WorldWideScience

Sample records for monthly status letter

  1. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Alternative view of education in Zambia Pedantry or compromise Alternative view of education in Zambia I have just read the 'On the Map' report of the International School of Lusaka with very mixed feelings (Physics Education, March 2001). I have recently spent some time in Zambia, in Lusaka, and share Sue Pears' love for the country and the Zambians. The ISL is indeed a good, prestigious school, similar to International Schools in many other countries. But, as in most other developing countries, there is enormous variation between the different types of schooling, and the ISL is at one end of the spectrum. Most schools in Zambia are less favoured. Zambia is a wonderful, beautiful country full of the most friendly and resourceful people I know. It is also a very poor country. It is a country of enormous contrasts and its schools reflect that variation. It has a tiny, affluent 'middle' class of professionals, politicians, businessmen, employees of international businesses and NGOs—nearly all paid from overseas budgets. It has an enormous majority of poor folk, cheerfully living in very basic conditions but sharing their lives in extended families without complaint. The government is virtually bankrupt, and consequently those paid by the government—teachers, police, nurses etc—get a pittance. The wage for a teacher in a typical school is #20 per month (compared to a typical teacher in the UK who gets 100 times more, about #2000 per month). The GNP in Zambia is about 1 per day per person, and this has to pay for all the schools, hospitals, police, and the civic infrastructure that we take so much for granted (the GNP in UK is about 60 per day per person). Consequently most state schools do not have resources; they have a classroom and a teacher but little else. What resources the school has will be paid for by the school fees that every

  2. Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Chauvet, Jean-Marie; Fetzer, James; Waltzman, Rand

    1985-01-01

    Letters to the editor on genetic epistemology; a reaction to Nilsson's article "AI Prepares for 2001" and a reaction to the Kosko letter to the editor (Fall 1984, p. 5). Also a note on the AAAI-84 Profile and "Meta-Ravioli" (use of the prefix "meta").

  3. LETTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    At the request of you, our readers, this year we are introducing a "Letters to the Editor" column. We value your comments, positive and negative, on our layout, content and pictures and will make continuous efforts to improve our magazine. We welcome your comments and views on all aspects of China. [We reserve the right to edit for content, clarity or length.]If your letter or e-mail is published, you receive a gift!

  4. LETTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Dear Editor, I am a loyal reader of your magazine. I read Issue No.9 (March 2, 2006) and was deeply impressed by the articles on tobacco. Tobacco is indeed a big problem in China. Well, I would like to introduce, through your letters page, an association closely related to tobacco control. It is called Green Breathing Association, a student organization in Xiamen University (probably the first one of its kind in China). The mission of Green Breathing is to promote the public awareness of tobac-

  5. Monthly Cotton Economic Letter(2012.08)%Monthly Cotton Economic Letter(2012.08)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    After trading within relatively narrow bands throughout July, New York futures moved higher in early August, with the December contract breaking from a range between 69 and 74 cents/Ib to levels above 76 cents/lb. Movement in the A Index was more muted, with values remaining within a range between 82 and 86 cents/lb. The shift higher in New York futures may have been influenced by outside markets, such as those for other agricultural commodities like corn and soybeans, both of which set new record highs last month.

  6. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE Contents: Force on a pendulum Sound slows down Bond is back Force on a pendulum The simple pendulum has been used by several educationalists for investigating the patterns of thinking among students and their observations that Aristotelian thinking persists among students at college level. I had also considered the simple pendulum in my 1985 letter in Physics Today [1], so I was interested to read the test given by Lenka Czudková and Jana Musilová [2]. When students were asked to draw net forces acting on the particle at various positions, 31.9% of students believed that the net force was tangential to the particle's path the whole time. To me this is no surprise because in our derivation of the equation for the period of a simple pendulum we assume that the unbalanced sine component provides the restoring force for the harmonic motion of the bob. Of course, Czudková and Musilová's question asked students for the net force on the particle, not the component. The student's answer fits well with the logic of the equilibrium of forces and the parallelogram law. Lastly, let me bring out the similarity between the student's answer and the thinking of George Gamow. He used to call positrons 'donkey' electrons because of their displacement against the applied force, before Paul Dirac termed them positrons. Victor Weisskeptf told me this anecdote in a letter in May 1982. References [1] Sathe D 1985 Phys. Today 38 144 [2] Czudková L and Musilová J 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 428 Dileep V Sathe Dadawala Jr College, Pune, India Sound slows down Without wanting to stir up more trouble amongst the already muddy waters of Physics teaching, consider how many times you have heard (or, more worryingly, read) this: 'Sound waves travel faster in a denser material' But...The velocity of simple longitudinal waves in a bulk medium is given by v = (K/ρ)1/2 where K is

  7. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: M-set as metaphor The abuse of algebra M-set as metaphor 'To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour' William Blake's implied relativity of spatial and temporal scales is intriguing and, given the durability of this worlds-within-worlds concept (he wrote in 1803) in art, literature and science, the blurring of distinctions between the very large and the very small must strike some kind of harmonious chord in the human mind. Could this concept apply to the physical world? To be honest, we cannot be absolutely sure. Most cosmological thinking still retains the usual notions of a finite universe and an absolute size scale extending from smallest to largest objects. In the boundless realm of mathematics, however, the story is quite different. The M-set was discovered by the French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot in 1980, created by just a few simple lines of computer code that are repeated recursively. As in Blake's poem, this 'world' has no bottom we have an almost palpable archetype for the concept of infinity. I would use the word 'tangible', but one of the defining features of the M-set is that nowhere in the labyrinth can one find a surface smooth enough for a tangent. Upon magnification even surfaces that appeared to be smooth explode with quills and scrolls and lightning bolts and spiral staircases. And there is something more, something truly sublime. Observe a small patch with unlimited magnifying power and, as you observe the M-set on ever-smaller scales, down through literally endless layers of ornate structure, you occasionally come upon a rapidly expanding cortex of dazzling colour with a small black structure at its centre. The black spot appears to be the M-set itself! There is no end to the hierarchy, no bottom-most level, just endless recursive

  8. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Maths for physics? Help! Fire! Energy and mass Maths for physics? As a maths graduate working as a university research associate I should be well qualified to support my daughter, who has just started AS-level physics, with the maths she needs for the course. There seems to be little integration between the maths and physics departments, so that maths needed for physics has not yet been covered in maths lessons. This is a problem I remember from my own school days, but the shorter timescale and modular nature of the AS and A2 levels means that it is essential that this mismatch of knowledge is resolved now. I would like to know whether physics teachers in the UK have encountered this problem and whether there is a deficiency in the maths syllabus in relation to the requirements of the AS and A2 levels in Physics or whether this is a problem peculiar to my daughter's school. Eleanor Parent of A-level student, Sheffield, UK Help! Fire! Is there a crisis in physics education? Is physics didactics coming to an end? Yes and no. Being a delegate from Norway at the on-going conference Physics on Stage (6-10 November 2000) at CERN in Geneva, I have had the opportunity to discuss this with people from all over Europe. Yes, there is a crisis. (Look at the proceedings for details on this.) I'd like to take a broader look at this situation. Like Hari Seldon in Isaac Asimov's Foundation Trilogy, I believe that there is nothing like a real crisis to get things going... Famous is the quote from the American Patent Office around 1890: 'Everything has been invented that could be invented'. Fortunately, this spurred action. The Michelson and Morley experiment heralded a most exciting period for physics. Just a cosmic blink later we put a person on the Moon. Coming back to the crisis - I am certain that in the near future we will see an interesting development

  9. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Quantum uncertainties Reflections in a plastic box A brief history of quantum physics Correction Grammar and gender Quantum uncertainties Whilst I enjoyed Gesche Pospiech's article ('Uncertainty and complementarity: the heart of quantum physics' 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 393 9) I would like to expand on two comments he makes. Firstly the author claims that QM is linear, and a consequence of this is that any two superimposed states form an admissible third state. This is rather too sweeping, as it is true only for degenerate states. Otherwise quantum mechanics would allow a continuum of energies between states by a simple admixture of levels. The proof of this statement is trivial. For a Hamiltonian H and two orthogonal wavefunctions, ψ1 and ψ2 with energies E1 and E2 then (ψ1 + ψ2) is not an eigenfunction of that Hamiltonian as H(ψ1 + ψ2) = E1ψ1 + E2ψ2 ≠ E(ψ1 + ψ2) for any value of E, unless E1 = E2. Secondly Pospiech states that quantum objects show wave- or particle-like behaviour, depending on the measuring apparatus, and that occasionally experiments (such as Taylor's) reveal both. I would contest the validity of this type of thinking. All experiments on quantum objects reveal both types of behaviour—even ones which simply show straight line motion of photons. What is important, in addition, is our interpretation of the results. It takes an understanding of QED, for example, to see that an experiment which otherwise shows particle behaviour is, in fact, showing quantum behaviour. More contentiously though I would suggest that detection apparatus is incapable of detecting anything other than particles. Wave-like behaviour is revealed only by an analysis of the paths the particle could have taken. In other words, the interference of continuous fields sometimes predicts the same results when the detection is averaged over many events

  10. Letter Knowledge in Parent–Child Conversations: Differences between Families Differing in Socio-Economic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eRobins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children’s early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins, Treiman, & Rosales, 2014; Robins, Treiman, Rosales, & Otake, 2012; Robins & Treiman, 2009 that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provides preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child’s name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms, but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams. Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child’s name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children’s early literacy skills and

  11. 21 CFR 570.6 - Opinion letters on food additive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of such articles may no longer be in the file of the Food and Drug Administration. In the absence of... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Opinion letters on food additive status. 570.6 Section 570.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  12. Rehabilitation status three months after first-time myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær; Vestergaard, Mogens; Søndergaard, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    To describe the rehabilitation status three months after first-time myocardial infarction (MI) to identify focus areas for long-term cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in general practice. Design. Population-based cross-sectional study.......To describe the rehabilitation status three months after first-time myocardial infarction (MI) to identify focus areas for long-term cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in general practice. Design. Population-based cross-sectional study....

  13. Improved nutritional status in elderly patients 6 months after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynningsen, Peter Krogh; Husted, Steen; Damsgaard, Else Marie Skjøde

    2007-01-01

    and 6 months. Nutritional status was evaluated by body weight, body mass index (BMI), mid upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and serum concentrations of albumin and transferrin. Malnutrition was defined if the patients had 2 or more abnormal nutritional variables. RESULTS...

  14. Improved nutritional status in elderly patients 6 months after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynningsen, Peter Krogh; Husted, Steen; Damsgaard, Else Marie Skjøde

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status among stroke patients has received limited attention despite the fact, that it may have an influence on clinical outcome. Previous studies have estimated that 15-20 % of patients suffer from malnutrition in the acute phase of stroke, but so far no studies have...... focused on the late rehabilitation phase after stroke in the patients own home, where the attention on nutrition may be reduced. AIMS: To determine the prevalence of malnutrition during 6 months of stroke rehabilitation, and to investigate the association between nutritional status, functional recovery......, length of stay in hospital and infectious complications. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 89 patients with ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to a geriatric stroke rehabilitation unit had their nutritional status evaluated in the hospital at 1 week and 5 weeks after stroke, and in their own home at 3 months...

