will be presented. The SPIKES model and discussion of movie segments related to the subject was employed as a thread, such as Doctor, 50/50, The Barbarian Invasions, Wings of Life, Stepmom, Letters to God, Wit, The butterfly blue, The power of friendship, Life without me, Make me laugh, Knockin ‘on Heaven’s Door, My Life, A crazy Loose in Brooklyn, As suicide and not die in the attempt, A lesson of life, and The sacrifice of a mother, as a pedagogical strategy in medical training.

  15. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgay Izci Balserak

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the severity of SDB, the epidemiology and the risk factors of SDB in pregnancy, the association of SDB with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and screening and management options specific for this population.

  16. Environmental contamination and breathing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona A, Jose D

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric contamination is the main component of the environmental contamination and it can be defined as the presence in the atmosphere of an or several substances in enough quantity to produce alterations of the health, it is presented in aerosol form, with its gassy and specific components, altering the quality of the population's life and the degradation of the ecosystems. The main pollutant, as much for the frequency as for the importance of its effects, is the smoke of cigarettes. The paper mentions other types of polluting agents and their effects in the breathing apparatus

  17. SAC-C Mission and the Morning Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomb, F. R.; Alonso, C.; Hofmann, C.; Frulla, L.; Nollmann, I.; Milovich, J.; Kuba, J.; Ares, F.; Kalemkarian, M.

    2002-01-01

    components (ICARE), provided by CNES will permit improvement of risk estimation models for radiation effect on last generation integrated circuit technology. . On June 14th, 2000 CONAE and NASA signed an amendment to the Memorandum of Understanding for the SAC-C mission in order that the SAC-C satellite, were included in a constellation - named "Morning Constellation". It is integrated by USA satellites Landsat 7, EO 1, Terra, and Argentine SAC-C that feature on-board instruments from the United States, Argentina, Denmark, Italy, France, and Japan. The four satellite tracks on the Earth's surface are the same, their orbital height being 705 km and their inclination, 98.21 degrees. They cross the Equator at 10:00, 10:01, 10:15, and 10:30 hours, respectively (local time). Satellites comply with the World Wide Reference System. The Constellation has been working since March 2001 as a single mission and several cooperative activities have been undertaken and will be presented in this paper. Several jointly sponsored technical workshops have been held, and also collaborative spacecraft navigation experiments have been made. One of the objectives of the AM Constellation is the collaboration in the case of emergencies, NASA and CONAE agreed to give preference in those situation in the planification of their satellite acquisitions. From all the possible hazardous events, the most important for the country are fire and floods. In relation to fires, CONAE is presently adapting and developing the algorithms for using MODIS data to generate a fire map product. Additionally research on fire detection is carried out using the data from the HSTC camera. In relation to flooding, CONAE works in cooperation to national institutions providing the data and, in some cases, producing flood extent maps. In particular MMRS data is demonstrating to be very effective due to its spectral and radiometric resolutions, and its large swath which is well suited for extended countries like Argentina.

  18. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath

  19. [Sleep quality and hormone levels in the morning and evening hours under chemical pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budkevich, R O; Budkevich, E V

    To evaluate self-assessment of sleep and the level of hormones in the morning and evening in chemical pollution conditions. Three hundred adolescent and adult men living in the regions with low and high levels of chemical pollution were examined using questionnaires for self-assessment of quality of sleep, sleep hygiene, daytime sleepiness. Levels of cortisol and testosterone in the saliva were determined in the morning and evening hours by ELISA. In areas with low pollution level, there were normal changes in hormone levels with an increase in the morning and decrease in the evening. In high pollution conditions, the average levels of hormones increased, the morning-evening gradient disappeared. These conditions were also associated with an increase in daytime sleepiness and disturbances in the sleep-wake cycle and the endocrine regulation system that indicate the possibility of the development of internal desynchronosis.

  20. Predictors and Trajectories of Morning Fatigue Are Distinct from Evening Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Fay; Melkus, Gail D’Eramo; Hammer, Marilyn; Schmidt, Brian L.; Knobf, M. Tish; Paul, Steven M.; Cartwright, Frances; Mastick, Judy; Cooper, Bruce A.; Chen, Lee-May; Melisko, Michelle; Levine, Jon D.; Kober, Kord; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Context Fatigue is the most common symptom in oncology patients during chemotherapy (CTX). Little is known about the predictors of interindividual variability in initial levels and trajectories of morning fatigue severity in these patients. Objectives An evaluation was done to determine which demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics were associated with initial levels as well as the trajectories of morning fatigue and to compare findings with our companion paper on evening fatigue. Methods A sample of outpatients with breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, and lung cancer (N=586) completed demographic and symptom questionnaires a total of six times over two cycles of CTX. Fatigue severity was evaluated using the Lee Fatigue Scale. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to answer the study objectives. Results A large amount of interindividual variability was found in the morning fatigue trajectories. A piecewise model fit the data best. Patients with higher body mass index (BMI), who did not exercise regularly, with a lower functional status, and who had higher levels of state anxiety, sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms, reported higher levels of morning fatigue at enrollment. Variations in the trajectories of morning fatigue were predicted by the patients’ ethnicity and younger age. Conclusion The modifiable risk factors that were associated with only morning fatigue were BMI, exercise, and state anxiety. Modifiable risk factors that were associated with both morning and evening fatigue included functional status, depressive symptoms, and sleep disturbance. Using this information, clinicians can identify patients at higher risk for more severe morning fatigue and evening fatigue, provide individualized patient education, and tailor interventions to address the modifiable risk factors. PMID:25828559

  1. Basal encephalocele associated with morning glory syndrome: case report Encefalocele basal associada a síndrome "morning glory": relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanete Minotto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The basal encephaloceles refer to rare entities and they correspond to herniation of brain tissue through defects of skull along the cribiform plate or the sphenoid bone. A rare morning glory syndrome, with characteristic retinal defect has been reported in association with basal encephaloceles. Hypophysis hormonal deficiencies may occur. We accounted for a pituitary dwarfism with delayed diagnosed transsphenoidal encephalocele associated with morning glory syndrome, showing the alterations found in retinography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.As encefaloceles basais são entidades raras e correspondem a herniações do tecido cerebral através de um defeito do crânio, ao longo da lâmina crivosa etmoidal ou do osso esfenoidal. A rara síndrome morning glory, com alterações de fundo de olho características pode apresentar-se associada à encefalocele basal. Deficiências hormonais hipofisárias podem ocorrer. Relatamos caso de nanismo hipofisário com encefalocele transesfenoidal de diagnóstico tardio associada à síndrome de morning glory, mostrando as alterações na retinografia, tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética.

  2. Influenza virus induces apoptosis via BAD-mediated mitochondrial dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Anh T; Cortens, John P; Du, Qiujiang; Wilkins, John A; Coombs, Kevin M

    2013-01-01

    Influenza virus infection results in host cell death and major tissue damage. Specific components of the apoptotic pathway, a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to cell death, are implicated in promoting influenza virus replication. BAD is a cell death regulator that constitutes a critical control point in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, which occurs through the dysregulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and the subsequent activation of downstream apoptogenic factors. Here we report a novel proviral role for the proapoptotic protein BAD in influenza virus replication. We show that influenza virus-induced cytopathology and cell death are considerably inhibited in BAD knockdown cells and that both virus replication and viral protein production are dramatically reduced, which suggests that virus-induced apoptosis is BAD dependent. Our data showed that influenza viruses induced phosphorylation of BAD at residues S112 and S136 in a temporal manner. Viral infection also induced BAD cleavage, late in the viral life cycle, to a truncated form that is reportedly a more potent inducer of apoptosis. We further demonstrate that knockdown of BAD resulted in reduced cytochrome c release and suppression of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway during influenza virus replication, as seen by an inhibition of caspases-3, caspase-7, and procyclic acidic repetitive protein (PARP) cleavage. Our data indicate that influenza viruses carefully modulate the activation of the apoptotic pathway that is dependent on the regulatory function of BAD and that failure of apoptosis activation resulted in unproductive viral replication.

  3. Breaking bad news: issues relating to nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Clare

    2014-07-15

    The breaking of bad news was traditionally regarded to be the time when a doctor and nurse sat down with a patient and family members to provide information about, for example, a life-limiting diagnosis or a poor prognosis. However, breaking bad news is now generally accepted as a process, not a one-off event, and is considered to refer to any bad, sad or difficult information that alters patients' perceptions of their present and future. Nurses have an important role in the process of providing information and helping patients prepare for, receive, understand and cope with the bad news they have been given. This article aims to help nurses understand the process of breaking bad news and discuss the challenges and difficulties that nurses can face when they are involved with patients who have been given bad news. It also provides guidance with regard to preparing for breaking bad news, giving difficult information, responding to possible reactions, and supporting patients and their relatives after they have received bad news.

  4. 48 CFR 2131.205-3 - Bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Bad debts. 2131.205-3 Section 2131.205-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL... PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 2131.205-3 Bad debts. Erroneous benefit...

  5. 26 CFR 301.6657-1 - Bad checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 301.6657-1 Section 301.6657-1... Additions to the Tax and Additional Amounts § 301.6657-1 Bad checks. (a) In general. Except as provided in... district director that it was tendered in good faith with reasonable cause to believe that it would be duly...

  6. 48 CFR 1631.205-71 - FEHBP bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true FEHBP bad debts. 1631.205-71 Section 1631.205-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL... AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.205-71 FEHBP bad debts. Erroneous benefit...

  7. HOW TO MANAGE DATA BADLY (PART 1 & 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a landmark article in The American Statistician, Howard Wainer (1994) presented ideas for (a) "How to Display Data Badly," wherein good data are ruined by bad graphics. Wainer presumed too much. In this essay, I extend his concept by presenting ideas and examples of how scient...

  8. Evaluating Third-Party Bad Neighborhood Blacklists for Spam Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, Giovane; Sperotto, Anna; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko; Seon Hong, C.; Diao, Y.; De Turk, F.

    The distribution of malicious hosts over the IP address space is far from being uniform. In fact, malicious hosts tend to be concentrate in certain portions of the IP address space, forming the so-called Bad Neighborhoods. This phenomenon has been previously exploited to filter Spam by means of Bad

  9. Mentoring Graduate Students: The Good, Bad, and Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Jeanne H.; Jolly-Ballantine, John-Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Good mentoring of graduate students influences their perseverance and success to completion, whereas bad mentoring can result in negative outcomes, including delayed degree completion or non-completion. What the authors refer to as the gray zone is that which falls between good and bad mentoring. Examples are partial mentoring or changes in…

  10. Bad Public Leadership in South Africa: The Jackie Selebi Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article scrutinises the literature on bad public leadership and then presents an analysis of a South African case of bad public leadership. Leadership is analysed in terms of contextual as well as conceptual perspectives. The article emphasises that both context as well as conceptual and theoretical factors should be ...

  11. Have we lost the ability to listen to bad news?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oorschot, Kim.E.; van Wassenhove, Luk; Sengupta, Kishore; Akkermans, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that project managers continuously prioritised good vibes (positive, but subjective signals) over bad news (negative, but objective signals), which resulted in decisions of poor quality. Without understanding the root causes that generate the bad news and the good vibes, managers

  12. Positive Organizational Behavior: A Buffer for Bad News

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Sandra L.; Holden, Tracey Quigley

    2012-01-01

    Most communication research on bad news messages focuses on crisis communication, where attention is often limited to image repair strategies. The authors argue that a key indicator of an organization's effectiveness in communicating "bad news" messages is its organizational culture. Developing an organizational culture that values positive…

  13. Displaying fairness while delivering bad news: Testing the effectiveness of organizational bad news training in the layoff context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Manuela; König, Cornelius J; Koppermann, Christopher; Schilling, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Although giving bad news at work is a stressful experience, managers are often underprepared for this challenging task. As a solution, we introduce organizational bad news training that integrates (a) principles of delivering bad news from the context of health care (i.e., bad news delivery component), and (b) principles of organizational justice theory (i.e., fairness component). We argue that both the formal and fair delivery of bad news at work can be enhanced with the help of training to mitigate distress both for the messenger and the recipient. We tested the effectiveness of training for the delivery of a layoff as a typical bad news event at work. In 2 studies, we compared the performance of a training group (receiving both components of training) with that of a control group (Study 1, Study 2) and a basics group (receiving the bad news delivery component only; Study 2) during a simulated dismissal notification meeting. In general, the results supported our hypotheses: Training improved the formal delivery of bad news and predicted indicators of procedural fairness during the conversation in both studies. In Study 2, we also considered layoff victims' negativity after the layoff and found that training significantly reduced negative responses. This relationship was fully mediated by layoff victims' fairness perceptions. Despite preparation, however, giving bad news remained a challenging task in both studies. In summary, we recommend that organizations provide managers with organizational bad news training in order to promote professional and fair bad news conversations at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  15. [Breaking bad news in oncology: the Belgian experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delevallez, F; Lienard, A; Gibon, A-S; Razavi, D

    2014-10-01

    Breaking bad news is a complex and frequent clinical task for physicians working in oncology. It can have a negative impact on patients and their relatives who are often present during breaking bad news consultations. Many factors influence how the delivery of bad news will be experienced especially the communication skills used by physicians. A three-phase process (post-delivery phase, delivery phase, pre-delivery phase) has been developed to help physician to handle this task more effectively. Communication skills and specific breaking bad news training programs are both necessary and effective. A recent study conducted in Belgium has shown their impact on the time allocated to each of the three phases of this process, on the communication skills used, on the inclusion of the relative in the consultation and on physicians' physiological arousal. These results underscore the importance of promoting intensive communication skills and breaking bad news training programs for health care professionals.

  16. Experimental geothermal well at Bad Schinznach. First results; Geothermiebohrung Bad Schinznach. Erste Resultate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, M O [Haering Geo-Project, Steinmaur (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    The spa of Bad Schinznach (Canton Argovia, Switzerland) endeavours to cover its heating requirements with geothermal energy. A recently drilled well to a depth of 890 meters encountered the regional acquifer of thermal water (Oberer Muschelkalk, Triassic) in three levels. Preliminary results indicate a productive aquifer in the uppermost level with a wellhead temperature of 42 C. An additional exploitation of the bottomhole formation temperature of 63 C is envisaged. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Bad Schinznach (Kanton Aargau, Schweiz) moechte im Rahmen der wirtschaftlichen Moeglichkeiten seinen Waermebedarf mit der Nutzung des Thermalwassers aus dem Oberen Muschelkalk (Trias) decken. Eine neulich abgeteufte Bohrung bis auf 890 Meter Tiefe hat die Formation auf drei Niveaus angetroffen. Erste Resultate deuten auf ein nutzbares Vorkommen im obersten Horizont mit einer Austrittstemperatur von 42 C. Eine zusaetzliche Nutzung der hohen Formationstemperatur von 63 C auf Endtiefe wird erwogen. (orig.)

  17. Learn good from bad: Effects of good and bad neighbors in spatial prisoners' dilemma games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng

    2015-10-01

    Cooperation is vital for the human society and this study focuses on how to promote cooperation. In our stratification model, there exist three classes: two minorities are elites who are prone to cooperate and scoundrels who are born to defect; one majority is the class of common people. Agents of these three classes interact with each other on a square lattice. Commons' cooperation and its factors are investigated. Contradicting our common sense, it indicates that elites play a negative role while scoundrels play a positive one in promoting commons' cooperation. Besides, effects of good and bad neighbors vary with temptation. When the temptation is smaller the positive effect is able to overcome the negative effect, but the later prevails when the temptation is larger. It concludes that common people are more prone to cooperate in harsh environment with bad neighbors, and a better environment with good neighbors merely leads to laziness and free riding of commons.

  18. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  19. Bad Luck or Bad Decisions: College Students' Perceptions of the Reasons for and Consequences of Their Alcohol Overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Janet

    2007-01-01

    Reasons for and immediate consequences of an alcohol overdose were explored for 217 undergraduate students requiring a medical emergency transport because of excessive alcohol consumption. The sample was categorized into 26 students attributing their overdose solely to bad luck and 191 students citing bad decision making as an explanation. A…

  20. Occurrence of a 'bad' split and success of initial mandibular healing: a review of 524 sagittal ramus osteotomies in 262 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posnick, J C; Choi, E; Liu, S

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of a 'bad' split after sagittal ramus osteotomies (SRO) and report the results of initial mandibular healing. A retrospective cohort study derived from patients treated by a single surgeon at one institution between 2004 and 2013 was performed. An index group consisting of a series of subjects with a spectrum of bimaxillary dentofacial deformities also involving the chin and symptomatic chronic obstructive nasal breathing was identified. The SRO design, bicortical screw fixation technique, and perioperative management were consistent. Outcome variables included the occurrence of a 'bad' split and the success of initial SRO healing. Two hundred sixty-two subjects undergoing 524 SROs met the inclusion criteria. Their average age was 25 years (range 13-63 years) and 134 were female (51%). Simultaneous removal of a third molar was performed during 209 of the SROs (40%). There were no 'bad' splits. All subjects achieved successful bone union, the planned occlusion, and return to a chewing diet and physical activities by 5 weeks after surgery. The presence of a third molar removed during SRO was not associated with an increased frequency of a 'bad' split or delayed mandibular healing. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...

  2. The indoor air we breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions.

  3. Thematic and content analysis of idiopathic nightmares and bad dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Geneviève; Zadra, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    To conduct a comprehensive and comparative study of prospectively collected bad dream and nightmare reports using a broad range of dream content variables. Correlational and descriptive. Participants' homes. Three hundred thirty-one adult volunteers (55 men, 275 women, 1 not specified; mean age = 32.4 ± 14.8 y). N/A. Five hundred seventy-two participants kept a written record of all of their remembered dreams in a log for 2 to 5 consecutive weeks. A total of 9,796 dream reports were collected and the content of 253 nightmares and 431 bad dreams reported by 331 participants was investigated. Physical aggression was the most frequently reported theme in nightmares, whereas interpersonal conflicts predominated in bad dreams. Nightmares were rated by participants as being substantially more emotionally intense than were bad dreams. Thirty-five percent of nightmares and 55% of bad dreams contained primary emotions other than fear. When compared to bad dreams, nightmares were more bizarre and contained substantially more aggressions, failures, and unfortunate endings. The results have important implications on how nightmares are conceptualized and defined and support the view that when compared to bad dreams, nightmares represent a somewhat rarer-and more severe-expression of the same basic phenomenon.

  4. The good news about giving bad news to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Neil J; Urban, Susan Y; Collier, Virginia U; Weiner, Joan; Polite, Ronald G; Davis, Elizabeth B; Boyer, E Gil

    2002-12-01

    There are few data available on how physicians inform patients about bad news. We surveyed internists about how they convey this information. We surveyed internists about their activities in giving bad news to patients. One set of questions was about activities for the emotional support of the patient (11 items), and the other was about activities for creating a supportive environment for delivering bad news (9 items). The impact of demographic factors on the performance of emotionally supportive items, environmentally supportive items, and on the number of minutes reportedly spent delivering news was analyzed by analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis. More than half of the internists reported that they always or frequently performed 10 of the 11 emotionally supportive items and 6 of the 9 environmentally supportive items while giving bad news to patients. The average time reportedly spent in giving bad news was 27 minutes. Although training in giving bad news had a significant impact on the number of emotionally supportive items reported (P woman, unmarried, and having a history of major illness were also associated with reporting a greater number of emotionally supportive activities. Internists report that they inform patients of bad news appropriately. Some deficiencies exist, specifically in discussing prognosis and referral of patients to support groups. Physician educational efforts should include discussion of prognosis with patients as well as the availability of support groups.

  5. Cardiorespiratory interactions during resistive load breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, P; Perrault, H; Dinh, T P; Eberhard, A; Benchetrit, G

    2000-12-01

    The addition to the respiratory system of a resistive load results in breathing pattern changes and in negative intrathoracic pressure increases. The aim of this study was to use resistive load breathing as a stimulus to the cardiorespiratory interaction and to examine the extent of the changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in relation to the breathing pattern changes. HRV and RSA were studied in seven healthy subjects where four resistive loads were applied in a random order during the breath and 8-min recording made in each condition. The HRV spectral power components were computed from the R-R interval sequences, and the RSA amplitude and phase were computed from the sinusoid fitting the instantaneous heart rate within each breath. Adding resistive loads resulted in 1) increasing respiratory period, 2) unchanging heart rate, and 3) increasing HRV and changing RSA characteristics. HRV and RSA characteristics are linearly correlated to the respiratory period. These modifications appear to be linked to load-induced changes in the respiratory period in each individual, because HRV and RSA characteristics are similar at a respiratory period obtained either by loading or by imposed frequency breathing. The present results are discussed with regard to the importance of the breathing cycle duration in these cardiorespiratory interactions, suggesting that these interactions may depend on the time necessary for activation and dissipation of neurotransmitters involved in RSA.

  6. Optimal ventilatory patterns in periodic breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanshahi, S D; Khoo, M C

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether periodic breathing (PB), which is highly prevalent during sleep at high altitudes, imposes physiological penalties on the respiratory system in the absence of any accompanying disease. Using a computer model of respiratory gas exchange, we compared the effects of a variety of PB patterns on the chemical and mechanical costs of breathing to those resulting from regular tidal breathing. Although PB produced considerable fluctuation in arterial blood gas tensions, for the same cycle-averaged ventilation, higher arterial oxygen saturation and lower arterial carbon dioxide levels were achieved. This result can be explained by the fact that the combination of large breaths and apnea in PB leads to a substantial reduction in dead space ventilation. At the same time, the savings in mechanical cost achieved by the respiratory muscles during apnea partially offset the increase during the breathing phase. Consequently, the "pressure cost," a criterion based on mean inspiratory pressure, was elevated only slightly, although the average work rate of breathing increased significantly. We found that, at extreme altitudes, PB patterns with clusters of 2 to 4 large breaths that alternate with apnea produce the highest arterial oxygenation levels and lowest pressure costs. The common occurrence of PB patterns with closely similar features has been reported in sleeping healthy sojourners at extreme altitudes. Taken together, these findings suggest that PB favors a reduction in the oxygen demands of the respiratory muscles and therefore may not be as detrimental as it is generally believed to be.

  7. An Ultrasonic Contactless Sensor for Breathing Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Arlotto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569.

  8. Coming back to work in the morning: Psychological detachment and reattachment as predictors of work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Kühnel, Jana

    2016-10-01

    Research has shown that recovery processes in general and psychological detachment in particular are important for work engagement. We argue that work engagement additionally benefits from reattachment to work in the morning (i.e., mentally reconnecting to work before actually starting to work) and that the gains derived from psychological detachment and reattachment are stronger in the morning than in the afternoon. We tested our hypotheses in a daily diary study with a sample of 167 employees who completed 2 surveys per day over the period of 2 workweeks. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that work engagement was higher in the morning than in the afternoon. Evening psychological detachment and morning reattachment positively predicted work engagement throughout the day. The association between reattachment and work engagement was stronger in the morning than in the afternoon. This study demonstrates that not only psychological detachment from work during leisure time, but also reattachment to work when coming back to work are crucial for daily engagement at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Standing body sway in women with and without morning sickness in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yawen; Chung, Hyun Chae; Hemingway, Lauren; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Morning sickness typically is attributed to hormonal changes in pregnancy. We asked whether morning sickness is associated with changes in standing postural equilibrium, as occurs in research on visually induced motion sickness. Twenty-one pregnant women (mean age=30 years, mean height=163cm; mean weight=63kg) were tested during the first trimester. Laboratory-based balance measures were collected, along with perceived postural stability, the presence of morning sickness, and the severity of subjective symptoms. We varied the distance between the feet and the visual task performed during stance. Participants were classified as either experiencing (Sick, n=12) or not experiencing (Well, n=9) morning sickness. Perceived balance stability was lower for Sick than for Well women. The positional variability of sway was reduced for the Sick group, relative to the Well group. Positional variability decreased with wider stance width, and was reduced during performance of a more demanding visual task. Stance width and visual task also influenced the temporal dynamics of sway. Effects of stance width and visual task on postural sway were similar to effects in non-pregnant adults, suggesting that sensitive tuning of posture is maintained during the first trimester. The findings suggest that women with morning sickness may attempt to stabilize their bodies by reducing overall body sway. It may be useful to recommend that women adopt wider stance early in pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Walking Wounded or Living Dead? Making Banks Foreclose Bad Loans

    OpenAIRE

    Max Bruche; Gerard Llobet

    2011-01-01

    Due to limited liability, banks that are essentially insolvent may have incentives to roll over bad loans as a gamble for resurrection, even though it is socially inefficient to do so. This paper considers the problem of making such banks remove and/or foreclose bad loans, when the proportion of loans on a bank’s balance sheet that has gone bad is private information. The private information implies that many plausible schemes are likely to generate windfall gains for bank equity holders, whi...

  11. Female entrepreneurs in trouble: do their bad loans last longer?

    OpenAIRE

    Juri Marcucci; Paolo Emilio Mistrulli

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the duration of bad loans for a unique data set of sole proprietorships in Italy, finding that bad loans for female firms last longer. However, this result is mainly due to the fact that loans granted to female firms are less frequently written off than those to male ones, suggesting that for banks female firms might be more creditworthy than male firms. These findings are robust to censoring, alternative specifications of the distribution of bad loan duration and other bank-sp...

  12. Phase advancing human circadian rhythms with morning bright light, afternoon melatonin, and gradually shifted sleep: can we reduce morning bright-light duration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Stephanie J; Eastman, Charmane I

    2015-02-01

    Efficient treatments to phase-advance human circadian rhythms are needed to attenuate circadian misalignment and the associated negative health outcomes that accompany early-morning shift work, early school start times, jet lag, and delayed sleep phase disorder. This study compared three morning bright-light exposure patterns from a single light box (to mimic home treatment) in combination with afternoon melatonin. Fifty adults (27 males) aged 25.9 ± 5.1 years participated. Sleep/dark was advanced 1 h/day for three treatment days. Participants took 0.5 mg of melatonin 5 h before the baseline bedtime on treatment day 1, and an hour earlier each treatment day. They were exposed to one of three bright-light (~5000 lux) patterns upon waking each morning: four 30-min exposures separated by 30 min of room light (2-h group), four 15-min exposures separated by 45 min of room light (1-h group), and one 30-min exposure (0.5-h group). Dim-light melatonin onsets (DLMOs) before and after treatment determined the phase advance. Compared to the 2-h group (phase shift = 2.4 ± 0.8 h), smaller phase-advance shifts were seen in the 1-h (1.7 ± 0.7 h) and 0.5-h (1.8 ± 0.8 h) groups. The 2-h pattern produced the largest phase advance; however, the single 30-min bright-light exposure was as effective as 1 h of bright light spread over 3.25 h, and it produced 75% of the phase shift observed with 2 h of bright light. A 30-min morning bright-light exposure with afternoon melatonin is an efficient treatment to phase-advance human circadian rhythms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Phase advancing human circadian rhythms with morning bright light, afternoon melatonin, and gradually shifted sleep: can we reduce morning bright light duration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Stephanie J.; Eastman, Charmane I.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Efficient treatments to phase advance human circadian rhythms are needed to attenuate circadian misalignment and the associated negative health outcomes that accompany early morning shift work, early school start times, jet lag, and delayed sleep phase disorder. This study compared three morning bright light exposure patterns from a single light box (to mimic home treatment) in combination with afternoon melatonin. METHODS Fifty adults (27 males) aged 25.9±5.1 years participated. Sleep/dark was advanced 1 hour/day for 3 treatment days. Participants took 0.5 mg melatonin 5 hours before baseline bedtime on treatment day 1, and an hour earlier each treatment day. They were exposed to one of three bright light (~5000 lux) patterns upon waking each morning: four 30-minute exposures separated by 30 minutes of room light (2 h group); four 15-minute exposures separated by 45 minutes of room light (1 h group), and one 30-minute exposure (0.5 h group). Dim light melatonin onsets (DLMOs) before and after treatment determined the phase advance. RESULTS Compared to the 2 h group (phase shift=2.4±0.8 h), smaller phase advance shifts were seen in the 1 h (1.7±0.7 h) and 0.5 h (1.8±0.8 h) groups. The 2-hour pattern produced the largest phase advance; however, the single 30-minute bright light exposure was as effective as 1 hour of bright light spread over 3.25 h, and produced 75% of the phase shift observed with 2 hours of bright light. CONCLUSIONS A 30-minute morning bright light exposure with afternoon melatonin is an efficient treatment to phase advance human circadian rhythms. PMID:25620199

  14. Is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes? A historical review on breath acetone measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhennan; Wang, Chuji

    2013-09-01

    Since the ancient discovery of the 'sweet odor' in human breath gas, pursuits of the breath analysis-based disease diagnostics have never stopped. Actually, the 'smell' of the breath, as one of three key disease diagnostic techniques, has been used in Eastern-Medicine for more than three thousand years. With advancement of measuring technologies in sensitivity and selectivity, more specific breath gas species have been identified and established as a biomarker of a particular disease. Acetone is one of the breath gases and its concentration in exhaled breath can now be determined with high accuracy using various techniques and methods. With the worldwide prevalence of diabetes that is typically diagnosed through blood testing, human desire to achieve non-blood based diabetic diagnostics and monitoring has never been quenched. Questions, such as is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes and how is the breath acetone related to the blood glucose (BG) level (the golden criterion currently used in clinic for diabetes diagnostic, monitoring, and management), remain to be answered. A majority of current research efforts in breath acetone measurements and its technology developments focus on addressing the first question. The effort to tackle the second question has begun recently. The earliest breath acetone measurement in clearly defined diabetic patients was reported more than 60 years ago. For more than a half-century, as reviewed in this paper, there have been more than 41 independent studies of breath acetone using various techniques and methods, and more than 3211 human subjects, including 1581 healthy people, 242 Type 1 diabetic patients, 384 Type 2 diabetic patients, 174 unspecified diabetic patients, and 830 non-diabetic patients or healthy subjects who are under various physiological conditions, have been used in the studies. The results of the breath acetone measurements collected in this review support that many conditions might cause changes to breath

  15. Cycle of Bad Governance and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nuruddeen Suleiman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that bad governance and corruption particularly in the Northern part of Nigeria have been responsible for the persistent rise in the activities of Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad (JASLWJ, Arabic for “people committed to the propagation of the tradition and jihad.” It is also known as “Boko Haram,” commonly translated as “Western education is sin.” Based on qualitative data obtained through interviews with Nigerians, this article explicates how poor governance in the country has created a vicious cycle of corruption, poverty, and unemployment, leading to violence. Although JASLWJ avows a religious purpose in its activities, it takes full advantage of the social and economic deprivation to recruit new members. For any viable short- or long-term solution, this article concludes that the country must go all-out with its anti-corruption crusade. This will enable the revival of other critical sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing, likely ensuring more employment. Should the country fail to stamp out corruption, it will continue to witness an upsurge in the activities of JASLWJ, and perhaps even the emergence of other violent groups. The spillover effects may be felt not only across Nigeria but also within the entire West African region.

  16. Four Bad Habits of Modern Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, James; Barrett, Paul; Cota, Lisa; Felix, Crystal; Taylor, Zachery; Garner, Samantha; Medellin, Eliwid; Vest, Adam

    2017-08-14

    Four data sets from studies included in the Reproducibility Project were re-analyzed to demonstrate a number of flawed research practices (i.e., "bad habits") of modern psychology. Three of the four studies were successfully replicated, but re-analysis showed that in one study most of the participants responded in a manner inconsistent with the researchers' theoretical model. In the second study, the replicated effect was shown to be an experimental confound, and in the third study the replicated statistical effect was shown to be entirely trivial. The fourth study was an unsuccessful replication, yet re-analysis of the data showed that questioning the common assumptions of modern psychological measurement can lead to novel techniques of data analysis and potentially interesting findings missed by traditional methods of analysis. Considered together, these new analyses show that while it is true replication is a key feature of science, causal inference, modeling, and measurement are equally important and perhaps more fundamental to obtaining truly scientific knowledge of the natural world. It would therefore be prudent for psychologists to confront the limitations and flaws in their current analytical methods and research practices.

  17. The morning morality effect: the influence of time of day on unethical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchaki, Maryam; Smith, Isaac H

    2014-01-01

    Are people more moral in the morning than in the afternoon? We propose that the normal, unremarkable experiences associated with everyday living can deplete one's capacity to resist moral temptations. In a series of four experiments, both undergraduate students and a sample of U.S. adults engaged in less unethical behavior (e.g., less lying and cheating) on tasks performed in the morning than on the same tasks performed in the afternoon. This morning morality effect was mediated by decreases in moral awareness and self-control in the afternoon. Furthermore, the effect of time of day on unethical behavior was found to be stronger for people with a lower propensity to morally disengage. These findings highlight a simple yet pervasive factor (i.e., the time of day) that has important implications for moral behavior.

  18. Effects of different light intensities in the morning on dim light melatonin onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, Tomoaki; Toda, Naohiro; Noguchi, Hiroki; Yasukouchi, Akira

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of exposure to light intensity in the morning on dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). The tested light intensities were 750 lux, 150 lux, 3000 lux, 6000 lux and 12,000 lux (horizontal illuminance at cornea), using commercial 5000 K fluorescent lamps. Eleven healthy males aged 21-31 participated in 2-day experiments for each light condition. On the first experimental day (day 1), subjects were exposed to dim light (dim light (light conditions for 3 h in the morning. The experimental schedule after light exposure was the same as on day 1. On comparing day 2 with day 1, significant phase advances of DLMO were obtained at 3000 lux, 6000 lux and 12,000 lux. These findings indicate that exposure to a necessary intensity from an ordinary light source, such as a fluorescent lamp, in the morning within one day affects melatonin secretion.

  19. Manifestations of Bad Governance on the Threshold of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-02

    Oct 2, 2012 ... This orbits around the problems of bad governance ... has become less and less loathed, but rather more and more a business with governance actors like the leaders and representatives not visualizing ethical responsibility ...

  20. Badly approximable systems of linear forms in absolute value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M.; Kristensen, Simon

    In this paper we show that the set of mixed type badly approximable simultaneously small linear forms is of maximal dimension. As a consequence of this theorem we settle the conjecture stated in [9]....

  1. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your ...

  2. A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled crossover trial on the effects of L-ornithine on salivary cortisol and feelings of fatigue of flushers the morning after alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokubo Takeshi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residual alcohol effects on physiological and psychological symptoms are commonly experienced the morning after alcohol consumption. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of L-ornithine on subjective feelings and salivary stress markers the morning after alcohol consumption and to investigate whether L-ornithine acutely accelerates ethanol metabolism. Methods This study had a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked crossover design. Subjects were all healthy Japanese adults with the ‘flusher’ phenotype for alcohol tolerance. In experiment 1, 11 subjects drank 0.4 g/kg body weight alcohol 1.5 h before their usual bedtime. Half an hour after drinking, they ingested either a placebo or 400 mg ornithine. The next morning on awakening, subjects completed a questionnaire containing a visual analog scale (VAS, the Oguri-Shirakawa-Azumi sleep inventory MA version (OSA-MA, and a profile of mood states (POMS and collected a saliva sample for measurement of salivary stress markers (cortisol, secretory immunoglobulin A, and α-amylase. In experiment 2, placebo or 400 mg ornithine were administrated to 16 subjects both before and after drinking, and the feeling of drunkenness, breath ethanol concentration and one-leg standing time were repeatedly investigated until 180 min after alcohol consumption. Results There were significant decreases in “awareness”, “feeling of fatigue” and “lassitude” VAS scores and in “anger-hostility” and “confusion” POMS scores and a significant increase in “sleep length” in the OSA-MA test. Salivary cortisol concentrations on awakening were reduced after ornithine supplementation. There were no differences between ornithine and placebo in any of the subjective or physiological parameters of acute alcohol metabolism. Conclusions Taking 400 mg ornithine after alcohol consumption improved various negative feelings and decreased the salivary stress marker cortisol the

  3. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being placed...

  4. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Systems § 862.3080 Breath nitric oxide test system. (a) Identification. A breath nitric oxide test system... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section... fractional nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to...

  5. Analysis for drugs in saliva and breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-25

    Collection devices for saliva and breath that involved non-invasive techniques for sample collection were evaluated. Having subjects simply spit into a specially prepared glass vial was found to be an efficient, inexpensive and simple way to collect ...

  6. Analysis for drug in saliva and breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-25

    Collection devices for saliva and breath that involved non-invasive : techniques for sample collection were evaluated. Having subjects simply : spit into a specially prepared glass vial was found to be an efficient, : inexpensive and simple way to co...

  7. Humidifiers: Air Moisture Eases Skin, Breathing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... create deposits inside your humidifier that promote bacterial growth. And, when released into the air, these minerals often appear as white dust on your furniture. You may also breathe in some minerals that ...

  8. 76 FR 58784 - Bad Boy Enterprises, LLC, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION [CPSC Docket No. 11-C0011] Bad Boy Enterprises, LLC... 1118.20(e). Published below is a provisionally-accepted Settlement Agreement with Bad Boy Enterprises..., Bad Boy Enterprises, LLC (``Bad Boy'') and staff (``Staff'') of the United States Consumer Product...

  9. 26 CFR 1.593-7 - Establishment and treatment of reserves for bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....593-10. (2) Bad debt losses. Any bad debt in respect of a nonqualifying loan shall be charged against the reserve for losses on nonqualifying loans, and any bad debt in respect of a qualifying real... option of the taxpayer, however, any bad debt in respect of either class of loans may be charged in whole...

