WorldWideScience

Sample records for monthly temporal resolution

  1. Lightning Forcing in Global Fire Models: The Importance of Temporal Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsberg, A.; Kloster, S.; Wilkenskjeld, S.; Krause, A.; Lasslop, G.

    2018-01-01

    In global fire models, lightning is typically prescribed from observational data with monthly mean temporal resolution while meteorological forcings, such as precipitation or temperature, are prescribed in a daily resolution. In this study, we investigate the importance of the temporal resolution of the lightning forcing for the simulation of burned area by varying from daily to monthly and annual mean forcing. For this, we utilize the vegetation fire model JSBACH-SPITFIRE to simulate burned area, forced with meteorological and lightning data derived from the general circulation model ECHAM6. On a global scale, differences in burned area caused by lightning forcing applied in coarser temporal resolution stay below 0.55% compared to the use of daily mean forcing. Regionally, however, differences reach up to 100%, depending on the region and season. Monthly averaged lightning forcing as well as the monthly lightning climatology cause differences through an interaction between lightning ignitions and fire prone weather conditions, accounted for by the fire danger index. This interaction leads to decreased burned area in the boreal zone and increased burned area in the Tropics and Subtropics under the coarser temporal resolution. The exclusion of interannual variability, when forced with the lightning climatology, has only a minor impact on the simulated burned area. Annually averaged lightning forcing causes differences as a direct result of the eliminated seasonal characteristics of lightning. Burned area is decreased in summer and increased in winter where fuel is available. Regions with little seasonality, such as the Tropics and Subtropics, experience an increase in burned area.

  2. Mapping Monthly Water Scarcity in Global Transboundary Basins at Country-Basin Mesh Based Spatial Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degefu, Dagmawi Mulugeta; Weijun, He; Zaiyi, Liao; Liang, Yuan; Zhengwei, Huang; Min, An

    2018-02-01

    Currently fresh water scarcity is an issue with huge socio-economic and environmental impacts. Transboundary river and lake basins are among the sources of fresh water facing this challenge. Previous studies measured blue water scarcity at different spatial and temporal resolutions. But there is no global water availability and footprint assessment done at country-basin mesh based spatial and monthly temporal resolutions. In this study we assessed water scarcity at these spatial and temporal resolutions. Our results showed that around 1.6 billion people living within the 328 country-basin units out of the 560 we assessed in this study endures severe water scarcity at least for a month within the year. In addition, 175 country-basin units goes through severe water scarcity for 3-12 months in the year. These sub-basins include nearly a billion people. Generally, the results of this study provide insights regarding the number of people and country-basin units experiencing low, moderate, significant and severe water scarcity at a monthly temporal resolution. These insights might help these basins' sharing countries to design and implement sustainable water management and sharing schemes.

  3. High-resolution CT of temporal bone trauma: review of 38 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroual, M.R.; Zougarhi, A.; Cherif Idrissi El Ganouni, N.; Essadki, O.; Ousehal, A.; Tijani Adil, O.; Maliki, O.; Aderdour, L.; Raji, A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Temporal bone trauma is frequent but difficult to assess due to the diversity of clinical presentations and complex anatomy. We have sought to assess the different types of fractures and complications on high-resolution CT. Materials and methods Descriptive retrospective study over a 24 month period performed in the ENT radiology section of the Mohammed 6 university medical center in Marrakech. A total of 38 cases of temporal bone trauma were reviewed. All patients underwent ENT evaluation and high-resolution CT of the temporal bone using 1 mm axial and coronal sections. Results Mean patient age was 33 years (range: 14-55 years) with male predominance (sex ratio: 36/2). Clinical symptoms were mainly otorrhagia and conductive hearing loss. Oblique extra-labyrinthine fractures were most frequent. Two cases of pneumo-labyrinth were noted. Management was conservative in most cases with deafness in 3 cases. Conclusion High-resolution CT of the temporal bone provides accurate depiction of lesions explaining the clinical symptoms and helps guide management. MRI is complimentary to further assess the labyrinth and VII-VIII nerve complex. (author)

  4. Monthly Rainfall Erosivity: Conversion Factors for Different Time Resolutions and Regional Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos Panagos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As a follow up and an advancement of the recently published Rainfall Erosivity Database at European Scale (REDES and the respective mean annual R-factor map, the monthly aspect of rainfall erosivity has been added to REDES. Rainfall erosivity is crucial to be considered at a monthly resolution, for the optimization of land management (seasonal variation of vegetation cover and agricultural support practices as well as natural hazard protection (landslides and flood prediction. We expanded REDES by 140 rainfall stations, thus covering areas where monthly R-factor values were missing (Slovakia, Poland or former data density was not satisfactory (Austria, France, and Spain. The different time resolutions (from 5 to 60 min of high temporal data require a conversion of monthly R-factor based on a pool of stations with available data at all time resolutions. Because the conversion factors show smaller monthly variability in winter (January: 1.54 than in summer (August: 2.13, applying conversion factors on a monthly basis is suggested. The estimated monthly conversion factors allow transferring the R-factor to the desired time resolution at a European scale. The June to September period contributes to 53% of the annual rainfall erosivity in Europe, with different spatial and temporal patterns depending on the region. The study also investigated the heterogeneous seasonal patterns in different regions of Europe: on average, the Northern and Central European countries exhibit the largest R-factor values in summer, while the Southern European countries do so from October to January. In almost all countries (excluding Ireland, United Kingdom and North France, the seasonal variability of rainfall erosivity is high. Very few areas (mainly located in Spain and France show the largest from February to April. The average monthly erosivity density is very large in August (1.67 and July (1.63, while very small in January and February (0.37. This study addresses

  5. Impaired temporal, not just spatial, resolution in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, Karoline; Fahle, Manfred

    2009-11-01

    In amblyopia, neuronal deficits deteriorate spatial vision including visual acuity, possibly because of a lack of use-dependent fine-tuning of afferents to the visual cortex during infancy; but temporal processing may deteriorate as well. Temporal, rather than spatial, resolution was investigated in patients with amblyopia by means of a task based on time-defined figure-ground segregation. Patients had to indicate the quadrant of the visual field where a purely time-defined square appeared. The results showed a clear decrease in temporal resolution of patients' amblyopic eyes compared with the dominant eyes in this task. The extent of this decrease in figure-ground segregation based on time of motion onset only loosely correlated with the decrease in spatial resolution and spanned a smaller range than did the spatial loss. Control experiments with artificially induced blur in normal observers confirmed that the decrease in temporal resolution was not simply due to the acuity loss. Amblyopia not only decreases spatial resolution, but also temporal factors such as time-based figure-ground segregation, even at high stimulus contrasts. This finding suggests that the realm of neuronal processes that may be disturbed in amblyopia is larger than originally thought.

  6. Statistical analysis of corn yields responding to climate variability at various spatio-temporal resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H.; Lin, T.

    2017-12-01

    Rain-fed corn production systems are subject to sub-seasonal variations of precipitation and temperature during the growing season. As each growth phase has varied inherent physiological process, plants necessitate different optimal environmental conditions during each phase. However, this temporal heterogeneity towards climate variability alongside the lifecycle of crops is often simplified and fixed as constant responses in large scale statistical modeling analysis. To capture the time-variant growing requirements in large scale statistical analysis, we develop and compare statistical models at various spatial and temporal resolutions to quantify the relationship between corn yield and weather factors for 12 corn belt states from 1981 to 2016. The study compares three spatial resolutions (county, agricultural district, and state scale) and three temporal resolutions (crop growth phase, monthly, and growing season) to characterize the effects of spatial and temporal variability. Our results show that the agricultural district model together with growth phase resolution can explain 52% variations of corn yield caused by temperature and precipitation variability. It provides a practical model structure balancing the overfitting problem in county specific model and weak explanation power in state specific model. In US corn belt, precipitation has positive impact on corn yield in growing season except for vegetative stage while extreme heat attains highest sensitivity from silking to dough phase. The results show the northern counties in corn belt area are less interfered by extreme heat but are more vulnerable to water deficiency.

  7. Phase division multiplexed EIT for enhanced temporal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowrick, T; Holder, D

    2018-03-29

    The most commonly used EIT paradigm (time division multiplexing) limits the temporal resolution of impedance images due to the need to switch between injection electrodes. Advances have previously been made using frequency division multiplexing (FDM) to increase temporal resolution, but in cases where a fixed range of frequencies is available, such as imaging fast neural activity, an upper limit is placed on the total number of simultaneous injections. The use of phase division multiplexing (PDM) where multiple out of phase signals can be injected at each frequency is investigated to increase temporal resolution. TDM, FDM and PDM were compared in head tank experiments, to compare transfer impedance measurements and spatial resolution between the three techniques. A resistor phantom paradigm was established to investigate the imaging of one-off impedance changes, of magnitude 1% and with durations as low as 500 µs (similar to those seen in nerve bundles), using both PDM and TDM approaches. In head tank experiments, a strong correlation (r  >  0.85 and p  EIT injections.

  8. THE IMPACT OF SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL RESOLUTIONS IN TROPICAL SUMMER RAINFALL DISTRIBUTION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The abundance or lack of rainfall affects peoples’ life and activities. As a major component of the global hydrological cycle (Chokngamwong & Chiu, 2007, accurate representations at various spatial and temporal scales are crucial for a lot of decision making processes. Climate models show a warmer and wetter climate due to increases of Greenhouse Gases (GHG. However, the models’ resolutions are often too coarse to be directly applicable to local scales that are useful for mitigation purposes. Hence disaggregation (downscaling procedures are needed to transfer the coarse scale products to higher spatial and temporal resolutions. The aim of this paper is to examine the changes in the statistical parameters of rainfall at various spatial and temporal resolutions. The TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA at 0.25 degree, 3 hourly grid rainfall data for a summer is aggregated to 0.5,1.0, 2.0 and 2.5 degree and at 6, 12, 24 hourly, pentad (five days and monthly resolutions. The probability distributions (PDF and cumulative distribution functions(CDF of rain amount at these resolutions are computed and modeled as a mixed distribution. Parameters of the PDFs are compared using the Kolmogrov-Smironov (KS test, both for the mixed and the marginal distribution. These distributions are shown to be distinct. The marginal distributions are fitted with Lognormal and Gamma distributions and it is found that the Gamma distributions fit much better than the Lognormal.

  9. The Impact of Spatial and Temporal Resolutions in Tropical Summer Rainfall Distribution: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Chiu, L. S.; Hao, X.

    2017-10-01

    The abundance or lack of rainfall affects peoples' life and activities. As a major component of the global hydrological cycle (Chokngamwong & Chiu, 2007), accurate representations at various spatial and temporal scales are crucial for a lot of decision making processes. Climate models show a warmer and wetter climate due to increases of Greenhouse Gases (GHG). However, the models' resolutions are often too coarse to be directly applicable to local scales that are useful for mitigation purposes. Hence disaggregation (downscaling) procedures are needed to transfer the coarse scale products to higher spatial and temporal resolutions. The aim of this paper is to examine the changes in the statistical parameters of rainfall at various spatial and temporal resolutions. The TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) at 0.25 degree, 3 hourly grid rainfall data for a summer is aggregated to 0.5,1.0, 2.0 and 2.5 degree and at 6, 12, 24 hourly, pentad (five days) and monthly resolutions. The probability distributions (PDF) and cumulative distribution functions(CDF) of rain amount at these resolutions are computed and modeled as a mixed distribution. Parameters of the PDFs are compared using the Kolmogrov-Smironov (KS) test, both for the mixed and the marginal distribution. These distributions are shown to be distinct. The marginal distributions are fitted with Lognormal and Gamma distributions and it is found that the Gamma distributions fit much better than the Lognormal.

  10. High resolution CT of temporal bone trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Eun Kyung

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic studies of the temporal bone following head trauma are indicated when there is cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea or rhinorrhoea, hearing loss, or facial nerve paralysis. Plain radiography displays only 17-30% of temporal bone fractures and pluridirectional tomography is both difficult to perform, particularly in the acutely ill patient, and less satisfactory for the demonstration of fine fractures. Consequently, high resolution CT is the imaging method of choice for the investigation of suspected temporal bone trauma and allows special resolution of fine bony detail comparable to that attainable by conventional tomography. Eight cases of temporal bone trauma examined at Korea General Hospital April 1985 through May 1986. The results were as follows: Seven patients (87%) suffered longitudinal fractures. In 6 patients who had purely conductive hearing loss, CT revealed various ossicular chain abnormality. In one patient who had neuro sensory hearing loss, CT demonstrated intract ossicular with a fracture nearing lateral wall of the lateral semicircular canal. In one patient who had mixed hearing loss, CT showed complex fracture.

  11. Temporal resolution for the perception of features and conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodelón, Clara; Fallah, Mazyar; Reynolds, John H

    2007-01-24

    The visual system decomposes stimuli into their constituent features, represented by neurons with different feature selectivities. How the signals carried by these feature-selective neurons are integrated into coherent object representations is unknown. To constrain the set of possible integrative mechanisms, we quantified the temporal resolution of perception for color, orientation, and conjunctions of these two features. We find that temporal resolution is measurably higher for each feature than for their conjunction, indicating that time is required to integrate features into a perceptual whole. This finding places temporal limits on the mechanisms that could mediate this form of perceptual integration.

  12. Practical considerations for high spatial and temporal resolution dynamic transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Michael R. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-356, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)], E-mail: armstrong30@llnl.gov; Boyden, Ken [Materials Science and Technology Division, Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-356, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Browning, Nigel D. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-356, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California-Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Campbell, Geoffrey H.; Colvin, Jeffrey D.; De Hope, William J.; Frank, Alan M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-356, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Gibson, David J.; Hartemann, Fred [N Division, Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-280, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Kim, Judy S. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-356, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California-Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); King, Wayne E.; La Grange, Thomas B.; Pyke, Ben J.; Reed, Bryan W.; Shuttlesworth, Richard M.; Stuart, Brent C.; Torralva, Ben R. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-356, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Although recent years have seen significant advances in the spatial resolution possible in the transmission electron microscope (TEM), the temporal resolution of most microscopes is limited to video rate at best. This lack of temporal resolution means that our understanding of dynamic processes in materials is extremely limited. High temporal resolution in the TEM can be achieved, however, by replacing the normal thermionic or field emission source with a photoemission source. In this case the temporal resolution is limited only by the ability to create a short pulse of photoexcited electrons in the source, and this can be as short as a few femtoseconds. The operation of the photo-emission source and the control of the subsequent pulse of electrons (containing as many as 5x10{sup 7} electrons) create significant challenges for a standard microscope column that is designed to operate with a single electron in the column at any one time. In this paper, the generation and control of electron pulses in the TEM to obtain a temporal resolution <10{sup -6} s will be described and the effect of the pulse duration and current density on the spatial resolution of the instrument will be examined. The potential of these levels of temporal and spatial resolution for the study of dynamic materials processes will also be discussed.

  13. Practical considerations for high spatial and temporal resolution dynamic transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Michael R.; Boyden, Ken; Browning, Nigel D.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.; Colvin, Jeffrey D.; De Hope, William J.; Frank, Alan M.; Gibson, David J.; Hartemann, Fred; Kim, Judy S.; King, Wayne E.; La Grange, Thomas B.; Pyke, Ben J.; Reed, Bryan W.; Shuttlesworth, Richard M.; Stuart, Brent C.; Torralva, Ben R.

    2007-01-01

    Although recent years have seen significant advances in the spatial resolution possible in the transmission electron microscope (TEM), the temporal resolution of most microscopes is limited to video rate at best. This lack of temporal resolution means that our understanding of dynamic processes in materials is extremely limited. High temporal resolution in the TEM can be achieved, however, by replacing the normal thermionic or field emission source with a photoemission source. In this case the temporal resolution is limited only by the ability to create a short pulse of photoexcited electrons in the source, and this can be as short as a few femtoseconds. The operation of the photo-emission source and the control of the subsequent pulse of electrons (containing as many as 5x10 7 electrons) create significant challenges for a standard microscope column that is designed to operate with a single electron in the column at any one time. In this paper, the generation and control of electron pulses in the TEM to obtain a temporal resolution -6 s will be described and the effect of the pulse duration and current density on the spatial resolution of the instrument will be examined. The potential of these levels of temporal and spatial resolution for the study of dynamic materials processes will also be discussed

  14. Accelerator-based single-shot ultrafast transmission electron microscope with picosecond temporal resolution and nanometer spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, D.; Fu, F.; Zhang, J.; Huang, X.; Wang, L.; Wang, X.; Wan, W.

    2014-09-01

    We present feasibility study of an accelerator-based ultrafast transmission electron microscope (u-TEM) capable of producing a full field image in a single-shot with simultaneous picosecond temporal resolution and nanometer spatial resolution. We study key physics related to performance of u-TEMs and discuss major challenges as well as possible solutions for practical realization of u-TEMs. The feasibility of u-TEMs is confirmed through simulations using realistic electron beam parameters. We anticipate that u-TEMs with a product of temporal and spatial resolution beyond 10-19 ms will open up new opportunities in probing matter at ultrafast temporal and ultrasmall spatial scales.

  15. Resolving mass flux at high spatial and temporal resolution using GRACE intersatellite measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowlands, D. D.; Luthcke, S. B.; Klosko, S. M.

    2005-01-01

    resolution. Using 4° × 4° blocks at 10-day intervals, we estimate the mass of surplus or deficit water over a 52° × 60° grid centered on the Amazon basin for July 2003. We demonstrate that the recovered signals are coherent and correlate well with the expected hydrological signal....... the estimation of static monthly parameters. Through an analysis of the GRACE data residuals, we show that the fundamental temporal and spatial resolution of the GRACE data is 10 days and 400 km. We present an approach similar in concept to altimetric methods that recovers submonthly mass flux at a high spatial...

  16. Emotional cues enhance the attentional effects on spatial and temporal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Bruno R; Zeelenberg, René

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, we demonstrated that the emotional significance of a spatial cue enhances the effect of covert attention on spatial and temporal resolution (i.e., our ability to discriminate small spatial details and fast temporal flicker). Our results indicated that fearful face cues, as compared with neutral face cues, enhanced the attentional benefits in spatial resolution but also enhanced the attentional deficits in temporal resolution. Furthermore, we observed that the overall magnitudes of individuals' attentional effects correlated strongly with the magnitude of the emotion × attention interaction effect. Combined, these findings provide strong support for the idea that emotion enhances the strength of a cue's attentional response.

  17. Effective temporal resolution in pump-probe spectroscopy with strongly chirped pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polli, D.; Lanzani, G.; Brida, D.; Cerullo, G.; Mukamel, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a general theoretical description of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy with chirped pulses whose joint spectral and temporal profile is expressed by Wigner spectrograms. We demonstrate that the actual experimental time resolution intimately depends on the pulse-sample interaction and that the commonly used instrumental response function needs to be replaced by a sample-dependent effective response function. We also show that, using the proper configurations in excitation and/or detection, it is possible to overcome the temporal smearing of the measured dynamics due to chirp-induced pulse broadening and recover the temporal resolution that would be afforded by the transform-limited pulses. We verify these predictions with experiments using broadband chirped pump and probe pulses. Our results allow optimization of the temporal resolution in the common case when the chirp of the pump and/or probe pulse is not corrected and may be extended to a broad range of time-resolved experiments.

  18. A new method for measuring temporal resolution in electrocardiogram-gated reconstruction image with area-detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Takeshi; Takagi, Masachika; Kato, Ryohei; Anno, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Masanao; Yoshimi, Satoshi; Sanda, Yoshihiro; Katada, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and construct a phantom for using motion artifact in the electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated reconstruction image. In addition, the temporal resolution under various conditions was estimated. A stepping motor was used to move the phantom over an arc in a reciprocating manner. The program for controlling the stepping motor permitted the stationary period and the heart rate to be adjusted as desired. Images of the phantom were obtained using a 320-row area-detector computed tomography (ADCT) system under various conditions using the ECG-gated reconstruction method. For estimation, the reconstruction phase was continuously changed and the motion artifacts were quantitatively assessed. The temporal resolution was calculated from the number of motion-free images. Changes in the temporal resolution according to heart rate, rotation time, the number of reconstruction segments and acquisition position in z-axis were also investigated. The measured temporal resolution of ECG-gated half reconstruction is 180 ms, which is in good agreement with the nominal temporal resolution of 175 ms. The measured temporal resolution of ECG-gated segmental reconstruction is in good agreement with the nominal temporal resolution in most cases. The estimated temporal resolution improved to approach the nominal temporal resolution as the number of reconstruction segments was increased. Temporal resolution in changing acquisition position is equal. This study shows that we could design a new phantom for estimating temporal resolution. (author)

  19. High-resolution Monthly Satellite Precipitation Product over the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, H.; Fayne, J.; Knight, R. J.; Lakshmi, V.

    2017-12-01

    We present a data set that enhanced the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) monthly product 3B43 in its accuracy and spatial resolution. For this, we developed a correction function to improve the accuracy of TRMM 3B43, spatial resolution of 25 km, by estimating and removing the bias in the satellite data using a ground-based precipitation data set. We observed a strong relationship between the bias and land surface elevation; TRMM 3B43 tends to underestimate the ground-based product at elevations above 1500 m above mean sea level (m.amsl) over the conterminous United States. A relationship was developed between satellite bias and elevation. We then resampled TRMM 3B43 to the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data set at a spatial resolution of 30 arc second ( 1 km on the ground). The produced high-resolution satellite-based data set was corrected using the developed correction function based on the bias-elevation relationship. Assuming that each rain gauge represents an area of 1 km2, we verified our product against 9,200 rain gauges across the conterminous United States. The new product was compared with the gauges, which have 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100% temporal coverage within the TRMM period of 1998 to 2015. Comparisons between the high-resolution corrected satellite-based data and gauges showed an excellent agreement. The new product captured more detail in the changes in precipitation over the mountainous region than the original TRMM 3B43.

  20. Geo-statistical model of Rainfall erosivity by using high temporal resolution precipitation data in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Alewell, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall erosivity (R-factor) is among the 6 input factors in estimating soil erosion risk by using the empirical Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). R-factor is a driving force for soil erosion modelling and potentially can be used in flood risk assessments, landslides susceptibility, post-fire damage assessment, application of agricultural management practices and climate change modelling. The rainfall erosivity is extremely difficult to model at large scale (national, European) due to lack of high temporal resolution precipitation data which cover long-time series. In most cases, R-factor is estimated based on empirical equations which take into account precipitation volume. The Rainfall Erosivity Database on the European Scale (REDES) is the output of an extensive data collection of high resolution precipitation data in the 28 Member States of the European Union plus Switzerland taking place during 2013-2014 in collaboration with national meteorological/environmental services. Due to different temporal resolutions of the data (5, 10, 15, 30, 60 minutes), conversion equations have been applied in order to homogenise the database at 30-minutes interval. The 1,541 stations included in REDES have been interpolated using the Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) model using as covariates the climatic data (monthly precipitation, monthly temperature, wettest/driest month) from WorldClim Database, Digital Elevation Model and latitude/longitude. GPR has been selected among other candidate models (GAM, Regression Kriging) due the best performance both in cross validation (R2=0.63) and in fitting dataset (R2=0.72). The highest uncertainty has been noticed in North-western Scotland, North Sweden and Finland due to limited number of stations in REDES. Also, in highlands such as Alpine arch and Pyrenees the diversity of environmental features forced relatively high uncertainty. The rainfall erosivity map of Europe available at 500m resolution plus the standard error

  1. Feasibility of high temporal resolution breast DCE-MRI using compressed sensing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoyu; Miao, Yanwei; Zhou, Kun; Yu, Yanming; Bao, Shanglian; He, Qiang; Dai, Yongming; Xuan, Stephanie Y; Tarabishy, Bisher; Ye, Yongquan; Hu, Jiani

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the feasibility of high temporal resolution breast DCE-MRI using compressed sensing theory. Two experiments were designed to investigate the feasibility of using reference image based compressed sensing (RICS) technique in DCE-MRI of the breast. The first experiment examined the capability of RICS to faithfully reconstruct uptake curves using undersampled data sets extracted from fully sampled clinical breast DCE-MRI data. An average approach and an approach using motion estimation and motion compensation (ME/MC) were implemented to obtain reference images and to evaluate their efficacy in reducing motion related effects. The second experiment, an in vitro phantom study, tested the feasibility of RICS for improving temporal resolution without degrading the spatial resolution. For the uptake-curve reconstruction experiment, there was a high correlation between uptake curves reconstructed from fully sampled data by Fourier transform and from undersampled data by RICS, indicating high similarity between them. The mean Pearson correlation coefficients for RICS with the ME/MC approach and RICS with the average approach were 0.977 +/- 0.023 and 0.953 +/- 0.031, respectively. The comparisons of final reconstruction results between RICS with the average approach and RICS with the ME/MC approach suggested that the latter was superior to the former in reducing motion related effects. For the in vitro experiment, compared to the fully sampled method, RICS improved the temporal resolution by an acceleration factor of 10 without degrading the spatial resolution. The preliminary study demonstrates the feasibility of RICS for faithfully reconstructing uptake curves and improving temporal resolution of breast DCE-MRI without degrading the spatial resolution.

  2. Assessing the Resolution Adaptability of the Zhang-McFarlane Cumulus Parameterization With Spatial and Temporal Averaging: RESOLUTION ADAPTABILITY OF ZM SCHEME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Yuxing [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Fan, Jiwen [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Xiao, Heng [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Zhang, Guang J. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego CA USA; Ghan, Steven J. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Xu, Kuan-Man [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton VA USA; Ma, Po-Lun [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gustafson, William I. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-11-01

    Realistic modeling of cumulus convection at fine model resolutions (a few to a few tens of km) is problematic since it requires the cumulus scheme to adapt to higher resolution than they were originally designed for (~100 km). To solve this problem, we implement the spatial averaging method proposed in Xiao et al. (2015) and also propose a temporal averaging method for the large-scale convective available potential energy (CAPE) tendency in the Zhang-McFarlane (ZM) cumulus parameterization. The resolution adaptability of the original ZM scheme, the scheme with spatial averaging, and the scheme with both spatial and temporal averaging at 4-32 km resolution is assessed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, by comparing with Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) results. We find that the original ZM scheme has very poor resolution adaptability, with sub-grid convective transport and precipitation increasing significantly as the resolution increases. The spatial averaging method improves the resolution adaptability of the ZM scheme and better conserves the total transport of moist static energy and total precipitation. With the temporal averaging method, the resolution adaptability of the scheme is further improved, with sub-grid convective precipitation becoming smaller than resolved precipitation for resolution higher than 8 km, which is consistent with the results from the CRM simulation. Both the spatial distribution and time series of precipitation are improved with the spatial and temporal averaging methods. The results may be helpful for developing resolution adaptability for other cumulus parameterizations that are based on quasi-equilibrium assumption.

  3. Ultra high spatial and temporal resolution breast imaging at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bank, B L; Voogt, I J; Italiaander, M; Stehouwer, B L; Boer, V O; Luijten, P R; Klomp, D W J

    2013-04-01

    There is a need to obtain higher specificity in the detection of breast lesions using MRI. To address this need, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced (DCE) MRI has been combined with other structural and functional MRI techniques. Unfortunately, owing to time constraints structural images at ultra-high spatial resolution can generally not be obtained during contrast uptake, whereas the relatively low spatial resolution of functional imaging (e.g. diffusion and perfusion) limits the detection of small lesions. To be able to increase spatial as well as temporal resolution simultaneously, the sensitivity of MR detection needs to increase as well as the ability to effectively accelerate the acquisition. The required gain in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be obtained at 7T, whereas acceleration can be obtained with high-density receiver coil arrays. In this case, morphological imaging can be merged with DCE-MRI, and other functional techniques can be obtained at higher spatial resolution, and with less distortion [e.g. Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI)]. To test the feasibility of this concept, we developed a unilateral breast coil for 7T. It comprises a volume optimized dual-channel transmit coil combined with a 30-channel receive array coil. The high density of small coil elements enabled efficient acceleration in any direction to acquire ultra high spatial resolution MRI of close to 0.6 mm isotropic detail within a temporal resolution of 69 s, high spatial resolution MRI of 1.5 mm isotropic within an ultra high temporal resolution of 6.7 s and low distortion DWI at 7T, all validated in phantoms, healthy volunteers and a patient with a lesion in the right breast classified as Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) IV. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. An approach for generating synthetic fine temporal resolution solar radiation time series from hourly gridded datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Perry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A tool has been developed to statistically increase the temporal resolution of solar irradiance time series. Fine temporal resolution time series are an important input into the planning process for solar power plants, and lead to increased understanding of the likely short-term variability of solar energy. The approach makes use of the spatial variability of hourly gridded datasets around a location of interest to make inferences about the temporal variability within the hour. The unique characteristics of solar irradiance data are modelled by classifying each hour into a typical weather situation. Low variability situations are modelled using an autoregressive process which is applied to ramps of clear-sky index. High variability situations are modelled as a transition between states of clear sky conditions and different levels of cloud opacity. The methods have been calibrated to Australian conditions using 1 min data from four ground stations for a 10 year period. These stations, together with an independent dataset, have also been used to verify the quality of the results using a number of relevant metrics. The results show that the method generates realistic fine resolution synthetic time series. The synthetic time series correlate well with observed data on monthly and annual timescales as they are constrained to the nearest grid-point value on each hour. The probability distributions of the synthetic and observed global irradiance data are similar, with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistic less than 0.04 at each station. The tool could be useful for the estimation of solar power output for integration studies.

  5. Quantification of errors induced by temporal resolution on Lagrangian particles in an eddy-resolving model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xuerong; van Sebille, Erik; Sen Gupta, Alexander

    2014-04-01

    Lagrangian particle tracking within ocean models is an important tool for the examination of ocean circulation, ventilation timescales and connectivity and is increasingly being used to understand ocean biogeochemistry. Lagrangian trajectories are obtained by advecting particles within velocity fields derived from hydrodynamic ocean models. For studies of ocean flows on scales ranging from mesoscale up to basin scales, the temporal resolution of the velocity fields should ideally not be more than a few days to capture the high frequency variability that is inherent in mesoscale features. However, in reality, the model output is often archived at much lower temporal resolutions. Here, we quantify the differences in the Lagrangian particle trajectories embedded in velocity fields of varying temporal resolution. Particles are advected from 3-day to 30-day averaged fields in a high-resolution global ocean circulation model. We also investigate whether adding lateral diffusion to the particle movement can compensate for the reduced temporal resolution. Trajectory errors reveal the expected degradation of accuracy in the trajectory positions when decreasing the temporal resolution of the velocity field. Divergence timescales associated with averaging velocity fields up to 30 days are faster than the intrinsic dispersion of the velocity fields but slower than the dispersion caused by the interannual variability of the velocity fields. In experiments focusing on the connectivity along major currents, including western boundary currents, the volume transport carried between two strategically placed sections tends to increase with increased temporal averaging. Simultaneously, the average travel times tend to decrease. Based on these two bulk measured diagnostics, Lagrangian experiments that use temporal averaging of up to nine days show no significant degradation in the flow characteristics for a set of six currents investigated in more detail. The addition of random

  6. Temporal resolution and motion artifacts in single-source and dual-source cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöndube, Harald; Allmendinger, Thomas; Stierstorfer, Karl; Bruder, Herbert; Flohr, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The temporal resolution of a given image in cardiac computed tomography (CT) has so far mostly been determined from the amount of CT data employed for the reconstruction of that image. The purpose of this paper is to examine the applicability of such measures to the newly introduced modality of dual-source CT as well as to methods aiming to provide improved temporal resolution by means of an advanced image reconstruction algorithm. To provide a solid base for the examinations described in this paper, an extensive review of temporal resolution in conventional single-source CT is given first. Two different measures for assessing temporal resolution with respect to the amount of data involved are introduced, namely, either taking the full width at half maximum of the respective data weighting function (FWHM-TR) or the total width of the weighting function (total TR) as a base of the assessment. Image reconstruction using both a direct fan-beam filtered backprojection with Parker weighting as well as using a parallel-beam rebinning step are considered. The theory of assessing temporal resolution by means of the data involved is then extended to dual-source CT. Finally, three different advanced iterative reconstruction methods that all use the same input data are compared with respect to the resulting motion artifact level. For brevity and simplicity, the examinations are limited to two-dimensional data acquisition and reconstruction. However, all results and conclusions presented in this paper are also directly applicable to both circular and helical cone-beam CT. While the concept of total TR can directly be applied to dual-source CT, the definition of the FWHM of a weighting function needs to be slightly extended to be applicable to this modality. The three different advanced iterative reconstruction methods examined in this paper result in significantly different images with respect to their motion artifact level, despite exactly the same amount of data being used

  7. Temporal resolution and motion artifacts in single-source and dual-source cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schöndube, Harald; Allmendinger, Thomas; Stierstorfer, Karl; Bruder, Herbert; Flohr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The temporal resolution of a given image in cardiac computed tomography (CT) has so far mostly been determined from the amount of CT data employed for the reconstruction of that image. The purpose of this paper is to examine the applicability of such measures to the newly introduced modality of dual-source CT as well as to methods aiming to provide improved temporal resolution by means of an advanced image reconstruction algorithm. Methods: To provide a solid base for the examinations described in this paper, an extensive review of temporal resolution in conventional single-source CT is given first. Two different measures for assessing temporal resolution with respect to the amount of data involved are introduced, namely, either taking the full width at half maximum of the respective data weighting function (FWHM-TR) or the total width of the weighting function (total TR) as a base of the assessment. Image reconstruction using both a direct fan-beam filtered backprojection with Parker weighting as well as using a parallel-beam rebinning step are considered. The theory of assessing temporal resolution by means of the data involved is then extended to dual-source CT. Finally, three different advanced iterative reconstruction methods that all use the same input data are compared with respect to the resulting motion artifact level. For brevity and simplicity, the examinations are limited to two-dimensional data acquisition and reconstruction. However, all results and conclusions presented in this paper are also directly applicable to both circular and helical cone-beam CT. Results: While the concept of total TR can directly be applied to dual-source CT, the definition of the FWHM of a weighting function needs to be slightly extended to be applicable to this modality. The three different advanced iterative reconstruction methods examined in this paper result in significantly different images with respect to their motion artifact level, despite exactly the same

  8. Temporal Resolution and Active Auditory Discrimination Skill in Vocal Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar, Prawin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Enhanced auditory perception in musicians is likely to result from auditory perceptual learning during several years of training and practice. Many studies have focused on biological processing of auditory stimuli among musicians. However, there is a lack of literature on temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skills in vocal musicians. Objective The aim of the present study is to assess temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skill in vocal musicians. Method The study participants included 15 vocal musicians with a minimum professional experience of 5 years of music exposure, within the age range of 20 to 30 years old, as the experimental group, while 15 age-matched non-musicians served as the control group. We used duration discrimination using pure-tones, pulse-train duration discrimination, and gap detection threshold tasks to assess temporal processing skills in both groups. Similarly, we assessed active auditory discrimination skill in both groups using Differential Limen of Frequency (DLF. All tasks were done using MATLab software installed in a personal computer at 40dBSL with maximum likelihood procedure. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (version 17.0. Result Descriptive statistics showed better threshold for vocal musicians compared with non-musicians for all tasks. Further, independent t-test showed that vocal musicians performed significantly better compared with non-musicians on duration discrimination using pure tone, pulse train duration discrimination, gap detection threshold, and differential limen of frequency. Conclusion The present study showed enhanced temporal resolution ability and better (lower active discrimination threshold in vocal musicians in comparison to non-musicians.

  9. Temporal variation and scaling of parameters for a monthly hydrologic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Liu, Pan; Wang, Dingbao; Wang, Weiguang

    2018-03-01

    The temporal variation of model parameters is affected by the catchment conditions and has a significant impact on hydrological simulation. This study aims to evaluate the seasonality and downscaling of model parameter across time scales based on monthly and mean annual water balance models with a common model framework. Two parameters of the monthly model, i.e., k and m, are assumed to be time-variant at different months. Based on the hydrological data set from 121 MOPEX catchments in the United States, we firstly analyzed the correlation between parameters (k and m) and catchment properties (NDVI and frequency of rainfall events, α). The results show that parameter k is positively correlated with NDVI or α, while the correlation is opposite for parameter m, indicating that precipitation and vegetation affect monthly water balance by controlling temporal variation of parameters k and m. The multiple linear regression is then used to fit the relationship between ε and the means and coefficient of variations of parameters k and m. Based on the empirical equation and the correlations between the time-variant parameters and NDVI, the mean annual parameter ε is downscaled to monthly k and m. The results show that it has lower NSEs than these from model with time-variant k and m being calibrated through SCE-UA, while for several study catchments, it has higher NSEs than that of the model with constant parameters. The proposed method is feasible and provides a useful tool for temporal scaling of model parameter.

  10. Downscaling of coarse resolution LAI products to achieve both high spatial and temporal resolution for regions of interest

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible tool for spatio-temporal enhancement of coarse resolution leaf area index (LAI) products, which is readily adaptable to different land cover types, landscape heterogeneities and cloud cover conditions. The framework integrates a rule-based regression tree approach for estimating Landsat-scale LAI from existing 1 km resolution LAI products, and the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) to intelligently interpolate the downscaled LAI between Landsat acquisitions. Comparisons against in-situ records of LAI measured over corn and soybean highlights its utility for resolving sub-field LAI dynamics occurring over a range of plant development stages.

  11. Downscaling of coarse resolution LAI products to achieve both high spatial and temporal resolution for regions of interest

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2015-11-12

    This paper presents a flexible tool for spatio-temporal enhancement of coarse resolution leaf area index (LAI) products, which is readily adaptable to different land cover types, landscape heterogeneities and cloud cover conditions. The framework integrates a rule-based regression tree approach for estimating Landsat-scale LAI from existing 1 km resolution LAI products, and the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) to intelligently interpolate the downscaled LAI between Landsat acquisitions. Comparisons against in-situ records of LAI measured over corn and soybean highlights its utility for resolving sub-field LAI dynamics occurring over a range of plant development stages.

  12. High temporal resolution functional MRI using parallel echo volumar imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabrait, C.; Ciuciu, P.; Ribes, A.; Poupon, C.; Dehaine-Lambertz, G.; LeBihan, D.; Lethimonnier, F.; Le Roux, P.; Dehaine-Lambertz, G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To combine parallel imaging with 3D single-shot acquisition (echo volumar imaging, EVI) in order to acquire high temporal resolution volumar functional MRI (fMRI) data. Materials and Methods: An improved EVI sequence was associated with parallel acquisition and field of view reduction in order to acquire a large brain volume in 200 msec. Temporal stability and functional sensitivity were increased through optimization of all imaging parameters and Tikhonov regularization of parallel reconstruction. Two human volunteers were scanned with parallel EVI in a 1.5 T whole-body MR system, while submitted to a slow event-related auditory paradigm. Results: Thanks to parallel acquisition, the EVI volumes display a low level of geometric distortions and signal losses. After removal of low-frequency drifts and physiological artifacts,activations were detected in the temporal lobes of both volunteers and voxel-wise hemodynamic response functions (HRF) could be computed. On these HRF different habituation behaviors in response to sentence repetition could be identified. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the feasibility of high temporal resolution 3D fMRI with parallel EVI. Combined with advanced estimation tools,this acquisition method should prove useful to measure neural activity timing differences or study the nonlinearities and non-stationarities of the BOLD response. (authors)

  13. A time-domain binaural detection model and its predictions temporal-resolution data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breebaart, D.J.; Par, van de S.L.J.D.E.; Kohlrausch, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of a time-domain binaural signal-detection model in the context of estimates of the temporal resolution of the binaural auditory system. It is demonstrated that the optimal detector which is present in the model is crucial to account for specific temporal

  14. Simulations of the temporal and spatial resolution for a compact time-resolved electron diffractometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Matthew S.; Lane, Paul D.; Wann, Derek A.

    2016-02-01

    A novel compact electron gun for use in time-resolved gas electron diffraction experiments has recently been designed and commissioned. In this paper we present and discuss the extensive simulations that were performed to underpin the design in terms of the spatial and temporal qualities of the pulsed electron beam created by the ionisation of a gold photocathode using a femtosecond laser. The response of the electron pulses to a solenoid lens used to focus the electron beam has also been studied. The simulated results show that focussing the electron beam affects the overall spatial and temporal resolution of the experiment in a variety of ways, and that factors that improve the resolution of one parameter can often have a negative effect on the other. A balance must, therefore, be achieved between spatial and temporal resolution. The optimal experimental time resolution for the apparatus is predicted to be 416 fs for studies of gas-phase species, while the predicted spatial resolution of better than 2 nm-1 compares well with traditional time-averaged electron diffraction set-ups.

  15. Temporal super resolution using variational methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune Høgild; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Nielsen, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Temporal super resolution (TSR) is the ability to convert video from one frame rate to another and is as such a key functionality in modern video processing systems. A higher frame rate than what is recorded is desired for high frame rate displays, for super slow-motion, and for video/film format...... observed when watching video on large and bright displays where the motion of high contrast edges often seem jerky and unnatural. A novel motion compensated (MC) TSR algorithm using variational methods for both optical flow calculation and the actual new frame interpolation is presented. The flow...

  16. The temporal resolution factor with and without background noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreschler, W. A.; Leeuw, A. R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the measurement of the temporal resolution factor (TRF). The major merits of this measurement are that it is simple enough to be used clinically and that the results are, within certain limits, independent of presentation level. Addition of a continuous background noise has

  17. Accelerator-based Single-shot Ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscope with Picosecond Temporal Resolution and Nanometer Spatial Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, D.; Fu, F.; Zhang, J.; Huang, X.; Wang, L.; Wang, X.; Wan, W.

    2014-01-01

    We present feasibility study of an accelerator-based ultrafast transmission electron microscope (u-TEM) capable of producing a full field image in a single-shot with simultaneous picosecond temporal resolution and nanometer spatial resolution. We study key physics related to performance of u-TEMs, and discuss major challenges as well as possible solutions for practical realization of u-TEMs. The feasibility of u-TEMs is confirmed through simulations using realistic electron beam parameters. W...

  18. Fundamental statistical relationships between monthly and daily meteorological variables: Temporal downscaling of weather based on a global observational dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Philipp; Kaplan, Jed

    2016-04-01

    Accurate modelling of large-scale vegetation dynamics, hydrology, and other environmental processes requires meteorological forcing on daily timescales. While meteorological data with high temporal resolution is becoming increasingly available, simulations for the future or distant past are limited by lack of data and poor performance of climate models, e.g., in simulating daily precipitation. To overcome these limitations, we may temporally downscale monthly summary data to a daily time step using a weather generator. Parameterization of such statistical models has traditionally been based on a limited number of observations. Recent developments in the archiving, distribution, and analysis of "big data" datasets provide new opportunities for the parameterization of a temporal downscaling model that is applicable over a wide range of climates. Here we parameterize a WGEN-type weather generator using more than 50 million individual daily meteorological observations, from over 10'000 stations covering all continents, based on the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) and Synoptic Cloud Reports (EECRA) databases. Using the resulting "universal" parameterization and driven by monthly summaries, we downscale mean temperature (minimum and maximum), cloud cover, and total precipitation, to daily estimates. We apply a hybrid gamma-generalized Pareto distribution to calculate daily precipitation amounts, which overcomes much of the inability of earlier weather generators to simulate high amounts of daily precipitation. Our globally parameterized weather generator has numerous applications, including vegetation and crop modelling for paleoenvironmental studies.

  19. Sex & vision I: Spatio-temporal resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramov Israel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral cortex has a very large number of testosterone receptors, which could be a basis for sex differences in sensory functions. For example, audition has clear sex differences, which are related to serum testosterone levels. Of all major sensory systems only vision has not been examined for sex differences, which is surprising because occipital lobe (primary visual projection area may have the highest density of testosterone receptors in the cortex. We have examined a basic visual function: spatial and temporal pattern resolution and acuity. Methods We tested large groups of young adults with normal vision. They were screened with a battery of standard tests that examined acuity, color vision, and stereopsis. We sampled the visual system’s contrast-sensitivity function (CSF across the entire spatio-temporal space: 6 spatial frequencies at each of 5 temporal rates. Stimuli were gratings with sinusoidal luminance profiles generated on a special-purpose computer screen; their contrast was also sinusoidally modulated in time. We measured threshold contrasts using a criterion-free (forced-choice, adaptive psychophysical method (QUEST algorithm. Also, each individual’s acuity limit was estimated by fitting his or her data with a model and extrapolating to find the spatial frequency corresponding to 100% contrast. Results At a very low temporal rate, the spatial CSF was the canonical inverted-U; but for higher temporal rates, the maxima of the spatial CSFs shifted: Observers lost sensitivity at high spatial frequencies and gained sensitivity at low frequencies; also, all the maxima of the CSFs shifted by about the same amount in spatial frequency. Main effect: there was a significant (ANOVA sex difference. Across the entire spatio-temporal domain, males were more sensitive, especially at higher spatial frequencies; similarly males had significantly better acuity at all temporal rates. Conclusion As with other sensory systems

  20. High-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone. Part 2.: pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzegorzewski, M.; Boron, Z.; Burzynska-Makuch, M.

    1995-01-01

    Selected cases of the temporal bone pathology on high resolution CT were demonstrated. Transverse and coronal sections of the cases were selected from 68 patients with various otological diseases. (author)

  1. Towards the Implementation of First-Order Temporal Resolution:the Expanding Domain Case

    OpenAIRE

    Konev, B; Dixon, C; Degtyarev, A; Fisher, M; Hustadt, U

    2003-01-01

    First-order temporal logic is a concise and powerful notation, with many potential applications in both Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. While the full logic is highly complex, recent work on monodic first-order temporal logics has identified important enumerable and even decidable fragments. In this paper, we develop a clausal resolution method for the monodic fragment of first-order temporal logic over expanding domains. We first define a normal form for monodic formulae and th...

  2. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  3. High Spatio-Temporal Resolution Bathymetry Estimation and Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsma, E. W. J.; Conley, D. C.; Davidson, M. A.; O'Hare, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, bathymetry estimates using video images have become increasingly accurate. With the cBathy code (Holman et al., 2013) fully operational, bathymetry results with 0.5 metres accuracy have been regularly obtained at Duck, USA. cBathy is based on observations of the dominant frequencies and wavelengths of surface wave motions and estimates the depth (and hence allows inference of bathymetry profiles) based on linear wave theory. Despite the good performance at Duck, large discrepancies were found related to tidal elevation and camera height (Bergsma et al., 2014) and on the camera boundaries. A tide dependent floating pixel and camera boundary solution have been proposed to overcome these issues (Bergsma et al., under review). The video-data collection is set estimate depths hourly on a grid with resolution in the order of 10x25 meters. Here, the application of the cBathy at Porthtowan in the South-West of England is presented. Hourly depth estimates are combined and analysed over a period of 1.5 years (2013-2014). In this work the focus is on the sub-tidal region, where the best cBathy results are achieved. The morphology of the sub-tidal bar is tracked with high spatio-temporal resolution on short and longer time scales. Furthermore, the impact of the storm and reset (sudden and large changes in bathymetry) of the sub-tidal area is clearly captured with the depth estimations. This application shows that the high spatio-temporal resolution of cBathy makes it a powerful tool for coastal research and coastal zone management.

  4. High-resolution spatio-temporal analyses of drought episodes in the western Mediterranean basin (Spanish mainland, Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Hidalgo, J. C.; Vicente-Serrano, S. M.; Peña-Angulo, D.; Salinas, C.; Tomas-Burguera, M.; Beguería, S.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify major drought events on the Spanish mainland between 1961 and 2014 by means of two drought indices, and analyze the spatial propagation of drought conditions. The indices applied were the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the standardized evaporation precipitation index (SPEI). The first was calculated as standardized anomalies of precipitation at various temporal intervals, while the second examined the climatic balance normalized at monthly scale, incorporating the relationship between precipitation and the atmospheric water demand. The daily meteorological data from Spanish Meteorological Archives (AEMet) were used in performing the analyses. Within the framework of the DESEMON project, original data were converted into a high spatial resolution grid (1.1 km2) following exhaustive quality control. Values of both indices were calculated on a weekly scale and different timescales (12, 24 and 36 months). The results show that during the first half of the study period, the SPI usually returned a higher identification of drought areas, while the reverse was true from the 1990s, suggesting that the effect from atmospheric evaporative demand could have increased. The temporal propagation from 12- to 24-month and 36-month timescales analyzed in the paper seems to be a far from straightforward phenomenon that does not follow a simple rule of time lag, because events at different temporal scales can overlap in time and space. Spatially, the propagation of drought events affecting more than 25% of the total land indicates the existence of various spatial gradients of drought propagation, mostly east-west or west-east, but also north-south have been found. No generalized episodes were found with a radial pattern, i.e., from inland to the coast.

  5. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2004-05-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  6. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2003-02-28] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  7. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2003-02-28] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  8. Comparison of auditory temporal resolution between monolingual Persian and bilingual Turkish-Persian individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Shaghayegh; Jafari, Zahra; Tahaei, Ali Akbar; Salehi, Masoud

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study were to prepare a Persian version of the temporal resolution test using the method of Phillips et al (1994) and Stuart and Phillips (1996), and to compare the word-recognition performance in the presence of continuous and interrupted noise as well as the temporal resolution abilities between monolingual (ML) Persian and bilingual (BL) Turkish-Persian young adults. Word-recognition scores (WRSs) were obtained in quiet and in the presence of background competing continuous and interrupted noise at signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of -20, -10, 0, and 10 dB. Two groups of 33 ML Persian and 36 BL Turkish-Persian volunteers participated. WRSs significantly differed between ML and BL subjects at four sensation levels in the presence of continuous and interrupted noise. However, the difference in the release from masking between ML and BL subjects was not significant at the studied SNRs. BL Turkish-Persian listeners seem to show poorer performance when responding to Persian words in continuous and interrupted noise. However, bilingualism may not affect auditory temporal resolution ability.

  9. Compressed sensing cine imaging with high spatial or high temporal resolution for analysis of left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Juliane; Nensa, Felix; Schemuth, Haemi P; Maderwald, Stefan; Gratz, Marcel; Quick, Harald H; Schlosser, Thomas; Nassenstein, Kai

    2016-08-01

    To assess two compressed sensing cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences with high spatial or high temporal resolution in comparison to a reference steady-state free precession cine (SSFP) sequence for reliable quantification of left ventricular (LV) volumes. LV short axis stacks of two compressed sensing breath-hold cine sequences with high spatial resolution (SPARSE-SENSE HS: temporal resolution: 40 msec, in-plane resolution: 1.0 × 1.0 mm(2) ) and high temporal resolution (SPARSE-SENSE HT: temporal resolution: 11 msec, in-plane resolution: 1.7 × 1.7 mm(2) ) and of a reference cine SSFP sequence (standard SSFP: temporal resolution: 40 msec, in-plane resolution: 1.7 × 1.7 mm(2) ) were acquired in 16 healthy volunteers on a 1.5T MR system. LV parameters were analyzed semiautomatically twice by one reader and once by a second reader. The volumetric agreement between sequences was analyzed using paired t-test, Bland-Altman plots, and Passing-Bablock regression. Small differences were observed between standard SSFP and SPARSE-SENSE HS for stroke volume (SV; -7 ± 11 ml; P = 0.024), ejection fraction (EF; -2 ± 3%; P = 0.019), and myocardial mass (9 ± 9 g; P = 0.001), but not for end-diastolic volume (EDV; P = 0.079) and end-systolic volume (ESV; P = 0.266). No significant differences were observed between standard SSFP and SPARSE-SENSE HT regarding EDV (P = 0.956), SV (P = 0.088), and EF (P = 0.103), but for ESV (3 ± 5 ml; P = 0.039) and myocardial mass (8 ± 10 ml; P = 0.007). Bland-Altman analysis showed good agreement between the sequences (maximum bias ≤ -8%). Two compressed sensing cine sequences, one with high spatial resolution and one with high temporal resolution, showed good agreement with standard SSFP for LV volume assessment. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:366-374. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy: Spectral, temporal and spatial resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Marcher

    1997-01-01

    Selected linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopies are being described with special emphasis on the possibility of obtaining simultaneous spectral, temporal and spatial resolution. The potential of various experimental techniques is being demonstrated by specific examples mostly taken from inve...... investigations of the electronic, and opto-electronic, properties of semiconductor nanostructures....

  11. Direct comparison of high-temporal-resolution CINE MRI with Doppler ultrasound for assessment of diastolic dysfunction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas A; Price, Anthony N; Jackson, Laurence H; Taylor, Valerie; David, Anna L; Lythgoe, Mark F; Stuckey, Daniel J

    2017-10-01

    Diastolic dysfunction is a sensitive early indicator of heart failure and can provide additional data to conventional measures of systolic function. Transmitral Doppler ultrasound, which measures the one-dimensional flow of blood through the mitral valve, is currently the preferred method for the measurement of diastolic function, but the measurement of the left ventricular volume changes using high-temporal-resolution cinematic magnetic resonance imaging (CINE MRI) is an alternative approach which is emerging as a potentially more robust and user-independent technique. Here, we investigated the performance of high-temporal-resolution CINE MRI and compared it with ultrasound for the detection of diastolic dysfunction in a mouse model of myocardial infarction. An in-house, high-temporal-resolution, retrospectively gated CINE sequence was developed with a temporal resolution of 1 ms. Diastolic function in mice was assessed using a custom-made, open-source reconstruction package. Early (E) and late (A) left ventricular filling phases were easily identifiable, and these measurements were compared directly with high-frequency, pulsed-wave, Doppler ultrasound measurements of mitral valve inflow. A repeatability study established that high-temporal-resolution CINE MRI and Doppler ultrasound showed comparable accuracy when measuring E/A in normal control mice. However, when applied in a mouse model of myocardial infarction, high-temporal-resolution CINE MRI indicated diastolic heart failure (E/A = 0.94 ± 0.11), whereas ultrasound falsely detected normal cardiac function (E/A = 1.21 ± 0.11). The addition of high-temporal-resolution CINE MRI to preclinical imaging studies enhances the library of sequences available to cardiac researchers and potentially identifies diastolic heart failure early in disease progression. © 2017 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Discrimination of acoustic communication signals by grasshoppers (Chorthippus biguttulus): temporal resolution, temporal integration, and the impact of intrinsic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronacher, Bernhard; Wohlgemuth, Sandra; Vogel, Astrid; Krahe, Rüdiger

    2008-08-01

    A characteristic feature of hearing systems is their ability to resolve both fast and subtle amplitude modulations of acoustic signals. This applies also to grasshoppers, which for mate identification rely mainly on the characteristic temporal patterns of their communication signals. Usually the signals arriving at a receiver are contaminated by various kinds of noise. In addition to extrinsic noise, intrinsic noise caused by stochastic processes within the nervous system contributes to making signal recognition a difficult task. The authors asked to what degree intrinsic noise affects temporal resolution and, particularly, the discrimination of similar acoustic signals. This study aims at exploring the neuronal basis for sexual selection, which depends on exploiting subtle differences between basically similar signals. Applying a metric, by which the similarities of spike trains can be assessed, the authors investigated how well the communication signals of different individuals of the same species could be discriminated and correctly classified based on the responses of auditory neurons. This spike train metric yields clues to the optimal temporal resolution with which spike trains should be evaluated. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Temporal Resolution Ability in Students with Dyslexia and Reading and Writing Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaubet, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Gaps-in-Noise (GIN test assesses the hearing ability of temporal resolution. The development of this ability can be considered essential for learning how to read. Objective Identify temporal resolution in individuals diagnosed with reading and writing disorders compared with subjects with dyslexia. Methods A sample of 26 subjects of both genders, age 10 to 15 years, included 11 diagnosed with dyslexia and 15 diagnosed with reading and writing disorders. Subjects did not display otologic, neurologic, and/or cognitive diseases. A control group of 30 normal-hearing subjects was formed to compare thresholds and percentages obtained from the GIN test. The responses were obtained considering two measures of analysis: the threshold gap and the percentage of correct gap. Results The threshold was lower in the GIN for the typical group than for the other groups. There was no difference between groups with dyslexia and with reading and writing disorders. The GIN results of the typical group revealed a higher percentage of correct answer than in the other groups. No difference was obtained between the groups with dyslexia and with reading and writing disorders. Conclusion The GIN test identified a difficulty in auditory ability of temporal resolution in individuals with reading and writing disorders and in individuals with dyslexia in a similar way.

  14. Design of a fusion reaction-history measurement system with high temporal resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xiaoshi; Wang Feng; Liu Shenye; Jiang Xiaohua; Tang Qi

    2010-01-01

    In order to accurately measure the history of fusion reaction for experimental study of inertial confinement fusion, we advance the design of a fusion reaction-history measurement system with high temporal resolution. The diagnostic system is composed of plastic scintillator and nose cone, an optical imaging system and the system of optic streak camera. Analyzing the capability of the system indicated that the instrument measured fusion reaction history at temporal resolution as low as 55ps and 40ps correspond to 2.45MeV DD neutrons and 14.03MeV DT neutrons. The instrument is able to measure the fusion reaction history at yields 1.5 x 10 9 DD neutrons, about 4 x 10 8 DT neutrons are required for a similar quality signal. (authors)

  15. Development of temperature profile sensor at high temporal and spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takiguchi, Hiroki; Furuya, Masahiro; Arai, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    In order to quantify thermo-physical flow field for the industrial applications such as nuclear and chemical reactors, high temporal and spatial measurements for temperature, pressure, phase velocity, viscosity and so on are required to validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and subchannel analyses. The paper proposes a novel temperature profile sensor, which can acquire temperature distribution in water at high temporal (a millisecond) and spatial (millimeter) resolutions. The devised sensor acquires electric conductance between transmitter and receiver wires, which is a function of temperature. The sensor comprise wire mesh structure for multipoint and simultaneous temperature measurement in water, which indicated that three-dimensional temperature distribution can be detected in flexible resolutions. For the demonstration of the principle, temperature profile in water was estimated according to pre-determined temperature calibration line against time-averaged impedance. The 16×16 grid sensor visualized fast and multi-dimensional mixing process of a hot water jet into a cold water pool. (author)

  16. Effect of temporal resolution on the accuracy of ADCP measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Castro, J. A.; Oberg, K.; Duncker, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    The application of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP's) in river flow measurements is promoting a great deal of progress in hydrometry. ADCP's not only require shorter times to collect data than traditional current meters, but also allow streamflow measurements at sites where the use of conventional meters is either very expensive, unsafe, or simply not possible. Moreover, ADCP's seem to offer a means for collecting flow data with spatial and temporal resolutions that cannot be achieved with traditional current-meters. High-resolution data is essential to characterize the mean flow and turbulence structure of streams, which can in turn lead to a better understanding of the hydrodynamic and transport processes in rivers. However, to properly characterize the mean flow and turbulence intensities of stationary flows in natural turbulent boundary layers, velocities need to be sampled over a long-enough time span. The question then arises, how long should velocities be sampled in the flow field to achieve an adequate temporal resolution? Theoretically, since velocities cannot be sampled over an infinitely long time interval, the error due to finite integration time must be considered. This error can be estimated using the integral time scale. The integral time scale is not only a measure of the time interval over which a fluctuating function is correlated with itself but also a measure of the time span over which the function is dependent on itself. This time scale, however, is not a constant but varies spatially in the flow field. In this paper we present an analysis of the effect of the temporal resolution (sampling time span) on the accuracy of ADCP measurements based on the integral time scale. Single ping velocity profiles collected with frequencies of 1 Hz in the Chicago River at Columbus Drive using an uplooking 600 kHz ADCP are used in this analysis. The integral time scale at different depths is estimated based on the autocorrelation function of the

  17. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite Fluxes and Clouds (FSW) in HDF (CER_FSW_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Beta1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded Radiative Fluxes and Clouds (FSW) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The FSW is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous fluxes from the CERES CRS product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the Universal Time (UT) hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the FSW along with other flux statistics and scene information. The mean adjusted fluxes at the four atmospheric levels defined by CRS are also included for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. In addition, four cloud height categories are defined by dividing the atmosphere into four intervals with boundaries at the surface, 700-, 500-, 300-hPa, and the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA). The cloud layers from CRS are put into one of the cloud height categories and averaged over the region. The cloud properties are also column averaged and included on the FSW. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  18. Low-Cost Ultra-High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Mapping of Intertidal Rock Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, M.; Johnson-Roberson, M.; Murphy, R.