  15. Improved nutritional status in elderly patients 6 months after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynningsen, P K; Damsgaard, E M S; Husted, S E

    2007-01-01

    Nutritional status among stroke patients has received limited attention despite the fact, that it may have an influence on clinical outcome. Previous studies have estimated that 15-20 % of patients suffer from malnutrition in the acute phase of stroke, but so far no studies have focused on the late rehabilitation phase after stroke in the patients own home, where the attention on nutrition may be reduced. To determine the prevalence of malnutrition during 6 months of stroke rehabilitation, and to investigate the association between nutritional status, functional recovery, length of stay in hospital and infectious complications. 89 patients with ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to a geriatric stroke rehabilitation unit had their nutritional status evaluated in the hospital at 1 week and 5 weeks after stroke, and in their own home at 3 months and 6 months. Nutritional status was evaluated by body weight, body mass index (BMI), mid upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and serum concentrations of albumin and transferrin. Malnutrition was defined if the patients had 2 or more abnormal nutritional variables. We found a significant increase in albumin from 1 week to 6 months (P nutritional variables was 31 (35 %) at 1 week and was reduced to 20 (22 %) at 6 months. 35 % of elderly patients with ischemic stroke admitted to a geriatric rehabilitation unit were malnourished 1 week after stroke. Particularly serum proteins and body fat were affected. Follow-up of nutritional variables showed improvement for serum proteins, and 22 % of the patients were malnourished 6 months after stroke.

  16. Improved nutritional status in elderly patients 6 months after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynningsen, P K; Damsgaard, Else Marie; Husted, Steen

    2007-01-01

    , length of stay in hospital and infectious complications. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 89 patients with ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to a geriatric stroke rehabilitation unit had their nutritional status evaluated in the hospital at 1 week and 5 weeks after stroke, and in their own home at 3 months...... was 31 (35 %) at 1 week and was reduced to 20 (22 %) at 6 months. CONCLUSION: 35 % of elderly patients with ischemic stroke admitted to a geriatric rehabilitation unit were malnourished 1 week after stroke. Particularly serum proteins and body fat were affected. Follow-up of nutritional variables showed......INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status among stroke patients has received limited attention despite the fact, that it may have an influence on clinical outcome. Previous studies have estimated that 15-20 % of patients suffer from malnutrition in the acute phase of stroke, but so far no studies have...

  17. CHIS – Letter from French health insurance authorities "Assurance Maladie" and “frontalier” status

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Certain members of the personnel residing in France have recently received a letter, addressed to themselves and/or their spouse, from the French health insurance authorities (Assurance Maladie) on the subject of changes in the health insurance coverage of “frontalier” workers.   It should be recalled that employed members of personnel (MPE) are not affected by the changes made by the French authorities to frontalier  workers' "right to choose" (droit d'option) in matters of health insurance (see the CHIS website for more details), which took effect as of 1 June 2014, as they are not considered to be frontalier workers. Associated members of the personnel (MPA) are not affected either, unless they live in France and are employed by a Swiss institute. For the small number of MPAs in the latter category who might be affected, as well as for family members who do have frontalier status, CERN is still in discussion with the authorities o...

  18. 21 CFR 170.6 - Opinion letters on food additive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Cosmetic Act, which reads in part: “A food shall be deemed to be adulterated if it bears or contains any... Nutrition, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, along with a copy of his letter of inquiry,...

  19. Reading transposed text: effects of transposed letter distance and consonant-vowel status on eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, Hazel I; Johnson, Rebecca L; Liversedge, Simon P; Rayner, Keith

    2014-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the flexibility of letter-position encoding in word identification during reading. In both experiments, two tasks were used. First, participants' eye movements were measured as they read sentences containing transposed letter (TL) strings. Second, participants were presented with the TL strings in isolation and were asked to discriminate them from nonwords. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the distance between transposed letters (ligament vs. liagment vs. limagent vs. lieamgnt). Reading/response times increased with the distance between TLs. In Experiment 2, we manipulated whether the TLs were consonants, vowels, or one of each (ssytem vs. faeture vs. fromat). Reading/response times showed that CV transpositions were the most disruptive. In both experiments, response accuracy was particularly poor for words presented in isolation when there was an intervening letter between TLs. These data show that processing across multiple fixations, and the presence of a meaningful sentence context, are important for flexible letter position encoding in lexical identification.

  20. Rehabilitation status three months after first-time myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær; Vestergaard, Mogens; Søndergaard, Jens

    2011-01-01

    less than 10 years of education. Upwards of half (58.5%) of the patients stated that they had participated in hospital-based rehabilitation shortly after admission. A total of 262 (29.2%) were identifi ed with anxiety or depressive disorder or both, according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression...... Scale. Of these, 78 (29.8%) reported that they had participated in psychosocial support, and 55 (21.0%) used antidepressants. One in fi ve patients smoked three months after MI although nearly half of the smokers had stopped after the MI. Regarding cardioprotective drugs, 714 (78.6%) used aspirin, 694...

  1. National Ignition Facility monthly status report--February 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, E

    2000-02-29

    The Project provides for the design, procurement, construction, assembly, installation, and acceptance testing of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), an experimental inertial confinement fusion facility intended to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion in the laboratory by imploding a small capsule containing a mixture of the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium. The NIF will be constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California as determined by the Record of Decision made on December 19, 1996, as a part of the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Safety: The Incident Analysis and Construction Management Safety Review Teams were formed to review the January 13, 2000, accident in which a worker received a back injury when a 42-in.-diameter duct fell during installation. One action is to contract DuPont to review the Safety Program. Technical Status: The general status of the technologies underlying the NIF Project remains satisfactory. The issues currently being addressed are (1) cleanliness for installation, assembly, and activation of the laser system by Systems Engineering; (2) laser glass--a second pilot run at one of the two commercial suppliers is ongoing successfully; and (3) operational costs associated with final optics assembly (FOA) optics components--methods are being developed to mitigate 3{omega} damage and to resolve beam rotation issues. Schedule: The completion of the Title II design of laser equipment is now approximately 83% complete. The Beampath Infrastructure System is on the critical schedule path. The procurement strategy was evaluated by commercial construction management and Architectural/Engineering (A/E) contractors with a panel of independent experts, the Beampath Infrastructure System (BIS) Implementation Review Committee Advisory Group. The BIS Integration Management and Installation Services (IMI) Subcontractor solicitation package and approach

  2. National Ignition Facility monthly status report--April 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, E

    2000-05-26

    The Project provides for the design, procurement, construction, assembly, installation, and acceptance testing of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), an experimental inertial confinement fusion facility intended to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion in the laboratory by imploding a small capsule containing a mixture of the hydrogen isotopes, deuterium and tritium. The NIF will be constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California as determined by the Record of Decision made on December 19, 1996, as a part of the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (SSM PEIS). Safety: On Saturday April 29, 2000, while preparing the Ringer crane for operation at the NIF site, a mechanical malfunction was observed by the operator. He stopped work and consulted with line management. They agreed with the operator's assessment, and with the Livermore Emergency Duty Officer, implemented a precautionary evacuation of the area around the crane. DOE was notified of the situation. The crane was then placed in a safe condition. A crane maintenance vendor is inspecting the crane and a management team headed by the Beampath Infrastructure System Associate Project Manager is reviewing the documentation, crane history, and repairs to ensure that the crane is fully safe before reuse. Technical Status: The general status of the technologies underlying the NIF Project remains satisfactory. The issues currently being addressed are (1) cleanliness for installation, assembly, and activation of the laser system by Systems Engineering working groups; (2) laser glass, where a second pilot run at both commercial suppliers is expected to confirm the mitigation steps identified in the first pilot run; and (3) operational costs associated with Final Optics Assembly (FOA) optics components, where methods are being developed to mitigate 3 {omega} damage and to resolve beam rotation issues. Schedule: The project

  3. National Ignition Facility monthly status report-January 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, E

    2000-01-31

    The Project provides for the design, procurement, construction, assembly, installation, and acceptance testing of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), an experimental inertial confinement fusion facility intended to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion in the laboratory by imploding a small capsule containing a mixture of the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium. The NIF will be constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California as determined by the Record of Decision made on December 19, 1996, as a part of the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Safety: On January 13, 2000, a worker received a back injury when a 42-in.-diameter duct fell during installation. He was taken by helicopter to the hospital and released on January 16, 2000. All work in the area was suspended, and the construction contractors went through a thorough safety review before work was started. A DOE occurrence report was filed. An independent LLNL Incident Analysis Team is reviewing the cause of the accident and will report out on March 1. A Project management review team is reviewing construction line management and safety support and will also report out on March 1. Several changes in work planning and site management have been incorporated to increase site safety. Technical Status: The general status of the technologies underlying the NIF Project remains satisfactory. The issues currently being addressed are (1) cleanliness for installation, assembly, and activation of the laser system by Systems Engineering; (2) laser glass--a second pilot run at one of the two commercial suppliers is ongoing; and (3) operational costs associated with final optics assembly (FOA) optics components--methods are being developed to mitigate 3 {omega}damage and resolve beam rotation issues. Schedule: The completion of the Title II design of laser equipment is now approximately 80% complete. The Beampath Infrastructure

  4. HIV status, breastfeeding modality at 5 months and postpartum maternal weight changes over 24 months in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Terusha; Carter, Rosalind J; Bland, Ruth M; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effect of infant feeding practices on postpartum weight change among HIV-infected and -uninfected women in South Africa. In a non-randomised intervention cohort study of antiretroviral therapy-naïve women in South Africa, infants were classified as exclusive (EBF), mixed (MF) or non-breastfed (NBF) at each visit. We analysed infant feeding cumulatively from birth to 5 months using 24-hour feeding history (collected weekly for each of the preceding 7 days). Using generalised estimating equation mixed models, allowing for repeated measures, we compared postpartum weight change (kg) from the first maternal postpartum weight within the first 6 weeks (baseline weight) to each subsequent visit through 24 months among 2340 HIV-infected and -uninfected women with live births and at least two postpartum weight measurements. HIV-infected (-0.2 kg CI: -1.7 to 1.3 kg; P = 0.81) and -uninfected women (-0.5 kg; 95% CI: -2.1 to 1.2 kg; P = 0.58) had marginal non-significant weight loss from baseline to 24 months postpartum. Adjusting for HIV status, socio-demographic, pregnancy-related and infant factors, 5-month feeding modality was not significantly associated with postpartum weight change: weight change by 24 months postpartum, compared to the change in the reference EBF group, was 0.03 kg in NBF (95% CI: -2.5 to +2.5 kg; P = 0.90) and 0.1 kg in MF (95% CI: -3.0 to +3.2 kg; P = 0.78). HIV-infected and -uninfected women experienced similar weight loss over 24 months. Weight change postpartum was not associated with 5-month breastfeeding modality among HIV-infected and -uninfected women. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Alphabetic skills in preschool: a preliminary study of letter naming and letter writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfese, Victoria J; Beswick, Jennifer; Molnar, Andrew; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill

    2006-01-01

    Development of letter naming and writing (skills in writing first name, dictated and copied letters, and dictated and copied numbers) was examined in 79 preschool children (M age = 56 months). Skills were assessed in the fall to determine the status of these procedural skills that are components of alphabetic knowledge at the start of the school year. Children with high letter-naming scores also had high scores on letter writing, including dictated or copied letters and writing some or all of the letters of their names. Letter-naming skills were related to number-writing skills whether the numbers were dictated or copied. The highest writing scores were found for first name writing compared to writing or copying letters and numbers. A focus on the development of procedural knowledge in the preschool period may yield the hopep for impacts on later reading skills that has not been found in curricula emphasizing conceptual knowledge (e.g., knowledge of print concepts, book conventions).

  6. Circular letter from January 22, 2004 to the presidents of companies having the status of chartered storage facility; Lettre circulaire du 22 janvier 2004 a Messieurs les presidents de societes titulaires du statut d'entrepositaire agree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This circular letter is intended for owners of storage facilities for petroleum products benefiting from the obligation of strategic storage according to the article 2 of law no 92-1443 from December 31, 1992. The attached document recalls the reasons and content of this obligation, the prevailing strategic storage rules in France (reference texts, products in concern, operators, stockpiles localization, product substitution possibilities..), the monthly declarations, the controls and sanctions, the annual plan of stocks localization, the obligation of information, the loss of chartered status or the renouncement. A schematic synthesis of the system of stockpiles constitution is presented in appendix, for France and for the French overseas departements. The other appendixes concern: the list of petroleum products concerned by the legal obligation of strategic storage, the relations between the professional committee of strategic stockpiles (CPSSP) and the anonymous society of security stocks management (SAGESS), and some examples of monthly and annual declaration forms. (J.S.)