  10. BAD and KATP channels regulate neuron excitability and epileptiform activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-François, Juan Ramón; Fernández-Agüera, María Carmen; Nathwani, Nidhi; Lahmann, Carolina; Burnham, Veronica L; Danial, Nika N; Yellen, Gary

    2018-01-25

    Brain metabolism can profoundly influence neuronal excitability. Mice with genetic deletion or alteration of Bad ( B CL-2 a gonist of cell d eath) exhibit altered brain-cell fuel metabolism, accompanied by resistance to acutely induced epileptic seizures; this seizure protection is mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channels. Here we investigated the effect of BAD manipulation on K ATP channel activity and excitability in acute brain slices. We found that BAD's influence on neuronal K ATP channels was cell-autonomous and directly affected dentate granule neuron (DGN) excitability. To investigate the role of neuronal K ATP channels in the anticonvulsant effects of BAD, we imaged calcium during picrotoxin-induced epileptiform activity in entorhinal-hippocampal slices. BAD knockout reduced epileptiform activity, and this effect was lost upon knockout or pharmacological inhibition of K ATP channels. Targeted BAD knockout in DGNs alone was sufficient for the antiseizure effect in slices, consistent with a 'dentate gate' function that is reinforced by increased K ATP channel activity. © 2018, Martínez-François et al.

  11. ‘BREAKS’ Protocol for Breaking Bad News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Vijayakumar; Bista, Bibek; Koshy, Cheriyan

    2010-01-01

    Information that drastically alters the life world of the patient is termed as bad news. Conveying bad news is a skilled communication, and not at all easy. The amount of truth to be disclosed is subjective. A properly structured and well-orchestrated communication has a positive therapeutic effect. This is a process of negotiation between patient and physician, but physicians often find it difficult due to many reasons. They feel incompetent and are afraid of unleashing a negative reaction from the patient or their relatives. The physician is reminded of his or her own vulnerability to terminal illness, and find themselves powerless over emotional distress. Lack of sufficient training in breaking bad news is a handicap to most physicians and health care workers. Adherence to the principles of client-centered counseling is helpful in attaining this skill. Fundamental insight of the patient is exploited and the bad news is delivered in a structured manner, because the patient is the one who knows what is hurting him most and he is the one who knows how to move forward. Six-step SPIKES protocol is widely used for breaking bad news. In this paper, we put forward another six-step protocol, the BREAKS protocol as a systematic and easy communication strategy for breaking bad news. Development of competence in dealing with difficult situations has positive therapeutic outcome and is a professionally satisfying one. PMID:21811349

  12. ′BREAKS′ protocol for breaking bad news

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar Narayanan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Information that drastically alters the life world of the patient is termed as bad news. Conveying bad news is a skilled communication, and not at all easy. The amount of truth to be disclosed is subjective. A properly structured and well-orchestrated communication has a positive therapeutic effect. This is a process of negotiation between patient and physician, but physicians often find it difficult due to many reasons. They feel incompetent and are afraid of unleashing a negative reaction from the patient or their relatives. The physician is reminded of his or her own vulnerability to terminal illness, and find themselves powerless over emotional distress. Lack of sufficient training in breaking bad news is a handicap to most physicians and health care workers. Adherence to the principles of client-centered counseling is helpful in attaining this skill. Fundamental insight of the patient is exploited and the bad news is delivered in a structured manner, because the patient is the one who knows what is hurting him most and he is the one who knows how to move forward. Six-step SPIKES protocol is widely used for breaking bad news. In this paper, we put forward another six-step protocol, the BREAKS protocol as a systematic and easy communication strategy for breaking bad news. Development of competence in dealing with difficult situations has positive therapeutic outcome and is a professionally satisfying one.

  13. Increased level of morning surge in blood pressure in normotensives: A cross-sectional study from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almas, A.; Sultan, F. T.; Kazmi, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the mean morning surge (MS) in blood pressure, the frequency of increased morning surge in normotensive subjects, and to compare those with morning surge with those without MS. Study Design: A cross-sectional, comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: The Department of Medicine, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from April 2011 to March 2012. Methodology: Adult normotensive healthy volunteers aged 35 to 65 years were inducted. Their ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was measured over a 24-hour period, using digital ambulatory blood pressure monitors. Morning surge was calculated as the average of four readings after waking minus the lowest three nocturnal readings. Increased morning surge was defined as > 11 mm Hg in systolic (SBP) or > 12 mm Hg in diastolic (DBP). Dipping was defined as > 10% dipping in blood pressure. Results: Eighty-two healthy volunteers were recruited. Their mean age was 36.9 ± 1.2 years; 74.4 (61%) were men, and 58.5 (48%) woke up for morning prayers. Mean overall SBP was 113 ± 1.6 mm Hg, overall DBP was 73.9 ± 0.7 mm Hg, and overall heart rate was 75 (10) beats/minute. Mean morning surge was 17.6 ± 1.0 mm Hg in SBP and 16.0 ± 0.8 mm Hg in DBP. The frequency of increased morning surge was 66 (80.5%) in SBP, and 57 (69%) in DBP. On comparison of participants with normal morning surge and increased morning surge in SBP, there was a significant difference in non-dipping status (13.4% in normal vs. 18.3% in increased morning surge, p= 0.001). Conclusion: Mean morning surge in SBP and DBP are relatively higher in this subset population in a tertiary care center in Pakistan. These values are higher than those reported in the literature. (author)

  14. Swimming in air-breathing fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, S; Domenici, P; McKenzie, D J

    2014-03-01

    Fishes with bimodal respiration differ in the extent of their reliance on air breathing to support aerobic metabolism, which is reflected in their lifestyles and ecologies. Many freshwater species undertake seasonal and reproductive migrations that presumably involve sustained aerobic exercise. In the six species studied to date, aerobic exercise in swim flumes stimulated air-breathing behaviour, and there is evidence that surfacing frequency and oxygen uptake from air show an exponential increase with increasing swimming speed. In some species, this was associated with an increase in the proportion of aerobic metabolism met by aerial respiration, while in others the proportion remained relatively constant. The ecological significance of anaerobic swimming activities, such as sprinting and fast-start manoeuvres during predator-prey interactions, has been little studied in air-breathing fishes. Some species practise air breathing during recovery itself, while others prefer to increase aquatic respiration, possibly to promote branchial ion exchange to restore acid-base balance, and to remain quiescent and avoid being visible to predators. Overall, the diversity of air-breathing fishes is reflected in their swimming physiology as well, and further research is needed to increase the understanding of the differences and the mechanisms through which air breathing is controlled and used during exercise. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  16. Bad Apples, Bad Barrel: Exploring Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse by Catholic Clergy in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Death

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers constructions of institutional culture and power in the cover-up of child sexual abuse (CSA by clergy in the Roman Catholic Church of Australia. The issue of cover-up has previously been considered in international inquiries as an institutional failing that has caused significant harm to victims of CSA by Catholic Clergy. Evidence given by select representatives of the Catholic Church in two government inquiries into institutional abuse carried out in Australia is considered here. This evidence suggests that, where cover-up has occurred, it has been reliant on the abuse of institutional power and resulted in direct emotional, psychological and spiritual harm to victims of abuse. Despite international recognition of cover-up as institutional abuse, evidence presented by Roman Catholic Representatives to the Victorian Inquiry denied there was an institutionalised cover-up. Responding to this evidence, this paper queries whether the primary foundation of cover-up conforms to the ‘bad apple theory’ in that it relates only to a few individuals, or the ‘bad barrel theory’ of institutional structure and culture.

  17. Alcohol badly affects eye movements linked to steering, providing for automatic in-car detection of drink driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marple-Horvat, Dilwyn E; Cooper, Hannah L; Gilbey, Steven L; Watson, Jessica C; Mehta, Neena; Kaur-Mann, Daljit; Wilson, Mark; Keil, Damian

    2008-03-01

    Driving is a classic example of visually guided behavior in which the eyes move before some other action. When approaching a bend in the road, a driver looks across to the inside of the curve before turning the steering wheel. Eye and steering movements are tightly linked, with the eyes leading, which allows the parts of the brain that move the eyes to assist the parts of the brain that control the hands on the wheel. We show here that this optimal relationship deteriorates with levels of breath alcohol well within the current UK legal limit for driving. The eyes move later, and coordination reduces. These changes lead to bad performance and can be detected by an automated in-car system, which warns the driver is no longer fit to drive.

  18. Why good accountants do bad audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazerman, Max H; Loewenstein, George; Moore, Don A

    2002-11-01

    On July 30, President Bush signed into law the Sarbanes-Oxley Act addressing corporate accountability. A response to recent financial scandals, the law tightened federal controls over the accounting industry and imposed tough new criminal penalties for fraud. The president proclaimed, "The era of low standards and false profits is over." If only it were that easy. The authors don't think corruption is the main cause of bad audits. Rather, they claim, the problem is unconscious bias. Without knowing it, we all tend to discount facts that contradict the conclusions we want to reach, and we uncritically embrace evidence that supports our positions. Accountants might seem immune to such distortions because they work with seemingly hard numbers and clear-cut standards. But the corporate-auditing arena is particularly fertile ground for self-serving biases. Because of the often subjective nature of accounting and the close relationships between accounting firms and their corporate clients, even the most honest and meticulous of auditors can unintentionally massage the numbers in ways that mask a company's true financial status, thereby misleading investors, regulators, and even management. Solving this problem will require far more aggressive action than the U.S. government has taken thus far. What's needed are practices and regulations that recognize the existence of bias and moderate its effects. True auditor independence will entail fundamental changes to the way the accounting industry operates, including full divestiture of consulting and tax services, rotation of auditing firms, and fixed-term contracts that prohibit client companies from firing their auditors. Less tangibly, auditors must come to appreciate the profound impact of self-serving biases on their judgment.

  19. In vivo proton MRS of normal pancreas metabolites during breath-holding and free-breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, T.-H.; Jin, E.-H.; Shen, H.; Zhang, Y.; He, W.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To characterize normal pancreas metabolites using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) at 3 T under conditions of breath-holding and free-breathing. Materials and methods: The pancreases of 32 healthy volunteers were examined using 1 H MRS during breath-holding and free-breathing acquisitions in a single-voxel point-resolved selective spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) technique using a 3 T MRI system. Resonances were compared between paired spectra of the two breathing modes. Furthermore, correlations between lipid (Lip) content and age, body-mass index (BMI), as well as choline (Cho) peak visibility of the normal pancreas were analysed during breath-holding. Results: Twenty-nine pairs of spectra were successfully obtained showing three major resonances, Lip, Cho, cholesterol and the unsaturated parts of the olefinic region of fatty acids (Chol + Unsat). Breath-hold spectra were generally better, with higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR; Z=–2.646, p = 0.008) and Cho peak visible status (Z=–2.449, p = 0.014). Correlations were significant between spectra acquired by the two breathing modes, especially for Lip height, Lip area, and the area of other peaks at 1.9–4.1 ppm. However, the Lip resonance was significantly different between the spectra of the two breathing modes (p 1 H MRS of the normal pancreas at 3 T is technically feasible and can characterize several metabolites. 1 H MRS during breath-holding acquisition is superior to that during free-breathing acquisition.

  20. The Views Of Cancer Patients On Receiving Bad News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Bostanoglu Fesci

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was performed in a descriptive matter to determine the views of inpatients at an oncology state hospital on receiving bad news. METHOD: The study sample consisted of 237 inpatients (155 females, 82 males at an oncology state hospital between October and November 2008 who were determined using the random sampling method and accepted participating in the study. The data collection tool used was a survey form that consisted of 24 questions related to the sociodemographic features and views on receiving bad news. RESULTS: The mean age of the study subjects was 53.1±13.9 (min.=18, max.=83. The patients were undergoing the treatment process in 84% and the diagnostic process in 16%. The bad news had been given by the physician in 87.8% and while in the physician's room in 74.8%. The patients had been told while receiving the bad news that 'there is a mass/problem/lesion/tumor and you will undergo surgery' in 47.7% while 24.9% had been told that they had cancer directly. The patients stated that they froze, fainted, were shocked, felt their life was shattered and experienced emotions such as sadness, fear, hopelessness, sorrow, disappointment, desperation, etc. at a rate of 93.7%. We found that 58.2% of the patients had not been given an opportunity to express their emotions when they received the bad news, 67.4% preferred to have a relative with them at the time, 40.9% felt that the bad news should be given in a special environment, 30% wanted the bad news to be given as soon as the diagnosis was known while 36.7% preferred being told everything about the disease when receiving the bad news CONCLUSION: Taking into account the information content, family participation, and the individual preferences of the patients regarding time and place when giving bad news and encouraging them to ask questions and express themselves may make it easier for the patients to cope with bad news. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 319-326

  1. Reevaluation of the role of duration of morning stiffness in the assessment of rheumatoid arthritis activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Nasim A; Yazici, Yusuf; Calvo-Alen, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of the duration of morning stiffness (MS), as a patient-reported outcome (PRO), in assessing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity. METHODS: We acquired information on 5439 patients in QUEST-RA, an international database of patients with RA evaluated by a s...

  2. Phylogenetics and diversification of morning glories (tribe ipomoeeae, convolvulaceae) based on whole plastome sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phylogenetic studies have demonstrated the largest morning glory genus, Ipomoea, is not monophyletic, and nine other segregate genera are derived from within Ipomoea. Therefore, systematic research is focused on the monophyletic tribe Ipomoeeae (c. 650-900 species). We used whole plastid genomes to ...

  3. Effect of active warm-up duration on morning short-term maximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the morning. Methods: Twelve healthy active men performed four Wingate tests for measurement of peak power and mean power before and during Ramadan at 09:00 a.m. The tests were performed ...

  4. Legal drug content in music video programs shown on Australian television on saturday mornings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca; Croager, Emma; Pratt, Iain S; Khoo, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    To examine the extent to which legal drug references (alcohol and tobacco) are present in the music video clips shown on two music video programs broadcast in Australia on Saturday mornings. Further, to examine the music genres in which the references appeared and the dominant messages associated with the references. Music video clips shown on the music video programs 'Rage' (ABC TV) and [V] 'Music Video Chart' (Channel [V]) were viewed over 8 weeks from August 2011 to October 2011 and the number of clips containing verbal and/or visual drug references in each program was counted. The songs were classified by genre and the dominant messages associated with drug references were also classified and analysed. A considerable proportion of music videos (approximately one-third) contained drug references. Alcohol featured in 95% of the music videos that contained drug references. References to alcohol generally associated it with fun and humour, and alcohol and tobacco were both overwhelmingly presented in contexts that encouraged, rather than discouraged, their use. In Australia, Saturday morning is generally considered a children's television viewing timeslot, and several broadcaster Codes of Practice dictate that programs shown on Saturday mornings must be appropriate for viewing by audiences of all ages. Despite this, our findings show that music video programs aired on Saturday mornings contain a considerable level of drug-related content.

  5. Calcipotriol cream in the morning and ointment in the evening: a novel regimen to improve compliance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Franssen, M.; Brassinne, M. de la; Kuipers, M.V.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcipotriol ointment and calcipotriol cream have both been shown to be effective in the treatment of psoriasis. AIM: To find out the patient compliance, efficacy and tolerance to a regimen of a calcipotriol cream application in the morning and a calcipotriol ointment application in the

  6. Strengthening German Programs through Community Engagement and Partnerships with Saturday Morning Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebrandt, Josef

    2014-01-01

    German university programs can increase enrollments and diversify their curricula through academic community partnerships with surrounding schools. This article informs about two community-supported initiatives between the German Studies Program at Santa Clara University and the South Bay Deutscher Schulverein, a Saturday Morning School in…

  7. Factors associated with patient preferences for communication of bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Maiko; Akechi, Tatsuo; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2017-06-01

    Communication based on patient preferences can alleviate their psychological distress and is an important part of patient-centered care for physicians who have the task of conveying bad news to cancer patients. The present study aimed to explore the demographic, medical, and psychological factors associated with patient preferences with regard to communication of bad news. Outpatients with a variety of cancers were consecutively invited to participate in our study after their follow-up medical visit. A questionnaire assessed their preferences regarding the communication of bad news, covering four factors-(1) how bad news is delivered, (2) reassurance and emotional support, (3) additional information, and (4) setting-as well as on demographic, medical, and psychosocial factors. A total of 529 outpatients with a variety of cancers completed the questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses indicated that patients who were younger, female, had greater faith in their physician, and were more highly educated placed more importance on "how bad news is delivered" than patients who were older, male, had less faith in their physician, and a lower level of education. Female patients and patients without an occupation placed more importance on "reassurance and emotional support." Younger, female, and more highly educated patients placed more importance on "additional information." Younger, female, and more highly educated patients, along with patients who weren't undergoing active treatment placed more importance on "setting." Patient preferences with regard to communication of bad news are associated with factors related to patient background. Physicians should consider these characteristics when delivering bad news and use an appropriate communication style tailored to each patient.

  8. How to Break Bad News: Physicians’ and Nurses’ Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Akbar Nejatisafa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Bad news disclosure is one of the most complex tasks of physicians. Recent evidences indicate that patients' and physicians' attitude toward breaking bad news has been changed since few years ago. The evidence of breaking bad news is different across cultures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the attitude of medical staff toward breaking bad news to provide a clinical guideline in Iran."nMethods: A descriptive study was conducted during 2008-2009 on a sample of 100 medical staff (50 physicians and 50 nurses at Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini hospital. The subjects' demographic characteristics and their attitudes toward the manner of revealing the diagnosis were registered in a questionnaire."nResults: The majority of the physicians (86%, n=43 and nurses (74%, n=37 , mostly the older and more experienced, tended to reveal the diagnosis to patients . Only a few physicians (8%, n=4 had been trained how to disclose bad news, which discloused diagnosis more than non trained ones."nPhysicians and nurses preferred to inform the patients about the diagnosis when either the patients were alone or in the presence of their spouse respectively .Only a few physicians (14% and nurses (24% agreed to explain life expectancy to patients."nConclusion: Compared to past, physicians and nurses are more willing to share cancer diagnosis with patients. However, lack of adequate communication skills in caregivers, and their concerns about managing patients' emotional reactions reduce their tendency to disclose bad news to the patients. Therefore, training physicians and nurses to expose bad news to the patients seems to be necessary.

  9. Chemical sensors for breath gas analysis: the latest developments at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisch, Ulrike; Haick, Hossam

    2014-06-01

    Profiling the body chemistry by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath opens exciting new avenues in medical diagnostics. Gas sensors could provide ideal platforms for realizing portable, hand-held breath testing devices in the near future. This review summarizes the latest developments and applications in the field of chemical sensors for diagnostic breath testing that were presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013 in Wallerfangen, Germany. Considerable progress has been made towards clinically applicable breath testing devices, especially by utilizing chemo-sensitive nanomaterials. Examples of several specialized breath testing applications are presented that are either based on stand-alone nanomaterial-based sensors being highly sensitive and specific to individual breath compounds over others, or on combinations of several highly specific sensors, or on experimental nanomaterial-based sensors arrays. Other interesting approaches include the adaption of a commercially available MOx-based sensor array to indirect breath testing applications, using a sample pre-concentration method, and the development of compact integrated GC-sensor systems. The recent trend towards device integration has led to the development of fully integrated prototypes of point-of-care devices. We describe and compare the performance of several prototypes that are based on different sensing technologies and evaluate their potential as low-cost and readily available next-generation medical devices.

  10. Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.W.; Carter, E.A.; Walker, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in ysiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO 2 if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications

  11. Nighttime feeding likely alters morning metabolism but not exercise performance in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Gorman, Katherine A; Miller, Elizabeth A; Baur, Daniel A; Eckel, Lisa A; Contreras, Robert J; Panton, Lynn B; Spicer, Maria T

    2016-07-01

    The timing of morning endurance competition may limit proper pre-race fueling and resulting performance. A nighttime, pre-sleep nutritional strategy could be an alternative method to target the metabolic and hydrating needs of the early morning athlete without compromising sleep or gastrointestinal comfort during exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects of pre-sleep chocolate milk (CM) ingestion on next-morning running performance, metabolism, and hydration status. Twelve competitive female runners and triathletes (age, 30 ± 7 years; peak oxygen consumption, 53 ± 4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) randomly ingested either pre-sleep CM or non-nutritive placebo (PL) ∼30 min before sleep and 7-9 h before a morning exercise trial. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was assessed prior to exercise. The exercise trial included a warm-up, three 5-min incremental workloads at 55%, 65%, and 75% peak oxygen consumption, and a 10-km treadmill time trial (TT). Physiological responses were assessed prior, during (incremental and TT), and postexercise. Paired t tests and magnitude-based inferences were used to determine treatment differences. TT performances were not different ("most likely trivial" improvement with CM) between conditions (PL: 52.8 ± 8.4 min vs CM: 52.8 ± 8.0 min). RMR was "likely" increased (4.8%) and total carbohydrate oxidation (g·min(-1)) during exercise was "possibly" or likely increased (18.8%, 10.1%, 9.1% for stage 1-3, respectively) with CM versus PL. There were no consistent changes to hydration indices. In conclusion, pre-sleep CM may alter next-morning resting and exercise metabolism to favor carbohydrate oxidation, but effects did not translate to 10-km running performance improvements.

  12. Selecting the patients for morning report sessions: case-based vs. conventional method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Mehdi; Saeidi, Masumeh; Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Amin, Sakineh Mohebi; Ahanchian, Hamid; Jafari, Seyed Ali; Kianifar, Hamidreza

    2015-08-01

    One of the most important issues in morning report sessions is the number of patients. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the number of cases reported in the morning report sessions in terms of case-based and conventional methods from the perspective of pediatric residents of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The present study was conducted on 24 pediatric residents of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in the academic year 2014-2015. In this survey, the residents replied to a 20-question researcher-made questionnaire that had been designed to measure the views of residents regarding the number of patients in the morning report sessions using case-based and conventional methods. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts' views and its reliability by calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Data were analyzed by t-test analysis. The mean age of the residents was 30.852 ± 2.506, and 66.6% of them were female. The results showed that there was no significant relationship among the variables of academic year, gender, and residents' perspective to choosing the number of patients in the morning report sessions (P > 0.05). T-test analysis showed a significant relationship among the average scores of residents in the selection of the case-based method in comparison to the conventional method (P case-based morning report was preferred compared to the conventional method. This method makes residents pay more attention to the details of patients' issues and therefore helps them to better plan how to address patient problems and improve their differential diagnosis skills.

  13. Comparing Performance During Morning vs. Afternoon Training Sessions in Intercollegiate Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heishman, Aaron D; Curtis, Michael A; Saliba, Ethan N; Hornett, Robert J; Malin, Steven K; Weltman, Arthur L

    2017-06-01

    Time of day is a key factor that influences the optimization of athletic performance. Intercollegiate coaches oftentimes hold early morning strength training sessions for a variety of factors including convenience. However, few studies have specifically investigated the effect of early morning vs. late afternoon strength training on performance indices of fatigue. This is athletically important because circadian and/or ultradian rhythms and alterations in sleep patterns can affect training ability. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of morning vs. afternoon strength training on an acute performance index of fatigue (countermovement jump height, CMJ), player readiness (Omegawave), and self-reported sleep quantity. We hypothesized that afternoon training sessions would be associated with increased levels of performance, readiness, and self-reported sleep. A retrospective analysis was performed on data collected over the course of the preseason on 10 elite National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 male basketball players. All basketball-related activities were performed in the afternoon with strength and conditioning activities performed either in the morning or in the afternoon. The average values for CMJ, power output (Power), self-reported sleep quantity (sleep), and player readiness were examined. When player load and duration were matched, CMJ (58.8 ± 1.3 vs. 61.9 ± 1.6 cm, p = 0.009), Power (6,378.0 ± 131.2 vs. 6,622.1 ± 172.0 W, p = 0.009), and self-reported sleep duration (6.6 ± 0.4 vs. 7.4 ± 0.25 p = 0.016) were significantly higher with afternoon strength and conditioning training, with no differences observed in player readiness values. We conclude that performance is suppressed with morning training and is associated with a decrease in self-reported quantity of sleep.

  14. Morning and Evening Blue-Enriched Light Exposure Alters Metabolic Function in Normal Weight Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy N Cheung

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence points to associations between light-dark exposure patterns, feeding behavior, and metabolism. This study aimed to determine the acute effects of 3 hours of morning versus evening blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light on hunger, metabolic function, and physiological arousal. Nineteen healthy adults completed this 4-day inpatient protocol under dim light conditions (<20lux. Participants were randomized to 3 hours of blue-enriched light exposure on Day 3 starting either 0.5 hours after wake (n = 9; morning group or 10.5 hours after wake (n = 10; evening group. All participants remained in dim light on Day 2 to serve as their baseline. Subjective hunger and sleepiness scales were collected hourly. Blood was sampled at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours in association with the light exposure period for glucose, insulin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and area under the curve (AUC for insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR and cortisol were calculated. Comparisons relative to baseline were done using t-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs. In both the morning and evening groups, insulin total area, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-IR AUC were increased and subjective sleepiness was reduced with blue-enriched light compared to dim light. The evening group, but not the morning group, had significantly higher glucose peak value during blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light. There were no other significant differences between the morning or the evening groups in response to blue-enriched light exposure. Blue-enriched light exposure acutely alters glucose metabolism and sleepiness, however the mechanisms behind this relationship and its impacts on hunger and appetite regulation remain unclear. These results provide further support for a role of environmental light exposure in the regulation of metabolism.

  15. [Nutritional analysis of breakfast on rising and mid-morning snack in a college population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá Travé, T

    2013-01-01

    To carry out a descriptive study on the breakfast model in a college population and to analyze the energy and nutrients provided, in connection with established nutritional requirements. Registry of food intake for breakfast (on rising and mid-morning snack) of a school day in a sample of 740 college students (286 men and 454 women) with ages ranging 19-24 years. Gender, age, weight, height, and body mass index, and type of residence were collected from each interviewee. Percentages intakes of nutrients have been calculated in proportion to established dietary recommendations (%IR). 93.2% had breakfast on rising and 83.8% took a mid-morning snack daily, and 53.5% do both intakes. The most common foods were dairy products (92.6%), cereals (58.8%) and sweet food (57.9%) at breakfast, and cereals (46.6%), fruits (40.7%) and sausages (34.9%) at mid-morning. The %IR of the calorie intake was 24.4% in males and 24.6% in females (n.s.). The %IR of the cholesterol intake was 38.2% in males and 23.9% in females (p breakfast. This breakfast model differs from the prototype of a healthy diet through an excessive consumption of sweet foods (early breakfast) and meat and derivatives (snack). Half of interviewee did not a mid-morning snack and the morning caloric intake was below recommended. In the case of university students concerned about the potentially negative effect it may have on academic performance. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Morning Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  17. Morning sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2015;(9):CD007575. PMID: 26348534 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26348534 . West EH, Hark L, Catalano PM. Nutrition during pregnancy. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson ...

  18. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A Zope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind-body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.

  19. Patients' Attitude toward Breaking Bad News; a Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Mousavi, Seyed Jaber; Darzi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Delivering bad news is a stressful moment for both physicians and patients. The purpose of this investigation was to explore the patients' preferences and attitudes toward being informed about the bad news. This cross-sectional study was done on patients admitted to Imam Khomeini Hospital, Sari, Iran, from September 2014 to February 2015. Patient attitude regarding breaking bad news was evaluated using a reliable and valid questionnaire. 130 patients were evaluated (61.5% male, mean age = 46.21 ± 12.1 years). 118 (90.76%) participants believed that the patient himself/herself should be informed about the disease's condition. 120 (92.30%) preferred to hear the news from a skillful physician and 105 (80.76%) believed that emergency department is not a proper place for breaking bad news. Based on the results of the present study, most participants believed that the most experienced and skillful physician should inform them completely regarding their medical condition. At the same time they declared that, it is best to hear bad news in a calm and suitable place and time rather than emergency department or hospital corridors during teaching rounds.

  20. Breaking bad news: doctors' skills in communicating with patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silveira, Francisco José; Botelho, Camila Carvalho; Valadão, Carolina Cirino

    2017-01-01

    Breaking bad news is one of doctors' duties and it requires them to have some skills, given that this situation is difficult and distressful for patients and their families. Moreover, it is also an uncomfortable condition for doctors. The aim of this study was to evaluate doctors' capacity to break bad news, ascertain which specialties are best prepared for doing this and assess the importance of including this topic within undergraduate courses. Observational cross-sectional quantitative study conducted at a university hospital in Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil. This study used a questionnaire based on the SPIKES protocol, which was answered by 121 doctors at this university hospital. This questionnaire investigated their attitudes, posture, behavior and fears relating to breaking bad news. The majority of the doctors did not have problems regarding the concept of bad news. Nevertheless, their abilities diverged depending on the stage of the protocol and on their specialty and length of time since graduation. Generally, doctors who had graduated more than ten years before this survey felt more comfortable and confident, and thus transmitted the bad news in a better conducted manner. Much needs to be improved regarding this technique. Therefore, inclusion of this topic in undergraduate courses is necessary and proposals should be put forward and verified.

  1. Breaking bad news: doctors’ skills in communicating with patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Ferreira da Silveira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Breaking bad news is one of doctors’ duties and it requires them to have some skills, given that this situation is difficult and distressful for patients and their families. Moreover, it is also an uncomfortable condition for doctors. The aim of this study was to evaluate doctors’ capacity to break bad news, ascertain which specialties are best prepared for doing this and assess the importance of including this topic within undergraduate courses. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional quantitative study conducted at a university hospital in Belo Horizonte (MG, Brazil. METHODS: This study used a questionnaire based on the SPIKES protocol, which was answered by 121 doctors at this university hospital. This questionnaire investigated their attitudes, posture, behavior and fears relating to breaking bad news. RESULTS: The majority of the doctors did not have problems regarding the concept of bad news. Nevertheless, their abilities diverged depending on the stage of the protocol and on their specialty and length of time since graduation. Generally, doctors who had graduated more than ten years before this survey felt more comfortable and confident, and thus transmitted the bad news in a better conducted manner. CONCLUSION: Much needs to be improved regarding this technique. Therefore, inclusion of this topic in undergraduate courses is necessary and proposals should be put forward and verified.

  2. Bad habits and bad genes: early 20th-century eugenic attempts to eliminate syphilis and associated "defects" from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Philip K

    2003-01-01

    American eugenists in the early 20th century distinguished "degenerates," including syphilitics, prostitutes, alcoholics and criminals, from the "normal" population by their particular bad habits. From eugenists' viewpoint, these bad habits were derived from bad character, a flaw that stemmed from an individual's bad genes. This essay explores how eugenists during this period characterized syphilitics and those with associated character "defects" in terms of heredity. Additionally, it examines the methods eugenists most frequently advocated to rectify these bad habits. These methods included marriage restriction, immigration control and reproductive sterilization. Overall, eugenists directed their efforts not so much at the "degenerate" as at his or her germ line.

  3. Clinical Applications of CO2 and H2 Breath Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Si-qian;CHEN Bao-jun;LUO Zhi-fu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breath test is non-invasive, high sensitivity and high specificity. In this article, CO2 breath test, H2 breath test and their clinical applications were elaborated. The main applications of CO2 breath test include helicobacter pylori test, liver function detection, gastric emptying test, insulin resistance test, pancreatic exocrine secretion test, etc. H2 breath test can be applied in the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption and detecting small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. With further research, the breath test is expected to be applied in more diseases diagnosis.

  4. Collaborative Practice Model: Improving the Delivery of Bad News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Pamela N; Slusser, Kim; Allen, Deborah

    2018-02-01

    Ideal bad news delivery requires skilled communication and team support. The literature has primarily focused on patient preferences, impact on care decisions, healthcare roles, and communication styles, without addressing systematic implementation. This article describes how an interdisciplinary team, led by advanced practice nurses, developed and implemented a collaborative practice model to deliver bad news on a unit that had struggled with inconsistencies. Using evidence-based practices, the authors explored current processes, role perceptions and expectations, and perceived barriers to developing the model, which is now the standard of care and an example of interprofessional team collaboration across the healthcare system. This model for delivering bad news can be easily adapted to meet the needs of other clinical units.
.

  5. Bad Data Detection and Identification for State Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khazraj, Hesam; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    state estimations. To achieve this object largest normalized residual test (rNmax) is applied to detect and analysis bad data in phasor measurements, power flow and power injections of buses used for the novel PMU-based state estimation. The main advantage of new PMU-based static state estimation......Bad data analysis is an important part of both dynamic and static state estimations. This paper present novel algorithm of phase measurement unit (PMU)-based static state estimation to detect and identify multiple bad data in critical measurements, which is not possible with traditional static...... is that phasor measurements can be added separately into the proposed state estimation. This paper proposes an ideal method to combine the phasor measurements into the conventional state estimator in a systematic way, so that no significant modification is necessary to the existing algorithm. The main advantage...

  6. Effect of oxygenation on breath-by-breath response of the genioglossus muscle during occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauda, E B; Carroll, J L; McColley, S; Smith, P L

    1991-10-01

    We investigated the effect of different levels of O2 tension (hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia) on the breath-by-breath onset and peak electromyographic (EMG) activity of the genioglossus (GG) muscle during a five-breath end-expiratory tracheal occlusion of 20- to 30-s duration. GG and diaphragmatic (DIA) EMG activity were measured with needle electrodes in eight anesthetized tracheotomized adult cats. In response to occlusion, the increase in the number of animals with GG EMG activity was different during hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia (P = 0.003, Friedman). During hypoxia, eight of eight of the animals had GG EMG activity by the third occluded effort. In contrast, during normoxia, only four of eight and, during hyperoxia, only three of eight animals had GG EMG activity throughout the entire five-breath occlusion. Similarly, at release of the occlusion, more animals had persistent GG EMG activity on the postocclusion breaths during hypoxia than during normoxia or hyperoxia. Breath-by-breath augmentation of peak amplitude of the GG and DIA EMGs on each occluded effort was accentuated during hypoxia (P less than 0.01) and abolished during hyperoxia (P = 0.10). These results suggest that hypoxemia is a major determinant of the rapidity of onset, magnitude, and sustained activity of upper airway muscles during airway occlusion.

  7. Medication effects on sleep and breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Gilbert; Tsai, Sheila; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo

    2014-09-01

    Sleep respiration is regulated by circadian, endocrine, mechanical and chemical factors, and characterized by diminished ventilatory drive and changes in Pao2 and Paco2 thresholds. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia are more pronounced during rapid eye movement. Breathing is influenced by sleep stage and airway muscle tone. Patient factors include medical comorbidities and body habitus. Medications partially improve obstructive sleep apnea and stabilize periodic breathing at altitude. Potential adverse consequences of medications include precipitation or worsening of disorders. Risk factors for adverse medication effects include aging, medical disorders, and use of multiple medications that affect respiration. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. MACROECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF BAD LOANS IN BALTIC COUNTRIES AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DONATH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2008–09 global crisis raised debates concerning the determinants of financial vulnerability. Among these, bad loans have been identified as significantly influencing financial imbalances. After a decade in which borrowing has constantly grown mainly because of the deregulation of financial markets, the crisis highlighted the importance of an effective credit risk management. The purpose of the paper is to study the evolution of bad loans ratio in relation with selected macroeconomic indicators in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and Romania.

  9. Combating bad weather part I rain removal from video

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta

    2015-01-01

    Current vision systems are designed to perform in normal weather condition. However, no one can escape from severe weather conditions. Bad weather reduces scene contrast and visibility, which results in degradation in the performance of various computer vision algorithms such as object tracking, segmentation and recognition. Thus, current vision systems must include some mechanisms that enable them to perform up to the mark in bad weather conditions such as rain and fog. Rain causes the spatial and temporal intensity variations in images or video frames. These intensity changes are due to the

  10. Morning plasma cortisol is low among obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabir, Iram; Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Praveen, Edavan P; Khurana, Madan L; John, Jomimol; Gupta, Nandita; Kumar, Guresh; Ammini, Ariachery C

    2013-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause for androgen excess in women. It is associated with wide variety of metabolic disorders. The present study assessed morning plasma cortisol in women with PCOS. One hundred and ninety seven cases and 55 controls were enrolled for this study. The mean age of patients and controls were 23 ± 5.6 years and 25 ± 4.3 years. One hundred twelve (56%) women with PCOS had BMI >25. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in lean PCOS women compared to controls (13.4 ± 5.1 versus 11.3 ± 4.5, p cortisol was lower among obese women with PCOS. Morning plasma cortisol correlated negatively with BMI in PCOS women with normal glucose tolerance.

  11. Morning glory disc anomaly, midline cranial defects and abnormal carotid circulation: an association worth looking for

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quah, Boon Long; Hamilton, Jill; Blaser, Susan; Heon, Elise; Tehrani, Nasrin N.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a 4-year-old boy who presented to the ophthalmology department for assessment of convergent strabismus. Ophthalmic examination showed a left morning glory optic disc anomaly and retinal detachment. Plain films obtained for investigation of short stature prior to ophthalmic examination revealed delayed bone age. Ophthalmological findings prompted CT and MRI imaging and angiographic investigations. Midline cranial defects and abnormal carotid circulation were identified. These findings may be associated with morning glory optic disc anomaly, and their association is often under-recognized. It is important that clinicians and radiologists be aware of this spectrum of disorders, as the vascular abnormalities may predispose the patient to transient ischemic attacks and strokes. Growth delay may result from hypopituitarism. (orig.)

  12. Morning glory disc anomaly, midline cranial defects and abnormal carotid circulation: an association worth looking for

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quah, Boon Long [Kandang Kerbau Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Singapore National Eye Centre, Department of Ophthalmology (Singapore); Hamilton, Jill [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Paediatrics, Toronto, ON (Canada); Blaser, Susan [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Heon, Elise; Tehrani, Nasrin N. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-05-01

    We report on a 4-year-old boy who presented to the ophthalmology department for assessment of convergent strabismus. Ophthalmic examination showed a left morning glory optic disc anomaly and retinal detachment. Plain films obtained for investigation of short stature prior to ophthalmic examination revealed delayed bone age. Ophthalmological findings prompted CT and MRI imaging and angiographic investigations. Midline cranial defects and abnormal carotid circulation were identified. These findings may be associated with morning glory optic disc anomaly, and their association is often under-recognized. It is important that clinicians and radiologists be aware of this spectrum of disorders, as the vascular abnormalities may predispose the patient to transient ischemic attacks and strokes. Growth delay may result from hypopituitarism. (orig.)