    2012-07-01

    Intertidal ecosystems have primarily been studied using field-based sampling; remote sensing offers the ability to collect data over large areas in a snapshot of time which could compliment field-based sampling methods by extrapolating them into the wider spatial and temporal context. Conventional remote sensing tools (such as satellite and aircraft imaging) provide data at relatively course, sub-meter resolutions or with limited temporal resolutions and relatively high costs for small-scale environmental science and ecology studies. In this paper, we describe a low-cost, kite-based imaging system and photogrammetric pipeline that was developed for constructing highresolution, 3D, photo-realistic terrain models of intertidal rocky shores. The processing pipeline uses automatic image feature detection and matching, structure-from-motion and photo-textured terrain surface reconstruction algorithms that require minimal human input and only a small number of ground control points and allow the use of cheap, consumer-grade digital cameras. The resulting maps combine colour and topographic information at sub-centimeter resolutions over an area of approximately 100m, thus enabling spatial properties of the intertidal environment to be determined across a hierarchy of spatial scales. Results of the system are presented for an intertidal rock platform at Cape Banks, Sydney, Australia. Potential uses of this technique include mapping of plant (micro- and macro-algae) and animal (e.g. gastropods) assemblages at multiple spatial and temporal scales.

  19. Single-shot 35 fs temporal resolution electron shadowgraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoby, C. M.; Li, R. K.; Threlkeld, E.; To, H.; Musumeci, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2013-01-14

    We obtain single-shot time-resolved shadowgraph images of the electromagnetic fields resulting from the interaction of a high intensity ultrashort laser pulse with a metal surface. Using a high brightness relativistic electron beam and a high streaking speed radiofrequency deflector, we report <35 fs temporal resolution enabling a direct visualization of the retarded-time dominated field evolution which follows the laser-induced charge emission. A model including the finite signal propagation speed well reproduces the data and yields measurements of fundamental parameters in short pulse laser-matter interaction such as the amount of emitted charge and the emission time scale.

  20. Single-shot 35 fs temporal resolution electron shadowgraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoby, C. M.; Li, R. K.; Threlkeld, E.; To, H.; Musumeci, P.

    2013-01-01

    We obtain single-shot time-resolved shadowgraph images of the electromagnetic fields resulting from the interaction of a high intensity ultrashort laser pulse with a metal surface. Using a high brightness relativistic electron beam and a high streaking speed radiofrequency deflector, we report <35 fs temporal resolution enabling a direct visualization of the retarded-time dominated field evolution which follows the laser-induced charge emission. A model including the finite signal propagation speed well reproduces the data and yields measurements of fundamental parameters in short pulse laser-matter interaction such as the amount of emitted charge and the emission time scale.

  1. Parameters affecting temporal resolution of Time Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron Detector (TRION)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mor, I; Vartsky, D; Bar, D; Feldman, G; Goldberg, M B; Brandis, M; Dangendorf, V; Tittelmeier, K; Bromberger, B; Weierganz, M

    2013-01-01

    The Time-Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron (TRION) detector was developed for Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR), a fast-neutron transmission imaging method that exploits characteristic energy-variations of the total scattering cross-section in the E n = 1–10 MeV range to detect specific elements within a radiographed object. As opposed to classical event-counting time of flight (ECTOF), it integrates the detector signal during a well-defined neutron Time of Flight window corresponding to a pre-selected energy bin, e.g., the energy-interval spanning a cross-section resonance of an element such as C, O and N. The integrative characteristic of the detector permits loss-free operation at very intense, pulsed neutron fluxes, at a cost however, of recorded temporal resolution degradation This work presents a theoretical and experimental evaluation of detector related parameters which affect temporal resolution of the TRION system

  2. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Beta4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  3. Analysing the Advantages of High Temporal Resolution Geostationary MSG SEVIRI Data Compared to Polar Operational Environmental Satellite Data for Land Surface Monitoring in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensholt, R.; Anyamba, A.; Huber, S.; Proud, S. R.; Tucker, C. J.; Small, J.; Pak, E.; Rasmussen, M. O.; Sandholt, I.; Shisanya, C.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1972, satellite remote sensing of the environment has been dominated by polar-orbiting sensors providing useful data for monitoring the earth s natural resources. However their observation and monitoring capacity are inhibited by daily to monthly looks for any given ground surface which often is obscured by frequent and persistent cloud cover creating large gaps in time series measurements. The launch of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite into geostationary orbit has opened new opportunities for land surface monitoring. The Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) instrument on-board MSG with an imaging capability every 15 minutes which is substantially greater than any temporal resolution that can be obtained from existing polar operational environmental satellites (POES) systems currently in use for environmental monitoring. Different areas of the African continent were affected by droughts and floods in 2008 caused by periods of abnormally low and high rainfall, respectively. Based on the effectiveness of monitoring these events from Earth Observation (EO) data the current analyses show that the new generation of geostationary remote sensing data can provide higher temporal resolution cloud-free (less than 5 days) measurements of the environment as compared to existing POES systems. SEVIRI MSG 5-day continental scale composites will enable rapid assessment of environmental conditions and improved early warning of disasters for the African continent such as flooding or droughts. The high temporal resolution geostationary data will complement existing higher spatial resolution polar-orbiting satellite data for various dynamic environmental and natural resource applications of terrestrial ecosystems.

  4. Global-Scale Associations of Vegetation Phenology with Rainfall and Temperature at a High Spatio-Temporal Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Clinton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenology response to climatic variables is a vital indicator for understanding changes in biosphere processes as related to possible climate change. We investigated global phenology relationships to precipitation and land surface temperature (LST at high spatial and temporal resolution for calendar years 2008–2011. We used cross-correlation between MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, MODIS LST and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN gridded rainfall to map phenology relationships at 1-km spatial resolution and weekly temporal resolution. We show these data to be rich in spatiotemporal information, illustrating distinct phenology patterns as a result of complex overlapping gradients of climate, ecosystem and land use/land cover. The data are consistent with broad-scale, coarse-resolution modeled ecosystem limitations to moisture, temperature and irradiance. We suggest that high-resolution phenology data are useful as both an input and complement to land use/land cover classifiers and for understanding climate change vulnerability in natural and anthropogenic landscapes.

  5. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite Fluxes and Clouds (FSW) in HDF (CER_FSW_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded Radiative Fluxes and Clouds (FSW) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The FSW is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous fluxes from the CERES CRS product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the Universal Time (UT) hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the FSW along with other flux statistics and scene information. The mean adjusted fluxes at the four atmospheric levels defined by CRS are also included for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. In addition, four cloud height categories are defined by dividing the atmosphere into four intervals with boundaries at the surface, 700-, 500-, 300-hPa, and the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA). The cloud layers from CRS are put into one of the cloud height categories and averaged over the region. The cloud properties are also column averaged and included on the FSW. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  6. CERES) Monthly Gridded Single Satellite Fluxes and Clouds (FSW) in HDF (CER_FSW_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded Radiative Fluxes and Clouds (FSW) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The FSW is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous fluxes from the CERES CRS product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the Universal Time (UT) hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the FSW along with other flux statistics and scene information. The mean adjusted fluxes at the four atmospheric levels defined by CRS are also included for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. In addition, four cloud height categories are defined by dividing the atmosphere into four intervals with boundaries at the surface, 700-, 500-, 300-hPa, and the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA). The cloud layers from CRS are put into one of the cloud height categories and averaged over the region. The cloud properties are also column averaged and included on the FSW. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2001-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  7. Evaluation of High-Temporal-Resolution Bedload Sensors for Tracking Channel Bed Movement and Transport Thresholds in Forested Mountain Headwater Catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S.; Conklin, M. H.; Bales, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    High temporal resolution data is required to take channel bed movement data beyond time integrated changes between measurements where many of the subtleties of bedload movement patterns are often missed. This study used continuous bedload scour sensors (flexible, fluid-filled pans connected to a pressure transducer) to collect high temporal resolution, long term bedload movement data for 4 high elevation (1500-1800 m) Sierra Nevada headwater streams draining 1 km2 catchments and to investigate the physical channel characteristics under which they perform best. Data collected by the scour sensors were used to investigate the disturbance and recovery patterns of these streams, to relate the observed patterns to channel bed stability, and to evaluate whether the channel bed is acting as a sediment source, sink, or storage across various temporal scales. Finally, attempts are made to identify discharge thresholds for bed movement from scour sensor and discharge data and to compare these threshold values to observed changes in the channel bed. Bedload scour data, turbidity data, and stream discharge data were collected at 15 minute intervals for (WY 2011 to WY 2014), including both above average (2011) and below average (2012, 2013, 2014) water years. Bedload scour sensors were found to have a relatively high (60%) failure rate in these systems. In addition, they required in situ calibrations as the factory and laboratory calibrations did not translate well to the field deployments. Data from the working sensors, showed patterns of abrupt channel bed disturbance (scour and/or fill) on an hour to day temporal scale followed by gradual recovery on a day to month scale back to a stable equilibrium bed surface elevation. These observed patterns suggest the bed acts as a short term source or sink for sediment, but is roughly sediment neutral over longer time periods implying the changes in bed elevation are reflective of fluctuations in storage rather than a true source or

  8. Detecting violations of temporal regularities in waking and sleeping two-month-old infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte, R.A.; Winkler, I.; Braeken, M.A.K.A.; Stekelenburg, J.J.; van der Stelt, O.; Van den Bergh, B.R.H.

    2013-01-01

    Correctly processing rapid sequences of sounds is essential for developmental milestones, such as language acquisition. We investigated the sensitivity of two-month-old infants to violations of a temporal regularity, by recording event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in an auditory oddball paradigm

  9. Development and applications of coherent imaging with improved temporal and spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokso, Rajmund

    2006-01-01

    This work has 2 purposes: the improvement of both temporal and spatial resolution of X-ray tomography. The first part is devoted to the technical aspects of the tomographic technique, particularly at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) beamline ID19, and the application of the new acquisition scheme to the imaging of liquid foams. We have improved the temporal resolution and field of view of the setup, which allowed to obtain for the first time experimental data with good statistics on three dimensional liquid foams. In the second part of the thesis we have described the Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing system and its first applications. In terms of stability and image quality the developments presented in this part of the thesis provide valuable evidence for the feasibility of phase contrast tomography in magnifying geometry. Since the ultimate goal of this research is to improve the spatial resolution in tomography for applications, four different contributions are important for the characterization of the imaging system: 1) the thermal stability and mechanical imperfections, 2) effects of distortion induced by mirror imperfections, 3) effects of refraction on sample borders, and 4) phase propagation effects with the influence of the magnification. Each of these factors has been studied

  10. Spatial interpolation of climate variables in Northern Germany—Influence of temporal resolution and network density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Berndt

    2018-02-01

    New hydrological insights: Geostatistical techniques provide a better performance for all climate variables compared to simple methods Radar data improves the estimation of rainfall with hourly temporal resolution, while topography is useful for weekly to yearly values and temperature in general. No helpful information was found for cloudiness, sunshine duration, and wind speed, while interpolation of humidity benefitted from additional temperature data. The influences of temporal resolution, spatial variability, and additional information appear to be stronger than station density effects. High spatial variability of hourly precipitation causes the highest error, followed by wind speed, cloud coverage and sunshine duration. Lowest errors occur for temperature and humidity.

  11. Improvement of the temporal resolution of cardiac CT reconstruction algorithms using an optimized filtering step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, S.; Desbat, L.; Koenig, A.; Grangeat, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study a property of the filtering step of multi-cycle reconstruction algorithm used in the field of cardiac CT. We show that the common filtering step procedure is not optimal in the case of divergent geometry and decrease slightly the temporal resolution. We propose to use the filtering procedure related to the work of Noo at al ( F.Noo, M. Defrise, R. Clakdoyle, and H. Kudo. Image reconstruction from fan-beam projections on less than a short-scan. Phys. Med.Biol., 47:2525-2546, July 2002)and show that this alternative allows to reach the optimal temporal resolution with the same computational effort. (N.C.)

  12. Coronary artery visibility in free-breathing young children on non-gated chest CT: impact of temporal resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridoux, Alexandre; Hutt, Antoine; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Pagniez, Julien; Remy, Jacques; Remy-Jardin, Martine [CHRU et Universite de Lille, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette (EA 2694), 59037 Lille Cedex (France); Flohr, Thomas [Siemens Healthcare, Department of Research and Development in CT, Forchheim (Germany); Duhamel, Alain [Universite de Lille, Department of Biostatistics, Lille (France)

    2015-11-15

    Dual-source CT allows scanning of the chest with high pitch and high temporal resolution, which can improve the detection of proximal coronary arteries in infants and young children when scanned without general anesthesia, sedation or beta-blockade. To compare coronary artery visibility between higher and standard temporal resolution. We analyzed CT images in 93 children who underwent a standard chest CT angiographic examination with reconstruction of images with a temporal resolution of 75 ms (group 1) and 140 ms (group 2). The percentage of detected coronary segments was higher in group 1 than in group 2 when considering all segments (group 1: 27%; group 2: 24%; P = 0.0004) and proximal segments (group 1: 37%; group 2: 32%; P = 0.0006). In both groups, the highest rates of detection were observed for the left main coronary artery (S1) (group 1: 65%; group 2: 58%) and proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (S2) (group 1: 43%; group 2: 42%). Higher rates of detection were seen in group 1 for the left main coronary artery (P = 0.03), proximal right coronary artery (P = 0.01), proximal segments of the left coronary artery (P = 0.02) and proximal segments of the left and right coronary arteries (P = 0.0006). Higher temporal resolution improved the visibility of proximal coronary arteries in pediatric chest CT. (orig.)

  13. Echo planar perfusion imaging with high spatial and temporal resolution: methodology and clinical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitzer, M.; Klose, U.; Naegele, T.; Friese, S.; Kuntz, R.; Voigt, K.; Fetter, M.; Opitz, H.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse specific advantages of calculated parameter images and their limitations using an optimized echo-planar imaging (EPI) technique with high spatial and temporal resolution. Dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) was performed in 12 patients with cerebrovascular disease and in 13 patients with brain tumours. For MR imaging of cerebral perfusion an EPI sequence was developed which provides a temporal resolution of 0.68 s for three slices with a 128 x 128 image matrix. To evaluate DSC-MRI, the following parameter images were calculated pixelwise: (1) Maximum signal reduction (MSR); (2) maximum signal difference (ΔSR); (3) time-to-peak (T p ); and (4) integral of signal-intensity-time curve until T p (S Int ). The MSR maps were superior in the detection of acute infarctions and ΔSR maps in the delineation of vasogenic brain oedema. The time-to-peak (T p ) maps seemed to be highly sensitive in the detection of poststenotic malperfused brain areas (sensitivity 90 %). Hyperperfused areas of brain tumours were detectable down to a diameter of 1 cm with high sensitivity (> 90 %). Distinct clinical and neuroradiological conditions revealed different suitabilities for the parameter images. The time-to-peak (T p ) maps may be an important advantage in the detection of poststenotic ''areas at risk'', due to an improved temporal resolution using an EPI technique. With regard to spatial resolution, a matrix size of 128 x 128 is sufficient for all clinical conditions. According to our results, a further increase in matrix size would not improve the spatial resolution in DSC-MRI, since the degree of the vascularization of lesions and the susceptibility effect itself seem to be the limiting factors. (orig.)

  14. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2003-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  15. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2003-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  16. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Edition2A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  17. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  18. An investigation into the effects of temporal resolution on hepatic dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in volunteers and in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, Andrew B; Graves, Martin J; Lomas, David J; Black, Richard T; Bowden, David J; Priest, Andrew N

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of temporal resolution on the dual-input pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data from normal volunteer livers and from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Eleven volunteers and five patients were examined at 3 T. Two sections, one optimized for the vascular input functions (VIF) and one for the tissue, were imaged within a single heart-beat (HB) using a saturation-recovery fast gradient echo sequence. The data was analysed using a dual-input single-compartment PK model. The VIFs and/or uptake curves were then temporally sub-sampled (at interval ▵t = [2–20] s) before being subject to the same PK analysis. Statistical comparisons of tumour and normal tissue PK parameter values using a 5% significance level gave rise to the same study results when temporally sub-sampling the VIFs to HB < ▵t <4 s. However, sub-sampling to ▵t > 4 s did adversely affect the statistical comparisons. Temporal sub-sampling of just the liver/tumour tissue uptake curves at ▵t ≤ 20 s, whilst using high temporal resolution VIFs, did not substantially affect PK parameter statistical comparisons. In conclusion, there is no practical advantage to be gained from acquiring very high temporal resolution hepatic DCE-MRI data. Instead the high temporal resolution could be usefully traded for increased spatial resolution or SNR. (paper)

  19. High-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone. Part 1.: normal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzegorzewski, M.; Boron, Z.; Burzynska-Makuch, M.

    1995-01-01

    Normal anatomy of the temporal bone in transverse and coronal sections was presented. CT studies were performed using high-resolution program. The images of an asymptomatic ear of 2 patients were selected from 68 cases examined on account of various otological diseases. All the sections showed as many as 68 anatomic structures. (author)

  20. TerraClimate, a high-resolution global dataset of monthly climate and climatic water balance from 1958–2015

    OpenAIRE

    Abatzoglou, John T.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Parks, Sean A.; Hegewisch, Katherine C.

    2018-01-01

    We present TerraClimate, a dataset of high-spatial resolution (1/24°, ~4-km) monthly climate and climatic water balance for global terrestrial surfaces from 1958–2015. TerraClimate uses climatically aided interpolation, combining high-spatial resolution climatological normals from the WorldClim dataset, with coarser resolution time varying (i.e., monthly) data from other sources to produce a monthly dataset of precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature, wind speed, vapor pressure, and sol...

  1. Monthly Rainfall Erosivity Assessment for Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simon; Meusburger, Katrin; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Water erosion is crucially controlled by rainfall erosivity, which is quantified out of the kinetic energy of raindrop impact and associated surface runoff. Rainfall erosivity is often expressed as the R-factor in soil erosion risk models like the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE). Just like precipitation, the rainfall erosivity of Switzerland has a characteristic seasonal dynamic throughout the year. This inter-annual variability is to be assessed by a monthly and seasonal modelling approach. We used a network of 86 precipitation gauging stations with a 10-minute temporal resolution to calculate long-term average monthly R-factors. Stepwise regression and Monte Carlo Cross Validation (MCCV) was used to select spatial covariates to explain the spatial pattern of R-factor for each month across Switzerland. The regionalized monthly R-factor is mapped by its individual regression equation and the ordinary kriging interpolation of its residuals (Regression-Kriging). As covariates, a variety of precipitation indicator data has been included like snow height, a combination of hourly gauging measurements and radar observations (CombiPrecip), mean monthly alpine precipitation (EURO4M-APGD) and monthly precipitation sums (Rhires). Topographic parameters were also significant explanatory variables for single months. The comparison of all 12 monthly rainfall erosivity maps showed seasonality with highest rainfall erosivity in summer (June, July, and August) and lowest rainfall erosivity in winter months. Besides the inter-annual temporal regime, a seasonal spatial variability was detectable. Spatial maps of monthly rainfall erosivity are presented for the first time for Switzerland. The assessment of the spatial and temporal dynamic behaviour of the R-factor is valuable for the identification of more susceptible seasons and regions as well as for the application of selective erosion control measures. A combination with monthly vegetation

  2. Magnetic Particle Imaging for High Temporal Resolution Assessment of Aneurysm Hemodynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sedlacik

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to demonstrate the capability of magnetic particle imaging (MPI to assess the hemodynamics in a realistic 3D aneurysm model obtained by additive manufacturing. MPI was compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and dynamic digital subtraction angiography (DSA.The aneurysm model was of saccular morphology (7 mm dome height, 5 mm cross-section, 3-4 mm neck, 3.5 mm parent artery diameter and connected to a peristaltic pump delivering a physiological flow (250 mL/min and pulsation rate (70/min. High-resolution (4 h long 4D phase contrast flow quantification (4D pc-fq MRI was used to directly assess the hemodynamics of the model. Dynamic MPI, MRI, and DSA were performed with contrast agent injections (3 mL volume in 3 s through a proximally placed catheter.4D pc-fq measurements showed distinct pulsatile flow velocities (20-80 cm/s as well as lower flow velocities and a vortex inside the aneurysm. All three dynamic methods (MPI, MRI, and DSA also showed a clear pulsation pattern as well as delayed contrast agent dynamics within the aneurysm, which is most likely caused by the vortex within the aneurysm. Due to the high temporal resolution of MPI and DSA, it was possible to track the contrast agent bolus through the model and to estimate the average flow velocity (about 60 cm/s, which is in accordance with the 4D pc-fq measurements.The ionizing radiation free, 4D high resolution MPI method is a very promising tool for imaging and characterization of hemodynamics in human. It carries the possibility of overcoming certain disadvantages of other modalities like considerably lower temporal resolution of dynamic MRI and limited 2D characteristics of DSA. Furthermore, additive manufacturing is the key for translating powerful pre-clinical techniques into the clinic.

  3. Global high-resolution monthly pCO2 climatology for the coastal ocean derived from neural network interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Laruelle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the recent strong increase in the number of measurements of the partial pressure of CO2 in the surface ocean (pCO2, the air–sea CO2 balance of the continental shelf seas remains poorly quantified. This is a consequence of these regions remaining strongly under-sampled in both time and space and of surface pCO2 exhibiting much higher temporal and spatial variability in these regions compared to the open ocean. Here, we use a modified version of a two-step artificial neural network method (SOM-FFN; Landschützer et al., 2013 to interpolate the pCO2 data along the continental margins with a spatial resolution of 0.25° and with monthly resolution from 1998 to 2015. The most important modifications compared to the original SOM-FFN method are (i the much higher spatial resolution and (ii the inclusion of sea ice and wind speed as predictors of pCO2. The SOM-FFN is first trained with pCO2 measurements extracted from the SOCATv4 database. Then, the validity of our interpolation, in both space and time, is assessed by comparing the generated pCO2 field with independent data extracted from the LDVEO2015 database. The new coastal pCO2 product confirms a previously suggested general meridional trend of the annual mean pCO2 in all the continental shelves with high values in the tropics and dropping to values beneath those of the atmosphere at higher latitudes. The monthly resolution of our data product permits us to reveal significant differences in the seasonality of pCO2 across the ocean basins. The shelves of the western and northern Pacific, as well as the shelves in the temperate northern Atlantic, display particularly pronounced seasonal variations in pCO2,  while the shelves in the southeastern Atlantic and in the southern Pacific reveal a much smaller seasonality. The calculation of temperature normalized pCO2 for several latitudes in different oceanic basins confirms that the seasonality in shelf pCO2 cannot solely be explained by

  4. TerraClimate, a high-resolution global dataset of monthly climate and climatic water balance from 1958-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abatzoglou, John T.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Parks, Sean A.; Hegewisch, Katherine C.

    2018-01-01

    We present TerraClimate, a dataset of high-spatial resolution (1/24°, ~4-km) monthly climate and climatic water balance for global terrestrial surfaces from 1958-2015. TerraClimate uses climatically aided interpolation, combining high-spatial resolution climatological normals from the WorldClim dataset, with coarser resolution time varying (i.e., monthly) data from other sources to produce a monthly dataset of precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature, wind speed, vapor pressure, and solar radiation. TerraClimate additionally produces monthly surface water balance datasets using a water balance model that incorporates reference evapotranspiration, precipitation, temperature, and interpolated plant extractable soil water capacity. These data provide important inputs for ecological and hydrological studies at global scales that require high spatial resolution and time varying climate and climatic water balance data. We validated spatiotemporal aspects of TerraClimate using annual temperature, precipitation, and calculated reference evapotranspiration from station data, as well as annual runoff from streamflow gauges. TerraClimate datasets showed noted improvement in overall mean absolute error and increased spatial realism relative to coarser resolution gridded datasets.

  5. Geo-Parcel Based Crop Identification by Integrating High Spatial-Temporal Resolution Imagery from Multi-Source Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingpin Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Geo-parcel based crop identification plays an important role in precision agriculture. It meets the needs of refined farmland management. This study presents an improved identification procedure for geo-parcel based crop identification by combining fine-resolution images and multi-source medium-resolution images. GF-2 images with fine spatial resolution of 0.8 m provided agricultural farming plot boundaries, and GF-1 (16 m and Landsat 8 OLI data were used to transform the geo-parcel based enhanced vegetation index (EVI time-series. In this study, we propose a piecewise EVI time-series smoothing method to fit irregular time profiles, especially for crop rotation situations. Global EVI time-series were divided into several temporal segments, from which phenological metrics could be derived. This method was applied to Lixian, where crop rotation was the common practice of growing different types of crops, in the same plot, in sequenced seasons. After collection of phenological features and multi-temporal spectral information, Random Forest (RF was performed to classify crop types, and the overall accuracy was 93.27%. Moreover, an analysis of feature significance showed that phenological features were of greater importance for distinguishing agricultural land cover compared to temporal spectral information. The identification results indicated that the integration of high spatial-temporal resolution imagery is promising for geo-parcel based crop identification and that the newly proposed smoothing method is effective.

  6. Deriving temporally continuous soil moisture estimations at fine resolution by downscaling remotely sensed product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Ge, Yong; Wang, Jianghao; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.

    2018-06-01

    Land surface soil moisture (SSM) has important roles in the energy balance of the land surface and in the water cycle. Downscaling of coarse-resolution SSM remote sensing products is an efficient way for producing fine-resolution data. However, the downscaling methods used most widely require full-coverage visible/infrared satellite data as ancillary information. These methods are restricted to cloud-free days, making them unsuitable for continuous monitoring. The purpose of this study is to overcome this limitation to obtain temporally continuous fine-resolution SSM estimations. The local spatial heterogeneities of SSM and multiscale ancillary variables were considered in the downscaling process both to solve the problem of the strong variability of SSM and to benefit from the fusion of ancillary information. The generation of continuous downscaled remote sensing data was achieved via two principal steps. For cloud-free days, a stepwise hybrid geostatistical downscaling approach, based on geographically weighted area-to-area regression kriging (GWATARK), was employed by combining multiscale ancillary variables with passive microwave remote sensing data. Then, the GWATARK-estimated SSM and China Soil Moisture Dataset from Microwave Data Assimilation SSM data were combined to estimate fine-resolution data for cloudy days. The developed methodology was validated by application to the 25-km resolution daily AMSR-E SSM product to produce continuous SSM estimations at 1-km resolution over the Tibetan Plateau. In comparison with ground-based observations, the downscaled estimations showed correlation (R ≥ 0.7) for both ascending and descending overpasses. The analysis indicated the high potential of the proposed approach for producing a temporally continuous SSM product at fine spatial resolution.

  7. Dynamic perfusion CT: Optimizing the temporal resolution for the calculation of perfusion CT parameters in stroke patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaemena, Andreas [Department of Radiology, Charite-Medical University Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: andreas.kaemena@charite.de; Streitparth, Florian; Grieser, Christian; Lehmkuhl, Lukas [Department of Radiology, Charite-Medical University Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin (Germany); Jamil, Basil [Department of Radiotherapy, Charite-Medical University Berlin, Schumannstr. 20/21, D-10117 Berlin (Germany); Wojtal, Katarzyna; Ricke, Jens; Pech, Maciej [Department of Radiology, Charite-Medical University Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Purpose: To assess the influence of different temporal sampling rates on the accuracy of the results from cerebral perfusion CTs in patients with an acute ischemic stroke. Material and methods: Thirty consecutive patients with acute stroke symptoms received a dynamic perfusion CT (LightSpeed 16, GE). Forty millilitres of iomeprol (Imeron 400) were administered at an injection rate of 4 ml/s. After a scan delay of 7 s, two adjacent 10 mm slices at 80 kV and 190 mA were acquired in a cine mode technique with a cine duration of 49 s. Parametric maps for the blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and mean transit time (MTT) were calculated for temporal sampling intervals of 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 s using GE's Perfusion 3 software package. In addition to the quantitative ROI data analysis, a visual perfusion map analysis was performed. Results: The perfusion analysis proved to be technically feasible with all patients. The calculated perfusion values revealed significant differences with regard to the BF, BV and MTT, depending on the employed temporal resolution. The perfusion contrast between ischemic lesions and healthy brain tissue decreased continuously at the lower temporal resolutions. The visual analysis revealed that ischemic lesions were best depicted with sampling intervals of 0.5 and 1 s. Conclusion: We recommend a temporal scan resolution of two images per second for the best detection and depiction of ischemic areas.

  8. Changes in precipitation isotope-climate relationships from temporal grouping and aggregation of weekly-resolved USNIP data: impacts on paleoclimate and environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, P. D.; Welker, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial variations in precipitation isotopes have been the focus of much recent research, but relatively less work has explored changes at various temporal scales. This is partly because most spatially-diverse and long-term isotope databases are offered at a monthly resolution, while daily or event-level records are spatially and temporally limited by cost and logistics. A subset of 25 United States Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (USNIP) sites with weekly-resolution in the east-central United States was analyzed for site-specific relationships between δ18O and δD (the local meteoric water line/LMWL), δ18O and surface temperature, and δ18O and precipitation amount. Weekly data were then aggregated into monthly and seasonal data to examine the effect of aggregation on correlation and slope values for each of the relationships. Generally, increasing aggregation improved correlations (>25% for some sites) due to a reduced effect of extreme values, but estimates on regression variable error increased (>100%) because of reduced sample sizes. Aggregation resulted in small, but significant drops (5-25%) in relationship slope values for some sites. Weekly data were also grouped by month and season to explore changes in relationships throughout the year. Significant subannual variability exists in slope values and correlations even for sites with very strong overall correlations. LMWL slopes are highest in winter and lowest in summer, while the δ18O-surface temperature relationship is strongest in spring. Despite these overall trends, a high level of month-to-month and season-to-season variability is the norm for these sites. Researchers blindly applying overall relationships drawn from monthly-resolved databases to paleoclimate or environmental research risk assuming these relationships apply at all temporal resolutions. When possible, researchers should match the temporal resolution used to calculate an isotopic relationship with the temporal resolution of

  9. Tactile feedback display with spatial and temporal resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishniakou, Siarhei; Lewis, Brian W; Niu, Xiaofan; Kargar, Alireza; Sun, Ke; Kalajian, Michael; Park, Namseok; Yang, Muchuan; Jing, Yi; Brochu, Paul; Sun, Zhelin; Li, Chun; Nguyen, Truong; Pei, Qibing; Wang, Deli

    2013-01-01

    We report the electronic recording of the touch contact and pressure using an active matrix pressure sensor array made of transparent zinc oxide thin-film transistors and tactile feedback display using an array of diaphragm actuators made of an interpenetrating polymer elastomer network. Digital replay, editing and manipulation of the recorded touch events were demonstrated with both spatial and temporal resolutions. Analog reproduction of the force is also shown possible using the polymer actuators, despite of the high driving voltage. The ability to record, store, edit, and replay touch information adds an additional dimension to digital technologies and extends the capabilities of modern information exchange with the potential to revolutionize physical learning, social networking, e-commerce, robotics, gaming, medical and military applications.

  10. Tactile Feedback Display with Spatial and Temporal Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishniakou, Siarhei; Lewis, Brian W.; Niu, Xiaofan; Kargar, Alireza; Sun, Ke; Kalajian, Michael; Park, Namseok; Yang, Muchuan; Jing, Yi; Brochu, Paul; Sun, Zhelin; Li, Chun; Nguyen, Truong; Pei, Qibing; Wang, Deli

    2013-08-01

    We report the electronic recording of the touch contact and pressure using an active matrix pressure sensor array made of transparent zinc oxide thin-film transistors and tactile feedback display using an array of diaphragm actuators made of an interpenetrating polymer elastomer network. Digital replay, editing and manipulation of the recorded touch events were demonstrated with both spatial and temporal resolutions. Analog reproduction of the force is also shown possible using the polymer actuators, despite of the high driving voltage. The ability to record, store, edit, and replay touch information adds an additional dimension to digital technologies and extends the capabilities of modern information exchange with the potential to revolutionize physical learning, social networking, e-commerce, robotics, gaming, medical and military applications.

  11. Modelling the effects of spatial and temporal resolution of rainfall and basin model on extreme river discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, Martijn J.

    2002-01-01

    Important characteristics of an appropriate river basin model, intended to study the effect of climate change on basin response, are the spatial and temporal resolution of the model and the rainfall input. The effects of input and model resolution on extreme discharge of a large river basin are

  12. Spatio-temporal interpolation of daily temperatures for global land areas at 1 km resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilibarda, M.; Hengl, T.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Graler, B.; Pebesma, E.; Tadic, M.P.; Bajat, B.

    2014-01-01

    Combined Global Surface Summary of Day and European Climate Assessment and Dataset daily meteorological data sets (around 9000 stations) were used to build spatio-temporal geostatistical models and predict daily air temperature at ground resolution of 1km for the global land mass. Predictions in

  13. Spatio-temporal trends in monthly pan evaporation in Aguascalientes, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Alvarez, Osias; Singh, Vijay P.; Medina, Juan Enciso; Munster, Clyde; Kaiser, Ronald; Ontiveros-Capurata, Ronald Ernesto; Diaz-Garcia, Luis Antonio; dos Santos, Carlos Antonio Costa

    2018-05-01

    Emission of greenhouse gases is being alleged to be causing climate change in different regions of the world. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatio-temporal trends of monthly evaporation at 52 weather stations in the state of Aguascalientes (Mexico) which have hydrometeorological records of long periods. The autocorrelation was eliminated with an auto-regressive model, and the trend was determined using the Spearman (S) and Kendall (K) tests. The statistical significance of the trend was determined with the Spearman correlation coefficient (r s) and the Z statistic (the test statistic of the normal distribution) both indicated that that there were statistically significant trends in 107 time series, of these 88 series had negative trends and 19 series had positive trends. Negative trends were present in all months of the year, while positive trends occurred from February to May and from October to December only. The reduction of evaporation from - 4.10 to - 20.50 mm/month/year from June to September showed a hopeful future scenario for rainfed agriculture. Irrigated agriculture during dry months could have a reduction of irrigation requirements as a consequence of the reduction in reference and crop evapotranspiration. The evaporation increase during dry months could increase irrigation requirements and pumping, mainly in March, April, and November when there are trends with increases of about 26.90, 24.60, and 23.90 mm/month/year, respectively. The spatial variability of evaporation trend means that other effects of climate change could vary in different parts of the state. Results of this study will be useful for farmers and institutions in charge of the administration of water resources for developing adaptation and mitigation strategies to climate change.

  14. Data Descriptor: TerraClimate, a high-resolution global dataset of monthly climate and climatic water balance from 1958-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    John T. Abatzoglou; Solomon Z. Dobrowski; Sean A. Parks; Katherine C. Hegewisch

    2018-01-01

    We present TerraClimate, a dataset of high-spatial resolution (1/24°, ~4-km) monthly climate and climatic water balance for global terrestrial surfaces from 1958–2015. TerraClimate uses climatically aided interpolation, combining high-spatial resolution climatological normals from the WorldClim dataset, with coarser resolution time varying (i.e., monthly) data from...

  15. Snowpack spatial and temporal variability assessment using SMP high-resolution penetrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Anton; Seliverstov, Yuriy; Sokratov, Sergey; Grebennikov, Pavel

    2017-04-01

    This research is focused on study of spatial and temporal variability of structure and characteristics of snowpack, quick identification of layers based on hardness and dispersion values received from snow micro penetrometer (SMP). We also discuss the detection of weak layers and definition of their parameters in non-alpine terrain. As long as it is the first SMP tool available in Russia, our intent is to test it in different climate and weather conditions. During two separate snowpack studies in plain and mountain landscapes, we derived density and grain size profiles by comparing snow density and grain size from snowpits and SMP measurements. The first case study was MSU meteorological observatory test site in Moscow. SMP data was obtained by 6 consecutive measurements along 10 m transects with a horizontal resolution of approximately 50 cm. The detailed description of snowpack structure, density, grain size, air and snow temperature was also performed. By comparing this information, the detailed scheme of snowpack evolution was created. The second case study was in Khibiny mountains. One 10-meter-long transect was made. SMP, density, grain size and snow temperature data was obtained with horizontal resolution of approximately 50 cm. The high-definition profile of snowpack density variation was acquired using received data. The analysis of data reveals high spatial and temporal variability in snow density and layer structure in both horizontal and vertical dimensions. It indicates that the spatial variability is exhibiting similar spatial patterns as surface topology. This suggests a strong influence from such factors as wind and liquid water pressure on the temporal and spatial evolution of snow structure. It was also defined, that spatial variation of snowpack characteristics is substantial even within homogeneous plain landscape, while in high-latitude mountain regions it grows significantly.

  16. Assessing the influence of the temporal resolution of electrical load and PV generation profiles on self-consumption and sizing of PV-battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.; Kondziella, H.; Huard, G.; Bruckner, T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MILP optimization model for operation and investment of PV-battery systems. • Use of high resolution (10 s) electrical household load and PV generation profiles. • Analysis of influence of temporal resolution on self-consumption and optimal sizing. • Electrical load profile characteristics influence required temporal resolution. - Abstract: The interest in self-consumption of electricity generated by rooftop photovoltaic systems has grown in recent years, fueled by decreasing levelized costs of electricity and feed-in tariffs as well as increasing end customer electricity prices in the residential sector. This also fostered research on grid-connected PV-battery storage systems, which are a promising technology to increase self-consumption. In this paper a mixed-integer linear optimization model of a PV-battery system that minimizes the total discounted operating and investment costs is developed. The model is employed to study the effect of the temporal resolution of electrical load and PV generation profiles on the rate of self-consumption and the optimal sizing of PV and PV-battery systems. In contrast to previous studies high resolution (10 s) measured input data for both PV generation and electrical load profiles is used for the analysis. The data was obtained by smart meter measurements in 25 different households in Germany. It is shown that the temporal resolution of load profiles is more critical for the accuracy of the determination of self-consumption rates than the resolution of the PV generation. For PV-systems without additional storage accurate results can be obtained by using 15 min solar irradiation data. The required accuracy for the electrical load profiles depends strongly on the load profile characteristics. While good results can be obtained with 60 s for all electrical load profiles, 15 min data can still be sufficient for load profiles that do not exhibit most of their electricity consumption at power levels above 2 k

  17. Study of the dependence of resolution temporal activity for a Philips gemini TF PET/CT scanner by applying a statistical analysis of time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Merino, G.; Cortes Rpdicio, J.; Lope Lope, R.; Martin Gonzalez, T.; Garcia Fidalgo, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the dependence of temporal resolution with the activity using statistical techniques applied to the series of values time series measurements of temporal resolution during daily equipment checks. (Author)

  18. High-Resolution Hydrological Sub-Seasonal Forecasting for Water Resources Management Over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. F.; Wanders, N.; Pan, M.; Sheffield, J.; Samaniego, L. E.; Thober, S.; Kumar, R.; Prudhomme, C.; Houghton-Carr, H.

    2017-12-01

    For decision-making at the sub-seasonal and seasonal time scale, hydrological forecasts with a high temporal and spatial resolution are required by water managers. So far such forecasts have been unavailable due to 1) lack of availability of meteorological seasonal forecasts, 2) coarse temporal resolution of meteorological seasonal forecasts, requiring temporal downscaling, 3) lack of consistency between observations and seasonal forecasts, requiring bias-correction. The EDgE (End-to-end Demonstrator for improved decision making in the water sector in Europe) project commissioned by the ECMWF (C3S) created a unique dataset of hydrological seasonal forecasts derived from four global climate models (CanCM4, FLOR-B01, ECMF, LFPW) in combination with four global hydrological models (PCR-GLOBWB, VIC, mHM, Noah-MP), resulting in 208 forecasts for any given day. The forecasts provide a daily temporal and 5-km spatial resolution, and are bias corrected against E-OBS meteorological observations. The forecasts are communicated to stakeholders via Sectoral Climate Impact Indicators (SCIIs), created in collaboration with the end-user community of the EDgE project (e.g. the percentage of ensemble realizations above the 10th percentile of monthly river flow, or below the 90th). Results show skillful forecasts for discharge from 3 months to 6 months (latter for N Europe due to snow); for soil moisture up to three months due precipitation forecast skill and short initial condition memory; and for groundwater greater than 6 months (lowest skill in western Europe.) The SCIIs are effective in communicating both forecast skill and uncertainty. Overall the new system provides an unprecedented ensemble for seasonal forecasts with significant skill over Europe to support water management. The consistency in both the GCM forecasts and the LSM parameterization ensures a stable and reliable forecast framework and methodology, even if additional GCMs or LSMs are added in the future.

  19. DIfferential Subsampling with Cartesian Ordering (DISCO): a high spatio-temporal resolution Dixon imaging sequence for multiphasic contrast enhanced abdominal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranathan, Manojkumar; Rettmann, Dan W; Hargreaves, Brian A; Clarke, Sharon E; Vasanawala, Shreyas S

    2012-06-01

    To develop and evaluate a multiphasic contrast-enhanced MRI method called DIfferential Sub-sampling with Cartesian Ordering (DISCO) for abdominal imaging. A three-dimensional, variable density pseudo-random k-space segmentation scheme was developed and combined with a Dixon-based fat-water separation algorithm to generate high temporal resolution images with robust fat suppression and without compromise in spatial resolution or coverage. With institutional review board approval and informed consent, 11 consecutive patients referred for abdominal MRI at 3 Tesla (T) were imaged with both DISCO and a routine clinical three-dimensional SPGR-Dixon (LAVA FLEX) sequence. All images were graded by two radiologists using quality of fat suppression, severity of artifacts, and overall image quality as scoring criteria. For assessment of arterial phase capture efficiency, the number of temporal phases with angiographic phase and hepatic arterial phase was recorded. There were no significant differences in quality of fat suppression, artifact severity or overall image quality between DISCO and LAVA FLEX images (P > 0.05, Wilcoxon signed rank test). The angiographic and arterial phases were captured in all 11 patients scanned using the DISCO acquisition (mean number of phases were two and three, respectively). DISCO effectively captures the fast dynamics of abdominal pathology such as hyperenhancing hepatic lesions with a high spatio-temporal resolution. Typically, 1.1 × 1.5 × 3 mm spatial resolution over 60 slices was achieved with a temporal resolution of 4-5 s. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. 2002 Monthly Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Mexico at a 10x10k Spatial Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Gurney, K. R.; Geethakumar, S.; Zhou, Y.; Sahni, N.

    2009-12-01

    The contribution of fossil fuel CO2 emissions to the total measured amount of CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere remains an important component of carbon cycle science, particularly as efforts to understand the net exchange of carbon at the surface move to smaller scales. In order to reduce the uncertainty of this flux, researchers led by Purdue University have built a high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 flux inventory for the United States, called “Vulcan”. The Vulcan inventory quantifies emissions for the United States at 10km resolution every hour for the year 2002 and can be seen as a key component of a national assessment and verification system for greenhouse gas emissions and emissions mitigation. As part of the North American Carbon Project, the 2002 carbon dioxide emissions from Mexico are presented at the monthly temporal and municipality spatial scale. Mexico is of particular importance because of the scientific integration under the North American Carbon Program. Furthermore, Mexico has seen a notable growth in its population as well as migration toward urban centers and increasing energy requirements due in part to industrial intensification. The native resolution of the emissions is geolocated (lat/lon) for point sources, such as power plants, airports, and large industry. The emissions are estimated at the municipality level for residential and commercial sources, and allocated to roads for the mobile transport sector. Data sources include the National Emissions Inventory (NEI), Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), and Carbon Monitoring for Action (CARMA). CO2 emissions are calculated from the 1999 NEI data by converting CO emissions using sector and process-dependent emission factors, and is scaled up to 2002 using statistics obtained from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center CDIAC. CEC and CARMA data, which encompass power plant emissions, are already in units of CO2. Emissions are regridded to 10x10k and 0.1x0.1 deg grids to

  1. Image Fusion-Based Land Cover Change Detection Using Multi-Temporal High-Resolution Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Change detection is usually treated as a problem of explicitly detecting land cover transitions in satellite images obtained at different times, and helps with emergency response and government management. This study presents an unsupervised change detection method based on the image fusion of multi-temporal images. The main objective of this study is to improve the accuracy of unsupervised change detection from high-resolution multi-temporal images. Our method effectively reduces change detection errors, since spatial displacement and spectral differences between multi-temporal images are evaluated. To this end, a total of four cross-fused images are generated with multi-temporal images, and the iteratively reweighted multivariate alteration detection (IR-MAD method—a measure for the spectral distortion of change information—is applied to the fused images. In this experiment, the land cover change maps were extracted using multi-temporal IKONOS-2, WorldView-3, and GF-1 satellite images. The effectiveness of the proposed method compared with other unsupervised change detection methods is demonstrated through experimentation. The proposed method achieved an overall accuracy of 80.51% and 97.87% for cases 1 and 2, respectively. Moreover, the proposed method performed better when differentiating the water area from the vegetation area compared to the existing change detection methods. Although the water area beneath moderate and sparse vegetation canopy was captured, vegetation cover and paved regions of the water body were the main sources of omission error, and commission errors occurred primarily in pixels of mixed land use and along the water body edge. Nevertheless, the proposed method, in conjunction with high-resolution satellite imagery, offers a robust and flexible approach to land cover change mapping that requires no ancillary data for rapid implementation.

  2. Rainfall Erosivity Database on the European Scale (REDES): A product of a high temporal resolution rainfall data collection in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The erosive force of rainfall is expressed as rainfall erosivity. Rainfall erosivity considers the rainfall amount and intensity, and is most commonly expressed as the R-factor in the (R)USLE model. The R-factor is calculated from a series of single storm events by multiplying the total storm kinetic energy with the measured maximum 30-minutes rainfall intensity. This estimation requests high temporal resolution (e.g. 30 minutes) rainfall data for sufficiently long time periods (i.e. 20 years) which are not readily available at European scale. The European Commission's Joint Research Centre(JRC) in collaboration with national/regional meteorological services and Environmental Institutions made an extensive data collection of high resolution rainfall data in the 28 Member States of the European Union plus Switzerland in order to estimate rainfall erosivity in Europe. This resulted in the Rainfall Erosivity Database on the European Scale (REDES) which included 1,541 rainfall stations in 2014 and has been updated with 134 additional stations in 2015. The interpolation of those point R-factor values with a Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) model has resulted in the first Rainfall Erosivity map of Europe (Science of the Total Environment, 511, 801-815). The intra-annual variability of rainfall erosivity is crucial for modelling soil erosion on a monthly and seasonal basis. The monthly feature of rainfall erosivity has been added in 2015 as an advancement of REDES and the respective mean annual R-factor map. Almost 19,000 monthly R-factor values of REDES contributed to the seasonal and monthly assessments of rainfall erosivity in Europe. According to the first results, more than 50% of the total rainfall erosivity in Europe takes place in the period from June to September. The spatial patterns of rainfall erosivity have significant differences between Northern and Southern Europe as summer is the most erosive period in Central and Northern Europe and autumn in the

  3. MAP-MRF-Based Super-Resolution Reconstruction Approach for Coded Aperture Compressive Temporal Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinghua Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coded Aperture Compressive Temporal Imaging (CACTI can afford low-cost temporal super-resolution (SR, but limits are imposed by noise and compression ratio on reconstruction quality. To utilize inter-frame redundant information from multiple observations and sparsity in multi-transform domains, a robust reconstruction approach based on maximum a posteriori probability and Markov random field (MAP-MRF model for CACTI is proposed. The proposed approach adopts a weighted 3D neighbor system (WNS and the coordinate descent method to perform joint estimation of model parameters, to achieve the robust super-resolution reconstruction. The proposed multi-reconstruction algorithm considers both total variation (TV and ℓ 2 , 1 norm in wavelet domain to address the minimization problem for compressive sensing, and solves it using an accelerated generalized alternating projection algorithm. The weighting coefficient for different regularizations and frames is resolved by the motion characteristics of pixels. The proposed approach can provide high visual quality in the foreground and background of a scene simultaneously and enhance the fidelity of the reconstruction results. Simulation results have verified the efficacy of our new optimization framework and the proposed reconstruction approach.

  4. High-resolution space-time characterization of convective rain cells: implications on spatial aggregation and temporal sampling operated by coarser resolution instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francesco; Morin, Efrat

    2017-04-01

    Forecasting the occurrence of flash floods and debris flows is fundamental to save lives and protect infrastructures and properties. These natural hazards are generated by high-intensity convective storms, on space-time scales that cannot be properly monitored by conventional instrumentation. Consequently, a number of early-warning systems are nowadays based on remote sensing precipitation observations, e.g. from weather radars or satellites, that proved effective in a wide range of situations. However, the uncertainty affecting rainfall estimates represents an important issue undermining the operational use of early-warning systems. The uncertainty related to remote sensing estimates results from (a) an instrumental component, intrinsic of the measurement operation, and (b) a discretization component, caused by the discretization of the continuous rainfall process. Improved understanding on these sources of uncertainty will provide crucial information to modelers and decision makers. This study aims at advancing knowledge on the (b) discretization component. To do so, we take advantage of an extremely-high resolution X-Band weather radar (60 m, 1 min) recently installed in the Eastern Mediterranean. The instrument monitors a semiarid to arid transition area also covered by an accurate C-Band weather radar and by a relatively sparse rain gauge network ( 1 gauge/ 450 km2). Radar quantitative precipitation estimation includes corrections reducing the errors due to ground echoes, orographic beam blockage and attenuation of the signal in heavy rain. Intense, convection-rich, flooding events recently occurred in the area serve as study cases. We (i) describe with very high detail the spatiotemporal characteristics of the convective cores, and (ii) quantify the uncertainty due to spatial aggregation (spatial discretization) and temporal sampling (temporal discretization) operated by coarser resolution remote sensing instruments. We show that instantaneous rain intensity

  5. A Numerical Method to Generate High Temporal Resolution Precipitation Time Series by Combining Weather Radar Measurements with a Nowcast Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The topic of this paper is temporal interpolation of precipitation observed by weather radars. Precipitation measurements with high spatial and temporal resolution are, in general, desired for urban drainage applications. An advection-based interpolation method is developed which uses methods...

  6. Dynamic Raman imaging system with high spatial and temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Dai, Yinzhen; He, Hao; Lv, Ruiqi; Zong, Cheng; Ren, Bin

    2017-09-01

    There is an increasing need to study dynamic changing systems with significantly high spatial and temporal resolutions. In this work, we integrated point-scanning, line-scanning, and wide-field Raman imaging techniques into a single system. By using an Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD) with a high gain and high frame rate, we significantly reduced the time required for wide-field imaging, making it possible to monitor the electrochemical reactions in situ. The highest frame rate of EMCDD was ˜50 fps, and the Raman images for a specific Raman peak can be obtained by passing the signal from the sample through the Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter. The spatial resolutions of scanning imaging and wide-field imaging with a 100× objective (NA = 0.9) are 0.5 × 0.5 μm2 and 0.36 × 0.36 μm2, respectively. The system was used to study the surface plasmon resonance of Au nanorods, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal distribution for Au Nanoparticle aggregates, and dynamic Raman imaging of an electrochemical reacting system.

  7. A hyper-temporal remote sensing protocol for high-resolution mapping of ecological sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Jonathan J; Karl, Jason W

    2017-01-01

    Ecological site classification has emerged as a highly effective land management framework, but its utility at a regional scale has been limited due to the spatial ambiguity of ecological site locations in the U.S. or the absence of ecological site maps in other regions of the world. In response to these shortcomings, this study evaluated the use of hyper-temporal remote sensing (i.e., hundreds of images) for high spatial resolution mapping of ecological sites. We posit that hyper-temporal remote sensing can provide novel insights into the spatial variability of ecological sites by quantifying the temporal response of land surface spectral properties. This temporal response provides a spectral 'fingerprint' of the soil-vegetation-climate relationship which is central to the concept of ecological sites. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of ecological sites in a semi-arid rangeland using a 28-year time series of normalized difference vegetation index from Landsat TM 5 data and modeled using support vector machine classification. Results from this study show that support vector machine classification using hyper-temporal remote sensing imagery was effective in modeling ecological site classes, with a 62% correct classification. These results were compared to Gridded Soil Survey Geographic database and expert delineated maps of ecological sites which had a 51 and 89% correct classification, respectively. An analysis of the effects of ecological state on ecological site misclassifications revealed that sites in degraded states (e.g., shrub-dominated/shrubland and bare/annuals) had a higher rate of misclassification due to their close spectral similarity with other ecological sites. This study identified three important factors that need to be addressed to improve future model predictions: 1) sampling designs need to fully represent the range of both within class (i.e., states) and between class (i.e., ecological sites

  8. Echoic memory: investigation of its temporal resolution by auditory offset cortical responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Makoto; Inui, Koji; Morita, Tomoyo; Kodaira, Minori; Mochizuki, Hideki; Otsuru, Naofumi; Motomura, Eishi; Ushida, Takahiro; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the amplitude and latency of the auditory offset cortical response depended on the history of the sound, which implicated the involvement of echoic memory in shaping a response. When a brief sound was repeated, the latency of the offset response depended precisely on the frequency of the repeat, indicating that the brain recognized the timing of the offset by using information on the repeat frequency stored in memory. In the present study, we investigated the temporal resolution of sensory storage by measuring auditory offset responses with magnetoencephalography (MEG). The offset of a train of clicks for 1 s elicited a clear magnetic response at approximately 60 ms (Off-P50m). The latency of Off-P50m depended on the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of the click train, which was the longest at 40 ms (25 Hz) and became shorter with shorter ISIs (2.5∼20 ms). The correlation coefficient r2 for the peak latency and ISI was as high as 0.99, which suggested that sensory storage for the stimulation frequency accurately determined the Off-P50m latency. Statistical analysis revealed that the latency of all pairs, except for that between 200 and 400 Hz, was significantly different, indicating the very high temporal resolution of sensory storage at approximately 5 ms.

  9. Echoic memory: investigation of its temporal resolution by auditory offset cortical responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Nishihara

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that the amplitude and latency of the auditory offset cortical response depended on the history of the sound, which implicated the involvement of echoic memory in shaping a response. When a brief sound was repeated, the latency of the offset response depended precisely on the frequency of the repeat, indicating that the brain recognized the timing of the offset by using information on the repeat frequency stored in memory. In the present study, we investigated the temporal resolution of sensory storage by measuring auditory offset responses with magnetoencephalography (MEG. The offset of a train of clicks for 1 s elicited a clear magnetic response at approximately 60 ms (Off-P50m. The latency of Off-P50m depended on the inter-stimulus interval (ISI of the click train, which was the longest at 40 ms (25 Hz and became shorter with shorter ISIs (2.5∼20 ms. The correlation coefficient r2 for the peak latency and ISI was as high as 0.99, which suggested that sensory storage for the stimulation frequency accurately determined the Off-P50m latency. Statistical analysis revealed that the latency of all pairs, except for that between 200 and 400 Hz, was significantly different, indicating the very high temporal resolution of sensory storage at approximately 5 ms.

  10. Imaging cortical activity following affective stimulation with a high temporal and spatial resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catani Claudia

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The affective and motivational relevance of a stimulus has a distinct impact on cortical processing, particularly in sensory areas. However, the spatial and temporal dynamics of this affective modulation of brain activities remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was the development of a paradigm to investigate the affective modulation of cortical networks with a high temporal and spatial resolution. We assessed cortical activity with MEG using a visual steady-state paradigm with affective pictures. A combination of a complex demodulation procedure with a minimum norm estimation was applied to assess the temporal variation of the topography of cortical activity. Results Statistical permutation analyses of the results of the complex demodulation procedure revealed increased steady-state visual evoked field amplitudes over occipital areas following presentation of affective pictures compared to neutral pictures. This differentiation shifted in the time course from occipital regions to parietal and temporal regions. Conclusion It can be shown that stimulation with affective pictures leads to an enhanced activity in occipital region as compared to neutral pictures. However, the focus of differentiation is not stable over time but shifts into temporal and parietal regions within four seconds of stimulation. Thus, it can be crucial to carefully choose regions of interests and time intervals when analyzing the affective modulation of cortical activity.

  11. Tracking channel bed resiliency in forested mountain catchments using high temporal resolution channel bed movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sarah E.; Conklin, Martha H.

    2018-01-01

    This study uses continuous-recording load cell pressure sensors in four, high-elevation (1500-1800 m), Sierra Nevada headwater streams to collect high-temporal-resolution, bedload-movement data for investigating the channel bed movement patterns within these streams for water years 2012-2014. Data show an annual pattern where channel bed material in the thalweg starts to build up in early fall, peaks around peak snow melt, and scours back to baseline levels during hydrograph drawdown and base flow. This pattern is punctuated by disturbance and recovery of channel bed material associated with short-term storm events. A conceptual model, linking sediment sources at the channel margins to patterns of channel bed fill and scour in the thalweg, is proposed building on the results of Martin et al. (2014). The material in the thalweg represents a balance between sediment supply from the channel margins and sporadic, conveyor-belt-like downstream transport in the thalweg. The conceptual model highlights not only the importance of production and transport rates but also that seasonal connectedness between the margins and thalweg is a key sediment control, determining the accumulation rate of sediment stores at the margins and the redistribution of sediment from margins to thalweg that feeds the conveyor belt. Disturbance and recovery cycles are observed at multiple temporal scales; but long term, the channel beds are stable, suggesting that the beds act as short-term storage for sediment but are in equilibrium interannually. The feasibility of use for these sensors in forested mountain stream environments is tested. Despite a high failure rate (50%), load cell pressure sensors show potential for high-temporal-resolution bedload measurements, allowing for the collection of channel bed movement data to move beyond time-integrated change measurements - where many of the subtleties of bedload movement patterns may be missed - to continuous and/or real-time measurements. This

  12. Time-resolved PIV technique for high temporal resolution measurement of mechanical prosthetic aortic valve fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, R; Morbiducci, U; Rossi, M; Scalise, L; Verdonck, P; Grigioni, M

    2007-02-01

    Prosthetic heart valves (PHVs) have been used to replace diseased native valves for more than five decades. Among these, mechanical PHVs are the most frequently implanted. Unfortunately, these devices still do not achieve ideal behavior and lead to many complications, many of which are related to fluid mechanics. The fluid dynamics of mechanical PHVs are particularly complex and the fine-scale characteristics of such flows call for very accurate experimental techniques. Adequate temporal resolution can be reached by applying time-resolved PIV, a high-resolution dynamic technique which is able to capture detailed chronological changes in the velocity field. The aim of this experimental study is to investigate the evolution of the flow field in a detailed time domain of a commercial bileaflet PHV in a mock-loop mimicking unsteady conditions, by means of time-resolved 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The investigated flow field corresponded to the region immediately downstream of the valve plane. Spatial resolution as in "standard" PIV analysis of prosthetic valve fluid dynamics was used. The combination of a Nd:YLF high-repetition-rate double-cavity laser with a high frame rate CMOS camera allowed a detailed, highly temporally resolved acquisition (up to 10000 fps depending on the resolution) of the flow downstream of the PHV. Features that were observed include the non-homogeneity and unsteadiness of the phenomenon and the presence of large-scale vortices within the field, especially in the wake of the valve leaflets. Furthermore, we observed that highly temporally cycle-resolved analysis allowed the different behaviors exhibited by the bileaflet valve at closure to be captured in different acquired cardiac cycles. By accurately capturing hemodynamically relevant time scales of motion, time-resolved PIV characterization can realistically be expected to help designers in improving PHV performance and in furnishing comprehensive validation with experimental data

  13. High temporal resolution magnetic resonance imaging: development of a parallel three dimensional acquisition method for functional neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabrait, C.

    2007-11-01

    Echo Planar Imaging is widely used to perform data acquisition in functional neuroimaging. This sequence allows the acquisition of a set of about 30 slices, covering the whole brain, at a spatial resolution ranging from 2 to 4 mm, and a temporal resolution ranging from 1 to 2 s. It is thus well adapted to the mapping of activated brain areas but does not allow precise study of the brain dynamics. Moreover, temporal interpolation is needed in order to correct for inter-slices delays and 2-dimensional acquisition is subject to vascular in flow artifacts. To improve the estimation of the hemodynamic response functions associated with activation, this thesis aimed at developing a 3-dimensional high temporal resolution acquisition method. To do so, Echo Volume Imaging was combined with reduced field-of-view acquisition and parallel imaging. Indeed, E.V.I. allows the acquisition of a whole volume in Fourier space following a single excitation, but it requires very long echo trains. Parallel imaging and field-of-view reduction are used to reduce the echo train durations by a factor of 4, which allows the acquisition of a 3-dimensional brain volume with limited susceptibility-induced distortions and signal losses, in 200 ms. All imaging parameters have been optimized in order to reduce echo train durations and to maximize S.N.R., so that cerebral activation can be detected with a high level of confidence. Robust detection of brain activation was demonstrated with both visual and auditory paradigms. High temporal resolution hemodynamic response functions could be estimated through selective averaging of the response to the different trials of the stimulation. To further improve S.N.R., the matrix inversions required in parallel reconstruction were regularized, and the impact of the level of regularization on activation detection was investigated. Eventually, potential applications of parallel E.V.I. such as the study of non-stationary effects in the B.O.L.D. response

  14. A Spatio-Temporal Enhancement Method for medium resolution LAI (STEM-LAI), International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2015-12-12

    Satellite remote sensing has been used successfully to map leaf area index (LAI) across landscapes, but advances are still needed to exploit multi-scale data streams for producing LAI at both high spatial and temporal resolution. A multi-scale Spatio-Temporal Enhancement Method for medium resolution LAI (STEM-LAI) has been developed to generate 4-day time-series of Landsat-scale LAI from existing medium resolution LAI products. STEM-LAI has been designed to meet the demands of applications requiring frequent and spatially explicit information, such as effectively resolving rapidly evolving vegetation dynamics at sub-field (30 m) scales. In this study, STEM-LAI is applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) based LAI data and utilizes a reference-based regression tree approach for producing MODIS-consistent, but Landsat-based, LAI. The Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) is used to interpolate the downscaled LAI between Landsat acquisition dates, providing a high spatial and temporal resolution improvement over existing LAI products. STARFM predicts high resolution LAI by blending MODIS and Landsat based information from a common acquisition date, with MODIS data from a prediction date. To demonstrate its capacity to reproduce fine-scale spatial features observed in actual Landsat LAI, the STEM-LAI approach is tested over an agricultural region in Nebraska. The implementation of a 250 m resolution LAI product, derived from MODIS 1 km data and using a scale consistent approach based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), is found to significantly improve accuracies of spatial pattern prediction, with the coefficient of efficiency (E) ranging from 0.77–0.94 compared to 0.01–0.85 when using 1 km LAI inputs alone. Comparisons against an 11-year record of in-situ measured LAI over maize and soybean highlight the utility of STEM-LAI in reproducing observed LAI dynamics (both characterized by r2 = 0

  15. Erythrocyte orientation and lung conductivity analysis with a high temporal resolution FEM model for bioimpedance measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulbrich, M.; Paluchowski, P.; Muehlsteff, J.; Leonhardt, S.