  7. Parents’ Talk About Letters With Their Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Schmidt, John; Decker, Kristina; Robins, Sarah; Levine, Susan C.; Demir, Özlem Ece

    2015-01-01

    A literacy-related activity that occurs in children's homes—talk about letters in everyday conversations—was examined using data from 50 children who were visited every 4 months between 14 and 50 months. Parents talked about some letters, including those that are common in English words and the first letter of their children's names, especially often. Parents’ focus on the child's initial was especially strong in families of higher socioeconomic status, and the extent to which parents talked about the child's initial during the later sessions of the study was related to the children's kindergarten reading skill. Conversations that included the child's initial were longer than those that did not, and parents presented a variety of information about this letter. PMID:26014495

  8. Dietary practices and nutritional status of 0-24-month-old children from Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, T G; Baraldi, L G; Muniz, P T; Cardoso, M A

    2009-12-01

    To assess the nutritional status and dietary practices of 0-24-month-old children living in Brazilian Amazonia. Cross-sectional study. Information on children's dietary intakes was obtained from diet history data. Weight and length were measured for anthropometric evaluation. Fe status was assessed using fasting venous blood samples; Hb, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations were measured. The towns of Assis Brasil and Acrelândia in the state of Acre, north-west Brazil. A total of sixty-nine randomly selected 0-24-month-old children. Of these children, 40.3 % were anaemic, 63.1 % were Fe-deficient, 28.1 % had Fe-deficiency anaemia and 11.6 % were stunted. Breast-feeding was initiated by 97.1 % of mothers, followed by early feeding with complementary foods. The dietary pattern reflected a high intake of carbohydrate-rich foods and cow's milk, with irregular intakes of fruit, vegetables and meat. All infants and 92.3 % of toddlers were at risk of inadequate Fe intakes. Fe from animal foods contributed on average 0.5 % and 14.3 % to total dietary Fe intake among infants and toddlers, respectively. Poor nutritional status and inadequate feeding practices in this study population reinforce the importance of exclusive breast-feeding during the first 6 months of life. Greater emphasis is required to improve the bioavailability of dietary Fe during complementary feeding practices.

  9. Impact of Maternal Selenium Status on Infant Outcome during the First 6 Months of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsi, Kristin; Bolann, Bjørn; Torsvik, Ingrid; Rosvold Eik, Tina Constanse; Høl, Paul Johan; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2017-01-01

    Pregnant women and infants are at risk for selenium deficiency, which is known to have negative effects on immune and brain function. We have investigated selenium levels in 158 healthy never-pregnant women and in 114 pregnant and lactating women and their infants at age 6 months and related this to clinical outcomes during the first 6 months of life. Neurodevelopment was assessed with the parental questionnaire Ages and Stages (ASQ) at 6 months. A maternal selenium level ≤0.90 µmol/L in pregnancy week 18 was negatively related to infant neurodevelopment at 6 months (B = −20, p = 0.01), whereas a selenium level ≤0.78 µmol/L in pregnancy week 36 was associated with an increased risk (odds ratio 4.8) of having an infant infection during the first 6 weeks of life. A low maternal selenium status in pregnancy was found to be associated with an increased risk of infant infection during the first 6 weeks of life and a lower psychomotor score at 6 months. We suggest a cutoff for maternal serum selenium deficiency of 0.90 µmol/L in pregnancy week 18 and 0.78 µmol/L in pregnancy week 36. This should be reevaluated in an intervention study. PMID:28492511

  10. Change of residence and functional status within three months and one year following hip fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Vega, Patrocinio; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Kristensen, Morten Tange

    2014-01-01

    To study the recovery of patients in terms of 18 activities of daily living and change of residence within the year following a hip fracture. This prospective cohort study was carried out in a trauma service of an acute hospital in southern Spain including 159 patients with a hip fracture, 65 years or older and allowed weight-bearing after surgery. Patients or their relatives were interviewed about their residential status and functional level at pre-fracture, three months and one year after surgery, using the Functional Independence Measure. Losses of function for the main activities affected were, at the first month, third month and one year relative to the pre-fracture status, 50%, 25% and 12%, respectively, for locomotion, 40%, 25% and 20%, respectively, for mobility and 27%, 17% and 15%, respectively, for self care (p loss of independence in the first year after a hip fracture is substantial for specific activities. Recovery mainly takes place during the first three months after surgery. Change of residence mostly involved those patients who lived alone in their own home at pre-fracture. Implications for Rehabilitation One year after fracture, patients did not recover their previous function, and the activities most affected at the one-year follow-up were: dressing lower body, bathing/showering, transfer bathtub/shower and walking up/down stairs. After a hip fracture, most recovery of the function happens within the first three months, though some functional activities continue recovering over the first year. Rehabilitation programs cannot be based only on mobility activities, the recovery of other daily living activities should also be included.

  11. Maternal mental health and nutritional status of six-month-old infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Kulik Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if maternal mental health is associated with infant nutritional status at six month of age. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 228 six-month-old infants who used primary health care units of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Mean weight-for-length and mean weight-for-age were expressed in z-scores considering the 2006 World Health Organization reference curves. Maternal mental health was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The following cutoff points were used: ≥ 3 for common mental disorders, ≥ 5 for more severe mental disorders, and ≥ 9 for depression. The statistical analysis employed adjusted linear regression models. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders, more severe mental disorders and depression was 39.9%, 23.7%, and 8.3%, respectively. Children of women with more severe mental disorders had, on average, a weight-for-length 0.37 z-scores lower than children of women without this health harm (p = 0.026. We also observed that the weight-for-length indicator of children of depressed mothers was, on average, 0.67 z-scores lower than that of children of nondepressed women (p = 0.010. Maternal depression was associated with lower mean values of weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.041. CONCLUSIONS Maternal mental health is positively related to the inadequacy of the nutritional status of infants at six months.

  12. Correlation of 4-month infant feeding modes with their growth and iron status in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yu-hua; JI Cheng-ye; ZHENG Xiu-xia; SHAN Jin-ping; HOU Rui

    2008-01-01

    Background Growth and development of infants has been an impoRant topic in pediatrics for a long time.Infants must be provided with food containing all necessary nutrienls.Breast milk js believed to be the most desirable natural and cheapest food for well-balanced nutrition.But with the progress in the development of substitute food in developed countries,it is thought that formula milk can meet the requirement for infant growth.During early infancy,growth,as the most sensitive index of health,is therefore a critical component in evaluating the adequacy of breast-feeding,mixed-feeding and formula feeding.Iron status is another important index of infant health.Iron deficiency anemia remains the most prevalent nutritional deficiency index in infants worldwide.This study is to compare infants in Beijing at 4 months who are on three different feeding modes(breast feeding,mixed feeding and formula feeding)in physical changes and iron status.The results may provide new mothers with support in feeding mode selection,which will also be helpful to the China Nutrition Association in feeding mode education.Methods This is a cohort study.One thousand and one normal Beijing infants were followed regularly for 12 months.Body weight and horizontal length were measured.Hemoglobin,red blood cell counts,mean corpuscular volume,mean corpuscular hemoglobin and serum iron were analyzed at 4 months.Results The breast feeding percentage in the first 4 months was 47.9%.The feeding mode was not significantly related to maternal delivery age,education,labor pathway nor infant sex(P>0.05).Infant boys and girls exclusively breast-fed from 0 to 4 months had the highest weight at 0-6 months.The anemia rate of breast-fed infant boys at 4 months was the highest.Conclusions Breast feeding should be given more emphasis.It is compulsory for new mothers to breast-feed their Infants if possible.Social environment should also guarantee the requirement for breast feeding.Furthermore the normal values

  13. Curcumin may impair iron status when fed to mice for six months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Chin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin has been shown to have many potentially health beneficial properties in vitro and in animal models with clinical studies on the toxicity of curcumin reporting no major side effects. However, curcumin may chelate dietary trace elements and could thus potentially exert adverse effects. Here, we investigated the effects of a 6 month dietary supplementation with 0.2% curcumin on iron, zinc, and copper status in C57BL/6J mice. Compared to non-supplemented control mice, we observed a significant reduction in iron, but not zinc and copper stores, in the liver and the spleen, as well as strongly suppressed liver hepcidin and ferritin expression in the curcumin-supplemented mice. The expression of the iron-importing transport proteins divalent metal transporter 1 and transferrin receptor 1 was induced, while hepatic and splenic inflammatory markers were not affected in the curcumin-fed mice. The mRNA expression of other putative target genes of curcumin, including the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 and haem oxygenase 1 did not differ between the groups. Most of the published animal trials with curcumin-feeding have not reported adverse effects on iron status or the spleen. However, it is possible that long-term curcumin supplementation and a Western-type diet may aggravate iron deficiency. Therefore, our findings show that further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of curcumin supplementation on iron status.

  14. Does Household Food Insecurity Affect the Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Aged 6–36 Months?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Saaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study used three dependent measures of food security to assess the magnitude of household food insecurity and its consequences on the nutritional status of children 6–36 months in Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana. Methods. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 337 mother/child pairs in June 2012. Food access was measured as household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS, household dietary diversity score (HDDS, and food consumption score (FCS. Results. The magnitude of household food insecurity depended on the food access indicator, with HFIAS yielding the highest household food insecurity of 54%. Of the three food access indicators, 30-day HFIAS was not related to any of the nutrition indices measured. HDDS and FCS were both significantly associated with BMI of mothers and chronic malnutrition (stunted growth but not acute malnutrition (wasting with FCS being a stronger predictor of nutritional status. Compared to children in food insecure households, children in food secure households were 46% protected from chronic malnutrition (, 95% CI: 0.31–0.94. Conclusions and Recommendations. The results of this study show that different measures of household food insecurity produce varied degree of the problem. Efforts at reducing chronic child malnutrition should focus on improving the adequacy of the diet.

  15. HIV status, breastfeeding modality at 5 months and postpartum maternal weight changes over 24 months in rural South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Chetty, Terusha; Carter, Rosalind J.; Bland, Ruth M.; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2014-01-01

    Objective\\ud \\ud To determine the effect of infant feeding practices on postpartum weight change among HIV-infected and -uninfected women in South Africa.\\ud \\ud Methods\\ud \\ud In a non-randomised intervention cohort study of antiretroviral therapy-naïve women in South Africa, infants were classified as exclusive (EBF), mixed (MF) or non-breastfed (NBF) at each visit. We analysed infant feeding cumulatively from birth to 5 months using 24-hour feeding history (collected weekly for each of the...