  13. Detection of Early Morning Daily Activities with Static Home and Wearable Wireless Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vanderpool

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a flexible, cost-effective, wireless in-home activity monitoring system for assisting patients with cognitive impairments due to traumatic brain injury (TBI. The system locates the subject with fixed home sensors and classifies early morning bathroom activities of daily living with a wearable wireless accelerometer. The system extracts time- and frequency-domain features from the accelerometer data and classifies these features with a hybrid classifier that combines Gaussian mixture models and a finite state machine. In particular, the paper establishes that despite similarities between early morning bathroom activities of daily living, it is possible to detect and classify these activities with high accuracy. It also discusses system training and provides data to show that with proper feature selection, accurate detection and classification are possible for any subject with no subject specific training.

  14. Solar flare effect in equatorial magnetic field during morning counter electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangarajan, G.K.; Rastogi, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    Surface geomagnetic signatures of intense solar radio noise bursts are studied from the magnetograms of several equatorial and low latitude observatories. It is shown that for the even on 21 June 1980, the solar flare effect recorded was during a period of counter electrojet currents in the morning hours in the Indian region, and hence it reverses direction between Alibag and Trivandrum. The longitudinal extent of this event has been estimated to be less than three hours (45). (author)

  15. Extinction of Conditioned Fear is Better Learned and Recalled in the Morning than in the Evening

    OpenAIRE

    Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Spencer, Rebecca M.C.; Vijayakumar, Shilpa; Ahmed, Nafis; Verga, Patrick W.; Orr, Scott P.; Pitman, Roger K.; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep helps emotional memories consolidate and may promote generalization of fear extinction memory. We examined whether extinction learning and memory might differ in the morning and evening due, potentially, to circadian and/or sleep-homeostatic factors. Healthy men (N=109) in 6 groups completed a 2-session protocol. In Session 1, fear conditioning was followed by extinction learning. Partial reinforcement with mild electric shock produced conditioned skin conductance responses (SCR) to 2 d...

  16. Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113 (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench. The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench. This image is presented in false color that enhances the visibility of the frost. The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide. Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. READY TO LEARN: THE IMPACT OF THE MORNING BLAST PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTION ON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Xu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a physical activity intervention programme, named “Morning Blast”, on elementary school students’ math learning and daily physical activity. The Morning Blast intervention programme was a 16-week cardiovascular endurance emphasized physical activity program that students voluntarily participated in before the school day. Participants that volunteered, did so for the duration of the program. Methods: This mixed-methods study included seven educators and 83 students (n=90. The students were all children who were enrolled in Grades 3, 4, and 5 in a semi-rural elementary school in the United States. Data were collected through focus-group interviews, surveys, quantitative analysis of step counts, and from quasi-experimental research design. Results: Students in the experimental group were found to have: (1 increased scores on math standard score, (2 greater confidence in their academic ability, and (3 had more accumulated steps compared to students in the control group. Students in the experimental group also reported that they were more “ready to learn” after completing the physical activity intervention. This finding was also confirmed by their teachers. Conclusion: This study demonstrates how an increase in physical activity during the morning time has positive benefits for students throughout the school day.

  18. Morning self-efficacy predicts physical activity throughout the day in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaoyang, Ruixue; Martire, Lynn M; Sliwinski, Martin J

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the within-day and cross-day prospective effects of knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients' self-efficacy to engage in physical activity despite the pain on their subsequent physical activity assessed objectively in their natural environment. Over 22 days, 135 older adults with knee OA reported their morning self-efficacy for being physically active throughout the day using a handheld computer and wore an accelerometer to measure moderate activity and steps. Morning self-efficacy had a significant positive effect on steps and moderate-intensity activity throughout that day, above and beyond the effects of demographic background and other psychosocial factors as well as spouses' support and social control. The lagged effect of morning self-efficacy on the next day's physical activity and the reciprocal lagged effect of physical activity on the next day's self-efficacy were not significant. Positive between-person effects of self-efficacy on physical activity were found. Future research should aim to better understand the mechanisms underlying fluctuations in patients' daily self-efficacy, and target patients' daily self-efficacy as a modifiable psychological mechanism for promoting physical activity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The impact of morning light intensity and environmental temperature on body temperatures and alertness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Kulve, Marije; Schlangen, Luc J M; Schellen, Lisje; Frijns, Arjan J H; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2017-06-01

    Indoor temperature and light exposure are known to affect body temperature, productivity and alertness of building occupants. However, not much is known about the interaction between light and temperature exposure and the relationship between morning light induced alertness and its effect on body temperature. Light intensity and room temperature during morning office hours were investigated under strictly controlled conditions. In a randomized crossover study, two white light conditions (4000K, either bright 1200lx or dim 5lx) under three different room temperatures (26, 29 and 32°C) were investigated. A lower room temperature increased the core body temperature (CBT) and lowered skin temperature and the distal-proximal temperature gradient (DPG). Moreover, a lower room temperature reduced the subjective sleepiness and reaction time on an auditory psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), irrespective of the light condition. Interestingly, the morning bright light exposure did affect thermophysiological parameters, i.e. it decreased plasma cortisol, CBT and proximal skin temperature and increased the DPG, irrespective of the room temperature. During the bright light session, subjective sleepiness decreased irrespective of the room temperature. However, the change in sleepiness due to the light exposure was not related to these physiological changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, C W [Radiological and Safety Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  1. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.W.

    1963-11-01

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  2. Polish adaptation of Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace and Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misterska, Ewa; Głowacki, Maciej; Harasymczuk, Jerzy

    2009-12-01

    Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace and Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity are relatively new tools aimed at facilitating the evaluation of long-term results of therapy in persons with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing conservative treatment. To use these tools properly in Poland, they must be translated into Polish and adapted to the Polish cultural settings. The process of cultural adaptation of the questionnaires was compliant with the guidelines of International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) Project. In the first stage, two independent translators converted the originals into Polish. Stage two, consisted of a comparison of the originals and two translated versions. During that stage, the team of two translators and authors of the project identified differences in those translations and created a combination of the two. In the third stage, two independent translators, who were native speakers of German, translated the adjusted version of the Polish translation into the language of the original document. At the last stage, a commission composed of: specialists in orthopedics, translators, a statistician and a psychologist reviewed all translations and drafted a pre-final version of the questionnaires. Thirty-five adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis who were treated with Cheneau brace were subjected to the questionnaire assessment. All patients were treated in an out-patient setting by a specialist in orthopedics at the Chair and Clinic of Orthopedics and Traumatology. Median age of patients was 14.8 SD 1.5, median value of the Cobb's angle was 27.8 degrees SD 7.4. 48.6% of patients had thoracic scoliosis, 31.4% had thoracolumbar scoliosis, and 20% patients had lumbar scoliosis. Median results obtained by means of the Polish version of BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity questionnaires were 17.9 SD 5.0 and 11.3 SD 4.7, respectively. Internal consistency of BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity was at the level of 0.80 and 0.87, whereas the value of

  3. [Death by erotic asphyxiation (breath control play)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madea, Burkhard; Hagemeier, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Most cases of sexual asphyxia are due to autoerotic activity. Asphyxia due to oronasal occlusion is mostly seen in very old or very young victims. Oronasal occlusion is also used in sadomasochistic sexual practices like "breath control play" or "erotic asphyxiation". If life saving time limitations of oronasal occlusion are not observed, conviction for homicide caused by negligence is possible.

  4. Detection of bronchial breathing caused by pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, V; Fachinger, P; Penzel, Th; Koehler, U; von Wichert, P; Vogelmeier, C

    2002-06-01

    The classic auscultation with stethoscope is the established clinical method for the detection of lung diseases. The interpretation of the sounds depends on the experience of the investigating physician. Therefore, a new computer-based method has been developed to classify breath sounds from digital lung sound recordings. Lung sounds of 11 patients with one-sided pneumonia and bronchial breathing were recorded on both the pneumonia side and on contralateral healthy side simultaneously using two microphones. The spectral power for the 300-600 Hz frequency band was computed for four respiratory cycles and normalized. For each breath, the ratio R between the time-segments (duration = 0.1 s) with the highest inspiratory and highest expiratory flow was calculated and averaged. We found significant differences in R between the pneumonia side (R = 1.4 +/- 1.3) and the healthy side (R = 0.5 +/- 0.5; p = 0.003 Wilcoxon-test) of lung. In 218 healthy volunteers we found R = 0.3 +/- 0.2 as a reference-value. The differences of ratio R (delta R) between the pneumonia side and the healthy side (delta R = 1.0 +/- 0.9) were significantly higher compared to follow-up studies after recovery (delta R = 0.0 +/- 0.1, p = 0.005 Wilcoxon-test). The computer based detection of bronchial breathing can be considered useful as part of a quantitative monitoring of patients at risk to develop pneumonia.

  5. CONTINUOUS EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS ON THE ICU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Sterk, Peter J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2011-01-01

    During admittance to the ICU, critically ill patients frequently develop secondary infections and/or multiple organ failure. Continuous monitoring of biological markers is very much needed. This study describes a new method to continuously monitor biomarkers in exhaled breath with an electronic nose.

  6. Practical recommendations for breathing-adapted radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, L.; Giraud, P.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Dumas, J.L.; Lorchel, F.; Marre, D.; Dupont, S.; Varmenot, N.; Ginestet, C.; Caron, J.; Marchesi, V.; Ferreira, I.; Garcia, R.

    2007-01-01

    Respiration-gated radiotherapy offers a significant potential for improvement in the irradiation of tumor sites affected by respiratory motion such as lung, breast and liver tumors. An increased conformality of irradiation fields leading to decreased complications rates of organs at risk (lung, heart) is expected. Respiratory gating is in line with the need for improved precision required by radiotherapy techniques such as 3D conformal radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiotherapy. Reduction of respiratory motion can be achieved by using either breath-hold techniques or respiration synchronized gating techniques. Breath-hold techniques can be achieved with active techniques, in which airflow of the patient is temporarily blocked by a valve, or passive techniques, in which the patient voluntarily holds his/her breath. Synchronized gating techniques use external devices to predict the phase of the respiration cycle while the patient breaths freely. This work summarizes the different experiences of the centers of the STIC 2003 project. It describes the different techniques, gives an overview of the literature and proposes a practice based on our experience. (authors)

  7. A simple, remote, video based breathing monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Nir; Wulich, Dov

    2017-07-01

    Breathing monitors have become the all-important cornerstone of a wide variety of commercial and personal safety applications, ranging from elderly care to baby monitoring. Many such monitors exist in the market, some, with vital signs monitoring capabilities, but none remote. This paper presents a simple, yet efficient, real time method of extracting the subject's breathing sinus rhythm. Points of interest are detected on the subject's body, and the corresponding optical flow is estimated and tracked using the well known Lucas-Kanade algorithm on a frame by frame basis. A generalized likelihood ratio test is then utilized on each of the many interest points to detect which is moving in harmonic fashion. Finally, a spectral estimation algorithm based on Pisarenko harmonic decomposition tracks the harmonic frequency in real time, and a fusion maximum likelihood algorithm optimally estimates the breathing rate using all points considered. The results show a maximal error of 1 BPM between the true breathing rate and the algorithm's calculated rate, based on experiments on two babies and three adults.

  8. Breathing easier: Indonesia works towards cleaner air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael Amdi

    2015-01-01

    Indonesians can look forward to breathing cleaner air following upcoming changes in regulations introduced as a result of a study conducted using nuclear analytical techniques. Lead pollution and other fine particulate matter in the air is now, for the first time, being accurately monitored and is giving Indonesian officials a good understanding of their air pollution problem and how to manage it.

  9. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  10. A breath actuated dry powder inhaler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Anne; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hagedoorn, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A breath actuated dry powder inhaler with a single air circulation chamber for de-agglomeration of entrained powdered medicament using the energy of the inspiratory air stream. The chamber has a substantially polygonal sidewall, a plurality of air supply channels entering the chamber substantially

  11. Long residence times - bad tracer tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Sauter, Martin

    2015-04-01

    process, and later on during sample aeration); the adsorbed and/or co-precipitated tracer amounts appear to be non-zero, but their accurate metering was not completed to date. Thus, a conservative estimate of cumulative tracer recovery amounts to (at least) 2 parts-per-thousand for the first 700,000 m3 of fluid turnover within the geothermal well doublet. Neither do such recovery values automatically imply 'bad news' (poor inter-well connectivity), nor do they appear as implausibly low (cf. fig. 2 of [3]), considering the possibility of major vertical drainage along the large-scale fault zone that isolates the 'aquifer basin' around the re-injection well from the 'aquifer catchment' around the production well, along with the prospect of transport-effective porosity and/or thickness within these 'aquifers' being rather high, due to extensive fissuring/fracturing. In more general terms, we argue that (a) inter-well flow-path spikings are still worthwhile being conducted even in large-scale hydrothermal reservoirs; (b) results gained from single-well tests [3] can never serve as a substitute for the kind of information (primarily: residence time distribution RTD, or flow-storage repartition FSR) being expected from inter-well tests; (c) tracer species that are 'novel' in terms of thermo-/reactivity/sorptivity/exchange at phase interfaces and thus involve some transport-retarding process cannot alleviate the frustration associated with long RT; (d) augmenting the tracer quantity Minj to use for inter-well spiking might render the tracer signal detectable, say, one or two years earlier, but it does not make FSR available sooner, since Minj cannot alter the RTD of fluids traveling through the reservoir; moreover, for inter-well configurations and reservoir structures typical of the Upper Rhine Rift Valley, the Minj augmenting factors necessary to render tracer signals detectable 1 or 2 years earlier mostly range beyond the limits of the reasonably-recommendable (e. g., for

  12. The use of active breathing control (ABC) to reduce margin for breathing motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, John W.; Sharpe, Michael B.; Jaffray, David A.; Kini, Vijay R.; Robertson, John M.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Martinez, Alavro A.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: For tumors in the thorax and abdomen, reducing the treatment margin for organ motion due to breathing reduces the volume of normal tissues that will be irradiated. A higher dose can be delivered to the target, provided that the risk of marginal misses is not increased. To ensure safe margin reduction, we investigated the feasibility of using active breathing control (ABC) to temporarily immobilize the patient's breathing. Treatment planning and delivery can then be performed at identical ABC conditions with minimal margin for breathing motion. Methods and Materials: An ABC apparatus is constructed consisting of 2 pairs of flow monitor and scissor valve, 1 each to control the inspiration and expiration paths to the patient. The patient breathes through a mouth-piece connected to the ABC apparatus. The respiratory signal is processed continuously, using a personal computer that displays the changing lung volume in real-time. After the patient's breathing pattern becomes stable, the operator activates ABC at a preselected phase in the breathing cycle. Both valves are then closed to immobilize breathing motion. Breathing motion of 12 patients were held with ABC to examine their acceptance of the procedure. The feasibility of applying ABC for treatment was tested in 5 patients by acquiring volumetric scans with a spiral computed tomography (CT) scanner during active breath-hold. Two patients had Hodgkin's disease, 2 had metastatic liver cancer, and 1 had lung cancer. Two intrafraction ABC scans were acquired at the same respiratory phase near the end of normal or deep inspiration. An additional ABC scan near the end of normal expiration was acquired for 2 patients. The ABC scans were also repeated 1 week later for a Hodgkin's patient. In 1 liver patient, ABC scans were acquired at 7 different phases of the breathing cycle to facilitate examination of the liver motion associated with ventilation. Contours of the lungs and livers were outlined when applicable

  13. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened...

  14. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for the...

  15. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The maximum...

  16. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to a...

  17. IMPLICATIONS OF MOUTH BREATHING AND ATYPICAL SWALLOWING IN BODY POSTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Sousa

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Statistically significant associations were established between the breathing pattern and the horizontal alignment of acromions, as well as the horizontal and vertical alignment of the head; between the pattern of breathing and swallowing with occlusal relationship anteroposterior and occlusal relationship vertical and also between breathing pattern and swallowing with digital sucking habits and pacifier use.

  18. The Effects of Bad News and Good News on a Newspaper's Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Jack B.; Miller, M. Mark

    1984-01-01

    Concludes that whether a newspaper carries mostly good news or mostly bad news affects the image of the paper, with bad news having negative effects and good news having positive effects on readers' perceptions of the newspaper. (FL)

  19. Breaking bad news: Effects of forecasting diagnosis and framing prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porensky, Emily K; Carpenter, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    Research to support guidelines for breaking bad news is lacking. This study used an experimental paradigm to test two communication strategies, forecasting bad news and framing prognosis, in the context of cancer. In a 2×2 design, 128 participants received bad news in a hypothetical consultation. A videotaped physician presented diagnostic and prognostic information, varying warning (warning shot vs. no warning), and framing (positive vs. negative). Effects on psychological distress, recall accuracy, and subjective interpretations of the news were assessed. Warning was not associated with lower psychological distress or improved recall. Individuals who heard a positively-framed prognosis had significantly less psychological distress, rated their prognosis better, and were more hopeful than those who heard a negatively-framed prognosis. However, they also showed a trend toward reduced accuracy in recalling prognostic statistics. Results contribute to a growing body of literature exploring optimal approaches for communicating bad news in health care. Although research in clinical settings is needed to bolster results, findings suggest that when providers use positive framing to reduce distress about prognosis, they should also consider ways to overcome potential reductions in recall accuracy, such as repeating statistical information or supplementing with written information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Curiosity Is Not Good--But It's Not Bad, Either

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David

    2012-01-01

    Curiosity is vital quality of the creative work. However, in the classroom, educators seem to view curiosity as alternately amoral, virtuous, or dangerous. Education's stance towards curiosity is, in a word, curious. Conversely, the author says, curiosity is inherently amoral--neither good nor bad--and the subject is ripe for an exploration of the…

  1. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Leer en Español: ¿Son Malas para los Ojos las Películas en ...

  2. Beta : The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Joost; van Zundert, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper decomposes aggregate and individual stock returns into cash flow news, interest rate news, and risk premium news. We then extend the “good beta, bad beta” approach of Campbell and Vuolteenaho (2004) by allowing for a third beta: exposure to interest rate news. Using various stock

  3. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Leer en Español: ¿Son Malas para los Ojos ... if any, effect the technology has on your eyes. Is 3-D technology healthy for your or ...

  4. Breaking bad news: A communication competency for ophthalmology training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilkert, Sarah M; Cebulla, Colleen M; Jain, Shelly Gupta; Pfeil, Sheryl A; Benes, Susan C; Robbins, Shira L

    As the ophthalmology accreditation system undergoes major changes, training programs must evaluate residents in the 6 core competencies, including appropriately communicating bad news. Although the literature is replete with recommendations for breaking bad news across various non-ophthalmology specialties, no formal training programs exist for ophthalmology. There are many valuable lessons to be learned from our colleagues regarding this important skill. We examine the historic basis for breaking bad news, explore current recommendations among other specialties, and then evaluate a pilot study in breaking bad news for ophthalmology residents. The results of this study are limited by a small number of residents at a single academic center. Future studies from multiple training programs should be conducted to further evaluate the need and efficacy of formal communication skills training in this area, as well as the generalizability of our pilot training program. If validated, this work could serve as a template for future ophthalmology resident training and evaluation in this core competency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Breaking bad news in prenatal medicine: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Rita; George, Astrid; Spitz, Elisabeth; Vieux, Rachel

    2017-02-01

    The diagnosis of a fetal anomaly in perinatal medicine forces expectant parents and healthcare providers to face the difficult process of breaking bad news. This exploratory literature review was aimed at providing a medical and psychological view of the psychological experience in expectant parents and physicians in the context of prenatal diagnosis of a fetal anomaly. An exploratory search of PubMed and PsycINFO/PsycARTICLES databases performed by an interdisciplinary team composed of a physician and psychologists. Search terms were: prenatal diagnosis AND bad news; prenatal diagnosis AND psychological consequences; prenatal diagnosis AND psychological sequelae; prenatal diagnosis AND fetal abnormality. The processing of selected articles followed a standardised five-step procedure. A total of 860 articles were screened of which 32 were retained for analysis. Four main themes emerged from the explanatory content analysis: (1) parents' subjective experience; (2) physicians' subjective experience; (3) encounters between expectant parents and professionals; and (4) ethical challenges in breaking bad news in prenatal medicine. Expectant parents go through a complex and multidimensional experience when the diagnosis of a fetal anomaly is disclosed. Simultaneously, physicians consider breaking bad news as a very stressful event and are poorly prepared in this regard. A better knowledge of factors underlying psychological adjustment of the parental dyad and on the subjective experience of physicians delivering these diagnoses could enable better adaptation for both patients and professionals.

  6. Good and Bad Objects : Cardinality-Based Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrov, D.A.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the problem of ranking sets of objects, the members of which are mutually compatible.Assuming that each object is either good or bad, we axiomatically characterize three cardinality-based rules which arise naturally in this dichotomous setting.They are what we call the symmetric

  7. Is Sitting Too Much Bad for Your Health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.A.; van der Ploeg, H.P.; Proper, K.I.; Spekle, E.M.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Office workers spend a large part of their workday sitting down. Too much sitting seems bad for people's health and puts them at risk for premature death. Workstation alternatives that allow desk work to be done while standing, walking, biking, or stepping reduce the total time spent sitting without

  8. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Leer en Español: ¿ ... computer use and your eyes . Children and 3-D Technology Following the lead of Nintendo, several 3- ...

  9. Bad leadership and institutional failure: foundation of corruption in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study basically assesses the phenomenal rise of corruption in Nigeria. While the study recognizes the varying perspectives of the causes of corruption among developing nations, the study asserts that the dramatic rise of corruption to the present level of impurity is caused by bad leadership and institutional failure.

  10. Here comes the bad news: Doctor robot taking over

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.F.; Winter, S.D.

    2017-01-01

    To test in how far the Media Equation and Computers Are Social Actors (CASA) validly explain user responses to social robots, we manipulated how a bad health message was framed and the language that was used. In the wake of Experiment 2 of Burgers et al. (Patient Educ Couns 89(2):267–273, 2012.

  11. The Effect of Leadership in a Public Bad Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moxnes, E.; van der Heijden, E.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    With regard to global or regional environmental problems, do countries that take unilateral actions inspire other countries to curtail emissions?In this paper this possibility is investigated by the use of a novel design of a laboratory public bad experiment with a leader.Twelve groups of five

  12. Habits: How to Break the Bad and Cultivate the Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellman, Geoffrey

    1976-01-01

    Every trainer and training director should take a close look at his or her habits--good and bad ones. The author provides a series of questions that, when answered by trainers will help them change or get rid of a habit or develop a new one. (BP)

  13. Business Communication Students Learn to Hear a Bad Speech Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Reginald L.; Liang-Bell, Lei Paula; Deselle, Bettye

    2006-01-01

    Students were trained to perceive filled pauses (FP) as a bad speech habit. In a series of classroom sensitivity training activities, followed by students being rewarded to observe twenty minutes of live television from the public media, no differences between male and female Business Communication students was revealed. The practice of teaching…

  14. The effect of desmopressin on nocturnal polyuria, overnight weight loss, and morning postural hypotension in patients with autonomic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, C J; Fosbraey, P; da Costa, D F; Thornley, A; Bannister, R

    1986-01-01

    Day and night urine volume, morning and evening body weight, and supine and sitting blood pressure were measured in five patients with chronic autonomic failure who were not receiving treatment with drugs. All had nocturnal polyuria, overnight weight loss, and a pronounced postural fall in blood pressure, with lowest levels in the morning. Desmopressin (2-4 micrograms given intramuscularly at 8 pm) reduced nocturnal polyuria, diminished overnight weight loss, raised supine blood pressure, and reduced the postural fall, especially in the morning, when patients were often at their worst. Desmopressin may be a useful alternative to, or may supplement, other forms of treatment in some patients with autonomic failure. PMID:3089519

  15. The badness of death and priorities in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Carl Tollef; Gamlund, Espen

    2016-04-14

    The state of the world is one with scarce medical resources where longevity is not equally distributed. Given such facts, setting priorities in health entails making difficult yet unavoidable decisions about which lives to save. The business of saving lives works on the assumption that longevity is valuable and that an early death is worse than a late death. There is a vast literature on health priorities and badness of death, separately. Surprisingly, there has been little cross-fertilisation between the academic fields of priority setting and badness of death. Our aim is to connect philosophical discussions on the badness of death to contemporary debates in health priorities. Two questions regarding death are especially relevant to health priorities. The first question is why death is bad. Death is clearly bad for others, such as family, friends and society. Many philosophers also argue that death can be bad for those who die. This distinction is important for health priorities, because it concerns our fundamental reasons for saving lives. The second question is, 'When is the worst time to die?' A premature death is commonly considered worse than a late death. Thus, the number of good life years lost seems to matter to the badness of death. Concerning young individuals, some think the death of infants is worse than the death of adolescents, while others have contrary intuitions. Our claim is that to prioritise between age groups, we must consider the question of when it is worst to die. Deprivationism provides a more plausible approach to health priorities than Epicureanism. If Deprivationism is accepted, we will have a firmer basis for claiming that individuals, in addition to having a health loss caused by morbidity, will have a loss of good life years due to mortality. Additionally, Deprivationism highlights the importance of age and values for health priorities. Regarding age, both variants of Deprivationism imply that stillbirths are included in the Global

  16. Dual role of proapoptotic BAD in insulin secretion and beta cell survival

    OpenAIRE

    Danial, Nika N.; Walensky, Loren D.; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Choi, Cheol Soo; Fisher, Jill K.; Molina, Anthony J. A.; Datta, Sandeep Robert; Pitter, Kenneth L.; Bird, Gregory H.; Wikstrom, Jakob D.; Deeney, Jude T.; Robertson, Kirsten; Morash, Joel; Kulkarni, Ameya; Neschen, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    The proapoptotic BCL-2 family member BAD resides in a glucokinase-containing complex that regulates glucose-driven mitochondrial respiration. Here, we present genetic evidence of a physiologic role for BAD in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by beta cells. This novel function of BAD is specifically dependent upon the phosphorylation of its BH3 sequence, previously defined as an essential death domain. We highlight the pharmacologic relevance of phosphorylated BAD BH3 by using cell-permeab...

  17. Breaking bad news issues: A survey among radiation oncologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discussion of bad news and resuscitation in terminal cancer is an important but difficult and often neglected issue in day-to-day oncology practice. Materials and Methods: We interviewed 35 radiation oncologists using an indigenous 15-item questionnaire on their beliefs about breaking bad news and resuscitation to terminal cancer patients. Results: Most responders had an oncology experience of three to seven years (20/35.Thirty-two were comfortable discussing cancer diagnosis, prognosis and life expectancy-related issues. A similar number believed all cancer-related information should be disclosed, while only four believed in imparting all information in one visit. All agreed that disclosing sensitive information did not affect survival. When requested by relatives to withhold truth from patients, 11 said they would not comply, 22 agreed to tell the truth only if asked and two agreed to avoid difficult questions. Twenty responders denied having been adequately trained in breaking bad news and were keen on dedicated classes or sessions in this area of practice. Most (33/35 believed that Indian patients were keen on knowing their diagnosis and prognosis. Although all agreed to the importance of discussing resuscitation, only 17 believed patients should be involved. Majority (20/35 agreed that the issue needs to be discussed while the patient was conscious. Patients with unsalvageable disease were deemed unsuitable for aggressive resuscitation by 30 responders while the rest believed it should be offered to all. Most (21/35 admitted to feeling depressed after breaking bad news though only seven felt disclosure was more stressful than untruthful statements. Only four knew of a law regarding resuscitation in cancer. Conclusion: Observing the widely varied beliefs and practices for disclosing bad news, it is recommended that such training be a regular part of medicine curriculum, especially in the Oncology setting.

  18. 42 CFR 413.89 - Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances. 413.89... Categories of Costs § 413.89 Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 49198, Aug. 12, 2010. (a) Principle. Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances are deductions...

  19. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's tally...

  20. 26 CFR 1.593-5 - Addition to reserves for bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Addition to reserves for bad debts. 1.593-5... bad debts. (a) Amount of addition. As an alternative to a deduction from gross income under section... a deduction under section 166(c) for a reasonable addition to a reserve for bad debts. In the case...

  1. 26 CFR 1.585-5 - Denial of bad debt reserves for large banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Denial of bad debt reserves for large banks. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Banking Institutions § 1.585-5 Denial of bad debt... other section for an addition to a reserve for bad debts. However, for these years, except as provided...

  2. Effects of "Good News" and "Bad News" on Newscast Image and Community Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galician, Mary-Lou; Vestre, Norris D.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates whether the relative amount of bad, neutral, and good news on television has corresponding effects on viewers' image of the community depicted and of the carrying newscast. Concludes that bad news creates a bad image for the community but that good news does not produce a more favorable image than neutral news. (MM)

  3. The News Delivery Sequence: Bad News and Good News in Conversational Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Douglas W.

    1997-01-01

    Explores the conditional nature of good and bad news while focusing on three topics: (1) the status of information as news according the participants in a conversation; (2) the valence of this information with regard to its perception as good or bad; and (3) the effect of news on individuals. Notes that good news is privileged over bad news in…

  4. How many bad apples does it take to spoil the whole barrel? Social exclusion and toleration for bad apples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerr, N.L.; Rumble, A.C.; Ouwerkerk, J.W.; Parks, C.D.; Gallucci, M.; van Lange, P.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In social dilemmas, where personal welfare is in conflict with collective welfare, there are inherent incentives to act non-cooperatively. Moreover, there is evidence that the example of a few uncooperative group members ("bad apples") is more influential than the example of comparable numbers of

  5. Dysregulation of cellular calcium homeostasis in Alzheimer's disease: bad genes and bad habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, M P; Chan, S L

    2001-10-01

    Calcium is one of the most important intracellular messengers in the brain, being essential for neuronal development, synaptic transmission and plasticity, and the regulation of various metabolic pathways. The findings reviewed in the present article suggest that calcium also plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Associations between the pathological hallmarks ofAD (neurofibrillary tangles [NFT] and amyloid plaques) and perturbed cellular calcium homeostasis have been established in studies of patients, and in animal and cell culture models of AD. Studies of the effects of mutations in the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilins on neuronal plasticity and survival have provided insight into the molecular cascades that result in synaptic dysfunction and neuronal degeneration in AD. Central to the neurodegenerative process is the inability of neurons to properly regulate intracellular calcium levels. Increased levels of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) induce oxidative stress, which impairs cellular ion homeostasis and energy metabolism and renders neurons vulnerable to apoptosis and excitotoxicity. Subtoxic levels of Abeta may induce synaptic dysfunction by impairing multiple signal transduction pathways. Presenilin mutations perturb calcium homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum in a way that sensitizes neurons to apoptosis and excitotoxicity; links between aberrant calcium regulation and altered APP processing are emerging. Environmental risk factors for AD are being identified and may include high calorie diets, folic acid insufficiency, and a low level of intellectual activity (bad habits); in each case, the environmental factor impacts on neuronal calcium homeostasis. Low calorie diets and intellectual activity may guard against AD by stimulating production of neurotrophic factors and chaperone proteins. The emerging picture of the cell and molecular biology of AD is revealing novel preventative and therapeutic

  6. UNDERWATER STROKE KINEMATICS DURING BREATHING AND BREATH-HOLDING FRONT CRAWL SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickos Vezos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of breathing on the three - dimensional underwater stroke kinematics of front crawl swimming. Ten female competitive freestyle swimmers participated in the study. Each subject swam a number of front crawl trials of 25 m at a constant speed under breathing and breath-holding conditions. The underwater motion of each subject's right arm was filmed using two S-VHS cameras, operating at 60 Hz, which were positioned behind two underwater viewing windows. The spatial coordinates of selected points were calculated using the DLT procedure with 30 control points and after the digital filtering of the raw data with a cut-off frequency of 6 Hz, the hand's linear displacements and velocities were calculated. The results revealed that breathing caused significantly increases in the stroke duration (t9 = 2.764; p < 0.05, the backward hand displacement relative to the water (t9 = 2.471; p<0.05 and the lateral displacement of the hand in the X - axis during the downsweep (t9 = 2.638; p < 0.05. On the contrary, the peak backward hand velocity during the insweep (t9 = 2.368; p < 0.05 and the displacement of the hand during the push phase (t9 = -2.297; p < 0.05 were greatly reduced when breathing was involved. From the above, it was concluded that breathing action in front crawl swimming caused significant modifications in both the basic stroke parameters and the overall motor pattern were, possibly due to body roll during breathing

  7. Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Sahay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS, integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS, cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS, quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS. Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis.

  8. A scoping research literature review to assess the state of existing evidence on the "bad" death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donna M; Hewitt, Jessica A

    2018-02-01

    A scoping research literature review on "bad death" was undertaken to assess the overall state of the science on this topic and to determine what evidence exists on how often bad deaths occur, what contributes to or causes a bad death, and what the outcomes and consequences of bad deaths are. A search for English-language research articles was conducted in late 2016, with 25 articles identified and all retained for examination, as is expected with scoping reviews. Only 3 of the 25 articles provided incidence information, specifying that 7.8 to 23% of deaths were bad and that bad deaths were more likely to occur in hospitals than in community-care settings. Many different factors were associated with bad deaths, with unrelieved pain being the most commonly identified. Half of the studies provided information on the possible consequences or outcomes of bad deaths, such as palliative care not being initiated, interpersonal and team conflict, and long-lasting negative community effects. This review identified a relatively small number of research articles that focused in whole or in part on bad deaths. Although the reasons why people consider a death to be bad may be highly individualized and yet also socioculturally based, unrelieved pain is a commonly held reason for bad deaths. Although bad and good deaths may have some opposing causative factors, this literature review revealed some salient bad death attributes, ones that could be avoided to prevent bad deaths from occurring. A routine assessment to allow planning so as to avoid bad deaths and enhance the probability of good deaths is suggested.

  9. BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cekanova, Maria, E-mail: mcekanov@utk.edu [Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fernando, Romaine I. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medicine, Medical Center, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Siriwardhana, Nalin [Department of Animal Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sukhthankar, Mugdha [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Parra, Columba de la [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR (United States); Woraratphoka, Jirayus [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medicine, Medical Center, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Malone, Christine [Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ström, Anders [Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Baek, Seung J. [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wade, Paul A. [Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Saxton, Arnold M. [Department of Animal Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Donnell, Robert M. [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Pestell, Richard G. [Department of Cancer Biology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic protein BAD is expressed in normal human breast tissue and shown that BAD inhibits expression of cyclin D1 to delay cell-cycle progression in breast cancer cells. Herein, expression of proteins in breast tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and results were analyzed statistically to obtain semi-quantitative data. Biochemical and functional changes in BAD-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells were evaluated using PCR, reporter assays, western blotting, ELISA and extracellular matrix invasion assays. Compared to normal tissues, Grade II breast cancers expressed low total/phosphorylated forms of BAD in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. BAD overexpression decreased the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, and phosphorylation of STATs. BAD inhibited Ras/MEK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, without affecting the p38 signaling pathway. Expression of the metastasis-related proteins, MMP10, VEGF, SNAIL, CXCR4, E-cadherin and TlMP2 was regulated by BAD with concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix invasion. Inhibition of BAD by siRNA increased invasion and Akt/p-Akt levels. Clinical data and the results herein suggest that in addition to the effect on apoptosis, BAD conveys anti-metastatic effects and is a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer. - Highlights: • BAD and p-BAD expressions are decreased in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissue. • BAD impedes breast cancer invasion and migration. • BAD inhibits the EMT and transcription factors that promote cancer cell migration. • Invasion and migration functions of BAD are distinct from the BAD's role in apoptosis.

  10. BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cekanova, Maria; Fernando, Romaine I.; Siriwardhana, Nalin; Sukhthankar, Mugdha; Parra, Columba de la; Woraratphoka, Jirayus; Malone, Christine; Ström, Anders; Baek, Seung J.; Wade, Paul A.; Saxton, Arnold M.; Donnell, Robert M.; Pestell, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic protein BAD is expressed in normal human breast tissue and shown that BAD inhibits expression of cyclin D1 to delay cell-cycle progression in breast cancer cells. Herein, expression of proteins in breast tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and results were analyzed statistically to obtain semi-quantitative data. Biochemical and functional changes in BAD-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells were evaluated using PCR, reporter assays, western blotting, ELISA and extracellular matrix invasion assays. Compared to normal tissues, Grade II breast cancers expressed low total/phosphorylated forms of BAD in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. BAD overexpression decreased the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, and phosphorylation of STATs. BAD inhibited Ras/MEK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, without affecting the p38 signaling pathway. Expression of the metastasis-related proteins, MMP10, VEGF, SNAIL, CXCR4, E-cadherin and TlMP2 was regulated by BAD with concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix invasion. Inhibition of BAD by siRNA increased invasion and Akt/p-Akt levels. Clinical data and the results herein suggest that in addition to the effect on apoptosis, BAD conveys anti-metastatic effects and is a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer. - Highlights: • BAD and p-BAD expressions are decreased in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissue. • BAD impedes breast cancer invasion and migration. • BAD inhibits the EMT and transcription factors that promote cancer cell migration. • Invasion and migration functions of BAD are distinct from the BAD's role in apoptosis

  11. Low morning serum cortisol levels in children with tonsillar hypertrophy and moderate-to-severe OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakasioti, Georgia; Alexopoulos, Emmanouel I; Varlami, Vasiliki; Chaidas, Konstantinos; Liakos, Nikolaos; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Kaditis, Athanasios G

    2013-09-01

    Hypertrophic tonsillar tissue in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has enhanced expression of glucocorticoid receptors, which may reflect low endogenous cortisol levels. We have evaluated the effect of the interaction between tonsillar hypertrophy and OSA severity on morning serum cortisol levels. Children with and without snoring underwent polysomnography, tonsillar size grading, and measurement of morning serum cortisol. Seventy children (2-13 years old) were recruited: 30 with moderate-to-severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] > 5 episodes/h), 26 with mild OSA (AHI > 1 and ≤ 5), and 14 controls (no snoring; AHI ≤ 1). Tonsillar hypertrophy was present in 56.7%, 53.8%, and 42.9% of participants in each group, respectively. Application of a general linear model demonstrated a significant effect of the interaction between severity of OSA and tonsillar hypertrophy on cortisol levels (P = 0.04), after adjustment for obesity, gender, and age. Among children with tonsillar hypertrophy, subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA (n = 17; AHI 14.7 ± 10.6), mild OSA (n = 14; AHI 2.3 ± 1.2), and control participants (n = 6; AHI 0.7 ± 0.2) were significantly different regarding cortisol levels (P = 0.02). Subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA had lower cortisol (16.9 ± 8.7 mcg/dL) than those with mild OSA (23.3 ± 4.2; P = 0.01) and those without OSA (controls) (23.6 ± 5.3 mcg/dL; P = 0.04). In contrast, children with normal-size tonsils and moderate-to-severe OSA, mild OSA, and controls did not differ in cortisol levels. Children with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and the phenotype of hypertrophic tonsils have reduced morning serum cortisol levels and potentially decreased glucocorticoid inhibitory effects on tonsillar growth.