    2012-01-01

    Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a simple and cheap method to acquirehemodynamic parameters. In this work, the influence of three dynamic physiological sources has been analyzed using a model of the humanthorax with a high temporal resolution. Therefore, simulations havebeen conducted using the

  16. Temporal resolution technology of a soft X-ray picosecond framing camera based on Chevron micro-channel plates gated in cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Wenzheng [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China)], E-mail: ywz@opt.ac.cn; Bai Yonglin; Liu Baiyu [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Bai Xiaohong; Zhao Junping; Qin Junjun [Key Laboratory of Ultra-fast Photoelectric Diagnostics Technology, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China)

    2009-09-11

    We describe a soft X-ray picosecond framing camera (XFC) based on Chevron micro-channel plates (MCPs) gated in cascade for ultra-fast process diagnostics. The micro-strip lines are deposited on both the input and the output surfaces of the Chevron MCPs and can be gated by a negative (positive) electric pulse on the first (second) MCP. The gating is controlled by the time delay T{sub d} between two gating pulses. By increasing T{sub d}, the temporal resolution and the gain of the camera are greatly improved compared with a single-gated MCP-XFC. The optimal T{sub d}, which results in the best temporal resolution, is within the electron transit time and transit time spread of the MCP. Using 250 ps, {+-}2.5 kV gating pulses, the temporal resolution of the double-gated Chevron MCPs camera is improved from 60 ps for the single-gated MCP-XFC to 37 ps for T{sub d}=350 ps. The principle is presented in detail and accompanied with a theoretic simulation and experimental results.

  17. Design and implementation of an optimal laser pulse front tilting scheme for ultrafast electron diffraction in reflection geometry with high temporal resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pennacchio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast electron diffraction is a powerful technique to investigate out-of-equilibrium atomic dynamics in solids with high temporal resolution. When diffraction is performed in reflection geometry, the main limitation is the mismatch in group velocity between the overlapping pump light and the electron probe pulses, which affects the overall temporal resolution of the experiment. A solution already available in the literature involved pulse front tilt of the pump beam at the sample, providing a sub-picosecond time resolution. However, in the reported optical scheme, the tilted pulse is characterized by a temporal chirp of about 1 ps at 1 mm away from the centre of the beam, which limits the investigation of surface dynamics in large crystals. In this paper, we propose an optimal tilting scheme designed for a radio-frequency-compressed ultrafast electron diffraction setup working in reflection geometry with 30 keV electron pulses containing up to 105 electrons/pulse. To characterize our scheme, we performed optical cross-correlation measurements, obtaining an average temporal width of the tilted pulse lower than 250 fs. The calibration of the electron-laser temporal overlap was obtained by monitoring the spatial profile of the electron beam when interacting with the plasma optically induced at the apex of a copper needle (plasma lensing effect. Finally, we report the first time-resolved results obtained on graphite, where the electron-phonon coupling dynamics is observed, showing an overall temporal resolution in the sub-500 fs regime. The successful implementation of this configuration opens the way to directly probe structural dynamics of low-dimensional systems in the sub-picosecond regime, with pulsed electrons.

  18. Resolution of spatial and temporal visual attention in infants with fragile X syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Farzin, Faraz; Rivera, Susan M.; Whitney, David

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common cause of inherited intellectual impairment and the most common single-gene cause of autism. Individuals with fragile X syndrome present with a neurobehavioural phenotype that includes selective deficits in spatiotemporal visual perception associated with neural processing in frontal–parietal networks of the brain. The goal of the current study was to examine whether reduced resolution of spatial and/or temporal visual attention may underlie perceptual def...

  19. Behavioral measures of cochlear compression and temporal resolution as predictors of speech masking release in hearing-impaired listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregan, Melanie J.; Nelson, Peggy B.; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Hearing-impaired (HI) listeners often show less masking release (MR) than normal-hearing listeners when temporal fluctuations are imposed on a steady-state masker, even when accounting for overall audibility differences. This difference may be related to a loss of cochlear compression in HI listeners. Behavioral estimates of compression, using temporal masking curves (TMCs), were compared with MR for band-limited (500–4000 Hz) speech and pure tones in HI listeners and age-matched, noise-masked normal-hearing (NMNH) listeners. Compression and pure-tone MR estimates were made at 500, 1500, and 4000 Hz. The amount of MR was defined as the difference in performance between steady-state and 10-Hz square-wave-gated speech-shaped noise. In addition, temporal resolution was estimated from the slope of the off-frequency TMC. No significant relationship was found between estimated cochlear compression and MR for either speech or pure tones. NMNH listeners had significantly steeper off-frequency temporal masking recovery slopes than did HI listeners, and a small but significant correlation was observed between poorer temporal resolution and reduced MR for speech. The results suggest either that the effects of hearing impairment on MR are not determined primarily by changes in peripheral compression, or that the TMC does not provide a sufficiently reliable measure of cochlear compression. PMID:24116426

  20. Calibrating a numerical model's morphology using high-resolution spatial and temporal datasets from multithread channel flume experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javernick, L.; Bertoldi, W.; Redolfi, M.

    2017-12-01

    Accessing or acquiring high quality, low-cost topographic data has never been easier due to recent developments of the photogrammetric techniques of Structure-from-Motion (SfM). Researchers can acquire the necessary SfM imagery with various platforms, with the ability to capture millimetre resolution and accuracy, or large-scale areas with the help of unmanned platforms. Such datasets in combination with numerical modelling have opened up new opportunities to study river environments physical and ecological relationships. While numerical models overall predictive accuracy is most influenced by topography, proper model calibration requires hydraulic data and morphological data; however, rich hydraulic and morphological datasets remain scarce. This lack in field and laboratory data has limited model advancement through the inability to properly calibrate, assess sensitivity, and validate the models performance. However, new time-lapse imagery techniques have shown success in identifying instantaneous sediment transport in flume experiments and their ability to improve hydraulic model calibration. With new capabilities to capture high resolution spatial and temporal datasets of flume experiments, there is a need to further assess model performance. To address this demand, this research used braided river flume experiments and captured time-lapse observed sediment transport and repeat SfM elevation surveys to provide unprecedented spatial and temporal datasets. Through newly created metrics that quantified observed and modeled activation, deactivation, and bank erosion rates, the numerical model Delft3d was calibrated. This increased temporal data of both high-resolution time series and long-term temporal coverage provided significantly improved calibration routines that refined calibration parameterization. Model results show that there is a trade-off between achieving quantitative statistical and qualitative morphological representations. Specifically, statistical

  1. Quantitative measurement of zinc secretion from pancreatic islets with high temporal resolution using droplet-based microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Christopher J; Rocheleau, Jonathan V; Head, W Steven; Piston, David W

    2009-11-01

    We assayed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from live, murine islets of Langerhans in microfluidic devices by the downstream formation of aqueous droplets. Zinc ions, which are cosecreted with insulin from beta-cells, were quantitatively measured from single islets with high temporal resolution using a fluorescent indicator, FluoZin-3. Real-time storage of secretions into droplets (volume of 0.470 +/- 0.009 nL) effectively preserves the temporal chemical information, allowing reconstruction of the secretory time record. The use of passive flow control within the device removes the need for syringe pumps, requiring only a single hand-held syringe. Under stimulatory glucose levels (11 mM), bursts of zinc as high as approximately 800 fg islet(-1) min(-1) were measured. Treatment with diazoxide effectively blocked zinc secretion, as expected. High temporal resolution reveals two major classes of oscillations in secreted zinc, with predominate periods at approximately 20-40 s and approximately 5-10 min. The more rapid oscillation periods match closely with those of intraislet calcium oscillations, while the slower oscillations are consistent with insulin pulses typically measured in bulk islet experiments or in the bloodstream. This droplet sampling technique should be widely applicable to time-resolved cellular secretion measurements, either in real-time or for postprocessing.

  2. Average monthly and annual climate maps for Bolivia

    KAUST Repository

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.

    2015-02-24

    This study presents monthly and annual climate maps for relevant hydroclimatic variables in Bolivia. We used the most complete network of precipitation and temperature stations available in Bolivia, which passed a careful quality control and temporal homogenization procedure. Monthly average maps at the spatial resolution of 1 km were modeled by means of a regression-based approach using topographic and geographic variables as predictors. The monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and potential exoatmospheric solar radiation under clear sky conditions are used to estimate the monthly average atmospheric evaporative demand by means of the Hargreaves model. Finally, the average water balance is estimated on a monthly and annual scale for each 1 km cell by means of the difference between precipitation and atmospheric evaporative demand. The digital layers used to create the maps are available in the digital repository of the Spanish National Research Council.

  3. Assessing the importance of spatio-temporal RCM resolution when estimating sub-daily extreme precipitation under current and future climate conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Luchner, J.; Onof, C.

    2017-01-01

    extreme precipitation over Denmark generated by the regional climate model (RCM) HIRHAM-ECEARTH at different spatial resolutions (8, 12, 25 and 50km), three RCM from the RiskChange project at 8km resolution and three RCMs from ENSEMBLES at 25km resolution at temporal aggregations from 1 to 48h...... are more skewed than the observational dataset, which leads to an overestimation by the higher spatial resolution simulations. Nevertheless, in general, under current conditions RCM simulations at high spatial resolution represent extreme events and high-order moments better. The changes projected...

  4. An Improved Method for Producing High Spatial-Resolution NDVI Time Series Datasets with Multi-Temporal MODIS NDVI Data and Landsat TM/ETM+ Images

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Yuhan; Zhu, Xiaolin; Chen, Jin; Wang, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Due to technical limitations, it is impossible to have high resolution in both spatial and temporal dimensions for current NDVI datasets. Therefore, several methods are developed to produce high resolution (spatial and temporal) NDVI time-series datasets, which face some limitations including high computation loads and unreasonable assumptions. In this study, an unmixing-based method, NDVI Linear Mixing Growth Model (NDVI-LMGM), is proposed to achieve the goal of accurately and efficiently bl...

  5. [Performance of normal young adults in two temporal resolution tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidan, Elena; Garcia, Adriana Pontin; Tedesco, Maria Lucy Fraga; Baran, Jane A

    2008-01-01

    temporal auditory processing is defined as the perception of sound or of sound alteration within a restricted time interval and is considered a fundamental ability for the auditory perception of verbal and non verbal sounds, for the perception of music, rhythm, periodicity and in the discrimination of pitch, duration and of phonemes. to compare the performance of normal Brazilian adults in two temporal resolution tests: the Gaps-in-Noise Test (GIN) and the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT), and to analyze potential differences of performance in these two tests. twenty-five college students with normal hearing (11 males and 14 females) and no history of educational, neurological and/or language problems, underwent the GIN and RGDT at 40dB SL. statistically significant gender effects for both tests were found, with female participants showing poorer performance on both temporal processing tests. In addition, a comparative analysis of the results obtained in the GIN and RGDT revealed significant differences in the threshold measures derived for these two tests. In general, significantly better gap detection thresholds were observed for both male and female participants on the GIN test when compared to the results obtained for the RGDT. male participants presented better performances on both RGDT and GIN, when compared to the females. There were no differences in performance between right and left ears on the GIN test. Participants of the present investigation, males and females, performed better on the GIN when compared to the RGDT. The GIN presented advantages over the RGDT, not only in terms of clinical validity and sensibility, but also in terms of application and scoring.

  6. Evaluating Climate Causation of Conflict in Darfur Using Multi-temporal, Multi-resolution Satellite Image Datasets With Novel Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.; Wennbom, M.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change, population growth and changes in traditional lifestyles have led to instabilities in traditional demarcations between neighboring ethic and religious groups in the Sahel region. This has resulted in a number of conflicts as groups resort to arms to settle disputes. Such disputes often centre on or are justified by competition for resources. The conflict in Darfur has been controversially explained by resource scarcity resulting from climate change. Here we analyse established methods of using satellite imagery to assess vegetation health in Darfur. Multi-decadal time series of observations are available using low spatial resolution visible-near infrared imagery. Typically normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) analyses are produced to describe changes in vegetation ';greenness' or ';health'. Such approaches have been widely used to evaluate the long term development of vegetation in relation to climate variations across a wide range of environments from the Arctic to the Sahel. These datasets typically measure peak NDVI observed over a given interval and may introduce bias. It is furthermore unclear how the spatial organization of sparse vegetation may affect low resolution NDVI products. We develop and assess alternative measures of vegetation including descriptors of the growing season, wetness and resource availability. Expanding the range of parameters used in the analysis reduces our dependence on peak NDVI. Furthermore, these descriptors provide a better characterization of the growing season than the single NDVI measure. Using multi-sensor data we combine high temporal/moderate spatial resolution data with low temporal/high spatial resolution data to improve the spatial representativity of the observations and to provide improved spatial analysis of vegetation patterns. The approach places the high resolution observations in the NDVI context space using a longer time series of lower resolution imagery. The vegetation descriptors

  7. High spatial and temporal resolution interrogation of fully distributed chirped fiber Bragg grating sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Eamonn J.; Wang, Chao; Feng, Dejun; Yan, Zhijun; Zhang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    A novel interrogation technique for fully distributed linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating (LCFBG) strain sensors with simultaneous high temporal and spatial resolution based on optical time-stretch frequency-domain reflectometry (OTS-FDR) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. LCFBGs is a promising candidate for fully distributed sensors thanks to its longer grating length and broader reflection bandwidth compared to normal uniform FBGs. In the proposed system, two identical LCFBGs are...

  8. Increasing the temporal resolution of direct normal solar irradiance forecasted series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Peruchena, Carlos M.; Gastón, Martin; Schroedter-Homscheidt, Marion; Marco, Isabel Martínez; Casado-Rubio, José L.; García-Moya, José Antonio

    2017-06-01

    A detailed knowledge of the solar resource is a critical point in the design and control of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants. In particular, accurate forecasting of solar irradiance is essential for the efficient operation of solar thermal power plants, the management of energy markets, and the widespread implementation of this technology. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are commonly used for solar radiation forecasting. In the ECMWF deterministic forecasting system, all forecast parameters are commercially available worldwide at 3-hourly intervals. Unfortunately, as Direct Normal solar Irradiance (DNI) exhibits a great variability due to the dynamic effects of passing clouds, 3-h time resolution is insufficient for accurate simulations of CSP plants due to their nonlinear response to DNI, governed by various thermal inertias due to their complex response characteristics. DNI series of hourly or sub-hourly frequency resolution are normally used for an accurate modeling and analysis of transient processes in CSP technologies. In this context, the objective of this study is to propose a methodology for generating synthetic DNI time series at 1-h (or higher) temporal resolution from 3-h DNI series. The methodology is based upon patterns as being defined with help of the clear-sky envelope approach together with a forecast of maximum DNI value, and it has been validated with high quality measured DNI data.

  9. Regionalization of monthly rainfall erosivity patternsin Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simon; Alewell, Christine; Panagos, Panos; Meusburger, Katrin

    2016-10-01

    One major controlling factor of water erosion is rainfall erosivity, which is quantified as the product of total storm energy and a maximum 30 min intensity (I30). Rainfall erosivity is often expressed as R-factor in soil erosion risk models like the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE). As rainfall erosivity is closely correlated with rainfall amount and intensity, the rainfall erosivity of Switzerland can be expected to have a regional characteristic and seasonal dynamic throughout the year. This intra-annual variability was mapped by a monthly modeling approach to assess simultaneously spatial and monthly patterns of rainfall erosivity. So far only national seasonal means and regional annual means exist for Switzerland. We used a network of 87 precipitation gauging stations with a 10 min temporal resolution to calculate long-term monthly mean R-factors. Stepwise generalized linear regression (GLM) and leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) were used to select spatial covariates which explain the spatial and temporal patterns of the R-factor for each month across Switzerland. The monthly R-factor is mapped by summarizing the predicted R-factor of the regression equation and the corresponding residues of the regression, which are interpolated by ordinary kriging (regression-kriging). As spatial covariates, a variety of precipitation indicator data has been included such as snow depths, a combination product of hourly precipitation measurements and radar observations (CombiPrecip), daily Alpine precipitation (EURO4M-APGD), and monthly precipitation sums (RhiresM). Topographic parameters (elevation, slope) were also significant explanatory variables for single months. The comparison of the 12 monthly rainfall erosivity maps showed a distinct seasonality with the highest rainfall erosivity in summer (June, July, and August) influenced by intense rainfall events. Winter months have the lowest rainfall erosivity. A proportion of 62 % of

  10. TH-CD-207B-03: How to Quantify Temporal Resolution in X-Ray MDCT Imaging?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budde, A [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); GE Healthcare Technologies, Madison, WI (United States); Li, Y; Chen, G [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Hsieh, J [GE Healthcare Technologies, Brookfield, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In modern CT scanners, a quantitative metric to assess temporal response, namely, to quantify the temporal resolution (TR), remains elusive. Rough surrogate metrics, such as half of the gantry rotation time for single source CT, a quarter of the gantry rotation time for dual source CT, or measurements of motion artifact’s size, shape, or intensity have previously been used. In this work, a rigorous framework which quantifies TR and a practical measurement method are developed. Methods: A motion phantom was simulated which consisted of a single rod that is in motion except during a static period at the temporal center of the scan, termed the TR window. If the image of the motion scan has negligible motion artifacts compared to an image from a totally static scan, then the system has a TR no worse than the TR window used. By repeating this comparison with varying TR windows, the TR of the system can be accurately determined. Motion artifacts were also visually assessed and the TR was measured across varying rod motion speeds, directions, and locations. Noiseless fan beam acquisitions were simulated and images were reconstructed with a short-scan image reconstruction algorithm. Results: The size, shape, and intensity of motion artifacts varied when the rod speed, direction, or location changed. TR measured using the proposed method, however, was consistent across rod speeds, directions, and locations. Conclusion: Since motion artifacts vary depending upon the motion speed, direction, and location, they are not suitable for measuring TR. In this work, a CT system with a specified TR is defined as having the ability to produce a static image with negligible motion artifacts, no matter what motion occurs outside of a static window of width TR. This framework allows for practical measurement of temporal resolution in clinical CT imaging systems. Funding support: GE Healthcare; Conflict of Interest: Employee, GE Healthcare.

  11. TH-CD-207B-03: How to Quantify Temporal Resolution in X-Ray MDCT Imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budde, A; Li, Y; Chen, G; Hsieh, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In modern CT scanners, a quantitative metric to assess temporal response, namely, to quantify the temporal resolution (TR), remains elusive. Rough surrogate metrics, such as half of the gantry rotation time for single source CT, a quarter of the gantry rotation time for dual source CT, or measurements of motion artifact’s size, shape, or intensity have previously been used. In this work, a rigorous framework which quantifies TR and a practical measurement method are developed. Methods: A motion phantom was simulated which consisted of a single rod that is in motion except during a static period at the temporal center of the scan, termed the TR window. If the image of the motion scan has negligible motion artifacts compared to an image from a totally static scan, then the system has a TR no worse than the TR window used. By repeating this comparison with varying TR windows, the TR of the system can be accurately determined. Motion artifacts were also visually assessed and the TR was measured across varying rod motion speeds, directions, and locations. Noiseless fan beam acquisitions were simulated and images were reconstructed with a short-scan image reconstruction algorithm. Results: The size, shape, and intensity of motion artifacts varied when the rod speed, direction, or location changed. TR measured using the proposed method, however, was consistent across rod speeds, directions, and locations. Conclusion: Since motion artifacts vary depending upon the motion speed, direction, and location, they are not suitable for measuring TR. In this work, a CT system with a specified TR is defined as having the ability to produce a static image with negligible motion artifacts, no matter what motion occurs outside of a static window of width TR. This framework allows for practical measurement of temporal resolution in clinical CT imaging systems. Funding support: GE Healthcare; Conflict of Interest: Employee, GE Healthcare.

  12. Late onset temporal lobe epilepsy with MRI evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis following acute neurocysticercosis. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Eliane; Guerreiro, Carlos A.M.; Cendes, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this case report is to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) in a patient with new onset temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and acute neurocysticercosis with multiple cysts. A 56 years old man with new onset headache, Simple Partial Seizures and Complex Partial Seizures underwent CT scan and lumbar puncture as diagnose proceeding. Multiple cysts and meningitis were identified, with a positive immunology for cysticercosis. Seizures were recorded over the left temporal region in a routine EEG. Treatment with al bendazole was performed for 21 days, with clinical improvement and seizure remission after 4 months. An MRI scan 11 months after treatment, showed complete resolution of those cystic lesions and a left hippocampal atrophy (HA) with hyperintense T2 signal. The presence of HA and hyperintense T 2 signal in this patient has not, to date, been associated with a poor seizure control. Conclusions: This patient presented with MRI evidence of left MTS after new onset partial seizures of left temporal lobe origin. Although we did not have a previous MRI scan, it is likely that this hippocampal abnormality was due to the acute inflammatory response to cysticercosis associated to repeated partial seizures. This suggests that acute neurocysticercosis associated with repeated seizures may cause MTS and late onset TLE. (author)

  13. Late onset temporal lobe epilepsy with MRI evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis following acute neurocysticercosis. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Eliane; Guerreiro, Carlos A.M.; Cendes, Fernando [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Neurologia]. E-mail: fcendes@unicamp.br

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this case report is to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) in a patient with new onset temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and acute neurocysticercosis with multiple cysts. A 56 years old man with new onset headache, Simple Partial Seizures and Complex Partial Seizures underwent CT scan and lumbar puncture as diagnose proceeding. Multiple cysts and meningitis were identified, with a positive immunology for cysticercosis. Seizures were recorded over the left temporal region in a routine EEG. Treatment with al bendazole was performed for 21 days, with clinical improvement and seizure remission after 4 months. An MRI scan 11 months after treatment, showed complete resolution of those cystic lesions and a left hippocampal atrophy (HA) with hyperintense T2 signal. The presence of HA and hyperintense T 2 signal in this patient has not, to date, been associated with a poor seizure control. Conclusions: This patient presented with MRI evidence of left MTS after new onset partial seizures of left temporal lobe origin. Although we did not have a previous MRI scan, it is likely that this hippocampal abnormality was due to the acute inflammatory response to cysticercosis associated to repeated partial seizures. This suggests that acute neurocysticercosis associated with repeated seizures may cause MTS and late onset TLE. (author)

  14. Sensitivity of modeled estuarine circulation to spatial and temporal resolution of input meteorological forcing of a cold frontal passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Robert J.; Taeb, Peyman; Lazarus, Steven; Splitt, Michael; Holman, Bryan P.; Colvin, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a four member ensemble of meteorological forcing is generated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in order to simulate a frontal passage event that impacted the Indian River Lagoon (IRL) during March 2015. The WRF model is run to provide high and low, spatial (0.005° and 0.1°) and temporal (30 min and 6 h) input wind and pressure fields. The four member ensemble is used to force the Advanced Circulation model (ADCIRC) coupled with Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) and compute the hydrodynamic and wave response. Results indicate that increasing the spatial resolution of the meteorological forcing has a greater impact on the results than increasing the temporal resolution in coastal systems like the IRL where the length scales are smaller than the resolution of the operational meteorological model being used to generate the forecast. Changes in predicted water elevations are due in part to the upwind and downwind behavior of the input wind forcing. The significant wave height is more sensitive to the meteorological forcing, exhibited by greater ensemble spread throughout the simulation. It is important that the land mask, seen by the meteorological model, is representative of the geography of the coastal estuary as resolved by the hydrodynamic model. As long as the temporal resolution of the wind field captures the bulk characteristics of the frontal passage, computational resources should be focused so as to ensure that the meteorological model resolves the spatial complexities, such as the land-water interface, that drive the land use responsible for dynamic downscaling of the winds.

  15. [Development of biogenic VOC emissions inventory with high temporal and spatial resolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Zhang, Y; Xie, S; Zeng, L

    2001-11-01

    A new method was developed to estimate biogenic VOC emissions with high temporal and spatial resolution by use of Mesoscale Meteorology Modeling System Version5 (MM5). In this method, the isoprene and monoterpene standard emission factors for some types of tree in China were given and the standard VOC emission factors and seasonally average densities of leaf biomass for all types of vegetation were determined. A biogenic VOC emissions inventory in South China was established which could meet the requirement of regional air quality modeling. Total biogenic VOC emissions in a typical summer day were estimated to be 1.12 x 10(4) metric tons in an area of 729 km x 729 km of South China. The results showed the temporal and spatial distributions of biogenic VOC emission rates in this area. The results also showed that the geographical distribution of biogenic VOC emission rates depended on vegetation types and their distributions and the diurnal variation mainly depended on the solar radiation and temperature. The uncertainties of estimating biogenic VOC emissions were also discussed.

  16. Balanced steady-state free precession with parallel imaging gives distortion-free fMRI with high temporal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Michael; Håberg, Asta K; Kristoffersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Research on the functions of the human brain requires that functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) moves towards producing images with less distortion and higher temporal and spatial resolution. This study compares passband balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) acquisitions with and without parallel imaging (PI) to investigate whether combining PI with this pulse sequence is a viable option for functional MRI. Such a novel combination has the potential to offer the distortion-free advantages of bSSFP with the reduced acquisition time of PI. Scans were done on a Philips 3T Intera, using the installed bSSFP pulse sequence, both with and without the sensitivity encoding (SENSE) PI option. The task was a visual flashing checkerboard, and the viewing window covered the visual cortex. Sensitivity comparisons with and without PI were done using the same manually drawn region of interest for each time course of the subject, and comparing the z-score summary statistics: number of voxels with z>2.3, the mean of those voxels, their 90th percentile and their maximum value. We show that PI greatly improves the temporal resolution in bSSFP, reducing the volume acquisition time by more than half in this study to 0.67 s with 3-mm isotropic voxels. At the same time, a statistically significant increase was found for the maximum z-score using bSSFP with PI as compared to without it (P=.02). This improvement can be understood in terms of physiological noise, as demonstrated by noise measurements. This produces observed increases in the overall temporal signal to noise of the functional time series, giving greater sensitivity to functional activations with PI. This study demonstrates for the first time the possibility of combining PI with bSSFP to achieve distortion-free functional images without loss of sensitivity and with high temporal resolution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Measuring the volume of temporal lobe in healthy Chinese adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Kefeng; Wu Li; Duan Hui; Han Dan; Chen Nan; Li Kuncheng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the morphological features of temporal lobe of healthy Chinese Han adults on the high-resolution MRI and provide morphological data of temporal lobe for the construction of database for Chinese Standard Brain. Methods: This is a clinical multi-center study. Three hundred healthy Chinese volunteers (male 150, and female 150) recruited from 15 hospitals were divided equally into five groups according to their age, i.e., 18-30 (Group A), 31-40 (Group B), 41-50 (Group C), 51- 60(Group D), 61-70(Group E). All subjects were scanned using T 1 WI 3D MPRAGE sequence and volumes of standardized temporal lobe were collected. The bilateral volumes of standardized temporal lobe were compared by variance analysis between male and female subjects and among five age groups. Results: The mean volumes of left and right temporal lobe were (97 126±15 703) mm 3 and (97 015 ± 15 545) mm 3 respectively for men, and (95 123 ± 14 564) mm 3 and (96 423 ± 13 407) mm 3 for women. The difference temporal lobe volume between male and female wasn't significant on the same side (F=1.336, 0.127, P= 0.249, 0.722). The left temporal lobe volumes of Group A-E were (93 873±13 351), (95 566± 11 964), (10 1890 ± 14 511), (93 972 ± 14 050) and (95 636 ± 19 864) mm 3 respectively, and those on the right side were (93 409 ± 10 984), (98 158 ± 16 392), (102 079 ± 15 112), (95 448 ± 11 123) and (94 658 ± 16 928) mm 3 . There were significant differences among 5 groups between left and right temporal lobe volume(F=2.940, 3.514, P=0.021, 0.008). Further pairwise comparison revealed that left and right temporal lobe volume in Group C is higher than those of Group A and D (P 0.05). Conclusion: High-resolution MRI could offer detailed images and precise morphological data of temporal lobe, which provides morphological data of temporal lobe for the construction of database for Chinese Standard Brain. (authors)

  18. Large-Area, High-Resolution Tree Cover Mapping with Multi-Temporal SPOT5 Imagery, New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Fisher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tree cover maps are used for many purposes, such as vegetation mapping, habitat connectivity and fragmentation studies. Small remnant patches of native vegetation are recognised as ecologically important, yet they are underestimated in remote sensing products derived from Landsat. High spatial resolution sensors are capable of mapping small patches of trees, but their use in large-area mapping has been limited. In this study, multi-temporal Satellite pour l’Observation de la Terre 5 (SPOT5 High Resolution Geometrical data was pan-sharpened to 5 m resolution and used to map tree cover for the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW, an area of over 800,000 km2. Complete coverages of SPOT5 panchromatic and multispectral data over NSW were acquired during four consecutive summers (2008–2011 for a total of 1256 images. After pre-processing, the imagery was used to model foliage projective cover (FPC, a measure of tree canopy density commonly used in Australia. The multi-temporal imagery, FPC models and 26,579 training pixels were used in a binomial logistic regression model to estimate the probability of each pixel containing trees. The probability images were classified into a binary map of tree cover using local thresholds, and then visually edited to reduce errors. The final tree map was then attributed with the mean FPC value from the multi-temporal imagery. Validation of the binary map based on visually assessed high resolution reference imagery revealed an overall accuracy of 88% (±0.51% standard error, while comparison against airborne lidar derived data also resulted in an overall accuracy of 88%. A preliminary assessment of the FPC map by comparing against 76 field measurements showed a very good agreement (r2 = 0.90 with a root mean square error of 8.57%, although this may not be representative due to the opportunistic sampling design. The map represents a regionally consistent and locally relevant record of tree cover for NSW, and

  19. Improved accuracy of quantitative parameter estimates in dynamic contrast-enhanced CT study with low temporal resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Mo, E-mail: Sunmo.Kim@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Haider, Masoom A. [Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Jaffray, David A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Yeung, Ivan W. T. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Stronach Regional Cancer Centre, Southlake Regional Health Centre, Newmarket, Ontario L3Y 2P9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: A previously proposed method to reduce radiation dose to patient in dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) CT is enhanced by principal component analysis (PCA) filtering which improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of time-concentration curves in the DCE-CT study. The efficacy of the combined method to maintain the accuracy of kinetic parameter estimates at low temporal resolution is investigated with pixel-by-pixel kinetic analysis of DCE-CT data. Methods: The method is based on DCE-CT scanning performed with low temporal resolution to reduce the radiation dose to the patient. The arterial input function (AIF) with high temporal resolution can be generated with a coarsely sampled AIF through a previously published method of AIF estimation. To increase the SNR of time-concentration curves (tissue curves), first, a region-of-interest is segmented into squares composed of 3 × 3 pixels in size. Subsequently, the PCA filtering combined with a fraction of residual information criterion is applied to all the segmented squares for further improvement of their SNRs. The proposed method was applied to each DCE-CT data set of a cohort of 14 patients at varying levels of down-sampling. The kinetic analyses using the modified Tofts’ model and singular value decomposition method, then, were carried out for each of the down-sampling schemes between the intervals from 2 to 15 s. The results were compared with analyses done with the measured data in high temporal resolution (i.e., original scanning frequency) as the reference. Results: The patients’ AIFs were estimated to high accuracy based on the 11 orthonormal bases of arterial impulse responses established in the previous paper. In addition, noise in the images was effectively reduced by using five principal components of the tissue curves for filtering. Kinetic analyses using the proposed method showed superior results compared to those with down-sampling alone; they were able to maintain the accuracy in the

  20. An Improved Method for Producing High Spatial-Resolution NDVI Time Series Datasets with Multi-Temporal MODIS NDVI Data and Landsat TM/ETM+ Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Rao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to technical limitations, it is impossible to have high resolution in both spatial and temporal dimensions for current NDVI datasets. Therefore, several methods are developed to produce high resolution (spatial and temporal NDVI time-series datasets, which face some limitations including high computation loads and unreasonable assumptions. In this study, an unmixing-based method, NDVI Linear Mixing Growth Model (NDVI-LMGM, is proposed to achieve the goal of accurately and efficiently blending MODIS NDVI time-series data and multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images. This method firstly unmixes the NDVI temporal changes in MODIS time-series to different land cover types and then uses unmixed NDVI temporal changes to predict Landsat-like NDVI dataset. The test over a forest site shows high accuracy (average difference: −0.0070; average absolute difference: 0.0228; and average absolute relative difference: 4.02% and computation efficiency of NDVI-LMGM (31 seconds using a personal computer. Experiments over more complex landscape and long-term time-series demonstrated that NDVI-LMGM performs well in each stage of vegetation growing season and is robust in regions with contrasting spatial and spatial variations. Comparisons between NDVI-LMGM and current methods (i.e., Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM, Enhanced STARFM (ESTARFM and Weighted Linear Model (WLM show that NDVI-LMGM is more accurate and efficient than current methods. The proposed method will benefit land surface process research, which requires a dense NDVI time-series dataset with high spatial resolution.

  1. Detecting Single-Nucleotides by Tunneling Current Measurements at Sub-MHz Temporal Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Takanori; Yokota, Kazumichi; Tanimoto, Sachie; Tsutsui, Makusu; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2017-04-18

    Label-free detection of single-nucleotides was performed by fast tunneling current measurements in a polar solvent at 1 MHz sampling rate using SiO₂-protected Au nanoprobes. Short current spikes were observed, suggestive of trapping/detrapping of individual nucleotides between the nanoelectrodes. The fall and rise features of the electrical signatures indicated signal retardation by capacitance effects with a time constant of about 10 microseconds. The high temporal resolution revealed current fluctuations, reflecting the molecular conformation degrees of freedom in the electrode gap. The method presented in this work may enable direct characterizations of dynamic changes in single-molecule conformations in an electrode gap in liquid.

  2. An advection-based model to increase the temporal resolution of PIV time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarano, Fulvio; Moore, Peter

    A numerical implementation of the advection equation is proposed to increase the temporal resolution of PIV time series. The method is based on the principle that velocity fluctuations are transported passively, similar to Taylor's hypothesis of frozen turbulence . In the present work, the advection model is extended to unsteady three-dimensional flows. The main objective of the method is that of lowering the requirement on the PIV repetition rate from the Eulerian frequency toward the Lagrangian one. The local trajectory of the fluid parcel is obtained by forward projection of the instantaneous velocity at the preceding time instant and backward projection from the subsequent time step. The trajectories are approximated by the instantaneous streamlines, which yields accurate results when the amplitude of velocity fluctuations is small with respect to the convective motion. The verification is performed with two experiments conducted at temporal resolutions significantly higher than that dictated by Nyquist criterion. The flow past the trailing edge of a NACA0012 airfoil closely approximates frozen turbulence , where the largest ratio between the Lagrangian and Eulerian temporal scales is expected. An order of magnitude reduction of the needed acquisition frequency is demonstrated by the velocity spectra of super-sampled series. The application to three-dimensional data is made with time-resolved tomographic PIV measurements of a transitional jet. Here, the 3D advection equation is implemented to estimate the fluid trajectories. The reduction in the minimum sampling rate by the use of super-sampling in this case is less, due to the fact that vortices occurring in the jet shear layer are not well approximated by sole advection at large time separation. Both cases reveal that the current requirements for time-resolved PIV experiments can be revised when information is poured from space to time . An additional favorable effect is observed by the analysis in the

  3. Measuring Temporal Resolution (Release of Masking) with a Hughson-Westlake Up-Down Instead of a Bekesy-Tracking Procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, Koenraad S.; van Esch, Thamar E. M.; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A temporal resolution test in addition to the pure-tone audiogram may be of great clinical interest because of its relevance in speech perception and expected relevance in hearing aid fitting. Larsby and Arlinger developed an appropriate clinical test, but this test uses a

  4. Spatial, Temporal and Spectral Satellite Image Fusion via Sparse Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huihui

    -MODIS image pairs, we build the corresponding relationship between the difference images of MODIS and ETM+ by training a low- and high-resolution dictionary pair from the given prior image pairs. In the second scenario, i.e., only one Landsat- MODIS image pair being available, we directly correlate MODIS and ETM+ data through an image degradation model. Then, the fusion stage is achieved by super-resolving the MODIS image combining the high-pass modulation in a two-layer fusion framework. Remarkably, the proposed spatial-temporal fusion methods form a unified framework for blending remote sensing images with phenology change or land-cover-type change. Based on the proposed spatial-temporal fusion models, we propose to monitor the land use/land cover changes in Shenzhen, China. As a fast-growing city, Shenzhen faces the problem of detecting the rapid changes for both rational city planning and sustainable development. However, the cloudy and rainy weather in region Shenzhen located makes the capturing circle of high-quality satellite images longer than their normal revisit periods. Spatial-temporal fusion methods are capable to tackle this problem by improving the spatial resolution of images with coarse spatial resolution but frequent temporal coverage, thereby making the detection of rapid changes possible. On two Landsat-MODIS datasets with annual and monthly changes, respectively, we apply the proposed spatial-temporal fusion methods to the task of multiple change detection. Afterward, we propose a novel spatial and spectral fusion method for satellite multispectral and hyperspectral (or high-spectral) images based on dictionary-pair learning and sparse non-negative matrix factorization. By combining the spectral information from hyperspectral image, which is characterized by low spatial resolution but high spectral resolution and abbreviated as LSHS, and the spatial information from multispectral image, which is featured by high spatial resolution but low spectral

  5. Comparison of spatio-temporal resolution of different flow measurement techniques for marine renewable energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Vincent; Wosnik, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy conversion devices are subject to a wide range of turbulent scales, either due to upstream bathymetry, obstacles and waves, or from wakes of upstream devices in array configurations. The commonly used, robust Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) are well suited for long term flow measurements in the marine environment, but are limited to low sampling rates due to their operational principle. The resulting temporal and spatial resolution is insufficient to measure all turbulence scales of interest to the device, e.g., ``blade-scale turbulence.'' The present study systematically characterizes the spatial and temporal resolution of ADCP, Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV), and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Measurements were conducted in a large cross section tow tank (3.7m × 2.4m) for several benchmark cases, including low and high turbulence intensity uniform flow as well as in the wake of a cylinder, to quantitatively investigate the flow scales which each of the instruments can resolve. The purpose of the study is to supply data for mathematical modeling to improve predictions from ADCP measurements, which can help lead to higher-fidelity energy resource assessment and more accurate device evaluation, including wake measurements. Supported by NSF-CBET grant 1150797.

  6. Assessment of Spectral and Temporal Resolution in Cochlear Implant Users Using Psychoacoustic Discrimination and Speech Cue Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Matthew B; Won, Jong Ho; Moon, Il Joon

    This study was conducted to measure auditory perception by cochlear implant users in the spectral and temporal domains, using tests of either categorization (using speech-based cues) or discrimination (using conventional psychoacoustic tests). The authors hypothesized that traditional nonlinguistic tests assessing spectral and temporal auditory resolution would correspond to speech-based measures assessing specific aspects of phonetic categorization assumed to depend on spectral and temporal auditory resolution. The authors further hypothesized that speech-based categorization performance would ultimately be a superior predictor of speech recognition performance, because of the fundamental nature of speech recognition as categorization. Nineteen cochlear implant listeners and 10 listeners with normal hearing participated in a suite of tasks that included spectral ripple discrimination, temporal modulation detection, and syllable categorization, which was split into a spectral cue-based task (targeting the /ba/-/da/ contrast) and a timing cue-based task (targeting the /b/-/p/ and /d/-/t/ contrasts). Speech sounds were manipulated to contain specific spectral or temporal modulations (formant transitions or voice onset time, respectively) that could be categorized. Categorization responses were quantified using logistic regression to assess perceptual sensitivity to acoustic phonetic cues. Word recognition testing was also conducted for cochlear implant listeners. Cochlear implant users were generally less successful at utilizing both spectral and temporal cues for categorization compared with listeners with normal hearing. For the cochlear implant listener group, spectral ripple discrimination was significantly correlated with the categorization of formant transitions; both were correlated with better word recognition. Temporal modulation detection using 100- and 10-Hz-modulated noise was not correlated either with the cochlear implant subjects' categorization of

  7. Time-domain multiplexed high resolution fiber optics strain sensor system based on temporal response of fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiageng; Liu, Qingwen; He, Zuyuan

    2017-09-04

    We developed a multiplexed strain sensor system with high resolution using fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers (FFPI) as sensing elements. The temporal responses of the FFPIs excited by rectangular laser pulses are used to obtain the strain applied on each FFPI. The FFPIs are connected by cascaded couplers and delay fiber rolls for the time-domain multiplexing. A compact optoelectronic system performing closed-loop cyclic interrogation is employed to improve the sensing resolution and the frequency response. In the demonstration experiment, 3-channel strain sensing with resolutions better than 0.1 nε and frequency response higher than 100 Hz is realized.

  8. Spatial-Temporal Dynamics of High-Resolution Animal Networks: What Can We Learn from Domestic Animals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Chen

    Full Text Available Animal social network is the key to understand many ecological and epidemiological processes. We used real-time location system (RTLS to accurately track cattle position, analyze their proximity networks, and tested the hypothesis of temporal stationarity and spatial homogeneity in these networks during different daily time periods and in different areas of the pen. The network structure was analyzed using global network characteristics (network density, subgroup clustering (modularity, triadic property (transitivity, and dyadic interactions (correlation coefficient from a quadratic assignment procedure at hourly level. We demonstrated substantial spatial-temporal heterogeneity in these networks and potential link between indirect animal-environment contact and direct animal-animal contact. But such heterogeneity diminished if data were collected at lower spatial (aggregated at entire pen level or temporal (aggregated at daily level resolution. The network structure (described by the characteristics such as density, modularity, transitivity, etc. also changed substantially at different time and locations. There were certain time (feeding and location (hay that the proximity network structures were more consistent based on the dyadic interaction analysis. These results reveal new insights for animal network structure and spatial-temporal dynamics, provide more accurate descriptions of animal social networks, and allow more accurate modeling of multiple (both direct and indirect disease transmission pathways.

  9. High temporal resolution in situ measurement of the effective particle size characteristics of fluvial suspended sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N D; Walling, D E; Leeks, G J L

    2007-03-01

    This paper reports the use of a LISST-100 device to monitor the effective particle size characteristics of suspended sediment in situ, and at a quasi-continuous temporal resolution. The study site was located on the River Exe at Thorverton, Devon, UK. This device has not previously been utilized in studies of fluvial suspended sediment at the storm event scale, and existing studies of suspended sediment dynamics have not involved such a high temporal resolution for extended periods. An evaluation of the field performance of the instrument is presented, with respect to innovative data collection and analysis techniques. It was found that trends in the effective particle size distribution (EPSD) and degree of flocculation of suspended sediment at the study site were highly complex, and showed significant short-term variability that has not previously been documented in the fluvial environment. The collection of detailed records of EPSD facilitated interpretation of the dynamic evolution of the size characteristics of suspended sediment, in relation to its likely source and delivery and flocculation mechanisms. The influence of measurement frequency is considered in terms of its implications for future studies of the particle size of fluvial suspended sediment employing in situ data acquisition.

  10. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-03-29] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution

  11. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution

  12. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-03-29] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution

  13. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution

  14. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution

  15. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution

  16. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution

  17. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution

  18. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution

  19. Integrating real-time and manual monitored data to predict hillslope soil moisture dynamics with high spatio-temporal resolution using linear and non-linear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture (') is a challenge that remains to be better understood. A trade-off exists between spatial coverage and temporal resolution when using the manual and real-time ' monitoring methods. This restricted the comprehensive and intensive examination of ' dynamic...

  20. Influence of daily versus monthly fire emissions on atmospheric model applications in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, M. E.; Voulgarakis, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Shindell, D. T.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Fires are widely used throughout the tropics to create and maintain areas for agriculture, but are also significant contributors to atmospheric trace gas and aerosol concentrations. However, the timing and magnitude of fire activity can vary strongly by year and ecosystem type. For example, frequent, low intensity fires dominate in African savannas whereas Southeast Asian peatland forests are susceptible to huge pulses of emissions during regional El Niño droughts. Despite the potential implications for modeling interactions with atmospheric chemistry and transport, fire emissions have commonly been input into global models at a monthly resolution. Recognizing the uncertainty that this can introduce, several datasets have parsed fire emissions to daily and sub-daily scales with satellite active fire detections. In this study, we explore differences between utilizing the monthly and daily Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) products as inputs into the NASA GISS-E2 composition climate model. We aim to understand how the choice of the temporal resolution of fire emissions affects uncertainty with respect to several common applications of global models: atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and climate. Focusing our analysis on tropical ozone, carbon monoxide, and aerosols, we compare modeled concentrations with available ground and satellite observations. We find that increasing the temporal frequency of fire emissions from monthly to daily can improve correlations with observations, predominately in areas or during seasons more heavily affected by fires. Differences between the two datasets are more evident with public health applications: daily resolution fire emissions increases the number of days exceeding World Health Organization air quality targets.

  1. Enhanced temporal resolution at cardiac CT with a novel CT image reconstruction algorithm: Initial patient experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfaltrer, Paul, E-mail: paul.apfaltrer@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, PO Box 250322, 169 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Schoendube, Harald, E-mail: harald.schoendube@siemens.com [Siemens Healthcare, CT Division, Forchheim Siemens, Siemensstr. 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, PO Box 250322, 169 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Allmendinger, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.allmendinger@siemens.com [Siemens Healthcare, CT Division, Forchheim Siemens, Siemensstr. 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); Tricarico, Francesco, E-mail: francescotricarico82@gmail.com [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, PO Box 250322, 169 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, “A. Gemelli” Hospital, Largo A. Gemelli 8, Rome (Italy); Schindler, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.schindler@campus.lmu.de [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, PO Box 250322, 169 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Vogt, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.vogt@siemens.com [Siemens Healthcare, CT Division, Forchheim Siemens, Siemensstr. 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); Sunnegårdh, Johan, E-mail: johan.sunnegardh@siemens.com [Siemens Healthcare, CT Division, Forchheim Siemens, Siemensstr. 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); and others

    2013-02-15

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of a temporal resolution improvement method (TRIM) for cardiac CT on diagnostic image quality for coronary artery assessment. Materials and methods: The TRIM-algorithm employs an iterative approach to reconstruct images from less than 180° of projections and uses a histogram constraint to prevent the occurrence of limited-angle artifacts. This algorithm was applied in 11 obese patients (7 men, 67.2 ± 9.8 years) who had undergone second generation dual-source cardiac CT with 120 kV, 175–426 mAs, and 500 ms gantry rotation. All data were reconstructed with a temporal resolution of 250 ms using traditional filtered-back projection (FBP) and of 200 ms using the TRIM-algorithm. Contrast attenuation and contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) were measured in the ascending aorta. The presence and severity of coronary motion artifacts was rated on a 4-point Likert scale. Results: All scans were considered of diagnostic quality. Mean BMI was 36 ± 3.6 kg/m{sup 2}. Average heart rate was 60 ± 9 bpm. Mean effective dose was 13.5 ± 4.6 mSv. When comparing FBP- and TRIM reconstructed series, the attenuation within the ascending aorta (392 ± 70.7 vs. 396.8 ± 70.1 HU, p > 0.05) and CNR (13.2 ± 3.2 vs. 11.7 ± 3.1, p > 0.05) were not significantly different. A total of 110 coronary segments were evaluated. All studies were deemed diagnostic; however, there was a significant (p < 0.05) difference in the severity score distribution of coronary motion artifacts between FBP (median = 2.5) and TRIM (median = 2.0) reconstructions. Conclusion: The algorithm evaluated here delivers diagnostic imaging quality of the coronary arteries despite 500 ms gantry rotation. Possible applications include improvement of cardiac imaging on slower gantry rotation systems or mitigation of the trade-off between temporal resolution and CNR in obese patients.

  2. The Version 2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979-Present)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Chang, Alfred; Ferraro, Ralph; Xie, Ping-Ping; Janowiak, John; Rudolf, Bruno; Schneider, Udo; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David

    2003-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Version 2 Monthly Precipitation Analysis is described. This globally complete, monthly analysis of surface precipitation at 2.5 degrees x 2.5 degrees latitude-longitude resolution is available from January 1979 to the present. It is a merged analysis that incorporates precipitation estimates from low-orbit-satellite microwave data, geosynchronous-orbit-satellite infrared data, and rain gauge observations. The merging approach utilizes the higher accuracy of the low-orbit microwave observations to calibrate, or adjust, the more frequent geosynchronous infrared observations. The data set is extended back into the premicrowave era (before 1987) by using infrared-only observations calibrated to the microwave-based analysis of the later years. The combined satellite-based product is adjusted by the raingauge analysis. This monthly analysis is the foundation for the GPCP suite of products including those at finer temporal resolution, satellite estimate, and error estimates for each field. The 23-year GPCP climatology is characterized, along with time and space variations of precipitation.

  3. Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging of tumor hypoxia: enhanced spatial and temporal resolution for in vivo pO2 determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichiro; Subramanian, Sankaran; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Aravalluvan, Thirumaran; Murugesan, Ramachandran; Cook, John A; Mitchell, James B; Krishna, Murali C

    2006-05-01

    The time-domain (TD) mode of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data collection offers a means of estimating the concentration of a paramagnetic probe and the oxygen-dependent linewidth (LW) to generate pO2 maps with minimal errors. A methodology for noninvasive pO2 imaging based on the application of TD-EPR using oxygen-induced LW broadening of a triarylmethyl (TAM)-based radical is presented. The decay of pixel intensities in an image is used to estimate T2*, which is inversely proportional to pO2. Factors affecting T2* in each pixel are critically analyzed to extract the contribution of dissolved oxygen to EPR line-broadening. Suitable experimental and image-processing parameters were obtained to produce pO2 maps with minimal artifacts. Image artifacts were also minimized with the use of a novel data collection strategy using multiple gradients. Results from a phantom and in vivo imaging of tumor-bearing mice validated this novel method of noninvasive oximetry. The current imaging protocols achieve a spatial resolution of approximately 1.0 mm and a temporal resolution of approximately 9 s for 2D pO2 mapping, with a reliable oxygen resolution of approximately 1 mmHg (0.12% oxygen in gas phase). This work demonstrates that in vivo oximetry can be performed with good sensitivity, accuracy, and high spatial and temporal resolution.

  4. Single breath-hold real-time cine MR imaging: improved temporal resolution using generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (GRAPPA) algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintersperger, Bernd J.; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Dietrich, Olaf; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Rieber, Johannes; Nittka, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test parallel imaging techniques for improvement of temporal resolution in multislice single breath-hold real-time cine steady-state free precession (SSFP) in comparison with standard segmented single-slice SSFP techniques. Eighteen subjects were examined on a 1.5-T scanner using a multislice real-time cine SSFP technique using the GRAPPA algorithm. Global left ventricular parameters (EDV, ESV, SV, EF) were evaluated and results compared with a standard segmented single-slice SSFP technique. Results for EDV (r=0.93), ESV (r=0.99), SV (r=0.83), and EF (r=0.99) of real-time multislice SSFP imaging showed a high correlation with results of segmented SSFP acquisitions. Systematic differences between both techniques were statistically non-significant. Single breath-hold multislice techniques using GRAPPA allow for improvement of temporal resolution and for accurate assessment of global left ventricular functional parameters. (orig.)

  5. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2003-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution

  6. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution

  7. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution

  8. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2006-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution

  9. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2002-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution

  10. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-03-29] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution

  11. High resolution reconstruction of monthly precipitation of Iberian Peninsula using circulation weather types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, N.; Trigo, R.; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, J. C.; Ramos, A. M.

    2012-06-01

    Precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula (IP) is highly variable and shows large spatial contrasts between wet mountainous regions, to the north, and dry regions in the inland plains and southern areas. In this work, a high-density monthly precipitation dataset for the IP was coupled with a set of 26 atmospheric circulation weather types (Trigo and DaCamara, 2000) to reconstruct Iberian monthly precipitation from October to May with a very high resolution of 3030 precipitation series (overall mean density one station each 200 km2). A stepwise linear regression model with forward selection was used to develop monthly reconstructed precipitation series calibrated and validated over 1948-2003 period. Validation was conducted by means of a leave-one-out cross-validation over the calibration period. The results show a good model performance for selected months, with a mean coefficient of variation (CV) around 0.6 for validation period, being particularly robust over the western and central sectors of IP, while the predicted values in the Mediterranean and northern coastal areas are less acute. We show for three long stations (Lisbon, Madrid and Valencia) the comparison between model and original data as an example to how these models can be used in order to obtain monthly precipitation fields since the 1850s over most of IP for this very high density network.

  12. Agro-hydrology and multi temporal high resolution remote sensing: toward an explicit spatial processes calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrant, S.; Gascoin, S.; Veloso, A.; Salmon-Monviola, J.; Claverie, M.; Rivalland, V.; Dedieu, G.; Demarez, V.; Ceschia, E.; Probst, J.-L.; Durand, P.; Bustillo, V.

    2014-07-01

    The recent and forthcoming availability of high resolution satellite image series offers new opportunities in agro-hydrological research and modeling. We investigated the perspective offered by improving the crop growth dynamic simulation using the distributed agro-hydrological model, Topography based Nitrogen transfer and Transformation (TNT2), using LAI map series derived from 105 Formosat-2 (F2) images during the period 2006-2010. The TNT2 model (Beaujouan et al., 2002), calibrated with discharge and in-stream nitrate fluxes for the period 1985-2001, was tested on the 2006-2010 dataset (climate, land use, agricultural practices, discharge and nitrate fluxes at the outlet). A priori agricultural practices obtained from an extensive field survey such as seeding date, crop cultivar, and fertilizer amount were used as input variables. Continuous values of LAI as a function of cumulative daily temperature were obtained at the crop field level by fitting a double logistic equation against discrete satellite-derived LAI. Model predictions of LAI dynamics with a priori input parameters showed an temporal shift with observed LAI profiles irregularly distributed in space (between field crops) and time (between years). By re-setting seeding date at the crop field level, we proposed an optimization method to minimize efficiently this temporal shift and better fit the crop growth against the spatial observations as well as crop production. This optimization of simulated LAI has a negligible impact on water budget at the catchment scale (1 mm yr-1 in average) but a noticeable impact on in-stream nitrogen fluxes (around 12%) which is of interest considering nitrate stream contamination issues and TNT2 model objectives. This study demonstrates the contribution of forthcoming high spatial and temporal resolution products of Sentinel-2 satellite mission in improving agro-hydrological modeling by constraining the spatial representation of crop productivity.

  13. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    _Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=250 km - < 500 km or approximately 2.5 degrees - < 5.0 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=hourly, daily, monthly; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily, Daily - < Weekly, Monthly - < Annual].

  14. Harmful Algal Bloom Characterization at Ultra-High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Using Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deon Van der Merwe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms (HABs degrade water quality and produce toxins. The spatial distribution of HAbs may change rapidly due to variations wind, water currents, and population dynamics. Risk assessments, based on traditional sampling methods, are hampered by the sparseness of water sample data points, and delays between sampling and the availability of results. There is a need for local risk assessment and risk management at the spatial and temporal resolution relevant to local human and animal interactions at specific sites and times. Small, unmanned aircraft systems can gather color-infrared reflectance data at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions, with full control over data collection timing, and short intervals between data gathering and result availability. Data can be interpreted qualitatively, or by generating a blue normalized difference vegetation index (BNDVI that is correlated with cyanobacterial biomass densities at the water surface, as estimated using a buoyant packed cell volume (BPCV. Correlations between BNDVI and BPCV follow a logarithmic model, with r2-values under field conditions from 0.77 to 0.87. These methods provide valuable information that is complimentary to risk assessment data derived from traditional risk assessment methods, and could help to improve risk management at the local level.

  15. Modelling daily PM2.5 concentrations at high spatio-temporal resolution across Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoogh, Kees; Héritier, Harris; Stafoggia, Massimo; Künzli, Nino; Kloog, Itai

    2018-02-01

    Spatiotemporal resolved models were developed predicting daily fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations across Switzerland from 2003 to 2013. Relatively sparse PM 2.5 monitoring data was supplemented by imputing PM 2.5 concentrations at PM 10 sites, using PM 2.5 /PM 10 ratios at co-located sites. Daily PM 2.5 concentrations were first estimated at a 1 × 1km resolution across Switzerland, using Multiangle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) data in combination with spatiotemporal predictor data in a four stage approach. Mixed effect models (1) were used to predict PM 2.5 in cells with AOD but without PM 2.5 measurements (2). A generalized additive mixed model with spatial smoothing was applied to generate grid cell predictions for those grid cells where AOD was missing (3). Finally, local PM 2.5 predictions were estimated at each monitoring site by regressing the residuals from the 1 × 1km estimate against local spatial and temporal variables using machine learning techniques (4) and adding them to the stage 3 global estimates. The global (1 km) and local (100 m) models explained on average 73% of the total,71% of the spatial and 75% of the temporal variation (all cross validated) globally and on average 89% (total) 95% (spatial) and 88% (temporal) of the variation locally in measured PM 2.5 concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Medial Temporal Lobe and the Left Inferior Prefrontal Cortex Jointly Support Interference Resolution in Verbal Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin, Ilke; Curtis, Clayton E.; McElree, Brian

    2009-01-01

    During working memory retrieval, proactive interference (PI) can be induced by semantic similarity and episodic familiarity. Here, we used fMRI to test hypotheses about the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and the medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions in successful resolution of PI. Participants studied six-word lists and responded to a…

  17. Study of the dependence of resolution temporal activity for a Philips gemini TF PET/CT scanner by applying a statistical analysis of time series; Estudio de la dependencia de la resolucion temporal con la actividad para un escaner PET-TAC philips gemini TF aplicando un analisis estadistico de series temporales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Merino, G.; Cortes Rpdicio, J.; Lope Lope, R.; Martin Gonzalez, T.; Garcia Fidalgo, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the dependence of temporal resolution with the activity using statistical techniques applied to the series of values time series measurements of temporal resolution during daily equipment checks. (Author)

  18. Enhanced Visual Temporal Resolution in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falter, Christine M.; Elliott, Mark A.; Bailey, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive functions that rely on accurate sequencing of events, such as action planning and execution, verbal and nonverbal communication, and social interaction rely on well-tuned coding of temporal event-structure. Visual temporal event-structure coding was tested in 17 high-functioning

  19. A Kinematic Description of the Temporal Characteristics of Jaw Motion for Early Chewing: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Erin M.; Green, Jordan R.; Weismer, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to describe age- and consistency-related changes in the temporal characteristics of chewing in typically developing children between the ages of 4 and 35 months and adults using high-resolution optically based motion capture technology. Method: Data were collected from 60 participants (48 children, 12…

  20. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    _Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=250 km - < 500 km or approximately 2.5 degrees - < 5.0 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=hourly, daily, monthly; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily, Daily - < Weekly, Monthly - < Annual].

  1. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    _Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=250 km - < 500 km or approximately 2.5 degrees - < 5.0 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=hourly, daily, monthly; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily, Daily - < Weekly, Monthly - < Annual].

  2. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    _Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=250 km - < 500 km or approximately 2.5 degrees - < 5.0 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=hourly, daily, monthly; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily, Daily - < Weekly, Monthly - < Annual].

  3. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    _Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=250 km - < 500 km or approximately 2.5 degrees - < 5.0 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=hourly, daily, monthly; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily, Daily - < Weekly, Monthly - < Annual].