  16. Predictors of changes in health status between and within patients 12 months post left ventricular assist device implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwers, Corline; de Jonge, Nicolaas; Caliskan, Kadir;

    2014-01-01

    LVAD implantation. METHODS: Health status [Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ); Short-Form 12 (SF-12)] were assessed at 3-4 weeks after implantation, and at 3, 6 and 12 months follow up in 54 LVAD patients (74% men; mean age 54 ± 9 years). RESULTS: Patients experienced significant......BACKGROUND: Improving patient-reported outcomes (e.g. health status) has become an important goal in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy, in addition to reducing mortality and morbidity. We examined predictors of changes in health status scores between and within patients 12 months post...... improvements in health status between baseline and 3 months follow-up as assessed by the KCCQ (clinical summary score: F = 33.49, P 12 (physical component score: F = 31.59, P 

  17. A prospective study of iron status in exclusively breastfed term infants up to 6 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Shashi; Faridi, Mma; Rusia, Usha; Singh, Om

    2008-03-01

    Can exclusive breastfeeding until six months of age maintain optimum iron status in term babies? We evaluated iron status of exclusively breastfed term infants in relation to breast milk iron and lactoferrin. In this prospective study in Delhi, India, during the period 2003-2004 normally delivered babies of non-anemic [(Hemoglobin (Hb) = 11 g/dl, n = 68] and anemic (Hb 7 - 10.9 g/dl, n = 61) mothers were followed until 6 months of age. Iron parameters were measured in the cord blood at 14 weeks and 6 months. Breast milk iron and lactoferrin were measured at the same intervals. Iron parameters in babies of both groups were within normal limits at birth, 14 weeks and 6 months. Mean breast milk iron and lactoferrin in non-anemic (day 1: 0.89, 6 months: 0.26 mg/l; day 1: 12.02, 6 months: 5.85 mg/ml) and anemic mothers (day 1: 0.86, 6 months: 0.27 mg/l; day 1: 12.91, 6 months: 6.37 mg/ml) were not different on day one or at other times. No relationship was found between breast milk iron, lactoferrin and iron status of the babies. Exclusively breastfed infants of non-anemic and anemic mothers did not develop iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia by six months of age.

  18. Nutritional and developmental status among 6- to 8-month-old children in southwestern Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Grace K. M. Muhoozi; Atukunda, Prudence; Mwadime, Robert; Iversen, Per Ole; Westerberg, Ane C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Undernutrition continues to pose challenges to Uganda’s children, but there is limited knowledge on its association with physical and intellectual development.Objective: In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the nutritional status and milestone development of 6- to 8-month-old children and associated factors in two districts of southwestern Uganda.Design: Five hundred and twelve households with mother–infant (6–8 months) pairs were randomly sampled. Data about background vari...

  19. Letter-Name Letter-Sound and Phonological Awareness: Evidence from Greek-Speaking Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolitsis, George; Tafa, Eufimia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the development of letter-sound and letter-name knowledge and their relation to each other and to various aspects of phonological awareness in a sample of Greek kindergarten children who did not know how to read. One hundred twenty children aged 58-69 months were assessed on letter-sound and…

  20. Which angiographic variable best describes functional status 6 months after successful single-vessel coronary balloon angiopasty?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J.W.M. Rensing (Benno); W.R.M. Hermans (Walter); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.W. Deckers (Jaap)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES. The aim of this study was to determine which quantitative angiographic variable best describes functional status 6 months after coronary balloon angioplasty. BACKGROUND. Several angiographic restenosis criteria have been developed. These can be divided into those that describ

  1. Effects of a 5-month football program on perceived psychological status and body composition of overweight boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabra, A C; Seabra, A F; Brito, J

    2014-01-01

    . Indicators of perceived psychological status included body image, self-esteem, attraction to participation in physical activity, and perceived physical competence measured with standardized questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. From baseline through 5 months...

  2. Micronutrients supplementation and nutritional status in cognitively impaired elderly persons: a two-month open label pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arnim, Christine A F; Dismar, Stephanie; Ott-Renzer, Cornelia S; Noeth, Nathalie; Ludolph, Albert C; Biesalski, Hans K

    2013-11-15

    Malnutrition is a widespread problem in elderly people and is associated with cognitive decline. However, interventional studies have produced ambiguous results. For this reason, we wanted to determine the effect of micronutrient supplementation on blood and tissue levels and on general nutritional status in persons with mild or moderate cognitive impairment. We performed a 2-month, open-label trial, administering a daily micronutrient supplement to 42 memory clinic patients with mild cognitive deficits. Blood levels of antioxidants, zinc, and B vitamins were determined before and after supplementation. In addition, we assessed metabolic markers for B vitamins and intracellular (buccal mucosa cell [BMC]) antioxidant levels. Nutritional status was assessed by using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Blood levels of B vitamins, folic acid, lutein, β-carotene, α-carotene, and α-tocopherol increased significantly. Decreases in homocysteine levels and the thiamine pyrophosphate effect and an increase in holotranscobalamin were observed. We found no increase in intracellular antioxidant levels of BMC. The MNA score in subjects at risk for malnutrition increased significantly, mainly owing to better perception of nutritional and overall health status. Micronutrient supplementation improved serum micronutrient status, with improved metabolic markers for B vitamins but not for intracellular antioxidant status, and was associated with improved self-perception of general health status. Our data underline the necessity of determining micronutrient status and support the use of additional assessments for general health and quality of life in nutritional supplementation trials.

  3. Parents' Talk about Letters with Their Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Schmidt, John; Decker, Kristina; Robins, Sarah; Levine, Susan C.; Demir, Özlem E.

    2015-01-01

    A literacy-related activity that occurs in children's homes--talk about letters in everyday conversations--was examined using data from 50 children who were visited every 4 months between 14 and 50 months. Parents talked about some letters, including those that are common in English words and the first letter of their children's names, especially…

  4. Iron status biomarkers and C-reactive protein in children aged 19 to 72 months in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Alex; Hertrampf, Eva; Olivares, Manuel

    2013-03-01

    The Chilean Ministry of Health has combated iron deficiency through the delivery of fortified milk by the National Complementary Feeding Program (NCFP). To assess iron status and associations between biomarkers of iron status and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) in 218 beneficiaries of the NCFP aged 19 to 72 months in Santiago and Valparaiso, Chile. Blood was collected from a cross-sectional representative sample. Iron status (measured by hemoglobin, zinc protoporphyrin, and serum ferritin levels) and inflammation (according to CRP level) were determined. Serum CRP level was positively associated with serum ferritin and zinc protoporphyrin levels (r = 0.16 and r = 0.15; p = .0168 and p = .0290, respectively). Serum ferritin was higher among children with high CRP (> 10 mg/dL) than among those with low CRP (deficiency anemia, 42.7% as having iron-deficiency erythropoiesis, 17.9% as having depleted iron stores, and 35.8% as having normal iron status. CONCLUSIONS. CRP level was positively associated with: serum ferritin and zinc protoporphyrin levels. Chilean children aged 19 to 72 months from Santiago and Valparaiso who were beneficiaries of the NCFP had a low prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia, a high prevalence of iron-deficiency erythropoiesis, and a moderate prevalence of depleted iron stores.

  5. Editor's Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dear readers: It's already in the middle of the year, the National Statistics Bureau has not yet issued the economic performance data for the first half of 2009, so that the first six month information of textile economic running is not attainable, either.

  6. Editor's Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Hong

    2007-01-01

    @@ Dear Readers: Companies short-listed for EU textile export in 2008… The ice is broken after a much long time of waiting for what Chinese government will do with textile export to EU in 2008, as Sino-EU textile accord is set to come to an end only less than three months away from now.

  7. Cognitive Determinants of Early Letter Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Suha; Weil-Barais, Annick

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the general cognitive determinants of alphabetic letter knowledge. It involved 60 French kindergarten children (mean age: five years six months). Two test batteries were used: the CMS to evaluate general cognitive abilities (memory, attention, and learning), and the LKT to assess letter knowledge and its various…

  8. The Impact on Child Developmental Status at 12 Months of Volunteer Home-Visiting Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Barnes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Home-visiting support during pregnancy or soon after the birth of an infant can be advantageous for maternal well-being and infant development. The best results have been identified when home visitors are professionals, especially nurses, and if a theoretically driven curriculum is followed with fidelity. Some suggest that disadvantaged families, who may avoid professional services, respond well to support from community volunteers, but there is less evidence about their impact. This study identified potentially vulnerable mothers during pregnancy in randomly allocated neighbourhoods where local volunteer home-visiting schemes agreed to offer proactive volunteer support and control areas where the local home-visiting schemes did not offer this proactive service. Taking demographic, child, and family factors into account, there were no significant differences in infant cognitive development at 12 months of age between families who had been supported by a volunteer and those who had not. Better cognitive development was predicted by less reported parenting stress when infants were 2 months and a more stimulating and responsive home environment at 12 months. The results suggest that unstructured proactive volunteer support for potentially vulnerable families is not likely to enhance infant development. Limitations of the cluster-randomised design are discussed.

  9. Editor's Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dear readers, During G-20 summit meeting,experts believe China will be the first to walk out of economic winter into a warm Spring of economic rejuvenation.China's forth quarter of the year 2008 did not put on an exciting wrap-up show for its GDP growth only at 6.8%,an unprecedented slowdown compared with its first 3 months,but the whole year ended in a 9% grow rate,which has been considered "a great and impressive progress" against global economic recession from financial crisis that was running rampant with cross-board impacts on the world economy.

  10. Health Status and Risk Factors among Adolescent Survivors One Month after the 2014 Ludian Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bihan Tang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: An earthquake struck Ludian in Yunnan Province (China on 3 August 2014, resulting in 3143 injuries, 617 deaths, and 112 missing persons. Our study aimed at estimating the health status and associated determinants among adolescent survivors after the Ludian earthquake. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 845 was conducted at the Ludian No. 1 Middle School. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, ANOVA and stepwise linear regression analysis were used for data analysis. Results: The mean scores on the physical component summary (PCS and mental component summary (MCS were 46.23 (SD = 7.10 and 36.34 (SD = 7.09, respectively. Lower PCS scores in the aftermath of an earthquake were associated with being trapped or in danger, being female, being an ethnic minority, injury to self and house damage, while lower MSC scores were associated with fear during the earthquake, Han ethnicity, death in the family, not being involved in the rescue and low household income. Conclusions: In our study, significant associations between demographic, socio-economic, and trauma-related experiences variables and overall physical and mental health of adolescent survivors were presented. The results of this study help expand our knowledge of health status among adolescent survivors after the Ludian earthquake.

  11. Iodine status and associations with feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development in six-month-old South African infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Jennifer; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Rothman, Marinel; Matsungo, Tonderayi M; Covic, Namukolo; Faber, Mieke; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2016-12-28

    Iodine is important for normal growth and psychomotor development. While infants below 6 months of age receive iodine from breast milk or fortified infant formula, the introduction of complementary foods poses a serious risk for deteriorating iodine status. This cross-sectional analysis assessed the iodine status of six-month-old South African infants and explored its associations with feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development. Iodine concentrations were measured in infant (n = 386) and maternal (n = 371) urine (urinary iodine concentration [UIC]), and in breast milk (n = 257 [breast milk iodine concentrations]). Feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development were assessed in all infants. The median (25th-75th percentile) UIC in infants was 345 (213-596) μg/L and was significantly lower in stunted (302 [195-504] μg/L) than non-stunted (366 [225-641] μg/L) infants. Only 6.7% of infants were deficient. Maternal UIC (128 [81-216] μg/L; rs  = 0.218, p psychomotor developmental scores were observed. Our results suggest that iodine intake in the studied six-month-old infants was adequate. Iodine in breast milk and commercial infant cereals potentially contributed to this adequate intake.

  12. TRMM Science Highlights and Status of Precipitation Estimates on Monthly and Finder Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has completed three years in orbit. A summary of research highlights will be presented focusing on application of TRMM data to topics ranging from climate analysis, through improving forecasts, to microphysical research. Monthly surface rainfall estimates over the ocean based on different instruments on TRMM currently differ by 20%. The difference is not surprising considering the different type of observations available for the first time from TRMM with both the passive and active microwave sensors. Resolving this difference will strengthen the validity and utility of ocean rainfall estimates and is the topic of ongoing research utilizing various facets of the TRMM validation and field experiment programs. The TRMM rainfall estimates are intercompared among themselves and with other estimates, including those of the standard, monthly Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) analysis. The GPCP analysis agrees roughly in magnitude with the passive microwave-based TRMM estimates which is not surprising considering GPCP over-ocean estimates are based on passive microwave observations. A three year TRMM rainfall climatology is presented based on the TRMM merged product, including anomaly fields related to the changing ENSO situation during the mission. Results of merging TRMM, other passive microwave observations, and geosynchronous infrared rainfall estimates into a global, tropical 3-hour time resolution analysis will also be described.