  12. The Differential Hormonal Milieu of Morning versus Evening May Have an Impact on Muscle Hypertrophic Potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D Burley

    Full Text Available Substantial gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy are clearly associated with the routine performance of resistance training. What is less evident is the optimal timing of the resistance training stimulus to elicit these significant functional and structural skeletal muscle changes. Therefore, this investigation determined the impact of a single bout of resistance training performed either in the morning or evening upon acute anabolic signalling (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3, myogenic index and differentiation and catabolic processes (cortisol. Twenty-four male participants (age 21.4±1.9yrs, mass 83.7±13.7kg with no sustained resistance training experience were allocated to a resistance exercise group (REP. Sixteen of the 24 participants were randomly selected to perform an additional non-exercising control group (CP protocol. REP performed two bouts of resistance exercise (80% 1RM in the morning (AM: 0800 hrs and evening (PM: 1800 hrs, with the sessions separated by a minimum of 72 hours. Venous blood was collected immediately prior to, and 5 min after, each resistance exercise and control sessions. Serum cortisol and IGFBP-3 levels, myogenic index, myotube width, were determined at each sampling period. All data are reported as mean ± SEM, statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. As expected a significant reduction in evening cortisol concentration was observed at pre (AM: 98.4±10.5, PM: 49.8±4.4 ng/ml, P0.05. Timing of resistance training regimen in the evening appears to augment some markers of hypertrophic potential, with elevated IGFBP-3, suppressed cortisol and a superior cellular environment. Further investigation, to further elucidate the time course of peak anabolic signalling in morning vs evening training conditions, are timely.

  13. The Differential Hormonal Milieu of Morning versus Evening May Have an Impact on Muscle Hypertrophic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Simon D; Whittingham-Dowd, Jayde; Allen, Jeremy; Grosset, Jean-Francois; Onambele-Pearson, Gladys L

    2016-01-01

    Substantial gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy are clearly associated with the routine performance of resistance training. What is less evident is the optimal timing of the resistance training stimulus to elicit these significant functional and structural skeletal muscle changes. Therefore, this investigation determined the impact of a single bout of resistance training performed either in the morning or evening upon acute anabolic signalling (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), myogenic index and differentiation) and catabolic processes (cortisol). Twenty-four male participants (age 21.4±1.9yrs, mass 83.7±13.7kg) with no sustained resistance training experience were allocated to a resistance exercise group (REP). Sixteen of the 24 participants were randomly selected to perform an additional non-exercising control group (CP) protocol. REP performed two bouts of resistance exercise (80% 1RM) in the morning (AM: 0800 hrs) and evening (PM: 1800 hrs), with the sessions separated by a minimum of 72 hours. Venous blood was collected immediately prior to, and 5 min after, each resistance exercise and control sessions. Serum cortisol and IGFBP-3 levels, myogenic index, myotube width, were determined at each sampling period. All data are reported as mean ± SEM, statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. As expected a significant reduction in evening cortisol concentration was observed at pre (AM: 98.4±10.5, PM: 49.8±4.4 ng/ml, P0.05). Timing of resistance training regimen in the evening appears to augment some markers of hypertrophic potential, with elevated IGFBP-3, suppressed cortisol and a superior cellular environment. Further investigation, to further elucidate the time course of peak anabolic signalling in morning vs evening training conditions, are timely.

  14. Saturday-morning television: do sponsors promote high-risk behavior for burn injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Tina L; Aoki, Traci; Combs, Elena; Curri, Terese; Garma, Sylvia; Kaulkin, Cammie; Lawless, Mary Beth; Nelson, Kate; Sanders, Johanna; Warden, Nancy; Greenhalgh, David G

    2004-01-01

    Television has become an important tool for learning and socialization in children. Although television violence has been associated with adverse effects, data on depiction of fire and burn injury are lacking. We sought to determine whether Saturday-morning television programming, viewed primarily by children, depicts fire and burn injury as safe or without consequence, thus potentially increasing the incidence of burn injury in children. This was a prospective observational study. Saturday-morning children's television programs were videotaped from 7 AM to 11 AM for eight different television networks during a 6-month period. Tapes were scored for scenes depicting fire or smoke by independent observers. Recorded items included show category, scene type, gender target, context of fire, and outcome after exposure to flame. Fire events were documented during programs and their associated commercials. A total of 108 hours of children's programs, 16 hours per network, were recorded. Scenes depicting fire or smoke were identified 1960 times, with 39% of events occurring during the program itself and 61% in commercials. Fire was depicted as either safe or without consequence in 64% of incidents. Action adventure stories accounted for 56% of flame depictions. Overall, one incident involving flame and fire was portrayed for each 3 minutes of television programming. Saturday-morning television programming frequently depicts fire as safe, empowering, or exciting. The incidence of flame use in programming varies between stations but is most prevalent in action/adventure stories. Television commercials, although brief, provide the majority of the misinformation regarding fire. Medical professional societies should alert the public to this potential hazard and recommend responsible portrayal of fire in children's television programming.

  15. The effect of morning exercise on mental health of female police employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassani Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available       Background & Aims of the Study: According to the report of world health, organization mental disorder is one of the important causes of disability in the world and it can result in decrease in the success and advancement of employees. Thus, the purpose of this research is evaluation and comparison of mental health status and its related factors in female employees who take part in morning exercise and who are exempt in one of the police units. This is a descriptive-analytic and cross sectional study. Materials & Methods: The population of this research included 85 female employees who took part in morning exercise as one group and the other group included 65 inactive people who were ill and exempt from exercise. The measurement tool in the research was the Goldberg and Hiller questionnaire of mental health that was consisted of 28 questions. Various studies in the world and in Iran suggest the high validity and reliability of the GHQ-28 questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire has been approved in more than 70 countries and its reliability has been estimated to be between 82% and 92% in different researches and in different social groups. The data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics (frequency, mean and standard of deviation and deduction statistics (independent t-test in SPSS 16 software. Results: Analysis of the research hypotheses at significant level (p<0.05 showed that morning exercise had significant effect on mental health and its subscales such as physical complaint, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression in employees. Moreover, a significant difference was observed by comparing the active and inactive groups in relation to mental health and its subscales. Conclusions: The results of the research show that the effect of exercise and physical activities on mental health can't be denied. According to the researches that have been done, exercise is effective in two aspects of physical and mental.       

  16. The effects of a mid-morning bout of exercise on adolescents' cognitive function

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, SB; Bandelow, S; Nute, ML; Morris, JG; Nevill, ME

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a mid-morning bout of exercise on adolescents’ cognitive function in a randomised crossover design where each participant completed two experimental trials. Forty-five adolescents (13.3±0.3 years old), undertook a bout of exercise (ten repeats of level one of the multi-stage fitness test, 30s rest between repeats; exercise trial) or continued to rest (resting trial). A battery of cognitive function tests assessing visuo-motor speed, e...

  17. A cereal-based evening meal rich in indigestible carbohydrates increases plasma butyrate the next morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Östman, Elin M; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2010-01-01

    , mean ± SD: 25.9 ± 3.2 y, BMI meals (50 g available starch) varying in content of indigestible carbohydrates. Each participant consumed all test meals in a random order on separate evenings. At a standardized breakfast following evening test meals......, the postprandial glucose response (incremental area under the curve, 0-120 min) was inversely related to plasma butyrate (r = -0.26; P meals composed of high-amylose barley kernels or high-ß-glucan barley kernels resulted in higher plasma butyrate...... concentrations the following morning compared with an evening meal with white wheat bread (P

  18. Thoron-in-breath monitoring at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, B.F.

    1985-04-01

    This report contains a description of the thoron-in-breath monitor (TIBM) developed at CRNL. This monitor can be used to estimate the amount of thorium (Th-232 and/or Th-228) in humans. Thoron-in-breath monitoring is based on the fact that thoron (Rn-220) is a decay product of thorium, and hence deposited thorium produces thoron in vivo, a fraction of which will be exhaled. Experiences with the TIBM indicate that the monitoring is easy to perform and the results in terms of contaminated vs uncontaminated subjects can be easily interpreted. Work on relationships between thoron exhaled and deposited thorium and hence between thoron exhaled and dose, is continuing

  19. An exercise in preferential unilateral breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, D.; Tucker, B.; Jenkins, S.; Robinson, P.; Curtin University, Shenton Park, WA

    1999-01-01

    Full text: In preparation for major thoracic surgery, physiotherapists have traditionally taught unilateral breathing exercises. There are no studies that prove that these exercises are effective This study was undertaken to demonstrate the effects of unilateral thoracic expansion exercises (TEE) using 99 Tc m -Technegas Ten physiotherapists were taught unilateral TEE to increase ventilation to the right lower lobe. Each subject underwent two separate Technegas ventilation studies using a single-breath technique, one with normal deep inspiration and the other during a right TEE. Dynamic and static images were acquired in the seated position for each ventilation study. Analysis was undertaken by dividing the lungs into 6 zones of equal height and calculating the relative ventilation of each zone and each lung. Seven subjects (70%) achieved significantly increased ventilation to the right lower zone, while 9 (90%) achieved greater ventilation to the right lung. Total lung ventilation was reduced during right TEE when compared with normal deep inspiration

  20. Weyl magnons in breathing pyrochlore antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei-Ye; Li, Yao-Dong; Kim, Yong Baek; Balents, Leon; Yu, Yue; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Frustrated quantum magnets not only provide exotic ground states and unusual magnetic structures, but also support unconventional excitations in many cases. Using a physically relevant spin model for a breathing pyrochlore lattice, we discuss the presence of topological linear band crossings of magnons in antiferromagnets. These are the analogues of Weyl fermions in electronic systems, which we dub Weyl magnons. The bulk Weyl magnon implies the presence of chiral magnon surface states forming arcs at finite energy. We argue that such antiferromagnets present a unique example, in which Weyl points can be manipulated in situ in the laboratory by applied fields. We discuss their appearance specifically in the breathing pyrochlore lattice, and give some general discussion of conditions to find Weyl magnons, and how they may be probed experimentally. Our work may inspire a re-examination of the magnetic excitations in many magnetically ordered systems. PMID:27650053

  1. Universe out of a breathing bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendelman, Eduardo I.; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2008-01-01

    We consider the model of a false-vacuum bubble with a thin wall where the surface energy density is composed of two different components, 'domain-wall' type and 'dust' type, with opposite signs. We find stably oscillating solutions, which we call 'breathing bubbles'. By decay to a lower mass state, such a breathing bubble could become either (i) a child universe or ii) a bubble that 'eats up' the original universe, depending on the sign of the surface energy of the domain-wall component. We also discuss the effect of the finite-thickness corrections to the thin-wall approximation and possible origins of the energy contents of our model

  2. Water data: bad TPC pads, 3.6 µs and 100 ns problems

    CERN Document Server

    Dydak, F; Nefedov, Y; Wotschack, J; Zhemchugov, A

    2004-01-01

    Out of the 3972 pads of the HARP TPC, about 9% are 'bad' and not useful for the correct reconstruction of clusters. Bad pads comprise dead pads, noisy pads, and pads with low or undefined amplification. Pads may be bad at one time, but not at another. This memo discusses the sources of information which were used to declare a pad 'bad', and gives the list of bad pads for the water data (runs 19146 to 19301). Also, the 3.6 µs and 100 ns problems of the TPC readout are discussed, including the corrective measures which have been taken.

  3. A mechanical breathing simulator for respirator test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Mikio; Ikezawa, Yoshio; Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    1976-01-01

    A mechanical breathing simulator has been developed to produce the human respiration for use in respirator test. The respirations were produced through the strokes of piston controlled by a rockerarm with adjustable fulcrum. The respiration rate was governed by motor-speed control, independent of the tidal volume achieved by adjustment of the piston stroke. By the breather, the simulated respirations for work rate 0, 208, 415, 622 and 830 kg-m/min could be produced through the typical dummy head. (auth.)

  4. The experimental modification of sonorous breathing.

    OpenAIRE

    Josephson, S C; Rosen, R C

    1980-01-01

    Loud snoring is a noxious habit and potential personal health risk. We are reporting the first experimental study of simple behavioral techniques for the modification of chronic snoring. Twenty-four volunteers participated in a repeated measures, randomized group design over 2 weeks of intervention and one-month follow-up. Treatment groups included a contingent-awakening and breathing retraining (self-control) condition. Both treatment groups were compared to a no-treatment control. Despite c...

  5. Breathing conditions for animals in radiobiological experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.N.; Michael, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of experiments designed to determine the influence of redox agents on the radiosensitivity of murine normal tissues, an unexpected scatter of data points relating to jejunal crypt regeneration was found in mice irradiated under supposedly air-breathing conditions. One possible explanation for the scatter in the data related to variation in the oxygen tension within the jig at the time of irradiation, and the jig modified accordingly. (author)

  6. Breathing air trailer acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0251, Rev.0 and ECNs 613530 and 606113. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-104. The equipment tested is a Breathing Air Supply Trailer purchased as a design and fabrication procurement activity. The ATP was written by the Seller and was performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing portions of the test at the Seller's location

  7. C-130J Breathing Resistance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    scientific and technical information exchange , and its publication does not constitute the Government’s approval or disapproval of its ideas or findings...regulator and MBU- 20/P oxygen mask, was supplied gaseous Aviators’ Breathing Oxygen (ABO). The regulator was operated in various operating modes, at...Generating System (OBOGS) Laboratory, Area B, Wright-Patterson AFB OH. The CRU-73 oxygen regulator was supplied with 50 pounds/square inch of gaseous

  8. Houses need to breathe--right?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2004-10-01

    Houses need to breathe, but we can no longer leave the important functions associated with ventilation to be met accidentally. A designed ventilation system must be considered as much a part of a home as its heating system. Windows are a key part of that system because they allow a quick increase in ventilation for unusual events, but neither they nor a leaky building shell can be counted on to provide minimum levels.

  9. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-06-28

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H₂ and CH₄ gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H₂ breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients.

  10. Forced Air-Breathing PEMFC Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Dhathathreyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-breathing fuel cells have a great potential as power sources for various electronic devices. They differ from conventional fuel cells in which the cells take up oxygen from ambient air by active or passive methods. The air flow occurs through the channels due to concentration and temperature gradient between the cell and the ambient conditions. However developing a stack is very difficult as the individual cell performance may not be uniform. In order to make such a system more realistic, an open-cathode forced air-breathing stacks were developed by making appropriate channel dimensions for the air flow for uniform performance in a stack. At CFCT-ARCI (Centre for Fuel Cell Technology-ARC International we have developed forced air-breathing fuel cell stacks with varying capacity ranging from 50 watts to 1500 watts. The performance of the stack was analysed based on the air flow, humidity, stability, and so forth, The major advantage of the system is the reduced number of bipolar plates and thereby reduction in volume and weight. However, the thermal management is a challenge due to the non-availability of sufficient air flow to remove the heat from the system during continuous operation. These results will be discussed in this paper.

  11. Breathing is different in the quantum world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Michael; Bauch, Sebastian; Balzer, Karsten; Henning, Christian; Hochstuhl, David

    2009-11-01

    Interacting classicle particles in a harmonic trap are known to possess a radial collective oscillation -- the breathing mode (BM). In case of Coulomb interaction its frequency is universal -- it is independent of the particle number and system dimensionality [1]. Here we study strongly correlated quantum systems. We report a qualitatively different breathing behavior: a quantum system has two BMs one of which is universal whereas the frequency of the other varies with system dimensionality, the particle spin and the strength of the pair interaction. The results are based on exact solutions of the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation for two particles and on time-dependent many-body results for larger particle numbers. Finally, we discuss experimental ways to excite and measure the breathing frequencies which should give direct access to key properties of trapped particles, including their many-body effects [2]. [4pt] [1] C. Henning et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 045002 (2008) [0pt] [2] S. Bauch, K. Balzer, C. Henning, and M. Bonitz, submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett., arXiv:0903.1993

  12. Loss of Bad expression confers poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Liu, Dan; Chen, Bojiang; Zeng, Jing; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Shangfu; Mo, Xianming; Li, Weimin

    2012-09-01

    Proapoptotic BH-3-only protein Bad (Bcl-Xl/Bcl-2-associated death promoter homolog, Bad) initiates apoptosis in human cells, and contributes to tumorigenesis and chemotherapy resistant in malignancies. This study explored association between the Bad expression level and prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In our study, a cohort of 88 resected primary NSCLC cases were collected and analyzed. Bad expression level was determined via immunohistochemical staining assay. The prognostic significances of Bad expression were evaluated with univariate and multivariate survival analysis. The results showed that compared with normal lung tissues, Bad expression level significantly decreased in NSCLC (P Bad expression was associated with adjuvant therapy status. Loss of Bad independently predicted poor prognosis in whole NSCLC cohort and early stage subjects (T1 + T2 and N0 + N1) (all P Bad negative phenotype in NSCLC patients with smoking history, especially lung squamous cell carcinoma (all P Bad is an independent and powerful predictor of adverse prognosis in NSCLC. Bad protein could be a new biomarker for selecting individual therapy strategies and predicting therapeutic response in subjects with NSCLC.

  13. [Construction of BAD Lentivirus Vector and Its Effect on Proliferation in A549 Cell Lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Na; He, Yan-qi; Zhu, Jing; Li, Wei-min

    2015-05-01

    To construct the recombinant lentivirus expressing vector BAD (Bcl-2-associated death protein) gene and to study its effect on A549 cell proliferation. The BAD gene was amplified from plasmid pAV-MCMV-BAD-GFP by PCR. The purified BAD gene fragment was inserted into a lentivirus vector (pLVX-IRES-ZsGreen 1), and the insertion was identified by PCR, restriction endonuclease analysis and DNA sequencing. A549 cells were then transfected with the packaged recombinant lentivirus, and resistant cell clones were selected with flow cytometry. The expression of BAD in A549 cell lines stably transduction with a lentivirus was examined using Western blot. The effect of BAD overexpression on proliferation of A549 cells was evaluated by using CCK-8 kit. Restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing showed that the full-length BAD gene (507 bp) had been successfully subcloned into the lentiviral vector to result in the recombinant vector pLVX-IRES-ZsGreen 1. Monoclonal cell lines BAD-A549 was produced after transfection with the recombinant lentivirus and selected with flow cytometry. Stable expression of BAD protein was verified by Western blot. In vitro, the OD value in BAD group was significantly lower than that of control groups from 120-144 h (PBAD gene had been successfully generated. In vitro, BAD overexpression significantly inhibited A549 cells proliferation.

  14. arXiv The Infrared Physics of Bad Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Assel, Benjamin

    2017-09-28

    We study the complete moduli space of vacua of 3d $\\mathcal{N}=4$ $U(N)$ SQCDtheories with $N_f$ fundamentals, building on the algebraic description of theCoulomb branch, and deduce the low energy physics in any vacuum from the localgeometry of the moduli space. We confirm previous claims for good and ugly SQCDtheories, and show that bad theories flow to the same interacting fixed pointsas good theories with additional free twisted hypermultiplets. A Seiberg-likeduality proposed for bad theories with $N \\le N_f \\le 2N-2$ is ruled out: thespaces of vacua of the putative dual theories are different. However such badtheories have a distinguished vacuum, which preserves all the globalsymmetries, whose infrared physics is that of the proposed dual. We finallyexplain previous results on sphere partition functions and elucidate therelation between the UV and IR $R$-symmetry in this symmetric vacuum.

  15. Are Empathy and Compassion Bad for the Professional Social Worker?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nilsson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that social workers and other professional helpers who work with traumatized individuals run a risk of developing compassion fatigue or secondary traumatic stress. Some researchers have hypothesized that helpers do this as a result of feeling too much empathy or too much compassion for their clients, thereby implying that empathy and compassion may be bad for the professional social worker. This paper investigates these hypotheses. Based on a review of current research about empathy and compassion it is argued that these states are not the causes of compassion fatigue. Hence, it is argued that empathy and compassion are not bad for the professional social worker in the sense that too much of one or the other will lead to compassion fatigue.

  16. Human development of the ability to learn from bad news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsiana, Christina; Garrett, Neil; Clarke, Richard C.; Lotto, R. Beau; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Sharot, Tali

    2013-01-01

    Humans show a natural tendency to discount bad news while incorporating good news into beliefs (the “good news–bad news effect”), an effect that may help explain seemingly irrational risk taking. Understanding how this bias develops with age is important because adolescents are prone to engage in risky behavior; thus, educating them about danger is crucial. We reveal a striking valence-dependent asymmetry in how belief updating develops with age. In the ages tested (9–26 y), younger age was associated with inaccurate updating of beliefs in response to undesirable information regarding vulnerability. In contrast, the ability to update beliefs accurately in response to desirable information remained relatively stable with age. This asymmetry was mediated by adequate computational use of positive but not negative estimation errors to alter beliefs. The results are important for understanding how belief formation develops and might help explain why adolescents do not respond adequately to warnings. PMID:24019466

  17. A New Baroreceptor Sensitivity-Restoring Ca-Channel Blocker Diminishes Age-Related Morning Blood Pressure Increase in Hypertensive Patients: Open-Label Monitoring of Azelnidipine Treatment for Hypertension in the Early Morning (At-HOME Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsunori Sugiyama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morning blood pressure (BP surge, which exhibits an age-related increase, is a risk factor for stroke in elderly hypertensive patients, independently of the 24-h BP level. We studied the effect of the new baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS-restoring Ca-channel blocker (CCB azelnidipine (AZ on this age-related morning BP increase. Methods: We conducted a 16-week prospective study to clarify the effect of morning dosing of AZ on home BPs measured in the morning and in the evening in 2,546 hypertensive patients (mean age, 65.1 years; female, 53.6%. Results: At baseline, ME-Dif (morning systolic BP [SBP]–evening SBP increased with age, independently of ME-Ave (average of the morning and evening SBPs. This age-related increase of ME-Dif was exaggerated by regular alcohol drinking and beta-blocker use. After AZ treatment (14.3 ± 3.6 mg/day, ME-AV and ME-Dif were significantly reduced independently of each other, with reductions of –18.1 ± 15.6 and –2.5 ± 13.2 mmHg, respectively (both p < 0.001. AZ treatment decreased age-related increase in ME-Dif particularly in patients who were regular consumers of alcohol and in beta-blocker users. Conclusions: The new BRS-restoring CCB AZ significantly reduced age-related increase in morning BP and had some potential benefit on cardiovascular protection in hypertension, particularly in elderly patients and/or consumers of alcohol.

  18. HOLIDAY FROM HELL : Bad travel experiences of Finnish people

    OpenAIRE

    Miettinen, Milja

    2015-01-01

    The topic of this thesis was the bad travel experiences of Finnish people. This thesis is divided into two parts. The theoretical framework consists of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, tourism consumer behaviour, experience and experience economy. In the empirical part, a survey was used and answers were collected by a questionnaire on the Internet. The link to the questionnaire was published in Facebook and also on Suomi24 forum’s travel section. It was possible to answer to the questionnai...

  19. Microfield «bad smell» in English

    OpenAIRE

    Martyniuk, Aliona; Мартинюк, Альона

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the lexical units that belong to the microfield of «bad smell»; the results of lexicographical analysis was given and the semantic markers which we can find in the literature. The material of our investigation we took the dictionary entries of five explanatory dictionaries (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, MacMillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners, Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Collin’s English Dictionary, Merriam-Webster’s...

  20. Evening and morning alterations in Obstructive Sleep Apnea red blood cell proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia Feliciano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents proteomics data referenced in [1] Using proteomics-based evaluation of red blood cells (RBCs, we have identified differentially abundant proteins associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSA. RBCs were collected from peripheral blood of patients with moderate/severe OSA or snoring at pre- (evening and post-night (morning polysomnography, so that proteome variations between these time points could be assessed. RBC cytoplasmic fraction depleted of hemoglobin, using Hemovoid™ system, were analyzed by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE, the 2D image software-based analyzed and relevant differentially abundant proteins identified by mass spectrometry (MS. MS identified 31 protein spots differentially abundant corresponding to 21 unique proteins possibly due to the existence of post-translational modification regulations. Functional analysis by bioinformatics tools indicated that most proteins are associated with catalytic, oxidoreductase, peroxidase, hydrolase, ATPase and anti-oxidant activity. At morning a larger numbers of differential proteins including response to chemical stimulus, oxidation reduction, regulation of catalytic activity and response to stress were observed in OSA. The data might support further research in OSA biomarker discovery and validation.

  1. LWD–TCP complex activates the morning gene CCA1 in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing-Fen; Tsai, Huang-Lung; Joanito, Ignasius; Wu, Yi-Chen; Chang, Chin-Wen; Li, Yi-Hang; Wang, Ying; Hong, Jong Chan; Chu, Jhih-Wei; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Wu, Shu-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    A double-negative feedback loop formed by the morning genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1)/LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and the evening gene TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1) contributes to regulation of the circadian clock in Arabidopsis. A 24-h circadian cycle starts with the peak expression of CCA1 at dawn. Although CCA1 is targeted by multiple transcriptional repressors, including PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR9 (PRR9), PRR7, PRR5 and CCA1 HIKING EXPEDITION (CHE), activators of CCA1 remain elusive. Here we use mathematical modelling to infer a co-activator role for LIGHT-REGULATED WD1 (LWD1) in CCA1 expression. We show that the TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1-CYCLOIDEA-PCF20 (TCP20) and TCP22 proteins act as LWD-interacting transcriptional activators. The concomitant binding of LWD1 and TCP20/TCP22 to the TCP-binding site in the CCA1 promoter activates CCA1. Our study reveals activators of the morning gene CCA1 and provides an action mechanism that ensures elevated expression of CCA1 at dawn to sustain a robust clock. PMID:27734958

  2. LWD-TCP complex activates the morning gene CCA1 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing-Fen; Tsai, Huang-Lung; Joanito, Ignasius; Wu, Yi-Chen; Chang, Chin-Wen; Li, Yi-Hang; Wang, Ying; Hong, Jong Chan; Chu, Jhih-Wei; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Wu, Shu-Hsing

    2016-10-13

    A double-negative feedback loop formed by the morning genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1)/LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and the evening gene TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1) contributes to regulation of the circadian clock in Arabidopsis. A 24-h circadian cycle starts with the peak expression of CCA1 at dawn. Although CCA1 is targeted by multiple transcriptional repressors, including PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR9 (PRR9), PRR7, PRR5 and CCA1 HIKING EXPEDITION (CHE), activators of CCA1 remain elusive. Here we use mathematical modelling to infer a co-activator role for LIGHT-REGULATED WD1 (LWD1) in CCA1 expression. We show that the TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1-CYCLOIDEA-PCF20 (TCP20) and TCP22 proteins act as LWD-interacting transcriptional activators. The concomitant binding of LWD1 and TCP20/TCP22 to the TCP-binding site in the CCA1 promoter activates CCA1. Our study reveals activators of the morning gene CCA1 and provides an action mechanism that ensures elevated expression of CCA1 at dawn to sustain a robust clock.

  3. Morning administration of oral methamphetamine dose-dependently disrupts nighttime sleep in recreational stimulant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Evan S; Johnson, Patrick S; Bruner, Natalie R; Vandrey, Ryan; Johnson, Matthew W

    2017-09-01

    Use of amphetamine-type stimulants (e.g., methamphetamine) is associated with acute sleep disruptions. No prior reports have characterized the acute effects of methamphetamine on sleep using polysomnography, the gold standard for objective sleep monitoring. Recreational stimulant users (n=19) completed a baseline assessment, which included questionnaires assessing demographic and substance use characteristics, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), which assesses sleep quality over the past month. Participants were administered 0mg (placebo), 20mg, or 40mg oral methamphetamine at 08:15h on study days, using a double-blind, randomized, within-subjects design. Sleep was monitored using polysomnography from 22:20 that evening until 06:15 the following morning. PSQI scores indicated more than half of participants reported poor sleep quality at baseline. Methamphetamine dose-dependently increased sleep latency, and decreased total sleep time, sleep efficiency, time in NREM 2 sleep, number of REM periods, and total time in REM sleep. Sleep under placebo conditions was consistent with what would be expected from healthy adults. Morning oral administration of methamphetamine produces robust disruptions in nighttime sleep. Future research should examine relations between stimulant use and sleep disruption in naturalistic settings, with regard to both stimulant abuse and licit prescription use. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Substorm observations in the early morning sector with Equator-S and Geotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nakamura

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from Equator-S and Geotail are used to study the dynamics of the plasma sheet observed during a substorm with multiple intensifications on 25 April 1998, when both spacecraft were located in the early morning sector (03–04 MLT at a radial distance of 10–11 RE. In association with the onset of a poleward expansion of the aurora and the westward electrojet in the premidnight and midnight sector, both satellites in the morning sector observed plasma sheet thinning and changes toward a more tail-like field configuration. During the subsequent poleward expansion in a wider local time sector (20–04 MLT, on the other hand, the magnetic field configuration at both satellites changed into a more dipolar configuration and both satellites encountered again the hot plasma sheet. High-speed plasma flows with velocities of up to 600 km/s and lasting 2–5 min were observed in the plasma sheet and near its boundary during this plasma sheet expansion. These high-speed flows included significant dawn-dusk flows and had a shear structure. They may have been produced by an induced electric field at the local dipolarization region and/or by an enhanced pressure gradient associated with the injection in the midnight plasma sheet.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; plasma sheet; storms and substorms

  5. Evaluation of behavioral states among morning and evening active healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Hidalgo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The Horne-Östberg questionnaire partly covers some factors that may be important determinants of peak time and characterize patterns of behavior. We conducted a study for the evaluation of self-reported behavioral states (hunger sensation, availability for study, physical exercise, solving daily problems, and time preferences as expressions of underlying cyclic activity. Three hundred and eighteen community subjects without history of medical, psychiatric, or sleep disorders were evaluated in a cross-sectional design. A self-report about daily highest level of activity was used to categorize individuals into morning, evening, and indifferently active. Time-related behavioral states were evaluated with 23 visual analog questions. The responses to most analogic questions were significantly different between morning and evening active subjects. Logistic regression analysis identified a group of behaviors more strongly associated with the self-reported activity pattern (common wake up time, highest subjective fatigue, as well as wake up, bedtime, exercise and study preferences. These findings suggested that the patterns of activity presented by normal adults were related to specific common behavioral characteristics that may contribute to peak time.

  6. Effect of active warm-up duration on morning short-term maximal performance during Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklouti, Hana; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the morning. Twelve healthy active men performed four Wingate tests for measurement of peak power and mean power before and during Ramadan at 09:00 a.m. The tests were performed on separate days, after either a 5-min or a 15-min warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. Oral temperature was measured at rest and after warming-up. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Oral temperature was higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up throughout the study. Moreover, peak power and mean power were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up before Ramadan. However, during Ramadan, there was no significant difference between the two warm-up durations. In addition, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up only during Ramadan. There is no need to prolong the warm-up period before short-term maximal exercise performed during Ramadan in the morning.

  7. Biochemical and biophysical investigations of the interaction between human glucokinase and pro-apoptotic BAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexford, Alix; Zorio, Diego A R; Miller, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    The glycolytic enzyme glucokinase (GCK) and the pro-apoptotic protein BAD reportedly reside within a five-membered complex that localizes to the mitochondria of mammalian hepatocytes and pancreatic β-cells. Photochemical crosslinking studies using a synthetic analog of BAD's BH3 domain and in vitro transcription/translation experiments support a direct interaction between BAD and GCK. To investigate the biochemical and biophysical consequences of the BAD:GCK interaction, we developed a method for the production of recombinant human BAD. Consistent with published reports, recombinant BAD displays high affinity for Bcl-xL (KD = 7 nM), and phosphorylation of BAD at S118, within the BH3 domain, abolishes this interaction. Unexpectedly, we do not detect association of recombinant, full-length BAD with recombinant human pancreatic GCK over a range of protein concentrations using various biochemical methods including size-exclusion chromatography, chemical cross-linking, analytical ultracentrifugation, and isothermal titration calorimetry. Furthermore, fluorescence polarization assays and isothermal titration calorimetry detect no direct interaction between GCK and BAD BH3 peptides. Kinetic characterization of GCK in the presence of high concentrations of recombinant BAD show modest (BAD BH3 peptides. These results raise questions as to the mechanism of action of stapled peptide analogs modeled after the BAD BH3 domain, which reportedly enhance the Vmax value of GCK and stimulate insulin release in BAD-deficient islets. Based on our results, we postulate that the BAD:GCK interaction, and any resultant regulatory effect(s) upon GCK activity, requires the participation of additional members of the mitochondrial complex.

  8. Optimization of sampling parameters for standardized exhaled breath sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Sophie; Romano, Andrea; Hanna, George B

    2017-09-05

    The lack of standardization of breath sampling is a major contributing factor to the poor repeatability of results and hence represents a barrier to the adoption of breath tests in clinical practice. On-line and bag breath sampling have advantages but do not suit multicentre clinical studies whereas storage and robust transport are essential for the conduct of wide-scale studies. Several devices have been developed to control sampling parameters and to concentrate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) onto thermal desorption (TD) tubes and subsequently transport those tubes for laboratory analysis. We conducted three experiments to investigate (i) the fraction of breath sampled (whole vs. lower expiratory exhaled breath); (ii) breath sample volume (125, 250, 500 and 1000ml) and (iii) breath sample flow rate (400, 200, 100 and 50 ml/min). The target VOCs were acetone and potential volatile biomarkers for oesophago-gastric cancer belonging to the aldehyde, fatty acids and phenol chemical classes. We also examined the collection execution time and the impact of environmental contamination. The experiments showed that the use of exhaled breath-sampling devices requires the selection of optimum sampling parameters. The increase in sample volume has improved the levels of VOCs detected. However, the influence of the fraction of exhaled breath and the flow rate depends on the target VOCs measured. The concentration of potential volatile biomarkers for oesophago-gastric cancer was not significantly different between the whole and lower airway exhaled breath. While the recovery of phenols and acetone from TD tubes was lower when breath sampling was performed at a higher flow rate, other VOCs were not affected. A dedicated 'clean air supply' overcomes the contamination from ambient air, but the breath collection device itself can be a source of contaminants. In clinical studies using VOCs to diagnose gastro-oesophageal cancer, the optimum parameters are 500mls sample volume

  9. Hollywood Science: Good for Hollywood, Bad for Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkowitz, Sidney

    2009-03-01

    Like it or not, most science depicted in feature films is in the form of science fiction. This isn't likely to change any time soon, if only because science fiction films are huge moneymakers for Hollywood. But beyond that, these films are a powerful cultural force. They reach millions as they depict scientific ideas from DNA and cloning to space science, whether correctly or incorrectly; reflect contemporary issues of science and society like climate change, nuclear power and biowarfare; inspire young people to become scientists; and provide defining images -- or stereotypes -- of scientists for the majority of people who've never met a real one. Certainly, most scientists feel that screen depictions of science and scientists are badly distorted. Many are, but not always. In this talk, based on my book Hollywood Science [1], I'll show examples of good and bad screen treatments of science, scientists, and their impact on society. I'll also discuss efforts to improve how science is treated in film and ways to use even bad movie science to convey real science. [4pt] [1] Sidney Perkowitz, Hollywood Science: Movies, Science, and the End of the World (Columbia University Press, New York, 2007). ISBN: 978-0231142809

  10. Breaking bad news: patients' preferences and health locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Raquel Gomes; Carvalho, Irene Palmares

    2013-07-01

    To identify patients' preferences for models of communicating bad news and to explore how such preferences, and the reasons for the preferences, relate with personality characteristics, specifically patients' health locus of control (HLC): internal/external and 'powerful others' (PO). Seventy-two patients from an oncology clinic watched videotaped scenarios of a breaking bad news moment, selected the model they preferred, filled an HLC scale and were interviewed about their choices. Data were analyzed with Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Interviews were content-analyzed. 77.8% preferred an "empathic professional", 12.5% a "distanced expert" and 9.7% an "emotionally burdened expert". Preferences varied significantly with HLC scores (patients with higher internal locus of control (ILC) and lower PO preferred the empathic model), presence of cancer, age and education. Patients explained their preferences through aspects of Caring, Professionalism, Wording, Time and Hope. ILC registered significant differences in regards to Wording and Time, whereas PO was associated with Hope and Time. HLC is an important dimension that can help doctors to better know their patients. Knowing whether patients attribute their health to their own behaviors or to chance/others can help tailor the disclosure of bad news to their specific preferences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Breaking bad news - an interdisciplinary curricular teaching-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmenroth-Nayda, Anne; Alt-Epping, Bernd; Gágyor, Ildikó

    2011-01-01

    The concerns of patients suffering from life-threatening disease and end-of-life care aspects have gained increasing attention in public perception. The increasing focus on palliative medicine questions can be considered to be paradigmatic for this development. Palliative medicine became a compulsory subject of the undergraduate curriculum in Germany to be implemented until 2013. The preexisting conditions and qualifications at the medical faculties vary, though. We describe the conceptual process, didactic background, and first experiences with the new interdisciplinary course "Delivering bad news" as a compulsory part of the palliative medicine curriculum. Since autumn 2009, this course has been taught at the University Medical Center Göttingen, consisting of two double lessons in the final year of medical education. Considering the curriculum-based learning goals in Göttingen, the focus of this course is to impart knowledge, attitudes and communication skills relating to "bad news". Although the seminar requires adequate staff and is time-consuming, students have accepted it and gave high marks in evaluations. In particular, the teachers' performance and commitment was evaluated positively. We describe the first experiences with a new course. Didactic structure, theoretical contents, role-plays and usage of media (film, novel) are well- suited to communicate topics such as "bad news". Additional experiences and evaluations are necessary. According to the progressive nature of learning, it might be worthwhile to repeat communication- centered questions several times during medical studies.