  4. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    _Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=250 km - < 500 km or approximately 2.5 degrees - < 5.0 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=hourly, daily, monthly; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily, Daily - < Weekly, Monthly - < Annual].

  5. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    _Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=250 km - < 500 km or approximately 2.5 degrees - < 5.0 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=hourly, daily, monthly; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily, Daily - < Weekly, Monthly - < Annual].

  6. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    _Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=250 km - < 500 km or approximately 2.5 degrees - < 5.0 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=hourly, daily, monthly; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily, Daily - < Weekly, Monthly - < Annual].

  7. Temporal resolution requirements of satellite constellations for 30 m global burned area mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, A.; Boschetti, L.

    2017-12-01

    Global burned area maps have been generated systematically with daily, coarse resolution satellite data (Giglio et al. 2013). The production of moderate resolution (10 - 30 m) global burned area products would meet the needs of several user communities: improved carbon emission estimations due to heterogeneous landscapes and for local scale air quality and fire management applications (Mouillot et al. 2014; van der Werf et al. 2010). While the increased spatial resolution reduces the influence of mixed burnt/unburnt pixels and it would increase the spectral separation of burned areas, moderate resolution satellites have reduced temporal resolution (10 - 16 days). Fire causes a land-cover change spectrally visible for a period ranging from a few weeks in savannas to over a year in forested ecosystems (Roy et al. 2010); because clouds, smoke, and other optically thick aerosols limit the number of available observations (Roy et al. 2008; Smith and Wooster 2005), burned areas might disappear before they are observed by moderate resolution sensors. Data fusion from a constellation of different sensors has been proposed to overcome these limits (Boschetti et al. 2015; Roy 2015). In this study, we estimated the probability of moderate resolution satellites and virtual constellations (including Landsat-8/9, Sentinel-2A/B) to provide sufficient observations for burned area mapping globally, and by ecosystem. First, we estimated the duration of the persistence of the signal associated with burned areas by combining the MODIS Global Burned Area and the Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance Product by characterizing the post-fire trends in reflectance to determine the length of the period in which the burn class is spectrally distinct from the unburned and, therefore, detectable. The MODIS-Terra daily cloud data were then used to estimate the probability of cloud cover. The cloud probability was used at each location to estimate the minimum revisit time needed to obtain at least one

  8. From AWE-GEN to AWE-GEN-2d: a high spatial and temporal resolution weather generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Nadav; Fatichi, Simone; Paschalis, Athanasios; Molnar, Peter; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    A new weather generator, AWE-GEN-2d (Advanced WEather GENerator for 2-Dimension grid) is developed following the philosophy of combining physical and stochastic approaches to simulate meteorological variables at high spatial and temporal resolution (e.g. 2 km x 2 km and 5 min for precipitation and cloud cover and 100 m x 100 m and 1 h for other variables variable (temperature, solar radiation, vapor pressure, atmospheric pressure and near-surface wind). The model is suitable to investigate the impacts of climate variability, temporal and spatial resolutions of forcing on hydrological, ecological, agricultural and geomorphological impacts studies. Using appropriate parameterization the model can be used in the context of climate change. Here we present the model technical structure of AWE-GEN-2d, which is a substantial evolution of four preceding models (i) the hourly-point scale Advanced WEather GENerator (AWE-GEN) presented by Fatichi et al. (2011, Adv. Water Resour.) (ii) the Space-Time Realizations of Areal Precipitation (STREAP) model introduced by Paschalis et al. (2013, Water Resour. Res.), (iii) the High-Resolution Synoptically conditioned Weather Generator developed by Peleg and Morin (2014, Water Resour. Res.), and (iv) the Wind-field Interpolation by Non Divergent Schemes presented by Burlando et al. (2007, Boundary-Layer Meteorol.). The AWE-GEN-2d is relatively parsimonious in terms of computational demand and allows generating many stochastic realizations of current and projected climates in an efficient way. An example of model application and testing is presented with reference to a case study in the Wallis region, a complex orography terrain in the Swiss Alps.

  9. Spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy and super-resolution microscopy to quantify molecular dynamics in T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashdown, George W; Owen, Dylan M

    2018-02-02

    Many cellular processes are regulated by the spatio-temporal organisation of signalling complexes, cytoskeletal components and membranes. One such example is at the T cell immunological synapse where the retrograde flow of cortical filamentous (F)-actin from the synapse periphery drives signalling protein microclusters towards the synapse centre. The density of this mesh however, makes visualisation and analysis of individual actin fibres difficult due to the resolution limit of conventional microscopy. Recently, super-resolution methods such as structured illumination microscopy (SIM) have surpassed this resolution limit. Here, we apply SIM to better visualise the dense cortical actin meshwork in T cell synapses formed against activating, antibody-coated surfaces and image under total-internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) illumination. To analyse the observed molecular flows, and the relationship between them, we apply spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS) and its cross-correlation variant (STICCS). We show that the dynamic cortical actin mesh can be visualised with unprecedented detail and that STICS/STICCS can output accurate, quantitative maps of molecular flow velocity and directionality from such data. We find that the actin flow can be disrupted using small molecule inhibitors of actin polymerisation. This combination of imaging and quantitative analysis may provide an important new tool for researchers to investigate the molecular dynamics at cellular length scales. Here we demonstrate the retrograde flow of F-actin which may be important for the clustering and dynamics of key signalling proteins within the plasma membrane, a phenomenon which is vital to correct T cell activation and therefore the mounting of an effective immune response. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. High temporal resolution mapping of seismic noise sources using heterogeneous supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhberg, Alexey; Ermert, Laura; Paitz, Patrick; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Time- and space-dependent distribution of seismic noise sources is becoming a key ingredient of modern real-time monitoring of various geo-systems. Significant interest in seismic noise source maps with high temporal resolution (days) is expected to come from a number of domains, including natural resources exploration, analysis of active earthquake fault zones and volcanoes, as well as geothermal and hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring. Currently, knowledge of noise sources is insufficient for high-resolution subsurface monitoring applications. Near-real-time seismic data, as well as advanced imaging methods to constrain seismic noise sources have recently become available. These methods are based on the massive cross-correlation of seismic noise records from all available seismic stations in the region of interest and are therefore very computationally intensive. Heterogeneous massively parallel supercomputing systems introduced in the recent years combine conventional multi-core CPU with GPU accelerators and provide an opportunity for manifold increase and computing performance. Therefore, these systems represent an efficient platform for implementation of a noise source mapping solution. We present the first results of an ongoing research project conducted in collaboration with the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre (CSCS). The project aims at building a service that provides seismic noise source maps for Central Europe with high temporal resolution (days to few weeks depending on frequency and data availability). The service is hosted on the CSCS computing infrastructure; all computationally intensive processing is performed on the massively parallel heterogeneous supercomputer "Piz Daint". The solution architecture is based on the Application-as-a-Service concept in order to provide the interested external researchers the regular access to the noise source maps. The solution architecture includes the following sub-systems: (1) data acquisition responsible for

  11. Quantum phase amplification for temporal pulse shaping and super-resolution in remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yanchun

    The use of nonlinear optical interactions to perform nonclassical transformations of electromagnetic field is an area of considerable interest. Quantum phase amplification (QPA) has been previously proposed as a method to perform nonclassical manipulation of coherent light, which can be experimentally realized by use of nonlinear optical mixing processes, of which phase-sensitive three-wave mixing (PSTWM) is one convenient choice. QPA occurs when PSTWM is operated in the photon number deamplification mode, i.e., when the energy is coherently transferred among the low-frequency signal and idler waves and the high-frequency pump wave. The final state is nonclassical, with the field amplitude squeezed and the phase anti-squeezed. In the temporal domain, the use of QPA has been studied to facilitate nonlinear pulse shaping. This novel method directly shapes the temporal electric field amplitude and phase using the PSTWM in a degenerate and collinear configuration, which has been analyzed using a numerical model. Several representative pulse shaping capabilities of this technique have been identified, which can augment the performance of common passive pulse shaping methods operating in the Fourier domain. The analysis indicates that a simple quadratic variation of temporal phase facilitates pulse compression and self-steepening, with features significantly shorter than the original transform-limited pulse. Thus, PSTWM can act as a direct pulse compressor based on the combined effects of phase amplification and group velocity mismatch, even without the subsequent linear phase compensation. Furthermore, it is shown numerically that pulse doublets and pulse trains can be produced at the pump frequency by utilizing the residual linear phase of the signal. Such pulse shaping capabilities are found to be within reach of this technique in common nonlinear optical crystals pumped by pulses available from compact femtosecond chirped-pulse amplification laser systems. The use of

  12. Definition of a temporal distribution index for high temporal resolution precipitation data over Peninsular Spain and the Balearic Islands: the fractal dimension; and its synoptic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer-Ruiz, Oliver; Osborn, Timothy J.; Sarricolea, Pablo; Jones, Philip D.; Cantos, Jorge Olcina; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Martin-Vide, Javier

    2018-03-01

    Precipitation on the Spanish mainland and in the Balearic archipelago exhibits a high degree of spatial and temporal variability, regardless of the temporal resolution of the data considered. The fractal dimension indicates the property of self-similarity, and in the case of this study, wherein it is applied to the temporal behaviour of rainfall at a fine (10-min) resolution from a total of 48 observatories, it provides insights into its more or less convective nature. The methodology of Jenkinson & Collison which automatically classifies synoptic situations at the surface, as well as an adaptation of this methodology at 500 hPa, was applied in order to gain insights into the synoptic implications of extreme values of the fractal dimension. The highest fractal dimension values in the study area were observed in places with precipitation that has a more random behaviour over time with generally high totals. Four different regions in which the atmospheric mechanisms giving rise to precipitation at the surface differ from the corresponding above-ground mechanisms have been identified in the study area based on the fractal dimension. In the north of the Iberian Peninsula, high fractal dimension values are linked to a lower frequency of anticyclonic situations, whereas the opposite occurs in the central region. In the Mediterranean, higher fractal dimension values are associated with a higher frequency of the anticyclonic type and a lower frequency of the advective type from the east. In the south, lower fractal dimension values indicate higher frequency with respect to the anticyclonic type from the east and lower frequency with respect to the cyclonic type.

  13. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CERES:CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    _Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=250 km - < 500 km or approximately 2.5 degrees - < 5.0 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=hourly, daily, monthly; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily, Daily - < Weekly, Monthly - < Annual].

  14. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF ( CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    _Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=250 km - < 500 km or approximately 2.5 degrees - < 5.0 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=hourly, daily, monthly; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily, Daily - < Weekly, Monthly - < Annual].

  15. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    _Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=250 km - < 500 km or approximately 2.5 degrees - < 5.0 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=hourly, daily, monthly; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily, Daily - < Weekly, Monthly - < Annual].

  16. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF ( CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    _Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=250 km - < 500 km or approximately 2.5 degrees - < 5.0 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=hourly, daily, monthly; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily, Daily - < Weekly, Monthly - < Annual].

  17. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF ( CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    _Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=250 km - < 500 km or approximately 2.5 degrees - < 5.0 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=hourly, daily, monthly; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily, Daily - < Weekly, Monthly - < Annual].

  18. Development and applications of coherent imaging with improved temporal and spatial resolution; Developpement et applications de l'imagerie coherente aux rayons X a tres haute resolution spatiale et temporelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokso, Rajmund

    2006-07-01

    This work has 2 purposes: the improvement of both temporal and spatial resolution of X-ray tomography. The first part is devoted to the technical aspects of the tomographic technique, particularly at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) beamline ID19, and the application of the new acquisition scheme to the imaging of liquid foams. We have improved the temporal resolution and field of view of the setup, which allowed to obtain for the first time experimental data with good statistics on three dimensional liquid foams. In the second part of the thesis we have described the Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing system and its first applications. In terms of stability and image quality the developments presented in this part of the thesis provide valuable evidence for the feasibility of phase contrast tomography in magnifying geometry. Since the ultimate goal of this research is to improve the spatial resolution in tomography for applications, four different contributions are important for the characterization of the imaging system: 1) the thermal stability and mechanical imperfections, 2) effects of distortion induced by mirror imperfections, 3) effects of refraction on sample borders, and 4) phase propagation effects with the influence of the magnification. Each of these factors has been studied.

  19. Initial results of a new generation dual source CT system using only an in-plane comb filter for ultra-high resolution temporal bone imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mathias; Haubenreisser, Holger; Raupach, Rainer; Schmidt, Bernhard; Lietzmann, Florian; Leidecker, Christianne; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Schad, Lothar R; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Henzler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate radiation dose and image quality of a third generation dual-source CT (DSCT) without z-axis filter behind the patient for temporal bone CT. Forty-five patients were either examined on a first, second, or third generation DSCT in an ultra-high-resolution (UHR) temporal bone-imaging mode. On the third generation DSCT system, the tighter focal spot of 0.2 mm(2) removes the necessity for an additional z-axis-filter, leading to an improved z-axis radiation dose efficiency. Images of 0.4 mm were reconstructed using standard filtered-back-projection or iterative reconstruction (IR) technique for previous generations of DSCT and a novel IR algorithm for the third generation DSCT. Radiation dose and image quality were compared between the three DSCT systems. The statistically significantly highest subjective and objective image quality was evaluated for the third generation DSCT when compared to the first or second generation DSCT systems (all p generation examination as compared to the first and second generation DSCT. Temporal bone imaging without z-axis-UHR-filter and a novel third generation IR algorithm allows for significantly higher image quality while lowering effective dose when compared to the first two generations of DSCTs. • Omitting the z-axis-filter allows a reduction in radiation dose of 50% • A smaller focal spot of 0.2 mm (2) significantly improves spatial resolution • Ultra-high-resolution temporal-bone-CT helps to gain diagnostic information of the middle/inner ear.

  20. Agro-hydrology and multi-temporal high-resolution remote sensing: toward an explicit spatial processes calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrant, S.; Gascoin, S.; Veloso, A.; Salmon-Monviola, J.; Claverie, M.; Rivalland, V.; Dedieu, G.; Demarez, V.; Ceschia, E.; Probst, J.-L.; Durand, P.; Bustillo, V.

    2014-12-01

    The growing availability of high-resolution satellite image series offers new opportunities in agro-hydrological research and modeling. We investigated the possibilities offered for improving crop-growth dynamic simulation with the distributed agro-hydrological model: topography-based nitrogen transfer and transformation (TNT2). We used a leaf area index (LAI) map series derived from 105 Formosat-2 (F2) images covering the period 2006-2010. The TNT2 model (Beaujouan et al., 2002), calibrated against discharge and in-stream nitrate fluxes for the period 1985-2001, was tested on the 2005-2010 data set (climate, land use, agricultural practices, and discharge and nitrate fluxes at the outlet). Data from the first year (2005) were used to initialize the hydrological model. A priori agricultural practices obtained from an extensive field survey, such as seeding date, crop cultivar, and amount of fertilizer, were used as input variables. Continuous values of LAI as a function of cumulative daily temperature were obtained at the crop-field level by fitting a double logistic equation against discrete satellite-derived LAI. Model predictions of LAI dynamics using the a priori input parameters displayed temporal shifts from those observed LAI profiles that are irregularly distributed in space (between field crops) and time (between years). By resetting the seeding date at the crop-field level, we have developed an optimization method designed to efficiently minimize this temporal shift and better fit the crop growth against both the spatial observations and crop production. This optimization of simulated LAI has a negligible impact on water budgets at the catchment scale (1 mm yr-1 on average) but a noticeable impact on in-stream nitrogen fluxes (around 12%), which is of interest when considering nitrate stream contamination issues and the objectives of TNT2 modeling. This study demonstrates the potential contribution of the forthcoming high spatial and temporal resolution

  1. A simulation to study the feasibility of improving the temporal resolution of LAGEOS geodynamic solutions by using a sequential process noise filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Brian Davis

    1995-01-01

    A key drawback to estimating geodetic and geodynamic parameters over time based on satellite laser ranging (SLR) observations is the inability to accurately model all the forces acting on the satellite. Errors associated with the observations and the measurement model can detract from the estimates as well. These 'model errors' corrupt the solutions obtained from the satellite orbit determination process. Dynamical models for satellite motion utilize known geophysical parameters to mathematically detail the forces acting on the satellite. However, these parameters, while estimated as constants, vary over time. These temporal variations must be accounted for in some fashion to maintain meaningful solutions. The primary goal of this study is to analyze the feasibility of using a sequential process noise filter for estimating geodynamic parameters over time from the Laser Geodynamics Satellite (LAGEOS) SLR data. This evaluation is achieved by first simulating a sequence of realistic LAGEOS laser ranging observations. These observations are generated using models with known temporal variations in several geodynamic parameters (along track drag and the J(sub 2), J(sub 3), J(sub 4), and J(sub 5) geopotential coefficients). A standard (non-stochastic) filter and a stochastic process noise filter are then utilized to estimate the model parameters from the simulated observations. The standard non-stochastic filter estimates these parameters as constants over consecutive fixed time intervals. Thus, the resulting solutions contain constant estimates of parameters that vary in time which limits the temporal resolution and accuracy of the solution. The stochastic process noise filter estimates these parameters as correlated process noise variables. As a result, the stochastic process noise filter has the potential to estimate the temporal variations more accurately since the constraint of estimating the parameters as constants is eliminated. A comparison of the temporal

  2. Influence of spatial and temporal coherences on atomic resolution high angle annular dark field imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.beyer@physik.uni-marburg.de; Belz, Jürgen; Knaub, Nikolai; Jandieri, Kakhaber; Volz, Kerstin

    2016-10-15

    Aberration-corrected (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) has become a widely used technique when information on the chemical composition is sought on an atomic scale. To extract the desired information, complementary simulations of the scattering process are inevitable. Often the partial spatial and temporal coherences are neglected in the simulations, although they can have a huge influence on the high resolution images. With the example of binary gallium phosphide (GaP) we elucidate the influence of the source size and shape as well as the chromatic aberration on the high angle annular dark field (HAADF) intensity. We achieve a very good quantitative agreement between the frozen phonon simulation and experiment for different sample thicknesses when a Lorentzian source distribution is assumed and the effect of the chromatic aberration is considered. Additionally the influence of amorphous layers introduced by the preparation of the TEM samples is discussed. Taking into account these parameters, the intensity in the whole unit cell of GaP, i.e. at the positions of the different atomic columns and in the region between them, is described correctly. With the knowledge of the decisive parameters, the determination of the chemical composition of more complex, multinary materials becomes feasible. - Highlights: • Atomic resolution high angle annular dark field images of gallium phosphide are compared quantitatively with simulated ones. • The influence of partial spatial and temporal coherence on the HAADF-intensity is investigated. • The influence of amorphous layers introduced by the sample preparation is simulated.

  3. About perfectly adapted layers for the temporal resolution of Maxwell's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Potier, Ch.

    1995-01-01

    The major obstacle encountered in diffraction problems is the limitation in place memory. One solution is to approach the Sommerfeld condition by taking into account absorbing boundary conditions on a boundary surface surrounding the studied object. Many authors have studied these problems, but, unfortunately, the implementation of absorbing boundary conditions of order greater than two for 3-dimensional non-structural meshes in the temporal case is a still unresolved problem to our knowledge. Another way is to add a dummy absorbent layer around the computational domain. J.P. Berenger has revived this method and considerably improved the resolution of the problems of time diffraction. His idea is to split the Maxwell equations in their anisotropic version in a layer surrounding the computational domain. On the other hand, J.Y. Wu introduced a new system of anisotropic equations in the frequency case. The author shows that this new system possesses the same properties as that of Berenger and this idea has been generalized to the temporal case with discretization in space by finite volumes in 3 dimensions for a structured or not structured mesh. The report also presents the implementation of these new methods in the SUMER-T code and the accuracy of these is compared with conventional absorbing boundary conditions [fr

  4. High resolution spatio-temporal mapping of NO2 pollution for estimating personal exposures of the Dutch population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenario, Ivan; Helbich, Marco; Schmitz, Oliver; Strak, Maciek; Hoek, Gerard; Karssenberg, Derek

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution has been associated with adverse health effects (e.g., cardiovascular and respiration diseases) in the urban environments. Therefore, the assessment of people's exposure to air pollution is central in epidemiological studies. The estimation of exposures on an individual level can be done by combining location information across space and over time with spatio-temporal data on air pollution concentrations. When detailed information on peoples' space-time paths (e.g. commuting patterns calculated by means of spatial routing algorithms or tracked through GPS) and peoples' major activity locations (e.g. home location, work location) are available, it is possible to calculate more precise personal exposure levels depending on peoples' individual space-time mobility patterns. This requires air pollution values not only at a high level of spatial accuracy and high temporal granularity but such data also needs to be available on a nation-wide scale. As current data is seriously limited in this respect, we introduce a novel data set of NO2 levels across the Netherlands. The provided NO2 concentrations are accessible on hourly timestamps on a 5 meter grid cell resolution for weekdays and weekends, and each month of the year. We modeled a single Land Use Regression model using a five year average of NO2 data from the Dutch NO2 measurement network consisting of N=46 sampling locations distributed over the country. Predictor variables for this model were selected in a data-driven manner using an Elastic Net and Best Subset Selection procedure from 70 candidate predictors including traffic, industry, infrastructure and population-based variables. Subsequently, to model NO2 for each time scale (hour, week, month), the LUR coefficients were fitted using the NO2 data, aggregated per time scale. Model validation was grounded on independent data collected in an ad hoc measurement campaign. Our results show a considerable difference in urban concentrations between

  5. Assessment of an Operational System for Crop Type Map Production Using High Temporal and Spatial Resolution Satellite Optical Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Inglada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop area extent estimates and crop type maps provide crucial information for agricultural monitoring and management. Remote sensing imagery in general and, more specifically, high temporal and high spatial resolution data as the ones which will be available with upcoming systems, such as Sentinel-2, constitute a major asset for this kind of application. The goal of this paper is to assess to what extent state-of-the-art supervised classification methods can be applied to high resolution multi-temporal optical imagery to produce accurate crop type maps at the global scale. Five concurrent strategies for automatic crop type map production have been selected and benchmarked using SPOT4 (Take5 and Landsat 8 data over 12 test sites spread all over the globe (four in Europe, four in Africa, two in America and two in Asia. This variety of tests sites allows one to draw conclusions applicable to a wide variety of landscapes and crop systems. The results show that a random forest classifier operating on linearly temporally gap-filled images can achieve overall accuracies above 80% for most sites. Only two sites showed low performances: Madagascar due to the presence of fields smaller than the pixel size and Burkina Faso due to a mix of trees and crops in the fields. The approach is based on supervised machine learning techniques, which need in situ data collection for the training step, but the map production is fully automatic.

  6. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul

    2001-01-01

    To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of

  7. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of

  8. Extraction of temporal information in functional MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.; Sungkarat, W.; Jeong, Jeong-Won; Zhou, Yongxia

    2002-10-01

    The temporal resolution of functional MRI (fMRI) is limited by the shape of the haemodynamic response function (hrf) and the vascular architecture underlying the activated regions. Typically, the temporal resolution of fMRI is on the order of 1 s. We have developed a new data processing approach to extract temporal information on a pixel-by-pixel basis at the level of 100 ms from fMRI data. Instead of correlating or fitting the time-course of each pixel to a single reference function, which is the common practice in fMRI, we correlate each pixel's time-course to a series of reference functions that are shifted with respect to each other by 100 ms. The reference function yielding the highest correlation coefficient for a pixel is then used as a time marker for that pixel. A Monte Carlo simulation and experimental study of this approach were performed to estimate the temporal resolution as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the time-course of a pixel. Assuming a known and stationary hrf, the simulation and experimental studies suggest a lower limit in the temporal resolution of approximately 100 ms at an SNR of 3. The multireference function approach was also applied to extract timing information from an event-related motor movement study where the subjects flexed a finger on cue. The event was repeated 19 times with the event's presentation staggered to yield an approximately 100-ms temporal sampling of the haemodynamic response over the entire presentation cycle. The timing differences among different regions of the brain activated by the motor task were clearly visualized and quantified by this method. The results suggest that it is possible to achieve a temporal resolution of /spl sim/200 ms in practice with this approach.

  9. High temporal versus high spatial resolution in MR quantitative pulmonary perfusion imaging of two-year old children after congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, M.; Hagelstein, C.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Neff, K.W. [University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Zoellner, F.G.; Schad, L.R. [Heidelberg University, Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Zahn, K. [University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Mannheim (Germany); Schaible, T. [University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Department of Pediatrics, Mannheim (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) leads to lung hypoplasia. Using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging, lung perfusion can be quantified. As MR perfusion values depend on temporal resolution, we compared two protocols to investigate whether ipsilateral lung perfusion is impaired after CDH, whether there are protocol-dependent differences, and which protocol is preferred. DCE-MRI was performed in 36 2-year old children after CDH on a 3 T MRI system; protocol A (n = 18) based on a high spatial (3.0 s; voxel: 1.25 mm{sup 3}) and protocol B (n = 18) on a high temporal resolution (1.5 s; voxel: 2 mm{sup 3}). Pulmonary blood flow (PBF), pulmonary blood volume (PBV), mean transit time (MTT), and peak-contrast-to-noise-ratio (PCNR) were quantified. PBF was reduced ipsilaterally, with ipsilateral PBF of 45 ± 26 ml/100 ml/min to contralateral PBF of 63 ± 28 ml/100 ml/min (p = 0.0016) for protocol A; and for protocol B, side differences were equivalent (ipsilateral PBF = 62 ± 24 vs. contralateral PBF = 85 ± 30 ml/100 ml/min; p = 0.0034). PCNR was higher for protocol B (30 ± 18 vs. 20 ± 9; p = 0.0294). Protocol B showed higher values of PBF in comparison to protocol A (p always <0.05). Ipsilateral lung perfusion is reduced in 2-year old children following CDH repair. Higher temporal resolution and increased voxel size show a gain in PCNR and lead to higher perfusion values. Protocol B is therefore preferred. (orig.)

  10. Visual short-term memory for high resolution associations is impaired in patients with medial temporal lobe damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Joshua D; Borders, Alyssa A; Petzold, Michael T; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2017-02-01

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) plays a critical role in episodic long-term memory, but whether the MTL is necessary for visual short-term memory is controversial. Some studies have indicated that MTL damage disrupts visual short-term memory performance whereas other studies have failed to find such evidence. To account for these mixed results, it has been proposed that the hippocampus is critical in supporting short-term memory for high resolution complex bindings, while the cortex is sufficient to support simple, low resolution bindings. This hypothesis was tested in the current study by assessing visual short-term memory in patients with damage to the MTL and controls for high resolution and low resolution object-location and object-color associations. In the location tests, participants encoded sets of two or four objects in different locations on the screen. After each set, participants performed a two-alternative forced-choice task in which they were required to discriminate the object in the target location from the object in a high or low resolution lure location (i.e., the object locations were very close or far away from the target location, respectively). Similarly, in the color tests, participants were presented with sets of two or four objects in a different color and, after each set, were required to discriminate the object in the target color from the object in a high or low resolution lure color (i.e., the lure color was very similar or very different, respectively, to the studied color). The patients were significantly impaired in visual short-term memory, but importantly, they were more impaired for high resolution object-location and object-color bindings. The results are consistent with the proposal that the hippocampus plays a critical role in forming and maintaining complex, high resolution bindings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Temporal auditory processing at 17 months of age is associated with preliterate language comprehension and later word reading fluency : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuijen, Titia L.; Plakas, Anna; Maassen, Ben A. M.; Been, Pieter; Maurits, Natasha M.; Krikhaar, Evelien; van Driel, Joram; van der Leij, Aryan

    2012-01-01

    Dyslexia is heritable and associated with auditory processing deficits. We investigate whether temporal auditory processing is compromised in young children at-risk for dyslexia and whether it is associated with later language and reading skills. We recorded EEG from 17 months-old children with or

  12. Temporal auditory processing at 17 months of age is associated with preliterate language comprehension and later word reading fluency: An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zuijen, Titia L.; Plakas, Anna; Maassen, Ben A M; Been, Pieter; Maurits, Natasha M.; Krikhaar, Evelien; van Driel, Joram; van der Leij, Aryan

    2012-01-01

    Dyslexia is heritable and associated with auditory processing deficits. We investigate whether temporal auditory processing is compromised in young children at-risk for dyslexia and whether it is associated with later language and reading skills. We recorded EEG from 17 months-old children with or

  13. Impact of temporal upscaling and chemical transport model horizontal resolution on reducing ozone exposure misclassification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yadong; Serre, Marc L.; Reyes, Jeanette M.; Vizuete, William

    2017-10-01

    We have developed a Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) framework that integrates observations from a surface monitoring network and predictions from a Chemical Transport Model (CTM) to create improved exposure estimates that can be resolved into any spatial and temporal resolution. The flexibility of the framework allows for input of data in any choice of time scales and CTM predictions of any spatial resolution with varying associated degrees of estimation error and cost in terms of implementation and computation. This study quantifies the impact on exposure estimation error due to these choices by first comparing estimations errors when BME relied on ozone concentration data either as an hourly average, the daily maximum 8-h average (DM8A), or the daily 24-h average (D24A). Our analysis found that the use of DM8A and D24A data, although less computationally intensive, reduced estimation error more when compared to the use of hourly data. This was primarily due to the poorer CTM model performance in the hourly average predicted ozone. Our second analysis compared spatial variability and estimation errors when BME relied on CTM predictions with a grid cell resolution of 12 × 12 km2 versus a coarser resolution of 36 × 36 km2. Our analysis found that integrating the finer grid resolution CTM predictions not only reduced estimation error, but also increased the spatial variability in daily ozone estimates by 5 times. This improvement was due to the improved spatial gradients and model performance found in the finer resolved CTM simulation. The integration of observational and model predictions that is permitted in a BME framework continues to be a powerful approach for improving exposure estimates of ambient air pollution. The results of this analysis demonstrate the importance of also understanding model performance variability and its implications on exposure error.

  14. High spatial and temporal resolution charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the HL-2A tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Y. L.; Yu, D. L., E-mail: yudl@swip.ac.cn; Liu, L.; Cao, J. Y.; Sun, A. P.; Ma, Q.; Chen, W. J.; Liu, Yi; Yan, L. W.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.; Liu, Yong [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Ida, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Hellermann, M. von [ITER Diagnostic Team, IO, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul lez Durance (France); FOM-Institute for Plasma physics “Rijnhuizen,” Association EURATOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2014-10-01

    A 32/64-channel charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic system is developed on the HL-2A tokamak (R = 1.65 m, a = 0.4 m), monitoring plasma ion temperature and toroidal rotation velocity simultaneously. A high throughput spectrometer (F/2.8) and a pitch-controlled fiber bundle enable the temporal resolution of the system up to 400 Hz. The observation geometry and an optimized optic system enable the highest radial resolution up to ~1 cm at the plasma edge. The CXRS system monitors the carbon line emission (C VI, n = 8–7, 529.06 nm) whose Doppler broadening and Doppler shift provide ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity during the neutral beam injection. The composite CX spectral data are analyzed by the atomic data and analysis structure charge exchange spectroscopy fitting (ADAS CXSFIT) code. First experimental results are shown for the case of HL-2A plasmas with sawtooth oscillations, electron cyclotron resonance heating, and edge transport barrier during the high-confinement mode (H-mode)

  15. Variabilidade temporal da precipitação mensal e anual na estação climatológica de Uberaba-MG Temporal variability of monthly rains in the climatological station of Uberaba-MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Waldemar da Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A análise da variabilidade espacial e da variabilidade temporal de atributos naturais vem recebendo destaque nos últimos tempos, devido à possibilidade de se realizar estimativas com maior precisão, destacando-se entre esses atributos a precipitação pluviométrica. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar o comportamento temporal das chuvas mensais na Estação Climatológica de Uberaba - MG, utilizando-se a série das precipitações pluviais mensais e anuais de 1914 a 2000. Os dados referentes à Estação Climatológica de Uberaba - Estação Experimental Getúlio Vargas - foram obtidos no Laboratório de Climatologia e Recursos Hídricos do Instituto de Geografia - Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. Realizou-se análise exploratória dos dados por meio de algumas estatísticas, como média aritmética, desvio-padrão, valores máximos e valores mínimos e histogramas. A análise de variabilidade temporal foi feita por meio de semivariâncias. Verificou-se uma tendência à normalidade nos meses correspondentes ao período de outubro a março e assimetria no período de abril a setembro. Observou-se a presença do efeito pepita puro, não constatando-se dependência temporal e, conseqüentemente, estudos e inferências estatísticas podem ser realizados com base em métodos da estatística não espacial.The purpose of this work was to verify the temporal dependence of monthly rainfall in the climatological station of Uberaba-MG, Brazil, using geostatistical methods. It was evaluated the precipitation in series of rainfall monthly data from 1914 to 2000. It were done exploratory and geostatistical analysis. The exploratory analysis was made by calculating basic statistics and histograms and the geostatistical analysis was made by semivariogram. According to the results, a normality tendence was verified in months from october to march. From april to September, it was verified an asymmetric tendence. Semivaviograms showed the nugget

  16. Prospective Retinal and Optic Nerve Vitrectomy Evaluation (PROVE study: findings at 3 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy RK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rahul K Reddy,1 Maziar Lalezary,1 Stephen J Kim,1 Jeffrey A Kammer,1 Rachel W Kuchtey,1 Edward F Cherney,1 Franco M Recchia,2 Karen M Joos,1 Anita Agarwal,1 Janice C Law11Department of Ophthalmology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA; 2Tennessee Retina, PC, Nashville, TN, USABackground: The purpose of this paper is to report the 3-month findings of the Prospective Retinal and Optic Nerve Vitrectomy Evaluation (PROVE study.Methods: Eighty eyes of 40 participants undergoing vitrectomy were enrolled. Participants underwent baseline evaluation of the study (surgical and fellow (control eye that included: intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, gonioscopy, cup-to-disc ratio measurement, color fundus and optic disc photography, automated perimetry, and optical coherence tomography of the macula and optic nerve. Evaluation was repeated at 3 months. Main outcome measures were changes in macula and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness and intraocular pressure.Results: All participants completed follow-up. Mean cup-to-disc ratio of study and fellow eyes at baseline was 0.43 ± 0.2 and 0.46 ± 0.2, respectively, and 13% of participants had undiagnosed narrow angles. There was no significant change in intraocular pressure, cup-to-disc ratio, or pattern standard deviation in study eyes compared with baseline or fellow eyes at 3 months. Vision improved in all study eyes at 3 months compared with baseline (P = 0.013, but remained significantly worse than fellow eyes (P < 0.001. Central subfield and temporal peripapillary RNFL thickness were significantly greater in eyes with epiretinal membrane (P < 0.05, and resolution after surgery correlated with visual improvement (P < 0.05.Conclusion: The 3-month results do not indicate any increased risk for open-angle glaucoma but suggest that a relatively high percentage of eyes may be at risk of angle closure glaucoma. Temporal RNFL thickness and central subfield were increased

  17. Spatial attention does improve temporal discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chica, Ana B; Christie, John

    2009-02-01

    It has recently been stated that exogenous attention impairs temporal-resolution tasks (Hein, Rolke, & Ulrich, 2006; Rolke, Dinkelbach, Hein, & Ulrich, 2008; Yeshurun, 2004; Yeshurun & Levy, 2003). In comparisons of performance on spatially cued trials versus neutral cued trials, the results have suggested that spatial attention decreases temporal resolution. However, when performance on cued and uncued trials has been compared in order to equate for cue salience, typically speed-accuracy trade-offs (SATs) have been observed, making the interpretation of the results difficult. In the present experiments, we aimed at studying the effect of spatial attention in temporal resolution while using a procedure to control for SATs. We controlled reaction times (RTs) by constraining the time to respond, so that response decisions would be made within comparable time windows. The results revealed that when RT was controlled, performance was impaired for cued trials as compared with neutral trials, replicating previous findings. However, when cued and uncued trials were compared, performance was actually improved for cued trials as compared with uncued trials. These results suggest that SAT effects may have played an important role in the previous studies, because when they were controlled and measured, the results reversed, revealing that exogenous attention does improve performance on temporal-resolution tasks.

  18. Temporal resolution limit estimation of x-ray streak cameras using a CsI photocathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang; Gu, Li; Zong, Fangke; Zhang, Jingjin; Yang, Qinlao, E-mail: qlyang@szu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2015-08-28

    A Monte Carlo model is developed and implemented to calculate the characteristics of x-ray induced secondary electron (SE) emission from a CsI photocathode used in an x-ray streak camera. Time distributions of emitted SEs are investigated with an incident x-ray energy range from 1 to 30 keV and a CsI thickness range from 100 to 1000 nm. Simulation results indicate that SE time distribution curves have little dependence on the incident x-ray energy and CsI thickness. The calculated time dispersion within the CsI photocathode is about 70 fs, which should be the temporal resolution limit of x-ray streak cameras that use CsI as the photocathode material.

  19. Reconstruction of high temporal resolution Thomson scattering data during a modulated electron cyclotron resonance heating using conditional averaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Yoshinuma, M.; Ohdachi, S.; Ida, K.; Itoh, K.; Moon, C.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Yasuhara, R.; Tsuchiya, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Tsujimura, T. I.; Inagaki, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a software application of the sampling scope concept for fusion research. The time evolution of Thomson scattering data is reconstructed with a high temporal resolution during a modulated electron cyclotron resonance heating (MECH) phase. The amplitude profile and the delay time profile of the heat pulse propagation are obtained from the reconstructed signal for discharges having on-axis and off-axis MECH depositions. The results are found to be consistent with the MECH deposition.

  20. Reconstruction of high temporal resolution Thomson scattering data during a modulated electron cyclotron resonance heating using conditional averaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, T., E-mail: kobayashi.tatsuya@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Yoshinuma, M.; Ohdachi, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Ida, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Research Center for Plasma Turbulence, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Itoh, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Research Center for Plasma Turbulence, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Moon, C.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Yasuhara, R.; Tsuchiya, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Tsujimura, T. I. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Inagaki, S. [Research Center for Plasma Turbulence, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    This paper provides a software application of the sampling scope concept for fusion research. The time evolution of Thomson scattering data is reconstructed with a high temporal resolution during a modulated electron cyclotron resonance heating (MECH) phase. The amplitude profile and the delay time profile of the heat pulse propagation are obtained from the reconstructed signal for discharges having on-axis and off-axis MECH depositions. The results are found to be consistent with the MECH deposition.

  1. Example-Based Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shu; Han, Boran; Kutz, J Nathan

    2018-04-23

    Capturing biological dynamics with high spatiotemporal resolution demands the advancement in imaging technologies. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy offers spatial resolution surpassing the diffraction limit to resolve near-molecular-level details. While various strategies have been reported to improve the temporal resolution of super-resolution imaging, all super-resolution techniques are still fundamentally limited by the trade-off associated with the longer image acquisition time that is needed to achieve higher spatial information. Here, we demonstrated an example-based, computational method that aims to obtain super-resolution images using conventional imaging without increasing the imaging time. With a low-resolution image input, the method provides an estimate of its super-resolution image based on an example database that contains super- and low-resolution image pairs of biological structures of interest. The computational imaging of cellular microtubules agrees approximately with the experimental super-resolution STORM results. This new approach may offer potential improvements in temporal resolution for experimental super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and provide a new path for large-data aided biomedical imaging.

  2. Automated Generation of the Alaska Coastline Using High-Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, G.; Porter, C. C.; Cloutier, M. D.; Clementz, M. E.; Reim, C.; Morin, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Previous campaigns to map Alaska's coast at high resolution have relied on airborne, marine, or ground-based surveying and manual digitization. The coarse temporal resolution, inability to scale geographically, and high cost of field data acquisition in these campaigns is inadequate for the scale and speed of recent coastal change in Alaska. Here, we leverage the Polar Geospatial Center (PGC) archive of DigitalGlobe, Inc. satellite imagery to produce a state-wide coastline at 2 meter resolution. We first select multispectral imagery based on time and quality criteria. We then extract the near-infrared (NIR) band from each processed image, and classify each pixel as water or land with a pre-determined NIR threshold value. Processing continues with vectorizing the water-land boundary, removing extraneous data, and attaching metadata. Final coastline raster and vector products maintain the original accuracy of the orthorectified satellite data, which is often within the local tidal range. The repeat frequency of coastline production can range from 1 month to 3 years, depending on factors such as satellite capacity, cloud cover, and floating ice. Shadows from trees or structures complicate the output and merit further data cleaning. The PGC's imagery archive, unique expertise, and computing resources enabled us to map the Alaskan coastline in a few months. The DigitalGlobe archive allows us to update this coastline as new imagery is acquired, and facilitates baseline data for studies of coastal change and improvement of topographic datasets. Our results are not simply a one-time coastline, but rather a system for producing multi-temporal, automated coastlines. Workflows and tools produced with this project can be freely distributed and utilized globally. Researchers and government agencies must now consider how they can incorporate and quality-control this high-frequency, high-resolution data to meet their mapping standards and research objectives.

  3. A method for generating high resolution satellite image time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao

    2014-10-01

    There is an increasing demand for satellite remote sensing data with both high spatial and temporal resolution in many applications. But it still is a challenge to simultaneously improve spatial resolution and temporal frequency due to the technical limits of current satellite observation systems. To this end, much R&D efforts have been ongoing for years and lead to some successes roughly in two aspects, one includes super resolution, pan-sharpen etc. methods which can effectively enhance the spatial resolution and generate good visual effects, but hardly preserve spectral signatures and result in inadequate analytical value, on the other hand, time interpolation is a straight forward method to increase temporal frequency, however it increase little informative contents in fact. In this paper we presented a novel method to simulate high resolution time series data by combing low resolution time series data and a very small number of high resolution data only. Our method starts with a pair of high and low resolution data set, and then a spatial registration is done by introducing LDA model to map high and low resolution pixels correspondingly. Afterwards, temporal change information is captured through a comparison of low resolution time series data, and then projected onto the high resolution data plane and assigned to each high resolution pixel according to the predefined temporal change patterns of each type of ground objects. Finally the simulated high resolution data is generated. A preliminary experiment shows that our method can simulate a high resolution data with a reasonable accuracy. The contribution of our method is to enable timely monitoring of temporal changes through analysis of time sequence of low resolution images only, and usage of costly high resolution data can be reduces as much as possible, and it presents a highly effective way to build up an economically operational monitoring solution for agriculture, forest, land use investigation

  4. Spatio-temporal precipitation climatology over complex terrain using a censored additive regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Reto; Mayr, Georg J; Messner, Jakob W; Umlauf, Nikolaus; Zeileis, Achim

    2017-06-15

    Flexible spatio-temporal models are widely used to create reliable and accurate estimates for precipitation climatologies. Most models are based on square root transformed monthly or annual means, where a normal distribution seems to be appropriate. This assumption becomes invalid on a daily time scale as the observations involve large fractions of zero observations and are limited to non-negative values. We develop a novel spatio-temporal model to estimate the full climatological distribution of precipitation on a daily time scale over complex terrain using a left-censored normal distribution. The results demonstrate that the new method is able to account for the non-normal distribution and the large fraction of zero observations. The new climatology provides the full climatological distribution on a very high spatial and temporal resolution, and is competitive with, or even outperforms existing methods, even for arbitrary locations.

  5. Femtosecond laser spectroscopy of spins: Magnetization dynamics in thin magnetic films with spatio-temporal resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpene, E.; Mancini, E.; Dallera, C.; Puppin, E.; De Silvestri, S.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE), we have developed an experimental set-up that allows us to fully characterize the magnetization dynamics in thin magnetic films by measuring all three real space components of the magnetization vector M. By means of the pump-probe technique it is possible to extract the time dependence of each individual projection with sub-picosecond resolution. This method has been exploited to investigate the temporal evolution of the magnetization (modulus and orientation) induced by an ultrashort laser pulse in thin epitaxial iron films. According to our results, we deduced that the initial, sub-picosecond demagnetization is established at the electronic level through electron-magnon excitations. The subsequent dynamics is characterized by a precessional motion on the 100 ps time scale, around an effective, time-dependent magnetic field. Following the full dynamics of M, the temporal evolution of the magneto-crystalline anisotropy constant can be unambiguously determined, providing the experimental evidence that the precession is triggered by the rapid, optically-induced misalignment between the magnetization vector and the effective magnetic field. These results suggest a possible pathway toward the ultrarapid switching of the magnetization.

  6. High Temporal and Spatial Resolution Coverage of Earth from Commercial AVSTAR Systems in Geostationary Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, M. A.; Heaps, J. F.; Williams, F. H.

    Imaging the earth from Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) allows frequent updates of environmental conditions within an observable hemisphere at time and spatial scales appropriate to the most transient observable terrestrial phenomena. Coverage provided by current GEO Meteorological Satellites (METSATS) fails to fully exploit this advantage due primarily to obsolescent technology and also institutional inertia. With the full benefit of GEO based imaging unrealized, rapidly evolving phenomena, occurring at the smallest spatial and temporal scales that frequently have significant environmental impact remain unobserved. These phenomena may be precursors for the most destructive natural processes that adversely effect society. Timely distribution of information derived from "real-time" observations thus may provide opportunities to mitigate much of the damage to life and property that would otherwise occur. AstroVision International's AVStar Earth monitoring system is designed to overcome the current limitations if GEO Earth coverage and to provide real time monitoring of changes to the Earth's complete atmospheric, land and marine surface environments including fires, volcanic events, lightning and meteoritic events on a "live," true color, and multispectral basis. The understanding of severe storm dynamics and its coupling to the earth's electro-sphere will be greatly enhanced by observations at unprecedented sampling frequencies and spatial resolution. Better understanding of these natural phenomena and AVStar operational real-time coverage may also benefit society through improvements in severe weather prediction and warning. AstroVision's AVStar system, designed to provide this capability with the first of a constellation of GEO- based commercial environmental monitoring satellites to be launched in late 2003 will be discussed, including spatial and temporal resolution, spectral coverage with applications and an inventory of the potential benefits to society

  7. Clinical application of bilateral high temporal and spatial resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast at 7 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, K.; Baltzer, P.; Bernathova, M.; Weber, M.; Leithner, D.; Helbich, T.H. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Bogner, W.; Trattnig, S.; Gruber, S.; Zaric, O. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria); Abeyakoon, O. [King' s College, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Dubsky, P. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Bago-Horvath, Z. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Pathology, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-04-15

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the clinical application of bilateral high spatial and temporal resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (HR DCE-MRI) of the breast at 7 T. Following institutional review board approval 23 patients with a breast lesion (BIRADS 0, 4-5) were included in our prospective study. All patients underwent bilateral HR DCE-MRI of the breast at 7 T (spatial resolution of 0.7 mm{sup 3} voxel size, temporal resolution of 14 s). Two experienced readers (r1, r2) and one less experienced reader (r3) independently assessed lesions according to BI-RADS registered. Image quality, lesion conspicuity and artefacts were graded from 1 to 5. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were assessed using histopathology as the standard of reference. HR DCE-MRI at 7 T revealed 29 lesions in 23 patients (sensitivity 100 % (19/19); specificity of 90 % (9/10)) resulting in a diagnostic accuracy of 96.6 % (28/29) with an AUC of 0.95. Overall image quality was excellent in the majority of cases (27/29) and examinations were not hampered by artefacts. There was excellent inter-reader agreement for diagnosis and image quality parameters (κ = 0.89-1). Bilateral HR DCE-MRI of the breast at 7 T is feasible with excellent image quality in clinical practice and allows accurate breast cancer diagnosis. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of temporal bone pneumatization on high resolution CT (HRCT) measurements of the temporal bone in normal and otitis media group and their correlation to measurements of internal auditory meatus, vestibular or cochlear aqueduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Miyako

    1988-01-01

    High resolution CT axial scans were made at the three levels of the temoral bone 91 cases. These cases consisted of 109 sides of normal pneumatization (NR group) and 73 of poor pneumatization resulted by chronic otitis (OM group). NR group included sensorineural hearing loss cases and/or sudden deafness on the side. Three levels of continuous slicing were chosen at the internal auditory meatus, the vestibular and the cochlear aqueduct, respectively. In each slice two sagittal and two horizontal measurements were done on the outer contour of the temporal bone. At the proper level, diameter as well as length of the internal acoustic meatus, the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct were measured. Measurements of the temporal bone showed statistically significant difference between NR and OM groups. Correlation of both diameter and length of the internal auditory meatus to the temporal bone measurements were statistically significant. Neither of measurements on the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct showed any significant correlation to that of the temporal bone. (author)

  9. Temporal resolution criterion for correctly simulating relativistic electron motion in a high-intensity laser field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arefiev, Alexey V. [Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Cochran, Ginevra E.; Schumacher, Douglass W. [Physics Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Robinson, Alexander P. L. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Chen, Guangye [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Particle-in-cell codes are now standard tools for studying ultra-intense laser-plasma interactions. Motivated by direct laser acceleration of electrons in sub-critical plasmas, we examine temporal resolution requirements that must be satisfied to accurately calculate electron dynamics in strong laser fields. Using the motion of a single electron in a perfect plane electromagnetic wave as a test problem, we show surprising deterioration of the numerical accuracy with increasing wave amplitude a{sub 0} for a given time-step. We go on to show analytically that the time-step must be significantly less than λ/ca{sub 0} to achieve good accuracy. We thus propose adaptive electron sub-cycling as an efficient remedy.

  10. Spatial and temporal resolution requirements for quench detection in (RE)Ba2Cu3Ox magnets using Rayleigh-scattering-based fiber optic distributed sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, W K; Schwartz, J; Flanagan, G

    2013-01-01

    One of the key remaining challenges to safe and reliable operation of large, high temperature superconductor (HTS)-based magnet systems is quench detection and protection. Due to the slow quench propagation in HTS systems, the conventional discrete voltage-tap approach developed for NbTi and Nb 3 Sn magnets may not be sufficient. In contrast, a distributed temperature profile, generated by a distributed temperature sensor and facilitating continuous monitoring of the temperature at any monitored locations within a magnet with high spatial resolution, may be required. One such distributed temperature sensing option is the use of Rayleigh-based fiber optic sensors (FOS), which are immune to electromagnetic interference. The detection of a quench via Rayleigh-based FOS relies on converting the spectral shifts in the Rayleigh scattering spectra into temperature variations. As a result, the higher the spatial sampling resolution the larger the data processing volume, and thus the lower the temporal sampling resolution. So, for effective quench detection, which requires the quick and accurate identification of a hot spot, it is important to find a balance between the spatial and temporal resolutions executable on a given data acquisition and processing (DAQ) system. This paper discusses a method for finding an appropriate DAQ technology that matches the characteristic of a superconducting coil, and determining the acceptable resolutions for efficient and safe quench detection. A quench detection algorithm based on distributed temperature sensing is proposed and its implementation challenges are discussed. (paper)

  11. Temporal Coding of Volumetric Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llull, Patrick Ryan

    'Image volumes' refer to realizations of images in other dimensions such as time, spectrum, and focus. Recent advances in scientific, medical, and consumer applications demand improvements in image volume capture. Though image volume acquisition continues to advance, it maintains the same sampling mechanisms that have been used for decades; every voxel must be scanned and is presumed independent of its neighbors. Under these conditions, improving performance comes at the cost of increased system complexity, data rates, and power consumption. This dissertation explores systems and methods capable of efficiently improving sensitivity and performance for image volume cameras, and specifically proposes several sampling strategies that utilize temporal coding to improve imaging system performance and enhance our awareness for a variety of dynamic applications. Video cameras and camcorders sample the video volume (x,y,t) at fixed intervals to gain understanding of the volume's temporal evolution. Conventionally, one must reduce the spatial resolution to increase the framerate of such cameras. Using temporal coding via physical translation of an optical element known as a coded aperture, the compressive temporal imaging (CACTI) camera emonstrates a method which which to embed the temporal dimension of the video volume into spatial (x,y) measurements, thereby greatly improving temporal resolution with minimal loss of spatial resolution. This technique, which is among a family of compressive sampling strategies developed at Duke University, temporally codes the exposure readout functions at the pixel level. Since video cameras nominally integrate the remaining image volume dimensions (e.g. spectrum and focus) at capture time, spectral (x,y,t,lambda) and focal (x,y,t,z) image volumes are traditionally captured via sequential changes to the spectral and focal state of the system, respectively. The CACTI camera's ability to embed video volumes into images leads to exploration

  12. The evolution of active Lavina di Roncovetro landslides by multi-temporal high-resolution topographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isola, Ilaria; Fornaciai, Alessandro; Favalli, Massimiliano; Gigli, Giovanni; Nannipieri, Luca; Mucchi, Lorenzo; Intrieri, Emanuele; Pizziolo, Marco; Bertolini, Giovanni; Trippi, Federico; Casagli, Nicola; Schina, Rosa; Carnevale, Ennio

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution topographic data has been collected over the Lavina di Roncovetro active landslide (Reggio Emilia, Italy) for about 3 years by using various methods and technologies. Tha Lavina di Roncovetro landslide can be considered as a fluid-viscous mudflow, which can reach a down flow maximum rate of 10 m/day. The landslide started between the middle and the end of the XIX century and since then it has had a rapid evolution mainly characterized by the rapid retrogression of the crown to the extent that now reaches the top of Mount Staffola. In the frame of EU Wireless Sensor Network for Ground Instability Monitoring - Wi-GIM project (LIFE12ENV/IT/001033) the Lavina di Roncovetro landslide has been periodically tracked using technologies that span from the LiDAR, both terrestrial and aerial, to the Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry method based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and aerial survey. These data are used to create six high-resolution Digital Terrain Models (DEMs), which imaged the landslide surface on March 2014, October 2014, June 2015, July 2015, January 2016 and December 2016. Multi-temporal high-resolution topographic data have been used for qualitative and quantitative morphometric analysis and topographic change detection of the landslide with the aim to estimate and map the volume of removed and/or accumulated material, the average rates of vertical and horizontal displacement and the deformation structures affecting the landslide over the investigated period.

  13. QUAL-NET, a high temporal-resolution eutrophication model for large hydrographic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaudo, Camille; Curie, Florence; Jullian, Yann; Gassama, Nathalie; Moatar, Florentina

    2018-04-01

    To allow climate change impact assessment of water quality in river systems, the scientific community lacks efficient deterministic models able to simulate hydrological and biogeochemical processes in drainage networks at the regional scale, with high temporal resolution and water temperature explicitly determined. The model QUALity-NETwork (QUAL-NET) was developed and tested on the Middle Loire River Corridor, a sub-catchment of the Loire River in France, prone to eutrophication. Hourly variations computed efficiently by the model helped disentangle the complex interactions existing between hydrological and biological processes across different timescales. Phosphorus (P) availability was the most constraining factor for phytoplankton development in the Loire River, but simulating bacterial dynamics in QUAL-NET surprisingly evidenced large amounts of organic matter recycled within the water column through the microbial loop, which delivered significant fluxes of available P and enhanced phytoplankton growth. This explained why severe blooms still occur in the Loire River despite large P input reductions since 1990. QUAL-NET could be used to study past evolutions or predict future trajectories under climate change and land use scenarios.

  14. QUAL-NET, a high temporal-resolution eutrophication model for large hydrographic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Minaudo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To allow climate change impact assessment of water quality in river systems, the scientific community lacks efficient deterministic models able to simulate hydrological and biogeochemical processes in drainage networks at the regional scale, with high temporal resolution and water temperature explicitly determined. The model QUALity-NETwork (QUAL-NET was developed and tested on the Middle Loire River Corridor, a sub-catchment of the Loire River in France, prone to eutrophication. Hourly variations computed efficiently by the model helped disentangle the complex interactions existing between hydrological and biological processes across different timescales. Phosphorus (P availability was the most constraining factor for phytoplankton development in the Loire River, but simulating bacterial dynamics in QUAL-NET surprisingly evidenced large amounts of organic matter recycled within the water column through the microbial loop, which delivered significant fluxes of available P and enhanced phytoplankton growth. This explained why severe blooms still occur in the Loire River despite large P input reductions since 1990. QUAL-NET could be used to study past evolutions or predict future trajectories under climate change and land use scenarios.

  15. Assessment of temporal resolution of multi-detector row computed tomography in helical acquisition mode using the impulse method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Hara, Takanori; Urikura, Atsushi; Takata, Tadanori; Ohashi, Kazuya

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a method for assessing the temporal resolution (TR) of multi-detector row computed tomography (CT) (MDCT) in the helical acquisition mode using temporal impulse signals generated by a metal ball passing through the acquisition plane. An 11-mm diameter metal ball was shot along the central axis at approximately 5 m/s during a helical acquisition, and the temporal sensitivity profile (TSP) was measured from the streak image intensities in the reconstructed helical CT images. To assess the validity, we compared the measured and theoretical TSPs for the 4-channel modes of two MDCT systems. A 64-channel MDCT system was used to compare TSPs and image quality of a motion phantom for the pitch factors P of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 with a rotation time R of 0.5 s, and for two R/P combinations of 0.5/1.2 and 0.33/0.8. Moreover, the temporal transfer functions (TFs) were calculated from the obtained TSPs. The measured and theoretical TSPs showed perfect agreement. The TSP narrowed with an increase in the pitch factor. The image sharpness of the 0.33/0.8 combination was inferior to that of the 0.5/1.2 combination, despite their almost identical full width at tenth maximum values. The temporal TFs quantitatively confirmed these differences. The TSP results demonstrated that the TR in the helical acquisition mode significantly depended on the pitch factor as well as the rotation time, and the pitch factor and reconstruction algorithm affected the TSP shape. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Water resources of the Black Sea Basin at high spatial and temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouholahnejad, Elham; Abbaspour, Karim C.; Srinivasan, Raghvan; Bacu, Victor; Lehmann, Anthony

    2014-07-01

    The pressure on water resources, deteriorating water quality, and uncertainties associated with the climate change create an environment of conflict in large and complex river system. The Black Sea Basin (BSB), in particular, suffers from ecological unsustainability and inadequate resource management leading to severe environmental, social, and economical problems. To better tackle the future challenges, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of the BSB coupling water quantity, water quality, and crop yield components. The hydrological model of the BSB was calibrated and validated considering sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. River discharges, nitrate loads, and crop yields were used to calibrate the model. Employing grid technology improved calibration computation time by more than an order of magnitude. We calculated components of water resources such as river discharge, infiltration, aquifer recharge, soil moisture, and actual and potential evapotranspiration. Furthermore, available water resources were calculated at subbasin spatial and monthly temporal levels. Within this framework, a comprehensive database of the BSB was created to fill the existing gaps in water resources data in the region. In this paper, we discuss the challenges of building a large-scale model in fine spatial and temporal detail. This study provides the basis for further research on the impacts of climate and land use change on water resources in the BSB.

  17. Visual temporal processing in dyslexia and the magnocellular deficit theory: the need for speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Gregor M T; Stuart, Geoffrey W; Coltheart, Veronika; Castles, Anne

    2011-12-01

    A controversial question in reading research is whether dyslexia is associated with impairments in the magnocellular system and, if so, how these low-level visual impairments might affect reading acquisition. This study used a novel chromatic flicker perception task to specifically explore temporal aspects of magnocellular functioning in 40 children with dyslexia and 42 age-matched controls (aged 7-11). The relationship between magnocellular temporal resolution and higher-level aspects of visual temporal processing including inspection time, single and dual-target (attentional blink) RSVP performance, go/no-go reaction time, and rapid naming was also assessed. The Dyslexia group exhibited significant deficits in magnocellular temporal resolution compared with controls, but the two groups did not differ in parvocellular temporal resolution. Despite the significant group differences, associations between magnocellular temporal resolution and reading ability were relatively weak, and links between low-level temporal resolution and reading ability did not appear specific to the magnocellular system. Factor analyses revealed that a collective Perceptual Speed factor, involving both low-level and higher-level visual temporal processing measures, accounted for unique variance in reading ability independently of phonological processing, rapid naming, and general ability.

  18. ePRISM: A case study in multiple proxy and mixed temporal resolution integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Marci M.; Dowsett, Harry J.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) Project, we present the ePRISM experiment designed I) to provide climate modelers with a reconstruction of an early Pliocene warm period that was warmer than the PRISM interval (similar to 3.3 to 3.0 Ma), yet still similar in many ways to modern conditions and 2) to provide an example of how best to integrate multiple-proxy sea surface temperature (SST) data from time series with varying degrees of temporal resolution and age control as we begin to build the next generation of PRISM, the PRISM4 reconstruction, spanning a constricted time interval. While it is possible to tie individual SST estimates to a single light (warm) oxygen isotope event, we find that the warm peak average of SST estimates over a narrowed time interval is preferential for paleoclimate reconstruction as it allows for the inclusion of more records of multiple paleotemperature proxies.