  13. Effects of a 12-Month Pedometer-Based Walking Intervention in Women of Low Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbuckle, Lyndsey M.; Kingsley, J. Derek; Kushnick, Michael R.; Moffatt, Robert J.; Haymes, Emily M.; Miles, Rebecca; Toole, Tonya; Panton, Lynn B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a 12-month walking intervention in overweight/obese, low socioeconomic women. Forty-six women (48.2 ± 8.0 years) entered the study. Outcomes included weight, waist and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood lipids, fibrinogen, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Both intention-to-treat analyses in all participants and group analyses in study completers only (3K group = increased steps/day by ≥3,000; No Δ group = did not increase steps/day by ≥3,000) were conducted. Group × time ANOVA was used. In study completers, 3K significantly increased steps/day (6,903 ± 3,328 to 12,323 ± 5,736) compared to No Δ (4,926 ± 3,374 to 5,174 ± 3,095) from baseline to 12 months. There was a significant time effect for weight (P = 0.030), BMI (P = 0.029), and hsCRP (P = 0.044). Low socioeconomic women who adhere to a long-term, pedometer-based walking intervention significantly increased steps/day and may improve body weight, BMI, and hsCRP. This could help reduce health disparities in this population over time. PMID:27746679

  14. Antenatal and neonatal visits increase complete immunization status among children aged 12-23 months in rural area of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi Suparmi

    2015-01-01

    -23 months in rural area of Indonesia.Methods: The assessment used a part data of the 2013 Basic Health Research (Riskesdas. The sub- samples consisted of children aged 12-23 months livedin rural area. Out of the 8747 children aged 12-23 months who lived in rural area, 5452 children had complete data for the analysis. Complete basic immunization status based on record on immunization card and mother’s recall. Cox regression analysis with constant time was used for the analysis.Results: Out of 5452 children, 52.8% (2880/5452 had completed the basic immunization. Dominant factors related to basic complete immunization status were antenatal and neonatal visit, wealth index, mother’s education, and mother’s occupation. Compared with those who did not antenatal visit, those who had antenatal visit had 38% to be more complete basic immunization [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.27 - 1.50; P = 0.000]. In term of neonatal visit, those who had neonatal visit had 37% to be more complete basic immunization compare to those who did not have neonatal visit (RRa = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.29 - 1.46; P = 0.000.Conclusion: In Indonesia rural areas the children who had antenatal and neonatal visits tend to have more complete basic immunization status. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:73-7Key words: complete basic immunization, antenatal and neonatal visits, rural

  15. Docosahexaenoic acid status at 9 months is inversely associated with communicative skills in 3-year-old girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Tronhjem, Kathrine Marie Hagerup; Hellgren, Lars

    2013-01-01

    personal and social skills was also observed, but only for girls. In girls, RBC-DHA was found to be inversely correlated with communication at 3 years of age (odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval: 0.56-0.86, P = 0.001), but no other associations with psychomotor development or milestones were found....... The results from study indicate that DHA status at 9 months may not have a pronounced beneficial effect on psychomotor development in early childhood and that communicative skills at 3 years of age may even be inversely associated with early RBC-DHA levels in girls....

  16. Maternal zinc status is associated with breast milk zinc concentration and zinc status in breastfed infants aged 4-6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumrongwongsiri, Oraporn; Suthutvoravut, Umaporn; Chatvutinun, Suthida; Phoonlabdacha, Phanphen; Sangcakul, Areeporn; Siripinyanond, Artitaya; Thiengmanee, Usana; Chongviriyaphan, Nalinee

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk provides adequate nutrients during the first 6 months of life. However, there are some reports of zinc deficiency in breastfed infants. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency in infants aged 4-6 months and the associated factors. Healthy infants aged 4-6 months and their mothers were enrolled. They were classified by feeding types as breastfed (BF), formula-fed (FF), and mixed groups (MF). Data collection included demographic data, perinatal data, given diets, and anthropometric measurement. Blood from infants and lactating mothers, and breast milk samples were collected to assess plasma and breast milk zinc concentrations. From 158 infants, the prevalence of zinc deficiency (plasma level below 10.7 mol/L) was 7.6%, and according to feeding groups 14.9%, 5.3%, and 2.9% in the BF, the FF, and the MF groups, respectively. Breastfed infants with zinc deficiency had significantly lower maternal zinc concentrations compared with those without zinc deficiency. There was a higher proportion of maternal zinc deficiency in zinc-deficient infants than those without zinc deficiency (66.7% vs 16.2%, p=0.02). There was a positive correlation between zinc concentrations in breast milk and plasma zinc concentrations of infants (r=0.62, p=0.01) and plasma zinc concentrations of lactating mothers (r=0.56, p=0.016). Using the regression analysis, infant zinc status was associated with maternal plasma zinc concentrations among breastfed infants. The results of this study suggest that breastfed infants aged 4-6 months may have a risk of zinc deficiency and that risk is associated with maternal zinc status and breast milk zinc concentrations.

  17. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 12-Month-Old Infants at 63–66° N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birna Thorisdottir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the vitamin D status in healthy 12-month-old infants in relation to quantity and sources of dietary vitamin D, breastfeeding and seasons. Subjects were 76 12-month-old infants. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD ≥ 50 nmol/L were considered indicative of vitamin D sufficiency and 25(OHD < 27.5 nmol/L as being indicative of increased risk for rickets. Additionally, 25(OHD > 125 nmol/L was considered possibly adversely high. Total vitamin D at 9–12 months (eight data collection days included intake from diet and supplements. The mean ± SD of vitamin D intake was 8.8 ± 5.2 μg/day and serum 25(OHD 98.1 ± 32.2 nmol/L (range 39.3–165.5. Ninety-two percent of infants were vitamin D sufficient and none at increased risk for rickets. The 26% infants using fortified products and supplements never/irregularly or in small amounts had lower 25(OHD (76.8 ± 27.1 nmol/L than the 22% using fortified products (100.0 ± 31.4 nmol/L, 18% using supplements (104.6 ± 37.0 nmol/L and 33% using both (110.3 ± 26.6 nmol/L. Five of six infants with 25(OHD < 50 nmol/L had no intake of supplements or fortified products from 0 to 12 months. Supplement use increased the odds of 25(OHD > 125 nmol/L. Breastfeeding and season did not affect vitamin D status. The majority of infants were vitamin D sufficient. Our findings highlight the need for vitamin D supplements or fortified products all year round, regardless of breastfeeding.

  18. Chilean complementary feeding program reduces anemia and improves iron status in children aged 11 to 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Alex; Olivares, Manuel; Pizarro, Tito; Rodríguez, Lorena; Hertrampf, Eva

    2013-12-01

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the world, primarily affecting infants, young children, and women of childbearing age. To evaluate the impact of the National Complementary Feeding Program (NCFP) on anemia and iron status in Chilean children aged 11 to 18 months. Two studies were performed. The first study was performed at one public outpatient health center in Santiago, using data collected in 1999 (n = 128) and 2000 (n = 125), before and after the national introduction of iron-fortified milk. Subsequently, a study of a representative sample (n = 320) from the two most populated areas of the country was performed in 2009. One year after fortification, the prevalence of anemia was 9%; significantly lower (p deficiency anemia. In 2009, 11% of children consuming iron-fortified milk delivered by the NCFP (73%) were anemic, significantly lower (p = .028) than the 21% prevalence of anemia observed in children without consumption. Consumption of iron-fortified milk was positively associated with hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.28, p = .022) and was associated with a lower prevalence of anemia after adjusting for confounding factors (odds ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.96). In Chile, the NCFP has had an impact on the reduction of anemia and improved the iron status of children aged 11 to 18 months. Increasing the consumption of this iron-fortified milk could enhance the impact of the NCFP.

  19. Nutritional status of iron in children from 6 to 59 months of age and its relation to vitamin A deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Sales

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the iron nutritional status of children from 6 to 59 months of age and its relation to vitamin A deficiency. Method: Cross-sectional study involving 100 children, living in nine cities in the state of Paraiba, which were selected for convenience to form two study groups: children with vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol 0.70 μmol/L; n = 50. The iron nutritional status was evaluated by biochemical, hematological and hematimetric indices. The cases of subclinical infection (C-Reactive Protein > 6 mg/L were excluded. Results: Children with vitamin A deficiency had serum iron values statistically lower than the corresponding values in children without deficiency. The other iron nutritional status indices showed no statistical difference according to presence/absence of vitamin A deficiency. Conclusion: The interaction between iron and vitamin A deficiencies was evidenced in the case of circulating iron deficiency (serum iron, suggesting failure in the transport mechanisms of the mineral in children with vitamin A deficiency.

  20. Maternal employment, child care, and nutritional status of 12-18-month-old children in Managua, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, J F; Engle, P L; Zeitlin, M F

    1998-02-01

    Relationships among women's employment, child care strategies, and nutritional status of children 12-18 months of age were examined in 80 Nicaraguan households sampled by randomized block design in 10 low income urban communities. Multiple regression analyses showed that children of employed mothers (56%) fared better in weight/height than those whose mothers were not employed, with and without controlling for socioeconomic status and maternal education, paternal financial support, child care adequacy, and sex and age of the child. Children with inadequate alternate child care (care by a preteen or care at the work place) had lower height for age, even controlling for the same variables and for maternal employment. Differences in 10 caregiving behaviors between families as a function of work status of the mother and adequacy of child care were examined. In families with working mothers, caregivers were less likely to be observed washing their hands, suggesting that the positive associations of work for earnings might be due to income rather than improved care. Inadequate care was associated with less food variety, less use of health care, and marginally less hand-washing. Inadequate child care, which tends to be associated with informal work, nuclear families and poverty, should be a concern for child welfare.

  1. Cobalamin and folate status in 6 to 35 months old children presenting with acute diarrhea in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeswori Ulak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cobalamin and folate are essential micronutrients and are important in DNA and RNA synthesis, cell proliferation, growth, hematopoiesis, and cognitive function. However, data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking particularly from young children residing in low and middle income countries. OBJECTIVE: To measure cobalamin and folate status and identifies their predictors among 6 to 35 months old children presenting with acute diarrhea. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study in 823 children presenting with acute diarrhea. We measured plasma cobalamin, folate, methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine who sought treatment for acute diarrhea between June 1998 and August 2000. RESULTS: The mean (SD plasma concentrations of cobalamin, folate, total homocysteine and methylmalonic acid were 206 (124 pmol/L, 55 (32 nmol/L, 11.4 (5.6 µmol/L and 0.79 (1.2 µmol/L, respectively. The prevalence of low plasma cobalamin (10 µmol/L and elevated methylmalonic acid (>0.28 µmol/L were 73% and 52%, respectively. In the regression analyses, the plasma cobalamin concentration was positively associated with age, and introduction of animal or formula milk. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that poor cobalamin status was common particularly among breastfed children. Folate deficiency was virtually none existent. Possible consequences of cobalamin deficiency in young children need to be explored.

  2. Letter to jane addams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, M

    1995-06-01

    This letter, written to one of the founding figures in social work, draws parallels between primary prevention at the beginning and the end of the twentieth century. As expected, the letter remains unanswered.