  12. [Acupuncture combined with medication for morning blood pressure of essential hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Du, Yuzheng

    2018-04-12

    Based on the western medication, to evaluate the advantages in the morning blood pressure treated with acupuncture at Fengchi (GB 20) and Neck-Jiaji (EX-B 2) combined with acupuncture technique for activating blood circulation, eliminating wind and regulating the liver and spleen in the patients with essential hypertension. A total of 90 patients of essential hypertension of the mild and moderate degrees were randomized into a medication group (30 cases, 3 dropping), No.1 acupuncture group (30 cases, 2 dropping) and No.2 acupuncture group (30 cases, 1 dropping). In the medication group, adalat was prescribed for oral administration, 30 mg at 7 am every day, continuously for 6 weeks. In the No.1 acupuncture group, on the basis of the treatment as the medication group, the acupuncture technique for activating blood circulation, eliminating wind and regulating the liver and spleen was applied and the acupoints were Renying (ST 9), Hegu (LI 4), Taichong (LR 3), Quchi (LI 11) and Zusanli (ST 36). In the No.2 acupuncture group, on the basis of the treatment as the No.1 acupuncture group, Fengchi (GB 20) and Neck-Jiaji (EX-B 2) were added in acupuncture. Acupuncture was given in the time zone from 8 am through 10 am every day, once a day, 5 times a week, totally for 6 weeks. Separately, before treatment and in 2, 4 and 6 weeks of treatment, the morning blood pressure, the control rate and the symptom score were observed in the patients of the three groups. The morning blood pressure was followed up in 3 and 6 months separately. Compared with those before treatment, in 2, 4 and 6 weeks of treatment, the levels of blood pressure reduced in the patients of the three groups ( P blood pressure and its control rate in the patients of the three groups (all P >0.05). In 4 and 6 weeks of treatment, the levels of the morning blood pressure in the No.2 acupuncture group were lower than those in the No.1 acupuncture group, and the results in the No.1 and No.2 acupuncture groups were

  13. Influence of rheumatoid arthritis-related morning stiffness on productivity at work: results from a survey in 11 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Kalle; Buttgereit, Frank; Tuominen, Risto

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of morning stiffness on productivity at work and to estimate the work-related economic consequences of morning stiffness among patients with RA-related morning stiffness in 11 European countries. The original sample comprised 1061 RA patients from 11 European countries (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden and UK). They had been diagnosed with RA and experience morning stiffness three or more times per week. Data were collected by interviews. Women comprised 77.9 % of the sample, the average age was 50.4 years, and 84.3 % had RA diagnosed for more than 2 years. Overall costs of RA-related morning stiffness was calculated to be 27,712€ per patient per year, varying from 4965€ in Spain to 66,706€ in Norway. On average, 96 % of the overall production losses were attributed to early retirement, with a markedly lower level (77 %) in Italy than in other countries (p productivity losses due to late work arrivals and working while sick showed considerable variation across the countries represented in the study. Overall, the average annual cost of late arrivals (0.8 % of the total costs) was approximately half of the costs attributed to sick leave (1.7 %) and working while sick (1.5 %). Morning stiffness due to RA causes significant production losses and is a significant cost burden throughout Europe. There seem to be notable differences in the impact of morning stiffness on productivity between European countries.

  14. Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise Performed in the Morning and Evening on Inflammatory Cytokine and Metabolic Hormone Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Ki Kim

    Full Text Available To compare the effects of endurance exercise performed in the morning and evening on inflammatory cytokine responses in young men.Fourteen healthy male participants aged 24.3 ± 0.8 years (mean ± standard error performed endurance exercise in the morning (0900-1000 h on one day and then in the evening (1700-1800 h on another day with an interval of at least 1 week between each trial. In both the morning and evening trials, the participants walked for 60 minutes at approximately 60% of the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max on a treadmill. Blood samples were collected to determine hormones and inflammatory cytokines at pre-exercise, immediately post exercise, and 2 h post exercise.Plasma interleukin (IL-6 and adrenaline concentrations were significantly higher immediately after exercise in the evening trial than in the morning trial (P < 0.01, both. Serum free fatty acids concentrations were significantly higher in the evening trial than in the morning trial at 2 h after exercise (P < 0.05. Furthermore, a significant correlation was observed between the levels of IL-6 immediately post-exercise and free fatty acids 2 h post-exercise in the evening (r = 0.68, P < 0.01.These findings suggest that the effect of acute endurance exercise in the evening enhances the plasma IL-6 and adrenaline concentrations compared to that in the morning. In addition, IL-6 was involved in increasing free fatty acids, suggesting that the evening is more effective for exercise-induced lipolysis compared with the morning.

  15. Pigeons can discriminate "good" and "bad" paintings by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Humans have the unique ability to create art, but non-human animals may be able to discriminate "good" art from "bad" art. In this study, I investigated whether pigeons could be trained to discriminate between paintings that had been judged by humans as either "bad" or "good". To do this, adult human observers first classified several children's paintings as either "good" (beautiful) or "bad" (ugly). Using operant conditioning procedures, pigeons were then reinforced for pecking at "good" paintings. After the pigeons learned the discrimination task, they were presented with novel pictures of both "good" and "bad" children's paintings to test whether they had successfully learned to discriminate between these two stimulus categories. The results showed that pigeons could discriminate novel "good" and "bad" paintings. Then, to determine which cues the subjects used for the discrimination, I conducted tests of the stimuli when the paintings were of reduced size or grayscale. In addition, I tested their ability to discriminate when the painting stimuli were mosaic and partial occluded. The pigeons maintained discrimination performance when the paintings were reduced in size. However, discrimination performance decreased when stimuli were presented as grayscale images or when a mosaic effect was applied to the original stimuli in order to disrupt spatial frequency. Thus, the pigeons used both color and pattern cues for their discrimination. The partial occlusion did not disrupt the discriminative behavior suggesting that the pigeons did not attend to particular parts, namely upper, lower, left or right half, of the paintings. These results suggest that the pigeons are capable of learning the concept of a stimulus class that humans name "good" pictures. The second experiment showed that pigeons learned to discriminate watercolor paintings from pastel paintings. The subjects showed generalization to novel paintings. Then, as the first experiment, size reduction test

  16. New breathing functions for the transverse breathing crack of the cracked rotor system: Approach for critical and subcritical harmonic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shudeifat, Mohammad A.; Butcher, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    The actual breathing mechanism of the transverse breathing crack in the cracked rotor system that appears due to the shaft weight is addressed here. As a result, the correct time-varying area moments of inertia for the cracked element cross-section during shaft rotation are also determined. Hence, two new breathing functions are identified to represent the actual breathing effect on the cracked element stiffness matrix. The new breathing functions are used in formulating the time-varying finite element stiffness matrix of the cracked element. The finite element equations of motion are then formulated for the cracked rotor system and solved via harmonic balance method for response, whirl orbits and the shift in the critical and subcritical speeds. The analytical results of this approach are compared with some previously published results obtained using approximate formulas for the breathing mechanism. The comparison shows that the previously used breathing function is a weak model for the breathing mechanism in the cracked rotor even for small crack depths. The new breathing functions give more accurate results for the dynamic behavior of the cracked rotor system for a wide range of the crack depths. The current approach is found to be efficient for crack detection since the critical and subcritical shaft speeds, the unique vibration signature in the neighborhood of the subcritical speeds and the sensitivity to the unbalance force direction all together can be utilized to detect the breathing crack before further damage occurs.

  17. Dual role of proapoptotic BAD in insulin secretion and beta cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danial, Nika N; Walensky, Loren D; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Choi, Cheol Soo; Fisher, Jill K; Molina, Anthony J A; Datta, Sandeep Robert; Pitter, Kenneth L; Bird, Gregory H; Wikstrom, Jakob D; Deeney, Jude T; Robertson, Kirsten; Morash, Joel; Kulkarni, Ameya; Neschen, Susanne; Kim, Sheene; Greenberg, Michael E; Corkey, Barbara E; Shirihai, Orian S; Shulman, Gerald I; Lowell, Bradford B; Korsmeyer, Stanley J

    2008-02-01

    The proapoptotic BCL-2 family member BAD resides in a glucokinase-containing complex that regulates glucose-driven mitochondrial respiration. Here, we present genetic evidence of a physiologic role for BAD in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by beta cells. This novel function of BAD is specifically dependent upon the phosphorylation of its BH3 sequence, previously defined as an essential death domain. We highlight the pharmacologic relevance of phosphorylated BAD BH3 by using cell-permeable, hydrocarbon-stapled BAD BH3 helices that target glucokinase, restore glucose-driven mitochondrial respiration and correct the insulin secretory response in Bad-deficient islets. Our studies uncover an alternative target and function for the BAD BH3 domain and emphasize the therapeutic potential of phosphorylated BAD BH3 mimetics in selectively restoring beta cell function. Furthermore, we show that BAD regulates the physiologic adaptation of beta cell mass during high-fat feeding. Our findings provide genetic proof of the bifunctional activities of BAD in both beta cell survival and insulin secretion.

  18. BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway is associated with human cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickles, Xiaomang B; Marchion, Douglas C; Bicaku, Elona; Al Sawah, Entidhar; Abbasi, Forough; Xiong, Yin; Bou Zgheib, Nadim; Boac, Bernadette M; Orr, Brian C; Judson, Patricia L; Berry, Amy; Hakam, Ardeshir; Wenham, Robert M; Apte, Sachin M; Berglund, Anders E; Lancaster, Johnathan M

    2015-04-01

    The malignant transformation of normal cells is caused in part by aberrant gene expression disrupting the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, senescence and DNA repair. Evidence suggests that the Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death (BAD)-mediated apoptotic pathway influences cancer chemoresistance. In the present study, we explored the role of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway in the development and progression of cancer. Using principal component analysis to derive a numeric score representing pathway expression, we evaluated clinico-genomic datasets (n=427) from corresponding normal, pre-invasive and invasive cancers of different types, such as ovarian, endometrial, breast and colon cancers in order to determine the associations between the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway and cancer development. Immunofluorescence was used to compare the expression levels of phosphorylated BAD [pBAD (serine-112, -136 and -155)] in immortalized normal and invasive ovarian, colon and breast cancer cells. The expression of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway phosphatase, PP2C, was evaluated by RT-qPCR in the normal and ovarian cancer tissue samples. The growth-promoting effects of pBAD protein levels in the immortalized normal and cancer cells were assessed using siRNA depletion experiments with MTS assays. The expression of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway was associated with the development and/or progression of ovarian (n=106, pBAD-mediated apoptotic pathway is thus associated with the development of human cancers likely influenced by the protein levels of pBAD.

  19. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Naresh M Punjabi; Brian S Caffo; James L Goodwin; Daniel J Gottlieb; Anne B Newman; George T O'Connor; David M Rapoport; Susan Redline; Helaine E Resnick; John A Robbins; Eyal Shahar; Mark L Unruh; Jonathan M Samet

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background About 1 in 10 women and 1 in 4 men have a chronic condition called sleep-disordered breathing although most are unaware of their problem. Sleep-disordered breathing, which is commonest in middle-aged and elderly people, is characterized by numerous, brief (10 second or so) interruptions of breathing during sleep. These interruptions, which usually occur when relaxation of the upper airway muscles decreases airflow, lower the level of oxygen in the blood and, as a r...

  20. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang [Los Alamos, NM; Cao, Wenqing [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  1. Post-Exercise Hypotension and Its Mechanisms Differ after Morning and Evening Exercise: A Randomized Crossover Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro C de Brito

    Full Text Available Post-exercise hypotension (PEH, calculated by the difference between post and pre-exercise values, it is greater after exercise performed in the evening than the morning. However, the hypotensive effect of morning exercise may be masked by the morning circadian increase in blood pressure. This study investigated PEH and its hemodynamic and autonomic mechanisms after sessions of aerobic exercise performed in the morning and evening, controlling for responses observed after control sessions performed at the same times of day. Sixteen pre-hypertensive men underwent four sessions (random order: two conducted in the morning (7:30 am and two in the evening (5 pm. At each time of day, subjects underwent an exercise (cycling, 45 min, 50%VO2peak and a control (sitting rest session. Measurements were taken pre- and post-interventions in all the sessions. The net effects of exercise were calculated for each time of day by [(post-pre exercise-(post-pre control] and were compared by paired t-test (P<0.05. Exercise hypotensive net effects (e.g., decreasing systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure occurred at both times of day, but systolic blood pressure reductions were greater after morning exercise (-7±3 vs. -3±4 mmHg, P<0.05. Exercise decreased cardiac output only in the morning (-460±771 ml/min, P<0.05, while it decreased stroke volume similarly at both times of day and increased heart rate less in the morning than in the evening (+7±5 vs. +10±5 bpm, P<0.05. Only evening exercise increased sympathovagal balance (+1.5±1.6, P<0.05 and calf blood flow responses to reactive hyperemia (+120±179 vs. -70±188 U, P<0.05. In conclusion, PEH occurs after exercise conducted at both times of day, but the systolic hypotensive effect is greater after morning exercise when circadian variations are considered. This greater effect is accompanied by a reduction of cardiac output due to a smaller increase in heart rate and cardiac sympathovagal balance.

  2. Online self-expression and experimentation as 'reflectivism': Using text analytics to examine the participatory forum Hello Sunday Morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carah, Nicholas; Meurk, Carla; Angus, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Hello Sunday Morning is an online health promotion organisation that began in 2009. Hello Sunday Morning asks participants to stop consuming alcohol for a period of time, set a goal and document their progress on a personal blog. Hello Sunday Morning is a unique health intervention for three interrelated reasons: (1) it was generated outside a clinical setting, (2) it uses new media technologies to create structured forms of participation in an iterative and open-ended way and (3) participants generate a written record of their progress along with demographic, behavioural and engagement data. This article presents a text analysis of the blog posts of Hello Sunday Morning participants using the software program Leximancer. Analysis of blogs illustrates how participants' expressions change over time. In the first month, participants tended to set goals, describe their current drinking practices in individual and cultural terms, express hopes and anxieties and report on early efforts to change. After month 1, participants continued to report on efforts to change and associated challenges and reflect on their place as individuals in a drinking culture. In addition to this, participants evaluated their efforts to change and presented their 'findings' and 'theorised' them to provide advice for others. We contextualise this text analysis with respect to Hello Sunday Morning's development of more structured forms of online participation. We offer a critical appraisal of the value of text analytics in the development of online health interventions.

  3. A fibre-optic oxygen sensor for monitoring human breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Rongsheng; Formenti, Federico; Hahn, Clive E W; Farmery, Andrew D; Obeid, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The development and construction of a tapered-tip fibre-optic fluorescence based oxygen sensor is described. The sensor is suitable for fast and real-time monitoring of human breathing. The sensitivity and response time of the oxygen sensor were evaluated in vitro with a gas pressure chamber system, where oxygen partial pressure was rapidly changed between 5 and 15 kPa, and then in vivo in five healthy adult participants who synchronized their breathing to a metronome set at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 breaths min –1 . A Datex Ultima medical gas analyser was used to monitor breathing rate as a comparator. The sensor's response time in vitro was less than 150 ms, which allows accurate continuous measurement of inspired and expired oxygen pressure. Measurements of breathing rate by means of our oxygen sensor and of the Datex Ultima were in strong agreement. The results demonstrate that the device can reliably resolve breathing rates up to 60 breaths min –1 , and that it is a suitable cost-effective alternative for monitoring breathing rates and end-tidal oxygen partial pressure in the clinical setting. The rapid response time of the sensor may allow its use for monitoring rapid breathing rates as occur in children and the newborn. (note)

  4. Progress of air-breathing cathode in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zejie; Mahadevan, Gurumurthy Dummi; Wu, Yicheng; Zhao, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an emerging technology to produce green energy and vanquish the effects of environmental contaminants. Cathodic reactions are vital for high electrical power density generated from MFCs. Recently tremendous attentions were paid towards developing high performance air-breathing cathodes. A typical air-breathing cathode comprises of electrode substrate, catalyst layer, and air-diffusion layer. Prior researches demonstrated that each component influenced the performance of air-breathing cathode MFCs. This review summarized the progress in development of the individual component and elaborated main factors to the performance of air-breathing cathode.

  5. Optimal technique for deep breathing exercises after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, E

    2015-06-01

    Cardiac surgery patients often develop a restrictive pulmonary impairment and gas exchange abnormalities in the early postoperative period. Chest physiotherapy is routinely prescribed in order to reduce or prevent these complications. Besides early mobilization, positioning and shoulder girdle exercises, various breathing exercises have been implemented as a major component of postoperative care. A variety of deep breathing maneuvres are recommended to the spontaneously breathing patient to reduce atelectasis and to improve lung function in the early postoperative period. Different breathing exercises are recommended in different parts of the world, and there is no consensus about the most effective breathing technique after cardiac surgery. Arbitrary instructions are given, and recommendations on performance and duration vary between hospitals. Deep breathing exercises are a major part of this therapy, but scientific evidence for the efficacy has been lacking until recently, and there is a lack of trials describing how postoperative breathing exercises actually should be performed. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of postoperative breathing exercises for patients undergoing cardiac surgery via sternotomy, and to discuss and suggest an optimal technique for the performance of deep breathing exercises.

  6. Breathing pattern and head posture: changes in craniocervical angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatucci, A; Raffaeli, F; Mastrovincenzo, M; Luchetta, A; Giannone, A; Ciavarella, D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of oral breathing on head posture and to establish possible postural changes observing the variation of craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT between oral breathing subjects and physiological breathing subjects. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample included 115 subject, 56 boys and 59 girls, 5-22-year-old. Among these, 80 were classified as oral breathers and 35 as physiological breathers. The diagnosis of oral breathing was carried out thanks to characteristic signs and symptoms evaluated on clinical examination, the analysis of characteristic X-ray images, ENT examination with active anterior rhinomanometric (AAR) test. The structural and postural analysis was carried out, calculating the craniofacial angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT. Both NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT appear to be significantly greater to those observed in physiological breathing patients. This means that patients who tend to breathe through the mouth rather than exclusively through the nose show a reduction of cervical lordosis and a proinclination of the head. Our study confirms that the oral breathing modifies head position. The significant increase of the craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT in patients with this altered breathing pattern suggests an elevation of the head and a greater extension of the head compared with the cervical spine. So, to correct the breathing pattern early, either during childhood or during adolescence, can lead to a progressive normalization of craniofacial morphology and head posture.

  7. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Mijacika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise. In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition. According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage.

  8. Can resistive breathing injure the lung? Implications for COPD exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilakopoulos T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Theodoros Vassilakopoulos, Dimitrios Toumpanakis Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece Abstract: In obstructive lung diseases, airway inflammation leads to bronchospasm and thus resistive breathing, especially during exacerbations. This commentary discusses experimental evidence that resistive breathing per se (the mechanical stimulus in the absence of underlying airway inflammation leads to lung injury and inflammation (mechanotransduction. The potential implications of resistive breathing-induced mechanotrasduction in COPD exacerbations are presented along with the available clinical evidence. Keywords: resistive breathing, COPD, mechanotransduction, bronchoconstriction, inflammation

  9. Exhaled Breath Condensate for Proteomic Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean W. Harshman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled breath condensate (EBC has been established as a potential source of respiratory biomarkers. Compared to the numerous small molecules identified, the protein content of EBC has remained relatively unstudied due to the methodological and technical difficulties surrounding EBC analysis. In this review, we discuss the proteins identified in EBC, by mass spectrometry, focusing on the significance of those proteins identified. We will also review the limitations surrounding mass spectral EBC protein analysis emphasizing recommendations to enhance EBC protein identifications by mass spectrometry. Finally, we will provide insight into the future directions of the EBC proteomics field.

  10. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.

    by the fall of a prey item on the water surface, and in tapping motions of goldfish, a behaviour that was interpreted to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air...

  11. Reevaluation of the role of duration of morning stiffness in the assessment of rheumatoid arthritis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nasim A; Yazici, Yusuf; Calvo-Alen, Jaime; Dadoniene, Jolanta; Gossec, Laure; Hansen, Troels M; Huisman, Margriet; Kallikorm, Riina; Muller, Raili; Liveborn, Margareth; Oding, Rolf; Luchikhina, Elena; Naranjo, Antonio; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Taylor, Peter; Tlustochowich, Witold; Tsirogianni, Afrodite; Sokka, Tuulikki

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the utility of the duration of morning stiffness (MS), as a patient-reported outcome (PRO), in assessing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity. We acquired information on 5439 patients in QUEST-RA, an international database of patients with RA evaluated by a standard protocol. MS duration was assessed from time of waking to time of maximal improvement. Ability of MS duration to differentiate RA activity states, based on Disease Activity Score (DAS)28, was assessed by analysis of variance; and a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted for discriminating clinically active (DAS28 > 3.2) from less active (DAS28 3.2). MS duration has a moderate correlation with RA disease activity. Assessment of MS duration may be clinically helpful in patients with low RAPID3 scores.

  12. Hormonal monitoring of early pregnancy by a direct radioimmunoassay of steroid glucuronides in first morning urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendizabal, A.F.; Quiroga, S.; Farinati, Z.; Lahoz, M.; Nagle, C.

    1984-11-01

    The usefulness of the direct 4-hour radioimmunoassay of estriol-16-glucuronide (E/sub 3/G) and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (P/sub 2/G) in first morning urine (FMU) for establishing a prognosis of the early pregnancy outcome was evaluated in 106 patients that became pregnant. Microaliquots of FMU were serially assayed from day 3 of the conception cycle until day 80 of pregnancy. The E/sub 3/G and P/sub 2/G profiles of 19 pregnancies which terminated in spontaneous abortion with either a diagnosis of the blighted ovum syndrome (n = 11) or presumption of a corpus luteum/trophoblast failure (n = 8) have been compared with those of clinically normal pregnancies (n = 87). Normal pregnancies displayed typical patterns of E/sub 3/G and P/sub 2/G development, while variations were observed in abortive events that reflected changes of the fetoplacental unit.

  13. Decreased hospital length of stay associated with presentation of cases at morning report with librarian support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Daniel E.; Shi, Runhua; Timm, Donna F.; Christopher, Kerri Ann; Duggar, David Charles; Comegys, Marianne; McLarty, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The research sought to determine whether case discussion at residents' morning report (MR), accompanied by a computerized literature search and librarian support, affects hospital charges, length of stay (LOS), and thirty-day readmission rate. Methods: This case-control study, conducted from August 2004 to March 2005, compared outcomes for 105 cases presented at MR within 24 hours of admission to 19,210 potential matches, including cases presented at MR and cases not presented at MR. With matching criteria of patient age (± 5 years), identical primary diagnosis, and secondary diagnoses (within 3 additional diagnoses) using International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) codes, 55 cases were matched to 136 controls. Statistical analyses included Student's t tests, chi-squared tests, and nonparametric methods. Results: LOS differed significantly between matched MR cases and controls (3 days vs. 5 days, P librarians, was an effective means for introducing evidence-based medicine into patient care practices. PMID:17971885

  14. Hormonal monitoring of early pregnancy by a direct radioimmunoassay of steroid glucuronides in first morning urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendizabal, A.F.; Quiroga, S.; Farinati, Z.; Lahoz, M.; Nagle, C.

    1984-01-01

    The usefulness of the direct 4-hour radioimmunoassay of estriol-16-glucuronide (E 3 G) and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (P 2 G) in first morning urine (FMU) for establishing a prognosis of the early pregnancy outcome was evaluated in 106 patients that became pregnant. Microaliquots of FMU were serially assayed from day 3 of the conception cycle until day 80 of pregnancy. The E 3 G and P 2 G profiles of 19 pregnancies which terminated in spontaneous abortion with either a diagnosis of the blighted ovum syndrome (n = 11) or presumption of a corpus luteum/trophoblast failure (n = 8) have been compared with those of clinically normal pregnancies (n = 87). Normal pregnancies displayed typical patterns of E 3 G and P 2 G development, while variations were observed in abortive events that reflected changes of the fetoplacental unit

  15. Effects of gamma irradiation on ripening process of Morn-Thong durian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudto, T.; Uthairatanakij, A.; Jitareerat, P.; Photchanachai, S.; Vaongcheeree, S.

    2005-09-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on ripening process of ''Morn-Thong'' durian were studied. Fruits were irradiated with gamma ray at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy or dipped Benomyl r at 500 mg/L and then fruit were stored at room temperature. Soluble solids content (SSC), pulp colour (L*, a* and b* values), flesh firmness and weight loss were measured. The results found that irradiation at 0.3 kGy caused higher water loss compared to fruit treated with 0.6, 1.0 kGy, control and Benomyl r dipping, respectively. Fruit irradiated with 0.3 kGy had the highest SSC, indicating the induce of ripening process. However, there was inconsistent in pulp colour

  16. Fitness consequences of cotyledon and mature-leaf damage in the ivyleaf morning glory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, John R

    2002-04-01

    To understand the evolutionary and ecological consequences of natural enemy damage to plants, it is essential to determine how the fitness effects of damage differ depending on the tissues damaged and the subsequent pattern of damage. In a field experiment with the ivyleaf morning glory, the direct and indirect effects on fitness of herbivore damage to cotyledons and mature leaves was evaluated. Damage to mature leaves had negligible direct effects on fitness and no indirect effects on fitness through other correlated traits. Damage to cotyledons also did not directly affect fitness, but did so indirectly through its effects on plant size. These findings suggest that increased resistance to cotyledon damage or increased compensatory growth following cotyledon damage could be effective strategies for plants of this species to counteract the negative effects of herbivory.

  17. IMPACT OF MORNING STIFFNESS, EDUCATION, AND AGE ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Pallaska, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Osmani-Vllasolli, Teuta; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between disability status and duration of morning stiffness in hands with regard to age, level of education, and gender in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, the authors wanted to investigate this relationship with regard to the presence of rheumatoid factor, i.e., the serological status. A retrospective study was conducted in 250 patients with the classic form of RA (186 females, s64 males, mean age Xb = 49.96 y ears, range 25-60 years, disease duration 1-27 years, Xb = 6.41) previously diagnosed with RA according to the ACR (American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria). All patients were in Steinbrocker functional classes II and III. The probability level was expressed by p 0.05) seronegative, (r = 0.12, y = 0.00x + 2.30, p > 0.05) seropositive]. High positive values were obtained for the linear correlation coefficient between duration of the disease and functional class (p < 0.01). Also, high values were obtained regarding the coefficient of correlation between age and functional class [(r = 0.29, p < 0.01) seronegative, (r = 0.47, p < 0.01) seropositive]. Uneducated patients were significantly more represented in functional class III [ 23 (50%) seronegative, 19 (42.2%) seropositive] than in functional class II [16 (20.3%) seronegative, 22 (27.5%) seropositive]. In conclusion, in this study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, increased duration of morning stiffness was associated with functional disability. Functional disability increased with the duration of the disease, depended on age and educational level, and was more pronounced in older age, regardless of RA serological status. With regard to serological status and sex, the differences were non-significant.

  18. Ambulatory Morning Report: A Case-Based Method of Teaching EBM Through Experiential Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Gina L; Visintainer, Paul F; Kleppel, Reva; Rothberg, Michael B

    2016-02-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) skills are important to daily practice, but residents generally feel unskilled incorporating EBM into practice. The Kolb experiential learning theory, as applied to curricular planning, offers a unique methodology to help learners build an EBM skill set based on clinical experiences. We sought to blend the learner-centered, case-based merits of the morning report with an experientially based EBM curriculum. We describe and evaluate a patient-centered ambulatory morning report combining the User's Guides to the Medical Literature approach to EBM and experiential learning theory in the internal medicine department at Baystate Medical Center. The Kolb experiential learning theory postulates that experience transforms knowledge; within that premise we designed a curriculum to build EBM skills incorporating residents' patient encounters. By developing structured clinical questions based on recent clinical problems, residents activate prior knowledge. Residents acquire new knowledge through selection and evaluation of an article that addresses the structured clinical questions. Residents then apply and use new knowledge in future patient encounters. To assess the curriculum, we designed an 18-question EBM test, which addressed applied knowledge and EBM skills based on the User's Guides approach. Of the 66 residents who could participate in the curriculum, 61 (92%) completed the test. There was a modest improvement in EBM knowledge, primarily during the first year of training. Our experiential curriculum teaches EBM skills essential to clinical practice. The curriculum differs from traditional EBM curricula in that ours blends experiential learning with an EBM skill set; learners use new knowledge in real time.

  19. Sleep deprivation and activation of morning levels of cellular and genomic markers of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael R; Wang, Minge; Campomayor, Capella O; Collado-Hidalgo, Alicia; Cole, Steve

    2006-09-18

    Inflammation is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disorders, arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and mortality. The effects of sleep loss on the cellular and genomic mechanisms that contribute to inflammatory cytokine activity are not known. In 30 healthy adults, monocyte intracellular proinflammatory cytokine production was repeatedly assessed during the day across 3 baseline periods and after partial sleep deprivation (awake from 11 pm to 3 am). We analyzed the impact of sleep loss on transcription of proinflammatory cytokine genes and used DNA microarray analyses to characterize candidate transcription-control pathways that might mediate the effects of sleep loss on leukocyte gene expression. In the morning after a night of sleep loss, monocyte production of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha was significantly greater compared with morning levels following uninterrupted sleep. In addition, sleep loss induced a more than 3-fold increase in transcription of interleukin 6 messenger RNA and a 2-fold increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA. Bioinformatics analyses suggested that the inflammatory response was mediated by the nuclear factor kappaB inflammatory signaling system as well as through classic hormone and growth factor response pathways. Sleep loss induces a functional alteration of the monocyte proinflammatory cytokine response. A modest amount of sleep loss also alters molecular processes that drive cellular immune activation and induce inflammatory cytokines; mapping the dynamics of sleep loss on molecular signaling pathways has implications for understanding the role of sleep in altering immune cell physiologic characteristics. Interventions that target sleep might constitute new strategies to constrain inflammation with effects on inflammatory disease risk.

  20. The human endogenous circadian system causes greatest platelet activation during the biological morning independent of behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A J L Scheer

    Full Text Available Platelets are involved in the thromboses that are central to myocardial infarctions and ischemic strokes. Such adverse cardiovascular events have day/night patterns with peaks in the morning (~9 AM, potentially related to endogenous circadian clock control of platelet activation. The objective was to test if the human endogenous circadian system influences (1 platelet function and (2 platelet response to standardized behavioral stressors. We also aimed to compare the magnitude of any effects on platelet function caused by the circadian system with that caused by varied standardized behavioral stressors, including mental arithmetic, passive postural tilt and mild cycling exercise.We studied 12 healthy adults (6 female who lived in individual laboratory suites in dim light for 240 h, with all behaviors scheduled on a 20-h recurring cycle to permit assessment of endogenous circadian function independent from environmental and behavioral effects including the sleep/wake cycle. Circadian phase was assessed from core body temperature. There were highly significant endogenous circadian rhythms in platelet surface activated glycoprotein (GP IIb-IIIa, GPIb and P-selectin (6-17% peak-trough amplitudes; p ≤ 0.01. These circadian peaks occurred at a circadian phase corresponding to 8-9 AM. Platelet count, ATP release, aggregability, and plasma epinephrine also had significant circadian rhythms but with later peaks (corresponding to 3-8 PM. The circadian effects on the platelet activation markers were always larger than that of any of the three behavioral stressors.These data demonstrate robust effects of the endogenous circadian system on platelet activation in humans--independent of the sleep/wake cycle, other behavioral influences and the environment. The 9 AM timing of the circadian peaks of the three platelet surface markers, including platelet surface activated GPIIb-IIIa, the final common pathway of platelet aggregation, suggests that endogenous

  1. Matrix-mini-tablets of lornoxicam for targeting early morning peak symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hadi Mohd

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The aim of present research was to develop matrix-mini-tablets of lornoxicam filled in capsule for targeting early morning peak symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Materials and Methods:Matrix-mini-tablets of lornoxicam were prepared by direct compression method using microsomal enzyme dependent and pH-sensitive polymers which were further filled into an empty HPMC capsule. To assess the compatibility, FT-IR and DSC studies for pure drug, polymers and their physical mixture were performed. The formulated batches were subjected to physicochemical studies, estimation of drug content, in vitro drug release, drug release kinetics, and stability studies. Results:  When FTIR and DSC studies were performed it was found that there was no interaction between lornoxicam and polymers which used. All the physicochemical properties of prepared matrix-mini-tablets were found to be in normal limits. The percentage of drug content was found to be 99.60±0.07%. Our optimized matrix mini-tablets-filled-capsule formulation F30 released lornoxicam after a lag time of 5.02±0.92 hr, 95.48±0.65 % at the end of 8 hr and 99.90±0.83 % at the end of 12 hr. Stability was also found for this formulation as per the guidelines of International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use. Conclusion: A novel colon targeted delivery system of lornoxicam was successfully developed by filling matrix-mini-tablets into an empty HPMC capsule shell for targeting early morning peak symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.

  2. The effect of time-of-day and chest physiotherapy on multiple breath washout measures in children with clinically stable cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldby, Christian; Green, Kent; Rosthøj, Susanne; Kongstad, Thomas; Philipsen, Lue; Buchvald, Frederik; Skov, Marianne; Pressler, Tania; Gustafsson, Per; Nielsen, Kim G

    2018-01-01

    In this pilot study we investigated daytime variation of multiple breath nitrogen washout (N2MBW) measures in children with clinically stable cystic fibrosis. To our knowledge the effect of time-of-day on multiple breath washout measures in patients with cystic fibrosis has not previously been reported. Furthermore, we assessed the influence of chest physiotherapy on N2MBW measures. Ten school children with cystic fibrosis performed N2MBW followed by spirometry and plethysmography in the morning and afternoon at three visits that were one month apart. Chest physiotherapy was performed immediately before the afternoon measurements at visit 2 and immediately before morning and afternoon measurements at visit 3. The influence of time-of-day and chest physiotherapy on the measures was evaluated using linear mixed models. There were adequate quality data from 8 children with median age (range) 9.6 (6.0; 15.1) years. Baseline lung clearance index (LCI) (range) was 9.0 (7.1; 13.0) and baseline FEV1% predicted was 97.5 (78.5; 117.9). No N2MBW measures were significantly influenced by time-of-day or chest physiotherapy. LCI (95% confidence interval) decreased non-significantly 0.05 (-0.32; 0.22) during the day and increased non-significantly 0.08 (-0.26; 0.42) after chest physiotherapy. All spirometric measures were unaffected by time-of-day and chest physiotherapy. For plethysmographic measures FRCpleth decreased significantly (pphysiotherapy performed immediately prior to N2MBW had no consistent or significant influence on N2MBW measures. However, we emphasize that further studies of the effect of both daytime variation and the effect of chest physiotherapy on multiple breath washout measures are warranted.

  3. Normal Morning MCH Levels and No Association with REM or NREM Sleep Parameters in Narcolepsy Type 1 and Type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrölkamp, Maren; Jennum, Poul J; Gammeltoft, Steen

    2017-01-01

    in rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep regulation. Hypocretin neurons reciprocally interact with MCH neurons. We hypothesized that altered MCH secretion contributes to the symptoms and sleep abnormalities of narcolepsy and that this is reflected in morning cerebrospinal fluid...... MCH levels. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that MCH levels in CSF collected in the morning are normal in narcolepsy and not associated with the clinical symptoms, REM sleep abnormalities, nor number of muscle movements during REM or NREM sleep of the patients. We conclude that morning lumbar CSF MCH......STUDY OBJECTIVES: Other than hypocretin-1 (HCRT-1) deficiency in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), the neurochemical imbalance of NT1 and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) with normal HCRT-1 levels is largely unknown. The neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is mainly secreted during sleep and is involved...

  4. The Effect of atmospheric humidity level to the determination of Islamic Fajr/morning prayer time and twilight appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmah, Nihayatur

    2016-11-01

    Islamic prayer times are based on the astronomical position of the Sun in the sky. One of them is the Fajr prayer. It is marked by some indicators in the morning twilight which is white light spread in the Eastern horizon. However, determining the true time of twilight can be difficult. One of the reasons is the effect of atmospheric humidity to the appearance of morning twilight. The higher the humidity, the redder twilight sky appearance. This paper discusses this effect. It is shown that despite of the same Sun's position, sky color can vary considerably. Observations of various solar dip angle have been made to study this effect. Visibility for different angle can change accordingly. We obtained that the average solar dip for Fajr prayer by morning twilight images was -18°39'29.4".