  19. Magnetogenetic control of protein gradients inside living cells with high spatial and temporal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etoc, Fred; Vicario, Chiara; Lisse, Domenik; Siaugue, Jean-Michel; Piehler, Jacob; Coppey, Mathieu; Dahan, Maxime

    2015-05-13

    Tools for controlling the spatial organization of proteins are a major prerequisite for deciphering mechanisms governing the dynamic architecture of living cells. Here, we have developed a generic approach for inducing and maintaining protein gradients inside living cells by means of biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). For this purpose, we tailored the size and surface properties of MNPs in order to ensure unhindered mobility in the cytosol. These MNPs with a core diameter below 50 nm could be rapidly relocalized in living cells by exploiting biased diffusion at weak magnetic forces in the femto-Newton range. In combination with MNP surface functionalization for specific in situ capturing of target proteins as well as efficient delivery into the cytosplasm, we here present a comprehensive technology for controlling intracellular protein gradients with a temporal resolution of a few tens of seconds.

  20. High spatial and temporal resolution visible spectroscopy of the plasma edge in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohil, P.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Seraydarian, R.P.

    1990-10-01

    In DIII-D, visible spectroscopic measurements of the He II 468.6 nm and C VI 529.2 nm Doppler broadened spectral lines, resulting from charge exchange recombination interactions between beam neutral atoms and plasma ions, are performed to determine ion temperatures, and toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities. The diagnostics system comprises 32 viewing chords spanning a typical minor radius of 63 cm across the midplane, of which 16 spatial chords span 11 cm of the plasma edge just within the separatrix. A temporal resolution of 260 μs per time slice can be obtained as a result of using MCP phosphors with short decay times and fast camera readout electronics. Results from this system will be used in radial electric field comparisons with theory at the L-H transition and ion transport analysis. 6 refs., 3 figs

  1. Spatial models for probabilistic prediction of wind power with application to annual-average and high temporal resolution data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenzi, Amanda; Pinson, Pierre; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2017-01-01

    average wind power generation, and for a high temporal resolution (typically wind power averages over 15-min time steps). In both cases, we use a spatial hierarchical statistical model in which spatial correlation is captured by a latent Gaussian field. We explore how such models can be handled...... with stochastic partial differential approximations of Matérn Gaussian fields together with Integrated Nested Laplace Approximations. We demonstrate the proposed methods on wind farm data from Western Denmark, and compare the results to those obtained with standard geostatistical methods. The results show...

  2. The Effects of Data Gaps on the Calculated Monthly Mean Maximum and Minimum Temperatures in the Continental United States: A Spatial and Temporal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stooksbury, David E.; Idso, Craig D.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.

    1999-05-01

    Gaps in otherwise regularly scheduled observations are often referred to as missing data. This paper explores the spatial and temporal impacts that data gaps in the recorded daily maximum and minimum temperatures have on the calculated monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures. For this analysis 138 climate stations from the United States Historical Climatology Network Daily Temperature and Precipitation Data set were selected. The selected stations had no missing maximum or minimum temperature values during the period 1951-80. The monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures were calculated for each station for each month. For each month 1-10 consecutive days of data from each station were randomly removed. This was performed 30 times for each simulated gap period. The spatial and temporal impact of the 1-10-day data gaps were compared. The influence of data gaps is most pronounced in the continental regions during the winter and least pronounced in the southeast during the summer. In the north central plains, 10-day data gaps during January produce a standard deviation value greater than 2°C about the `true' mean. In the southeast, 10-day data gaps in July produce a standard deviation value less than 0.5°C about the mean. The results of this study will be of value in climate variability and climate trend research as well as climate assessment and impact studies.

  3. Measuring Temporal Resolution (Release of Masking) with a Hughson-Westlake Up-Down Instead of a Békèsy-Tracking Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Koenraad S; van Esch, Thamar E M; Dreschler, Wouter A

    2015-06-01

    A temporal resolution test in addition to the pure-tone audiogram may be of great clinical interest because of its relevance in speech perception and expected relevance in hearing aid fitting. Larsby and Arlinger developed an appropriate clinical test, but this test uses a Békèsy-tracking procedure for estimating masked thresholds in stationary and interrupted noise to assess release of masking (RoM) for temporal resolution. Generally the Hughson-Westlake up-down procedure is used in the clinic to measure the pure-tone thresholds in quiet. A uniform approach will facilitate clinical application and might be appropriate for RoM measurements as well. Because there is no golden standard for measuring the RoM in the clinic, we examine in the present study the Hughson-Westlake up-down procedure to measure the RoM and compare the results with the Békèsy-tracking procedure. The purpose of the current study was to examine the differences between a Békèsy-tracking procedure and the Hughson-Westlake up-down procedure for estimating masked thresholds in stationary and interrupted noise to assess RoM. RoM is assessed in eight normal-hearing (NH) and ten hearing-impaired (HI) listeners through both methods. Results from both methods are compared with each other and with predicted thresholds from a model. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, paired t tests. Some differences between the two methods were found. We used a model to quantify the results of the two measurement procedures. The results of the Hughson-Westlake procedure were clearly better in agreement with the model than the results of the Békèsy-tracking procedure. Furthermore, the Békèsy-tracking procedure showed more spread in the results of the NH listeners than the Hughson-Westlake procedure. The Hughson-Westlake procedure seems to be an applicable alternative for measuring RoM for temporal resolution in the clinical audiological practice. American Academy of Audiology.

  4. Dual-source spiral CT with pitch up to 3.2 and 75 ms temporal resolution: image reconstruction and assessment of image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, Thomas G; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Aiimendinger, Thomas; Bruder, Herbert; Petersilka, Martin; Eusemann, Christian D; Stierstorfer, Karl; Schmidt, Bernhard; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2009-12-01

    To present the theory for image reconstruction of a high-pitch, high-temporal-resolution spiral scan mode for dual-source CT (DSCT) and evaluate its image quality and dose. With the use of two x-ray sources and two data acquisition systems, spiral CT exams having a nominal temporal resolution per image of up to one-quarter of the gantry rotation time can be acquired using pitch values up to 3.2. The scan field of view (SFOV) for this mode, however, is limited to the SFOV of the second detector as a maximum, depending on the pitch. Spatial and low contrast resolution, image uniformity and noise, CT number accuracy and linearity, and radiation dose were assessed using the ACR CT accreditation phantom, a 30 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom or a 32 cm diameter cylindrical PMMA CTDI phantom. Slice sensitivity profiles (SSPs) were measured for different nominal slice thicknesses, and an anthropomorphic phantom was used to assess image artifacts. Results were compared between single-source scans at pitch = 1.0 and dual-source scans at pitch = 3.2. In addition, image quality and temporal resolution of an ECG-triggered version of the DSCT high-pitch spiral scan mode were evaluated with a moving coronary artery phantom, and radiation dose was assessed in comparison with other existing cardiac scan techniques. No significant differences in quantitative measures of image quality were found between single-source scans at pitch = 1.0 and dual-source scans at pitch = 3.2 for spatial and low contrast resolution, CT number accuracy and linearity, SSPs, image uniformity, and noise. The pitch value (1.6 pitch 3.2) had only a minor impact on radiation dose and image noise when the effective tube current time product (mA s/pitch) was kept constant. However, while not severe, artifacts were found to be more prevalent for the dual-source pitch = 3.2 scan mode when structures varied markedly along the z axis, particularly for head scans. Images of the moving coronary artery phantom

  5. Dual-source spiral CT with pitch up to 3.2 and 75 ms temporal resolution: Image reconstruction and assessment of image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flohr, Thomas G.; Leng Shuai; Yu Lifeng; Allmendinger, Thomas; Bruder, Herbert; Petersilka, Martin; Eusemann, Christian D.; Stierstorfer, Karl; Schmidt, Bernhard; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To present the theory for image reconstruction of a high-pitch, high-temporal-resolution spiral scan mode for dual-source CT (DSCT) and evaluate its image quality and dose. Methods: With the use of two x-ray sources and two data acquisition systems, spiral CT exams having a nominal temporal resolution per image of up to one-quarter of the gantry rotation time can be acquired using pitch values up to 3.2. The scan field of view (SFOV) for this mode, however, is limited to the SFOV of the second detector as a maximum, depending on the pitch. Spatial and low contrast resolution, image uniformity and noise, CT number accuracy and linearity, and radiation dose were assessed using the ACR CT accreditation phantom, a 30 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom or a 32 cm diameter cylindrical PMMA CTDI phantom. Slice sensitivity profiles (SSPs) were measured for different nominal slice thicknesses, and an anthropomorphic phantom was used to assess image artifacts. Results were compared between single-source scans at pitch=1.0 and dual-source scans at pitch=3.2. In addition, image quality and temporal resolution of an ECG-triggered version of the DSCT high-pitch spiral scan mode were evaluated with a moving coronary artery phantom, and radiation dose was assessed in comparison with other existing cardiac scan techniques. Results: No significant differences in quantitative measures of image quality were found between single-source scans at pitch=1.0 and dual-source scans at pitch=3.2 for spatial and low contrast resolution, CT number accuracy and linearity, SSPs, image uniformity, and noise. The pitch value (1.6≤pitch≤3.2) had only a minor impact on radiation dose and image noise when the effective tube current time product (mA s/pitch) was kept constant. However, while not severe, artifacts were found to be more prevalent for the dual-source pitch=3.2 scan mode when structures varied markedly along the z axis, particularly for head scans. Images of the moving

  6. Dual-source spiral CT with pitch up to 3.2 and 75 ms temporal resolution: Image reconstruction and assessment of image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flohr, Thomas G.; Leng Shuai; Yu Lifeng; Allmendinger, Thomas; Bruder, Herbert; Petersilka, Martin; Eusemann, Christian D.; Stierstorfer, Karl; Schmidt, Bernhard; McCollough, Cynthia H. [Siemens Healthcare, Computed Tomography, 91301 Forchheim, Germany and Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Siemens Healthcare, Computed Tomography, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: To present the theory for image reconstruction of a high-pitch, high-temporal-resolution spiral scan mode for dual-source CT (DSCT) and evaluate its image quality and dose. Methods: With the use of two x-ray sources and two data acquisition systems, spiral CT exams having a nominal temporal resolution per image of up to one-quarter of the gantry rotation time can be acquired using pitch values up to 3.2. The scan field of view (SFOV) for this mode, however, is limited to the SFOV of the second detector as a maximum, depending on the pitch. Spatial and low contrast resolution, image uniformity and noise, CT number accuracy and linearity, and radiation dose were assessed using the ACR CT accreditation phantom, a 30 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom or a 32 cm diameter cylindrical PMMA CTDI phantom. Slice sensitivity profiles (SSPs) were measured for different nominal slice thicknesses, and an anthropomorphic phantom was used to assess image artifacts. Results were compared between single-source scans at pitch=1.0 and dual-source scans at pitch=3.2. In addition, image quality and temporal resolution of an ECG-triggered version of the DSCT high-pitch spiral scan mode were evaluated with a moving coronary artery phantom, and radiation dose was assessed in comparison with other existing cardiac scan techniques. Results: No significant differences in quantitative measures of image quality were found between single-source scans at pitch=1.0 and dual-source scans at pitch=3.2 for spatial and low contrast resolution, CT number accuracy and linearity, SSPs, image uniformity, and noise. The pitch value (1.6{<=}pitch{<=}3.2) had only a minor impact on radiation dose and image noise when the effective tube current time product (mA s/pitch) was kept constant. However, while not severe, artifacts were found to be more prevalent for the dual-source pitch=3.2 scan mode when structures varied markedly along the z axis, particularly for head scans. Images of the moving

  7. High temporal resolution magnetic resonance imaging: development of a parallel three dimensional acquisition method for functional neuroimaging; Imagerie par resonance magnetique a haute resolution temporelle: developpement d'une methode d'acquisition parallele tridimensionnelle pour l'imagerie fonctionnelle cerebrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabrait, C

    2007-11-15

    Echo Planar Imaging is widely used to perform data acquisition in functional neuroimaging. This sequence allows the acquisition of a set of about 30 slices, covering the whole brain, at a spatial resolution ranging from 2 to 4 mm, and a temporal resolution ranging from 1 to 2 s. It is thus well adapted to the mapping of activated brain areas but does not allow precise study of the brain dynamics. Moreover, temporal interpolation is needed in order to correct for inter-slices delays and 2-dimensional acquisition is subject to vascular in flow artifacts. To improve the estimation of the hemodynamic response functions associated with activation, this thesis aimed at developing a 3-dimensional high temporal resolution acquisition method. To do so, Echo Volume Imaging was combined with reduced field-of-view acquisition and parallel imaging. Indeed, E.V.I. allows the acquisition of a whole volume in Fourier space following a single excitation, but it requires very long echo trains. Parallel imaging and field-of-view reduction are used to reduce the echo train durations by a factor of 4, which allows the acquisition of a 3-dimensional brain volume with limited susceptibility-induced distortions and signal losses, in 200 ms. All imaging parameters have been optimized in order to reduce echo train durations and to maximize S.N.R., so that cerebral activation can be detected with a high level of confidence. Robust detection of brain activation was demonstrated with both visual and auditory paradigms. High temporal resolution hemodynamic response functions could be estimated through selective averaging of the response to the different trials of the stimulation. To further improve S.N.R., the matrix inversions required in parallel reconstruction were regularized, and the impact of the level of regularization on activation detection was investigated. Eventually, potential applications of parallel E.V.I. such as the study of non-stationary effects in the B.O.L.D. response

  8. Spatio-Temporal Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Remote-Sensing Images Based on Adaptive Multi-Scale Detail Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Tang, Xinming; Xie, Junfeng; Song, Weidong; Mo, Fan; Gao, Xiaoming

    2018-02-07

    There are many problems in existing reconstruction-based super-resolution algorithms, such as the lack of texture-feature representation and of high-frequency details. Multi-scale detail enhancement can produce more texture information and high-frequency information. Therefore, super-resolution reconstruction of remote-sensing images based on adaptive multi-scale detail enhancement (AMDE-SR) is proposed in this paper. First, the information entropy of each remote-sensing image is calculated, and the image with the maximum entropy value is regarded as the reference image. Subsequently, spatio-temporal remote-sensing images are processed using phase normalization, which is to reduce the time phase difference of image data and enhance the complementarity of information. The multi-scale image information is then decomposed using the L ₀ gradient minimization model, and the non-redundant information is processed by difference calculation and expanding non-redundant layers and the redundant layer by the iterative back-projection (IBP) technique. The different-scale non-redundant information is adaptive-weighted and fused using cross-entropy. Finally, a nonlinear texture-detail-enhancement function is built to improve the scope of small details, and the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is used as an iterative constraint. Ultimately, high-resolution remote-sensing images with abundant texture information are obtained by iterative optimization. Real results show an average gain in entropy of up to 0.42 dB for an up-scaling of 2 and a significant promotion gain in enhancement measure evaluation for an up-scaling of 2. The experimental results show that the performance of the AMED-SR method is better than existing super-resolution reconstruction methods in terms of visual and accuracy improvements.

  9. Spatio-Temporal Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Remote-Sensing Images Based on Adaptive Multi-Scale Detail Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Tang, Xinming; Xie, Junfeng; Song, Weidong; Mo, Fan; Gao, Xiaoming

    2018-01-01

    There are many problems in existing reconstruction-based super-resolution algorithms, such as the lack of texture-feature representation and of high-frequency details. Multi-scale detail enhancement can produce more texture information and high-frequency information. Therefore, super-resolution reconstruction of remote-sensing images based on adaptive multi-scale detail enhancement (AMDE-SR) is proposed in this paper. First, the information entropy of each remote-sensing image is calculated, and the image with the maximum entropy value is regarded as the reference image. Subsequently, spatio-temporal remote-sensing images are processed using phase normalization, which is to reduce the time phase difference of image data and enhance the complementarity of information. The multi-scale image information is then decomposed using the L0 gradient minimization model, and the non-redundant information is processed by difference calculation and expanding non-redundant layers and the redundant layer by the iterative back-projection (IBP) technique. The different-scale non-redundant information is adaptive-weighted and fused using cross-entropy. Finally, a nonlinear texture-detail-enhancement function is built to improve the scope of small details, and the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is used as an iterative constraint. Ultimately, high-resolution remote-sensing images with abundant texture information are obtained by iterative optimization. Real results show an average gain in entropy of up to 0.42 dB for an up-scaling of 2 and a significant promotion gain in enhancement measure evaluation for an up-scaling of 2. The experimental results show that the performance of the AMED-SR method is better than existing super-resolution reconstruction methods in terms of visual and accuracy improvements. PMID:29414893

  10. Sensitivity of isoprene emissions estimated using MEGAN to the time resolution of input climate data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ashworth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the effect of varying the temporal resolution of the input climate data on isoprene emission estimates generated by the community emissions model MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature. The estimated total global annual emissions of isoprene is reduced from 766 Tg y−1 when using hourly input data to 746 Tg y−1 (a reduction of 3% for daily average input data and 711 Tg y−1 (down 7% for monthly average input data. The impact on a local scale can be more significant with reductions of up to 55% at some locations when using monthly average data compared with using hourly data. If the daily and monthly average temperature data are used without the imposition of a diurnal cycle the global emissions estimates fall by 27–32%, and local annual emissions by up to 77%. A similar pattern emerges if hourly isoprene fluxes are considered. In order to better simulate and predict isoprene emission rates using MEGAN, we show it is necessary to use temperature and radiation data resolved to one hour. Given the importance of land-atmosphere interactions in the Earth system and the low computational cost of the MEGAN algorithms, we recommend that chemistry-climate models and the new generation of Earth system models input biogenic emissions at the highest temporal resolution possible.

  11. Identification of appropriate lags and temporal resolutions for low flow indicators in the River Rhine to forecast low flows with different lead times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, M.C.; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the relative importance of low flow indicators for the River Rhine and to identify their appropriate temporal lag and resolution. This is done in the context of low flow forecasting with lead times of 14 and 90 days. First, the Rhine basin is subdivided into seven

  12. Influence of temporal resolution and processing of exposure data on modeling of chloride ingress and reinforcement corrosion in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flint, Madeleine; Michel, Alexander; Billington, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    a numerical heat and mass transport model that includes full coupling of heat, moisture and ion transport. Heat, moisture, and chloride concentration distributions were passed to a simplified reinforcement corrosion initiation and propagation model. The numerical study indicates that processing and temporal...... resolution of the exposure data has a considerable impact on long-term hygrothermal distribution, chloride ingress, and reinforcement section loss results. Use of time-averaged exposure data in the heat and mass transport model reduces the rate of chloride ingress in concrete and affects prediction...

  13. Improving the spatial and temporal resolution with quantification of uncertainty and errors in earth observation data sets using Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Serafy, Ghada; Gaytan Aguilar, Sandra; Ziemba, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing use of process-based models in the investigation of ecological systems and scenario predictions. The accuracy and quality of these models are improved when run with high spatial and temporal resolution data sets. However, ecological data can often be difficult to collect which manifests itself through irregularities in the spatial and temporal domain of these data sets. Through the use of Data INterpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions(DINEOF) methodology, earth observation products can be improved to have full spatial coverage within the desired domain as well as increased temporal resolution to daily and weekly time step, those frequently required by process-based models[1]. The DINEOF methodology results in a degree of error being affixed to the refined data product. In order to determine the degree of error introduced through this process, the suspended particulate matter and chlorophyll-a data from MERIS is used with DINEOF to produce high resolution products for the Wadden Sea. These new data sets are then compared with in-situ and other data sources to determine the error. Also, artificial cloud cover scenarios are conducted in order to substantiate the findings from MERIS data experiments. Secondly, the accuracy of DINEOF is explored to evaluate the variance of the methodology. The degree of accuracy is combined with the overall error produced by the methodology and reported in an assessment of the quality of DINEOF when applied to resolution refinement of chlorophyll-a and suspended particulate matter in the Wadden Sea. References [1] Sirjacobs, D.; Alvera-Azcárate, A.; Barth, A.; Lacroix, G.; Park, Y.; Nechad, B.; Ruddick, K.G.; Beckers, J.-M. (2011). Cloud filling of ocean colour and sea surface temperature remote sensing products over the Southern North Sea by the Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions methodology. J. Sea Res. 65(1): 114-130. Dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seares.2010.08.002

  14. High-Resolution Climate Data Visualization through GIS- and Web-based Data Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, X.; Huang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Sound decisions on climate change adaptation rely on an in-depth assessment of potential climate change impacts at regional and local scales, which usually requires finer resolution climate projections at both spatial and temporal scales. However, effective downscaling of global climate projections is practically difficult due to the lack of computational resources and/or long-term reference data. Although a large volume of downscaled climate data has been make available to the public, how to understand and interpret the large-volume climate data and how to make use of the data to drive impact assessment and adaptation studies are still challenging for both impact researchers and decision makers. Such difficulties have become major barriers preventing informed climate change adaptation planning at regional scales. Therefore, this research will explore new GIS- and web-based technologies to help visualize the large-volume regional climate data with high spatiotemporal resolutions. A user-friendly public data portal, named Climate Change Data Portal (CCDP, http://ccdp.network), will be established to allow intuitive and open access to high-resolution regional climate projections at local scales. The CCDP offers functions of visual representation through geospatial maps and data downloading for a variety of climate variables (e.g., temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind) at multiple spatial resolutions (i.e., 25 - 50 km) and temporal resolutions (i.e., annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, and hourly). The vast amount of information the CCDP encompasses can provide a crucial basis for assessing impacts of climate change on local communities and ecosystems and for supporting better decision making under a changing climate.

  15. High spatial and temporal resolution retrospective cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance from shortened free breathing real-time acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Kellman, Peter; Larocca, Gina; Arai, Andrew E; Hansen, Michael S

    2013-11-14

    Cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is challenging in patients who cannot perform repeated breath holds. Real-time, free-breathing acquisition is an alternative, but image quality is typically inferior. There is a clinical need for techniques that achieve similar image quality to the segmented cine using a free breathing acquisition. Previously, high quality retrospectively gated cine images have been reconstructed from real-time acquisitions using parallel imaging and motion correction. These methods had limited clinical applicability due to lengthy acquisitions and volumetric measurements obtained with such methods have not previously been evaluated systematically. This study introduces a new retrospective reconstruction scheme for real-time cine imaging which aims to shorten the required acquisition. A real-time acquisition of 16-20s per acquired slice was inputted into a retrospective cine reconstruction algorithm, which employed non-rigid registration to remove respiratory motion and SPIRiT non-linear reconstruction with temporal regularization to fill in missing data. The algorithm was used to reconstruct cine loops with high spatial (1.3-1.8 × 1.8-2.1 mm²) and temporal resolution (retrospectively gated, 30 cardiac phases, temporal resolution 34.3 ± 9.1 ms). Validation was performed in 15 healthy volunteers using two different acquisition resolutions (256 × 144/192 × 128 matrix sizes). For each subject, 9 to 12 short axis and 3 long axis slices were imaged with both segmented and real-time acquisitions. The retrospectively reconstructed real-time cine images were compared to a traditional segmented breath-held acquisition in terms of image quality scores. Image quality scoring was performed by two experts using a scale between 1 and 5 (poor to good). For every subject, LAX and three SAX slices were selected and reviewed in the random order. The reviewers were blinded to the reconstruction approach and acquisition protocols and

  16. Three-Dimensional Water and Carbon Cycle Modeling at High Spatial-Temporal Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C.; Zhuang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems in cryosphere are very sensitive to the global climate change due to the presence of snow covers, mountain glaciers and permafrost, especially when the increase in near surface air temperature is almost twice as large as the global average. However, few studies have investigated the water and carbon cycle dynamics using process-based hydrological and biogeochemistry modeling approach. In this study, we used three-dimensional modeling approach at high spatial-temporal resolutions to investigate the water and carbon cycle dynamics for the Tanana Flats Basin in interior Alaska with emphases on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics. The results have shown that: (1) lateral flow plays an important role in water and carbon cycle, especially in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics. (2) approximately 2.0 × 104 kg C yr-1 DOC is exported to the hydrological networks and it compromises 1% and 0.01% of total annual gross primary production (GPP) and total organic carbon stored in soil, respectively. This study has established an operational and flexible framework to investigate and predict the water and carbon cycle dynamics under the changing climate.

  17. Automatic sleep spindle detection: Benchmarking with fine temporal resolution using open science tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eO'Reilly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep spindle properties index cognitive faculties such as memory consolidation and diseases such as major depression. For this reason, scoring sleep spindle properties in polysomnographic recordings has become an important activity in both research and clinical settings. The tediousness of this manual task has motivated efforts for its automation. Although some progress has been made, increasing the temporal accuracy of spindle scoring and improving the performance assessment methodology are two aspects needing more attention. In this paper, four open-access automated spindle detectors with fine temporal resolution are proposed and tested against expert scoring of two proprietary and two open-access databases. Results highlight several findings: 1 that expert scoring and polysomnographic databases are important confounders when comparing the performance of spindle detectors tested using different databases or scorings; 2 because spindles are sparse events, specificity estimates are potentially misleading for assessing automated detector performance; 3 reporting the performance of spindle detectors exclusively with sensitivity and specificity estimates, as is often seen in the literature, is insufficient; including sensitivity, precision and a more comprehensive statistic such as Matthew’s correlation coefficient, F1-score, or Cohen’s κ is necessary for adequate evaluation; 4 reporting statistics for some reasonable range of decision thresholds provides a much more complete and useful benchmarking; 5 performance differences between tested automated detectors were found to be similar to those between available expert scorings; 6 much more development is needed to effectively compare the performance of spindle detectors developed by different research teams. Finally, this work clarifies a long-standing but only seldom posed question regarding whether expert scoring truly is a reliable gold standard for sleep spindle assessment.

  18. Attention-Based Recurrent Temporal Restricted Boltzmann Machine for Radar High Resolution Range Profile Sequence Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The High Resolution Range Profile (HRRP recognition has attracted great concern in the field of Radar Automatic Target Recognition (RATR. However, traditional HRRP recognition methods failed to model high dimensional sequential data efficiently and have a poor anti-noise ability. To deal with these problems, a novel stochastic neural network model named Attention-based Recurrent Temporal Restricted Boltzmann Machine (ARTRBM is proposed in this paper. RTRBM is utilized to extract discriminative features and the attention mechanism is adopted to select major features. RTRBM is efficient to model high dimensional HRRP sequences because it can extract the information of temporal and spatial correlation between adjacent HRRPs. The attention mechanism is used in sequential data recognition tasks including machine translation and relation classification, which makes the model pay more attention to the major features of recognition. Therefore, the combination of RTRBM and the attention mechanism makes our model effective for extracting more internal related features and choose the important parts of the extracted features. Additionally, the model performs well with the noise corrupted HRRP data. Experimental results on the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR dataset show that our proposed model outperforms other traditional methods, which indicates that ARTRBM extracts, selects, and utilizes the correlation information between adjacent HRRPs effectively and is suitable for high dimensional data or noise corrupted data.

  19. On the influence of temporal and spatial resolution of aircraft emission inventories for mesoscale modeling of pollutant dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzkowiak, V.; Petry, H.; Ebel, A. [Cologne Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Geophysics and Meteorology

    1997-12-31

    The sensitivity of a mesoscale chemistry transport model to the temporal and spatial resolution of aircraft emission inventories is evaluated. A statistical analysis of air traffic in the North-Atlantic flight corridor is carried out showing a highly variable, fine structured spatial distribution and a pronounced daily variation. Sensitivity studies comparing different emission scenarios reveal a strong dependency to the emission time and location of both transport and response in chemical formation of subsequent products. The introduction of a pronounced daily variation leads to a 30% higher ozone production in comparison to uniformly distributed emissions. (author) 9 refs.

  20. On the influence of temporal and spatial resolution of aircraft emission inventories for mesoscale modeling of pollutant dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzkowiak, V; Petry, H; Ebel, A [Cologne Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Geophysics and Meteorology

    1998-12-31

    The sensitivity of a mesoscale chemistry transport model to the temporal and spatial resolution of aircraft emission inventories is evaluated. A statistical analysis of air traffic in the North-Atlantic flight corridor is carried out showing a highly variable, fine structured spatial distribution and a pronounced daily variation. Sensitivity studies comparing different emission scenarios reveal a strong dependency to the emission time and location of both transport and response in chemical formation of subsequent products. The introduction of a pronounced daily variation leads to a 30% higher ozone production in comparison to uniformly distributed emissions. (author) 9 refs.

  1. Estimation of Diurnal Cycle of Land Surface Temperature at High Temporal and Spatial Resolution from Clear-Sky MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Bo Duan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal cycle of land surface temperature (LST is an important element of the climate system. Geostationary satellites can provide the diurnal cycle of LST with low spatial resolution and incomplete global coverage, which limits its applications in some studies. In this study, we propose a method to estimate the diurnal cycle of LST at high temporal and spatial resolution from clear-sky MODIS data. This method was evaluated using the MSG-SEVIRI-derived LSTs. The results indicate that this method fits the diurnal cycle of LST well, with root mean square error (RMSE values less than 1 K for most pixels. Because MODIS provides at most four observations per day at a given location, this method was further evaluated using only four MSG-SEVIRI-derived LSTs corresponding to the MODIS overpass times (10:30, 13:30, 22:30, and 01:30 local solar time. The results show that the RMSE values using only four MSG-SEVIRI-derived LSTs are approximately two times larger than those using all LSTs. The spatial distribution of the modeled LSTs at the MODIS pixel scale is presented from 07:00 to 05:00 local solar time of the next day with an increment of 2 hours. The diurnal cycle of the modeled LSTs describes the temporal evolution of the LSTs at the MODIS pixel scale.

  2. McMaster Mesonet soil moisture dataset: description and spatio-temporal variability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Kornelsen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces and describes the hourly, high-resolution soil moisture dataset continuously recorded by the McMaster Mesonet located in the Hamilton-Halton Watershed in Southern Ontario, Canada. The McMaster Mesonet consists of a network of time domain reflectometer (TDR probes collecting hourly soil moisture data at six depths between 10 cm and 100 cm at nine locations per site, spread across four sites in the 1250 km2 watershed. The sites for the soil moisture arrays are designed to further improve understanding of soil moisture dynamics in a seasonal climate and to capture soil moisture transitions in areas that have different topography, soil and land cover. The McMaster Mesonet soil moisture constitutes a unique database in Canada because of its high spatio-temporal resolution. In order to provide some insight into the dominant processes at the McMaster Mesonet sites, a spatio-temporal and temporal stability analysis were conducted to identify spatio-temporal patterns in the data and to suggest some physical interpretation of soil moisture variability. It was found that the seasonal climate of the Great Lakes Basin causes a transition in soil moisture patterns at seasonal timescales. During winter and early spring months, and at the meadow sites, soil moisture distribution is governed by topographic redistribution, whereas following efflorescence in the spring and summer, soil moisture spatial distribution at the forested site was also controlled by vegetation canopy. Analysis of short-term temporal stability revealed that the relative difference between sites was maintained unless there was significant rainfall (> 20 mm or wet conditions a priori. Following a disturbance in the spatial soil moisture distribution due to wetting, the relative soil moisture pattern re-emerged in 18 to 24 h. Access to the McMaster Mesonet data can be provided by visiting www.hydrology.mcmaster.ca/mesonet.

  3. Spatial-temporal consistency between gross primary productivity and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence of vegetation in China during 2007-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Xiao, X.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, B.; Zhao, B.

    2017-12-01

    Great significance exists in accurately estimating spatial-temporal patterns of gross primary production (GPP) because of its important role in global carbon cycle. Satellite-based light use efficiency (LUE) models are regarded as an efficient tool in simulating spatially time-sires GPP. However, the estimation of the accuracy of GPP simulations from LUE at both spatial and temporal scales is still a challenging work. In this study, we simulated GPP of vegetation in China during 2007-2014 using a LUE model (Vegetation Photosynthesis Model, VPM) based on MODIS (moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer) images of 8-day temporal and 500-m spatial resolutions and NCEP (National Center for Environmental Prediction) climate data. Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2) solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) data were used to compare with VPM simulated GPP (GPPVPM) temporally and spatially using linear correlation analysis. Significant positive linear correlations exist between monthly GPPVPM and SIF data over both single year (2010) and multiple years (2007-2014) in China. Annual GPPVPM is significantly positive correlated with SIF (R2>0.43) spatially for all years during 2007-2014 and all seasons in 2010 (R2>0.37). GPP dynamic trends is high spatial-temporal heterogeneous in China during 2007-2014. The results of this study indicate that GPPVPM is temporally and spatially in line with SIF data, and space-borne SIF data have great potential in validating and parameterizing GPP estimation of LUE-based models.

  4. The use of X-band polarimetric radar to assess the impact of different temporal and spatial resolution on a drainage system in Rotterdam urban area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruni, G.; Reinoso Rondinel, R.R.; Ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Russchenberg, H.W.J.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of different temporal and spatial rainfall resolutions on the hydrological response of a higly urbanized area. The catchment under study is one of the pilot locations of RainGain Interreg IVB project, which aims at improving fine-scale measurement and prediction

  5. Technical note: Coupling infrared gas analysis and cavity ring down spectroscopy for autonomous, high-temporal-resolution measurements of DIC and δ13C-DIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Mitchell; Schulz, Kai G.; Carvalho, Matheus C.; Santos, Isaac R.; Maher, Damien T.

    2017-03-01

    A new approach to autonomously determine concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and its carbon stable isotope ratio (δ13C-DIC) at high temporal resolution is presented. The simple method requires no customised design. Instead it uses two commercially available instruments currently used in aquatic carbon research. An inorganic carbon analyser utilising non-dispersive infrared detection (NDIR) is coupled to a Cavity Ring-down Spectrometer (CRDS) to determine DIC and δ13C-DIC based on the liberated CO2 from acidified aliquots of water. Using a small sample volume of 2 mL, the precision and accuracy of the new method was comparable to standard isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) methods. The system achieved a sampling resolution of 16 min, with a DIC precision of ±1.5 to 2 µmol kg-1 and δ13C-DIC precision of ±0.14 ‰ for concentrations spanning 1000 to 3600 µmol kg-1. Accuracy of 0.1 ± 0.06 ‰ for δ13C-DIC based on DIC concentrations ranging from 2000 to 2230 µmol kg-1 was achieved during a laboratory-based algal bloom experiment. The high precision data that can be autonomously obtained by the system should enable complex carbonate system questions to be explored in aquatic sciences using high-temporal-resolution observations.

  6. Monthly and spatially resolved black carbon emission inventory of India: uncertainty analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Paliwal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC emissions from India for the year 2011 are estimated to be 901.11 ± 151.56 Gg yr−1 based on a new ground-up, GIS-based inventory. The grid-based, spatially resolved emission inventory includes, in addition to conventional sources, emissions from kerosene lamps, forest fires, diesel-powered irrigation pumps and electricity generators at mobile towers. The emissions have been estimated at district level and were spatially distributed onto grids at a resolution of 40 × 40 km2. The uncertainty in emissions has been estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation by considering the variability in activity data and emission factors. Monthly variation of BC emissions has also been estimated to account for the seasonal variability. To the total BC emissions, domestic fuels contributed most significantly (47 %, followed by industry (22 %, transport (17 %, open burning (12 % and others (2 %. The spatial and seasonal resolution of the inventory will be useful for modeling BC transport in the atmosphere for air quality, global warming and other process-level studies that require greater temporal resolution than traditional inventories.

  7. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  8. High spatial and temporal resolution cell manipulation techniques in microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Pedro; Dell'Aica, Margherita; Janasek, Dirk; Zahedi, René P

    2016-03-21

    The advent of microfluidics has enabled thorough control of cell manipulation experiments in so called lab on chips. Lab on chips foster the integration of actuation and detection systems, and require minute sample and reagent amounts. Typically employed microfluidic structures have similar dimensions as cells, enabling precise spatial and temporal control of individual cells and their local environments. Several strategies for high spatio-temporal control of cells in microfluidics have been reported in recent years, namely methods relying on careful design of the microfluidic structures (e.g. pinched flow), by integration of actuators (e.g. electrodes or magnets for dielectro-, acousto- and magneto-phoresis), or integrations thereof. This review presents the recent developments of cell experiments in microfluidics divided into two parts: an introduction to spatial control of cells in microchannels followed by special emphasis in the high temporal control of cell-stimulus reaction and quenching. In the end, the present state of the art is discussed in line with future perspectives and challenges for translating these devices into routine applications.

  9. MR appearance of the temporal evolution and resolution of spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geijer, Mats; Jureus, Jan; Hanni, Mari; Shalabi, Adel

    2017-02-01

    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SONK) is a feared condition of unknown cause, in its classic form appearing in the medial femoral condyle in middle-aged or elderly subjects. Diagnosis with radiography is notoriously difficult with a long latency before typical changes appear. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regarded as a diagnostic tool with the possibility to give an earlier diagnosis with improved chances for treatment. However, also with MRI there may be an initial diagnostic blind spot before typical changes appear. Little is known about the temporal evolution of the MRI changes. In the current case report, a case of SONK is reported where serial imaging with MRI was performed, from initial symptoms to eventual resolution after almost three years.

  10. Mining approximate temporal functional dependencies with pure temporal grouping in clinical databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Carlo; Mantovani, Matteo; Sabaini, Alberto; Sala, Pietro; Amaddeo, Francesco; Moretti, Ugo; Pozzi, Giuseppe

    2015-07-01

    Functional dependencies (FDs) typically represent associations over facts stored by a database, such as "patients with the same symptom get the same therapy." In more recent years, some extensions have been introduced to represent both temporal constraints (temporal functional dependencies - TFDs), as "for any given month, patients with the same symptom must have the same therapy, but their therapy may change from one month to the next one," and approximate properties (approximate functional dependencies - AFDs), as "patients with the same symptomgenerallyhave the same therapy." An AFD holds most of the facts stored by the database, enabling some data to deviate from the defined property: the percentage of data which violate the given property is user-defined. According to this scenario, in this paper we introduce approximate temporal functional dependencies (ATFDs) and use them to mine clinical data. Specifically, we considered the need for deriving new knowledge from psychiatric and pharmacovigilance data. ATFDs may be defined and measured either on temporal granules (e.g.grouping data by day, week, month, year) or on sliding windows (e.g.a fixed-length time interval which moves over the time axis): in this regard, we propose and discuss some specific and efficient data mining techniques for ATFDs. We also developed two running prototypes and showed the feasibility of our proposal by mining two real-world clinical data sets. The clinical interest of the dependencies derived considering the psychiatry and pharmacovigilance domains confirms the soundness and the usefulness of the proposed techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis: MRI with high-resolution fast spin-echo and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppenheim, C.; Dormont, D.; Lehericy, S.; Marsault, C. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pite-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Hasboun, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pite-Salpetriere, Paris (France)]|[Dept. of Neurology, Paris VI Univ. (France); Bazin, B.; Samson, S.; Baulac, M. [Dept. of Neurology, Paris VI Univ. (France)

    1999-07-01

    We report a retrospective analysis of MRI in 206 patients with intractable seizures and describe the findings in bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on fast spin-echo (FSE) and fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (fFLAIR) sequences. Criteria for MTS were atrophy, signal change and loss of the digitations of the head of the hippocampus. In patients with bilateral MRI signs of MTS, correlation with clinical electro, volumetric MRI data and neuropsychological tests, when available, was performed. Bilateral MTS was observed in seven patients. Bilateral loss of the digitations and signal change of fFLAIR was seen in all seven. In three, bilateral atrophy was obvious. In two patients, mild bilateral atrophy was observed and in two others, the hippocampi were: asymmetrical, with obvious atrophy on only one side. Volumetric data confirmed bilateral symmetrical atrophy in five patients, and volumes were at the lowest of the normal range in other two. The EEG showed temporal abnormalities in all patients, unilateral in five and bilateral in two. All patients had memory impairment and neuropsychological data confirmed visual and verbal memory deficits; two patients failed the Wada test on both sides. High-resolution T2-weighted FSE and fFLAIR sequences allow diagnosis of bilateral MTS, which has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. (orig.)

  12. Bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis: MRI with high-resolution fast spin-echo and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppenheim, C.; Dormont, D.; Lehericy, S.; Marsault, C.; Hasboun, D.; Bazin, B.; Samson, S.; Baulac, M.

    1999-01-01

    We report a retrospective analysis of MRI in 206 patients with intractable seizures and describe the findings in bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on fast spin-echo (FSE) and fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (fFLAIR) sequences. Criteria for MTS were atrophy, signal change and loss of the digitations of the head of the hippocampus. In patients with bilateral MRI signs of MTS, correlation with clinical electro, volumetric MRI data and neuropsychological tests, when available, was performed. Bilateral MTS was observed in seven patients. Bilateral loss of the digitations and signal change of fFLAIR was seen in all seven. In three, bilateral atrophy was obvious. In two patients, mild bilateral atrophy was observed and in two others, the hippocampi were: asymmetrical, with obvious atrophy on only one side. Volumetric data confirmed bilateral symmetrical atrophy in five patients, and volumes were at the lowest of the normal range in other two. The EEG showed temporal abnormalities in all patients, unilateral in five and bilateral in two. All patients had memory impairment and neuropsychological data confirmed visual and verbal memory deficits; two patients failed the Wada test on both sides. High-resolution T2-weighted FSE and fFLAIR sequences allow diagnosis of bilateral MTS, which has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. (orig.)

  13. Remote-controlling chemical reactions by light: towards chemistry with high spatio-temporal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göstl, Robert; Senf, Antti; Hecht, Stefan

    2014-03-21

    The foundation of the chemical enterprise has always been the creation of new molecular entities, such as pharmaceuticals or polymeric materials. Over the past decades, this continuing effort of designing compounds with improved properties has been complemented by a strong effort to render their preparation (more) sustainable by implementing atom as well as energy economic strategies. Therefore, synthetic chemistry is typically concerned with making specific bonds and connections in a highly selective and efficient manner. However, to increase the degree of sophistication and expand the scope of our work, we argue that the modern aspiring chemist should in addition be concerned with attaining (better) control over when and where chemical bonds are being made or broken. For this purpose, photoswitchable molecular systems, which allow for external modulation of chemical reactions by light, are being developed and in this review we are covering the current state of the art of this exciting new field. These "remote-controlled synthetic tools" provide a remarkable opportunity to perform chemical transformations with high spatial and temporal resolution and should therefore allow regulating biological processes as well as material and device performance.

  14. A Method for Retrieving Daily Land Surface Albedo from Space at 30-m Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Land surface albedo data with high spatio-temporal resolution are increasingly important for scientific studies addressing spatially and/or temporally small-scale phenomena, such as urban heat islands and urban land surface energy balance. Our previous study derived albedo data with 2–4-day and 30-m temporal and spatial resolution that have better spatio-temporal resolution than existing albedo data, but do not completely satisfy the requirements for monitoring high-frequency land surface changes at the small scale. Downscaling technology provides a chance to further improve the albedo data spatio-temporal resolution and accuracy. This paper introduces a method that combines downscaling technology for land surface reflectance with an empirical method of deriving land surface albedo. Firstly, downscaling daily MODIS land surface reflectance data (MOD09GA from 500 m to 30 m on the basis of HJ-1A/B BRDF data with 2–4-day and 30-m temporal and spatial resolution is performed: this is the key step in the improved method. Subsequently, the daily 30-m land surface albedo data are derived by an empirical method combining prior knowledge of the MODIS BRDF product and the downscaled daily 30-m reflectance. Validation of albedo data obtained using the proposed method shows that the new method has both improved spatio-temporal resolution and good accuracy (a total absolute accuracy of 0.022 and a total root mean squared error at six sites of 0.028.

  15. CT-diagnosis of temporal bone trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valavanis, A.; Stuckmann, G.; Antonucci, F.; Schubiger, O.

    1986-02-01

    73 patients with 78 fractures of the temporal bone were examined by high-resolution computed tomography (CT). Analysis of the CT-findings disclosed 55 longitudinal, 12 transverse, 8 combined and 3 atypical fractures. For determination of the fracture type, axial sections usually proved sufficient. However, for precise topographic analysis of the course of the fracture additional coronal sections were necessary in most of the cases. In the radiologic evaluation of temporal bone fractures detection of associated. Complications is clinically important since these can be surgically corrected. In this series 20 lesions of the ossicular chain were demonstrated by the combined performance of axial and coronal sections and sagittal reformations. High resolution CT demonstrated a lesion of the facial nerve canal in 79% of a patient group with traumatic facial nerve palsy. The most frequent site of injury of the facial nerve canal was the region of the geniculate ganglion. With the use of metrizaminde-CT-cisternography the site of cerebrospinal fluid leakage was demonstrated in 7 of 9 patients with liquorrhea. It is concluded that high-resolution CT is the radiologic method of choice for both topographic evaluation of temporal bone fractures and detection and precise localization of fracture-complications. (orig.).

  16. The Role of Temporal Evolution in Modeling Atmospheric Emissions from Tropical Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, Miriam E.; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Gregory S.; Henry, Candise L.; Randerson, James T.

    2014-01-01

    Fire emissions associated with tropical land use change and maintenance influence atmospheric composition, air quality, and climate. In this study, we explore the effects of representing fire emissions at daily versus monthly resolution in a global composition-climate model. We find that simulations of aerosols are impacted more by the temporal resolution of fire emissions than trace gases such as carbon monoxide or ozone. Daily-resolved datasets concentrate emissions from fire events over shorter time periods and allow them to more realistically interact with model meteorology, reducing how often emissions are concurrently released with precipitation events and in turn increasing peak aerosol concentrations. The magnitude of this effect varies across tropical ecosystem types, ranging from smaller changes in modeling the low intensity, frequent burning typical of savanna ecosystems to larger differences when modeling the short-term, intense fires that characterize deforestation events. The utility of modeling fire emissions at a daily resolution also depends on the application, such as modeling exceedances of particulate matter concentrations over air quality guidelines or simulating regional atmospheric heating patterns.

  17. Evaluation of TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA performance in the Central Andes region and its dependency on spatial and temporal resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. M. Scheel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate time series are of major importance for base line studies for climate change impact and adaptation projects. However, for instance, in mountain regions and in developing countries there exist significant gaps in ground based climate records in space and time. Specifically, in the Peruvian Andes spatially and temporally coherent precipitation information is a prerequisite for ongoing climate change adaptation projects in the fields of water resources, disasters and food security. The present work aims at evaluating the ability of Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA to estimate precipitation rates at daily 0.25° × 0.25° scale in the Central Andes and the dependency of the estimate performance on changing spatial and temporal resolution. Comparison of the TMPA product with gauge measurements in the regions of Cuzco, Peru and La Paz, Bolivia were carried out and analysed statistically. Large biases are identified in both investigation areas in the estimation of daily precipitation amounts. The occurrence of strong precipitation events was well assessed, but their intensities were underestimated. TMPA estimates for La Paz show high false alarm ratio.

    The dependency of the TMPA estimate quality with changing resolution was analysed by comparisons of 1-, 7-, 15- and 30-day sums for Cuzco, Peru. The correlation of TMPA estimates with ground data increases strongly and almost linearly with temporal aggregation. The spatial aggregation to 0.5°, 0.75° and 1° grid box averaged precipitation and its comparison to gauge data of the same areas revealed no significant change in correlation coefficients and estimate performance.

    In order to profit from the TMPA combination product on a daily basis, a procedure to blend it with daily precipitation gauge measurements is proposed.

    Different sources of errors and uncertainties introduced by the sensors, sensor

  18. Temporal processing asymmetries between the cerebral hemispheres: evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, M E

    1996-07-01

    This paper reviews a large body of research which has investigated the capacities of the cerebral hemispheres to process temporal information. This research includes clinical, non-clinical, and electrophysiological experimentation. On the whole, the research supports the notion of a left hemisphere advantage for temporal resolution. The existence of such an asymmetry demonstrates that cerebral lateralisation is not limited to the higher-order functions such as language. The capacity for the resolution of fine temporal events appears to play an important role in other left hemisphere functions which require a rapid sequential processor. The functions that are facilitated by such a processor include verbal, textual, and fine movement skills. The co-development of these functions with an efficient temporal processor can be accounted for with reference to a number of evolutionary scenarios. Physiological evidence favours a temporal processing mechanism located within the left temporal cortex. The function of this mechanism may be described in terms of intermittency or travelling moment models of temporal processing. The travelling moment model provides the most plausible account of the asymmetry.

  19. Synchrotron-based radioscopy employing spatio-temporal micro-resolution for studying fast phenomena in liquid metal foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rack, A.; García-Moreno, F.; Baumbach, T.; Banhart, J.

    2009-01-01

    High-speed synchrotron-based radioscopy is applied to study a coalescence event (which lasts ∼2 ms) in situ in a liquid metal foam. Investigations of pore coalescence and individual cell wall collapse in an expanding liquid metal foam by means of X-ray radioscopy with spatio-temporal micro-resolution are reported. By using white synchrotron radiation for imaging, the rupture of a film and the subsequent merger of two neighbouring bubbles could be recorded with a time sampling rate of 40000 frames s −1 (25 µs exposure time) and a spatial sampling rate of 20 µm. The rupture time of a cell wall was found to be in the range of 300 µs. This value is in agreement with theoretical considerations which assume an inertia-dominated rupture time of cell walls in liquid metal foams

  20. An Improved STARFM with Help of an Unmixing-Based Method to Generate High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Remote Sensing Data in Complex Heterogeneous Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dengfeng; Zhang, Jinshui; Zhu, Xiufang; Pan, Yaozhong; Liu, Hongli; Yuan, Zhoumiqi; Yun, Ya

    2016-02-05

    Remote sensing technology plays an important role in monitoring rapid changes of the Earth's surface. However, sensors that can simultaneously provide satellite images with both high temporal and spatial resolution haven't been designed yet. This paper proposes an improved spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (STARFM) with the help of an Unmixing-based method (USTARFM) to generate the high spatial and temporal data needed for the study of heterogeneous areas. The results showed that the USTARFM had higher accuracy than STARFM methods in two aspects of analysis: individual bands and of heterogeneity analysis. Taking the predicted NIR band as an example, the correlation coefficients (r) for the USTARFM, STARFM and unmixing methods were 0.96, 0.95, 0.90, respectively (p-value data fusion problems faced when using STARFM. Additionally, the USTARFM method could help researchers achieve better performance than STARFM at a smaller window size from its heterogeneous land surface quantitative representation.

  1. High Temporal Resolution Tropospheric Wind Profile Observations at NASA Kennedy Space Center During Hurricane Irma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.; Huddleston, Lisa; Brauer, Thomas; Wilfong, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) operates a 48-MHz Tropospheric/Stratospheric Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (TDRWP) on a continual basis generating wind profiles between 2-19 km in the support of space launch vehicle operations. A benefit of the continual operability of the system is the ability to provide unique observations of severe weather events such as hurricanes. Over the past two Atlantic Hurricane seasons the TDRWP has made high temporal resolution wind profile observations of Hurricane Irma in 2017 and Hurricane Matthew in 2016. Hurricane Irma was responsible for power outages to approximately 2/3 of Florida's population during its movement over the state(Stein,2017). An overview of the TDRWP system configuration, brief summary of Hurricanes Irma and Matthew storm track in proximity to KSC, characteristics of the tropospheric wind observations from the TDRWP during both events, and discussion of the dissemination of TDRWP data during the event will be presented.

  2. Quantitative tradeoffs between spatial, temporal, and thermometric resolution of nonresonant Raman thermometry for dynamic experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane, Shawn D; Moore, David S; Goodwin, Peter M; Dattelbaum, Dana M

    2014-01-01

    The ratio of Stokes to anti-Stokes nonresonant spontaneous Raman can provide an in situ thermometer that is noncontact, independent of any material specific parameters or calibrations, can be multiplexed spatially with line imaging, and can be time resolved for dynamic measurements. However, spontaneous Raman cross sections are very small, and thermometric measurements are often limited by the amount of laser energy that can be applied without damaging the sample or changing its temperature appreciably. In this paper, we quantitatively detail the tradeoff space between spatial, temporal, and thermometric accuracy measurable with spontaneous Raman. Theoretical estimates are pinned to experimental measurements to form realistic expectations of the resolution tradeoffs appropriate to various experiments. We consider the effects of signal to noise, collection efficiency, laser heating, pulsed laser ablation, and blackbody emission as limiting factors, provide formulae to help choose optimal conditions and provide estimates relevant to planning experiments along with concrete examples for single-shot measurements.

  3. Mind the gap: temporal discrimination and dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadnicka, A; Daum, C; Cordivari, C; Bhatia, K P; Rothwell, J C; Manohar, S; Edwards, M J

    2017-06-01

    One of the most widely studied perceptual measures of sensory dysfunction in dystonia is the temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) (the shortest interval at which subjects can perceive that there are two stimuli rather than one). However the elevated thresholds described may be due to a number of potential mechanisms as current paradigms test not only temporal discrimination but also extraneous sensory and decision-making parameters. In this study two paradigms designed to better quantify temporal processing are presented and a decision-making model is used to assess the influence of decision strategy. 22 patients with cervical dystonia and 22 age-matched controls completed two tasks (i) temporal resolution (a randomized, automated version of existing TDT paradigms) and (ii) interval discrimination (rating the length of two consecutive intervals). In the temporal resolution task patients had delayed (P = 0.021) and more variable (P = 0.013) response times but equivalent discrimination thresholds. Modelling these effects suggested this was due to an increased perceptual decision boundary in dystonia with patients requiring greater evidence before committing to decisions (P = 0.020). Patient performance on the interval discrimination task was normal. Our work suggests that previously observed abnormalities in TDT may not be due to a selective sensory deficit of temporal processing as decision-making itself is abnormal in cervical dystonia. © 2017 EAN.

  4. 18F-FDG PET and high-resolution MRI co-registration for pre-surgical evaluation of patients with conventional MRI-negative refractory extra-temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yao; Zhu, Yuankai; Jiang, Biao; Zhou, Yongji; Jin, Bo; Hou, Haifeng; Wu, Shuang; Zhu, Junming; Wang, Zhong Irene; Wong, Chong H; Ding, Meiping; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Shuang; Tian, Mei

    2018-04-18

    Epilepsy that originates outside of the temporal lobe can present some of the most challenging problems for surgical therapy, especially for patients with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-negative refractory extra-temporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE). This study aimed to evaluate the clinical value of pre-surgical 18 F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET) and high-resolution MRI (HR-MRI) co-registration in patients with conventional MRI-negative refractory ETLE, and compare their surgical outcomes. Sixty-seven patients with conventional MRI-negative refractory ETLE were prospectively included for pre-surgical 18 F-FDG PET and HR-MRI examinations. Under the guidance of 18 F-FDG PET and HR-MRI co-registration, HR-MRI images were re-read. Based on the image result changes from first reading to re-reading, patients were divided into three groups: Change-1 (lesions of subtle abnormality could be identified in re-read), Change-2 (non-specific abnormalities reported in the first reading were considered as lesions on HR-MRI re-read) and No-change. Post-surgical follow-ups were conducted for up to 59 months. Visual analysis of 18 F-FDG PET showed focal or regional abnormality in 46 patients (68.6%), while the abnormal rate increased to 94.0% (P evaluation by co-registration of 18 F-FDG PET and HR-MRI could improve the identification of the epileptogenic onset zone (EOZ), and may further guide the surgical decision-making and improve the outcome of the refractory ETLE with normal conventional MRI; therefore, it should be recommended as a standard procedure for pre-surgical evaluation of these patients.

  5. Development of a parallel zoomed EVI sequence for high temporal resolution analysis of the BOLD response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabrait, C.

    2006-01-01

    The hemodynamic impulse response to any short stimulus typically lasts around 20 seconds. Thus, the detection of the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) effect is usually performed using a 2D Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) sequence, with repetition times on the order of 1 or 2 seconds. This temporal resolution is generally enough for detection purposes. Nevertheless, when trying to accurately estimate the hemodynamic response functions (HRF), higher scanning rates represent a real advantage. Thus, in order to reach a temporal resolution around 200 ms, we developed a new acquisition method, based on Echo Volumar Imaging and 2D parallel acquisition (1). Echo Volumar Imaging (EVI) has been proposed in 1977 by Mansfield (2). EVI intrinsically possesses a lot of advantages for functional neuroimaging, as a 3 D single shot acquisition method. Nevertheless, to date, only a few applications have been reported (3, 4). Actually, very restricting hardware requirements make EVI difficult to perform in satisfactory experimental conditions, even today. The critical point in EVI is the echo train duration, which is longer than in EPI, due to 3D acquisition. Indeed, at equal field of view and spatial resolutions, EVI echo train duration must be approximately equal to EPI echo train duration multiplied by the number of slices acquired in EPI. Consequently, EVI is much more sensitive than EPI to geometric distortions, which are related to phase errors, and also to signal losses, which are due to long echo times (TE). Thus, a first improvement has been brought by 'zoomed' or 'localized' EVI (5), which allows to focus on a small volume of interest and thus limit echo train durations compared to full FOV acquisitions.To reduce echo train durations, we chose to apply parallel acquisition. Moreover, since EVI is a 3D acquisition method, we are able to perform parallel acquisition and SENSE reconstruction along the two phase directions (6). The R = 4 under-sampling consists in the

  6. Bilateral Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma of the Temporal Bone: A Rare and Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Vaid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary lymphoma of the temporal bone is an unusual finding in clinical practice and bilateral affection is even more rare. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of bilateral primary temporal bone lymphoma without middle ear involvement in the English medical literature so far. We report, for the first time, a case of primary lymphoma involving both temporal bones which presented with left-sided infranuclear facial palsy. A combination of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT was used to characterize and to map the extent of the lesion, as well as to identify the exact site of facial nerve affection. An excision biopsy and immunohistochemistry revealed diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (DLBCL. Whole body fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography-computed tomography study (PET-CT was performed to stage the disease. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy and is now on regular follow-up. The patient is alive and asymptomatic without disease progression for the last twenty months after initial diagnosis.

  7. Measurements of soil, surface water, and groundwater CO2 concentration variability within Earth's critical zone: low-cost, long-term, high-temporal resolution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, J. M.; Covington, M. D.; Williams, S. G. W.; Myre, J. M.; Rodriguez, J.

    2017-12-01

    Variability in CO2 fluxes within Earth's Critical zone occurs over a wide range of timescales. Resolving this and its drivers requires high-temporal resolution monitoring of CO2 both in the soil and aquatic environments. High-cost (> 1,000 USD) gas analyzers and data loggers present cost-barriers for investigations with limited budgets, particularly if high spatial resolution is desired. To overcome high-costs, we developed an Arduino based CO2 measuring platform (i.e. gas analyzer and data logger). The platform was deployed at multiple sites within the Critical Zone overlying the Springfield Plateau aquifer in Northwest Arkansas, USA. The CO2 gas analyzer used in this study was a relatively low-cost SenseAir K30. The analyzer's optical housing was covered by a PTFE semi-permeable membrane allowing for gas exchange between the analyzer and environment. Total approximate cost of the monitoring platform was 200 USD (2% detection limit) to 300 USD (10% detection limit) depending on the K30 model used. For testing purposes, we deployed the Arduino based platform alongside a commercial monitoring platform. CO2 concentration time series were nearly identical. Notably, CO2 cycles at the surface water site, which operated from January to April 2017, displayed a systematic increase in daily CO2 amplitude. Preliminary interpretation suggests key observation of seasonally increasing stream metabolic function. Other interpretations of observed cyclical and event-based behavior are out of the scope of the study; however, the presented method describes an accurate near-hourly characterization of CO2 variability. The new platform has been shown to be operational for several months, and we infer reliable operation for much longer deployments (> 1 year) given adequate environmental protection and power supply. Considering cost-savings, this platform is an attractive option for continuous, accurate, low-power, and low-cost CO2 monitoring for remote locations, globally.

  8. The determination of high-resolution spatio-temporal glacier motion fields from time-lapse sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Ellen; Maas, Hans-Gerd

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive method for the determination of glacier surface motion vector fields at high spatial and temporal resolution. These vector fields can be derived from monocular terrestrial camera image sequences and are a valuable data source for glaciological analysis of the motion behaviour of glaciers. The measurement concepts for the acquisition of image sequences are presented, and an automated monoscopic image sequence processing chain is developed. Motion vector fields can be derived with high precision by applying automatic subpixel-accuracy image matching techniques on grey value patterns in the image sequences. Well-established matching techniques have been adapted to the special characteristics of the glacier data in order to achieve high reliability in automatic image sequence processing, including the handling of moving shadows as well as motion effects induced by small instabilities in the camera set-up. Suitable geo-referencing techniques were developed to transform image measurements into a reference coordinate system.The result of monoscopic image sequence analysis is a dense raster of glacier surface point trajectories for each image sequence. Each translation vector component in these trajectories can be determined with an accuracy of a few centimetres for points at a distance of several kilometres from the camera. Extensive practical validation experiments have shown that motion vector and trajectory fields derived from monocular image sequences can be used for the determination of high-resolution velocity fields of glaciers, including the analysis of tidal effects on glacier movement, the investigation of a glacier's motion behaviour during calving events, the determination of the position and migration of the grounding line and the detection of subglacial channels during glacier lake outburst floods.