  3. Van: An Open Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieman, John Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This essay is an open letter from a classroom teacher to a concerned citizen. The letter lists a variety of problems caused largely by standardization and the more corrosive effects of positivism. Many of these problems are unknown to those outside the immediate school setting. While the letter focuses on a specific setting, an inner city school…

  4. Effects of 6 Months ALL Treatment on Psychosocial Development and Emotional Status in Children Aged 1 to 3 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Kantarcıoğlu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ti­on: The aim of the current study was to evaluate possible effects of cancer treatment on psychosocial development and emotional state among children who was diagnosed as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL before hospitalization and six months after treatment process.Materials and Methods: Twelve patients aged 1 to 3 years were screened before and six months after treatment. AGTE (Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory and BITSEA (Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment were used for evaluating psychosocial development and social emotional status respectively. Spending time with play, peer groups and physical activity were evaluated twice and investaged with respect to possible relationship with psychosocial development.Results: According the current study results; six months after the diagnosis of ALL, children’s social emotional problems were increased, competence was decreased, fine motor and social development-self care ability were regressed.Conclusions: In early develomental stage, even 6 months after the diagnosis, ALL is a risk factor for psychosocial development and emotional state. Social isolation due to neutropenia seems to have important side effect on the behaviour. In the future studies there is a great need of longidutional research as if that side effect will be permanent. In the mean time during the hospitalization and isolation process, children need environmental stimulations. Care givers should be informed and guided about the ways which support development. If needed, children should be directed to special education programs. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2012; 10: 13-6

  5. Development Status of 4-24 Months Children Born to Teenage Mothers Referred to Health Care Centers in Yasuj, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afraz SF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: A developmental delay in children is considered as one of the world's health problems in developing and developed countries. This has a massive impact on children’s health and eventually has broader scale effect on society. The purpose of this study was to assess the developmental status of children age 4-24 months to teenage mothers referred to health care centers related to Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran, in 2013. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 mothers less than 19 years of age with children of 4-24 months referred to health centers of Yasuj University of Medical Sciences which were selected by multistage sampling. Data collection was conducted using demographic, midwifery ages and stages questionnaire in children aged 24-4 months. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test and chi-square test. Results: The results showed that the mean age of mothers during pregnancy were16.64±1.22 years with age range 12 to 18 years. Prevalence of delayed development in 4-24 month children was reported to be 7%. Most developmental delay was observed in gross motor area and the lowest was in the private personal and social domains. In this study, a significant difference was seen in birth weight between two groups of children, so that birth weight of children with developmental delay significantly lowers than children with normal development (P=0.027. Conclusion: the Pregnancy under the age of 19 years is considered as risk factors for children’s developmental disorder that by the implementation of appropriate education to reduce high-risk pregnancies in this age range can be prevented the developmental disorders and their adverse outcome.

  6. Culture and subculture in transactional letter writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the relative contributions of subculture membership and mother-tongue status/target culture membership in writing transactional letters. We examined the letters accompanying articles initially submitted for publication by 26 NSE and 23 NNSE academics, and compared them...... to use appropriate language. The native non-professionals controlled some appropriate phrases, and were able to use appropriate vocabulary, but had very little idea of the rhetoric, while the non-native non-professionals produced grammatically competent letters that were inappropriate in both rhetoric...

  7. The Survival Status and Literary Aspiration of the Men of Letters in Hangzhou in the Early Qing Dynasty%清初杭州文士的生存境域与文学诉求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游路湘

    2015-01-01

    Men of letters in Hangzhou lived in a complicated environment. Experiencing the whole process of the invasion of the army of Qing tribe, the rectification of social order, and the integration of the whole nation, they either indulged themselves in learning and craved for official careers, or involving in counseling for high ranking officials. Their survival status exerted a direct impact on the literary movements and the trend of the literary thoughts in the early Qing Dynasty. Their literary aspiration reflects the mentality of the men of letters in the early Qing Dynasty.%清初杭州社会环境复杂,文士们亲历清军南下、整饬秩序、走向大统的整个过程。他们或隐逸逃禅,或乐学重仕,或游幕干谒。杭州文士的生存境域,直接影响了清初的文学活动以及文学思潮的走向;其文学诉求,反映了清初杭州文士独特的心路历程。

  8. Junk Food Consumption and Effects on Growth Status among Children Aged 6-24 Months in Mashhad, Northeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Junk food, due to the lack of vitamins, minerals and trace amounts of energy and protein, there is the risk that the child's stomach filled and by reducing her/his appetite, reduce the chance of nutritious foods. So it is necessary to determine the relationship between using of junk food with growth rate in children. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 mothers and their babies , who were referring to 10 selected Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 months children. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling and valid and reliable   questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic statistics and using SPSS version 16. Results In growth chart, 86.7 percent of children showed appropriate growth, 10.3 percent had delayed growth and 3 percent had horizontal growth curve. In 11.3 percent of families, the junk food has been used for children regularly, 44.7 percent did not believe in these snacks and 44 percent of mothers sometimes used this junk food for their children. Results showed the statistical correlation between junk food consumption and  growth status of children was significant, so children whom haven’t had junk food, have grown more favorable than the other kids (P

  9. Selective attention neutralizes the adverse effects of low socioeconomic status on memory in 9-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markant, Julie; Ackerman, Laura K; Nussenbaum, Kate; Amso, Dima

    2016-04-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has a documented impact on brain and cognitive development. We demonstrate that engaging spatial selective attention mechanisms may counteract this negative influence of impoverished environments on early learning. We previously used a spatial cueing task to compare target object encoding in the context of basic orienting ("facilitation") versus a spatial selective attention orienting mechanism that engages distractor suppression ("IOR"). This work showed that object encoding in the context of IOR boosted 9-month-old infants' recognition memory relative to facilitation (Markant and Amso, 2013). Here we asked whether this attention-memory link further interacted with SES in infancy. Results indicated that SES was related to memory but not attention orienting efficacy. However, the correlation between SES and memory performance was moderated by the attention mechanism engaged during encoding. SES predicted memory performance when objects were encoded with basic orienting processes, with infants from low-SES environments showing poorer memory than those from high-SES environments. However, SES did not predict memory performance among infants who engaged selective attention during encoding. Spatial selective attention engagement mitigated the effects of SES on memory and may offer an effective mechanism for promoting learning among infants at risk for poor cognitive outcomes related to SES.

  10. The Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite: Mission status and CCD evolution after 18 months on-orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, B.; Scott, R.; Sale, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat) is a small telescope equipped microsatellite designed to perform both Space Situational Awareness (SSA) experiments and asteroid detection. NEOSSat was launched on 25 February 2013, however, due to time pressures, NEOSSat was launched with only the minimal software required to keep the spacecraft safe. The time pressure also resulted in the spacecraft undergoing reduced system and environmental testing on the ground. The full software suite, required to obtain imagery and maintain stable pointing, has since been uploaded to the spacecraft. NEOSSat has obtained imagery since June 2013, with the shutter both open and closed, but as of March 2014 has not achieved the fine pointing required to obtain scientifically useful data. The collected imagery is being used to characterize the on-board CCD camera. While gain and dark current values agree with pre-launch values, unexpected artefacts have appeared in the images. Methods for mitigating the artefacts through image processing have been developed, and spacecraft-level fixes are currently being investigated. In addition, damage from high energy particles impacting the CCD has produced hot pixels in imagery. We have been able to measure the evolution of these hot pixels over several months, both in terms of numbers and characteristics; these results will be presented. In addition, early results from the mission (image quality issues and evolution, early imagery examples), as well as the mission status (including fine pointing), will be discussed.

  11. The Business Letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 9-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Business. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: This guide, designed for direct student use, indicates the parts of a business letter, a placement guide, and steps for typing letters. Worksheets and illustrations indicate forms of block and indented styles; open, closed, and mixed punctuation; the…

  12. A Retrospective Analysis Comparing the New Standardized Letter of Recommendation in Dermatology with the Classic Narrative Letter of Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffenberger, Jessica A; Mosser, Joy; Lee, Grace; Pootrakul, Llana; Harfmann, Katya; Fabbro, Stephanie; Faith, Esteban Fernandez; Carr, David; Plotner, Alisha; Zirwas, Matthew; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H

    2016-09-01

    Background: In an effort to avoid numerous problems associated with narrative letters of recommendation, a dermatology standardized letter of recommendation was utilized in the 2014-2015 resident application cycle. Objective: A comparison of the standardized letter of recommendation and narrative letters of recommendation from a single institution and application cycle to determine if the standardized letter of recommendation met its original goals of efficiency, applicant stratification, and validity. Methods: Eight dermatologists assessed all standardized letters of recommendation/narrative letters of recommendation pairs received during the 2014-2015 application cycle. Five readers repeated the analysis two months later. Each letter of recommendation was evaluated based on a seven question survey. Letter analysis and survey completion for each letter was timed. Results: Compared to the narrative letters of recommendation, the standardized letter of recommendation is easier to interpret (precommendation are also faster to interpret (precommendation (precommendation appears to be meeting its initial goals of 1) efficiency, 2) applicant stratification, and 3) validity. (J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2016;9(9):36-2.).

  13. Acid-base status at birth, spontaneous motor behaviour at term and 3 months and neurodevelopmental outcome at age 4 years in full-term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildschut, J; Feron, FJM; Hendriksen, JGM; van Hall, M; Gavilanes-Jiminez, DWD; Hadders-Algra, M; Vles, JSH

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between acid-base status and quality and quantity of General Movements (GMs) at birth and quality of GMs at age 3 months and motor, cognitive and behavioural functioning at the age of 4 years. Methods: From a cohort of 84 term children w

  14. Acid-base status at birth, spontaneous motor behaviour at term and 3 months and neurodevelopmental outcome at age 4 years in full-term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildschut, J; Feron, FJM; Hendriksen, JGM; van Hall, M; Gavilanes-Jiminez, DWD; Hadders-Algra, M; Vles, JSH

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between acid-base status and quality and quantity of General Movements (GMs) at birth and quality of GMs at age 3 months and motor, cognitive and behavioural functioning at the age of 4 years. Methods: From a cohort of 84 term children

  15. Effect of dietary fat supplementation during late pregnancy and first six months of lactation on maternal and infant vitamin A status in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, D.S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Yunus, M.; Wahed, M.A.; Fuchs, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fat intake is extremely low in most communities with vitamin A deficiency. However, its role in vitamin A status of pregnant and lactating women is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of supplementing women with fat from mid-/late pregnancy until six months post

  16. The course of health status and (health-related) quality of life following fracture of the lower extremity: a 6-month follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.C. van Son; J. de Vries (Jolanda); J.A. Roukema; T. Gosens; M.H.J. Verhofstad (Michiel); B.L. den Oudsten (Brenda)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: The aim of this prospective study was to describe the course of health status (HS), health-related quality of life, and quality of life (QOL) in patients with lower extremity fractures (LEF) up to 6 months post-fracture. Methods: Patients (n = 171; age range 18–100 years) comple

  17. Letters: Subs, Not Missiles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsipis, Kosta

    1989-01-01

      In a letter, MIT physicist Kosta Tsipis responds to a column in the August 1988 "Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists" and clarifies his position in regard to the MX and Trident II missile programs...

  18. Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  19. Suicide letters in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Boon-Hock; Chia, Audrey; Tai, Bee-Choo

    2008-01-01

    The contents of suicide letters provide insight into the reasons for suicide and the mental states of victims. Coroner court records of 1,721 Singaporean suicides occurring between 2000 and 2004 were reviewed, 398 (23%) of whom left suicide letters. Letter writers tended to be younger, single, and less likely to have mental or physical illness. A reason for suicide was evident in 58%. Major reasons included school and relationship problems in the young, financial and marital problems in adults and physical illnesses in the elderly. Positive sentiment (care/concern) was expressed in 59%. Negative emotions in 45% of which despondency/agony (60%) was the most common, followed by emptiness (25%), guilt/shame (15%), hopelessness (10%), and anger (3%). The study of these letters suggests that there are combinations of social, psychological and physical factors that influence a person to suicide, all of which are important in the prevention, assessment, and management of suicide.

  20. Letters from Our Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Since the first publication of Cultural Exchang-China& World in October 1992,we have received a unmber of verykind letters from Chinese and foreign readers giving support andencouagement to this magazine.We would like to take thisopportunity to thank them all and to invite others to write in as well,especially if they have suggestions or criticisms to make.Thefollowing are letters from two of our overseas readers.