  5. Exhaled Breath Condensate: Technical and Diagnostic Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidi, Efstathia M; Lappas, Andreas S; Tzortzi, Anna S; Behrakis, Panagiotis K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC), biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and drugs. We found 12600 related articles in total in Google Scholar, 1807 in ScienceDirect, and 1081 in PubMed/Medline, published from 1980 to October 2014. 228 original investigation and review articles were eligible. There is rapidly increasing number of innovative articles, covering all the areas of modern respiratory medicine and expanding EBC potential clinical applications to other fields of internal medicine. However, the majority of published papers represent the results of small-scale studies and thus current knowledge must be further evaluated in large cohorts. In regard to the potential clinical use of EBC-analysis, several limitations must be pointed out, including poor reproducibility of biomarkers and absence of large surveys towards determination of reference-normal values. In conclusion, contemporary EBC-analysis is an intriguing achievement, but still in early stage when it comes to its application in clinical practice.

  6. Exhaled Breath Condensate: Technical and Diagnostic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathia M. Konstantinidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. Methods. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC, biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD, smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, and drugs. Results. We found 12600 related articles in total in Google Scholar, 1807 in ScienceDirect, and 1081 in PubMed/Medline, published from 1980 to October 2014. 228 original investigation and review articles were eligible. Conclusions. There is rapidly increasing number of innovative articles, covering all the areas of modern respiratory medicine and expanding EBC potential clinical applications to other fields of internal medicine. However, the majority of published papers represent the results of small-scale studies and thus current knowledge must be further evaluated in large cohorts. In regard to the potential clinical use of EBC-analysis, several limitations must be pointed out, including poor reproducibility of biomarkers and absence of large surveys towards determination of reference-normal values. In conclusion, contemporary EBC-analysis is an intriguing achievement, but still in early stage when it comes to its application in clinical practice.

  7. [Blood pressure lowering efficacy of telmisartan and amlodipine taking on the morning or at bedtime: ABPM results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Gui-cheng; Wang, Yi-fang; Xiao, Yong; Chen, Jian-fu; Yang, Yu; Ye, Yu-liang; Sai, Shuang-qiao; Huang, Jin-xiang

    2013-06-01

    To observe the blood lowering effect of telmisartan and amlodipine taking on the morning or at bedtime in hypertensive patients. A total of 108 individuals with hypertension (grade 2 or above) were randomized to receive telmisartan and amlodipine in one of the following four therapeutic schemes: Group A (26 cases): both medications taken on the morning; Group B (28 cases): both medication taken at bedtime; Group C (27 cases): telmisartan on the morning and amlodipine at bedtime; or Group D (27 cases): amlodipine on the morning and telmisartan at bedtime. ABPM was performed before and after 8 weeks treatment. BP was significantly reduced in 4 groups and the value of 24 hours SBP/DBP decline for each group after treatment was 29.94/16.32, 31.37/18.35, 29.49/17.30 and 25.80/15.51 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) respectively (P 0.05). The night-time BP decline and the distributive difference of dipper, non-dipper, extreme dipper and reverse dipper pattern were similar among groups at both baseline and after various treatment regimens (all P > 0.05) . Morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) after treatment in group B declined more significantly than other groups (P < 0.05). Telmisartan/amlodipine administered either on the morning or at bedtime can effectively reduce blood pressure. The efficacy of BP lowering is independent of the drug taking time. There is a trend both in better BP lowering and less BP variability when two medications are administered at bedtime.

  8. Cyclic alternating pattern and interictal epileptiform discharges during morning sleep after sleep deprivation in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Filippo Sean; Maestri, Michelangelo; Guida, Melania; Carnicelli, Luca; Caciagli, Lorenzo; Ferri, Raffaele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Bonanni, Enrica

    2017-08-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) increases the occurrence of interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) compared to basal EEG in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In adults, EEG after SD is usually performed in the morning after SD. We aimed to evaluate whether morning sleep after SD bears additional IED-inducing effects compared with nocturnal physiological sleep, and whether changes in sleep stability (described by the cyclic alternating pattern-CAP) play a significant role. Adult patients with TLE underwent in-lab night polysomnography (n-PSG) and, within 7days from n-PSG, they underwent also a morning EEG after night SD (SD-EEG). We included only TLE patients in which both recordings showed IED. SD-EEG consisted of waking up patients at 2:00 AM and performing video EEG at 8:00 AM. For both recordings, we obtained the following markers for the first sleep cycle: IED/h (Spike Index, SI), sleep macrostructure, microstructure (NREM CAP rate; A1, A2 and A3 Indices), and SI association with CAP variables. The macrostructure of the first sleep cycle was similar in n-PSG and morning SD-EEG, whereas CAP rate and SI were significantly higher in SD-EEG. SI increase was selectively associated with CAP phases. SD increases the instability of morning recovery sleep compared with n-PSG, and particularly enhances CAP A1 phases, which are associated with the majority of IED. Thus, higher instability of morning recovery sleep may account at least in part for the increased IED yield in SD-EEG in TLE patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  10. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  11. BAD-Dependent Regulation of Fuel Metabolism and KATP Channel Activity Confers Resistance to Epileptic Seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez-Cassina, Alfredo; Martínez-François, Juan Ramón; Fisher, Jill K.; Szlyk, Benjamin; Polak, Klaudia; Wiwczar, Jessica; Tanner, Geoffrey R.; Lutas, Andrew; Yellen, Gary; Danial, Nika N.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal excitation can be substantially modulated by alterations in metabolism, as evident from the anticonvulsant effect of diets that reduce glucose utilization and promote ketone body metabolism. We provide genetic evidence that BAD, a protein with dual functions in apoptosis and glucose metabolism, imparts reciprocal effects on metabolism of glucose and ketone bodies in brain cells. These effects involve phospho-regulation of BAD and are independent of its apoptotic function. BAD modific...

  12. The impact of bad fit product line extensions on brand personality

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    This work project intended to study the impact of a bad fit product line extension on brand personality. To do that, the focus of the study was narrowed down to one dimension of the brand personality, ruggedness, and another one as a comparative dimension, sophistication. The test consisted in the introduction of a bad fit extension by two brands: Harley-Davidson and Jaguar. The findings show us that a bad fit extension has more impact in the sophistication dimension (increased the dimension ...

  13. A Man Caught Between Bad Anthropology and Good Theology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2010-01-01

    that obscures his purportedly universal principles. This article uncovers some of the ambiguities in luther's approaches to women, theoretically teaching men's authority over women yet simultaneously teaching the mutuality and equality of women and men, and practising such mutuality and equality in his everyday......Martin Luther's view of women is as complex as his authorship is vast, encompassing a diversity of gneres and purposes. Luther seems ambivalent toward women like the tradition before and after him. In his reformation enterprise he appears as torn between his good theology and a bad anthropology...

  14. The good, the bad and the ugly .... of Horava gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    I review the good, the bad and the ugly of the non-projectable versions of Horava gravity. I explain how this non-relativistic theory was constructed and why it was touted with such excitement as a quantum theory of gravity. I then review some of the issues facing the theory, explaining how strong coupling occurs and why this is such a problem for both phenomenology and the question of renormalisability. Finally I comment on possible violations of Equivalence Principle, and explain why these could be an issue for Blas et al's h ealthy extension .

  15. Food, gender and media - the trinity of bad taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Meldgaard; Leer, Jonatan

    2015-01-01

    Food, Gender and Media – the Trinity of Bad Taste: Since she began working in the field in the mid-1980s, associate professor in media studies at Aarhus University Karen Klitgaard Povlsen has been one of most important scholars in the field of cultural food studies in Denmark. She is particularly...... studies do not enjoy the same prominence today as they did in the 1970s and 1980s, food studies has gained terrain and offers new ways of doing innovative, intersectional analyses of identity and everyday life in contemporary mediatized societies....

  16. The Good and the Bad – Bicyclists’ Experiences In Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snizek, Bernhard; Skov-Petersen, Hans; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    The Good and the Bad – Bicyclists’ Experiences In Copenhagen In order to design livable cities, a strategy of substituting motorized travel modes with non-motorized ones can be a solution to the problems of crowding/queuing and CO2 emissions. Prior to investing into bike infrastructure, knowledge...... as well as sketch the route itself within an interactive, online questionnaire built on Google Maps. Grouped into sub-classes the bikers’ responses were related to urban indicators such as scenic beauty, terrain, relation to other bicyclists, motorists and pedestrians etc. By relating characteristics...

  17. Different chronotherapeutic effects of valsartan and olmesartan in non-dipper hypertensive patients during valsartan treatment at morning

    OpenAIRE

    Kentaro Ushijima; Hajime Nakashima; Tsuyoshi Shiga; Kazuhiro Harada; Shizukiyo Ishikawa; Takashi Ioka; Hitoshi Ando; Akio Fujimura

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the differences in chronotherapeutic effects of angiotensin-II receptor blockers, valsartan and olmesartan in hypertensive patients with non-dipper blood pressure (BP) pattern during valsartan at morning. Ninety four patients were enrolled, and 40 patients were judged to be non-dippers. In these patients, same dose of valsartan was changed to evening (Val-E, n = 12), or olmesartan (equivalent dose of valsartan) was given at morning (Olm-M, n = 13) or even...

  18. Einfühlung as the breath of art: six modes of embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esrock, Ellen J

    2017-09-25

    Robert Vischer's concept of Einfühlung, feeling-into, translated as empathy, serves as the departure point for a proposal about viewing art using the body for a non-imitative form of empathy termed a transomatization and for other embodied operations. A transomatization occurs when viewers reinterpret a component or process of their own bodies to serve as a non-imitative stand-in, or correlate, for something outside of the self, specifically, some quality of an art work or its production. This creates an overlap of the self and other that might be experienced subjectively as a feeling of projection, an operation characteristic of empathy. Transomatizations and other embodied experiences are grounded in empathic, intersubjective modes of engaging others that begin in early life. As applications of the proposed concepts, six different embodiments of the viewer's breathing are explored in regard to Friedrich E. Church's 1848 oil painting Morning, Looking East over the Hudson Valley from the Catskill Mountains. Support for elements of the proposed concepts and applications is drawn from research in the biological and social sciences and from first person, embodied accounts of viewing.

  19. BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekanova, Maria; Fernando, Romaine I; Siriwardhana, Nalin; Sukhthankar, Mugdha; De la Parra, Columba; Woraratphoka, Jirayus; Malone, Christine; Ström, Anders; Baek, Seung J; Wade, Paul A; Saxton, Arnold M; Donnell, Robert M; Pestell, Richard G; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie; Wimalasena, Jay

    2015-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic protein BAD is expressed in normal human breast tissue and shown that BAD inhibits expression of cyclin D1 to delay cell-cycle progression in breast cancer cells. Herein, expression of proteins in breast tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and results were analyzed statistically to obtain semi-quantitative data. Biochemical and functional changes in BAD-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells were evaluated using PCR, reporter assays, western blotting, ELISA and extracellular matrix invasion assays. Compared to normal tissues, Grade II breast cancers expressed low total/phosphorylated forms of BAD in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. BAD overexpression decreased the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, and phosphorylation of STATs. BAD inhibited Ras/MEK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, without affecting the p38 signaling pathway. Expression of the metastasis-related proteins, MMP10, VEGF, SNAIL, CXCR4, E-cadherin and TlMP2 was regulated by BAD with concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix invasion. Inhibition of BAD by siRNA increased invasion and Akt/p-Akt levels. Clinical data and the results herein suggest that in addition to the effect on apoptosis, BAD conveys anti-metastatic effects and is a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Delivering Bad News: Attitudes, Feelings, and Practice Characteristics Among Speech-Language Pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Rinat; Gold, Azgad

    2018-02-06

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, feelings, and practice characteristics of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in Israel regarding the subject of delivering bad news. One hundred and seventy-three Israeli SLPs answered an online survey. Respondents represented SLPs in Israel in all stages of vocational experience, with varying academic degrees, from a variety of employment settings. The survey addressed emotions involved in the process of delivering bad news, training on this subject, and background information of the respondents. Frequency distributions of the responses of the participants were determined, and Pearson correlations were computed to determine the relation between years of occupational experience and the following variables: frequency of delivering bad news, opinions regarding training, and emotions experienced during the process of bad news delivery. Our survey showed that bad news delivery is a task that most participants are confronted with from the very beginning of their careers. Participants regarded training in the subject of delivering bad news as important but, at the same time, reported receiving relatively little training on this subject. In addition, our survey showed that negative emotions are involved in the process of delivering bad news. Training SLPs on specific techniques is required for successfully delivering bad news. The emotional burden associated with breaking bad news in the field of speech-language pathology should be noticed and addressed.

  1. [The relationship study on the relationship between procrastination behaviors and bad personality disposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuan

    2006-01-01

    To explore the relationship between procrastinate behavior of college students and bad personality disposition. 566 college students were selected and followed through adopting the measurement on the procrastination scale of college students and Personality Disorders Questionnaire (PDQ-4). Results showed that male and female college students did not have remarkable difference in terms of procrastination. High level procrastinators had a higher level of scores on bad personality disposition. In addition, College students' procrastination had close relationship with bad personality disposition (r = 0.341, P College students' procrastination had close relationship with bad personality disposition which did not match the findings from McCown's results on american college students.

  2. The Los Angeles TEAM Study: personal exposures, indoor-outdoor air concentrations, and breath concentrations of 25 volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, L; Nelson, W; Ziegenfus, R; Pellizzari, E; Michael, L; Whitmore, R; Zelon, H; Hartwell, T; Perritt, R; Westerdahl, D

    1991-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the California Air Resources Board studied the exposures of 51 residents of Los Angeles, California, to 25 volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in air and drinking water in 1987. A major goal of the study was to measure personal, indoor, and outdoor air concentrations, and breath concentrations of VOCs in persons living in households that had previously been measured in 1984. Other goals were to confirm the marked day-night and seasonal differences observed in 1984; to determine room-to-room variability within homes; to determine source emission rates by measuring air exchange rates in each home; and to extend the coverage of chemicals by employing additional sampling and analysis methods. A total of 51 homes were visited in February of 1987, and 43 of these were revisited in July of 1987. The results confirmed previous TEAM Study findings of higher personal and indoor air concentrations than outdoor concentrations of all prevalent chemicals (except carbon tetrachloride); higher personal, indoor, and outdoor air concentrations in winter than in summer; and (in winter only) higher outdoor concentrations at night than in the daytime. New findings included the following: (1) room-to-room variability of 12-hour average concentrations was very small, indicating that a single monitor may be adequate for estimating indoor concentrations over this time span; (2) "whole-house" source emission rates were relatively constant during both seasons, with higher rates for odorous chemicals such as p-dichlorobenzene and limonene (often used in room air fresheners) than for other classes of chemicals; (3) breath concentrations measured during morning and evening were similar for most participants, suggesting the suitability of breath measurements for estimating exposure in the home; (4) limited data obtained on two additional chemicals-toluene and methylene chloride-indicated that both were prevalent at fairly high concentrations and that

  3. Assessment of hydrogen peroxide in breath condensate as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    However, the effect of corticosteroids on production of ... H2O2 concentration compared to values in normal subjects( p<0.0001). Bad housing ... Allergic background (food allergy was ... expiration as fast as possible, complete the cycle by.

  4. Assessment of hydrogen peroxide in breath condensate as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 concentration compared to values in normal subjects( p<0.0001). Bad housing showed significant correlation to asthma severity and to number of acute asthmatic attacks. Basal spirometric pulmonary function tests, mean values showed no ...

  5. Determination of breath acetone in 149 type 2 diabetic patients using a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Jiang, Chenyu; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Zhennang; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-02-01

    Over 90% of diabetic patients have Type 2 diabetes. Although an elevated mean breath acetone concentration has been found to exist in Type 1 diabetes (T1D), information on breath acetone in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has yet to be obtained. In this study, we first used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to validate a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer based on the cavity-ringdown-spectroscopy technique, through comparing breath acetone concentrations in the range 0.5-2.5 ppm measured using both methods. The linear fitting of R = 0.99 suggests that the acetone concentrations obtained using both methods are consistent with a largest standard deviation of ±0.4 ppm in the lowest concentration of the range. Next, 620 breath samples from 149 T2D patients and 42 healthy subjects were collected and tested using the breath analyzer. Four breath samples were taken from each subject under each of four different conditions: fasting, 2 h post-breakfast, 2 h post-lunch, and 2 h post-dinner. Simultaneous blood glucose levels were also measured using a standard diabetic-management blood-glucose meter. For the 149 T2D subjects, their exhaled breath acetone concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 19.8 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.1-19.8, 0.1-7.1, 0.1-6.3, and 0.1-9.5 ppm, were obtained for the subjects under the four different conditions, respectively. For the 42 healthy subjects, their breath acetone concentration ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.3-2.6, 0.1-2.6, 0.1-1.7, and 0.3-1.6 ppm, were obtained for the four different conditions. The mean breath acetone concentration of the 149 T2D subjects was determined to be 1.5 ± 1.5 ppm, which was 1.5 times that of 1.0 ± 0.6 ppm for the 42 healthy subjects. No correlation was found between the breath acetone concentration and the blood glucose level of the T2D subjects and the healthy volunteers. This study using a relatively large number of

  6. 21 CFR 868.5260 - Breathing circuit bacterial filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing circuit bacterial filter. 868.5260 Section 868.5260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... filter. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit bacterial filter is a device that is intended to remove...

  7. Health, social and economical consequences of sleep-disordered breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described.......The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described....

  8. 21 CFR 868.2375 - Breathing frequency monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing frequency monitor. 868.2375 Section 868.2375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2375 Breathing frequency monitor. (a...

  9. The breathtaking truth about breath alcohol readings of zero

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C; Mackus, Marlou; van de Loo, Aurora Jae; Garssen, Johan; Scholey, Andrew

    INTRODUCTION: It has been postulated that the hangover state starts when breath alcohol concentration is zero. METHODS: Data from 2 studies that assessed ethanol in breath, blood and urine were compared. RESULTS: The data revealed that ethanol may still be present in the blood and urine during the

  10. Influence of Continuous Table Motion on Patient Breathing Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbert, Juergen; Baier, Kurt; Richter, Anne; Herrmann, Christian; Ma Lei; Flentje, Michael; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of continuous table motion on patient breathing patterns for compensation of moving targets by a robotic treatment couch. Methods and Materials: Fifteen volunteers were placed on a robotic treatment couch, and the couch was moved on different breathing-correlated and -uncorrelated trajectories. External abdominal breathing motion of the patients was measured using an infrared camera system. The influence of table motion on breathing range and pattern was analyzed. Results: Continuous table motion was tolerated well by all test persons. Volunteers reacted differently to table motion. Four test persons showed no change of breathing range and pattern. Increased irregular breathing was observed in 4 patients; however, irregularity was not correlated with table motion. Only 4 test persons showed an increase in mean breathing amplitude of more than 2mm during motion of the couch. The mean cycle period decreased by more than 1 s for 2 test persons only. No abrupt changes in amplitude or cycle period could be observed. Conclusions: The observed small changes in breathing patterns support the application of motion compensation by a robotic treatment couch.

  11. Symptoms of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Risk of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Sofie; Clark, Alice; Salo, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered hormonal levels, all of which could affect the risk of cancer. The aim of the study is to examine if symptoms of SDB including snoring, breathing cessations, and daytime sleepiness affect...

  12. Manifold learning based ECG-free free-breathing cardiac CINE MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Muhammad; Atkinson, David; Kolbitsch, Christoph; Schaeffter, Tobias; Prieto, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    To present and validate a manifold learning (ML)-based method that can estimate both cardiac and respiratory navigator signals from electrocardiogram (ECG)-free free-breathing cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to achieve self-gated retrospective CINE reconstruction. In this work the use of the ML method is demonstrated for 2D cardiac CINE to achieve both cardiac and respiratory self-gating without the need of an external navigator or ECG signal. This is achieved by sequentially applying ML to two sets of retrospectively reconstructed real-time images with differing temporal resolutions. A 1D cardiac signal is estimated by applying ML to high temporal resolution real-time images reconstructed from the acquired data. Using the estimated cardiac signal, a 1D respiratory signal was obtained by applying the ML method to low temporal resolution images reconstructed from the same acquired data for each cardiac cycle. Data were acquired in five volunteers with a 2D golden angle radial trajectory in a balanced steady-state free precession (b-SSFP) acquisition. The accuracy of the estimated cardiac signal was calculated as the standard deviation of the temporal difference between the estimated signal and the recorded ECG. The correlation between the estimated respiratory signal and standard pencil beam navigator signal was evaluated. Gated CINE reconstructions (20 cardiac phases per cycle, temporal resolution ∼30 msec) using the estimated cardiac and respiratory signals were qualitatively compared against conventional ECG-gated breath-hold CINE acquisitions. Accurate cardiac signals were estimated with the proposed method, with an error standard deviation in comparison to ECG lower than 20 msec. Respiratory signals estimated with the proposed method achieved a mean cross-correlation of 94% with respect to standard pencil beam navigator signals. Good quality visual scores of 2.80 ± 0.45 (scores from 0, bad, to 4, excellent quality) were observed for the

  13. Natural Vibration of a Beam with a Breathing Oblique Crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijiang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method is proposed to calculate the natural frequency of a cantilever beam with a breathing oblique crack. A double-linear-springs-model is developed in the modal analysis process to describe the breathing oblique crack, and the breathing behaviour of the oblique crack is objectively simulated. The finite element method (FEM analysis software ABAQUS is used to calculate the geometric correction factors when the cracked plate is subjected to a pure bending moment at different oblique crack angles and relative depths. The Galerkin method is applied to simplify the cracked beam to a single degree of freedom system, allowing the natural frequency of the beam with the breathing oblique crack to be calculated. Compared with the natural frequencies of the breathing oblique cracked beam obtained using the ABAQUS FEM method, the proposed analytical method exhibits a high computational accuracy, with a maximum error of only 4.65%.

  14. ABA-Cloud: support for collaborative breath research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Ibrahim; Ludescher, Thomas; King, Julian; Ager, Clemens; Trosin, Michael; Senocak, Uygar; Brezany, Peter; Feilhauer, Thomas; Amann, Anton

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces the advanced breath analysis (ABA) platform, an innovative scientific research platform for the entire breath research domain. Within the ABA project, we are investigating novel data management concepts and semantic web technologies to document breath analysis studies for the long run as well as to enable their full automatic reproducibility. We propose several concept taxonomies (a hierarchical order of terms from a glossary of terms), which can be seen as a first step toward the definition of conceptualized terms commonly used by the international community of breath researchers. They build the basis for the development of an ontology (a concept from computer science used for communication between machines and/or humans and representation and reuse of knowledge) dedicated to breath research.

  15. The Bad Bugs Book Club: Science, Literacy, and Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Verran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bad Bugs Bookclub was launched in 2009. It comprises scientists and non-scientists. The aim of the Bookclub is to read and discuss novels where infectious disease forms part of the plot, in order to enhance learning about microbiology. The focus of the discussion is on appreciation of the novel, its scientific (microbiologic accuracy and relevance to contemporary microbiology. There are several potential audiences for the Bad Bugs Bookclub, for example students in a classroom setting, or in a more social environment, and/or the general public.  Meeting reports and reading guides have been posted on a dedicated website. For education purposes, additional project work for assessment is suggested for students reading each novel. Bookclub meetings may be held on particular dates in the microbiologic calendar, coupled with additional public engagement activities and student participation. The approach has significant flexibility in terms of intended audience, assessment and extension work, and provides a refreshing and stimulating alternative means for talking about microbiology.

  16. Reversing one's fortune by pushing away bad luck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Risen, Jane L; Hosey, Christine

    2014-06-01

    Across cultures, people try to "undo" bad luck with superstitious rituals such as knocking on wood, spitting, or throwing salt. We suggest that these rituals reduce the perceived likelihood of anticipated negative outcomes because they involve avoidant actions that exert force away from one's representation of self, which simulates the experience of pushing away bad luck. Five experiments test this hypothesis by having participants tempt fate and then engage in avoidant actions that are either superstitious (Experiment 1, knocking on wood) or nonsuperstitious (Experiments 2-5, throwing a ball). We find that participants who knock down (away from themselves) or throw a ball think that a jinxed negative outcome is less likely than participants who knock up (toward themselves) or hold a ball. Experiments 3 and 4 provide evidence that after tempting fate, engaging in an avoidant action leads to less clear mental representations for the jinxed event, which, in turn, leads to lower perceived likelihoods. Finally, we demonstrate that engaging in an avoidant action-rather than creating physical distance-is critical for reversing the perceived effect of the jinx. Although superstitions are often culturally defined, the underlying psychological processes that give rise to them may be shared across cultures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Delivering Bad News: An Approach According to Jewish Scriptures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sody A. Naimer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite a preoccupation in the medical literature with developing an effective approach for breaking bad news, the sources are based on personal opinion alone and only in some instances on qualitative research. Recognizing the gravity of this topic coupled with respect for the wisdom of the written and oral Jewish scriptures, this work is an attempt to delve into the diverse ancient writings to draw conclusions regarding a recommended methodology to guide and inform this task. It is interesting to learn that most elements related to this topic have previously been raised in various forms in the scriptures. The issues range from where, when, and how the bearer of bad news should undertake this duty, to details such as the environment, the format, the speed, and depth of the details to be disclosed. The essence of this paper is to enrich the reader using both positive and negative examples found in the Jewish heritage. Adopting these principles will hopefully provide an effective method for performing this unpleasant obligation, with the goal of limiting harmful consequences as much as possible.

  18. Patients' experiences of breathing retraining for asthma: a qualitative process analysis of participants in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Arden-Close, E; Yardley, L; Kirby, S; Thomas, M; Bruton, A

    2017-01-01

    Poor symptom control and impaired quality of life are common in adults with asthma, and breathing retraining exercises may be an effective method of self-management. This study aimed to explore the experiences of participants in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial, which investigated the effectiveness of breathing retraining as a mode of asthma management. Sixteen people with asthma (11 women, 8 per group) who had taken part in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial (breathing retr...

  19. Long term evolution of temperature in the venus upper atmosphere at the evening and morning terminators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, P.; Sornig, M.; Wischnewski, C.; Kostiuk, T.; Livengood, T. A.; Herrmann, M.; Sonnabend, G.; Stangier, T.; Wiegand, M.; Pätzold, M.; Mahieux, A.; Vandaele, A. C.; Piccialli, A.; Montmessin, F.

    2018-01-01

    This paper contains a comprehensive dataset of long-term observations between 2009 and 2015 at the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere providing temperature values at different locations of the morning and evening side of the terminator of Venus. Temperature information is obtained by line-resolved spectroscopy of Doppler broadened CO2 transitions features. Results are restricted to a pressure level of 1 μbar, ∼110 km altitude due the nature of the addressed non-LTE CO2 emission line at 10 μm. The required high spectral resolution of the instrumentation is provided by the ground-based spectrometers THIS (University of Cologne) and HIPWAC (NASA GSFC). For the first time upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere temperatures at the Venusian terminator derived from IR-het spectroscopy between 2009 and 2015 are investigated in order to clarify the local-time dependences, latitudinal dependences and the long-term trend. Measured temperatures were distributed in the range between 140 K and 240 K, with mean values equal to 199 K ± 17 K for the morning side of the terminator and 195 K ± 19 K for the evening side of the terminator. Within the uncertainty no difference between the averaged morning and evening terminator side temperature is found. In addition, no strong latitudinal dependency is observed at these near terminator local times. In contrast IR-het data from 2009 show a strong latitudinal dependency at noon, with a temperature difference of around 60 K between the equatorial and polar region (Sonnabend et al., 2012). Accord with the instruments of the Venus Express mission a northern-southern hemispherical symmetry is observed (Mahieux et al., 2012; Piccialli et al., 2015). The data shows no consistent long-term temperature trend throughout the six years of observation, but a variability in the order of tens of Kelvin for the different observing runs representing a time step of few month to two years. This is about the same order of magnitude as the variability

  20. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  1. Morning cortisol is lower in obese individuals with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen EP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Edavan P Praveen1, Jaya Prakash Sahoo1, Bindu Kulshreshtha2, Madan L Khurana3, Nandita Gupta1, Sada Nand Dwivedi3, Guresh Kumar3, Ariachery C Ammini11Department of Endocrinology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, 2Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, 3Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaBackground: There is no consensus on the role of cortisol in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the relationship of morning plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels with body mass index (BMI and glucose tolerance.Subjects and methods: The sample frame was the “Offspring of individuals with diabetes study” database. A total of 358 offspring of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and 287 individuals without a known family history of T2DM were recruited for the study. Subjects who were ≥10 years of age were selected from the database for analysis. Subjects with T2DM were excluded. All participants underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, and blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes for glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Plasma cortisol, ACTH, and lipid profile were estimated from the fasting sample.Results: Four hundred and ninety-five participants (305 males [62%] and 190 females [38%] were included in the analysis. ACTH and cortisol levels were higher in normal-weight subjects than in overweight/obese subjects. Both ACTH and cortisol increased as fasting plasma glucose increased. Cortisol levels were significantly lower in offspring of T2DM subjects with MS than in offspring of T2DM subjects without MS. When adjusted for BMI, the significance was marginal. In males, cortisol levels were negatively correlated with early insulin secretion during OGTT (insulinogenic index [0–30] and positively with waist circumference and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In females, fasting

  2. Morning meal more efficient for fat loss in a 3-month lifestyle intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Mauro; Bellia, Alfonso; Padua, Elvira; Annino, Giuseppe; Guglielmi, Valeria; D'Adamo, Monica; Iellamo, Ferdinando; Sbraccia, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of 2 low-calorie diets but with different distributions of calories throughout the day on weight loss and other major obesity-related metabolic parameters. We randomly assigned 42 nonsmoking homemakers (age = 46.3 ± 2.3 years, body mass index [BMI] = 35.7 ± 0.8 kg/m(2), mean ± SD) in 2 groups of 21 subjects (G1 and G2). The participants underwent a 3 month individualized Mediterranean-style diet (55% carbohydrate, 30% fat, 15% protein and fiber > 30 g), calorie (600 kcal daily deficit compared to the total energy expenditure measured by a metabolic Holter). Diets consisted of the same food and complied with cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines but differed in the distribution of calories throughout the day (G1: 70% breakfast, morning snack, lunch and 30% afternoon snack and dinner; G2: 55 breakfast, morning snack, lunch and 45% afternoon snack and dinner). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used for pre- and postintervention body composition assessment. Thirty-six subjects completed the study (G1 = 18, G2 = 18). Both groups had significant improvements in body composition and metabolic parameters but G1 had enhanced results for weight loss (G1: -8.2 ± 3.0 kg; G2: -6.5 ± 3.4 kg; p = 0.028), waist circumference reduction (G1: -7 ± 0.6 cm; G2: -5 ± 0.3 cm; p = 0.033), and fat mass loss (G1: -6.8 ± 2.1 kg, G2: -4.5 ± 2.9 kg, p = 0.031; mean ± SD). Improvements were detected in both groups for blood pressure and blood and lipid parameters. G1 subjects showed a greater improvement in insulin sensitivity measured by homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (G1: -1.37 ± 0.27, G2: -0.74 ± 0.12, p = 0.017). These data suggest that a low-calorie Mediterranean diet with a higher amount of calories in the first part of the day could establish a greater reduction in fat mass and improved insulin sensitivity than a typical daily diet.

  3. Diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: increased total secretion and morning cortisol concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skogar Ö

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ö Skogar1,4, P-A Fall2, G Hallgren3, J Lökk4, B Bringer2, M Carlsson1, U Lennartsson3, H Sandbjork3, C-J Törnhage51Department of Geriatrics, Ryhov Hospital, Jonkoping, 2Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital, Linkoping, 3Department of Neurology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skovde, 4Institute of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, 5Department of Pediatrics, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenBackground: Parkinson’s disease (PD is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder. There is limited knowledge about the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PD. The primary aim of this prospective study was to analyze diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in patients with PD and correlate these with age, gender, body mass index (BMI, duration of PD, and pain. The secondary aim was to compare the results with a healthy reference group.Methods: Fifty-nine PD patients, 35 women and 24 men, aged 50–79 years, were recruited. The reference group comprised healthy individuals matched for age, gender, BMI, and time point for sampling. Salivary cortisol was collected at 8 am, 1 pm, and 8 pm, and 8 am the next day using cotton-based Salivette® tubes and analyzed using Spectria® Cortisol I125. A visual analog scale was used for estimation of pain.Results: The median cortisol concentration was 16.0 (5.8–30.2 nmol/L at 8 am, 5.8 (3.0–16.4 at 1 pm, 2.8 (1.6–8.0 at 8 pm, and 14.0 (7.5–28.7 at 8 am the next day. Total secretion and rate of cortisol secretion during the day (8 am–8 pm and the concentration of cortisol on the next morning were lower (12.5 nmol/L in the reference group. No significant correlations with age, gender, BMI, duration of PD, Hoehn and Yahr score, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III score, gait, pain, or cortisol concentrations were found.Conclusion: The neurodegenerative changes in PD does not seem to interfere with the

  4. Hygromorphic Scales for Use in Water from Morning Dew and Elementary Model of Hydrogel Expansion Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Nate

    Secure access to water is a growing problem in the world today. Millions of people do not have contact with fresh or clean water for drinking. Consuming dirty water leads to many illnesses and deaths every year. When water is scarce people are less likely to follow basic hygiene which also adds to the problem of sickness from water. Currently most of the population gets their water from run-off such as rivers, lakes and other fresh water bodies. Aquafers can also provide water, however, once they do not replenish themselves so once they are empty they will no longer provide a fresh water source. This is a serious problem because the population has grown to 7 billion people and only 2% of the world's water is fresh water. Of this, most the fresh water is locked in the polar ice caps. This leaves only .77% of the available fresh water accessible for human use. While wealthy countries may not feel this burden due to their infrastructure. Impoverish countries will feel the full burden of a lack of water. This has led to a growing number of water conflicts over the years some of which have resulted in human deaths. There are several ways that people can collect water from the atmosphere such as collecting rain water or using a solar still to evaporate water out of an undrinkable source. In parts of the world where fog is prevalent, meshes have been used to collect the moisture from the air. However, these systems only work where the environment allows for it. In some places in the world, the only amount of water may come from morning dew. Certain places receive more water from morning dew than they do from annual precipitation. By studying nature, a novel water collection device was developed, tested and modeled. The model is compared to the test data to see the ways in which the device can be optimized. This could be used to help alleviate the growing problems of water shortages in specific parts of the world. The model and device design shows promising data but still

  5. Sleep disordered breathing following spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Jennum, Poul; Laub, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly complain about difficulty in sleeping. Although various sleep disordered breathing definitions and indices are used that make comparisons between studies difficult, it seems evident that the frequency of sleep disorders is higher in individuals...... with SCI, especially with regard to obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, there is a correlation between the incidence of sleep disturbances and the spinal cord level injured, age, body mass index, neck circumference, abdominal girth, and use of sedating medications. Regulation of respiration is dependent...... on wakefulness and sleep. Thus, it is important to be aware of basic mechanisms in the regulation and control of sleep and awake states. Supine position decreases the vital capacity in tetraplegic individuals, and diminished responsiveness to Pa(CO)(2) may further decrease ventilatory reserve. There also may...

  6. Sleep disordered breathing in children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffanello, Marco; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Piacentini, Giorgio; Gasperi, Emma; Nosetti, Luana; Cavarzere, Paolo; Ramaroli, Diego Alberto; Mittal, Aliza; Antoniazzi, Franco

    2017-02-01

    Children with achondroplasia often have breathing problems, especially during sleep. The most important treatments are adenotonsillectomy (for treating upper obstruction) and/or neurosurgery (for resolving cervicomedullar junction stenosis). We reviewed the scientific literature on polysomnographic investigations which assessed the severity of respiratory disorders during sleep. Recent findings have highlighted the importance of clinical investigations in patients with achondroplasia, differentiating between those that look for neurological patterns and those that look for respiratory problems during sleep. In particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and somatosensory evoked potentials are the main tools to evaluate necessary neurosurgery and over myelopathy, respectively. The use of polysomnography enables clinicians to identify children with upper airway obstruction and to quantify disease severity; it is not suitable for MRI and/or neurosurgery considerations.

  7. The breathing mode and the nuclear surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.; Grammaticos, B.

    1981-01-01

    The role of nuclear surface in the breathing mode of nuclei is analyzed. We discuss a simple model in which the density varies according to a scaling of the coordinates. We show that this model reproduces accurately the results of microscopic calculations in heavy nuclei, and we use it to estimate the contribution of the surface to the effective compression modulus of semi-infinite nuclear matter. The calculation is performed in the framework of an extended Thomas-Fermi approximation and using several effective interactions. It is shown that the surface energy is maximum with respect to variations of the density around saturation density. The reduction of the effective compression modulus due to the surface turns to be proportional to the bulk compression modulus. The magnitude of the effect is compared with results of RPA calculations. Other contributions to the effective compressions modulus of finite nuclei are also discussed. (orig.)

  8. Frequency and Types of Foods Advertised on Saturday Morning and Weekday Afternoon English- and Spanish-Language American Television Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robert A.; Cassady, Diana; Culp, Jennifer; Alcalay, Rina

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe food advertised on networks serving children and youth, and to compare ads on English-language networks with ads on Spanish networks. Design: Analysis of television food advertisements appearing on Saturday morning and weekday afternoons in 2005-2006. A random sample of 1,130 advertisements appearing on 12 networks catering…

  9. Economic decision-making in morning/evening-type people as a function of time of day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Angel; Ruiz-Herrera, Noelia; Ruz, Maria; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Martoni, Monica; Fabbri, Marco; Natale, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Decision-making is affected by psychological factors like emotional state or cognitive control, which may also vary with circadian rhythmicity. Here, we tested the influence of chronotype (32 morning-type versus 32 evening-type) and time of day (9 a.m. versus 5 p.m.) on interpersonal decision-making as measured by the Ultimatum Game. Participants had to accept or reject different economic offers proposed by a virtual participant. Acceptance involved distribution of gains as proposed, whereas rejection resulted in no gain for either player. The results of the game showed a deviation from rational performance, as participants usually rejected the unfair offers. This behaviour was similar for both chronotype groups, and in both times of day. This result may reflect the robustness of decision-making strategies across standard circadian phases under ecological conditions. Furthermore, morning-types invested more time than evening-types to respond to high-uncertainty offers. This more cautious decision-making style of morning-types fits with our finding of higher proactive control as compared to evening-types when performing the AX-Continuous Performance Task. In line with the literature on personality traits, our results suggest that morning-types behave with more conscientiousness and less risk-taking than evening-type individuals.