  9. Temporal Variability in Vertical Groundwater Fluxes and the Effect of Solar Radiation on Streambed Temperatures Based on Vertical High Resolution Distributed Temperature Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebok, E.; Karan, S.; Engesgaard, P. K.; Duque, C.

    2013-12-01

    Due to its large spatial and temporal variability, groundwater discharge to streams is difficult to quantify. Methods using vertical streambed temperature profiles to estimate vertical fluxes are often of coarse vertical spatial resolution and neglect to account for the natural heterogeneity in thermal conductivity of streambed sediments. Here we report on a field investigation in a stream, where air, stream water and streambed sediment temperatures were measured by Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) with high spatial resolution to; (i) detect spatial and temporal variability in groundwater discharge based on vertical streambed temperature profiles, (ii) study the thermal regime of streambed sediments exposed to different solar radiation influence, (iii) describe the effect of solar radiation on the measured streambed temperatures. The study was carried out at a field site located along Holtum stream, in Western Denmark. The 3 m wide stream has a sandy streambed with a cobbled armour layer, a mean discharge of 200 l/s and a mean depth of 0.3 m. Streambed temperatures were measured with a high-resolution DTS system (HR-DTS). By helically wrapping the fiber optic cable around two PVC pipes of 0.05 m and 0.075 m outer diameter over 1.5 m length, temperature measurements were recorded with 5.7 mm and 3.8 mm vertical spacing, respectively. The HR-DTS systems were installed 0.7 m deep in the streambed sediments, crossing both the sediment-water and the water-air interface, thus yielding high resolution water and air temperature data as well. One of the HR-DTS systems was installed in the open stream channel with only topographical shading, while the other HR-DTS system was placed 7 m upstream, under the canopy of a tree, thus representing the shaded conditions with reduced influence of solar radiation. Temperature measurements were taken with 30 min intervals between 16 April and 25 June 2013. The thermal conductivity of streambed sediments was calibrated in a 1D flow

  10. Monitoring Powdery Mildew of Winter Wheat by Using Moderate Resolution Multi-Temporal Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingcheng; Pu, Ruiliang; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Jihua; Huang, Wenjiang; Yang, Guijun

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most serious diseases that have a significant impact on the production of winter wheat. As an effective alternative to traditional sampling methods, remote sensing can be a useful tool in disease detection. This study attempted to use multi-temporal moderate resolution satellite-based data of surface reflectances in blue (B), green (G), red (R) and near infrared (NIR) bands from HJ-CCD (CCD sensor on Huanjing satellite) to monitor disease at a regional scale. In a suburban area in Beijing, China, an extensive field campaign for disease intensity survey was conducted at key growth stages of winter wheat in 2010. Meanwhile, corresponding time series of HJ-CCD images were acquired over the study area. In this study, a number of single-stage and multi-stage spectral features, which were sensitive to powdery mildew, were selected by using an independent t-test. With the selected spectral features, four advanced methods: mahalanobis distance, maximum likelihood classifier, partial least square regression and mixture tuned matched filtering were tested and evaluated for their performances in disease mapping. The experimental results showed that all four algorithms could generate disease maps with a generally correct distribution pattern of powdery mildew at the grain filling stage (Zadoks 72). However, by comparing these disease maps with ground survey data (validation samples), all of the four algorithms also produced a variable degree of error in estimating the disease occurrence and severity. Further, we found that the integration of MTMF and PLSR algorithms could result in a significant accuracy improvement of identifying and determining the disease intensity (overall accuracy of 72% increased to 78% and kappa coefficient of 0.49 increased to 0.59). The experimental results also demonstrated that the multi-temporal satellite images have a great potential in crop diseases mapping at a regional scale. PMID:24691435

  11. SU-C-201-04: Noise and Temporal Resolution in a Near Real-Time 3D Dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rilling, M [Department of physics, engineering physics and optics, Universite Laval, Quebec City, QC (Canada); Centre de recherche sur le cancer, Universite Laval, Quebec City, QC (Canada); Radiation oncology department, CHU de Quebec, Quebec City, QC (Canada); Center for optics, photonics and lasers, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Goulet, M [Radiation oncology department, CHU de Quebec, Quebec City, QC (Canada); Beaulieu, L; Archambault, L [Department of physics, engineering physics and optics, Universite Laval, Quebec City, QC (Canada); Centre de recherche sur le cancer, Universite Laval, Quebec City, QC (Canada); Radiation oncology department, CHU de Quebec, Quebec City, QC (Canada); Thibault, S [Center for optics, photonics and lasers, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To characterize the performance of a real-time three-dimensional scintillation dosimeter in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and temporal resolution of 3D dose measurements. This study quantifies its efficiency in measuring low dose levels characteristic of EBRT dynamic treatments, and in reproducing field profiles for varying multileaf collimator (MLC) speeds. Methods: The dosimeter prototype uses a plenoptic camera to acquire continuous images of the light field emitted by a 10×10×10 cm{sup 3} plastic scintillator. Using EPID acquisitions, ray tracing-based iterative tomographic algorithms allow millimeter-sized reconstruction of relative 3D dose distributions. Measurements were taken at 6MV, 400 MU/min with the scintillator centered at the isocenter, first receiving doses from 1.4 to 30.6 cGy. Dynamic measurements were then performed by closing half of the MLCs at speeds of 0.67 to 2.5 cm/s, at 0° and 90° collimator angles. A reference static half-field was obtained for measured profile comparison. Results: The SNR steadily increases as a function of dose and reaches a clinically adequate plateau of 80 at 10 cGy. Below this, the decrease in light collected and increase in pixel noise diminishes the SNR; nonetheless, the EPID acquisitions and the voxel correlation employed in the reconstruction algorithms result in suitable SNR values (>75) even at low doses. For dynamic measurements at varying MLC speeds, central relative dose profiles are characterized by gradients at %D{sub 50} of 8.48 to 22.7 %/mm. These values converge towards the 32.8 %/mm-gradient measured for the static reference field profile, but are limited by the dosimeter’s current acquisition rate of 1Hz. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the efficiency of the 3D dose distribution reconstructions, while identifying limits of the current prototype’s temporal resolution in terms of dynamic EBRT parameters. This work paves the way for providing an optimized, second

  12. SU-C-201-04: Noise and Temporal Resolution in a Near Real-Time 3D Dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rilling, M; Goulet, M; Beaulieu, L; Archambault, L; Thibault, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the performance of a real-time three-dimensional scintillation dosimeter in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and temporal resolution of 3D dose measurements. This study quantifies its efficiency in measuring low dose levels characteristic of EBRT dynamic treatments, and in reproducing field profiles for varying multileaf collimator (MLC) speeds. Methods: The dosimeter prototype uses a plenoptic camera to acquire continuous images of the light field emitted by a 10×10×10 cm"3 plastic scintillator. Using EPID acquisitions, ray tracing-based iterative tomographic algorithms allow millimeter-sized reconstruction of relative 3D dose distributions. Measurements were taken at 6MV, 400 MU/min with the scintillator centered at the isocenter, first receiving doses from 1.4 to 30.6 cGy. Dynamic measurements were then performed by closing half of the MLCs at speeds of 0.67 to 2.5 cm/s, at 0° and 90° collimator angles. A reference static half-field was obtained for measured profile comparison. Results: The SNR steadily increases as a function of dose and reaches a clinically adequate plateau of 80 at 10 cGy. Below this, the decrease in light collected and increase in pixel noise diminishes the SNR; nonetheless, the EPID acquisitions and the voxel correlation employed in the reconstruction algorithms result in suitable SNR values (>75) even at low doses. For dynamic measurements at varying MLC speeds, central relative dose profiles are characterized by gradients at %D_5_0 of 8.48 to 22.7 %/mm. These values converge towards the 32.8 %/mm-gradient measured for the static reference field profile, but are limited by the dosimeter’s current acquisition rate of 1Hz. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the efficiency of the 3D dose distribution reconstructions, while identifying limits of the current prototype’s temporal resolution in terms of dynamic EBRT parameters. This work paves the way for providing an optimized, second-generational real-time 3D

  13. Measurements of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Other Related Tracers at High Spatial and Temporal Resolution in an Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Scott; Forgeron, Jeff; Rella, Chris; Franz, Patrick; Jacobson, Gloria; Chiao, Sen; Saad, Nabil

    2013-04-01

    The ability to quantify sources and sinks of carbon dioxide and methane on the urban scale is essential for understanding the atmospheric drivers to global climate change. In the 'top-down' approach, overall carbon fluxes are determined by combining remote measurements of carbon dioxide concentrations with complex atmospheric transport models, and these emissions measurements are compared to 'bottom-up' predictions based on detailed inventories of the sources and sinks of carbon, both anthropogenic and biogenic in nature. This approach, which has proven to be effective at continental scales, becomes challenging to implement at urban scales, due to poorly understood atmospheric transport models and high variability of the emissions sources in space (e.g., factories, highways, green spaces) and time (rush hours, factory shifts and shutdowns, and diurnal and seasonal variation in residential energy use). New measurement and analysis techniques are required to make sense of the carbon dioxide signal in cities. Here we present detailed, high spatial- and temporal- resolution greenhouse gas measurements made by multiple Picarro-CRDS analyzers in Silicon Valley in California. Real-time carbon dioxide data from a 20-month period are combined with real-time carbon monoxide, methane, and acetylene to partition the observed carbon dioxide concentrations between different anthropogenic sectors (e.g., transport, residential) and biogenic sources. Real-time wind rose data are also combined with real-time methane data to help identify the direction of local emissions of methane. High resolution WRF models are also included to better understand the dynamics of the boundary layer. The ratio between carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is shown to vary over more than a factor of two from season to season or even from day to night, indicating rapid but frequent shifts in the balance between different carbon dioxide sources. Additional information is given by acetylene, a fossil fuel

  14. Effect of temporal averaging of meteorological data on predictions of groundwater recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batalha Marcia S.

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of infiltration and groundwater recharge are critical for many hydrologic, agricultural and environmental applications. Anticipated climate change in many regions of the world, especially in tropical areas, is expected to increase the frequency of high-intensity, short-duration precipitation events, which in turn will affect the groundwater recharge rate. Estimates of recharge are often obtained using monthly or even annually averaged meteorological time series data. In this study we employed the HYDRUS-1D software package to assess the sensitivity of groundwater recharge calculations to using meteorological time series of different temporal resolutions (i.e., hourly, daily, weekly, monthly and yearly averaged precipitation and potential evaporation rates. Calculations were applied to three sites in Brazil having different climatological conditions: a tropical savanna (the Cerrado, a humid subtropical area (the temperate southern part of Brazil, and a very wet tropical area (Amazonia. To simplify our current analysis, we did not consider any land use effects by ignoring root water uptake. Temporal averaging of meteorological data was found to lead to significant bias in predictions of groundwater recharge, with much greater estimated recharge rates in case of very uneven temporal rainfall distributions during the year involving distinct wet and dry seasons. For example, at the Cerrado site, using daily averaged data produced recharge rates of up to 9 times greater than using yearly averaged data. In all cases, an increase in the time of averaging of meteorological data led to lower estimates of groundwater recharge, especially at sites having coarse-textured soils. Our results show that temporal averaging limits the ability of simulations to predict deep penetration of moisture in response to precipitation, so that water remains in the upper part of the vadose zone subject to upward flow and evaporation.

  15. Peripheral Vasculature: High-Temporal- and High-Spatial-Resolution Three-dimensional Contrast-enhanced MR Angiography1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Clifton R.; Glockner, James F.; Stanson, Anthony W.; Riederer, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of performing high-spatial-resolution (1-mm isotropic) time-resolved three-dimensional (3D) contrast material–enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography of the peripheral vasculature with Cartesian acquisition with projection-reconstruction–like sampling (CAPR) and eightfold accelerated two-dimensional (2D) sensitivity encoding (SENSE). Materials and Methods: All studies were approved by the institutional review board and were HIPAA compliant; written informed consent was obtained from all participants. There were 13 volunteers (mean age, 41.9; range, 27–53 years). The CAPR sequence was adapted to provide 1-mm isotropic spatial resolution and a 5-second frame time. Use of different receiver coil element sizes for those placed on the anterior-to-posterior versus left-to-right sides of the field of view reduced signal-to-noise ratio loss due to acceleration. Results from eight volunteers were rated independently by two radiologists according to prominence of artifact, arterial to venous separation, vessel sharpness, continuity of arterial signal intensity in major arteries (anterior and posterior tibial, peroneal), demarcation of origin of major arteries, and overall diagnostic image quality. MR angiographic results in two patients with peripheral vascular disease were compared with their results at computed tomographic angiography. Results: The sequence exhibited no image artifact adversely affecting diagnostic image quality. Temporal resolution was evaluated to be sufficient in all cases, even with known rapid arterial to venous transit. The vessels were graded to have excellent sharpness, continuity, and demarcation of the origins of the major arteries. Distal muscular branches and the communicating and perforating arteries were routinely seen. Excellent diagnostic quality rating was given for 15 (94%) of 16 evaluations. Conclusion: The feasibility of performing high-diagnostic-quality time-resolved 3D

  16. Spatial-temporal consistency between gross primary productivity and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence of vegetation in China during 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Xiao, Xiangming; Zhang, Yao; Doughty, Russell; Chen, Bangqian; Zhao, Bin

    2018-10-15

    Accurately estimating spatial-temporal patterns of gross primary production (GPP) is important for the global carbon cycle. Satellite-based light use efficiency (LUE) models are regarded as an efficient tool in simulating spatial-temporal dynamics of GPP. However, the accuracy assessment of GPP simulations from LUE models at both spatial and temporal scales remains a challenge. In this study, we simulated GPP of vegetation in China during 2007-2014 using a LUE model (Vegetation Photosynthesis Model, VPM) based on MODIS (moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer) images with 8-day temporal and 500-m spatial resolutions and NCEP (National Center for Environmental Prediction) climate data. Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2) solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) data were used to compare with VPM simulated GPP (GPP VPM ) temporally and spatially using linear correlation analysis. Significant positive linear correlations exist between monthly GPP VPM and SIF data over a single year (2010) and multiple years (2007-2014) in most areas of China. GPP VPM is also significantly positive correlated with GOME-2 SIF (R 2  > 0.43) spatially for seasonal scales. However, poor consistency was detected between GPP VPM and SIF data at yearly scale. GPP dynamic trends have high spatial-temporal variation in China during 2007-2014. Temperature, leaf area index (LAI), and precipitation are the most important factors influence GPP VPM in the regions of East Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Loss Plateau, and Southwestern China, respectively. The results of this study indicate that GPP VPM is temporally and spatially in line with GOME-2 SIF data, and space-borne SIF data have great potential for evaluating LUE-based GPP models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Temporal (In)Stability of Employee Preferences for Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine, Byron; Gilroy, Shawn; Hantula, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the temporal stability of employee preferences for rewards over seven monthly evaluations. Participants completed a ranking stimulus preference assessment monthly, and the latter six monthly assessments were compared to the initial assessment. Correlations of preferences from month to month ranged from r = -0.89 to 0.99.…

  18. Effects of high spatial and temporal resolution Earth observations on simulated hydrometeorological variables in a cropland (southwestern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Etchanchu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural landscapes are often constituted by a patchwork of crop fields whose seasonal evolution is dependent on specific crop rotation patterns and phenologies. This temporal and spatial heterogeneity affects surface hydrometeorological processes and must be taken into account in simulations of land surface and distributed hydrological models. The Sentinel-2 mission allows for the monitoring of land cover and vegetation dynamics at unprecedented spatial resolutions and revisit frequencies (20 m and 5 days, respectively that are fully compatible with such heterogeneous agricultural landscapes. Here, we evaluate the impact of Sentinel-2-like remote sensing data on the simulation of surface water and energy fluxes via the Interactions between the Surface Biosphere Atmosphere (ISBA land surface model included in the EXternalized SURface (SURFEX modeling platform. The study focuses on the effect of the leaf area index (LAI spatial and temporal variability on these fluxes. We compare the use of the LAI climatology from ECOCLIMAP-II, used by default in SURFEX-ISBA, and time series of LAI derived from the high-resolution Formosat-2 satellite data (8 m. The study area is an agricultural zone in southwestern France covering 576 km2 (24 km  ×  24 km. An innovative plot-scale approach is used, in which each computational unit has a homogeneous vegetation type. Evaluation of the simulations quality is done by comparing model outputs with in situ eddy covariance measurements of latent heat flux (LE. Our results show that the use of LAI derived from high-resolution remote sensing significantly improves simulated evapotranspiration with respect to ECOCLIMAP-II, especially when the surface is covered with summer crops. The comparison with in situ measurements shows an improvement of roughly 0.3 in the correlation coefficient and a decrease of around 30 % of the root mean square error (RMSE in the simulated evapotranspiration. This

  19. Temporal and spatial scaling impacts on extreme precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, B.; Berg, P.; Haerter, J. O.; Jacob, D.; Moseley, C.

    2015-01-01

    Both in the current climate and in the light of climate change, understanding of the causes and risk of precipitation extremes is essential for protection of human life and adequate design of infrastructure. Precipitation extreme events depend qualitatively on the temporal and spatial scales at which they are measured, in part due to the distinct types of rain formation processes that dominate extremes at different scales. To capture these differences, we first filter large datasets of high-resolution radar measurements over Germany (5 min temporally and 1 km spatially) using synoptic cloud observations, to distinguish convective and stratiform rain events. In a second step, for each precipitation type, the observed data are aggregated over a sequence of time intervals and spatial areas. The resulting matrix allows a detailed investigation of the resolutions at which convective or stratiform events are expected to contribute most to the extremes. We analyze where the statistics of the two types differ and discuss at which resolutions transitions occur between dominance of either of the two precipitation types. We characterize the scales at which the convective or stratiform events will dominate the statistics. For both types, we further develop a mapping between pairs of spatially and temporally aggregated statistics. The resulting curve is relevant when deciding on data resolutions where statistical information in space and time is balanced. Our study may hence also serve as a practical guide for modelers, and for planning the space-time layout of measurement campaigns. We also describe a mapping between different pairs of resolutions, possibly relevant when working with mismatched model and observational resolutions, such as in statistical bias correction.

  20. Spatial and temporal vision of macaques after central retinal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merigan, W.H.; Pasternak, T.; Zehl, D.

    1981-01-01

    Spatial contrast and temporal modulation sensitivity of two macaque monkeys were measured at three luminance levels before and after binocular laser coagulation of the fovea. The radius of the lesions ranged from 1.6 to 2.2 degree from the center of the fovea. After placement of the lesions, the visibility of high spatial frequencies was greatly reduced, although sensitivity at middle and low spatial frequencies was unaffected. No loss of spatial resolution was found at the lowest luminance tested. When temporal modulation sensitivity was tested with 4 deg targets, foveal lesions had no effect at any temporal frequency or luminance. However, with a 0.57 degree target, sensitivity to lower temporal frequencies was impaired. Thus visual loss after destruction of the fovea is limited to high luminance, small targets, and the resolution of fine detail

  1. High spatio-temporal resolution observations of crater-lake temperatures at Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Corentin Caudron,; Vincent van Hinsberg,; George Hilley,

    2016-01-01

    The crater lake of Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java, Indonesia, has displayed large and rapid changes in temperature at point locations during periods of unrest, but measurement techniques employed to-date have not resolved how the lake’s thermal regime has evolved over both space and time. We applied a novel approach for mapping and monitoring variations in crater-lake apparent surface (“skin”) temperatures at high spatial (~32 cm) and temporal (every two minutes) resolution at Kawah Ijen on 18 September 2014. We used a ground-based FLIR T650sc camera with digital and thermal infrared (TIR) sensors from the crater rim to collect (1) a set of visible imagery around the crater during the daytime and (2) a time series of co-located visible and TIR imagery at one location from pre-dawn to daytime. We processed daytime visible imagery with the Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric method to create a digital elevation model onto which the time series of TIR imagery was orthorectified and georeferenced. Lake apparent skin temperatures typically ranged from ~21 to 33oC. At two locations, apparent skin temperatures were ~ 4 and 7 oC less than in-situ lake temperature measurements at 1.5 and 5 m depth, respectively. These differences, as well as the large spatio-temporal variations observed in skin temperatures, were likely largely associated with atmospheric effects such as evaporative cooling of the lake surface and infrared absorption by water vapor and SO2. Calculations based on orthorectified TIR imagery thus yielded underestimates of volcanic heat fluxes into the lake, whereas volcanic heat fluxes estimated based on in-situ temperature measurements (68 to 111 MW) were likely more representative of Kawah Ijen in a quiescent state. The ground-based imaging technique should provide a valuable tool to continuously monitor crater-lake temperatures and contribute insight into the spatio-temporal evolution of these temperatures associated with volcanic activity.

  2. A New Hybrid Spatio-temporal Model for Estimating Daily Multi-year PM2.5 Concentrations Across Northeastern USA Using High Resolution Aerosol Optical Depth Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra A.; Just, Allan C.; Nordio, Francesco; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent A.; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The use of satellite-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) to estimate fine particulate matter PM(sub 2.5) for epidemiology studies has increased substantially over the past few years. These recent studies often report moderate predictive power, which can generate downward bias in effect estimates. In addition, AOD measurements have only moderate spatial resolution, and have substantial missing data. We make use of recent advances in MODIS satellite data processing algorithms (Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC), which allow us to use 1 km (versus currently available 10 km) resolution AOD data.We developed and cross validated models to predict daily PM(sub 2.5) at a 1X 1 km resolution across the northeastern USA (New England, New York and New Jersey) for the years 2003-2011, allowing us to better differentiate daily and long term exposure between urban, suburban, and rural areas. Additionally, we developed an approach that allows us to generate daily high-resolution 200 m localized predictions representing deviations from the area 1 X 1 km grid predictions. We used mixed models regressing PM(sub 2.5) measurements against day-specific random intercepts, and fixed and random AOD and temperature slopes. We then use generalized additive mixed models with spatial smoothing to generate grid cell predictions when AOD was missing. Finally, to get 200 m localized predictions, we regressed the residuals from the final model for each monitor against the local spatial and temporal variables at each monitoring site. Our model performance was excellent (mean out-of-sample R(sup 2) = 0.88). The spatial and temporal components of the out-of-sample results also presented very good fits to the withheld data (R(sup 2) = 0.87, R(sup)2 = 0.87). In addition, our results revealed very little bias in the predicted concentrations (Slope of predictions versus withheld observations = 0.99). Our daily model results show high predictive accuracy at high spatial resolutions

  3. Evolution of cerebral blood flow between the acute stage and one month after a global transient amnesia: a study of 18 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippon, B.; Houzard, C.; Cinotti, L.; Croisile, B.

    2001-01-01

    We studied 18 patients within 24 hours of an idiopathic transient global amnesia and one month later using 133 Xe et 99m Tc-HMPAO for CBF measurements. Absolute hemispheric CBF obtained with the 133 Xe were initially: (right) = 46.9 ml/mn/100 g (s.d 6.6) and (left) = 47.9 (s.d 6.8). One month later, a significant increase of the right hemispheric CBF occurred (52.0 ± 6.9). Accordingly, absolute CBF increased bilaterally in the cerebellar and temporal regions. Local relative cerebral blood flow ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) allowed to reinforce these findings with increased resolution. They can also provide quantitative values thanks to the 133 Xe calibration. (authors)

  4. The impact of the resolution of meteorological datasets on catchment-scale drought studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Jost; Stahl, Kerstin

    2017-04-01

    Gridded meteorological datasets provide the basis to study drought at a range of scales, including catchment scale drought studies in hydrology. They are readily available to study past weather conditions and often serve real time monitoring as well. As these datasets differ in spatial/temporal coverage and spatial/temporal resolution, for most studies there is a tradeoff between these features. Our investigation examines whether biases occur when studying drought on catchment scale with low resolution input data. For that, a comparison among the datasets HYRAS (covering Central Europe, 1x1 km grid, daily data, 1951 - 2005), E-OBS (Europe, 0.25° grid, daily data, 1950-2015) and GPCC (whole world, 0.5° grid, monthly data, 1901 - 2013) is carried out. Generally, biases in precipitation increase with decreasing resolution. Most important variations are found during summer. In low mountain range of Central Europe the datasets of sparse resolution (E-OBS, GPCC) overestimate dry days and underestimate total precipitation since they are not able to describe high spatial variability. However, relative measures like the correlation coefficient reveal good consistencies of dry and wet periods, both for absolute precipitation values and standardized indices like the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) or Standardized Precipitation Evaporation Index (SPEI). Particularly the most severe droughts derived from the different datasets match very well. These results indicate that absolute values of sparse resolution datasets applied to catchment scale might be critical to use for an assessment of the hydrological drought at catchment scale, whereas relative measures for determining periods of drought are more trustworthy. Therefore, studies on drought, that downscale meteorological data, should carefully consider their data needs and focus on relative measures for dry periods if sufficient for the task.

  5. Constraints on the geomorphological evolution of the nested summit craters of Láscar volcano from high spatio-temporal resolution TerraSAR-X interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Nicole; Salzer, Jacqueline Tema; de Zeeuw-van Dalfsen, Elske; Perissin, Daniele; Walter, Thomas R.

    2018-03-01

    Small-scale geomorphological changes that are associated with the formation, development, and activity of volcanic craters and eruptive vents are often challenging to characterize, as they may occur slowly over time, can be spatially localized, and difficult, or dangerous, to access. Using high-spatial and high-temporal resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery collected by the German TerraSAR-X (TSX) satellite in SpotLight mode in combination with precise topographic data as derived from Pléiades-1A satellite data, we investigate the surface deformation within the nested summit crater system of Láscar volcano, Chile, the most active volcano of the central Andes. Our aim is to better understand the structural evolution of the three craters that comprise this system, to assess their physical state and dynamic behavior, and to link this to eruptive activity and associated hazards. Using multi-temporal SAR interferometry (MT-InSAR) from ascending and descending orbital geometries, we retrieve the vertical and east-west components of the displacement field. This time series indicates constant rates of subsidence and asymmetric horizontal displacements of all summit craters between June 2012 and July 2014, as well as between January 2015 and March 2017. The vertical and horizontal movements that we observe in the central crater are particularly complex and cannot be explained by any single crater formation mechanism; rather, we suggest that short-term activities superimposed on a combination of ongoing crater evolution processes, including gravitational slumping, cooling and compaction of eruption products, as well as possible piston-like subsidence, are responsible for the small-scale geomorphological changes apparent in our data. Our results demonstrate how high-temporal resolution synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) time series can add constraints on the geomorphological evolution and structural dynamics of active crater and vent systems at

  6. Genome-scale modelling of microbial metabolism with temporal and spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Most natural microbial systems have evolved to function in environments with temporal and spatial variations. A major limitation to understanding such complex systems is the lack of mathematical modelling frameworks that connect the genomes of individual species and temporal and spatial variations in the environment to system behaviour. The goal of this review is to introduce the emerging field of spatiotemporal metabolic modelling based on genome-scale reconstructions of microbial metabolism. The extension of flux balance analysis (FBA) to account for both temporal and spatial variations in the environment is termed spatiotemporal FBA (SFBA). Following a brief overview of FBA and its established dynamic extension, the SFBA problem is introduced and recent progress is described. Three case studies are reviewed to illustrate the current state-of-the-art and possible future research directions are outlined. The author posits that SFBA is the next frontier for microbial metabolic modelling and a rapid increase in methods development and system applications is anticipated. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  7. Motor preparation is modulated by the resolution of the response timing information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Anthony N; Mackinnon, Colum D

    2010-03-31

    In the present experiment, the temporal predictability of response time was systematically manipulated to examine its effect on the time course of motor pre-programming and release of the intended movement by an acoustic startle stimulus. Participants performed a ballistic right wrist extension task in four different temporal conditions: 1) a variable foreperiod simple RT task, 2) a fixed foreperiod simple RT task, 3) a low resolution countdown anticipation-timing task, and 4) a high resolution anticipation-timing task. For each task, a startling acoustic stimulus (124dB) was presented at several intervals prior to the "go" signal ("go" -150ms, -500ms, and -1500ms). Results from the startle trials showed that the time course of movement pre-programming was affected by the temporal uncertainty of the imperative "go" cue. These findings demonstrate that the resolution of the timing information regarding the response cue has a marked effect on the timing of movement preparation such that under conditions of low temporal resolution, participants plan the movement well in advance in accordance with the anticipated probability of onset of the cue, whereas movement preparation is delayed until less than 500ms prior to response time when continuous temporal information is provided. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Temporal dynamics of all-optical switching in Photonic Crystal Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colman, Pierre; Heuck, Mikkel; Yu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of all-optical switching has been investigated in a Photonic Crystal Cavity with a 150fs-40aJ/pulse resolution. This allowed observing for the first time effects like pulse reshaping, pulse delay and intra-cavity Four-Wave-Mixing.......The temporal dynamics of all-optical switching has been investigated in a Photonic Crystal Cavity with a 150fs-40aJ/pulse resolution. This allowed observing for the first time effects like pulse reshaping, pulse delay and intra-cavity Four-Wave-Mixing....

  9. Spatio-Temporal Series Remote Sensing Image Prediction Based on Multi-Dictionary Bayesian Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Contradictions in spatial resolution and temporal coverage emerge from earth observation remote sensing images due to limitations in technology and cost. Therefore, how to combine remote sensing images with low spatial yet high temporal resolution as well as those with high spatial yet low temporal resolution to construct images with both high spatial resolution and high temporal coverage has become an important problem called spatio-temporal fusion problem in both research and practice. A Multi-Dictionary Bayesian Spatio-Temporal Reflectance Fusion Model (MDBFM has been proposed in this paper. First, multiple dictionaries from regions of different classes are trained. Second, a Bayesian framework is constructed to solve the dictionary selection problem. A pixel-dictionary likehood function and a dictionary-dictionary prior function are constructed under the Bayesian framework. Third, remote sensing images before and after the middle moment are combined to predict images at the middle moment. Diverse shapes and textures information is learned from different landscapes in multi-dictionary learning to help dictionaries capture the distinctions between regions. The Bayesian framework makes full use of the priori information while the input image is classified. The experiments with one simulated dataset and two satellite datasets validate that the MDBFM is highly effective in both subjective and objective evaluation indexes. The results of MDBFM show more precise details and have a higher similarity with real images when dealing with both type changes and phenology changes.

  10. [Treatment of temporo-mandibular joint closed-lock using intra-articular injection of mepivacaine with immediate resolution durable in time (six months follow-up)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarda Nardini, L; Tito, R; Beltrame, A

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of intra-articular fluid injection under pressure, as a technique suggested for temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) closed-lock treatment, and to determine if there is a persisting lock resolution in time. Twelve patients were studied at our centre, with a diagnosis of TMJ closed-lock, not amenable with conventional therapies. All patients underwent a MRI scan, confirming the presence of anteriorly displaced disk. This technique is based on intra-articular injection of anaesthetic (mepivacaine cloridrate) under pressure, using the so called pumping technique, that allows an inferior distraction of the condyle. The study has a six months follow-up. After closed-lock resolution all patients underwent physiotherapy with guided mouth opening, for one month. Mandibular function (maximal mouth opening) increased on average of 20.2 mm after treatment, and of 21.1 mm six months later (p=0.00000; with p<0.005). Pain decreased on average from VAS=6.75 to VAS=0.3 (p=0.00001; with p<0.005). The masticatory efficiency improved from VAS=5.25 to VAS=8.75 (p=0.002; p<0.005). Functional TMJ limitation level is significantly increased (p=0.002; p<0.005). Also, patient's efficacy judgement (mean value 3.58= good) and tolerability judgement (mean value 2.92=good) indicate that this therapy is well accepted. This technique is easy to perform, well tolerated and does not need specific instruments: it permits the resolution of TMJ closed-lock, decreases the pain and improves masticatory efficiency. All these effects persist in time. Subjects with recent closed-lock have an immediate and complete functional recovery while patients with chronic closed-lock do not.

  11. Faster-Than-Real-Time Simulation of Lithium Ion Batteries with Full Spatial and Temporal Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Mazumder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional coupled electrochemical-thermal model of a lithium ion battery with full temporal and normal-to-electrode spatial resolution is presented. Only a single pair of electrodes is considered in the model. It is shown that simulation of a lithium ion battery with the inclusion of detailed transport phenomena and electrochemistry is possible with faster-than-real-time compute times. The governing conservation equations of mass, charge, and energy are discretized using the finite volume method and solved using an iterative procedure. The model is first successfully validated against experimental data for both charge and discharge processes in a LixC6-LiyMn2O4 battery. Finally, it is demonstrated for an arbitrary rapidly changing transient load typical of a hybrid electric vehicle drive cycle. The model is able to predict the cell voltage of a 15-minute drive cycle in less than 12 seconds of compute time on a laptop with a 2.33 GHz Intel Pentium 4 processor.

  12. Longitudinal profile diagnostic scheme with subfemtosecond resolution for high-brightness electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Andonian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution measurement of the longitudinal profile of a relativistic electron beam is of utmost importance for linac based free-electron lasers and other advanced accelerator facilities that employ ultrashort bunches. In this paper, we investigate a novel scheme to measure ultrashort bunches (subpicosecond with exceptional temporal resolution (hundreds of attoseconds and dynamic range. The scheme employs two orthogonally oriented deflecting sections. The first imparts a short-wavelength (fast temporal resolution horizontal angular modulation on the beam, while the second imparts a long-wavelength (slow angular kick in the vertical dimension. Both modulations are observable on a standard downstream screen in the form of a streaked sinusoidal beam structure. We demonstrate, using scaled variables in a quasi-1D approximation, an expression for the temporal resolution of the scheme and apply it to a proof-of-concept experiment at the UCLA Neptune high-brightness injector facility. The scheme is also investigated for application at the SLAC NLCTA facility, where we show that the subfemtosecond resolution is sufficient to resolve the temporal structure of the beam used in the echo-enabled free-electron laser. We employ beam simulations to verify the effect for typical Neptune and NLCTA parameter sets and demonstrate the feasibility of the concept.

  13. Evaluation of high resolution spatio-temporal precipitation extremes from a stochastic weather generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Christensen, O. B.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    gauges in the model area. The spatio-temporal performance of the model with respect to precipitation extremes is evaluated in the points of a 2x2 km regular grid covering the full model area. The model satisfactorily reproduces the extreme behaviour of the observed precipitation with respect to event...... intensity levels and unconditional spatial correlation when evaluated using an event based ranking approach at point scale and an advanced spatio-temporal coupling of extreme events. Prospectively the model can be used as a tool to evaluate the impact of climate change without relying onprecipitation output......Spatio-temporal rainfall is modelled for the North-Eastern part of Zealand (Denmark) using the Spatio-Temporal Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses model as implemented in the RainSim software. Hourly precipitation series for fitting the model are obtained from a dense network of tipping bucket rain...

  14. Autonomous agricultural remote sensing systems with high spatial and temporal resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Haitao

    In this research, two novel agricultural remote sensing (RS) systems, a Stand-alone Infield Crop Monitor RS System (SICMRS) and an autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) based RS system have been studied. A high-resolution digital color and multi-spectral camera was used as the image sensor for the SICMRS system. An artificially intelligent (AI) controller based on artificial neural network (ANN) and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was developed. Morrow Plots corn field RS images in the 2004 and 2006 growing seasons were collected by the SICMRS system. The field site contained 8 subplots (9.14 m x 9.14 m) that were planted with corn and three different fertilizer treatments were used among those subplots. The raw RS images were geometrically corrected, resampled to 10cm resolution, removed soil background and calibrated to real reflectance. The RS images from two growing seasons were studied and 10 different vegetation indices were derived from each day's image. The result from the image processing demonstrated that the vegetation indices have temporal effects. To achieve high quality RS data, one has to utilize the right indices and capture the images at the right time in the growing season. Maximum variations among the image data set are within the V6-V10 stages, which indicated that these stages are the best period to identify the spatial variability caused by the nutrient stress in the corn field. The derived vegetation indices were also used to build yield prediction models via the linear regression method. At that point, all of the yield prediction models were evaluated by comparing the R2-value and the best index model from each day's image was picked based on the highest R 2-value. It was shown that the green normalized difference vegetation (GNDVI) based model is more sensitive to yield prediction than other indices-based models. During the VT-R4 stages, the GNDVI based models were able to explain more than 95% potential corn yield

  15. 3D high resolution tracking of ice flow using mutli-temporal stereo satellite imagery, Franz Josef Glacier, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprince, S.; Lin, J.; Ayoub, F.; Herman, F.; Avouac, J.

    2013-12-01

    We present the latest capabilities added to the Co-Registration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (COSI-Corr) software, which aim at analyzing time-series of stereoscopic imagery to document 3D variations of the ground surface. We review the processing chain and present the new and improved modules for satellite pushbroom imagery, in particular the N-image bundle block adjustment to jointly optimize the viewing geometry of multiple acquisitions, the improved multi-scale image matching based on Semi-Global Matching (SGM) to extract high resolution topography, and the triangulation of multi-temporal disparity maps to derive 3D ground motion. In particular, processes are optimized to run on a cluster computing environment. This new suite of algorithms is applied to the study of Worldview stereo imagery above the Franz Josef, Fox, and Tasman Glaciers, New Zealand, acquired on 01/30/2013, 02/09/2013, and 02/28/2013. We derive high resolution (1m post-spacing) maps of ice flow in three dimensions, where ice velocities of up to 4 m/day are recorded. Images were collected in early summer during a dry and sunny period, which followed two weeks of unsettled weather with several heavy rainfall events across the Southern Alps. The 3D tracking of ice flow highlights the surface response of the glaciers to changes in effective pressure at the ice-bedrock interface due to heavy rainfall, at an unprecedented spatial resolution.

  16. Quantifying the Uncertainty in High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Synthetic Land Surface Reflectance at Pixel Level Using Ground-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, J.; Ryu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Algorithms for fusing high temporal frequency and high spatial resolution satellite images are widely used to develop dense time-series land surface observations. While many studies have revealed that the synthesized frequent high spatial resolution images could be successfully applied in vegetation mapping and monitoring, validation and correction of fused images have not been focused than its importance. To evaluate the precision of fused image in pixel level, in-situ reflectance measurements which could account for the pixel-level heterogeneity are necessary. In this study, the synthetic images of land surface reflectance were predicted by the coarse high-frequency images acquired from MODIS and high spatial resolution images from Landsat-8 OLI using the Flexible Spatiotemporal Data Fusion (FSDAF). Ground-based reflectance was measured by JAZ Spectrometer (Ocean Optics, Dunedin, FL, USA) on rice paddy during five main growth stages in Cheorwon-gun, Republic of Korea, where the landscape heterogeneity changes through the growing season. After analyzing the spatial heterogeneity and seasonal variation of land surface reflectance based on the ground measurements, the uncertainties of the fused images were quantified at pixel level. Finally, this relationship was applied to correct the fused reflectance images and build the seasonal time series of rice paddy surface reflectance. This dataset could be significant for rice planting area extraction, phenological stages detection, and variables estimation.

  17. Temporal lobe dysfunction in childhood autism: a PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddaert, N.; Poline, J.B.; Brunelle, F.; Zilbovicius, M.; Boddaert, N.; Brunelle, F.; Chabane, N.; Barthelemy, C.; Zilbovicius, M.; Bourgeois, M.; Samson, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Childhood autism is a severe developmental disorder that impairs the acquisition of some of the most important skills in human life. Progress in understanding the neural basis of childhood autism requires clear and reliable data indicating specific neuro-anatomical or neuro-physiological abnormalities. The purpose of the present study was to research localized brain dysfunction in autistic children using functional brain imaging. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with positron emission tomography (PET) in 21 primary autistic children and 10 age-matched non autistic children. A statistical parametric analysis of rCBF images revealed significant bilateral temporal hypoperfusion in the associative auditory cortex (superior temporal gyrus) and in the multimodal cortex (superior temporal sulcus) in the autistic group (p<0.001). In addition, temporal hypoperfusion was detected individually in 77% of autistic children. These findings provide robust evidence of well localized functional abnormalities in autistic children located in the superior temporal lobe. Such localized abnormalities were not detected with the low resolution PET camera (14-22). This study suggests that high resolution PET camera combined with statistical parametric mapping is useful to understand developmental disorders. (authors)

  18. Repeated and random components in Oklahoma's monthly precipitation record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precipitation across Oklahoma exhibits a high degree of spatial and temporal variability and creates numerous water resources management challenges. The monthly precipitation record of the Central Oklahoma climate division was evaluated in a proof-of-concept to establish whether a simple monthly pre...

  19. Selective spatial enhancement: Attentional spotlight size impacts spatial but not temporal perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Stephanie C; Shen, Elizabeth; Edwards, Mark

    2016-08-01

    An important but often neglected aspect of attention is how changes in the attentional spotlight size impact perception. The zoom-lens model predicts that a small ("focal") attentional spotlight enhances all aspects of perception relative to a larger ("diffuse" spotlight). However, based on the physiological properties of the two major classes of visual cells (magnocellular and parvocellular neurons) we predicted trade-offs in spatial and temporal acuity as a function of spotlight size. Contrary to both of these accounts, however, across two experiments we found that attentional spotlight size affected spatial acuity, such that spatial acuity was enhanced for a focal relative to a diffuse spotlight, whereas the same modulations in spotlight size had no impact on temporal acuity. This likely reflects the function of attention: to induce the high spatial resolution of the fovea in periphery, where spatial resolution is poor but temporal resolution is good. It is adaptive, therefore, for the attentional spotlight to enhance spatial acuity, whereas enhancing temporal acuity does not confer the same benefit.

  20. Application of GRACE to the assessment of model-based estimates of monthly Greenland Ice Sheet mass balance (2003-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Nicole-Jeanne; Wiese, David N.; Larour, Eric Y.; Watkins, Michael M.; Box, Jason E.; Fettweis, Xavier; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2016-09-01

    Quantifying the Greenland Ice Sheet's future contribution to sea level rise is a challenging task that requires accurate estimates of ice sheet sensitivity to climate change. Forward ice sheet models are promising tools for estimating future ice sheet behavior, yet confidence is low because evaluation of historical simulations is challenging due to the scarcity of continental-wide data for model evaluation. Recent advancements in processing of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data using Bayesian-constrained mass concentration ("mascon") functions have led to improvements in spatial resolution and noise reduction of monthly global gravity fields. Specifically, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's JPL RL05M GRACE mascon solution (GRACE_JPL) offers an opportunity for the assessment of model-based estimates of ice sheet mass balance (MB) at ˜ 300 km spatial scales. Here, we quantify the differences between Greenland monthly observed MB (GRACE_JPL) and that estimated by state-of-the-art, high-resolution models, with respect to GRACE_JPL and model uncertainties. To simulate the years 2003-2012, we force the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) with anomalies from three different surface mass balance (SMB) products derived from regional climate models. Resulting MB is compared against GRACE_JPL within individual mascons. Overall, we find agreement in the northeast and southwest where MB is assumed to be primarily controlled by SMB. In the interior, we find a discrepancy in trend, which we presume to be related to millennial-scale dynamic thickening not considered by our model. In the northwest, seasonal amplitudes agree, but modeled mass trends are muted relative to GRACE_JPL. Here, discrepancies are likely controlled by temporal variability in ice discharge and other related processes not represented by our model simulations, i.e., hydrological processes and ice-ocean interaction. In the southeast, GRACE_JPL exhibits larger seasonal amplitude than predicted by the

  1. Tympanic plate fractures in temporal bone trauma: prevalence and associated injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C P; Hunt, C H; Bergen, D C; Carlson, M L; Diehn, F E; Schwartz, K M; McKenzie, G A; Morreale, R F; Lane, J I

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of tympanic plate fractures, which are associated with an increased risk of external auditory canal stenosis following temporal bone trauma, is unknown. A review of posttraumatic high-resolution CT temporal bone examinations was performed to determine the prevalence of tympanic plate fractures and to identify any associated temporal bone injuries. A retrospective review was performed to evaluate patients with head trauma who underwent emergent high-resolution CT examinations of the temporal bone from July 2006 to March 2012. Fractures were identified and assessed for orientation; involvement of the tympanic plate, scutum, bony labyrinth, facial nerve canal, and temporomandibular joint; and ossicular chain disruption. Thirty-nine patients (41.3 ± 17.2 years of age) had a total of 46 temporal bone fractures (7 bilateral). Tympanic plate fractures were identified in 27 (58.7%) of these 46 fractures. Ossicular disruption occurred in 17 (37.0%). Fractures involving the scutum occurred in 25 (54.4%). None of the 46 fractured temporal bones had a mandibular condyle dislocation or fracture. Of the 27 cases of tympanic plate fractures, 14 (51.8%) had ossicular disruption (P = .016) and 18 (66.6%) had a fracture of the scutum (P = .044). Temporomandibular joint gas was seen in 15 (33%) but was not statistically associated with tympanic plate fracture (P = .21). Tympanic plate fractures are commonly seen on high-resolution CT performed for evaluation of temporal bone trauma. It is important to recognize these fractures to avoid the preventable complication of external auditory canal stenosis and the potential for conductive hearing loss due to a fracture involving the scutum or ossicular chain.

  2. Uncertainty of SWAT model at different DEM resolutions in a large mountainous watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peipei; Liu, Ruimin; Bao, Yimeng; Wang, Jiawei; Yu, Wenwen; Shen, Zhenyao

    2014-04-15

    The objective of this study was to enhance understanding of the sensitivity of the SWAT model to the resolutions of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) based on the analysis of multiple evaluation indicators. The Xiangxi River, a large tributary of Three Gorges Reservoir in China, was selected as the study area. A range of 17 DEM spatial resolutions, from 30 to 1000 m, was examined, and the annual and monthly model outputs based on each resolution were compared. The following results were obtained: (i) sediment yield was greatly affected by DEM resolution; (ii) the prediction of dissolved oxygen load was significantly affected by DEM resolutions coarser than 500 m; (iii) Total Nitrogen (TN) load was not greatly affected by the DEM resolution; (iv) Nitrate Nitrogen (NO₃-N) and Total Phosphorus (TP) loads were slightly affected by the DEM resolution; and (v) flow and Ammonia Nitrogen (NH₄-N) load were essentially unaffected by the DEM resolution. The flow and dissolved oxygen load decreased more significantly in the dry season than in the wet and normal seasons. Excluding flow and dissolved oxygen, the uncertainties of the other Hydrology/Non-point Source (H/NPS) pollution indicators were greater in the wet season than in the dry and normal seasons. Considering the temporal distribution uncertainties, the optimal DEM resolutions for flow was 30-200 m, for sediment and TP was 30-100 m, for dissolved oxygen and NO₃-N was 30-300 m, for NH₄-N was 30 to 70 m and for TN was 30-150 m. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Temporal Diagnostic Techniques for Two-Bunch Facet Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litos, M.D.; Bionta, M.R.; Dolgashev, V.A.; England, R.J.; Fritz, D.; Gilevich, S.; Hering, Ph.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    Three temporal diagnostic techniques are considered for use in the FACET facility at SLAC, which will incorporate a unique two-bunch beam for plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. The results of these experiments will depend strongly on the the inter-bunch spacing as well as the longitudinal profiles of the two bunches. A reliable, singleshot, high resolution measurement of the beam's temporal profile is necessary to fully quantify the physical mechanisms underlying the beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. In this study we show that a transverse deflecting cavity is the diagnostic which best meets our criteria. Based on our laboratory testing, numerical calculations, and simulations of the three single-shot temporal diagnostic devices, the X-band TCAV system is the best candidate for resolving FACET's two-bunch beam, with an estimated resolution of 7 {micro}m. Both the S-band TCAV system and the EO system could resolve the peak-to-peak separation of the two bunches in the FACET beam with estimated resolutions of 25 {micro}m and 30 {micro}m, respectively, but would be unable to resolve the temporal profiles of the individual bunches themselves. Because the TCAV signal is more easily interpreted and because the reliability of the EO system is less well known, however, the S-band TCAV system would be the next preferred option after the X-band TCAV system. The Fesca-200 streak camera, though simple, compact, and reliable, is unable to achieve a resolution that would be of use to FACET.

  4. Design and evaluation of an innovative MRI-compatible Braille stimulator with high spatial and temporal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowska, Weronika; Wolak, Tomasz; Soluch, Pawel; Orzechowski, Mateusz; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2013-02-15

    Neural correlates of Braille reading have been widely studied with different neuroimaging techniques. Nevertheless, the exact brain processes underlying this unique activity are still unknown, due to suboptimal accuracy of imaging and/or stimuli delivery methods. To study somatosensory perception effectively, the stimulation must reflect parameters of the natural stimulus and must be applied with precise timing. In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) providing these characteristics requires technologically advanced solutions and there have been several successful direct tactile stimulation devices designed that allow investigation of somatotopic organization of brain sensory areas. They may, however, be of limited applicability in studying brain mechanisms related to such distinctive tactile activity as Braille reading. In this paper we describe the design and experimental evaluation of an innovative MRI-compatible Braille Character Stimulator (BCS) enabling precise and stable delivery of standardized Braille characters with high temporal resolution. Our device is fully programmable, flexible in stimuli delivery and can be easily implemented in any research unit. The Braille Character Stimulator was tested with a same-different discrimination task on Braille characters during an event-related fMRI experiment in eleven right-handed sighted adult subjects. The results show significant activations in several cortical areas, including bilateral primary (SI) and secondary somatosensory (SII) cortices, bilateral premotor and supplementary motor areas, inferior frontal gyri, inferior temporal gyri and precuneus, as well as contralateral (to the stimulated hand) thalamus. The results validate the use of the BCS as a method of effective stimuli application in fMRI studies, in both sighted and visually impaired subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporal and spectral manipulations of correlated photons using a time-lens

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal, Sunil; Orre, Venkata Vikram; Restelli, Alessandro; Salem, Reza; Goldschmidt, Elizabeth A.; Hafezi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    A common challenge in quantum information processing with photons is the limited ability to manipulate and measure correlated states. An example is the inability to measure picosecond scale temporal correlations of a multi-photon state, given state-of-the-art detectors have a temporal resolution of about 100 ps. Here, we demonstrate temporal magnification of time-bin entangled two-photon states using a time-lens, and measure their temporal correlation function which is otherwise not accessibl...

  6. Temporal plus epilepsy is a major determinant of temporal lobe surgery failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Carmen; Rheims, Sylvain; Minotti, Lorella; Guénot, Marc; Hoffmann, Dominique; Chabardès, Stephan; Isnard, Jean; Kahane, Philippe; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Reasons for failed temporal lobe epilepsy surgery remain unclear. Temporal plus epilepsy, characterized by a primary temporal lobe epileptogenic zone extending to neighboured regions, might account for a yet unknown proportion of these failures. In this study all patients from two epilepsy surgery programmes who fulfilled the following criteria were included: (i) operated from an anterior temporal lobectomy or disconnection between January 1990 and December 2001; (ii) magnetic resonance imaging normal or showing signs of hippocampal sclerosis; and (iii) postoperative follow-up ≥ 24 months for seizure-free patients. Patients were classified as suffering from unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy, bitemporal epilepsy or temporal plus epilepsy based on available presurgical data. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to calculate the probability of seizure freedom over time. Predictors of seizure recurrence were investigated using Cox proportional hazards model. Of 168 patients included, 108 (63.7%) underwent stereoelectroencephalography, 131 (78%) had hippocampal sclerosis, 149 suffered from unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (88.7%), one from bitemporal epilepsy (0.6%) and 18 (10.7%) from temporal plus epilepsy. The probability of Engel class I outcome at 10 years of follow-up was 67.3% (95% CI: 63.4-71.2) for the entire cohort, 74.5% (95% CI: 70.6-78.4) for unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy, and 14.8% (95% CI: 5.9-23.7) for temporal plus epilepsy. Multivariate analyses demonstrated four predictors of seizure relapse: temporal plus epilepsy (P temporal lobe surgery failure was 5.06 (95% CI: 2.36-10.382) greater in patients with temporal plus epilepsy than in those with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy. Temporal plus epilepsy represents a hitherto unrecognized prominent cause of temporal lobe surgery failures. In patients with temporal plus epilepsy, anterior temporal lobectomy appears very unlikely to control seizures and should not be advised. Whether larger

  7. Improving temporal resolution in fMRI using a 3D spiral acquisition and low rank plus sparse (L+S) reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Andrii Y; Herbst, Michael; Andrew Stenger, V

    2017-08-15

    Rapid whole-brain dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is of particular interest in Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI). Faster acquisitions with higher temporal sampling of the BOLD time-course provide several advantages including increased sensitivity in detecting functional activation, the possibility of filtering out physiological noise for improving temporal SNR, and freezing out head motion. Generally, faster acquisitions require undersampling of the data which results in aliasing artifacts in the object domain. A recently developed low-rank (L) plus sparse (S) matrix decomposition model (L+S) is one of the methods that has been introduced to reconstruct images from undersampled dynamic MRI data. The L+S approach assumes that the dynamic MRI data, represented as a space-time matrix M, is a linear superposition of L and S components, where L represents highly spatially and temporally correlated elements, such as the image background, while S captures dynamic information that is sparse in an appropriate transform domain. This suggests that L+S might be suited for undersampled task or slow event-related fMRI acquisitions because the periodic nature of the BOLD signal is sparse in the temporal Fourier transform domain and slowly varying low-rank brain background signals, such as physiological noise and drift, will be predominantly low-rank. In this work, as a proof of concept, we exploit the L+S method for accelerating block-design fMRI using a 3D stack of spirals (SoS) acquisition where undersampling is performed in the k z -t domain. We examined the feasibility of the L+S method to accurately separate temporally correlated brain background information in the L component while capturing periodic BOLD signals in the S component. We present results acquired in control human volunteers at 3T for both retrospective and prospectively acquired fMRI data for a visual activation block-design task. We show that a SoS fMRI acquisition with an

  8. Temporal anteroinferior encephalocele: An underrecognized etiology of temporal lobe epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavalainen, Taavi; Jutila, Leena; Mervaala, Esa; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Vanninen, Ritva; Immonen, Arto

    2015-10-27

    To report the increasing frequency with which temporal anteroinferior encephalocele is a cause of adult temporal lobe epilepsy, to illustrate the clinical and imaging characteristics of this condition, and to report its surgical treatment in a series of 23 adult patients. Epilepsy patients diagnosed with temporal anteroinferior encephalocele from January 2006 to December 2013 in a national epilepsy reference center were included in this noninterventional study. Twenty-three epilepsy patients (14 female, mean age 43.8 years) were diagnosed with temporal anteroinferior encephalocele in our institute. Thirteen patients had ≥2 encephaloceles; 7 cases presented bilaterally. The estimated frequency of this condition was 0.3% among MRI examinations performed due to newly diagnosed epilepsy (n = 6) and 1.9% among drug-resistant patients referred to our center (n = 17). Nine patients with local encephalocele disconnection (n = 4) or anterior temporal lobectomy and amygdalohippocampectomy (n = 5) have become seizure-free (Engel 1) for a mean 2.8 years (range 3 months-6.2 years) of follow-up. Three patients with local encephalocele disconnection were almost seizure-free or exhibited worthwhile improvement. Histologically, all 12 surgical patients had gliosis at the base of the encephalocele; some had cortical laminar disorganization (n = 5) or mild hippocampal degeneration (n = 1). The possibility of a temporal encephalocele should be considered when interpreting MRI examinations of patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy. These patients can significantly benefit from unitemporal epilepsy surgery, even in cases with bilateral encephaloceles. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Advancing of Land Surface Temperature Retrieval Using Extreme Learning Machine and Spatio-Temporal Adaptive Data Fusion Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As a critical variable to characterize the biophysical processes in ecological environment, and as a key indicator in the surface energy balance, evapotranspiration and urban heat islands, Land Surface Temperature (LST retrieved from Thermal Infra-Red (TIR images at both high temporal and spatial resolution is in urgent need. However, due to the limitations of the existing satellite sensors, there is no earth observation which can obtain TIR at detailed spatial- and temporal-resolution simultaneously. Thus, several attempts of image fusion by blending the TIR data from high temporal resolution sensor with data from high spatial resolution sensor have been studied. This paper presents a novel data fusion method by integrating image fusion and spatio-temporal fusion techniques, for deriving LST datasets at 30 m spatial resolution from daily MODIS image and Landsat ETM+ images. The Landsat ETM+ TIR data were firstly enhanced based on extreme learning machine (ELM algorithm using neural network regression model, from 60 m to 30 m resolution. Then, the MODIS LST and enhanced Landsat ETM+ TIR data were fused by Spatio-temporal Adaptive Data Fusion Algorithm for Temperature mapping (SADFAT in order to derive high resolution synthetic data. The synthetic images were evaluated for both testing and simulated satellite images. The average difference (AD and absolute average difference (AAD are smaller than 1.7 K, where the correlation coefficient (CC and root-mean-square error (RMSE are 0.755 and 1.824, respectively, showing that the proposed method enhances the spatial resolution of the predicted LST images and preserves the spectral information at the same time.

  10. Improving Accuracy and Temporal Resolution of Learning Curve Estimation for within- and across-Session Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabelow, Karsten; König, Reinhard; Polzehl, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of learning curves is ubiquitously based on proportions of correct responses within moving trial windows. Thereby, it is tacitly assumed that learning performance is constant within the moving windows, which, however, is often not the case. In the present study we demonstrate that violations of this assumption lead to systematic errors in the analysis of learning curves, and we explored the dependency of these errors on window size, different statistical models, and learning phase. To reduce these errors in the analysis of single-subject data as well as on the population level, we propose adequate statistical methods for the estimation of learning curves and the construction of confidence intervals, trial by trial. Applied to data from an avoidance learning experiment with rodents, these methods revealed performance changes occurring at multiple time scales within and across training sessions which were otherwise obscured in the conventional analysis. Our work shows that the proper assessment of the behavioral dynamics of learning at high temporal resolution can shed new light on specific learning processes, and, thus, allows to refine existing learning concepts. It further disambiguates the interpretation of neurophysiological signal changes recorded during training in relation to learning. PMID:27303809

  11. Improving Accuracy and Temporal Resolution of Learning Curve Estimation for within- and across-Session Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Deliano

    Full Text Available Estimation of learning curves is ubiquitously based on proportions of correct responses within moving trial windows. Thereby, it is tacitly assumed that learning performance is constant within the moving windows, which, however, is often not the case. In the present study we demonstrate that violations of this assumption lead to systematic errors in the analysis of learning curves, and we explored the dependency of these errors on window size, different statistical models, and learning phase. To reduce these errors in the analysis of single-subject data as well as on the population level, we propose adequate statistical methods for the estimation of learning curves and the construction of confidence intervals, trial by trial. Applied to data from an avoidance learning experiment with rodents, these methods revealed performance changes occurring at multiple time scales within and across training sessions which were otherwise obscured in the conventional analysis. Our work shows that the proper assessment of the behavioral dynamics of learning at high temporal resolution can shed new light on specific learning processes, and, thus, allows to refine existing learning concepts. It further disambiguates the interpretation of neurophysiological signal changes recorded during training in relation to learning.

  12. Temporal fidelity in dynamic social networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Pentland, Alex ‘Sandy’

    2015-01-01

    of the network dynamics can be used to inform the process of measuring social networks. The details of measurement are of particular importance when considering dynamic processes where minute-to-minute details are important, because collection of physical proximity interactions with high temporal resolution...

  13. A comparison framework for temporal image reconstructions in electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnon, Hervé; Adler, Andy; Grychtol, Bartłomiej

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) provides low-resolution images of internal conductivity distributions, but is able to achieve relatively high temporal resolutions. Most EIT image reconstruction algorithms do not explicitly account for the temporal constraints on the measurements or physiological processes under investigation. Instead, algorithms typically assume both that the conductivity distribution does not change during the acquisition of each EIT data frame, and that frames can be reconstructed independently, without consideration of the correlation between images. A failure to account for these temporal effects will result in aliasing-related artefacts in images. Several methods have been proposed to compensate for these effects, including interpolation of raw data, and reconstruction algorithms using Kalman and temporal filtering. However, no systematic work has been performed to understand the severity of the temporal artefacts nor the extent to which algorithms can account for them. We seek to address this need by developing a temporal comparison framework and figures of merit to assess the ability of reconstruction algorithms to account for temporal effects. Using this approach, we compare combinations of three reconstruction algorithms using three EIT data frame types: perfect, realistic and interpolated. The results show that, without accounting for temporal effects, artefacts are present in images for dynamic conductivity contrasts at frequencies 10–20 times slower than the frame rate. The proposed methods show some improvements in reducing these artefacts. (paper)

  14. Temporal processes involved in simultaneous reflection masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    reflection delays and enhances the test reflection for large delays. Employing a 200-ms-long broadband noise burst as input signal, the critical delay separating these two binaural phenomena was found to be 7–10 ms. It was suggested that the critical delay refers to a temporal window that is employed......, resulting in a critical delay of about 2–3 ms for 20-ms-long stimuli. Hence, for very short stimuli the temporal window or critical delay exhibits values similar to the auditory temporal resolution as, for instance, observed in gap-detection tasks. It is suggested that the larger critical delay observed...