  1. Launch of Zoological Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal.

  2. Temporal processing deficits in letter-by-letter reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Janet L; Eskes, Gail A

    2007-01-01

    Theories of the cognitive impairment underlying letter-by-letter reading vary widely, including prelexical and lexical level deficits. One prominent prelexical account proposes that the disorder results from difficulty in processing multiple letters simultaneously. We investigated whether this deficit extends to letters presented in rapid temporal succession. A letter-by-letter reader, G.M., was administered a rapid serial visual presentation task that has been used widely to study the temporal processing characteristics of the normal visual system. Comparisons were made to a control group of 6 brain-damaged individuals without reading deficits. Two target letters were embedded at varying temporal positions in a stream of rapidly presented single digits. After each stream, the identities of the two letters were reported. G.M. required an extended period of time after he had processed one letter before he was able to reliably identify a second letter, relative to the controls. In addition, G.M.'s report of the second letter was most impaired when it immediately followed the first letter, a pattern not seen in the controls, indicating that G.M. had difficulty processing the two items together. These data suggest that a letter-by-letter reading strategy may be adopted to help compensate for a deficit in the temporal processing of letters.

  3. Socioeconomic status and the risk of suspected autism spectrum disorders among 18-month-old toddlers in Japan: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo

    2014-06-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and the suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD) status of 18-month-old toddlers was investigated using a population-based sample in Japan, which has a universal healthcare system and a mandatory health checkup system for toddlers. Questionnaires including SES measurements and modified checklist for autism in toddlers were mailed to all families with 18-month-old toddlers in Chiba, a city near Tokyo (N = 6,061; response rate: 64%). The results of logistic regression analysis (which were adjusted for potential confounders) indicated that low maternal education, but not paternal education or family income, were associated with having suspected ASD offspring. Lower maternal education was associated with an increased risk of autistic traits in Japan.

  4. Effect of delayed vs early umbilical cord clamping on iron status and neurodevelopment at age 12 months: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ola; Domellöf, Magnus; Andersson, Dan; Hellström-Westas, Lena

    2014-06-01

    Prevention of iron deficiency in infancy may promote neurodevelopment. Delayed cord clamping (DCC) can prevent iron deficiency during the first 6 months of life. However, no data are available on long-term effects on infant outcomes in relation to time for umbilical cord clamping. To investigate effects of DCC, as compared with early cord clamping (ECC), on infant iron status and neurodevelopment at age 12 months in a European setting. Randomized clinical trial of 382 full-term infants born after a low-risk pregnancy at a Swedish county hospital. Follow-up at 12 months included evaluation of iron status (ferritin level, transferrin saturation, transferrin receptor level, reticulocyte hemoglobin level, and mean cell volume) and parental assessment of neurodevelopment by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, second edition (ASQ). Infants were randomized to DCC (≥180 seconds after delivery) or ECC (≤10 seconds after delivery). The main outcome was iron status at age 12 months; the secondary outcome was ASQ score. In total, 347 of 382 infants (90.8%) were assessed. The DCC and ECC groups did not differ in iron status (mean ferritin level, 35.4 vs 33.6 ng/mL, respectively; P = .40) or neurodevelopment (mean ASQ total score, 229.6 vs 233.1, respectively; P = .42) at age 12 months. Predictors of ferritin levels were infant sex and ferritin in umbilical cord blood. Predictors of ASQ score were infant sex and breastfeeding within 1 hour after birth. For both outcomes, being a boy was associated with lower results. Interaction analysis showed that DCC was associated with an ASQ score 5 points higher among boys (mean [SD] score, 229 [43] for DCC vs 224 [39] for ECC) but 12 points lower among girls (mean [SD] score, 230 [39] for DCC vs 242 [36] for ECC), out of a maximum of 300 points (P = .04 for the interaction term). Delayed cord clamping did not affect iron status or neurodevelopment at age 12 months in a selected population of healthy term-born infants

  5. Household Food Insecurity and Its Association with Nutritional Status of Children 6–59 Months of Age in East Badawacho District, South Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejajo, Tekle; Alemseged, Fissahaye; Massa, Desalegn

    2017-01-01

    Background. Ethiopia has one of the highest child malnutrition rates in the world. Food insecurity is one of the determinant factors of malnutrition in developing countries; however its role remains unclear. Objective. To assess household food insecurity and its association with the nutritional status of children 6–59 months of age in East Badawacho District, South Ethiopia. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 20 to 30, 2014 on a sample of 508 mother/child pairs of 6–59-month-old children. Sample households with eligible children were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Both bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify factors associated with nutritional status of children. P value of food insecurity was 75.8%. The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting among children were 45.6%, 26.3%, and 14.6%, respectively. Household food insecurity was significantly associated with underweight (AOR = 3.82; CI = 1.78–8.19) and stunting (AOR = 6.7; CI = 3.71–12.1) but not with wasting. Conclusion and Recommendation. Household food insecurity and the prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting, among children 6 to 59 months, were high. Intervention programs should focus on improving household food insecurity and nutritional status of children.

  6. Decreased serum hepcidin, inflammation, and improved functional iron status six-months post-restrictive bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess adiposity is associated with low-grade inflammation and decreased iron status. Iron depletion (ID) in obesity is thought to be mediated by an inflammation-induced increase in the body’s main regulator of iron homeostasis, hepcidin. Elevated hepcidin can result in ID as it prevents the release...

  7. Comparison of Obesity Rates in Early Childhood (4 to 80 months) by Parental Socioeconomic Status Using National Cohort Dataset in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Insook; Bang, Kyung-Sook; Moon, Hyojeong; Kim, Jieun

    2016-12-01

    Child obesity has been on the rise and become a worldwide health issue. Low socioeconomic status (SES) is known as an influencing factor for childhood obesity, but relevant studies on a national level are scarce in Korea. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of obesity for each age group by parental SES and analyze the trends of changes in weight status using a Korean national cohort dataset. In Korea, children are eligible for the National Children Health Examination, a mandatory seven-time health checkup for those aged 4 to 80 months. This study tracked 4 to 9-month-old children up to 80 months through seven distinct age groups. A total of 12,362 children had received all seven health exams consecutively. Parental SES was categorized as three stages according to national classifications. Z scores of weight-for-height (for children aged children aged ≥ 24 months) were used for detecting overweight and obesity. Children with low parental SES showed the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity in all age groups, although there was no consistency in statistical significance. Also, normal and underweight children of 4 to 9 months with low parental SES showed the highest change rate to either overweight or obesity, although no consistency of statistical significance was observed. Low parental SES can affect the weight status of offspring from early childhood. Thus, early obesity prevention interventions should be provided especially for children in low-income families. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Digit Sucking Habit and Association with Dental Caries and Oral Hygiene Status of Children Aged 6 Months to 12 Years Resident in Semi-Urban Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikelomo Adebanke Kolawole

    Full Text Available Non-nutritive sucking (NNS is a common behavior in childhood. The association between digit sucking, dental caries and oral health has been studied with inconclusive results. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of, and the association between digit sucking, caries and oral hygiene status of children age six months to 12 years, resident in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State. Data were collected through a household survey using a multi-stage sampling procedure from children between six months and 12 years. Details of each child's socio-demographic characteristics, digit sucking habits, caries status and oral health status were collected. The association between digit sucking, caries status and oral hygiene status was determined using Chi square and Logistic regression.The mean age of the 992 study participants was 5.8 ± (3.2 years. The prevalence of digit sucking, caries and poor oral hygiene were 7.2%, 10.5% and 2.4% respectively. The mean dmft score was 0.22 ± (0.80, mean DMFT score was 0.04 ± (0.30 while mean Oral Hygiene Index score was 1.27 ± (0.73. Digit sucking increased the odds of having caries (OR: 1.28; CI: 0.58-2.81 but decreased the odds of having poor oral hygiene (OR: 0.58; CI: 0.34-1.01 insignificantly.Digit sucking was not a significant predictor of caries and oral hygiene status, although the odds of having caries increased while the odds of having poor oral hygiene decreased with digit sucking.

  9. The Fuzzy Scarlet Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Critics of the public release of teacher evaluation scores sometimes liken these ratings to the scarlet letter worn by Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne's classic novel. The comparison is apt. But public school teachers who are subjected to public shaming because of their students' test scores can rarely expect the opportunities for redemption…

  10. On The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹

    2016-01-01

    Reading The Scarlet Letter, one is mostly impressed by the spirit of The Bible the story depicted. The book chiefly discusses sin and how to atone for it. Hester Prynne is the heroine of the fiction. This paper researches her fate to illustrate the influence of The Bible to Hawthorne.

  11. Letter to the Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Ann Marshall

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A letter to the Editor alerting the ASM education community to the passing of Dr. Joseph P. Caruso, influential colleague and co-author of an article included in the scientific citizenship-themed issue of the Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education (JMBE.

  12. The Scarlet Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawthorne, Nathaniel

    2005-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter is the story of three New England settlers at odds with the Puritan society in which they live. Roger Chillingworth, an ageing scholar, arrives in New England after two years' separation from his wife Hester to find her on trial for adultery. She refuses to reveal her lover's iden

  13. Lincoln's Letter to Siam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Mary; Childress, Marilyn

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the problem of the U.S. president receiving gifts from foreign dignitaries. The reproducible letter from President Lincoln to King Rama IV of Siam in which he accepts two gifts and graciously declines proffered elephants serves as center for discussion of the problem. Suggestions for teaching and a crossword puzzle are included. (KC)

  14. Letters in this Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Reforming the General Chemistry Textbook individual letters by Edward T. Samulski; Stephen J. Hawkes; Stephen J. Fisher; J. Stephen Hartman; A. R. H. Cole; Stanley Pine, Ronald Archer, and Herbert Kaesz; Jimmy Reeves; Robert Hill; and Brock Spencer, C. Bradley Moore and Nedah Rose. Re: article by R. J. Gillespie The author replies

  15. The Scarlet Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawthorne, Nathaniel

    2005-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter is the story of three New England settlers at odds with the Puritan society in which they live. Roger Chillingworth, an ageing scholar, arrives in New England after two years' separation from his wife Hester to find her on trial for adultery. She refuses to reveal her lover's

  16. The Fuzzy Scarlet Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Critics of the public release of teacher evaluation scores sometimes liken these ratings to the scarlet letter worn by Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne's classic novel. The comparison is apt. But public school teachers who are subjected to public shaming because of their students' test scores can rarely expect the opportunities for redemption…

  17. Gestational Vitamin 25(OHD Status as a Risk Factor for Receptive Language Development: A 24-Month, Longitudinal, Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances A. Tylavsky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging data suggest that vitamin D status during childhood and adolescence can affect neurocognitive development. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether gestational 25(OHD status is associated with early childhood cognitive and receptive language development. The Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood Study (CANDLE study enrolled 1503 mother-child dyads during the second trimester of healthy singleton pregnancies from Shelby County TN. Among 1020 participants of the total CANDLE cohort for whom 25(OHD levels were available, mean gestational 25(OHD level during the second trimester was 22.3 ng/mL (range 5.9–68.4, with 41.7% of values <20 ng/dL. Cognitive and language scaled scores increased in a stair-step manner as gestational 25(OHD levels in the second trimester rose from <20 ng/dL, through 20–29.99 ng/dL, to ≥30 ng/dL. When controlling for socioeconomic status, race, use of tobacco products, gestational age of the child at birth, and age at the 2-year assessment, the gestational 25(OHD was positively related to receptive language development (p < 0.017, but not cognitive or expressive language.