  10. Information transfer and communication during the morning rounds in surgical departments: an observational study on the use of SBAR.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merten, H.; Langelaan, M.; Wagner, C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To study the structure and completeness of the information transfer between nurses and physicians during the morning rounds on surgical wards after the implementation of the SBAR-communication tool. Methods: in collaboration with the care professionals, we adjusted the SBAR-tool

  11. Once-daily omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate heals severe refractory reflux esophagitis with morning or nighttime dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbelo, Diana M; Enders, Felicity T; Romero, Yvonne; Francis, Dawn L; Achem, Sami R; Dabade, Tushar S; Crowell, Michael D; Geno, Debra M; DeJesus, Ramona S; Namasivayam, Vikneswaran; Adamson, Steven C; Arora, Amindra S; Majka, Andrew J; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Murray, Joseph A; Lohse, Matthew; Diehl, Nancy N; Fredericksen, Mary; Jung, Kee Wook; Houston, Margaret S; O'Neil, Angela E; Katzka, David A

    2015-01-01

    Morning dose or twice-daily proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use is often prescribed to heal severe reflux esophagitis. Compare the effect of single dose morning (control arm) versus nighttime (experimental arm) omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate (Zegerid(®)) (IR-OME) on esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. Adult outpatients with Los Angeles grade C or D esophagitis were allocated to open-label 40 mg IR-OME once a day for 8 weeks in a prospective, randomized, parallel design, single center study. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and validated self-report symptom questionnaires were completed at baseline and follow-up. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were performed. Ninety-two of 128 (72 %) eligible subjects participated [64 (70 %) male, mean age 58 (range 19-86), median BMI 29 (range 21-51), 58 C:34 D]. Overall, 81 (88 %) subjects healed [n = 70 (76 %)] or improved [n = 11 (12 %)] erosions. There was no significant difference (morning vs. night) in mucosal healing [81 vs. 71 %, (p = 0.44)] or symptom resolution [heartburn (77 vs. 65 %, p = 0.12), acid regurgitation (82 vs. 73 %, p = 0.28)]. Prevalence of newly identified Barrett's esophagus was 14 % with half diagnosed only after treatment. Once-daily IR-OME (taken morning or night) effectively heals severe reflux esophagitis and improves GERD symptoms. Results support the clinical practice recommendation to repeat EGD after 8 weeks PPI therapy in severe esophagitis patients to assure healing and exclude Barrett's esophagus.

  12. Different chronotherapeutic effects of valsartan and olmesartan in non-dipper hypertensive patients during valsartan treatment at morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Kentaro; Nakashima, Hajime; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Harada, Kazuhiro; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Ioka, Takashi; Ando, Hitoshi; Fujimura, Akio

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the differences in chronotherapeutic effects of angiotensin-II receptor blockers, valsartan and olmesartan in hypertensive patients with non-dipper blood pressure (BP) pattern during valsartan at morning. Ninety four patients were enrolled, and 40 patients were judged to be non-dippers. In these patients, same dose of valsartan was changed to evening (Val-E, n = 12), or olmesartan (equivalent dose of valsartan) was given at morning (Olm-M, n = 13) or evening (Olm-E, n = 15) for 4 months. BP decreased during sleep and increased during waking hours in Val-E group. In Olm-M and Olm-E groups, BP decreased during sleep and waking hours. Percent reduction in BP at night-time compared to BP at waking hours significantly increased after changing the dose regimen in each group. Serum creatinine decreased and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) elevated in Olm-M and Olm-E, but not Val-E groups. Positive correlation between systolic BP (SBP) during sleep and serum creatinine, and negative correlation between SBP during sleep and eGFR were detected. These data suggest that dipper BP pattern could be obtained by chronotherapeutic approach using valsartan and olmesartan in non-dipper patients with valsartan at morning. Morning and evening olmesartan, but not evening valsartan improved renal function in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A mid-morning snack of almonds generates satiety and appropriate adjustment of subsequent food intake in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Sarah; Re, Roberta; Chambers, Lucy; Echaniz, Ana; Wickham, Martin S J

    2015-08-01

    To assess the effect of consuming a mid-morning almond snack (28 and 42 g) tested against a negative control of no almonds on acute satiety responses. On three test days, 32 healthy females consumed a standard breakfast followed by 0, 28 or 42 g of almonds as a mid-morning snack and then ad libitum meals at lunch and dinner. The effect of the almond snacks on satiety was assessed by measuring energy intake (kcal) at the two ad libitum meals and subjective appetite ratings (visual analogue scales) throughout the test days. Intake at lunch and dinner significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in response to the almond snacks. Overall, a similar amount of energy was consumed on all three test days indicating that participants compensated for the 173 and 259 kcals consumed as almonds on the 28 and 42 g test days, respectively. Subjective appetite ratings in the interval between the mid-morning snack and lunch were consistent with dose-dependent enhanced satiety following the almond snacks. However, in the interval between lunch and dinner, appetite ratings were not dependent on the mid-morning snack. Almonds might be a healthy snack option since their acute satiating effects are likely to result in no net increase in energy consumed over a day.

  14. Depictions of Alcohol Use in a UK Government Partnered Online Social Marketing Campaign: "Hollyoaks" "The Morning after the Night before"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Amanda Marie; Sumnall, Harry; Measham, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This study analysed the depiction of alcohol in an online government partnered social marketing campaign: Hollyoaks "The Morning After the Night Before". This was a new initiative, providing Internet-delivered episodes of a popular terrestrial drama targeted at young people. Methods: All the 12 episodes were coded for "visual…

  15. Resident's Morning Report: An Opportunity to Reinforce Principles of Biomedical Science in a Clinical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    The principles of biochemistry are core to understanding cellular and tissue function, as well as the pathophysiology of disease. However, the clinical utility of biochemical principles is often obscure to clinical trainees. Resident's Morning Report is a common teaching conference in which residents present clinical cases of interest to a…

  16. Blood Harmane Concentrations in 497 Individuals Relative to Coffee, Cigarettes, and Food Consumption on the Morning of Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elan D. Louis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Harmane, a potent neurotoxin linked with several neurological disorders, is present in many foods, coffee, and cigarettes. We assessed whether morning food/coffee consumption and smoking were reflected in blood harmane concentrations (BHCs we obtained in an epidemiologic sample (=497. Participants who smoked on the morning of phlebotomy had similar logBHCs to those who had not smoked (=.57; there was no correlation between logBHCs and number of cigarettes (=.59. Among the coffee drinkers, there was no correlation between number of cups and logBHCs (=.98. Participants who had eaten on the morning of phlebotomy had similar logBHCs to those who had not (=.49; logBHCs did not correlate with the time latency between last food consumption and phlebotomy (=.74. BHCs in this sample of ~500 individuals did not covary with recent smoking, coffee, or food consumption, suggesting that our inability to withhold these exposures on the morning of phlebotomy was not reflected in the BHCs we measured.

  17. Blood harmane concentrations in 497 individuals relative to coffee, cigarettes, and food consumption on the morning of testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Gerbin, Marina; Jiang, Wendy; Zheng, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Harmane, a potent neurotoxin linked with several neurological disorders, is present in many foods, coffee, and cigarettes. We assessed whether morning food/coffee consumption and smoking were reflected in blood harmane concentrations (BHCs) we obtained in an epidemiologic sample (n = 497). Participants who smoked on the morning of phlebotomy had similar logBHCs to those who had not smoked (P = .57); there was no correlation between logBHCs and number of cigarettes (P = .59). Among the coffee drinkers, there was no correlation between number of cups and logBHCs (P = .98). Participants who had eaten on the morning of phlebotomy had similar logBHCs to those who had not (P = .49); logBHCs did not correlate with the time latency between last food consumption and phlebotomy (P = .74). BHCs in this sample of ~500 individuals did not covary with recent smoking, coffee, or food consumption, suggesting that our inability to withhold these exposures on the morning of phlebotomy was not reflected in the BHCs we measured.

  18. Food selectivity and diet switch can explain the slow feeding of herbivorous coral-reef fishes during the morning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Khait

    Full Text Available Most herbivorous coral-reef fishes feed slower in the morning than in the afternoon. Given the typical scarcity of algae in coral reefs, this behavior seems maladaptive. Here we suggest that the fishes' slow feeding during the morning is an outcome of highly selective feeding on scarcely found green algae. The rarity of the food requires longer search time and extended swimming tracks, resulting in lower bite rates. According to our findings by noon the fish seem to stop their search and switch to indiscriminative consumption of benthic algae, resulting in apparent higher feeding rates. The abundance of the rare preferable algae gradually declines from morning to noon and seems to reach its lowest levels around the switch time. Using in situ experiments we found that the feeding pattern is flexible, with the fish exhibiting fast feeding rates when presented with ample supply of preferable algae, regardless of the time of day. Analyses of the fish's esophagus content corroborated our conclusion that their feeding was highly selective in the morning and non-selective in the afternoon. Modeling of the fishes' behavior predicted that the fish should perform a diel diet shift when the preferred food is relatively rare, a situation common in most coral reefs found in a warm, oligotrophic ocean.

  19. Food selectivity and diet switch can explain the slow feeding of herbivorous coral-reef fishes during the morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khait, Ruth; Obolski, Uri; Hadany, Lilach; Genin, Amatzia

    2013-01-01

    Most herbivorous coral-reef fishes feed slower in the morning than in the afternoon. Given the typical scarcity of algae in coral reefs, this behavior seems maladaptive. Here we suggest that the fishes' slow feeding during the morning is an outcome of highly selective feeding on scarcely found green algae. The rarity of the food requires longer search time and extended swimming tracks, resulting in lower bite rates. According to our findings by noon the fish seem to stop their search and switch to indiscriminative consumption of benthic algae, resulting in apparent higher feeding rates. The abundance of the rare preferable algae gradually declines from morning to noon and seems to reach its lowest levels around the switch time. Using in situ experiments we found that the feeding pattern is flexible, with the fish exhibiting fast feeding rates when presented with ample supply of preferable algae, regardless of the time of day. Analyses of the fish's esophagus content corroborated our conclusion that their feeding was highly selective in the morning and non-selective in the afternoon. Modeling of the fishes' behavior predicted that the fish should perform a diel diet shift when the preferred food is relatively rare, a situation common in most coral reefs found in a warm, oligotrophic ocean.

  20. Effects of the L/N-type calcium channel antagonist cilnidipine on morning blood pressure control and peripheral edema formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Sumito; Yoshioka, Yasuko; Ide, Atsumi; Kadokami, Toshiaki; Momii, Hidetoshi; Yoshida, Masayoshi; Ando, Shin-ichi

    2011-01-01

    The L/N-type calcium channel blocker cilnidipine has unique effects including sympathetic nerve suppression and the balanced vasodilatation of arteries and veins that may alleviate morning hypertension (MHT) or peripheral edema caused by calcium channel antagonists. We used ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and a unique peripheral edema measurement to evaluate the effect of morning and bedtime cilnidipine in patients with MHT. Forty-three patients with MHT (60 ± 12 years) were randomly assigned to a morning or bedtime cilnidipine (10-20 mg/day). MHT was defined as a mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 135 mm Hg by ABPM within 2 hours after awaking. After 3 months, greater SBP reductions were observed in the bedtime administration group (versus the morning administration group) at 3:30-6:00 AM (-24 ± 20 mm Hg vs. -10 ± 4 mm Hg; P < .05) and at 6:30-9:00 AM (-26 ± 15 mm Hg vs. -14 ± 17 mm Hg; P < .05). Although physical examinations showed leg edema in 16% of the patients, quantitative evaluations did not reveal significant volume gains. Cilnidipine had a greater effect on MHT, without causing significant leg edema, when administered at bedtime. Copyright © 2011 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of snoezelen, integrated in 24 h dementia care, on nurse-patient communication during morning care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weert, J.C.M. van; Dulmen, A.M. van; Spreeuwenberg, P.M.M.; Ribbe, M.W.; Bensing, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of snoezelen, integrated in 24-hour care, on the communication of Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) and demented nursing home residents during morning care. METHODS: A quasi-experimental pre- and post-test design was conducted, comparing sic

  2. Nursing assistants' behavior during morning care: effects of the implementation of snoezelen, integrated in 24-hours dementia care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weert, J.C.M. van; Janssen, B.M.; Dulmen, A.M. van; Spreeuwenberg, P.M.M.; Bensing, J.M.; Ribbe, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: This paper reports an investigation of the effects of the implementation of snoezelen, or multisensory stimulation, on the quality of nursing assistants' behaviour during morning care. Background: Nursing assistants in long-term dementia care are often unaware of the impact of their behaviour

  3. Particle transport in breathing quantum graph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrasulov, D.U.; Yusupov, J.R.; Sabirov, K.K.; Sobirov, Z.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Particle transport in nanoscale networks and discrete structures is of fundamental and practical importance. Usually such systems are modeled by so-called quantum graphs, the systems attracting much attention in physics and mathematics during past two decades [1-5]. During last two decades quantum graphs found numerous applications in modeling different discrete structures and networks in nanoscale and mesoscopic physics (e.g., see reviews [1-3]). Despite considerable progress made in the study of particle dynamics most of the problems deal with unperturbed case and the case of time-dependent perturbation has not yet be explored. In this work we treat particle dynamics for quantum star graph with time-dependent bonds. In particular, we consider harmonically breathing quantum star graphs, the cases of monotonically contracting and expanding graphs. The latter can be solved exactly analytically. Edge boundaries are considered to be time-dependent, while branching point is assumed to be fixed. Quantum dynamics of a particle in such graphs is studied by solving Schrodinger equation with time-dependent boundary conditions given on a star graph. Time-dependence of the average kinetic energy is analyzed. Space-time evolution of the Gaussian wave packet is treated for harmonically breathing star graph. It is found that for certain frequencies energy is a periodic function of time, while for others it can be non-monotonically growing function of time. Such a feature can be caused by possible synchronization of the particles motion and the motions of the moving edges of graph bonds. (authors) References: [1] Tsampikos Kottos and Uzy Smilansky, Ann. Phys., 76, 274 (1999). [2] Sven Gnutzmann and Uzy Smilansky, Adv. Phys. 55, 527 (2006). [3] S. GnutzmannJ.P. Keating, F. Piotet, Ann. Phys., 325, 2595 (2010). [4] P.Exner, P.Seba, P.Stovicek, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 21, 4009 (1988). [5] J. Boman, P. Kurasov, Adv. Appl. Math., 35, 58 (2005)

  4. Oral breathing: new early treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Denotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral breathing is a respiratory dysfunction that affects approximately 10-15% of child population. It is responsable of local effects and systemic effects, both immediate and long-term. They affect the growth of the subject and his physical health in many ways: pediatric, psycho-behavioral and cognitive. The etiology is multifactorial. It’s important the establishment of a vicious circle involving more areas and it is essential to stop it as soon as possible. In order to correct this anomaly, the pediatric dentist must be able to make a correct diagnosis to treat early the disfunction and to avoid the onset of cascade mechanisms. Who plays a central role is the pediatrician who first and frequently come into contact with little patients. He can identify the anomalies, and therefore collaborate with other specialists, including the dentist. The key aspect that guides us in the diagnosis, and allows us to identify the oral respirator, is the “adenoid facies”. The purpose of the study is to highlight the importance and benefits of an early and multidisciplinary intervention (pediatric, orthopedic-orthodontic-functional. A sample of 20 patients was selected with the following inclusion criteria: mouth breathing, transverse discrepancy > 4 mm, early mixed dentition, central and lateral permenent incisors, overjet increased, lip and nasal incompetence, snoring and/or sleep apnea episodes. The protocol of intervention includes the use of the following devices and procedures: a maxillary rapid expander (to correct the transverse discrepancy, to increase the amplitude of the upper respiratory airway and to reduce nasal resistances tract in association with myo-functional devices (nasal stimulator and oral obturator. They allow the reconstruction of a physiological balance between the perioral musculature and tongue, the acquisition of nasal and lips competence and the reduction of overjet. This protocol speeds up and stabilizes the results. The

  5. Breathing and Singing: Objective Characterization of Breathing Patterns in Classical Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomoni, Sauro; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singing involves distinct respiratory kinematics (i.e. movements of rib cage and abdomen) to quiet breathing because of different demands on the respiratory system. Professional classical singers often advocate for the advantages of an active control of the abdomen on singing performance. This is presumed to prevent shortening of the diaphragm, elevate the rib cage, and thus promote efficient generation of subglottal pressure during phonation. However, few studies have investigated these patterns quantitatively and inter-subject variability has hindered the identification of stereotypical patterns of respiratory kinematics. Here, seven professional classical singers and four untrained individuals were assessed during quiet breathing, and when singing both a standard song and a piece of choice. Several parameters were extracted from respiratory kinematics and airflow, and principal component analysis was used to identify typical patterns of respiratory kinematics. No group differences were observed during quiet breathing. During singing, both groups adapted to rhythmical constraints with decreased time of inspiration and increased peak airflow. In contrast to untrained individuals, classical singers used greater percentage of abdominal contribution to lung volume during singing and greater asynchrony between movements of rib cage and abdomen. Classical singers substantially altered the coordination of rib cage and abdomen during singing from that used for quiet breathing. Despite variations between participants, principal component analysis revealed consistent pre-phonatory inward movements of the abdominal wall during singing. This contrasted with untrained individuals, who demonstrated synchronous respiratory movements during all tasks. The inward abdominal movements observed in classical singers elevates intra-abdominal pressure and may increase the length and the pressure-generating capacity of rib cage expiratory muscles for potential improvements in voice

  6. Chronotype, Light Exposure, Sleep, and Daytime Functioning in High School Students Attending Morning or Afternoon School Shifts: An Actigraphic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeanne Sophie; Gaudreault, Michael M; Perron, Michel; Laberge, Luc

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent maturation is associated with delays of the endogenous circadian phase. Consequently, early school schedules may lead to a mismatch between internal and external time, which can be detrimental to adolescent sleep and health. In parallel, chronotype is known to play a role in adolescent health; evening chronotype adolescents are at higher risk for sleep problems and lower academic achievement. In the summer of 2008, Kénogami High School (Saguenay, Canada) was destroyed by fire. Kénogami students were subsequently relocated to Arvida High School (situated 5.3 km away) for the 2008-2009 academic year. A dual school schedule was implemented, with Arvida students attending a morning schedule (0740-1305 h) and Kénogami students an afternoon schedule (1325-1845 h). This study aimed to investigate the effects of such school schedules and chronotype on sleep, light exposure, and daytime functioning. Twenty-four morning and 33 afternoon schedule students wore an actigraph during 7 days to measure sleep and light exposure. Academic achievement was obtained from school. Subjects completed validated questionnaires on daytime sleepiness, psychological distress, social rhythms, school satisfaction, alcohol, and chronotype. Overall, afternoon schedule students had longer sleep duration, lower sleepiness, and lower light exposure than morning schedule students. Evening chronotypes (E-types) reported higher levels of sleepiness than morning chronotypes (M-types) in both morning and afternoon schedules. Furthermore, M-types attending the morning schedule reported higher sleepiness than M-types attending the afternoon schedule. No difference was found between morning and afternoon schedule students with regard to academic achievement, psychological distress, social rhythms, school satisfaction, and alcohol consumption. However, in both schedules, M-type had more regular social rhythms and lower alcohol consumption. In summary, this study emphasizes that an early school

  7. Research and Development of Information and Communication Technology-based Home Blood Pressure Monitoring from Morning to Nocturnal Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kario, Kazuomi; Tomitani, Naoko; Matsumoto, Yuri; Hamasaki, Haruna; Okawara, Yukie; Kondo, Maiko; Nozue, Ryoko; Yamagata, Hiromi; Okura, Ayako; Hoshide, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Asians have specific characteristics of hypertension (HTN) and its relationship with cardiovascular disease. The morning surge in blood pressure (BP) in Asians is more extended, and the association slope between higher BP and the risk for cardiovascular events is steeper in this population than in whites. Thus, 24-hour BP control including at night and in the morning is especially important for Asian patients with HTN. There are 3 components of "perfect 24-hour BP control": the 24-hour BP level, adequate dipping of nocturnal BP (dipper type), and adequate BP variability such as the morning BP surge. The morning BP-guided approach using home BP monitoring (HBPM) is the first step toward perfect 24-hour BP control. After controlling morning HTN, nocturnal HTN is the second target. We have been developing HBPM that can measure nocturnal BP. First, we developed a semiautomatic HBPM device with the function of automatic fixed-interval BP measurement during sleep. In the J-HOP (Japan Morning Surge Home Blood Pressure) study, the largest nationwide home BP cohort, we successfully measured nocturnal home BP using this device with data memory, 3 times during sleep (2, 3, and 4 am), and found that nocturnal home BP is significantly correlated with organ damage independently of office and morning BP values. The second advance was the development of trigger nocturnal BP (TNP) monitoring with an added trigger function that initiates BP measurements when oxygen desaturation falls below a variable threshold continuously monitored by pulse oximetry. TNP can detect the specific nocturnal BP surges triggered by hypoxic episodes in patients with sleep apnea syndrome. We also added the lowest heart rate-trigger function to TNP to detect the "basal nocturnal BP," which is determined by the circulating volume and structural cardiovascular system without any increase in sympathetic tonus. This double TNP is a novel concept for evaluating the pathogenic pressor mechanism of nocturnal BP

  8. EFFECT OF MORNING AND EVENING RAMIPRIL TAKING ON AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE PROFILE IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

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    V. M. Gorbunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare antihypertensive effect of ramipril monotherapy at morning and evening taking.Material and methods. 22 patients (10 men, 12 women; aged 62,1±1,9 y.o. with arterial hypertension of 1-2 stage were involved into the open randomized crossover study. Patients were randomized into 2 groups depending on ramipril taking time (morning or evening. Ambulatory blood pressure (BP monitoring (ABPM was performed. Patients of both groups were comparable in basic clinical characteristics and initial ABPM indices. Analysis of peak and phase characteristics of 24 hour BP profile was used as well as standard evaluation. Treatment duration was 3 weeks. Ramipril dose titration was made in 1,5 weeks. The average daily dose of ramipril was 6,1 mg in the morning taking, and 5,0 mg in the evening taking.Results. 20 patients finished study completely. 24 hour initial level of systolic (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP was 141,5±1,6/85,3±1,1 mm Hg. After ramipril monotherapy with evening taking BP reduced to 132,6±1,6/79,8±1,1 mm Hg (p<0,001 and with morning taking – to 131,8±1,6/79,2±1,1 mm Hg (p<0,001. Evening ramipril taking led to significant improvement of 24 hour BP profile. Night SBP/DBP reduction became deeper from 7,7±1,2/11,5±1,3% to 12,5±1,2/19,1±1,3 % (p<0,01. Morning taking did not have significant influence on these indices. Ramipril did not result in clinically significant hypotension including night one.Conclusion. Evening ramipril taking is effective and safe. It can be recommended to patients with insufficient night BP dipping (non dippers. 

  9. EFFECT OF MORNING AND EVENING RAMIPRIL TAKING ON AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE PROFILE IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Gorbunov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare antihypertensive effect of ramipril monotherapy at morning and evening taking.Material and methods. 22 patients (10 men, 12 women; aged 62,1±1,9 y.o. with arterial hypertension of 1-2 stage were involved into the open randomized crossover study. Patients were randomized into 2 groups depending on ramipril taking time (morning or evening. Ambulatory blood pressure (BP monitoring (ABPM was performed. Patients of both groups were comparable in basic clinical characteristics and initial ABPM indices. Analysis of peak and phase characteristics of 24 hour BP profile was used as well as standard evaluation. Treatment duration was 3 weeks. Ramipril dose titration was made in 1,5 weeks. The average daily dose of ramipril was 6,1 mg in the morning taking, and 5,0 mg in the evening taking.Results. 20 patients finished study completely. 24 hour initial level of systolic (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP was 141,5±1,6/85,3±1,1 mm Hg. After ramipril monotherapy with evening taking BP reduced to 132,6±1,6/79,8±1,1 mm Hg (p<0,001 and with morning taking – to 131,8±1,6/79,2±1,1 mm Hg (p<0,001. Evening ramipril taking led to significant improvement of 24 hour BP profile. Night SBP/DBP reduction became deeper from 7,7±1,2/11,5±1,3% to 12,5±1,2/19,1±1,3 % (p<0,01. Morning taking did not have significant influence on these indices. Ramipril did not result in clinically significant hypotension including night one.Conclusion. Evening ramipril taking is effective and safe. It can be recommended to patients with insufficient night BP dipping (non dippers. 

  10. Relevance to Home Blood Pressure Monitoring Protocol of Blood Pressure Measurements Taken Before First- Morning Micturition and in the Afternoon

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    Antonio Eduardo Monteiro de Almeida

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The importance of measuring blood pressure before morning micturition and in the afternoon, while working, is yet to be established in relation to the accuracy of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM. Objective: To compare two HBPM protocols, considering 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (wakefulness ABPM as gold-standard and measurements taken before morning micturition (BM and in the afternoon (AM, for the best diagnosis of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH, and their association with prognostic markers. Methods: After undergoing 24-hour wakefulness ABPM, 158 participants (84 women were randomized for 3- or 5-day HBPM. Two variations of the 3-day protocol were considered: with measurements taken before morning micturition and in the afternoon (BM+AM; and with post-morning-micturition and evening measurements (PM+EM. All patients underwent echocardiography (for left ventricular hypertrophy - LVH and urinary albumin measurement (for microalbuminuria - MAU. Result: Kappa statistic for the diagnosis of SAH between wakefulness-ABPM and standard 3-day HBPM, 3-day HBPM (BM+AM and (PM+EM, and 5-day HBPM were 0.660, 0.638, 0.348 and 0.387, respectively. The values of sensitivity of (BM+AM versus (PM+EM were 82.6% × 71%, respectively, and of specificity, 84.8% × 74%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 69.1% × 40% and 92.2% × 91.2%, respectively. The comparisons of intraclass correlations for the diagnosis of LVH and MAU between (BM+AM and (PM+EM were 0.782 × 0.474 and 0.511 × 0.276, respectively. Conclusions: The 3 day-HBPM protocol including measurements taken before morning micturition and during work in the afternoon showed the best agreement with SAH diagnosis and the best association with prognostic markers.

  11. Determinants of the Morning-Evening Home Blood Pressure Difference in Treated Hypertensives: The HIBA-Home Study

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    Lucas S. Aparicio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The morning home blood pressure (BP rise is a significant asymptomatic target organ damage predictor in hypertensives. Our aim was to evaluate determinants of home-based morning-evening difference (MEdiff in Argentine patients. Methods. Treated hypertensive patients aged ≥18 years participated in a cross-sectional study, after performing home morning and evening BP measurement. MEdiff was morning minus evening home average results. Variables identified as relevant predictors were entered into a multivariable linear regression analysis model. Results. Three hundred sixty-seven medicated hypertensives were included. Mean age was 66.2 (14.5, BMI 28.1 (4.5, total cholesterol 4.89 (1.0 mmol/L, 65.9% women, 11.7% smokers, and 10.6% diabetics. Mean MEdiff was 1.1 (12.5 mmHg systolic and 2.3 (6.1 mmHg diastolic, respectively. Mean self-recorded BP was 131.5 (14.1 mmHg systolic and 73.8 (7.6 mmHg diastolic, respectively. Mean morning and evening home BPs were 133.1 (16.5 versus 132 (15.7 systolic and 75.8 (8.4 versus 73.5 (8.2 diastolic, respectively. Significant beta-coefficient values were found in systolic MEdiff for age and smoking and in diastolic MEdiff for age, smoking, total cholesterol, and calcium-channel blockers. Conclusions. In a cohort of Argentine medicated patients, older age, smoking, total cholesterol, and use of calcium channel blockers were independent determinants of home-based MEdiff.

  12. Quality of Morning Report Courses in the Department of Infectious Diseases : A Prospective Study of Academic Members

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    Parviz Saleh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Morning report is one of the most important corner stones of medical train-ing and education in internal medicine training program. However, the pattern and exact template is not definitely described. Studying the quality of morning report courses helps to find out the weak and power points of the courses. The aim of this research is to study the quality of morning report courses prospectively with the assistance of the academic members, residents, and the students in the Department of Infectious Diseases at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2010, Tabriz, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the comments of the academic members, residents, and the students in the Infec-tious diseases course who attended to the morning report course meetings were collected utilizing two separate questionnaires about the goals of the classes. Results: The mean spending time for morning report classes was 60±20 minutes. 68.2% of participants were satisfied because of the acceptable discipline of the meetings. 57.85% of sessions were run by off call attendants. 95.2% of the reports were according to charts in the absence of the patients. In 47.1% of courses, the class management was teacher-centered. The ethical and social issues in 95.1% of cases have been observed. The evaluation of classes was gener-ally good. Conclusion: Although in this study the evaluation of meetings were generally good, it seems that the goals and the planning of the meetings should be revised.

  13. Kinetics of element profile pattern during life cycle stage of morning-glory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, T.M.; Tamada, M.

    1999-01-01

    The kinetics of seven element profiles, macroscopic elements, Na, Mg, Cl, K and Ca, as well as Al and Br, in every tissue of morning-glory (Ipomoea nil L. c.v. Murasaki), from seedling to flowering stage are presented. Barriers for the elements were formed even in the same tissue during different growing phases. Most of Na and Al remained in root tissue, showing the first barrier to the upper part of the plant. During the juvenile phase, the tissues lower than cotyledon stored the elements, especially Ca and Mg. The barrier at cotyledon did not disappear completely until seed ripening stage, except for K. Generally, late developing stem showed lower accumulation of the elements, which seemed to regulate the inflow of Mg, Ca, Cl and Br into flowering tissue. The concentrations of K, Ca, Cl and Br in leaf were kept constant in spite of twice or three times higher concentration of these elements in leaf petiole. After flowering, selective element accumulation was observed during seed development, where most of the elements were accumulated into seed wall, not in seed. Higher concentration of the elements in elder leaf, which falls into ground and will be reused as plant nutrient, might reflect the recycling system of the elements in plants. (author)

  14. Circadian rhythm of elemental concentration in Japanese morning-glory revealed by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, N.I.; Tanoi, K.; Nakanishi, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Elemental concentration in each tissue of Japanese morning-glory (Pharbitis nil) during the growth was analyzed by INAA. Plants were grown in water culture for 4 days under 12-hour light and 12-hour dark condition. During the growth, 10 plants in the same developmental stage were periodically harvested. Then the plants were separated into 9 tissues to determine elemental concentration and water content. There was an elemental specific profile within the plant tissue, for example, Na and K concentrations were high in root whereas Mg and Ca concentrations were high at the upper part of the plants. Among the elements studied, Ca and Mg showed rhythmical change in concentration, increased during the day and decreased during the night. This tendency was especially noted at shoot apex. However, water content in all of the tissue was increased about 6 hours prior to the light period and showed maximum in the middle of the light period. About 6 hour difference of water content movement to those of Ca and Mg concentration suggested that water movement drives more dynamic change of each elemental concentration within a plant. (author)

  15. Morning glory syndrome associated with primary open angle glaucoma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Morning glory syndrome (MGS is a rare congenital optic disc anomaly, first reported in 1970. MGS is a nonprogressive and untreatable condition, which usually occurs as an isolated ocular anomaly, and can be associated with the increased incidence of nonrhegmatogenous retinal detachment, and also with strabismus, afferent pupillary defect, visual field defects, presence of hyaloids artery remnants, ciliary body cyst, congenital cataract, lid hemangioma and preretinal gliosis. Case Outline. We report a clinical case of MGS associated with primary open angle glaucoma. The use of sophisticated diagnostic tools, such as retinal tomography and visual field testing is limited if multiple eye conditions are present, since optic disc does not have “usual” appearance that can be analyzed according to standard statistical databases. Conclusion. In treating and follow up of glaucoma cases associated with other diseases and conditions that affect the appearance and function of the optic nerve head, sometimes the use of modern technological methods is limited due to difficult interpretation of the obtained results.

  16. Morning and Evening Oscillators Cooperate to Reset Circadian Behavior in Response to Light Input

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    Pallavi Lamba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Light is a crucial input for circadian clocks. In Drosophila, short light exposure can robustly shift the phase of circadian behavior. The model for this resetting posits that circadian photoreception is cell autonomous: CRYPTOCHROME senses light, binds to TIMELESS (TIM, and promotes its degradation, which is mediated by JETLAG (JET. However, it was recently proposed that interactions between circadian neurons are also required for phase resetting. We identify two groups of neurons critical for circadian photoreception: the morning (M and the evening (E oscillators. These neurons work synergistically to reset rhythmic behavior. JET promotes acute TIM degradation cell autonomously in M and E oscillators but also nonautonomously in E oscillators when expressed in M oscillators. Thus, upon light exposure, the M oscillators communicate with the E oscillators. Because the M oscillators drive circadian behavior, they must also receive inputs from the E oscillators. Hence, although photic TIM degradation is largely cell autonomous, neural cooperation between M and E oscillators is critical for circadian behavioral photoresponses.

  17. La formule des traces tordue d’après le Friday Morning Seminar

    CERN Document Server

    Labesse, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    La formule des traces pour un groupe réductif connexe arbitraire est due à James Arthur. Le cas tordu a fait l'objet du Friday Morning Seminar à l'Institute for Advanced Study de Princeton pendant l'année académique 1983-1984. Lors de ce séminaire, des exposés ont été présentés par Laurent Clozel, Jean-Pierre Labesse et Robert Langlands. Les notes de ces exposés, rédigées dans l'urgence, avaient besoin d'être revues et complétées. L'ambition des auteurs du présent ouvrage est de donner, en s'appuyant sur ces notes, une preuve complète pour la formule des traces tordue, dans sa version primitive i.e. sa forme non invariante. Ceci est la première étape du projet de l'équipe parisienne animée par Laurent Clozel et Jean-Loup Waldspurger, dont le but est de donner une preuve complète de la stabilisation de la formule des traces tordue, qui est l'outil fondamental utilisé par J. Arthur dans son livre à paraître sur l'endoscopie tordue pour le groupe linéaire avec application aux groupes ...

  18. Combining bimodal presentation schemes and buzz groups improves clinical reasoning and learning at morning report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balslev, Thomas; Rasmussen, Astrid Bruun; Skajaa, Torjus; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Muijtjens, Arno; De Grave, Willem; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2014-12-11

    Abstract Morning reports offer opportunities for intensive work-based learning. In this controlled study, we measured learning processes and outcomes with the report of paediatric emergency room patients. Twelve specialists and 12 residents were randomised into four groups and discussed the same two paediatric cases. The groups differed in their presentation modality (verbal only vs. verbal + text) and the use of buzz groups (with vs. without). The verbal interactions were analysed for clinical reasoning processes. Perceptions of learning and judgment of learning were reported in a questionnaire. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by a 20-item multiple-choice test. Combined bimodal presentation and buzz groups increased the odds ratio of clinical reasoning to occur in the discussion of cases by a factor of 1.90 (p = 0.013), indicating superior reasoning for buzz groups working with bimodal materials. For specialists, a positive effect of bimodal presentation was found on perceptions of learning (p presentation on diagnostic accuracy was noted in the specialists (p presentation and buzz group discussion of emergency cases improves clinicians' clinical reasoning and learning.

  19. Sleep restriction is associated with increased morning plasma leptin concentrations, especially in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Norah S; Banks, Siobhan; Dinges, David F

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of sleep restriction on leptin levels in a large, diverse sample of healthy participants, while allowing free access to food. Prospective experimental design. After 2 nights of baseline sleep, 136 participants (49% women, 56% African Americans) received 5 consecutive nights of 4 hours time in bed (TIB). Additionally, one subset of participants received 2 additional nights of either further sleep restriction (n = 27) or increased sleep opportunity (n = 37). Control participants (n = 9) received 10 hr TIB on all study nights. Plasma leptin was measured between 10:30 a.m. and 12:00 noon following baseline sleep, after the initial sleep-restriction period, and after 2 nights of further sleep restriction or recovery sleep. Leptin levels increased significantly among sleep-restricted participants after 5 nights of 4 hr TIB (Z = -8.43, p women compared to men (Z = -4.77, p restriction (p restriction with ad libitum access to food significantly increases morning plasma leptin levels, particularly among women.