  15. A comprehensive biomass burning emission inventory with high spatial and temporal resolution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Xing, Xiaofan; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wei, Lin; Wei, Xiao; Liu, Chao

    2017-02-01

    . As for the straw burning emission of various crops, corn straw burning has the largest contribution to all of the pollutants considered, except for CH4; rice straw burning has highest contribution to CH4 and the second largest contribution to other pollutants, except for SO2, OC, and Hg; wheat straw burning is the second largest contributor to SO2, OC, and Hg and the third largest contributor to other pollutants. Heilongjiang, Shandong, and Henan provinces located in the north-eastern and central-southern regions of China have higher emissions compared to other provinces in China. Gridded emissions, which were obtained through spatial allocation based on the gridded rural population and fire point data from emission inventories at county resolution, could better represent the actual situation. High biomass burning emissions are concentrated in the areas with more agricultural and rural activity. The months of April, May, June, and October account for 65 % of emissions from in-field crop residue burning, while, regarding EC, the emissions in January, February, October, November, and December are relatively higher than other months due to biomass domestic burning in heating season. There are regional differences in the monthly variations of emissions due to the diversity of main planted crops and climatic conditions. Furthermore, PM2.5 component results showed that OC, Cl-, EC, K+, NH4+, elemental K, and SO42- are the main PM2.5 species, accounting for 80 % of the total emissions. The species with relatively high contribution to NMVOC emission include ethylene, propylene, toluene, mp-xylene, and ethyl benzene, which are key species for the formation of secondary air pollution. The detailed biomass burning emission inventory developed by this study could provide useful information for air-quality modelling and could support the development of appropriate pollution-control strategies.

  16. Robustness of movement models: can models bridge the gap between temporal scales of data sets and behavioural processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlägel, Ulrike E; Lewis, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Discrete-time random walks and their extensions are common tools for analyzing animal movement data. In these analyses, resolution of temporal discretization is a critical feature. Ideally, a model both mirrors the relevant temporal scale of the biological process of interest and matches the data sampling rate. Challenges arise when resolution of data is too coarse due to technological constraints, or when we wish to extrapolate results or compare results obtained from data with different resolutions. Drawing loosely on the concept of robustness in statistics, we propose a rigorous mathematical framework for studying movement models' robustness against changes in temporal resolution. In this framework, we define varying levels of robustness as formal model properties, focusing on random walk models with spatially-explicit component. With the new framework, we can investigate whether models can validly be applied to data across varying temporal resolutions and how we can account for these different resolutions in statistical inference results. We apply the new framework to movement-based resource selection models, demonstrating both analytical and numerical calculations, as well as a Monte Carlo simulation approach. While exact robustness is rare, the concept of approximate robustness provides a promising new direction for analyzing movement models.

  17. Mapping monthly rainfall erosivity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale; Spinoni, Jonathan; Meusburger, Katrin; Michaelides, Silas; Beguería, Santiago; Klik, Andreas; Petan, Sašo; Janeček, Miloslav; Olsen, Preben; Aalto, Juha; Lakatos, Mónika; Rymszewicz, Anna; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Tadić, Melita Perčec; Diodato, Nazzareno; Kostalova, Julia; Rousseva, Svetla; Banasik, Kazimierz; Alewell, Christine; Panagos, Panos

    2017-02-01

    Rainfall erosivity as a dynamic factor of soil loss by water erosion is modelled intra-annually for the first time at European scale. The development of Rainfall Erosivity Database at European Scale (REDES) and its 2015 update with the extension to monthly component allowed to develop monthly and seasonal R-factor maps and assess rainfall erosivity both spatially and temporally. During winter months, significant rainfall erosivity is present only in part of the Mediterranean countries. A sudden increase of erosivity occurs in major part of European Union (except Mediterranean basin, western part of Britain and Ireland) in May and the highest values are registered during summer months. Starting from September, R-factor has a decreasing trend. The mean rainfall erosivity in summer is almost 4 times higher (315MJmmha -1 h -1 ) compared to winter (87MJmmha -1 h -1 ). The Cubist model has been selected among various statistical models to perform the spatial interpolation due to its excellent performance, ability to model non-linearity and interpretability. The monthly prediction is an order more difficult than the annual one as it is limited by the number of covariates and, for consistency, the sum of all months has to be close to annual erosivity. The performance of the Cubist models proved to be generally high, resulting in R 2 values between 0.40 and 0.64 in cross-validation. The obtained months show an increasing trend of erosivity occurring from winter to summer starting from western to Eastern Europe. The maps also show a clear delineation of areas with different erosivity seasonal patterns, whose spatial outline was evidenced by cluster analysis. The monthly erosivity maps can be used to develop composite indicators that map both intra-annual variability and concentration of erosive events. Consequently, spatio-temporal mapping of rainfall erosivity permits to identify the months and the areas with highest risk of soil loss where conservation measures should be

  18. Enhancing Spatial Resolution of Remotely Sensed Imagery Using Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J. M.; Bridges, S.; Collins, C.; Rushing, J.; Graves, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Researchers at the Information Technology and Systems Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville are using Deep Learning with Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to develop a method for enhancing the spatial resolutions of moderate resolution (10-60m) multispectral satellite imagery. This enhancement will effectively match the resolutions of imagery from multiple sensors to provide increased global temporal-spatial coverage for a variety of Earth science products. Our research is centered on using Deep Learning for automatically generating transformations for increasing the spatial resolution of remotely sensed images with different spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions. One of the most important steps in using images from multiple sensors is to transform the different image layers into the same spatial resolution, preferably the highest spatial resolution, without compromising the spectral information. Recent advances in Deep Learning have shown that CNNs can be used to effectively and efficiently upscale or enhance the spatial resolution of multispectral images with the use of an auxiliary data source such as a high spatial resolution panchromatic image. In contrast, we are using both the spatial and spectral details inherent in low spatial resolution multispectral images for image enhancement without the use of a panchromatic image. This presentation will discuss how this technology will benefit many Earth Science applications that use remotely sensed images with moderate spatial resolutions.

  19. Temporal co-registration for TROPOMI cloud clearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Genkova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI is anticipated to provide high-quality and timely global atmospheric composition information through observations of atmospheric constituents such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, formaldehyde and aerosol properties. The methane and the aerosol retrievals require very precise cloud clearing, which is difficult to achieve at the TROPOMI spatial resolution (7 by 7 km and without thermal IR measurements. The TROPOMI carrier – the Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P, does not include a cloud imager, thus it is planned to fly the S5P mission in a constellation with an instrument yielding an accurate cloud mask. The cloud imagery data will be provided by the US NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP mission, which will have the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS on board (Scalione, 2004. This paper investigates the temporal co-registration requirements for suitable time differences between the VIIRS measurements of clouds and the TROPOMI methane and aerosol measurements, so that the former could be used for cloud clearing. The temporal co-registration is studied using Meteosat Second Generation (MSG Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI data with 15 min temporal resolution (Veefkind, 2008b, and with data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite – 10 (GOES-10 having 1 min temporal resolution. The aim is to understand and assess the relation between the amount of allowed cloud contamination and the required time difference between the two satellites' overflights. Quantitative analysis shows that a time difference of approximately 5 min is sufficient (in most conditions to use the cloud information from the first instrument for cloud clearing in the retrievals using data from the second instrument. In recent years the A-train constellation demonstrated the benefit of flying satellites in formation. Therefore this study's findings will be

  20. Shoreline change after 12 years of tsunami in Banda Aceh, Indonesia: a multi-resolution, multi-temporal satellite data and GIS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugianto, S.; Heriansyah; Darusman; Rusdi, M.; Karim, A.

    2018-04-01

    The Indian Ocean Tsunami event on the 26 December 2004 has caused severe damage of some shorelines in Banda Aceh City, Indonesia. Tracing back the impact can be seen using remote sensing data combined with GIS. The approach is incorporated with image processing to analyze the extent of shoreline changes with multi-temporal data after 12 years of tsunami. This study demonstrates multi-resolution and multi-temporal satellite images of QuickBird and IKONOS to demarcate the shoreline of Banda Aceh shoreline from before and after tsunami. The research has demonstrated a significant change to the shoreline in the form of abrasion between 2004 and 2005 from few meters to hundred meters’ change. The change between 2004 and 2011 has not returned to the previous stage of shoreline before the tsunami, considered post tsunami impact. The abrasion occurs between 18.3 to 194.93 meters. Further, the change in 2009-2011 shows slowly change of shoreline of Banda Aceh, considered without impact of tsunami e.g. abrasion caused by ocean waves that erode the coast and on specific areas accretion occurs caused by sediment carried by the river flow into the sea near the shoreline of the study area.

  1. Spatial and temporal distribution of tropical biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wei Min; Liu, Mei-Huey

    1994-12-01

    A database for the spatial and temporal distribution of the amount of biomass burned in tropical America, Africa, and Asia during the late 1970s is presented with a resolution of 5° latitude × 5° longitude. The sources of burning in each grid cell have been quantified. Savanna fires, shifting cultivation, deforestation, fuel wood use, and burning of agricultural residues contribute about 50, 24, 10, 11, and 5%, respectively, of total biomass burned in the tropics. Savanna fires dominate in tropical Africa, and forest fires dominate in tropical Asia. A similar amount of biomass is burned from forest and savanna fires in tropical America. The distribution of biomass burned monthly during the dry season has been derived for each grid cell using the seasonal cycles of surface ozone concentrations. Land use changes during the last decade could have a profound impact on the amount of biomass burned and the amount of trace gases and aerosol particles emitted.

  2. Focusing, adjustable spectrometer with temporal resolution for the Sandia Z facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinars, D. B.; Wenger, D. F.; Keller, K. L.; Rochau, G. A.; Porter, J. L.

    2006-01-01

    Spherically bent focusing spectrometers with one- or two-dimensional spatial resolution (FSSR) are commonly used to obtain spectra with λ/Δλ>1000 from laser and exploding-wire plasmas. The focal properties of such spectrometers make them ideally suited for coupling with x-ray streak cameras when imaging small sources. We discuss the design of a streaked FSSR system intended to measure time-resolved emission spectra with time resolutions 2000 for source sizes ∼1 mm. The narrow spectral range (∼0.04 nm) can be adjusted between tests by varying the central Bragg angle (35 deg. -55 deg.) range and/or by exchanging the crystal type. The high spectral resolution is ideal for detailed line shape measurements. An example configuration for studying H- and He-like Ar emission is presented

  3. A temporal interpolation approach for dynamic reconstruction in perfusion CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, Pau; Lauritsch, Guenter

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a dynamic CT reconstruction algorithm for objects with time dependent attenuation coefficient. Projection data acquired over several rotations are interpreted as samples of a continuous signal. Based on this idea, a temporal interpolation approach is proposed which provides the maximum temporal resolution for a given rotational speed of the CT scanner. Interpolation is performed using polynomial splines. The algorithm can be adapted to slow signals, reducing the amount of data acquired and the computational cost. A theoretical analysis of the approximations made by the algorithm is provided. In simulation studies, the temporal interpolation approach is compared with three other dynamic reconstruction algorithms based on linear regression, linear interpolation, and generalized Parker weighting. The presented algorithm exhibits the highest temporal resolution for a given sampling interval. Hence, our approach needs less input data to achieve a certain quality in the reconstruction than the other algorithms discussed or, equivalently, less x-ray exposure and computational complexity. The proposed algorithm additionally allows the possibility of using slow rotating scanners for perfusion imaging purposes

  4. Ultra-high resolution coded wavefront sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Congli

    2017-06-08

    Wavefront sensors and more general phase retrieval methods have recently attracted a lot of attention in a host of application domains, ranging from astronomy to scientific imaging and microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a new class of sensor, the Coded Wavefront Sensor, which provides high spatio-temporal resolution using a simple masked sensor under white light illumination. Specifically, we demonstrate megapixel spatial resolution and phase accuracy better than 0.1 wavelengths at reconstruction rates of 50 Hz or more, thus opening up many new applications from high-resolution adaptive optics to real-time phase retrieval in microscopy.

  5. A globally calibrated scheme for generating daily meteorology from monthly statistics: Global-WGEN (GWGEN) v1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Philipp S.; Kaplan, Jed O.

    2017-10-01

    While a wide range of Earth system processes occur at daily and even subdaily timescales, many global vegetation and other terrestrial dynamics models historically used monthly meteorological forcing both to reduce computational demand and because global datasets were lacking. Recently, dynamic land surface modeling has moved towards resolving daily and subdaily processes, and global datasets containing daily and subdaily meteorology have become available. These meteorological datasets, however, cover only the instrumental era of the last approximately 120 years at best, are subject to considerable uncertainty, and represent extremely large data files with associated computational costs of data input/output and file transfer. For periods before the recent past or in the future, global meteorological forcing can be provided by climate model output, but the quality of these data at high temporal resolution is low, particularly for daily precipitation frequency and amount. Here, we present GWGEN, a globally applicable statistical weather generator for the temporal downscaling of monthly climatology to daily meteorology. Our weather generator is parameterized using a global meteorological database and simulates daily values of five common variables: minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation, cloud cover, and wind speed. GWGEN is lightweight, modular, and requires a minimal set of monthly mean variables as input. The weather generator may be used in a range of applications, for example, in global vegetation, crop, soil erosion, or hydrological models. While GWGEN does not currently perform spatially autocorrelated multi-point downscaling of daily weather, this additional functionality could be implemented in future versions.

  6. Using high resolution satellite multi-temporal interferometry for landslide hazard detection in tropical environments: the case of Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowski, Janusz; Nutricato, Raffaele; Nitti, Davide Oscar; Bovenga, Fabio; Chiaradia, Maria Teresa; Piard, Boby Emmanuel; Mondesir, Philemon

    2015-04-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) multi-temporal interferometry (MTI) is one of the most promising satellite-based remote sensing techniques for fostering new opportunities in landslide hazard detection and assessment. MTI is attractive because it can provide very precise quantitative information on slow slope displacements of the ground surface over huge areas with limited vegetation cover. Although MTI is a mature technique, we are only beginning to realize the benefits of the high-resolution imagery that is currently acquired by the new generation radar satellites (e.g., COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X). In this work we demonstrate the potential of high resolution X-band MTI for wide-area detection of slope instability hazards even in tropical environments that are typically very harsh (eg. coherence loss) for differential interferometry applications. This is done by presenting an example from the island of Haiti, a tropical region characterized by dense and rapidly growing vegetation, as well as by significant climatic variability (two rainy seasons) with intense precipitation events. Despite the unfavorable setting, MTI processing of nearly 100 COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) mages (2011-2013) resulted in the identification of numerous radar targets even in some rural (inhabited) areas thanks to the high resolution (3 m) of CSK radar imagery, the adoption of a patch wise processing SPINUA approach and the presence of many man-made structures dispersed in heavily vegetated terrain. In particular, the density of the targets resulted suitable for the detection of some deep-seated and shallower landslides, as well as localized, very slow slope deformations. The interpretation and widespread exploitation of high resolution MTI data was facilitated by Google EarthTM tools with the associated high resolution optical imagery. Furthermore, our reconnaissance in situ checks confirmed that MTI results provided useful information on landslides and marginally stable slopes that can represent a

  7. k-t PCA: temporally constrained k-t BLAST reconstruction using principal component analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Kozerke, Sebastian; Ringgaard, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    in applications exhibiting a broad range of temporal frequencies such as free-breathing myocardial perfusion imaging. We show that temporal basis functions calculated by subjecting the training data to principal component analysis (PCA) can be used to constrain the reconstruction such that the temporal resolution...... is improved. The presented method is called k-t PCA....

  8. Surgical anatomy of the temporal bone: an atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, L.L.; Manolidis, S.; Taber, K.H.; Hayman, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    This atlas demonstrates the usefulness of reconstructed high-resolution CT for planning temporal bone surgery. The first part focuses on a sagittal plane, the second on a rotated longitudinal plane, and the third on a rotated transverse plane. We believe knowledge of temporal bone anatomy in these planes facilitates surgical planning by showing anatomic relationships and providing a customized map for each patient. This decreases the likelihood of surgical mishap and improves teaching. (orig.)

  9. Three-dimensional measurement of temporal bone by using personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroki; Murata, Kiyotaka; Isono, Michio; Azuma, Hiroji; Itou, Akihiko

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of anatomical indices in human temporal bone has been reported only sporadically using high resolution CT. We developed a method for measuring such indices by computer assisted processing of images obtained by high resolusion CT. Intensive measurement of distances between all anatomical points in the entire temporal bone structure became possible with this method. (author)

  10. On temporal correlations in high-resolution frequency counting

    OpenAIRE

    Dunker, Tim; Hauglin, Harald; Rønningen, Ole Petter

    2016-01-01

    We analyze noise properties of time series of frequency data from different counting modes of a Keysight 53230A frequency counter. We use a 10 MHz reference signal from a passive hydrogen maser connected via phase-stable Huber+Suhner Sucoflex 104 cables to the reference and input connectors of the counter. We find that the high resolution gap-free (CONT) frequency counting process imposes long-term correlations in the output data, resulting in a modified Allan deviation that is characteristic...

  11. Initial results of a new generation dual source CT system using only an in-plane comb filter for ultra-high resolution temporal bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Mathias; Haubenreisser, Holger; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Henzler, Thomas; Raupach, Rainer; Schmidt, Bernhard; Leidecker, Christianne; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Lietzmann, Florian; Schad, Lothar R.

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate radiation dose and image quality of a third generation dual-source CT (DSCT) without z-axis filter behind the patient for temporal bone CT. Forty-five patients were either examined on a first, second, or third generation DSCT in an ultra-high-resolution (UHR) temporal bone-imaging mode. On the third generation DSCT system, the tighter focal spot of 0.2 mm 2 removesthe necessity for an additional z-axis-filter, leading to an improved z-axis radiation dose efficiency. Images of 0.4 mm were reconstructed using standard filtered-back-projection or iterative reconstruction (IR) technique for previous generations of DSCT and a novel IR algorithm for the third generation DSCT. Radiation dose and image quality were compared between the three DSCT systems. The statistically significantly highest subjective and objective image quality was evaluated for the third generation DSCT when compared to the first or second generation DSCT systems (all p < 0.05). Total effective dose was 63 %/39 % lower for the third generation examination as compared to the first and second generation DSCT. Temporal bone imaging without z-axis-UHR-filter and a novel third generation IR algorithm allows for significantly higher image quality while lowering effective dose when compared to the first two generations of DSCTs. (orig.)

  12. Video Super-Resolution via Bidirectional Recurrent Convolutional Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Liang

    2018-04-01

    Super resolving a low-resolution video, namely video super-resolution (SR), is usually handled by either single-image SR or multi-frame SR. Single-Image SR deals with each video frame independently, and ignores intrinsic temporal dependency of video frames which actually plays a very important role in video SR. Multi-Frame SR generally extracts motion information, e.g., optical flow, to model the temporal dependency, but often shows high computational cost. Considering that recurrent neural networks (RNNs) can model long-term temporal dependency of video sequences well, we propose a fully convolutional RNN named bidirectional recurrent convolutional network for efficient multi-frame SR. Different from vanilla RNNs, 1) the commonly-used full feedforward and recurrent connections are replaced with weight-sharing convolutional connections. So they can greatly reduce the large number of network parameters and well model the temporal dependency in a finer level, i.e., patch-based rather than frame-based, and 2) connections from input layers at previous timesteps to the current hidden layer are added by 3D feedforward convolutions, which aim to capture discriminate spatio-temporal patterns for short-term fast-varying motions in local adjacent frames. Due to the cheap convolutional operations, our model has a low computational complexity and runs orders of magnitude faster than other multi-frame SR methods. With the powerful temporal dependency modeling, our model can super resolve videos with complex motions and achieve well performance.

  13. Max CAPR: high-resolution 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography with acquisition times under 5 seconds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Clifton R; Borisch, Eric A; Glockner, James F; Mostardi, Petrice M; Rossman, Phillip J; Young, Phillip M; Riederer, Stephen J

    2010-10-01

    High temporal and spatial resolution is desired in imaging of vascular abnormalities having short arterial-to-venous transit times. Methods that exploit temporal correlation to reduce the observed frame time demonstrate temporal blurring, obfuscating bolus dynamics. Previously, a Cartesian acquisition with projection reconstruction-like (CAPR) sampling method has been demonstrated for three-dimensional contrast-enhanced angiographic imaging of the lower legs using two-dimensional sensitivity-encoding acceleration and partial Fourier acceleration, providing 1mm isotropic resolution of the calves, with 4.9-sec frame time and 17.6-sec temporal footprint. In this work, the CAPR acquisition is further undersampled to provide a net acceleration approaching 40 by eliminating all view sharing. The tradeoff of frame time and temporal footprint in view sharing is presented and characterized in phantom experiments. It is shown that the resultant 4.9-sec acquisition time, three-dimensional images sets have sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to clearly portray arterial and venous phases of contrast passage. It is further hypothesized that these short temporal footprint sequences provide diagnostic quality images. This is tested and shown in a series of nine contrast-enhanced MR angiography patient studies performed with the new method.

  14. Using high-resolution soil moisture modelling to assess the uncertainty of microwave remotely sensed soil moisture products at the correct spatial and temporal support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, N.; Karssenberg, D.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; Van Dam, J. C.; De Jong, S. M.

    2012-04-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable in the hydrological cycle and important in hydrological modelling. When assimilating soil moisture into flood forecasting models, the improvement of forecasting skills depends on the ability to accurately estimate the spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture content throughout the river basin. Space-borne remote sensing may provide this information with a high temporal and spatial resolution and with a global coverage. Currently three microwave soil moisture products are available: AMSR-E, ASCAT and SMOS. The quality of these satellite-based products is often assessed by comparing them with in-situ observations of soil moisture. This comparison is however hampered by the difference in spatial and temporal support (i.e., resolution, scale), because the spatial resolution of microwave satellites is rather low compared to in-situ field measurements. Thus, the aim of this study is to derive a method to assess the uncertainty of microwave satellite soil moisture products at the correct spatial support. To overcome the difference in support size between in-situ soil moisture observations and remote sensed soil moisture, we used a stochastic, distributed unsaturated zone model (SWAP, van Dam (2000)) that is upscaled to the support of different satellite products. A detailed assessment of the SWAP model uncertainty is included to ensure that the uncertainty in satellite soil moisture is not overestimated due to an underestimation of the model uncertainty. We simulated unsaturated water flow up to a depth of 1.5m with a vertical resolution of 1 to 10 cm and on a horizontal grid of 1 km2 for the period Jan 2010 - Jun 2011. The SWAP model was first calibrated and validated on in-situ data of the REMEDHUS soil moisture network (Spain). Next, to evaluate the satellite products, the model was run for areas in the proximity of 79 meteorological stations in Spain, where model results were aggregated to the correct support of the satellite

  15. High Resolution Spatio Temporal Moments Analysis of Solute Migration Captured using Pre-clinical Medical Imaging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, M.; Moysey, S. M.; Powell, B. A.; DeVol, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in medical imaging technologies are continuously expanding the range of applications enabled within the earth sciences. While computed x-ray tomography (CT) scans have traditionally been used for investigating the structure of geologic materials, it is now possible to perform 3D time-lapse imaging of dynamic processes, such as monitoring the infiltration of water into a soil, with sub-millimeter resolution. Likewise, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide information on the evolution of solute transport with spatial resolution on the order of a millimeter by tracking the migration of gamma-ray emitting isotopes like 99mTc and 111In. While these imaging techniques are revolutionizing our ability to look within porous media, techniques for the analysis of such rich and large data sets are limited. The spatial and temporal moments of a plume have long been used to provide quantitative measures to describe plume movement in a wide range of settings from the lab to field. Moment analysis can also be used to estimate the hydrologic properties of the porous media. In this research, we investigate the use of moments for analyzing a high resolution 4D SPECT data set collected during a 99mTc transport experiment performed in a heterogeneous column. The 4D nature of the data set makes it amenable to the use of data mining and pattern recognition methods, such as cluster analysis, to identify regions or zones within the data that exhibit abnormal or unexpected behaviors. We then compare anomalous features within the SPECT data to similar features identified within the CT image to relate the flow behavior to pore-scale structures, such as porosity differences and macropores. Such comparisons help to identify whether these features are good predictors of preferential transport. Likewise, we evaluate whether local analysis of moments can be used to infer apparent parameters governing non-conservative transport in a heterogeneous porous media, such

  16. Development of High Resolution Data for Irrigated Area and Cropping Patterns in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    K a, A.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Information of crop phenology and its individual effect on irrigation is essential to improve the simulation of land surface states and fluxes. We use moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) - Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) at 250 m resolution for monitoring temporal changes in irrigation and cropping patterns in India. We used the obtained dataset of cropping pattern for quantifying the effect of irrigation on land surface states and fluxes by using an uncoupled land surface model. The cropping patterns are derived by using the planting, heading, harvesting, and growing dates for each agro-ecological zone separately. Moreover, we developed a high resolution irrigated area maps for the period of 1999-2014 for India. The high resolution irrigated area was compared with relatively coarse resolution (~ 10km) irrigated area from the Food and Agricultural Organization. To identify the seasonal effects we analyzed the spatial and temporal change of irrigation and cropping pattern for different temporal seasons. The new irrigation area information along with cropping pattern was used to study the water budget in India using the Noah Land surface Model (Noah LSM) for the period of 1999-2014.

  17. Per-Pixel Coded Exposure for High-Speed and High-Resolution Imaging Using a Digital Micromirror Device Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Feng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High-speed photography is an important tool for studying rapid physical phenomena. However, low-frame-rate CCD (charge coupled device or CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor camera cannot effectively capture the rapid phenomena with high-speed and high-resolution. In this paper, we incorporate the hardware restrictions of existing image sensors, design the sampling functions, and implement a hardware prototype with a digital micromirror device (DMD camera in which spatial and temporal information can be flexibly modulated. Combined with the optical model of DMD camera, we theoretically analyze the per-pixel coded exposure and propose a three-element median quicksort method to increase the temporal resolution of the imaging system. Theoretically, this approach can rapidly increase the temporal resolution several, or even hundreds, of times without increasing bandwidth requirements of the camera. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method via extensive examples and achieve 100 fps (frames per second gain in temporal resolution by using a 25 fps camera.

  18. MAPSM: A Spatio-Temporal Algorithm for Merging Soil Moisture from Active and Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sat Kumar Tomer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability of soil moisture observations at a high spatial and temporal resolution is a prerequisite for various hydrological, agricultural and meteorological applications. In the current study, a novel algorithm for merging soil moisture from active microwave (SAR and passive microwave is presented. The MAPSM algorithm—Merge Active and Passive microwave Soil Moisture—uses a spatio-temporal approach based on the concept of the Water Change Capacity (WCC which represents the amplitude and direction of change in the soil moisture at the fine spatial resolution. The algorithm is applied and validated during a period of 3 years spanning from 2010 to 2013 over the Berambadi watershed which is located in a semi-arid tropical region in the Karnataka state of south India. Passive microwave products are provided from ESA Level 2 soil moisture products derived from Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS satellite (3 days temporal resolution and 40 km nominal spatial resolution. Active microwave are based on soil moisture retrievals from 30 images of RADARSAT-2 data (24 days temporal resolution and 20 m spatial resolution. The results show that MAPSM is able to provide a good estimate of soil moisture at a spatial resolution of 500 m with an RMSE of 0.025 m3/m3 and 0.069 m3/m3 when comparing it to soil moisture from RADARSAT-2 and in-situ measurements, respectively. The use of Sentinel-1 and RISAT products in MAPSM algorithm is envisioned over other areas where high number of revisits is available. This will need an update of the algorithm to take into account the angle sampling and resolution of Sentinel-1 and RISAT data.

  19. Advanced diagnosis of the temporal characteristics of ultra-short electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Yuji

    2011-05-01

    Monitoring the temporal structure of an ultra-short electron beam is an indispensable function in order to tune a machine to obtain a highly qualified beam for a recent sophisticated accelerator, such as an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL), and to maintain stable X-ray laser operation. For this purpose, various instruments, such as an HEM11-mode RF beam deflector (RFDEF), a screen monitor (SCM), an electro-optic (EO) sampling method that uses a ZnTe crystal, and a beam position monitor (BPM) have been developed. The SCM that is used to observe the deflected beam image has a position resolution of 2.5 μm, which corresponds to a temporal resolution of 0.5 fs and it is installed at a position 5 m downstream from the RFDEF. The EO sampling method showed the ability to observe an electron bunch length for up to 300 fs (FWHM) at the SCSS test accelerator. The phase reference cavity of the BPM has an additional function of providing beam arrival timing information. A test for the BPM showed temporal fluctuation of 46 fs on the beam arrival timing at the test accelerator. These monitors with high temporal resolutions allow us to achieve the fine beam tuning demanded for the XFEL. The above-mentioned activities are described in this paper as a review article.

  20. Advanced diagnosis of the temporal characteristics of ultra-short electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring the temporal structure of an ultra-short electron beam is an indispensable function in order to tune a machine to obtain a highly qualified beam for a recent sophisticated accelerator, such as an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL), and to maintain stable X-ray laser operation. For this purpose, various instruments, such as an HEM11-mode RF beam deflector (RFDEF), a screen monitor (SCM), an electro-optic (EO) sampling method that uses a ZnTe crystal, and a beam position monitor (BPM) have been developed. The SCM that is used to observe the deflected beam image has a position resolution of 2.5 μm, which corresponds to a temporal resolution of 0.5 fs and it is installed at a position 5 m downstream from the RFDEF. The EO sampling method showed the ability to observe an electron bunch length for up to 300 fs (FWHM) at the SCSS test accelerator. The phase reference cavity of the BPM has an additional function of providing beam arrival timing information. A test for the BPM showed temporal fluctuation of 46 fs on the beam arrival timing at the test accelerator. These monitors with high temporal resolutions allow us to achieve the fine beam tuning demanded for the XFEL. The above-mentioned activities are described in this paper as a review article.

  1. Network-derived inhomogeneity in monthly rainfall analyses over western Tasmania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, Robert; Trewin, Blair; Barnes-Keoghan, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Monthly rainfall in the wetter western half of Tasmania was relatively poorly observed in the early to middle parts of the 20th century, and this causes a marked inhomogeneity in the operational gridded monthly rainfall analyses generated by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology up until the end of 2009. These monthly rainfall analyses were generated for the period 1900 to 2009 in two forms; a national analysis at 0.25 0 latitude-longitude resolution, and a southeastern Australia regional analysis at 0.1 0 resolution. For any given month, they used all the monthly data from the standard Bureau rainfall gauge network available in the Australian Data Archive for Meteorology. Since this network has changed markedly since Federation (1901), there is obvious scope for network-derived inhomogeneities in the analyses. In this study, we show that the topography-resolving techniques of the new Australian Water Availability Project analyses, adopted as the official operational analyses from the start of 2010, substantially diminish those inhomogeneities, while using largely the same observation network. One result is an improved characterisation of recent rainfall declines across Tasmania. The new analyses are available at two resolutions, 0.25 0 and 0.05 0 .

  2. Monthly gravity field solutions based on GRACE observations generated with the Celestial Mechanics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ulrich; Jäggi, Adrian; Beutler, Gerhard

    2012-09-01

    The main objective of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission consists of determining the temporal variations of the Earth's gravity field. These variations are captured by time series of gravity field models of limited resolution at, e.g., monthly intervals. We present a new time series of monthly models, which was computed with the so-called Celestial Mechanics Approach (CMA), developed at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB). The secular and seasonal variations in the monthly models are tested for statistical significance. Calibrated errors are derived from inter-annual variations. The time-variable signal can be extracted at least up to degree 60, but the gravity field coefficients of orders above 45 are heavily contaminated by noise. This is why a series of monthly models is computed up to a maximum degree of 60, but only a maximum order of 45. Spectral analysis of the residual time-variable signal shows a distinctive peak at a period of 160 days, which shows up in particular in the C20 spherical harmonic coefficient. Basic filter- and scaling-techniques are introduced to evaluate the monthly models. For this purpose, the variability over the oceans is investigated, which serves as a measure for the noisiness of the models. The models in selected regions show the expected seasonal and secular variations, which are in good agreement with the monthly models of the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). The results also reveal a few small outliers, illustrating the necessity for improved data screening. Our monthly models are available at the web page of the International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM).

  3. High Temporal Resolution Mapping of Seismic Noise Sources Using Heterogeneous Supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paitz, P.; Gokhberg, A.; Ermert, L. A.; Fichtner, A.

    2017-12-01

    The time- and space-dependent distribution of seismic noise sources is becoming a key ingredient of modern real-time monitoring of various geo-systems like earthquake fault zones, volcanoes, geothermal and hydrocarbon reservoirs. We present results of an ongoing research project conducted in collaboration with the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre (CSCS). The project aims at building a service providing seismic noise source maps for Central Europe with high temporal resolution. We use source imaging methods based on the cross-correlation of seismic noise records from all seismic stations available in the region of interest. The service is hosted on the CSCS computing infrastructure; all computationally intensive processing is performed on the massively parallel heterogeneous supercomputer "Piz Daint". The solution architecture is based on the Application-as-a-Service concept to provide the interested researchers worldwide with regular access to the noise source maps. The solution architecture includes the following sub-systems: (1) data acquisition responsible for collecting, on a periodic basis, raw seismic records from the European seismic networks, (2) high-performance noise source mapping application responsible for the generation of source maps using cross-correlation of seismic records, (3) back-end infrastructure for the coordination of various tasks and computations, (4) front-end Web interface providing the service to the end-users and (5) data repository. The noise source mapping itself rests on the measurement of logarithmic amplitude ratios in suitably pre-processed noise correlations, and the use of simplified sensitivity kernels. During the implementation we addressed various challenges, in particular, selection of data sources and transfer protocols, automation and monitoring of daily data downloads, ensuring the required data processing performance, design of a general service-oriented architecture for coordination of various sub-systems, and

  4. Towards understanding temporal and spatial dynamics of seagrass landscapes using time-series remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Mitchell B.; Roelfsema, Chris M.; Phinn, Stuart R.

    2013-03-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of seagrasses have been well studied at the leaf to patch scales, however, the link to large spatial extent landscape and population dynamics is still unresolved in seagrass ecology. Traditional remote sensing approaches have lacked the temporal resolution and consistency to appropriately address this issue. This study uses two high temporal resolution time-series of thematic seagrass cover maps to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of seagrass at both an inter- and intra-annual time scales, one of the first globally to do so at this scale. Previous work by the authors developed an object-based approach to map seagrass cover level distribution from a long term archive of Landsat TM and ETM+ images on the Eastern Banks (≈200 km2), Moreton Bay, Australia. In this work a range of trend and time-series analysis methods are demonstrated for a time-series of 23 annual maps from 1988 to 2010 and a time-series of 16 monthly maps during 2008-2010. Significant new insight was presented regarding the inter- and intra-annual dynamics of seagrass persistence over time, seagrass cover level variability, seagrass cover level trajectory, and change in area of seagrass and cover levels over time. Overall we found that there was no significant decline in total seagrass area on the Eastern Banks, but there was a significant decline in seagrass cover level condition. A case study of two smaller communities within the Eastern Banks that experienced a decline in both overall seagrass area and condition are examined in detail, highlighting possible differences in environmental and process drivers. We demonstrate how trend and time-series analysis enabled seagrass distribution to be appropriately assessed in context of its spatial and temporal history and provides the ability to not only quantify change, but also describe the type of change. We also demonstrate the potential use of time-series analysis products to investigate seagrass growth and

  5. Reconstruction of conductivity changes and electrode movements based on EIT temporal sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Tao; Gómez-Laberge, Camille; Adler, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) reconstructs a conductivity change image within a body from electrical measurements on the body surface; while it has relatively low spatial resolution, it has a high temporal resolution. One key difficulty with EIT measurements is due to the movement and position uncertainty of the electrodes, especially due to breathing and posture change. In this paper, we develop an approach to reconstruct both the conductivity change image and the electrode movements from the temporal sequence of EIT measurements. Since both the conductivity change and electrode movement are slow with respect to the data frame rate, there are significant temporal correlations which we formulate as priors for the regularized image reconstruction model. Image reconstruction is posed in terms of a regularization matrix and a Jacobian matrix which are augmented for the conductivity change and electrode movement, and then further augmented to concatenate the d previous and future frames. Results are shown for simulation, phantom and human data, and show that the proposed algorithm yields improved resolution and noise performance in comparison to a conventional one-step reconstruction method

  6. Temporal Change of Seismic Earth's Inner Core Phases: Inner Core Differential Rotation Or Temporal Change of Inner Core Surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, J.; Tian, D.; Sun, L.; Wen, L.

    2017-12-01

    Since Song and Richards [1996] first reported seismic evidence for temporal change of PKIKP wave (a compressional wave refracted in the inner core) and proposed inner core differential rotation as its explanation, it has generated enormous interests in the scientific community and the public, and has motivated many studies on the implications of the inner core differential rotation. However, since Wen [2006] reported seismic evidence for temporal change of PKiKP wave (a compressional wave reflected from the inner core boundary) that requires temporal change of inner core surface, both interpretations for the temporal change of inner core phases have existed, i.e., inner core rotation and temporal change of inner core surface. In this study, we discuss the issue of the interpretation of the observed temporal changes of those inner core phases and conclude that inner core differential rotation is not only not required but also in contradiction with three lines of seismic evidence from global repeating earthquakes. Firstly, inner core differential rotation provides an implausible explanation for a disappearing inner core scatterer between a doublet in South Sandwich Islands (SSI), which is located to be beneath northern Brazil based on PKIKP and PKiKP coda waves of the earlier event of the doublet. Secondly, temporal change of PKIKP and its coda waves among a cluster in SSI is inconsistent with the interpretation of inner core differential rotation, with one set of the data requiring inner core rotation and the other requiring non-rotation. Thirdly, it's not reasonable to invoke inner core differential rotation to explain travel time change of PKiKP waves in a very small time scale (several months), which is observed for repeating earthquakes in Middle America subduction zone. On the other hand, temporal change of inner core surface could provide a consistent explanation for all the observed temporal changes of PKIKP and PKiKP and their coda waves. We conclude that

  7. Probabilistic global maps of the CO2 column at daily and monthly scales from sparse satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Frédéric; Broquet, Grégoire; Pierangelo, Clémence; Crisp, David

    2017-07-01

    The column-average dry air-mole fraction of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (XCO2) is measured by scattered satellite measurements like those from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2). We show that global continuous maps of XCO2 (corresponding to level 3 of the satellite data) at daily or coarser temporal resolution can be inferred from these data with a Kalman filter built on a model of persistence. Our application of this approach on 2 years of OCO-2 retrievals indicates that the filter provides better information than a climatology of XCO2 at both daily and monthly scales. Provided that the assigned observation uncertainty statistics are tuned in each grid cell of the XCO2 maps from an objective method (based on consistency diagnostics), the errors predicted by the filter at daily and monthly scales represent the true error statistics reasonably well, except for a bias in the high latitudes of the winter hemisphere and a lack of resolution (i.e., a too small discrimination skill) of the predicted error standard deviations. Due to the sparse satellite sampling, the broad-scale patterns of XCO2 described by the filter seem to lag behind the real signals by a few weeks. Finally, the filter offers interesting insights into the quality of the retrievals, both in terms of random and systematic errors.

  8. High-Spatial- and High-Temporal-Resolution Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MR Breast Imaging with Sweep Imaging with Fourier Transformation: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John C.; Idiyatullin, Djaudat; Snyder, Angela L.; Snyder, Carl J.; Hutter, Diane; Everson, Lenore I.; Eberly, Lynn E.; Nelson, Michael T.; Garwood, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the results of sweep imaging with Fourier transformation (SWIFT) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for diagnostic breast imaging. Materials and Methods Informed consent was obtained from all participants under one of two institutional review board–approved, HIPAA-compliant protocols. Twelve female patients (age range, 19–54 years; mean age, 41.2 years) and eight normal control subjects (age range, 22–56 years; mean age, 43.2 years) enrolled and completed the study from January 28, 2011, to March 5, 2013. Patients had previous lesions that were Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 4 and 5 based on mammography and/or ultrasonographic imaging. Contrast-enhanced SWIFT imaging was completed by using a 4-T research MR imaging system. Noncontrast studies were completed in the normal control subjects. One of two sized single-breast SWIFT-compatible transceiver coils was used for nine patients and five controls. Three patients and five control subjects used a SWIFT-compatible dual breast coil. Temporal resolution was 5.9–7.5 seconds. Spatial resolution was 1.00 mm isotropic, with later examinations at 0.67 mm isotropic, and dual breast at 1.00 mm or 0.75 mm isotropic resolution. Results Two nonblinded breast radiologists reported SWIFT image findings of normal breast tissue, benign fibroadenomas (six of six lesions), and malignant lesions (10 of 12 lesions) concordant with other imaging modalities and pathologic reports. Two lesions in two patients were not visualized because of coil field of view. The images yielded by SWIFT showed the presence and extent of known breast lesions. Conclusion The SWIFT technique could become an important addition to breast imaging modalities because it provides high spatial resolution at all points during the dynamic contrast-enhanced examination. © RSNA, 2014 PMID:25247405

  9. Global monthly water stress: II. Water demand and severity of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Beek, L.P.H. van; Viviroli, D.; Dürr, H.H.; Weingartner, R.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses global water stress at a finer temporal scale compared to conventional assessments. To calculate time series of global water stress at a monthly time scale, global water availability, as obtained from simulations of monthly river discharge from the companion paper, is confronted

  10. Long-Term Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) at High Spatial and Temporal Resolution over CONUS: Bias-Adjustment of the Radar-Only National Mosaic and Multi-sensor QPE (NMQ/Q2) Precipitation Reanalysis (2001-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Olivier; Nelson, Brian; Stevens, Scott; Seo, Dong-Jun; Kim, Beomgeun

    2015-04-01

    The processing of radar-only precipitation via the reanalysis from the National Mosaic and Multi-Sensor Quantitative (NMQ/Q2) based on the WSR-88D Next-generation Radar (NEXRAD) network over Continental United States (CONUS) is completed for the period covering from 2001 to 2012. This important milestone constitutes a unique opportunity to study precipitation processes at a 1-km spatial resolution for a 5-min temporal resolution. However, in order to be suitable for hydrological, meteorological and climatological applications, the radar-only product needs to be bias-adjusted and merged with in-situ rain gauge information. Several in-situ datasets are available to assess the biases of the radar-only product and to adjust for those biases to provide a multi-sensor QPE. The rain gauge networks that are used such as the Global Historical Climatology Network-Daily (GHCN-D), the Hydrometeorological Automated Data System (HADS), the Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS), and the Climate Reference Network (CRN), have different spatial density and temporal resolution. The challenges related to incorporating non-homogeneous networks over a vast area and for a long-term record are enormous. Among the challenges we are facing are the difficulties incorporating differing resolution and quality surface measurements to adjust gridded estimates of precipitation. Another challenge is the type of adjustment technique. The objective of this work is threefold. First, we investigate how the different in-situ networks can impact the precipitation estimates as a function of the spatial density, sensor type, and temporal resolution. Second, we assess conditional and un-conditional biases of the radar-only QPE for various time scales (daily, hourly, 5-min) using in-situ precipitation observations. Finally, after assessing the bias and applying reduction or elimination techniques, we are using a unique in-situ dataset merging the different RG networks (CRN, ASOS, HADS, GHCN-D) to

  11. Temporal relationship between climate variability, Prosopis juliflora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data derived from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250 m satellite imageries for 2000 to 2014 were used to determine the temporal dynamics of P. juliflora invasion in the study area. Both temperature and rainfall trends showed marked variability over ...

  12. Super-resolution optical microscopy for studying membrane structure and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Erdinc

    2017-07-12

    Investigation of cell membrane structure and dynamics requires high spatial and temporal resolution. The spatial resolution of conventional light microscopy is limited due to the diffraction of light. However, recent developments in microscopy enabled us to access the nano-scale regime spatially, thus to elucidate the nanoscopic structures in the cellular membranes. In this review, we will explain the resolution limit, address the working principles of the most commonly used super-resolution microscopy techniques and summarise their recent applications in the biomembrane field.

  13. A fast, noniterative approach for accelerated high-temporal resolution cine-CMR using dynamically interleaved streak removal in the power-spectral encoded domain with low-pass filtering (DISPEL) and modulo-prime spokes (MoPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaji, Keigo; Patel, Mita B; Cantrell, Charles G; Tanaka, Akiko; Marino, Marco; Tamura, Satoshi; Wang, Hui; Wang, Yi; Carroll, Timothy J; Ota, Takeyoshi; Patel, Amit R

    2017-07-01

    To introduce a pair of accelerated non-Cartesian acquisition principles that when combined, exploit the periodicity of k-space acquisition, and thereby enable acquisition of high-temporal cine Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR). The mathematical formulation of a noniterative, undersampled non-Cartesian cine acquisition and reconstruction is presented. First, a low-pass filtering step that exploits streaking artifact redundancy is provided (i.e., Dynamically Interleaved Streak removal in the Power-spectrum Encoded domain with Low-pass filtering [DISPEL]). Next, an effective radial acquisition for the DISPEL approach that exploits the property of prime numbers is described (i.e., Modulo-Prime Spoke [MoPS]). Both DISPEL and MoPS are examined using numerical simulation of a digital heart phantom to show that high-temporal cine-CMR is feasible without removing physiologic motion vs aperiodic interleaving using Golden Angles. The combined high-temporal cine approach is next examined in 11 healthy subjects for a time-volume curve assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic performance vs conventional Cartesian cine-CMR reference. The DISPEL method was first shown using simulation under different streak cycles to allow separation of undersampled radial streaking artifacts from physiologic motion with a sufficiently frequent streak-cycle interval. Radial interleaving with MoPS is next shown to allow interleaves with pseudo-Golden-Angle variants, and be more compatible with DISPEL against irrational and nonperiodic rotation angles, including the Golden-Angle-derived rotations. In the in vivo data, the proposed method showed no statistical difference in the systolic performance, while diastolic parameters sensitive to the cine's temporal resolution were statistically significant (P cine). We demonstrate a high-temporal resolution cine-CMR using DISPEL and MoPS, whose streaking artifact was separated from physiologic motion. © 2017 American Association of Physicists

  14. Estimating Gross Primary Production in Cropland with High Spatial and Temporal Scale Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S.; Li, J.; Liu, Q.

    2018-04-01

    Satellite remote sensing data provide spatially continuous and temporally repetitive observations of land surfaces, and they have become increasingly important for monitoring large region of vegetation photosynthetic dynamic. But remote sensing data have their limitation on spatial and temporal scale, for example, higher spatial resolution data as Landsat data have 30-m spatial resolution but 16 days revisit period, while high temporal scale data such as geostationary data have 30-minute imaging period, which has lower spatial resolution (> 1 km). The objective of this study is to investigate whether combining high spatial and temporal resolution remote sensing data can improve the gross primary production (GPP) estimation accuracy in cropland. For this analysis we used three years (from 2010 to 2012) Landsat based NDVI data, MOD13 vegetation index product and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) geostationary data as input parameters to estimate GPP in a small region cropland of Nebraska, US. Then we validated the remote sensing based GPP with the in-situ measurement carbon flux data. Results showed that: 1) the overall correlation between GOES visible band and in-situ measurement photosynthesis active radiation (PAR) is about 50 % (R2 = 0.52) and the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim reanalysis data can explain 64 % of PAR variance (R2 = 0.64); 2) estimating GPP with Landsat 30-m spatial resolution data and ERA daily meteorology data has the highest accuracy(R2 = 0.85, RMSE MODIS 1-km NDVI/EVI product import; 3) using daily meteorology data as input for GPP estimation in high spatial resolution data would have higher relevance than 8-day and 16-day input. Generally speaking, using the high spatial resolution and high frequency satellite based remote sensing data can improve GPP estimation accuracy in cropland.

  15. Temporal hypometabolism at the onset of cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matheja, P.; Kuwert, T.; Weckesser, M.; Schober, O. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster Univ. (Germany); Luedemann, P.; Kellinghaus, C.; Diehl, B.; Ringelstein, E.B. [Dept. of Neurology, Muenster Univ. (Germany); Schuierer, G. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Muenster Univ. (Germany)

    2001-05-01

    Most patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) exhibit temporal glucose hypometabolism. The reasons for the development of this abnormality are as yet unclear. The current notion is that an initial injury causes seizures, which in turn give rise to hypometabolism. The aim of this study was to assess whether temporal reductions in glucose metabolism in non-lesional TLE are the result of repeated seizures or whether hypometabolism represents an initial disturbance at the onset of disease. Glucose consumption was assessed with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET) in 62 patients with cryptogenic non-refractory TLE in different stages of disease. Twelve subjects without neurological illness served as controls. Patients with onset of epilepsy at least 3 years prior to the PET scan were defined as having chronic TLE. Using this criterion, the whole patient cohort included 27 patients with de novo TLE and 35 patients with chronic TLE. The groups were matched for age and sex. The appearance of high-resolution magnetic resonance images of the brain was unremarkable in all patients. In the total cohort, number, duration and frequency of seizures had a significant relation to the magnitude of hypometabolism. Temporal hypometabolism was exhibited by 26 of the 62 patients (42%), including 8 out of 27 (30%) with newly diagnosed TLE and 18 out of 35 (51%) with chronic TLE. The disturbances were more extensive and more severe in patients with chronic TLE. It is concluded that temporal hypometabolism may already be present at the onset of TLE, but is less frequent and less severe in newly diagnosed than in chronic TLE. The metabolic disturbance correlates with the number of seizures. These findings suggest that an initial dysfunction is present in a considerable number of patients and that hypometabolism is worsened by continuing epileptic activity. (orig.)

  16. Surgery in temporal lobe epilepsy patients without cranial MRI lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomceli, Y B; Erdem, A; Bilir, E; Kutlu, G; Kurt, S; Erden, E; Karatas, A; Erbas, C; Serdaroglu, A

    2006-03-01

    High resolution MRI is very important in the evaluations of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy in preoperative investigations. Morphologic abnormalities on cranial MRI usually indicate the epileptogenic focus. Intractable TLE patients who have normal cranial MRI or bilateral hippocampal atrophy may have a chance for surgery if a certain epileptogenic focus is determined. We evaluated the patients who were monitorized in Gazi University Medical Faculty Epilepsy Center from October 1997 to April 2004. Seventy three patients, who had a temporal epileptogenic focus, underwent anterior temporal lobectomy at Ankara University Medical Faculty Department of Neurosurgery. Twelve of them (16, 4%), did not have any localizing structural lesion on cranial MRI. Of the 12 patients examined 6 had normal findings and 6 had bilateral hippocampal atrophy. Of these 12 patients, 6 (50%) were women and 6 (50%) were men. The ages of patients ranged from 7 to 37 (mean: 24.5). Preoperatively long-term scalp video-EEG monitoring, cranial MRI, neuropsychological tests, and Wada test were applied in all patients. Five patients, whose investigations resulted in conflicting data, underwent invasive monitoring by the use of subdural strips. The seizure outcome of patients were classified according to Engel with postsurgical follow-up ranging from 11 to 52 (median: 35.7) months. Nine patients (75%) were classified into Engel's Class I and the other 3 patients (25%) were placed into Engel's Class II. One patient who was classified into Engel's Class II had additional psychiatric problems. The other patient had two different epileptogenic foci independent from each other in her ictal EEG. One of them localized in the right anterior temporal area, the other was in the right frontal lobe. She was classified in Engel's Class II and had no seizure originating from temporal epileptic focus, but few seizures originating from the frontal region continued after the surgery. In conclusion

  17. On Space-Time Resolution of Inflow Representations for Wind Turbine Loads Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance Manuel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficient spatial and temporal resolution of simulated inflow wind fields is important in order to represent wind turbine dynamics and derive load statistics for design. Using Fourier-based stochastic simulation of inflow turbulence, we first investigate loads for a utility-scale turbine in the neutral atmospheric boundary layer. Load statistics, spectra, and wavelet analysis representations for different space and time resolutions are compared. Next, large-eddy simulation (LES is employed with space-time resolutions, justified on the basis of the earlier stochastic simulations, to again derive turbine loads. Extreme and fatigue loads from the two approaches used in inflow field generation are compared. On the basis of simulation studies carried out for three different wind speeds in the turbine’s operating range, it is shown that inflow turbulence described using 10-meter spatial resolution and 1 Hz temporal resolution is adequate for assessing turbine loads. Such studies on the investigation of adequate filtering or resolution of inflow wind fields help to establish efficient strategies for LES and other physical or stochastic simulation needed in turbine loads studies.

  18. Resolution enhancement in neural networks with dynamical synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Alan Fung

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, information is represented by spike rates in the neural system. Here, we consider the ability of temporally modulated activities in neuronal networks to carry information extra to spike rates. These temporal modulations, commonly known as population spikes, are due to the presence of synaptic depression in a neuronal network model. We discuss its relevance to an experiment on transparent motions in macaque monkeys by Treue et al. in 2000. They found that if the moving directions of objects are too close, the firing rate profile will be very similar to that with one direction. As the difference in the moving directions of objects is large enough, the neuronal system would respond in such a way that the network enhances the resolution in the moving directions of the objects. In this paper, we propose that this behavior can be reproduced by neural networks with dynamical synapses when there are multiple external inputs. We will demonstrate how resolution enhancement can be achieved, and discuss the conditions under which temporally modulated activities are able to enhance information processing performances in general.

  19. Early detection of tuberculosis outbreaks among the San Francisco homeless: trade-offs between spatial resolution and temporal scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon W Higgs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: San Francisco has the highest rate of tuberculosis (TB in the U.S. with recurrent outbreaks among the homeless and marginally housed. It has been shown for syndromic data that when exact geographic coordinates of individual patients are used as the spatial base for outbreak detection, higher detection rates and accuracy are achieved compared to when data are aggregated into administrative regions such as zip codes and census tracts. We examine the effect of varying the spatial resolution in the TB data within the San Francisco homeless population on detection sensitivity, timeliness, and the amount of historical data needed to achieve better performance measures. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We apply a variation of space-time permutation scan statistic to the TB data in which a patient's location is either represented by its exact coordinates or by the centroid of its census tract. We show that the detection sensitivity and timeliness of the method generally improve when exact locations are used to identify real TB outbreaks. When outbreaks are simulated, while the detection timeliness is consistently improved when exact coordinates are used, the detection sensitivity varies depending on the size of the spatial scanning window and the number of tracts in which cases are simulated. Finally, we show that when exact locations are used, smaller amount of historical data is required for training the model. CONCLUSION: Systematic characterization of the spatio-temporal distribution of TB cases can widely benefit real time surveillance and guide public health investigations of TB outbreaks as to what level of spatial resolution results in improved detection sensitivity and timeliness. Trading higher spatial resolution for better performance is ultimately a tradeoff between maintaining patient confidentiality and improving public health when sharing data. Understanding such tradeoffs is critical to managing the complex interplay between public

  20. Effects of dynamic-range compression on temporal acuity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiinberg, Alan; Jepsen, Morten Løve; Epp, Bastian

    2016-01-01

    Some of the challenges that hearing-aid listeners experience with speech perception in complex acoustic environments may originate from limitations in the temporal processing of sounds. To systematically investigate the influence of hearing impairment and hearing-aid signal processing on temporal...... processing, temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) and “supra-threshold” modulation-depth discrimination (MDD) thresholds were obtained in normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners with and without wide-dynamic range compression (WDRC). The TMTFs were obtained using tonal carriers of 1...... with the physical compression of the modulation depth due to the WDRC. Indications of reduced temporal resolution in the HI listeners were observed in the TMTF patterns for the 5 kHz carrier. Significantly higher MDD thresholds were found for the HI group relative to the NH group. No relationship was found between...

  1. Object-Based Paddy Rice Mapping Using HJ-1A/B Data and Temporal Features Extracted from Time Series MODIS NDVI Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Mrinal; Wu, Bingfang; Zhang, Miao

    2016-12-22

    Accurate and timely mapping of paddy rice is vital for food security and environmental sustainability. This study evaluates the utility of temporal features extracted from coarse resolution data for object-based paddy rice classification of fine resolution data. The coarse resolution vegetation index data is first fused with the fine resolution data to generate the time series fine resolution data. Temporal features are extracted from the fused data and added with the multi-spectral data to improve the classification accuracy. Temporal features provided the crop growth information, while multi-spectral data provided the pattern variation of paddy rice. The achieved overall classification accuracy and kappa coefficient were 84.37% and 0.68, respectively. The results indicate that the use of temporal features improved the overall classification accuracy of a single-date multi-spectral image by 18.75% from 65.62% to 84.37%. The minimum sensitivity (MS) of the paddy rice classification has also been improved. The comparison showed that the mapped paddy area was analogous to the agricultural statistics at the district level. This work also highlighted the importance of feature selection to achieve higher classification accuracies. These results demonstrate the potential of the combined use of temporal and spectral features for accurate paddy rice classification.

  2. Allometric and temporal scaling of movement characteristics in Galapagos tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Yackulic, Charles B.; Frair, Jacqueline L.; Cabrera, Freddy; Blake, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how individual movement scales with body size is of fundamental importance in predicting ecological relationships for diverse species. One-dimensional movement metrics scale consistently with body size yet vary over different temporal scales. Knowing how temporal scale influences the relationship between animal body size and movement would better inform hypotheses about the efficiency of foraging behaviour, the ontogeny of energy budgets, and numerous life-history trade-offs.We investigated how the temporal scaling of allometric patterns in movement varies over the course of a year, specifically during periods of motivated (directional and fast movement) and unmotivated (stationary and tortuous movement) behaviour. We focused on a recently diverged group of species that displays wide variation in movement behaviour – giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) – to test how movement metrics estimated on a monthly basis scaled with body size.We used state-space modelling to estimate seven different movement metrics of Galapagos tortoises. We used log-log regression of the power law to evaluate allometric scaling for these movement metrics and contrasted relationships by species and sex.Allometric scaling of movement was more apparent during motivated periods of movement. During this period, allometry was revealed at multiple temporal intervals (hourly, daily and monthly), with values observed at daily and monthly intervals corresponding most closely to the expected one-fourth scaling coefficient, albeit with wide credible intervals. We further detected differences in the magnitude of scaling among taxa uncoupled from observed differences in the temporal structuring of their movement rates.Our results indicate that the definition of temporal scales is fundamental to the detection of allometry of movement and should be given more attention in movement studies. Our approach not only provides new conceptual insights into temporal attributes in one

  3. The role of temporal resolution in modulation-based speech segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; Bentsen, Thomas; Dau, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    speech and noise activity on the basis of individual time-frequency (T-F) units. One important parameter of the segregation system is the window duration of the analysis-synthesis stage, which determines the lower limit of modulation frequencies that can be represented but also the temporal acuity...... with which the segregation system can manipulate individual T-F units. To clarify the consequences of this trade-off on modulation-based speech segregation performance, the influence of the window duration was systematically investigated...

  4. Hydrological Applications of a High-Resolution Radar Precipitation Data Base for Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jonas; Berg, Peter; Norin, Lars; Simonsson, Lennart

    2017-04-01

    There is an increasing need for high-resolution observations of precipitation on local, regional, national and even continental level. Urbanization and other environmental changes often make societies more vulnerable to intense short-duration rainfalls (cloudbursts) and their consequences in terms of e.g. flooding and landslides. Impact and forecasting models of these hazards put very high demands on the rainfall input in terms of both resolution and accuracy. Weather radar systems obviously have a great potential in this context, but also limitations with respect to e.g. conversion algorithms and various error sources that may have a significant impact on the subsequent hydrological modelling. In Sweden, the national weather radar network has been in operation for nearly three decades, but until recently the hydrological applications have been very limited. This is mainly because of difficulties in managing the different errors and biases in the radar precipitation product, which made it hard to demonstrate any distinct added value as compared with gauge-based precipitation products. In the last years, however, in light of distinct progress in developing error correction procedures, substantial efforts have been made to develop a national gauge-adjusted radar precipitation product - HIPRAD (High-Resolution Precipitation from Gauge-Adjusted Weather Radar). In HIPRAD, the original radar precipitation data are scaled to match the monthly accumulations in a national grid (termed PTHBV) created by optimal interpolation of corrected daily gauge observations, with the intention to attain both a high spatio-temporal resolution and accurate long-term accumulations. At present, HIPRAD covers the period 2000-present with resolutions 15 min and 2×2 km2. A key motivation behind the development of HIPRAD is the intention to increase the temporal resolution in the national flood forecasting system from 1 day to 1 hour. Whereas a daily time step is sufficient to describe the

  5. Proxy-to-proxy calibration: Increasing the temporal resolution of quantitative climate reconstructions

    OpenAIRE

    von Gunten, Lucien; D'Andrea, William J.; Bradley, Raymond S.; Huang, Yongsong

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution paleoclimate reconstructions are often restricted by the difficulties of sampling geologic archives in great detail and the analytical costs of processing large numbers of samples. Using sediments from Lake Braya Sø, Greenland, we introduce a new method that provides a quantitative high-resolution paleoclimate record by combining measurements of the alkenone unsaturation index ( ) with non-destructive scanning reflectance spectroscopic measurements in the visible range (VIS-RS...

  6. Monitoring spatial-temporal variability of aerosol over Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosols over Kenya based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data for the period between 2001 and 2012. A Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) ...

  7. Toward an estimation of daily european CO2 fluxes at high spatial resolution by inversion of atmospheric transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carouge, C.

    2006-04-01

    Since the end of the 1980's, measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide have been used to estimate global and regional fluxes of CO 2 . This is possible because CO 2 concentration variation is directly linked to flux variation by atmospheric transport. We can find the spatial and temporal distribution of fluxes from concentration measurements by 'inverting' the atmospheric transport. Until recently, most CO 2 inversions have used monthly mean CO 2 atmospheric concentration measurements to infer monthly fluxes. Considering the sparseness of the global CO 2 measurement network, fluxes were a priori aggregated on sub-continental regions and distributed on a fixed spatial pattern within these regions. Only one flux coefficient per month for each region was optimized. With this strong constraint, estimated fluxes can be biased by non-perfect distribution of fluxes within each region (aggregation error). Therefore, flux estimation at model resolution is being developed where the hard constraint of a fixed distribution within a region is replaced by a soft constraint of covariances between flux uncertainties. The use of continuous observations from an increasing number of measurement sites offers a new challenge for inverse modelers. We investigate the use of daily averaged observations to infer daily CO 2 fluxes at model resolution over Europe. We have developed a global synthesis Bayesian inversion to invert daily fluxes at model resolution (50 x 50 km over Europe) from daily averaged CO 2 concentrations. We have obtained estimated fluxes for the year 2001 over Europe using the 10 European continuous sites from the AEROCARB network. The global atmospheric model LMDZt is used with a nested grid over Europe. It is necessary to add a priori spatial and temporal correlations between flux errors to constrain the Bayesian inversion. We present the impact on estimated fluxes of three different spatial correlations based on distance between pixels, climate and vegetation

  8. Assessing future climatic changes of rainfall extremes at small spatio-temporal scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to influence the occurrence and magnitude of rainfall extremes and hence the flood risks in cities. Major impacts of an increased pluvial flood risk are expected to occur at hourly and sub-hourly resolutions. This makes convective storms the dominant rainfall type...... in relation to urban flooding. The present study focuses on high-resolution regional climate model (RCM) skill in simulating sub-daily rainfall extremes. Temporal and spatial characteristics of output from three different RCM simulations with 25 km resolution are compared to point rainfall extremes estimated...... from observed data. The applied RCM data sets represent two different models and two different types of forcing. Temporal changes in observed extreme point rainfall are partly reproduced by the RCM RACMO when forced by ERA40 re-analysis data. Two ECHAM forced simulations show similar increases...

  9. Monitoring land surface albedo and vegetation dynamics using high spatial and temporal resolution synthetic time series from Landsat and the MODIS BRDF/NBAR/albedo product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuosen; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Sun, Qingsong; Kim, JiHyun; Erb, Angela M.; Gao, Feng; Román, Miguel O.; Yang, Yun; Petroy, Shelley; Taylor, Jeffrey R.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Papuga, Shirley A.

    2017-07-01

    Seasonal vegetation phenology can significantly alter surface albedo which in turn affects the global energy balance and the albedo warming/cooling feedbacks that impact climate change. To monitor and quantify the surface dynamics of heterogeneous landscapes, high temporal and spatial resolution synthetic time series of albedo and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) were generated from the 500 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operational Collection V006 daily BRDF/NBAR/albedo products and 30 m Landsat 5 albedo and near-nadir reflectance data through the use of the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM). The traditional Landsat Albedo (Shuai et al., 2011) makes use of the MODIS BRDF/Albedo products (MCD43) by assigning appropriate BRDFs from coincident MODIS products to each Landsat image to generate a 30 m Landsat albedo product for that acquisition date. The available cloud free Landsat 5 albedos (due to clouds, generated every 16 days at best) were used in conjunction with the daily MODIS albedos to determine the appropriate 30 m albedos for the intervening daily time steps in this study. These enhanced daily 30 m spatial resolution synthetic time series were then used to track albedo and vegetation phenology dynamics over three Ameriflux tower sites (Harvard Forest in 2007, Santa Rita in 2011 and Walker Branch in 2005). These Ameriflux sites were chosen as they are all quite nearby new towers coming on line for the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), and thus represent locations which will be served by spatially paired albedo measures in the near future. The availability of data from the NEON towers will greatly expand the sources of tower albedometer data available for evaluation of satellite products. At these three Ameriflux tower sites the synthetic time series of broadband shortwave albedos were evaluated using the tower albedo measurements with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) less than 0.013 and a

  10. Parameterization of water vapor using high-resolution GPS data and empirical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningombam, Shantikumar S.; Jade, Sridevi; Shrungeshwara, T. S.

    2018-03-01

    The present work evaluates eleven existing empirical models to estimate Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) over a high-altitude (4500 m amsl), cold-desert environment. These models are tested extensively and used globally to estimate PWV for low altitude sites (below 1000 m amsl). The moist parameters used in the model are: water vapor scale height (Hc), dew point temperature (Td) and water vapor pressure (Es 0). These moist parameters are derived from surface air temperature and relative humidity measured at high temporal resolution from automated weather station. The performance of these models are examined statistically with observed high-resolution GPS (GPSPWV) data over the region (2005-2012). The correlation coefficient (R) between the observed GPSPWV and Model PWV is 0.98 at daily data and varies diurnally from 0.93 to 0.97. Parameterization of moisture parameters were studied in-depth (i.e., 2 h to monthly time scales) using GPSPWV , Td , and Es 0 . The slope of the linear relationships between GPSPWV and Td varies from 0.073°C-1 to 0.106°C-1 (R: 0.83 to 0.97) while GPSPWV and Es 0 varied from 1.688 to 2.209 (R: 0.95 to 0.99) at daily, monthly and diurnal time scales. In addition, the moist parameters for the cold desert, high-altitude environment are examined in-depth at various time scales during 2005-2012.

  11. Temporal measurement and analysis of high-resolution spectral signatures of plants and relationships to biophysical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Rebbman, Jan; Hall, Carlton; Provancha, Mark; Vieglais, David

    1995-11-01

    Measurements of temporal reflectance signatures as a function of growing season for sand live oak (Quercus geminata), myrtle oak (Q. myrtifolia, and saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) were collected during a two year study period. Canopy level spectral reflectance signatures, as a function of 252 channels between 368 and 1115 nm, were collected using near nadir viewing geometry and a consistent sun illumination angle. Leaf level reflectance measurements were made in the laboratory using a halogen light source and an environmental optics chamber with a barium sulfate reflectance coating. Spectral measurements were related to several biophysical measurements utilizing optimal passive ambient correlation spectroscopy (OPACS) technique. Biophysical parameters included percent moisture, water potential (MPa), total chlorophyll, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen. Quantitative data processing techniques were used to determine optimal bands based on the utilization of a second order derivative or inflection estimator. An optical cleanup procedure was then employed that computes the double inflection ratio (DIR) spectra for all possible three band combinations normalized to the previously computed optimal bands. These results demonstrate a unique approach to the analysis of high spectral resolution reflectance signatures for estimation of several biophysical measures of plants at the leaf and canopy level from optimally selected bands or bandwidths.

  12. A scalable multi-resolution spatio-temporal model for brain activation and connectivity in fMRI data

    KAUST Repository

    Castruccio, Stefano

    2018-01-23

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a primary modality for studying brain activity. Modeling spatial dependence of imaging data at different spatial scales is one of the main challenges of contemporary neuroimaging, and it could allow for accurate testing for significance in neural activity. The high dimensionality of this type of data (on the order of hundreds of thousands of voxels) poses serious modeling challenges and considerable computational constraints. For the sake of feasibility, standard models typically reduce dimensionality by modeling covariance among regions of interest (ROIs)—coarser or larger spatial units—rather than among voxels. However, ignoring spatial dependence at different scales could drastically reduce our ability to detect activation patterns in the brain and hence produce misleading results. We introduce a multi-resolution spatio-temporal model and a computationally efficient methodology to estimate cognitive control related activation and whole-brain connectivity. The proposed model allows for testing voxel-specific activation while accounting for non-stationary local spatial dependence within anatomically defined ROIs, as well as regional dependence (between-ROIs). The model is used in a motor-task fMRI study to investigate brain activation and connectivity patterns aimed at identifying associations between these patterns and regaining motor functionality following a stroke.

  13. An Inexpensive High-Temporal Resolution Electronic Sun Journal for Monitoring Personal Day to Day Sun Exposure Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J. Downs

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to natural sunlight, specifically solar ultraviolet (UV radiation contributes to lifetime risks of skin cancer, eye disease, and diseases associated with vitamin D insufficiency. Improved knowledge of personal sun exposure patterns can inform public health policy; and help target high-risk population groups. Subsequently, an extensive number of studies have been conducted to measure personal solar UV exposure in a variety of settings. Many of these studies, however, use digital or paper-based journals (self-reported volunteer recall, or employ cost prohibitive electronic UV dosimeters (that limit the size of sample populations, to estimate periods of exposure. A cost effective personal electronic sun journal (ESJ built from readily available infrared photodiodes is presented in this research. The ESJ can be used to complement traditional UV dosimeters that measure total biologically effective exposure by providing a time-stamped sun exposure record. The ESJ can be easily attached to clothing and data logged to personal devices (including fitness monitors or smartphones. The ESJ improves upon self-reported exposure recording and is a cost effective high-temporal resolution option for monitoring personal sun exposure behavior in large population studies.

  14. Plant diversity increases spatio?temporal niche complementarity in plant?pollinator interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Venjakob, Christine; Klein, Alexandra?Maria; Ebeling, Anne; Tscharntke, Teja; Scherber, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing biodiversity decline impairs ecosystem processes, including pollination. Flower visitation, an important indicator of pollination services, is influenced by plant species richness. However, the spatio-temporal responses of different pollinator groups to plant species richness have not yet been analyzed experimentally. Here, we used an experimental plant species richness gradient to analyze plant-pollinator interactions with an unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. We observed four...

  15. Modelling the soil microclimate: does the spatial or temporal resolution of input parameters matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of predicting future impacts of environmental change on vulnerable populations is advancing the development of spatially explicit habitat models. Continental-scale climate and microclimate layers are now widely available. However, most terrestrial organisms exist within microclimate spaces that are very small, relative to the spatial resolution of those layers. We examined the effects of multi-resolution, multi-extent topographic and climate inputs on the accuracy of hourly soil temperature predictions for a small island generated at a very high spatial resolution (<1 m2 using the mechanistic microclimate model in NicheMapR. Achieving an accuracy comparable to lower-resolution, continental-scale microclimate layers (within about 2–3°C of observed values required the use of daily weather data as well as high resolution topographic layers (elevation, slope, aspect, horizon angles, while inclusion of site-specific soil properties did not markedly improve predictions. Our results suggest that large-extent microclimate layers may not provide accurate estimates of microclimate conditions when the spatial extent of a habitat or other area of interest is similar to or smaller than the spatial resolution of the layers themselves. Thus, effort in sourcing model inputs should be focused on obtaining high resolution terrain data, e.g., via LiDAR or photogrammetry, and local weather information rather than in situ sampling of microclimate characteristics.

  16. The Role of Temporal Envelope and Fine Structure in Mandarin Lexical Tone Perception in Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    Full Text Available Temporal information in a signal can be partitioned into temporal envelope (E and fine structure (FS. Fine structure is important for lexical tone perception for normal-hearing (NH listeners, and listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL have an impaired ability to use FS in lexical tone perception due to the reduced frequency resolution. The present study was aimed to assess which of the acoustic aspects (E or FS played a more important role in lexical tone perception in subjects with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD and to determine whether it was the deficit in temporal resolution or frequency resolution that might lead to more detrimental effects on FS processing in pitch perception. Fifty-eight native Mandarin Chinese-speaking subjects (27 with ANSD, 16 with SNHL, and 15 with NH were assessed for (1 their ability to recognize lexical tones using acoustic E or FS cues with the "auditory chimera" technique, (2 temporal resolution as measured with temporal gap detection (TGD threshold, and (3 frequency resolution as measured with the Q(10dB values of the psychophysical tuning curves. Overall, 26.5%, 60.2%, and 92.1% of lexical tone responses were consistent with FS cues for tone perception for listeners with ANSD, SNHL, and NH, respectively. The mean TGD threshold was significantly higher for listeners with ANSD (11.9 ms than for SNHL (4.0 ms; p < 0.001 and NH (3.9 ms; p < 0.001 listeners, with no significant difference between SNHL and NH listeners. In contrast, the mean Q(10dB for listeners with SNHL (1.8 ± 0.4 was significantly lower than that for ANSD (3.5 ± 1.0; p < 0.001 and NH (3.4 ± 0.9; p < 0.001 listeners, with no significant difference between ANSD and NH listeners. These results suggest that reduced temporal resolution, as opposed to reduced frequency selectivity, in ANSD subjects leads to greater degradation of FS processing for pitch perception.

  17. Detecting settlement expansion using hyper-temporal SAR time-series

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, W

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The detection of new informal settlements in South Africa using time-series data derived from coarse resolution satellite imagery has recently been an active area of research. Most of the previous methods presented using hyper-temporal satellite...

  18. Can we distinguish autotrophic respiration from heterotrophic respiration in a field site using high temporal resolution CO2 flux measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Beatrice; Berger, Sina; Praetzel, Leandra; Blodau, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The processes behind C-cycling in peatlands are important to understand for assessing the vulnerability of peatlands as carbon sinks under changing climate conditions. Especially boreal peatlands are likely to underlie strong alterations in the future. It is expected that C-pools that are directly influenced by vegetation and water table fluctuations can be easily destabilized. The CO2 efflux through respiration underlies autotrophic and heterotrophic processes that show different feedbacks on changing environmental conditions. In order to understand the respiration fluxes better for more accurate modelling and prognoses, the determination of the relative importance of different respiration sources is necessary. Earlier studies used e.g. exfoliation experiments, incubation experiments or modelling approaches to estimate the different respiration sources for the total ecosystem respiration (Reco). To further the understanding in this topic, I want to distinguish autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration using high temporal resolution measurements. The study site was selected along a hydrological gradient in a peatland in southern Ontario (Canada) and measurements were conducted from May to September 2015 once per month. Environmental controls (water table, soil temperature and soil moisture) that effect the respiration sources were recorded. In my study I used a Li-COR 6400XT and a Los Gatos greenhouse gas analyzer (GGA). Reco was determined by chamber flux measurements with the GGA, while simultaneously CO2 respiration measurements on different vegetation compartments like roots, leaves and mosses were conducted using the Li-COR 6400XT. The difference between Reco and autotrophic respiration equals heterotrophic respiration. After the measurements, the vegetation plots were harvested and separated for all compartments (leaves, roots, mosses, soil organic matter), dried and weighed. The weighted respiration rates from all vegetation compartments sum up to

  19. Middle and Inferior Temporal Gyrus Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in First-Episode Schizophrenia: An MRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kuroki, Noriomi; Shenton, Martha Elizabeth; Salisbury, Dean; Hirayasu, Yoshio; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; McCarley, Robert William

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of schizophrenia reveal temporal lobe structural brain abnormalities in the superior temporal gyrus and the amygdala-hippocampal complex. However, the middle and inferior temporal gyri have received little investigation, especially in first-episode schizophrenia. Method: High-spatial-resolution MRI was used to measure gray matter volume in the inferior, middle, and superior temporal gyri in 20 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, 20 pa...

  20. Flow-Signature Analysis of Water Consumption in Nonresidential Building Water Networks Using High-Resolution and Medium-Resolution Smart Meter Data: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Eoghan; Mulligan, Sean; Comer, Joanne; Hannon, Louise

    2018-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of water consumption activities can be an effective mechanism to achieve efficient water network management. This approach, largely enabled by the advent of smart metering technologies, is gradually being practiced in domestic and industrial contexts. In particular, identifying water consumption habits from flow-signatures, i.e., the specific end-usage patterns, is being investigated as a means for conservation in both the residential and nonresidential context. However, the quality of meter data is bivariate (dependent on number of meters and data temporal resolution) and as a result, planning a smart metering scheme is relatively difficult with no generic design approach available. In this study, a comprehensive medium-resolution to high-resolution smart metering program was implemented at two nonresidential trial sites to evaluate the effect of spatial and temporal data aggregation. It was found that medium-resolution water meter data were capable of exposing regular, continuous, peak use, and diurnal patterns which reflect group wide end-usage characteristics. The high-resolution meter data permitted flow-signature at a personal end-use level. Through this unique opportunity to observe water usage characteristics via flow-signature patterns, newly defined hydraulic-based design coefficients determined from Poisson rectangular pulse were developed to intuitively aid in the process of pattern discovery with implications for automated activity recognition applications. A smart meter classification and siting index was introduced which categorizes meter resolution in terms of their suitable application.

  1. Monitoring temporal Vegetation changes in Lao tropical forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phompila, Chittana; Lewis, Megan; Clarke, Kenneth; Ostendorf, Bertram

    2014-01-01

    Studies on changes in vegetation are essential for understanding the interaction between humans and the environment. These studies provide key information for land use assessment, terrestrial ecosystem monitoring, carbon flux modelling and impacts of global climate change. The primary purpose of this study was to detect temporal vegetation changes in tropical forests in the southern part of Lao PDR from 2001-2012. The study investigated the annual vegetation phenological response of dominant land cover types across the study area and relationships to seasonal precipitation and temperature. Improved understanding of intra-annual patterns of vegetation variation was useful to detect longer term changes in vegetation. The breaks for additive season and trend (BFAST) approach was implemented to detect changes in these land cover types throughout the 2001-2012 period. We used the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (MOD13Q1 products) and monthly rainfall and temperature data obtained from the Meteorology and Hydrology Department, Ministry of Agriculture-Forestry, published by Lao National Statistical Centre in this research. EVI well documented the annual seasonal growth of vegetation and clearly distinguished the characteristic phenology of four different land use types; native forest, plantation, agriculture and mixed wooded/cleared area. Native forests maintained high EVI throughout the year, while plantations, wooded/cleared areas and agriculture showed greater inter-annual variation, with minimum EVI at the end of the dry season in April and maximum EVI in September-October, around two months after the wet season peak in rainfall. The BFAST analysis detected abrupt temporal changes in vegetation in the tropical forests, especially in a large conversion of mixed wooded/cleared area into plantation. Within the study area from 2001-2012 there has been an overall decreasing trend of vegetation cover for

  2. ESTIMATING GROSS PRIMARY PRODUCTION IN CROPLAND WITH HIGH SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL SCALE REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing data provide spatially continuous and temporally repetitive observations of land surfaces, and they have become increasingly important for monitoring large region of vegetation photosynthetic dynamic. But remote sensing data have their limitation on spatial and temporal scale, for example, higher spatial resolution data as Landsat data have 30-m spatial resolution but 16 days revisit period, while high temporal scale data such as geostationary data have 30-minute imaging period, which has lower spatial resolution (> 1 km. The objective of this study is to investigate whether combining high spatial and temporal resolution remote sensing data can improve the gross primary production (GPP estimation accuracy in cropland. For this analysis we used three years (from 2010 to 2012 Landsat based NDVI data, MOD13 vegetation index product and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES geostationary data as input parameters to estimate GPP in a small region cropland of Nebraska, US. Then we validated the remote sensing based GPP with the in-situ measurement carbon flux data. Results showed that: 1 the overall correlation between GOES visible band and in-situ measurement photosynthesis active radiation (PAR is about 50 % (R2 = 0.52 and the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim reanalysis data can explain 64 % of PAR variance (R2 = 0.64; 2 estimating GPP with Landsat 30-m spatial resolution data and ERA daily meteorology data has the highest accuracy(R2 = 0.85, RMSE < 3 gC/m2/day, which has better performance than using MODIS 1-km NDVI/EVI product import; 3 using daily meteorology data as input for GPP estimation in high spatial resolution data would have higher relevance than 8-day and 16-day input. Generally speaking, using the high spatial resolution and high frequency satellite based remote sensing data can improve GPP estimation accuracy in cropland.

  3. Mapping monthly rainfall erosivity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballabio, C; Meusburger, K; Klik, A

    2017-01-01

    to Eastern Europe. The maps also show a clear delineation of areas with different erosivity seasonal patterns, whose spatial outline was evidenced by cluster analysis. The monthly erosivity maps can be used to develop composite indicators that map both intra-annual variability and concentration of erosive...... and seasonal R-factor maps and assess rainfall erosivity both spatially and temporally. During winter months, significant rainfall erosivity is present only in part of the Mediterranean countries. A sudden increase of erosivity occurs in major part of European Union (except Mediterranean basin, western part...... selected among various statistical models to perform the spatial interpolation due to its excellent performance, ability to model non-linearity and interpretability. The monthly prediction is an order more difficult than the annual one as it is limited by the number of covariates and, for consistency...

  4. Combined multi-plane phase retrieval and super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging for 4D cell microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descloux, A.; Grußmayer, K. S.; Bostan, E.; Lukes, T.; Bouwens, A.; Sharipov, A.; Geissbuehler, S.; Mahul-Mellier, A.-L.; Lashuel, H. A.; Leutenegger, M.; Lasser, T.

    2018-03-01

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy provides unprecedented insight into cellular and subcellular structures. However, going `beyond the diffraction barrier' comes at a price, since most far-field super-resolution imaging techniques trade temporal for spatial super-resolution. We propose the combination of a novel label-free white light quantitative phase imaging with fluorescence to provide high-speed imaging and spatial super-resolution. The non-iterative phase retrieval relies on the acquisition of single images at each z-location and thus enables straightforward 3D phase imaging using a classical microscope. We realized multi-plane imaging using a customized prism for the simultaneous acquisition of eight planes. This allowed us to not only image live cells in 3D at up to 200 Hz, but also to integrate fluorescence super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging within the same optical instrument. The 4D microscope platform unifies the sensitivity and high temporal resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy.

  5. Role of pharmacokinetic parameters derived with high temporal resolution DCE MRI using simultaneous PET/MRI system in breast cancer: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, Amarnath, E-mail: drjena2002@gmail.com [Department of Molecular Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Delhi–Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076 (India); Taneja, Sangeeta; Singh, Aru; Negi, Pradeep; Mehta, Shashi Bhushan [Department of Molecular Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Delhi–Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076 (India); Sarin, Ramesh [Department of Surgical Oncology, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Delhi–Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076 (India)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Simultaneous PET/MRI (with 3T MRI in the core) for quantitative pharmacokinetics. • Diagnostic accuracy of pharmacokinetic parameters like K{sup trans}, K{sub ep} and v{sub e} acquired through this system. • Incorporating high temporal resolution sequence with short acquisition time of 60 s within the routine DCE MRI in a simultaneous PET/MRI system. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the reliability of pharmacokinetic parameters like K{sup trans}, Kep and v{sub e} derived through DCE MRI breast protocol using 3 T Simultaneous PET/MRI (3 Tesla Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging) system in distinguishing benign and malignant lesions. Materials and methods: High temporal resolution DCE (Dynamic Contrast Enhancement) MRI performed as routine breast MRI for diagnosis or as a part of PET/MRI for cancer staging using a 3 T simultaneous PET/MRI system in 98 women having 109 breast lesions were analyzed for calculation of pharmacokinetic parameters (K{sup trans}, v{sub e}, and Kep) at 60 s time point using an in-house developed computation scheme. Results: Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed a cut off value for K{sup trans}, Kep, v{sub e} as 0.50, 2.59, 0.15 respectively which reliably distinguished benign and malignant breast lesions. Data analysis revealed an overall accuracy of 94.50%, 79.82% and 87.16% for K{sup trans}, Kep, v{sub e} respectively. Introduction of native T1 normalization with an externally placed phantom showed a higher accuracy (94.50%) than without native T1 normalization (93.50%) with an increase in specificity of 87% vs 84%. Conclusion: Overall the results indicate that reliable measurement of pharmacokinetic parameters with reduced acquisition time is feasible in a 3TMRI embedded PET/MRI system with reasonable accuracy and application may be extended to exploit the potential of simultaneous PET/MRI in further work on breast cancer.

  6. Toward an estimation of daily european CO{sub 2} fluxes at high spatial resolution by inversion of atmospheric transport; Vers une estimation des flux de CO{sub 2} journaliers europeens a haute resolution par inversion du transport atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carouge, C

    2006-04-15

    Since the end of the 1980's, measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide have been used to estimate global and regional fluxes of CO{sub 2}. This is possible because CO{sub 2} concentration variation is directly linked to flux variation by atmospheric transport. We can find the spatial and temporal distribution of fluxes from concentration measurements by 'inverting' the atmospheric transport. Until recently, most CO{sub 2} inversions have used monthly mean CO{sub 2} atmospheric concentration measurements to infer monthly fluxes. Considering the sparseness of the global CO{sub 2} measurement network, fluxes were a priori aggregated on sub-continental regions and distributed on a fixed spatial pattern within these regions. Only one flux coefficient per month for each region was optimized. With this strong constraint, estimated fluxes can be biased by non-perfect distribution of fluxes within each region (aggregation error). Therefore, flux estimation at model resolution is being developed where the hard constraint of a fixed distribution within a region is replaced by a soft constraint of covariances between flux uncertainties. The use of continuous observations from an increasing number of measurement sites offers a new challenge for inverse modelers. We investigate the use of daily averaged observations to infer daily CO{sub 2} fluxes at model resolution over Europe. We have developed a global synthesis Bayesian inversion to invert daily fluxes at model resolution (50 x 50 km over Europe) from daily averaged CO{sub 2} concentrations. We have obtained estimated fluxes for the year 2001 over Europe using the 10 European continuous sites from the AEROCARB network. The global atmospheric model LMDZt is used with a nested grid over Europe. It is necessary to add a priori spatial and temporal correlations between flux errors to constrain the Bayesian inversion. We present the impact on estimated fluxes of three different spatial correlations based on

  7. Effect of radar rainfall time resolution on the predictive capability of a distributed hydrologic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atencia, A.; Llasat, M. C.; Garrote, L.; Mediero, L.

    2010-10-01

    The performance of distributed hydrological models depends on the resolution, both spatial and temporal, of the rainfall surface data introduced. The estimation of quantitative precipitation from meteorological radar or satellite can improve hydrological model results, thanks to an indirect estimation at higher spatial and temporal resolution. In this work, composed radar data from a network of three C-band radars, with 6-minutal temporal and 2 × 2 km2 spatial resolution, provided by the Catalan Meteorological Service, is used to feed the RIBS distributed hydrological model. A Window Probability Matching Method (gage-adjustment method) is applied to four cases of heavy rainfall to improve the observed rainfall sub-estimation in both convective and stratiform Z/R relations used over Catalonia. Once the rainfall field has been adequately obtained, an advection correction, based on cross-correlation between two consecutive images, was introduced to get several time resolutions from 1 min to 30 min. Each different resolution is treated as an independent event, resulting in a probable range of input rainfall data. This ensemble of rainfall data is used, together with other sources of uncertainty, such as the initial basin state or the accuracy of discharge measurements, to calibrate the RIBS model using probabilistic methodology. A sensitivity analysis of time resolutions was implemented by comparing the various results with real values from stream-flow measurement stations.

  8. Temporal resolution of orientation-defined texture segregation: a VEP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Julie; McKerral, Michelle; Jauffret, Colin; Bach, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Orientation is one of the visual dimensions that subserve figure-ground discrimination. A spatial gradient in orientation leads to "texture segregation", which is thought to be concurrent parallel processing across the visual field, without scanning. In the visual-evoked potential (VEP) a component can be isolated which is related to texture segregation ("tsVEP"). Our objective was to evaluate the temporal frequency dependence of the tsVEP to compare processing speed of low-level features (e.g., orientation, using the VEP, here denoted llVEP) with texture segregation because of a recent literature controversy in that regard. Visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded in seven normal adults. Oriented line segments of 0.1 degrees x 0.8 degrees at 100% contrast were presented in four different arrangements: either oriented in parallel for two homogeneous stimuli (from which were obtained the low-level VEP (llVEP)) or with a 90 degrees orientation gradient for two textured ones (from which were obtained the texture VEP). The orientation texture condition was presented at eight different temporal frequencies ranging from 7.5 to 45 Hz. Fourier analysis was used to isolate low-level components at the pattern-change frequency and texture-segregation components at half that frequency. For all subjects, there was lower high-cutoff frequency for tsVEP than for llVEPs, on average 12 Hz vs. 17 Hz (P = 0.017). The results suggest that the processing of feature gradients to extract texture segregation requires additional processing time, resulting in a lower fusion frequency.

  9. CT diagnosis and differential diagnosis of otodystrophic lesions of the temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Archambeau, O.; Parizel, P.M.; Schepper, A.M. De (Antwerp University Hospital (Belgium). Department of Radiology); Koekelkoren, E.; Van De Heyning, P. (Antwerp University Hospital (Belgium). Department of E.N.T.)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic and differential diagnostic value of high-resolution computed tomography in the evaluation of temporal-bone dystrophies. The study group included 55 patients with osseous abnormalities of the temporal bone in general, and the labyrinthine capsule in particular. In 27 patients the CT scan revealed evidence of otodystrophic lesions. The CT findings in patients with otosclerosis (21 patients), osteogenesis imperfecta (two patients), fibrous dysplasia (one patient). Paget's disease (one patient) and osteoporosis (two patients) are described. The CT scans of 17 patients revealed secondary osseous lesions due to metastasis (five patients), post-inflammatory changes (10 patients) or labyrinthitis ossificans (two patients). Normal variants and congenital mineralization defects were diagnosed in nine patients, Down's syndrome in two. Our results indicate the importance of high-resolution computed tomography as the primary imaging modality in evaluating osseous lesions of the temporal bone and labyrinth. (author). 14 refs.; 13 figs; 2 tabs.

  10. CT diagnosis and differential diagnosis of otodystrophic lesions of the temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Archambeau, O.; Parizel, P.M.; Schepper, A.M. De; Koekelkoren, E.; Van De Heyning, P.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic and differential diagnostic value of high-resolution computed tomography in the evaluation of temporal-bone dystrophies. The study group included 55 patients with osseous abnormalities of the temporal bone in general, and the labyrinthine capsule in particular. In 27 patients the CT scan revealed evidence of otodystrophic lesions. The CT findings in patients with otosclerosis (21 patients), osteogenesis imperfecta (two patients), fibrous dysplasia (one patient). Paget's disease (one patient) and osteoporosis (two patients) are described. The CT scans of 17 patients revealed secondary osseous lesions due to metastasis (five patients), post-inflammatory changes (10 patients) or labyrinthitis ossificans (two patients). Normal variants and congenital mineralization defects were diagnosed in nine patients, Down's syndrome in two. Our results indicate the importance of high-resolution computed tomography as the primary imaging modality in evaluating osseous lesions of the temporal bone and labyrinth. (author). 14 refs.; 13 figs; 2 tabs

  11. Construction of a High Temporal-spectral Resolution Spectrometer for Detection of Fast Transients from Observations of the Sun at 1.4 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas-Perez, G. A.; Jeyakumar, S.; Perez-Enriquez, R.

    2014-12-01

    Transients explosive events with time durations from nanoseconds to several hours, are observed in the Sun at high energy bands such as gamma ray and xray. In the radio band, several types of radio bursts are commonly detected from the ground. A few observations of the Sun in the past have also detected a new class of fast transients which are known to have short-live electromagnetic emissions with durations less than 100 ms. The mechanisms that produce such fast transiets remain unclear. Observations of such fast transients over a wide bandwidth is necessary to uderstand the underlying physical process that produce such fast transients. Due to their very large flux densities, fast radio transients can be observed at high time resolution using small antennas in combination with digital signal processing techniques. In this work we report the progress of an spectrometer that is currently in construction at the Observatorio de la Luz of the Universidad de Guanajuato. The instrument which will have the purpose of detecting solar fast radio transients, involves the use of digital devices such as FPGA and ADC cards, in addition with a receiver with high temporal-spectral resolution centered at 1.4 GHz and a pair of 2.3 m satellite dish.

  12. Surgically induced astigmatism after 3.0 mm temporal and nasal clear corneal incisions in bilateral cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hwan Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare the corneal refractive changes induced after 3.0 mm temporal and nasal corneal incisions in bilateral cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: This prospective study comprised a consecutive case series of 60 eyes from 30 patients with bilateral phacoemulsification that were implanted with a 6.0 mm foldable intraocular lens through a 3.0 mm horizontal clear corneal incision (temporal in the right eyes, nasal in the left eyes. The outcome measures were surgically induced astigmatism (SIA and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA 1 and 3 months, post-operatively. Results: At 1 month, the mean SIA was 0.81 diopter (D for the temporal incisions and 0.92 D for nasal incisions (P = 0.139. At 3 months, the mean SIA were 0.53 D for temporal incisions and 0.62 D for nasal incisions (P = 0.309. The UCVA was similar in the 2 incision groups before surgery, and at 1 and 3 months post-operatively. Conclusion: After bilateral cataract surgery using 3.0 mm temporal and nasal horizontal corneal incisions, the induced corneal astigmatic change was similar in both incision groups. Especially in Asian eyes, both temporal and nasal incisions (3.0 mm or less would be favorable for astigmatism-neutral cataract surgery.

  13. High temporal resolution photography for observing riparian area use and grazing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, a 2.4 hectare site within the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest in northeastern Arizona, USA was selected to characterize temporal and spatial patterns of riparian area use. Three consecutive 30, 8, and 46 day time periods representing 1) unrestricted access, 2) prescribed cattle use, and 3...

  14. Monthly rifampicin, ofloxacin, and minocycline therapy for generalized and localized granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Garg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The localized form of granuloma annulare is usually self-limiting, resolving within 2 years. Generalized granuloma annulare, on the other hand, runs a protracted course, with spontaneous resolution being rare. It is also characterized by a later age of onset, an increased incidence of diabetes mellitus, poor response to therapy, and an increased prevalence of HLA Bw35. Objective: To assess the efficacy of monthly pulsed rifampicin, ofloxacin, and minocycline (ROM therapy in the management of granuloma annulare. Methods : Six biopsy proven patients of granuloma annulare were included in the study, five of the generalized variety, and one localized. Three of these patients were resistant to standard modalities of treatment. All six patients were treated with pulses of once monthly ROM till complete resolution of all lesions. Results were analyzed in terms of complete resolution of lesions and side effects. Presence of comorbid conditions was noted. Result: All six patients were successfully treated with 4-8 pulses of monthly ROM. None of the patients reported any adverse effects. Limitations: Small sample size and the lack of a control group are limitations. Conclusion: Treatment with pulses of once monthly ROM caused complete resolution of lesions in both localized and generalized granuloma annulare, even in cases recalcitrant to conventional therapy. There were no side effects in any of the patients. Larger trials are needed to substantiate the efficacy of monthly ROM in granuloma annulare.

  15. Ultrafast terahertz scanning tunneling microscopy with atomic resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelic, Vedran; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Nguyen, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that ultrafast terahertz scanning tunneling microscopy (THz-STM) can probe single atoms on a silicon surface with simultaneous sub-nanometer and sub-picosecond spatio-temporal resolution. THz-STM is established as a new technique for exploring high-field non-equilibrium tunneling...

  16. Analysis of Correlation Tendency between Wind and Solar from Various Spatio-temporal Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Weihua, X.; Mei, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of correlation between wind resources and solar resources could explore their complementary features, enhance the utilization efficiency of renewable energy and further alleviate the carbon emission issues caused by the fossil energy. In this paper, we discuss the correlation between wind and solar from various spatio-temporal perspectives (from east to west, in terms of plain, plateau, hill, and mountain, from hourly to daily, ten days and monthly) with observed data and modeled data from NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and NERL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory). With investigation of wind speed time series and solar radiation time series (period: 10 years, resolution: 1h) of 72 stations located in various landform and distributed dispersedly in USA, the results show that the correlation coefficient, Kendall's rank correlation coefficient, changes negative to positive value from east coast to west coast of USA, and this phenomena become more obvious when the time scale of resolution increases from daily to ten days and monthly. Furthermore, considering the differences of landforms which influence the local meteorology the Kendall coefficients of diverse topographies are compared and it is found that the coefficients descend from mountain to hill, plateau and plain. However, no such evident tendencies could be found in daily scale. According to this research, it is proposed that the complementary feature of wind resources and solar resources in the east or in the mountain area of USA is conspicuous. Subsequent study would try to further verify this analysis by investigating the operation status of wind power station and solar power station.

  17. Spontaneous resolution of apparent radiation associated retroperitoneal fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezri, Azadeh; Berman, Howard L; Rosenstein, Elliot D; Kramer, Neil

    2011-12-01

    A 70-year-old man was diagnosed with retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) complicated by ureteral obstruction 4 months after finishing radiotherapy for prostate cancer. He was treated conservatively with ureteral stent placement. After 3 months, computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed resolution of RPF without any medical or surgical interventions. Although an uncommon event, the possibility of spontaneous resolution of RPF, as demonstrated by this and previously reported cases, has led some to encourage conservative management.

  18. High-resolution precipitation database for the last two centuries in Italy: climatologies and anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Alice; Brunetti, Michele; Maugeri, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    The availability of gridded high-resolution spatial climatologies and corresponding secular records has acquired an increasing importance in the recent years both to research purposes and as decision-support tools in the management of natural resources and economical activities. High-resolution monthly precipitation climatologies for Italy were computed by gridding on a 30-arc-second-resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) the precipitation normals (1961-1990) obtained from a quality-controlled dataset of about 6200 stations covering the Italian surface and part of the Northern neighbouring regions. Starting from the assumption that the precipitation distribution is strongly influenced by orography, especially elevation, a local weighted linear regression (LWLR) of precipitation versus elevation was performed at each DEM cell. The regression coefficients for each cell were estimated by selecting the stations with the highest weights in which the distances and the level of similarity between the station cells and the considered grid cell, in terms of orographic features, are taken into account. An optimisation procedure was then set up in order to define, for each month and for each grid cell, the most suitable decreasing coefficients for the weighting factors which enter in the LWLR scheme. The model was validated by the comparison with the results provided by inverse distance weighting (IDW) applied both to station normals and to the residuals of a global regression of station normals versus elevation. In both cases, the LWLR leave-one-out reconstructions show the best agreement with the observed station normals, especially when considering specific station clusters (high elevation sites for example). After producing the high-resolution precipitation climatological field, the temporal component on the high-resolution grid was obtained by following the anomaly method. It is based on the assumption that the spatio-temporal structure of the signal of a

  19. Tablet disintegration studied by high-resolution real-time magnetic resonance imaging.

    OpenAIRE

    Quodbach, J.; Moussavi, A.; Tammer, R.; Frahm, J.; Kleinebudde, P.

    2014-01-01

    The present work employs recent advances in high-resolution real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the disintegration process of tablets containing disintegrants. A temporal resolution of 75 ms and a spatial resolution of 80 x 80 m with a section thickness of only 600 m were achieved. The histograms of MRI videos were quantitatively analyzed with MATLAB. The mechanisms of action of six commercially available disintegrants, the influence of relative tablet density, and the i...

  20. Spatio-temporal interpolation of precipitation during monsoon periods in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ijaz; Spöck, Gunter; Pilz, Jürgen; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2010-08-01

    Spatio-temporal estimation of precipitation over a region is essential to the modeling of hydrologic processes for water resources management. The changes of magnitude and space-time heterogeneity of rainfall observations make space-time estimation of precipitation a challenging task. In this paper we propose a Box-Cox transformed hierarchical Bayesian multivariate spatio-temporal interpolation method for the skewed response variable. The proposed method is applied to estimate space-time monthly precipitation in the monsoon periods during 1974-2000, and 27-year monthly average precipitation data are obtained from 51 stations in Pakistan. The results of transformed hierarchical Bayesian multivariate spatio-temporal interpolation are compared to those of non-transformed hierarchical Bayesian interpolation by using cross-validation. The software developed by [11] is used for Bayesian non-stationary multivariate space-time interpolation. It is observed that the transformed hierarchical Bayesian method provides more accuracy than the non-transformed hierarchical Bayesian method.

  1. Development and application of methods and models for the calculation of spatially and temporally highly resolved emissions in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiruchittampalam, Balendra

    2014-01-01

    High spatial and temporal resolution models are essential for answering many questions of air quality management and climate modeling. High-resolution emission models are required to determine the concentration of pollutants using chemical transport models, and to quantify the impacts on health and environment and in particular to develop adequate countermeasures. The aim of this work is to develop methods for the calculation of spatially and temporally high-resolved emissions and to apply these exemplarily on a 1 km x 1 km and hourly resolution for the year 2008 in the EU-27 and EFTA countries. The derivation of methods for the spatial and temporal resolution of emissions with corresponding detailed equations is one of the major improvements that have been carried out in the course of this work. The improvement of the spatial distribution of emissions from the point source relevant sectors like energy supply, industry and waste management is achieved by considering sector specific diffuse emission shares. The progress of the spatial distribution of emissions from households is in particular the development of a fuel type weighted distribution over Europe. Another main focus is the development of the spatial distribution of road transport emissions. Due to the restricted access to traffic count data at the European level, methods have been established to provide reliable emissions on grid level for Europe. The progress in the spatial distribution of agricultural emissions is achieved by the consideration of diffuse shares similar to the other point source relevant sectors like energy supply or industry. In addition to the spatial distribution of the emissions the temporal resolution is a main focus of this work, since the state of knowledge of the temporal resolution of emissions in Europe is still rudimentary. Therefore, it was necessary to develop in particular time curves for the hourly resolution of emissions for the main sectors, namely electricity and heat

  2. Pleural pressure swing and lung expansion after malignant pleural effusion drainage: the benefits of high-temporal resolution pleural manometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshuizen, Rogier C; Sinaasappel, Michiel; Vincent, Andrew D; Goldfinger, Vicky; Farag, Sheima; van den Heuvel, Michel M

    2013-07-01

    Malignant pleural effusion is a common complication in end-stage cancer patients and can cause severe dyspnea. Therapeutic thoracentesis is often limited to 1 to 1.5 L. Pleural manometry can be used to recognize a not-expanded lung. Interval pleural pressure measurements with a high temporal resolution were performed after each removal of 200 mL of fluid to observe pleural pressure swings. Pleural elastance was defined as the difference in pleural pressure divided by the change in volume. Chest x-rays were performed to evaluate lung expansion, reexpansion pulmonary edema, and fluid residue. Thirty-four procedures in 30 patients were eligible for analysis. Four patients had incomplete lung expansion after drainage. No reexpansion pulmonary edema was observed. Pleural pressure swing after 200 mL drainage was higher when the lung did not expand. Pleural elastance after removal of 500 mL was higher in the not-expanded subgroup. We demonstrated that a high pleural pressure swing after removal of only 200 mL was related to incomplete lung expansion. We confirmed the association between pleural elastance and lung expansion.

  3. Temporally variable macroinvertebrate-stone relationships in streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, D.

    2005-01-01

    of fauna parameter and stone variable from different sampling dates (n=9-11) were rarely correlated to any of the measures of stream stability, this study has demonstrated high temporal variability in fauna-stone relationships (CV's of regression slopes). Consequently, temporally un-replicated studies......Stones were used to sample macroinvertebrates and characterise microhabitats at monthly or bimonthly intervals in six Ecuadorian streams covering a gradient in four different stability measures and other stream characteristics. The physical variables current velocity, water depth, horizontal...... of families vs. individuals) were related to the physical characteristics of individual stone habitats. My second objective was to quantify temporal variability in fauna-stone relationships and to analyse if such variability was related to overall stability of stream reaches. Partial Least Squares (PLS...

  4. Monthly Sea Surface Salinity and Freshwater Flux Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L.; Xie, P.; Wu, S.

    2017-12-01

    Taking advantages of the complementary nature of the Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) measurements from the in-situ (CTDs, shipboard, Argo floats, etc.) and satellite retrievals from Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), the Aquarius of a joint venture between US and Argentina, and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) of national Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), a technique is developed at NOAA/NCEP/CPC to construct an analysis of monthly SSS, called the NOAA Blended Analysis of Sea-Surface Salinity (BASS). The algorithm is a two-steps approach, i.e. to remove the bias in the satellite data through Probability Density Function (PDF) matching against co-located in situ measurements; and then to combine the bias-corrected satellite data with the in situ measurements through the Optimal Interpolation (OI) method. The BASS SSS product is on a 1° by 1° grid over the global ocean for a 7-year period from 2010. Combined with the NOAA/NCEP/CPC CMORPH satellite precipitation (P) estimates and the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) evaporation (E) fields, a suite of monthly package of the SSS and oceanic freshwater flux (E and P) was developed to monitor the global oceanic water cycle and SSS on a monthly basis. The SSS in BASS product is a suite of long-term SSS and fresh water flux data sets with temporal homogeneity and inter-component consistency better suited for the examination of the long-term changes and monitoring. It presents complete spatial coverage and improved resolution and accuracy, which facilitates the diagnostic analysis of the relationship and co-variability among SSS, freshwater flux, mixed layer processes, oceanic circulation, and assimilation of SSS into global models. At the AGU meeting, we will provide more details on the CPC salinity and fresh water flux data package and its applications in the monitoring and analysis of SSS variations in association with the ENSO and other major climate

  5. High resolution measurements of Cyg X-1 from rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothschild, R.E.; Boldt, E.A.; Holt, S.S.; Serlemitsos, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    Cyg X-1 was observed on two occasions (Oct. 4, 1973 and Oct. 3, 1974) by the Goddard x-ray rocket payload. This payload consisted of two gas proportional counters (xenon--methane with 710 cm 2 and argon--methane with 610 cm 2 ) using the same 128 channel pulse height analyzer and having 320 μs temporal resolution on the 1973 flight and 160 μs resolution on the 1974 flight. During both flights bursts of 1 ms duration were observed with very high statistical certainty. To date all 13 of these bursts have been analyzed for spectral and temporal character, and the results of this analysis are presented. The spectra of overall x-ray emission from both flights are also presented. In a source known for its variability it is remarkable that the spectra taken one year apart are virtually identical

  6. Global Summary of the Month, version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global summaries data set contains a monthly (GSOM) resolution of meteorological elements (max temp, snow, etc) from 1763 to present with updates weekly. The...

  7. Diagnosis of cholesteatoma by high resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakitsubata, Yousuke; Kakitsubata, Sachiko; Ogata, Noboru; Asada, Keiko; Watanabe, Katsushi; Tohno, Tetsuya; Makino, Kohji

    1988-01-01

    Three normal volunteers and 57 patients with cholesteatoma were examined by high resolution computed tomography. Serial sections were made through the temporal bone at the nasaly inclined position of 30 degree to the orbitomeatal line (semiaxial plane ; SAP). The findings of temporal bone structures in normal subjects were evaluated in SAP and axial plane (OM). Although the both planes showed good visualization, SAP showed both the eustachian tube and tympanic cavity in one slice. In cholesteatoma soft tissue masses in the tympanic cavity, mastoid air cells and Eustachian tube were demonstrated clearly by SAP. (author)

  8. Assessment of prediction skill in equatorial Pacific Ocean in high resolution model of CFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Anika; Rao, Suryachandra A.; Pillai, Prasanth; Dhakate, Ashish; Salunke, Kiran; Srivastava, Ankur

    2018-01-01

    The effect of increasing atmospheric resolution on prediction skill of El Niño southern oscillation phenomenon in climate forecast system model is explored in this paper. Improvement in prediction skill for sea surface temperature (SST) and winds at all leads compared to low resolution model in the tropical Indo-Pacific basin is observed. High resolution model is able to capture extreme events reasonably well. As a result, the signal to noise ratio is improved in the high resolution model. However, spring predictability barrier (SPB) for summer months in Nino 3 and Nino 3.4 region is stronger in high resolution model, in spite of improvement in overall prediction skill and dynamics everywhere else. Anomaly correlation coefficient of SST in high resolution model with observations in Nino 3.4 region targeting boreal summer months when predicted at lead times of 3-8 months in advance decreased compared its lower resolution counterpart. It is noted that higher variance of winds predicted in spring season over central equatorial Pacific compared to observed variance of winds results in stronger than normal response on subsurface ocean, hence increases SPB for boreal summer months in high resolution model.

  9. Temporal auditory processing in elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzolini, Vanuza Conceição

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the trial of aging all the structures of the organism are modified, generating intercurrences in the quality of the hearing and of the comprehension. The hearing loss that occurs in consequence of this trial occasion a reduction of the communicative function, causing, also, a distance of the social relationship. Objective: Comparing the performance of the temporal auditory processing between elderly individuals with and without hearing loss. Method: The present study is characterized for to be a prospective, transversal and of diagnosis character field work. They were analyzed 21 elders (16 women and 5 men, with ages between 60 to 81 years divided in two groups, a group "without hearing loss"; (n = 13 with normal auditive thresholds or restricted hearing loss to the isolated frequencies and a group "with hearing loss" (n = 8 with neurosensory hearing loss of variable degree between light to moderately severe. Both the groups performed the tests of frequency (PPS and duration (DPS, for evaluate the ability of temporal sequencing, and the test Randon Gap Detection Test (RGDT, for evaluate the temporal resolution ability. Results: It had not difference statistically significant between the groups, evaluated by the tests DPS and RGDT. The ability of temporal sequencing was significantly major in the group without hearing loss, when evaluated by the test PPS in the condition "muttering". This result presented a growing one significant in parallel with the increase of the age group. Conclusion: It had not difference in the temporal auditory processing in the comparison between the groups.

  10. Temporal and spatial complementarity of wind and solar resources in Lower Silesia (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurasz, Jakub; Wdowikowski, Marcin; Kaźmierczak, Bartosz; Dąbek, Paweł

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates the concept of temporal and spatial complementarity of wind and solar resources in Lower Silesia (south-wester Poland). For the purpose of our research we have used hourly load and energy yield from photovoltaics and wind turbines covering period 2010-2014. In order to assess the spatial complementarity we have divided the considered voivodeship into 74 squared regions with maximal area of 400 km2. The obtained results indicate an existence of temporal complementarity on a monthly time scale and a positive correlation between load and wind generation patterns (also on a monthly time scale). The temporal complementarity for hourly time series in relatively low but has potential to smooth the energy generation curves.

  11. Spatial Ensemble Postprocessing of Precipitation Forecasts Using High Resolution Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Moritz N.; Schicker, Irene; Kann, Alexander; Wang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Ensemble prediction systems are designed to account for errors or uncertainties in the initial and boundary conditions, imperfect parameterizations, etc. However, due to sampling errors and underestimation of the model errors, these ensemble forecasts tend to be underdispersive, and to lack both reliability and sharpness. To overcome such limitations, statistical postprocessing methods are commonly applied to these forecasts. In this study, a full-distributional spatial post-processing method is applied to short-range precipitation forecasts over Austria using Standardized Anomaly Model Output Statistics (SAMOS). Following Stauffer et al. (2016), observation and forecast fields are transformed into standardized anomalies by subtracting a site-specific climatological mean and dividing by the climatological standard deviation. Due to the need of fitting only a single regression model for the whole domain, the SAMOS framework provides a computationally inexpensive method to create operationally calibrated probabilistic forecasts for any arbitrary location or for all grid points in the domain simultaneously. Taking advantage of the INCA system (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis), high resolution analyses are used for the computation of the observed climatology and for model training. The INCA system operationally combines station measurements and remote sensing data into real-time objective analysis fields at 1 km-horizontal resolution and 1 h-temporal resolution. The precipitation forecast used in this study is obtained from a limited area model ensemble prediction system also operated by ZAMG. The so called ALADIN-LAEF provides, by applying a multi-physics approach, a 17-member forecast at a horizontal resolution of 10.9 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour. The performed SAMOS approach statistically combines the in-house developed high resolution analysis and ensemble prediction system. The station-based validation of 6 hour precipitation sums

  12. Experimental Measurements of Temporal Dispersion for Underwater Laser Communications and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochenour, Brandon Michael

    The challenge in implementing optical sensors underwater lies in the high variability of the ocean environment where propagation of light in the ocean is complicated by absorption and scattering. Most underwater optical sensors operate in the blue/green portion of the electromagnetic spectrum where seawater exhibits an absorption minimum. Mitigating scattering however is a greater challenge. In particular, scattering causes both spatial distortion (beam spreading) and temporal dispersion (pulse spreading or distortion). Each of type of dispersion decreases sensor performance (operating range, image resolution, data bandwidth, etc.). While spatial dispersion has received a great deal of attention in previous decades, technological limitations of sensor hardware have made experimental measurements of temporal dispersion underwater difficult until now. The main contribution of this thesis are experimental measurements of temporal dispersion of optical beams in turbid water, made with a high sensitivity/high dynamic range experimental technique. Measurements are performed as a function of water clarity (0-20 attenuation lengths), transmitter/receiver alignment (0-30 degrees, half angle), receiver field of view (1-7 degrees, full angle), and transmitter beam divergence (collimated and diffuse). Special attention is paid to the interdependency between spatial and temporal dispersion. This work provides severable notable contributions: 1. While experimental characterization of spatial dispersion has received significant attention underwater, there has been a lack of measurements characterizing temporal dispersion underwater. This work provides the most comprehensive set of experimental measurements to date regarding the temporal dispersion of optical beams underwater. 2. An experimental analysis of the influence of scattering phase function on temporal dispersion. Coarse estimates of the scattering phase function are used to determine the ranges (or attenuation lengths

  13. Temporal fossa intra-extracranial dumbbell schwannoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wong, Limy

    2012-02-01

    Intra-extracranial schwannomas arising unrelated to major cranial nerves are exceedingly rare neoplasms. We report the case of a 23-year-old male who presented with a 9 month history of progressive temporal swelling which was excised and found histologically to be a schwannoma. A succinct review of the relevant literature is presented.

  14. Temporal fossa intra-extracranial dumbbell schwannoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wong, Limy

    2011-02-01

    Intra-extracranial schwannomas arising unrelated to major cranial nerves are exceedingly rare neoplasms. We report the case of a 23-year-old male who presented with a 9 month history of progressive temporal swelling which was excised and found histologically to be a schwannoma. A succinct review of the relevant literature is presented.

  15. Multi-Temporal Land Cover Classification with Sequential Recurrent Encoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rußwurm, Marc; Körner, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Earth observation (EO) sensors deliver data with daily or weekly temporal resolution. Most land use and land cover (LULC) approaches, however, expect cloud-free and mono-temporal observations. The increasing temporal capabilities of today's sensors enables the use of temporal, along with spectral and spatial features. Domains, such as speech recognition or neural machine translation, work with inherently temporal data and, today, achieve impressive results using sequential encoder-decoder structures. Inspired by these sequence-to-sequence models, we adapt an encoder structure with convolutional recurrent layers in order to approximate a phenological model for vegetation classes based on a temporal sequence of Sentinel 2 (S2) images. In our experiments, we visualize internal activations over a sequence of cloudy and non-cloudy images and find several recurrent cells, which reduce the input activity for cloudy observations. Hence, we assume that our network has learned cloud-filtering schemes solely from input data, which could alleviate the need for tedious cloud-filtering as a preprocessing step for many EO approaches. Moreover, using unfiltered temporal series of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance data, we achieved in our experiments state-of-the-art classification accuracies on a large number of crop classes with minimal preprocessing compared to other classification approaches.

  16. Evaluation of high resolution spatio-temporal precipitation extremes from a stochastic weather generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Christensen, O. B.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Spatio-temporal rainfall is modelled for the North-Eastern part of Zealand (Denmark) using the Spatio-Temporal Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses model as implemented in the RainSim software. Hourly precipitation series for fitting the model are obtained from a dense network of tipping bucket rain...... gauges in the model area. The spatiotemporal performance of the model with respect to precipitation extremes is evaluated in the points of a 2x2 km regular grid covering the full model area. The model satisfactorily reproduces the extreme behaviour of the observed precipitation with respect to event...... intensity levels and unconditional spatial correlation when evaluated using an event based ranking approach at point scale and an advanced spatiotemporal coupling of extreme events. Prospectively the model can be used as a tool to evaluate the impact of climate change without relying on precipitation output...

  17. Spatial and temporal patterns of sea ice variations in Vilkitsky strait, Russian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, T.; Cheng, X.; Hui, F.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic Ocean has been greatly affected by climate change. Future predications show an even more drastic reduction of the ice cap which will open new areas for the exploration of natural resources and maritime transportation.Shipping through the Arctic Ocean via the Northern Sea Route (NSR) could save about 40% of the sailing distance from Asia (Yokohama) to Europe (Rotterdam) compared to the traditional route via the Suez Canal. Vilkitsky strait is the narrowest and northest portion of the Northern Sea Route with heaviest traffic between the Taimyr Peninsular and the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago. The preliminary results of sea ice variations are presented by using moderate-resolution imaging spectro radiometer(MODIS) data with 250-m resolution in the Vilkitsky strait during 2009-2012. Temporally, the first rupture on sea ice in Vilkitsky strait usually comes up in April and sea ice completely break into pieces in early June. The strait would be ice-free between August and late September. The frequency of ice floes grows while temperature falls down in October. There are always one or two months suitable for transport. Spatially, Sea ice on Laptev sea side breaks earlier than that of Kara sea side while sea ice in central of strait breaks earlier than in shoreside. The phenomena are directly related with the direction of sea wind and ocean current. In summmary, study on Spatial and temporal patterns in this area is significant for the NSR. An additional research issue to be tackled is to seeking the trends of ice-free duration in the context of global warming. Envisat ASAR data will also be used in this study.

  18. Utilisation of spatial and temporal correlations in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sureau, F.

    2008-06-01

    In this thesis we propose, implement, and evaluate algorithms improving spatial resolution in reconstructed images and reducing data noise in positron emission tomography imaging. These algorithms have been developed for a high resolution tomograph (HRRT) and applied to brain imaging, but can be used for other tomographs or studies. We first developed an iterative reconstruction algorithm including a stationary and isotropic model of resolution in image space, experimentally measured. We evaluated the impact of such a model of resolution in Monte-Carlo simulations, physical phantom experiments and in two clinical studies by comparing our algorithm with a reference reconstruction algorithm. This study suggests that biases due to partial volume effects are reduced, in particular in the clinical studies. Better spatial and temporal correlations are also found at the voxel level. However, other methods should be developed to further reduce data noise. We then proposed a maximum a posteriori de-noising algorithm that can be used for dynamic data to de-noise temporally raw data (sino-grams) or reconstructed images. The a priori modeled the coefficients in a wavelet basis of all the signals without noise (in an image or sinogram). We compared this technique with a reference de-noising method on replicated simulations. This illustrates the potential benefits of our approach of sinogram de-noising. (author)

  19. Mesial temporal sclerosis in children Esclerose mesial temporal em crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Domingues Brandão

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesial temporal sclerosis is the most frequent cause of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy but has a satisfactory response to surgery, and is considered infrequent in children. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, electrographic and radiological spectrum of the disease in children. METHOD: Retrospective study by review of charts of 44 children with a diagnosis of mesial temporal sclerosis on magnetic resonance imaging, attended at the "Hospital das Clínicas" of the University of São Paulo Faculty of Medicine. RESULTS: Febrile seizure was identified in the history of 54% of the patients. Injuries at the left side predominated in patients with schooling difficulties (p=0.049, in those with the first seizures between six months and five years (p=0.021 and in those with complex febrile seizure (p=0.032. Thirteen patients were submitted to surgery and of these, eight remained without seizures. CONCLUSION: Febrile seizure may be related in a more direct way to the presence of left-side mesial temporal sclerosis.Em adultos, esclerose mesial temporal é a causa mais freqüente de epilepsia do lobo temporal intratável por medicamentos e que responde satisfatoriamente a cirurgia, sendo considerada pouco freqüente em criança. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o espectro clínico, eletrográfico e radiológico desta patologia em crianças. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo, por revisão de prontuário de 44 crianças com diagnóstico de esclerose mesial temporal na ressonância magnética, atendidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de São Paulo. RESULTADO: Foi identificado que 54% dos pacientes apresentaram antecedente de crise febril. Lesão no lado esquerdo predominou nos pacientes com dificuldade escolar (p=0.049, naqueles com primeiras crises entre seis meses e cinco anos (p=0,021 e naqueles com crise febril complicada (p=0,032. Treze pacientes foram operados, dos quais oito ficaram livres de crises. CONCLUSÃO: Crise febril pode estar

  20. High-resolution spectrometer at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.M.; HRS Collaboration.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of the High Resolution Spectrometer experiment (PEP-12) now running at PEP. The advanced capabilities of the detector are demonstrated with first physics results expected in the coming months