  20. Morning Sleep Inertia in Alertness and Performance: Effect of Cognitive Domain and White Light Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhi, Nayantara; Groeger, John A.; Archer, Simon N.; Gimenez, Marina; Schlangen, Luc J. M.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2013-01-01

    The transition from sleep to wakefulness entails a temporary period of reduced alertness and impaired performance known as sleep inertia. The extent to which its severity varies with task and cognitive processes remains unclear. We examined sleep inertia in alertness, attention, working memory and cognitive throughput with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), n-back and add tasks, respectively. The tasks were administered 2 hours before bedtime and at regular intervals for four hours, starting immediately after awakening in the morning, in eleven participants, in a four-way cross-over laboratory design. We also investigated whether exposure to Blue-Enhanced or Bright Blue-Enhanced white light would reduce sleep inertia. Alertness and all cognitive processes were impaired immediately upon awakening (pinertia varies with cognitive domain and that it’s spectral/intensity response to light is different from that of sleepiness. That is, just increasing blue-wavelength in light may not be sufficient to reduce sleep inertia. These findings have implications for critical professions like medicine, law-enforcement etc., in which, personnel routinely wake up from night-time sleep to respond to emergency situations. PMID:24260280

  1. Quantitative genetic variance and multivariate clines in the Ivyleaf morning glory, Ipomoea hederacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Amanda J; Campitelli, Brandon E; Stinchcombe, John R

    2014-08-19

    Clinal variation is commonly interpreted as evidence of adaptive differentiation, although clines can also be produced by stochastic forces. Understanding whether clines are adaptive therefore requires comparing clinal variation to background patterns of genetic differentiation at presumably neutral markers. Although this approach has frequently been applied to single traits at a time, we have comparatively fewer examples of how multiple correlated traits vary clinally. Here, we characterize multivariate clines in the Ivyleaf morning glory, examining how suites of traits vary with latitude, with the goal of testing for divergence in trait means that would indicate past evolutionary responses. We couple this with analysis of genetic variance in clinally varying traits in 20 populations to test whether past evolutionary responses have depleted genetic variance, or whether genetic variance declines approaching the range margin. We find evidence of clinal differentiation in five quantitative traits, with little evidence of isolation by distance at neutral loci that would suggest non-adaptive or stochastic mechanisms. Within and across populations, the traits that contribute most to population differentiation and clinal trends in the multivariate phenotype are genetically variable as well, suggesting that a lack of genetic variance will not cause absolute evolutionary constraints. Our data are broadly consistent theoretical predictions of polygenic clines in response to shallow environmental gradients. Ecologically, our results are consistent with past findings of natural selection on flowering phenology, presumably due to season-length variation across the range. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlated colour temperature of morning light influences alertness and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Kulve, Marije; Schlangen, Luc; Schellen, Lisje; Souman, Jan L; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2018-03-01

    Though several studies have reported human alertness to be affected by the intensity and spectral composition of ambient light, the mechanism behind this effect is still largely unclear, especially for daytime exposure. Alerting effects of nocturnal light exposure are correlated with melatonin suppression, but melatonin levels are generally low during the day. The aim of this study was to explore the alerting effect of light in the morning for different correlated colour temperature (CCT) values, as well as its interaction with ambient temperature. Body temperature and perceived comfort were included in the study as possible mediating factors. In a randomized crossover design, 16 healthy females participated in two sessions, once under 2700K and once under 6500K light (both 55lx). Each session consisted of a baseline, a cool, a neutral and a warm thermal environment. Alertness as measured in a reaction time task was lower for the 6500K exposure, while subjective sleepiness was not affected by CCT. Also, core body temperature was higher under 6500K. Skin temperature parameters and perceived comfort were positively correlated with subjective sleepiness. Reaction time correlated with heat loss, but this association did not explain why the reaction time was improved for 2700K. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy of a Respiratory Training System on the Regularity of Breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eun Hyuk; Park, Hee Chul; Han, Young Yih; Ju, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jung Suk; Ahn, Yong Chan

    2008-01-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of respiratory gated 4-dimensional radiation therapy for more regular and stable respiratory period and amplitude, a respiration training system was designed, and its efficacy was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The experiment was designed to measure the difference in respiration regularity following the use of a training system. A total of 11 subjects (9 volunteers and 2 patients) were included in the experiments. Three different breathing signals, including free breathing (free-breathing), guided breathing that followed training software (guided-breathing), and free breathing after the guided-breathing (post guided-breathing), were consecutively recorded in each subject. The peak-to-peak (PTP) period of the breathing signal, standard deviation (SD), peak-amplitude and its SD, area of the one cycle of the breathing wave form, and its root mean square (RMS) were measured and computed. Results: The temporal regularity was significantly improved in guided-breathing since the SD of breathing period reduced (free-breathing 0.568 vs guided-breathing 0.344, p=0.0013). The SD of the breathing period representing the post guided-breathing was also reduced, but the difference was not statistically significant (free-breathing 0.568 vs. guided-breathing 0.512, p=ns). Also the SD of measured amplitude was reduced in guided-breathing (free-breathing 1.317 vs. guided-breathing 1.068, p=0.187), although not significant. This indicated that the tidal volume for each breath was kept more even in guided-breathing compared to free-breathing. There was no change in breathing pattern between free-breathing and guided-breathing. The average area of breathing wave form and its RMS in postguided-breathing, however, was reduced by 7% and 5.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The guided-breathing was more stable and regular than the other forms of breathing data. Therefore, the developed respiratory training system was effective in improving the temporal

  4. Communicating bad news: an integrative review of the nursing literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Cassiana Mendes Bertoncello; Menezes, Daniele Vieira de; Borgato, Maria Helena; Luiz, Marcos Roberto

    2017-01-01

    describe how the process of breaking bad news is established and identify how nurses approach the task of giving bad news. integrative review of the literature for articles in Portuguese and English published between 1993-2014, in the databases: Bireme, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL and Embase. Nine articles were included using the selection flow chart. A digital form was completed for each article according to the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research checklist and the level of scientific evidence was determined. Of the 99 articles in identified, nine were included after applying the selection flowchart. breaking bad news is frequent in the area of oncology and palliative care, with a strong cultural influence on the autonomy of nurses in this process. the approach and skills of the nurse during this task influences the patient's reaction to the message. The theme is scarce in the literature and merits further investigation. Descrever como se estabelece o processo de comunicação de más notícias e identificar como o enfermeiro pratica a comunicação de más notícias. Revisão integrativa da literatura com artigos em português e inglês referente ao período 1993-2014 nas bases de dados Bireme, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL e Embase. Elegeram-se nove artigos pelo fluxograma de seleção. Para cada artigo foi preenchida uma ficha eletrônica, elaborado um checklist do Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research e verificado o nível de evidência científica. Foram identificados 99 artigos e incluídos nove pelo fluxograma de seleção. Transmitir más notícias é frequente nas áreas de oncologia e cuidados paliativos, com forte influência cultural na autonomia do enfermeiro nesse processo. O modo e a habilidade do enfermeiro durante a ação influenciarão a reação do paciente acerca da mensagem. O tema é escasso na literatura, necessitando ser explorado.

  5. Delivering and Receiving Bad News: What School Psychologists Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Megan; Rogers, Margaret R.; O'Bryon, Elisabeth C.; Perry, Kimberly Hill

    2010-01-01

    Delivering bad news to students, teachers, and parents is not an uncommon occurrence for school psychologists. Skillfully communicating bad news requires sensitivity, thoughtful wording, and an awareness of the potential effect on the recipients. Despite the importance of this skill, school psychology has devoted little attention to what is…

  6. The “Bad Labor” Footprint: Quantifying the Social Impacts of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moana S. Simas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The extent to what bad labor conditions across the globe are associated with international trade is unknown. Here, we quantify the bad labor conditions associated with consumption in seven world regions, the “bad labor” footprint. In particular, we analyze how much occupational health damage, vulnerable employment, gender inequality, share of unskilled workers, child labor, and forced labor is associated with the production of internationally traded goods. Our results show that (i as expected, there is a net flow of bad labor conditions from developing to developed regions; (ii the production of exported goods in lower income regions contributes to more than half of the bad labor footprints caused by the wealthy lifestyles of affluent regions; (iii exports from Asia constitute the largest global trade flow measured in the amount bad labor, while exports from Africa carry the largest burden of bad labor conditions per unit value traded and per unit of total labor required; and (IV the trade of food products stands out in both volume and intensity of bad labor conditions.

  7. BAD-LAMP defines a subset of early endocytic organelles in subpopulations of cortical projection neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Alexandre; Tiveron, Marie-Catherine; Defays, Axel; Beclin, Christophe; Camosseto, Voahirana; Gatti, Evelina; Cremer, Harold; Pierre, Philippe

    2007-01-15

    The brain-associated LAMP-like molecule (BAD-LAMP) is a new member of the family of lysosome associated membrane proteins (LAMPs). In contrast to other LAMPs, which show a widespread expression, BAD-LAMP expression in mice is confined to the postnatal brain and therein to neuronal subpopulations in layers II/III and V of the neocortex. Onset of expression strictly parallels cortical synaptogenesis. In cortical neurons, the protein is found in defined clustered vesicles, which accumulate along neurites where it localizes with phosphorylated epitopes of neurofilament H. In primary neurons, BAD-LAMP is endocytosed, but is not found in classical lysosomal/endosomal compartments. Modification of BAD-LAMP by addition of GFP revealed a cryptic lysosomal retention motif, suggesting that the cytoplasmic tail of BAD-LAMP is actively interacting with, or modified by, molecules that promote its sorting away from lysosomes. Analysis of BAD-LAMP endocytosis in transfected HeLa cells provided evidence that the protein recycles to the plasma membrane through a dynamin/AP2-dependent mechanism. Thus, BAD-LAMP is an unconventional LAMP-like molecule and defines a new endocytic compartment in specific subtypes of cortical projection neurons. The striking correlation between the appearance of BAD-LAMP and cortical synatogenesis points towards a physiological role of this vesicular determinant for neuronal function.

  8. Educating the delivery of bad news in medicine: Preceptorship versus simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Andrew P; Adkins, Eric J; Knepel, Sheri; Boulger, Creagh; Miller, Jessica; Bahner, David P

    2011-07-01

    Simulation experiences have begun to replace traditional education models of teaching the skill of bad news delivery in medical education. The tiered apprenticeship model of medical education emphasizes experiential learning. Studies have described a lack of support in bad news delivery and inadequacy of training in this important clinical skill as well as poor familial comprehension and dissatisfaction on the part of physicians in training regarding the resident delivery of bad news. Many residency training programs lacked a formalized training curriculum in the delivery of bad news. Simulation teaching experiences may address these noted clinical deficits in the delivery of bad news to patients and their families. Unique experiences can be role-played with this educational technique to simulate perceived learner deficits. A variety of scenarios can be constructed within the framework of the simulation training method to address specific cultural and religious responses to bad news in the medical setting. Even potentially explosive and violent scenarios can be role-played in order to prepare physicians for these rare and difficult situations. While simulation experiences cannot supplant the model of positive, real-life clinical teaching in the delivery of bad news, simulation of clinical scenarios with scripting, self-reflection, and peer-to-peer feedback can be powerful educational tools. Simulation training can help to develop the skills needed to effectively and empathetically deliver bad news to patients and families in medical practice.

  9. Does emotional intelligence predict breaking bad news skills in pediatric interns? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Suzanne; Kassis, Karyn; Nagel, Rollin; Verbeck, Nicole; Mahan, John D; Shell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    While both patients and physicians identify communication of bad news as an area of great challenge, the factors underlying this often complex task remain largely unknown. Emotional intelligence (EI) has been positively correlated with good general communication skills and successful leadership, but there is no literature relating EI to the delivery of bad news. Our objectives were to determine: 1) performance of first-year pediatric residents in the delivery of bad news in a standardized patient (SP) setting; and 2) the role of EI in these assessments. Our hypothesis was that pediatric trainees with higher EI would demonstrate more advanced skills in this communication task. Forty first-year residents participated. Skill in bad news delivery was assessed via SP encounters using a previously published assessment tool (GRIEV_ING Death Notification Protocol). Residents completed the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI) as a measure of EI. Residents scored poorly on bad news delivery skills but scored well on EI. Intraclass correlation coefficients indicated moderate to substantial inter-rater reliability among raters using the delivering bad news assessment tool. However, no correlation was found between bad news delivery performance and EI. We concluded that first-year pediatric residents have inadequate skills in the delivery of bad news. In addition, our data suggest that higher EI alone is not sufficient to effectively deliver death news and more robust skill training is necessary for residents to gain competence and acquire mastery in this important communication domain.

  10. 78 FR 35091 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BAD INFLUENCE; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2013 0072] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BAD INFLUENCE; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: As described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel BAD...

  11. Reconsiderations: We Got the Wrong Gal--Rethinking the "Bad" Academic Writing of Judith Butler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenstein, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    It is hard to think of a writer whose work has been more prominently upheld as an example of bad academic writing than the philosopher and literary theorist Judith Butler. In 1998, Butler was awarded first prize in the annual Bad Writing Contest established by the journal "Philosophy and Literature," and early in 1999, was lampooned in an…

  12. Public good provision and public bad prevention: The effect of framing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, J.; Schram, A.; Offermans, T.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental analysis of voluntary, binary contributions for step-level public goods/bads is presented. Alternatively, the situation is presented as the provision of a public good or the prevention of a public bad. From a strategic point of view, these presentations are equivalent. In early

  13. Cue-responding in a simulated bad news situation: exploring a stress hypothesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valck, C. de; Bruynooghe, R.; Bensing, J.; Kerssens, J.J.; Hulsman, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    The stress-coping paradigm of Folkman and Lazarus (1984) was applied to investigate if the communicative reactions of the physician in a bad news transaction are related to the stressfulness of the situation. A standardized video bad news consultation was presented to 88 medical students. To examine

  14. The prevalence of bad headaches including migraine in a multiethnic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A N; White, G E; West, R

    1993-11-10

    Overall and ethnic specific prevalences of bad headache including migraine, for the New Zealand population, are unknown. A study was carried out in South Auckland to estimate prevalence and to explore ethnic differences in doctor attendance for the diagnosis and management of bad headaches. Telephone interviews were administered to respondents selected by random digit dialing of households. 40.6% of the respondents suffered from bad headaches. 54.5% of these had the characteristics of bad headache with features symptomatic of migraine. Trends in the prevalence of bad headache with features symptomatic of common migraine, peaked between the ages of 30-49 years in both men and women. A difference was seen in the prevalence of bad headache with aura, with or without common migraine features, when ethnic groups and gender were examined. The difference in prevalence of aura was particularly noticeable between Pacific Island men and women. Although there was no difference between ethnic groups in doctor attendance, headaches were more likely to be labelled as migraine in Europeans than in the Polynesian groups. Ways in which people perceive and report their bad headaches have a bearing on management by general practitioners. Although no overall ethnic predominance was seen, there was a gender difference amongst Pacific Island people in reporting bad headaches with aura. The labelling process, and thus the management by general practitioners does demonstrate likely ethnic differences.

  15. Does emotional intelligence predict breaking bad news skills in pediatric interns? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Reed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: While both patients and physicians identify communication of bad news as an area of great challenge, the factors underlying this often complex task remain largely unknown. Emotional intelligence (EI has been positively correlated with good general communication skills and successful leadership, but there is no literature relating EI to the delivery of bad news. Purpose: Our objectives were to determine: 1 performance of first-year pediatric residents in the delivery of bad news in a standardized patient (SP setting; and 2 the role of EI in these assessments. Our hypothesis was that pediatric trainees with higher EI would demonstrate more advanced skills in this communication task. Methods: Forty first- year residents participated. Skill in bad news delivery was assessed via SP encounters using a previously published assessment tool (GRIEV_ING Death Notification Protocol. Residents completed the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI as a measure of EI. Results: Residents scored poorly on bad news delivery skills but scored well on EI. Intraclass correlation coefficients indicated moderate to substantial inter-rater reliability among raters using the delivering bad news assessment tool. However, no correlation was found between bad news delivery performance and EI. Conclusions: We concluded that first-year pediatric residents have inadequate skills in the delivery of bad news. In addition, our data suggest that higher EI alone is not sufficient to effectively deliver death news and more robust skill training is necessary for residents to gain competence and acquire mastery in this important communication domain.

  16. Medical students' attitudes towards breaking bad news: an empirical test of the World Health Organization model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valck, C. de; Bensing, J.; Bruynooghe, R.

    2001-01-01

    The literature regarding breaking bad news distinguishes three disclosure models: non-disclosure, full-disclosure and individualized disclosure. In this study, we investigated the relations between attitudes regarding disclosure of bad news and global professional attitudes regarding medical care in

  17. Cue-responding in a Simulated Bad News Situation: Exploring a Stress Hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valck, C.; Bruynooghe, R.; Bensing, J. M.; Kerssens, J. J.; Hulsman, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    The stress-coping paradigm of Folkman and Lazarus (1984) was applied to investigate if the communicative reactions of the physician in a bad news transaction are related to the stressfulness of the situation. A standardized video bad news consultation was presented to 88 medical students. To examine

  18. Reducing patients' anxiety and uncertainty, and improving recall in bad news consultations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osch, M. van; Sep, M.; Vliet, L.M. van; Dulmen, S. van; Bensing, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients' recall of provided information during bad news consultations is poor. According to the attentional narrowing hypothesis, the emotional arousal caused by the bad news might be responsible for this hampered information processing. Because affective communication has proven to be

  19. Addressing Single and Multiple Bad Data in the Modern PMU-based Power System State Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khazraj, Hesam; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    utilization in state estimation can detect and identify single and multiple bad data in redundant and critical measurements. To validate simulations, IEEE 30 bus system are implemented in PowerFactory and Matlab is used to solve proposed state estimation using postprocessing of PMUs and mixed methods. Bad...

  20. Breaking Bad Habits: Teaching Effective PowerPoint Use to Working Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, Gretchen N.

    2004-01-01

    One interesting aspect of teaching students to use PowerPoint and similar graphics packages effectively is that graduate students who are already in the workforce often have bad presentation habits that they need to break. In this article, the author discusses ways of breaking these bad habits. Using storyboards is one way to keep students from…

  1. Sleep-disordered breathing in epilepsy: epidemiology, mechanisms, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivathamboo, Shobi; Perucca, Piero; Velakoulis, Dennis; Jones, Nigel C; Goldin, Jeremy; Kwan, Patrick; O'Brien, Terence J

    2018-04-01

    Epilepsy is a group of neurological conditions in which there is a pathological and enduring predisposition to generate recurrent seizures. Evidence over the last few decades suggests that epilepsy may be associated with increased sleep-disordered breathing, which may contribute towards sleep fragmentation, daytime somnolence, reduced seizure control, and cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Chronic sleep-disordered breathing can result in loss of gray matter and cause deficits to memory and global cognitive function. Sleep-disordered breathing is a novel and independent predictor of sudden cardiac death and, as such, may be involved in the mechanisms leading to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Despite this, the long-term consequences of sleep-disordered breathing in epilepsy remain unknown, and there are no guidelines for screening or treating this population. There is currently insufficient evidence to indicate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, and recent evidence has failed to show any reduction of fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular endpoints. Treatment of sleep-disordered breathing may potentially improve seizure control, daytime somnolence, and neurocognitive outcomes, but few studies have examined this relationship. In this review, we examine sleep-disordered breathing in epilepsy, and discuss the potential effect of epilepsy treatments. We consider the role of CPAP and other interventions for sleep-disordered breathing and discuss their implications for epilepsy management.

  2. Sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Anthony E; Sitrin, Robert G; Bauman, Kristy A

    2016-07-01

    Spinal cord injury commonly results in neuromuscular weakness that impacts respiratory function. This would be expected to be associated with an increased likelihood of sleep-disordered breathing. (1) Understand the incidence and prevalence of sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury. (2) Understand the relationship between injury and patient characteristics and the incidence of sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury. (3) Distinguish between obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea incidence in spinal cord injury. (4) Clarify the relationship between sleep disordered breathing and stroke, myocardial infarction, metabolic dysfunction, injuries, autonomic dysreflexia and spasticity incidence in persons with spinal cord injury. (5) Understand treatment tolerance and outcome in persons with spinal cord injury and sleep disordered breathing. Extensive database search including PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and Web of Science. Given the current literature limitations, sleep disordered breathing as currently defined is high in patients with spinal cord injury, approaching 60% in motor complete persons with tetraplegia. Central apnea is more common in patients with tetraplegia than in patients with paraplegia. Early formal sleep study in patients with acute complete tetraplegia is recommended. In patients with incomplete tetraplegia and with paraplegia, the incidence of sleep-disordered breathing is significantly higher than the general population. With the lack of correlation between symptoms and SDB, formal study would be reasonable. There is insufficient evidence in the literature on the impact of treatment on morbidity, mortality and quality of life outcomes.

  3. "A morning since eight of just pure grill": a multischool qualitative study of student abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Charlotte E; Monrouxe, Lynn V

    2011-11-01

    Previous medical student abuse research employed quantitative surveys that failed to explore factors thought to contribute to abuse and students' actions in the face of abuse. This study examined medical student abuse narratives to identify types of perceived abuse, factors cited by students as contributing to abuse, and students' actions at the time of abuse. A qualitative design was adopted employing 22 individual and 32 group interviews to elicit narratives of professionalism dilemmas from 200 medical students at two 5-year undergraduate programs and one 4-year graduate entry program (England, Wales, and Australia) between 2007 and 2009. Thematic analysis of abuse narratives was conducted. Of 833 professionalism dilemma narratives, 86 (10%) involved perceived medical student abuse. Within these narratives, students reported mostly covert, status-related abuse, direct verbal abuse, and sexual harassment and discrimination. Some narrators described multiple factors contributing to abuse (individual, work, and/or organization); most cited factors focusing on individuals. Despite the abuse typically recounted with negative emotion, few participants reported resisting at the time of abuse by challenging or reporting the perpetrator. Participants gave a variety of reasons for this inaction (e.g., anxiety about receiving bad marks from the perpetrator) and for resisting (e.g., the abuse was affecting their education negatively). Although narratives focused predominantly on individual factors contributing to abuse and responses to abuse, educators should focus on the dynamic interplay between individual and organizational factors to combat abuse. Several opportunities to mitigate this continuing blight on the conscience of the profession are described.

  4. Off-line breath acetone analysis in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturney, S C; Storer, M K; Shaw, G M; Shaw, D E; Epton, M J

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of breath acetone could be useful in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting to monitor evidence of starvation and metabolic stress. The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between acetone concentrations in breath and blood in critical illness, to explore any changes in breath acetone concentration over time and correlate these with clinical features. Consecutive patients, ventilated on controlled modes in a mixed ICU, with stress hyperglycaemia requiring insulin therapy and/or new pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph were recruited. Once daily, triplicate end-tidal breath samples were collected and analysed off-line by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Thirty-two patients were recruited (20 males), median age 61.5 years (range 26-85 years). The median breath acetone concentration of all samples was 853 ppb (range 162-11 375 ppb) collected over a median of 3 days (range 1-8). There was a trend towards a reduction in breath acetone concentration over time. Relationships were seen between breath acetone and arterial acetone (rs = 0.64, p acetone concentration over time corresponded to changes in arterial acetone concentration. Some patients remained ketotic despite insulin therapy and normal arterial glucose concentrations. This is the first study to look at breath acetone concentration in ICU patients for up to 8 days. Breath acetone concentration may be used as a surrogate for arterial acetone concentration, which may in future have a role in the modulation of insulin and feeding in critical illness.

  5. A New Efficient Algorithm for the All Sorting Reversals Problem with No Bad Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biing-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The problem of finding all reversals that take a permutation one step closer to a target permutation is called the all sorting reversals problem (the ASR problem). For this problem, Siepel had an O(n (3))-time algorithm. Most complications of his algorithm stem from some peculiar structures called bad components. Since bad components are very rare in both real and simulated data, it is practical to study the ASR problem with no bad components. For the ASR problem with no bad components, Swenson et al. gave an O (n(2))-time algorithm. Very recently, Swenson found that their algorithm does not always work. In this paper, a new algorithm is presented for the ASR problem with no bad components. The time complexity is O(n(2)) in the worst case and is linear in the size of input and output in practice.

  6. Numerical investigation for one bad-behaved flow in a Pelton turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, X Z; Yang, K; Wang, H J; Gong, R Z; Li, D Y

    2015-01-01

    The gas-liquid two-phase flow in pelton turbines is very complicated, there are many kinds of bad-behaved flow in pelton turbines. In this paper, CFD numerical simulation for the pelton turbine was conducted using VOF two-phase model. One kind of bad-behaved flow caused by the two jets was captured, and the bad-behaved flow was analysed by torque on buckets. It can be concluded that the angle between the two jets and the value of ratio of runner diameter and jet diameter are important parameters for the bad-behaved flow. Furthermore, the reason why the efficiency of some multi-jet type turbines is very low can be well explained by the analysis of bad-behaved flow. Finally, some suggestions for improvement were also provided in present paper

  7. Numerical investigation for one bad-behaved flow in a Pelton turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X. Z.; Yang, K.; Wang, H. J.; Gong, R. Z.; Li, D. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The gas-liquid two-phase flow in pelton turbines is very complicated, there are many kinds of bad-behaved flow in pelton turbines. In this paper, CFD numerical simulation for the pelton turbine was conducted using VOF two-phase model. One kind of bad-behaved flow caused by the two jets was captured, and the bad-behaved flow was analysed by torque on buckets. It can be concluded that the angle between the two jets and the value of ratio of runner diameter and jet diameter are important parameters for the bad-behaved flow. Furthermore, the reason why the efficiency of some multi-jet type turbines is very low can be well explained by the analysis of bad-behaved flow. Finally, some suggestions for improvement were also provided in present paper.

  8. Bad data detection in two stage estimation using phasor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarali, Aditya

    The ability of the Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) to directly measure the system state, has led to steady increase in the use of PMU in the past decade. However, in spite of its high accuracy and the ability to measure the states directly, they cannot completely replace the conventional measurement units due to high cost. Hence it is necessary for the modern estimators to use both conventional and phasor measurements together. This thesis presents an alternative method to incorporate the new PMU measurements into the existing state estimator in a systematic manner such that no major modification is necessary to the existing algorithm. It is also shown that if PMUs are placed appropriately, the phasor measurements can be used to detect and identify the bad data associated with critical measurements by using this model, which cannot be detected by conventional state estimation algorithm. The developed model is tested on IEEE 14, IEEE 30 and IEEE 118 bus under various conditions.

  9. EXERCISE WITH BAD FAITH OF SUBJECTIVE CIVIL RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE GRADINARU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The abuse of rights is qualified as civil offence and it may not be different from that of aquilian responsibility, the purpose of its sanction is to protect the victim and not to punish the author. In the Romanian legal doctrine, the abuse of rights was defined as “the exercise of a civil subjective right by breaching the principles of its exercise.” The Constitutional Court held that the person exercising in bad faith and abusively his/her subjective or procedural rights is punishable by appropriate penalties, such as: dismissal of his/her legal action, obligation to bear the costs, application of certain court fines, etc.

  10. Pluto behaving badly: false beliefs and their consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Shari R; Laney, Cara; Morris, Erin K; Garry, Maryanne; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2008-01-01

    We exposed college students to suggestive materials in order to lead them to believe that, as children, they had a negative experience at Disneyland involving the Pluto character. A sizable minority of subjects developed a false belief or memory that Pluto had uncomfortably licked their ear. Suggestions about a positive experience with Pluto led to even greater acceptance of a lovable ear-licking episode. False beliefs and memories had repercussions; those seduced by the bad suggestions were not willing to pay as much for a Pluto souvenir. These findings are among the first to demonstrate that false beliefs can have repercussions for people, meaning that they can influence their later thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors.

  11. Of “Bad Behaviour” and “Dangerous Sex”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolling, Marie; Schächter Rasmussen, Trine; Oxlund, Bjarke

    2017-01-01

    with these by assuming a moral high ground and becoming role models in their community. The article argues that the research participants draw on a binary moral discourse of good and bad behaviour in which sex is dangerous and should be avoided. From their accounts, it is clear that the message they have adopted...... of sexual abstinence demands a continuous effort on their part to avoid a whole range of temptations and pressures in their daily lives. Moreover, the findings presented in the article reveal that the threat of HIV/ AIDS is just one among many concerns. In the local context, burning issues pertaining to sex......, including issues of sexual assault, transactional sexual relations, early pregnancies and unwanted pregnancies, loomed large and were the primary concern of young people. The article reaches the conclusion that the HIV prevention project did not address these crucial issues, and that the abstinence message...

  12. Wrapping up the bad news – HIV assembly and release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Bo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The late Nobel Laureate Sir Peter Medawar once memorably described viruses as ‘bad news wrapped in protein’. Virus assembly in HIV is a remarkably well coordinated process in which the virus achieves extracellular budding using primarily intracellular budding machinery and also the unusual phenomenon of export from the cell of an RNA. Recruitment of the ESCRT system by HIV is one of the best documented examples of the comprehensive way in which a virus hijacks a normal cellular process. This review is a summary of our current understanding of the budding process of HIV, from genomic RNA capture through budding and on to viral maturation, but centering on the proteins of the ESCRT pathway and highlighting some recent advances in our understanding of the cellular components involved and the complex interplay between the Gag protein and the genomic RNA.

  13. Can't control yourself? Monitor those bad habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jeffrey M; Pascoe, Anthony; Wood, Wendy; Neal, David T

    2010-04-01

    What strategies can people use to control unwanted habits? Past work has focused on controlling other kinds of automatic impulses, especially temptations. The nature of habit cuing calls for certain self-control strategies. Because the slow-to-change memory trace of habits is not amenable to change or reinterpretation, successful habit control involves inhibiting the unwanted response when activated in memory. In support, two episode-sampling diary studies demonstrated that bad habits, unlike responses to temptations, were controlled most effectively through spontaneous use of vigilant monitoring (thinking "don't do it," watching carefully for slipups). No other strategy was useful in controlling strong habits, despite that stimulus control was effective at inhibiting responses to temptations. A subsequent experiment showed that vigilant monitoring aids habit control, not by changing the strength of the habit memory trace but by heightening inhibitory, cognitive control processes. The implications of these findings for behavior change interventions are discussed.

  14. Time perception: the bad news and the good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, William J; Meck, Warren H

    2014-01-01

    Time perception is fundamental and heavily researched, but the field faces a number of obstacles to theoretical progress. In this advanced review, we focus on three pieces of ‘bad news’ for time perception research: temporal perception is highly labile across changes in experimental context and task; there are pronounced individual differences not just in overall performance but in the use of different timing strategies and the effect of key variables; and laboratory studies typically bear little relation to timing in the ‘real world’. We describe recent examples of these issues and in each case offer some ‘good news’ by showing how new research is addressing these challenges to provide rich insights into the neural and information-processing bases of timing and time perception. PMID:25210578

  15. Breathing multichimera states in nonlocally coupled phase oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Yusuke; Okuda, Koji

    2018-04-01

    Chimera states for the one-dimensional array of nonlocally coupled phase oscillators in the continuum limit are assumed to be stationary states in most studies, but a few studies report the existence of breathing chimera states. We focus on multichimera states with two coherent and incoherent regions and numerically demonstrate that breathing multichimera states, whose global order parameter oscillates temporally, can appear. Moreover, we show that the system exhibits a Hopf bifurcation from a stationary multichimera to a breathing one by the linear stability analysis for the stationary multichimera.

  16. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms for Breath Alcohol Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungblad, Jonas; Hök, Bertil; Ekström, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    Breath alcohol screening is important for traffic safety, access control and other areas of health promotion. A family of sensor devices useful for these purposes is being developed and evaluated. This paper is focusing on algorithms for the determination of breath alcohol concentration in diluted breath samples using carbon dioxide to compensate for the dilution. The examined algorithms make use of signal averaging, weighting and personalization to reduce estimation errors. Evaluation has been performed by using data from a previously conducted human study. It is concluded that these features in combination will significantly reduce the random error compared to the signal averaging algorithm taken alone.

  17. Simulated parents: developing paediatric trainees' skills in giving bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Jenny K; Frydenberg, Alexis R; Donath, Susan K; Marks, Michael M

    2009-03-01

    In curriculum documents for medicine in undergraduate, post-graduate and continuing professional development, there is now a focus on communication skills. The challenges are to place communication skills in the crowded curriculum and then to construct and sustain a programme that uses an evidence-based approach to the teaching and learning of communication skills. For 6 years, we have conducted a programme that involves simulated parents supporting junior medical staff to refine their skills in communication, particularly in giving parents bad news. The aim of our study was to obtain a better understanding of the trainees' experiences of the programme. Nine junior residents individually worked through two scenarios and received feedback from the simulated parent. They gave bad news to a simulated parent/actor who then gave feedback. A recording of the simulation was provided for discussion with a designated colleague at an arranged time. The tapes were then separately appraised by two independent raters - another actor and a paediatrician. Brief written reports and conducted semi-structured interviews provided more insights into the trainees' experience of the simulation. Other participating medical/medical education staff were interviewed about the simulation programme. Five themes emerged from the qualitative data: timeliness, emotional safety, the complexity of communication, practical usefulness and the challenge of effecting change. In addition, the ratings of the videos helped to clarify those 'parent-centred' communication skills that trainees may neglect in difficult conversations: 'ask about support', 'encourage the parent to ask questions' and 'repeat key messages'. The evaluation highlighted the value of an early-career experiential programme to highlight the importance of communication skills in post-graduate paediatrics practice.

  18. Bad and Bid - potential background players in preneoplastic to neoplastic shift in human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driak, D; Dvorska, M; Bolehovska, P; Svandova, I; Novotny, J; Halaska, M

    2014-01-01

    The most common malignancies of the female genital tract are endometrial carcinomas, whose are generally proceeded by hyperplasia. The maintenance of tissue homeostasis is to great extent governed by apoptosis, whose defects can lead to the preneoplastic and/or cancerous changes. Endometrial apoptosis involves among others three groups of proteins of the Bcl-2 family. First group contains anti-apoptotic proteins (e. g. Bcl-2, Bcl-xL). The other two groups belong to the pro-apoptotic proteins with three (e. g. Bax, Bak) or one (e. g. Bad, Bid) so-called BH domains. Bad and Bid trigger the oligomerization of Bak and Bax protein, which permeabilize the outer mitochondrial wall. Unlike Bid, Bad cannot directly trigger apoptosis. Instead, Bad lowers the threshold at which apoptosis is induced, by binding anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. However, their mutual counterbalance or synergism in the human endometrium has not been reported yet.In this study, the levels of Bid and Bad were measured using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting with specific antibodies, with the aim to analyse expression of Bid and Bad proteins in normal (NE), hyperplastic (HE) and cancerous (CE) endometrium. We demonstrated that Bid expression in CE reached only 47% and 50% of this observed in NE and HE. Conversely, Bad expression in HE reached only 40% and 36% of this observed in NE and CE, respectively. We detected no significant changes of Bid expression between HE and NE, and levels of Bad protein were not different between CE and NE.Trend of Bid and Bad protein expression is clearly opposite in HE and CE. We hypothesise that disrupted apoptotic program in CE seems to be reduced further by lowering levels of direct apoptotic trigger protein Bid. We suggest that the adenocarcinoma tissue of human endometrium thus tries to strengthen its apoptotic effort by lowering the apoptotic threshold via higher Bad levels.

  19. Targeting proapoptotic protein BAD inhibits survival and self-renewal of cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, K S R; Al-Muftah, M A; Li, Pu; Al-Kowari, M K; Wang, E; Ismail Chouchane, A; Kizhakayil, D; Kulik, G; Marincola, F M; Haoudi, A; Chouchane, L

    2014-12-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the resistance of cancer stem cells (CSC) to many conventional therapies is one of the major limiting factors of cancer therapy efficacy. Identification of mechanisms responsible for survival and self-renewal of CSC will help design new therapeutic strategies that target and eliminate both differentiated cancer cells and CSC. Here we demonstrated the potential role of proapoptotic protein BAD in the biology of CSC in melanoma, prostate and breast cancers. We enriched CD44(+)/CD24(-) cells (CSC) by tumorosphere formation and purified this population by FACS. Both spheres and CSC exhibited increased potential for proliferation, migration, invasion, sphere formation, anchorage-independent growth, as well as upregulation of several stem cell-associated markers. We showed that the phosphorylation of BAD is essential for the survival of CSC. Conversely, ectopic expression of a phosphorylation-deficient mutant BAD induced apoptosis in CSC. This effect was enhanced by treatment with a BH3-mimetic, ABT-737. Both pharmacological agents that inhibit survival kinases and growth factors that are involved in drug resistance delivered their respective cytotoxic and protective effects by modulating the BAD phosphorylation in CSC. Furthermore, the frequency and self-renewal capacity of CSC was significantly reduced by knocking down the BAD expression. Consistent with our in vitro results, significant phosphorylation of BAD was found in CD44(+) CSC of 83% breast tumor specimens. In addition, we also identified a positive correlation between BAD expression and disease stage in prostate cancer, suggesting a role of BAD in tumor advancement. Our studies unveil the role of BAD in the survival and self-renewal of CSC and propose BAD not only as an attractive target for cancer therapy but also as a marker of tumor progression.

  20. Association of morning blood pressure surge with carotid intima-media thickness and cardiac dysfunction in patients with cardiac syndrome-X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Ragab A; Goda, Mohammad; Galal, Islam; Ghareb, Mohamed S

    2018-05-23

    Background & hypothesis: We hypothesized that exaggerated morning blood pressure surge, may contribute in cardiac dysfunction and arterial stiffness in patients with cardiac syndrome X. Thus we investigated the impact of morning blood pressure surge on cardiac function and carotid intima-media thickness in subjects with cardiac syndrome X. We studied patients with cardiac syndrome X using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and investigated the association of morning blood pressure surge with carotid intima thickness, left atrial volume index and left ventricular filling (E/e'). Seventy patients with cardiac syndrome X were enrolled for the study and compared with 70 age and sex matched controls. Patients with cardiac syndrome X were stratified based on the systolic morning blood pressure surge value of control subjects to patients with exaggerated blood pressure surge (n = 42) and those with normal morning blood pressure surge (n = 28). Basal heart rate (p blood pressure surge group than those with morning blood pressure surge group. Morning blood pressure surge was significantly correlated with carotid intima-media thickness, high sensitive C-reactive protein, left atrial volume index and E/e' ratio in patients with cardiac syndrome X. In multivariate analysis, exaggerated morning blood pressure surge was the only independent predictor of increased carotid intima-media thickness (OR = 2.379; p blood pressure surge is an independent predictor for arterial stiffness and diastolic dysfunction in patients with cardiac syndrome X.