  18. Effect of delayed versus early umbilical cord clamping on neonatal outcomes and iron status at 4 months: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ola; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Andersson, Dan; Domellöf, Magnus

    2011-11-15

    To investigate the effects of delayed umbilical cord clamping, compared with early clamping, on infant iron status at 4 months of age in a European setting. Randomised controlled trial. Swedish county hospital. 400 full term infants born after a low risk pregnancy. Infants were randomised to delayed umbilical cord clamping (≥ 180 seconds after delivery) or early clamping (≤ 10 seconds after delivery). Haemoglobin and iron status at 4 months of age with the power estimate based on serum ferritin levels. Secondary outcomes included neonatal anaemia, early respiratory symptoms, polycythaemia, and need for phototherapy. At 4 months of age, infants showed no significant differences in haemoglobin concentration between the groups, but infants subjected to delayed cord clamping had 45% (95% confidence interval 23% to 71%) higher mean ferritin concentration (117 μg/L v 81 μg/L, P cord clamping group had lower prevalence of neonatal anaemia at 2 days of age (2 (1.2%) v 10 (6.3%), P = 0.02, relative risk reduction 0.80, number needed to treat 20 (15 to 111)). There were no significant differences between groups in postnatal respiratory symptoms, polycythaemia, or hyperbilirubinaemia requiring phototherapy. Delayed cord clamping, compared with early clamping, resulted in improved iron status and reduced prevalence of iron deficiency at 4 months of age, and reduced prevalence of neonatal anaemia, without demonstrable adverse effects. As iron deficiency in infants even without anaemia has been associated with impaired development, delayed cord clamping seems to benefit full term infants even in regions with a relatively low prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT01245296.

  19. President Nixon's Letter of Resignation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Mary; Childress, Marilyn

    1982-01-01

    Contains a primary source document--President Nixon's resignation letter--and suggests teaching strategies for its use with secondary level students. To refresh students' memories of the events surrounding the letter, a selective chronology is also presented. (RM)

  20. Symbolism in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠杰

    2007-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorne is the greatest American romantic novelist during the nineteenth century. This paper researches the symbolism in his masterpiece The Scarlet Letter from the aspect of the symbolic meaning of the scarlet letter.

  1. Maternal and infant vitamin D status during the first 9 months of infant life-a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Við Streym, S; Kristine Moller, U; Rejnmark, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    . They were followed up three times during 9 months. RESULTS: Cord blood 25OHD level (43.3 ± 20.4  nmol/l) on average was 62 ± 16% of maternal levels (73.3 ± 30.7  nmol/l), measured 1-2 weeks postpartum. Cord blood 25OHD correlated positively with maternal 25OHD levels (r=0.83, P.../l), with increasing levels (PMaternal 25OHD levels above 50  nmol...

  2. Serum folate levels among healthy infants aged 6–8 months: relation to infants’ nutritional status indicators and maternal knowledge-attitude-practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutik Ernawati

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency can cause anemia which may lead growth and development impairments. This study was aimed to determine serum folate levels among infants aged 6–8 months and the relation to infants’ nutritional indicators and maternal knowledge-attitude-practice about infant feeding.Methods: A cross–sectional design was implemented in infants aged 6–8 months and their mothers as respondents who met the study criteria. Data collected among the infants included sex, age, length, weight, intake of energy, protein and folate (based on a one–month semi–quantitative FFQ and a 24–hour food recall, serum folate and hemoglobin levels. Data collected among the mothers included age, education level, income based on average minimum monthly wage, knowledge, attitude and behavior concerning infant’s feeding, i.e. breast milk and complementary feeding practices.Results: This study found that the median of serum folate levels was 43.05 nmol/L with values ranging from 19.92 nmol/L to 104.24 nmol/L. Serum folate level had a strong positive correlation with its related factors, protein and folate intake.Conclusions: Protein-folate–rich complementay food should be provided to infants aged 6 months and over to maintain serum folate level. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:138-42Keywords: Folate, infants, nutrient intake, nutritional status

  3. Assessment of iron status among preschool children (6 to 59 months) with and without malaria in Western Province, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiangani, Isaac; Mbakaya, Charles; Makokha, Anzelimo; Magu, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is a major public health concern. Globally, iron deficiency ranks number 9 and is responsible for about 60% of all anemia cases among preschool children. In Africa iron deficiency is 43-52% while in Kenya, children under 5 years constitute the largest burden with 69% of them being deficient. There is limited iron deficiency data in Kenya. This study determined haemoglobin levels, serum ferritin levels, nutritional status and P.falciparum malaria infection in preschool children. A household cross sectional study was undertaken among 125 preschoolers in Western province, drawn from 37 clusters. Systematic random sampling was used for sample selection. Data was collected using pretested structured questionnaires, entered in Microsoft package. Data analysis was done in Statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20 using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression and differences were considered significant at P malaria were 20.8%, 25% and 6.8% respectively. There was a significant association between iron deficiency and anaemia (OR = 3.43, 95% CI: 1.33-8.84, p = 0.008). A preschool child with anaemia was 3.43 times likely to be iron deficient compared to a preschool child who was not anaemic. Iron deficiency, anaemia and plasmodium falciparum malaria was prevalent among preschool children. The findings revealed a significant association between iron deficiency and anaemia. Therefore effective interventions to improve iron status will have large health benefits by greatly reducing anaemia in preschool children.

  4. Vitamin D Status during Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Study in Swedish Women from Early Pregnancy to Seven Months Postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Anette; Sandström, Herbert; Stenlund, Hans; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hultdin, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy may have negative consequences for the health of both the mother and child. Cross-sectional studies in childbearing women suggest that vitamin D levels are low during pregnancy, but few studies have followed the same women during pregnancy and postpartum. The aims of this study were to longitudinally assess vitamin D status during pregnancy and postpartum and identify the factors associated with vitamin D status in pregnant women in northern Sweden. Between September 2006 and March 2009, 184 women were consecutively recruited at five antenatal primary care clinics. Blood was sampled, and dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire with 66 food items/food aggregates and questions on the intake of vitamin supplements at gestational weeks 12, 21, and 35, as well as at 12 and 29 weeks after birth. Plasma 25(OH) vitamin D levels were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. At least one-third of the women had 25(OH) vitamin D levels pregnancy. The levels reverted to the baseline levels after birth. Multivariate analysis showed that gestational and postpartum week, season, dietary intake of vitamin D, and vitamin supplementation were significantly related to plasma levels. There was also an influence of season on the longitudinal concentration patterns. In conclusion, more than one-third of the women studied had low 25(OH) vitamin D levels, and gestational and postpartum week was related to 25(OH) vitamin D levels after adjustment for season and vitamin D intake.

  5. Letters to a Young Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. D.; Schulman, Grace

    2001-01-01

    Presents two letters to a young writer, modeled on the influential "Letters to a Young Poet" by Rainer Maria Rilke. Notes the first letter situates itself when a young writer first turns toward poetry; and the second addresses the relationship between mentorship and the imagination, questioning the right of any writer to presume to guide the…

  6. Letters to a Young Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. D.; Schulman, Grace

    2001-01-01

    Presents two letters to a young writer, modeled on the influential "Letters to a Young Poet" by Rainer Maria Rilke. Notes the first letter situates itself when a young writer first turns toward poetry; and the second addresses the relationship between mentorship and the imagination, questioning the right of any writer to presume to guide the…

  7. Culture and subculture in transactional letter writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko

    2000-01-01

    with efforts to write such letters by 21 NSE and 23 NNSE non-professionals (British undergraduates and overseas English teachers). The results showed that the non-native professionals by and large perceived the rhetorical demands of the situation similarly to native professionals but were a little less likely...... and language. Thus the teaching approach for writing depends crucially on the status of the learners, and to teach lexical phrases is particularly important for non-natives....

  8. A Letter to Alien

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱政榜

    2012-01-01

    Dear Alien, 1 am sorry to hear that you have some problems. I hear you argued with your best friend. 1 think you could call him up or go to his home. You could write him a letter. And you could tell him you are sony. Or maybe you could give him a ticket to a ball game. I am sure you will get on well with him again.

  9. The Danish letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Ejlers, Steen

    2011-01-01

    The talk will focus on Danish type designers and their work on Æ (AE), Ø (Oslash) and Å (Aring). These 'anomalies' found in the Danish written language, often causes difficulties for type designers. The counters of Ø/ø sometimes appear overcrowded, the uppercase Æ can result in an uncomfortably o......' attempt to create the optimal variation of these letters, we will give a brief introduction to the Danish typography tradition ranging from the early 20th Century and up until today....

  10. The Danish letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Ejlers, Steen

    2011-01-01

    The talk will focus on Danish type designers and their work on Æ (AE), Ø (Oslash) and Å (Aring). These 'anomalies' found in the Danish written language, often causes difficulties for type designers. The counters of Ø/ø sometimes appear overcrowded, the uppercase Æ can result in an uncomfortably o......' attempt to create the optimal variation of these letters, we will give a brief introduction to the Danish typography tradition ranging from the early 20th Century and up until today....

  11. Pregnancy-related low back pain and pelvic girdle pain approximately 14 months after pregnancy - pain status, self-rated health and family situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Cecilia; Persson, Margareta; Mogren, Ingrid

    2014-01-25

    Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) in pregnancy is distinct from pregnancy-related low back pain (PLBP). However, women with combined PLBP and PGP report more serious consequences in terms of health and function. PGP has been estimated to affect about half of pregnant women, where 25% experience serious pain and 8% experience severe disability. To date there are relatively few studies regarding persistent PLBP/PGP postpartum of more than 3 months, thus the main objective was to identify the prevalence of persistent PLBP and PGP as well as the differences over time in regard to pain status, self-rated health (SRH) and family situation at 12 months postpartum. The study is a 12 month follow-up of a cohort of pregnant women developing PLBP and PGP during pregnancy, and who experienced persistent pain at 6 month follow-up after pregnancy. Women reporting PLBP/PGP (n = 639) during pregnancy were followed up with a second questionnaire at approximately six month after delivery. Women reporting recurrent or persistent LBP/PGP at the second questionnaire (n = 200) were sent a third questionnaire at 12 month postpartum. A total of 176 women responded to the questionnaire. Thirty-four women (19.3%) reported remission of LBP/PGP, whereas 65.3% (n = 115) and 15.3% (n = 27), reported recurrent LBP/PGP or continuous LBP/PGP, respectively. The time between base line and the 12 months follow-up was in actuality 14 months. Women with previous LBP before pregnancy had an increased odds ratio (OR) of reporting 'recurrent pain' (OR = 2.47) or 'continuous pain' (OR = 3.35) postpartum compared to women who reported 'no pain' at the follow-up. Women with 'continuous pain' reported statistically significant higher level of pain at all measure points (0, 6 and 12 months postpartum). Non-responders were found to report a statistically significant less positive scoring regarding relationship satisfaction compared to responders. The results from this study demonstrate that persistent PLBP/PGP is a

  12. A comparison of letter and digit processing in letter-by-letter reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Janet L; Eskes, Gail A

    2008-01-01

    The extent to which letter-by-letter reading results from a specific orthographic deficit, as compared with a nonspecific disturbance in basic visuoperceptual mechanisms, is unclear. The current study directly compared processing of letters and digits in a letter-by-letter reader, G.M., using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task and a speeded matching task. Comparisons were made to a group of six brain-damaged individuals without reading deficits. In the RSVP task, G.M. had increased difficulty reporting the target identities when they were letters, as compared with digits. Although this general pattern was also evident in the control group, the magnitude of the letter-digit accuracy difference was greater in G.M. Similarly, in the matching task, G.M. was slower to match letters than digits, relative to the control group, although his response times to both item types were increased. These data suggest that letter-by-letter reading, at least in this case, results from a visuoperceptual encoding deficit that particularly affects letters, but also extends to processing of digits to a lesser extent. Results are consistent with the notion that a left occipitotemporal area is specialized for letter processing with greater bilaterality in the visual processing of digits.

  13. Current status of the programs for detection of hearing loss in children younger than six months in Cali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura González

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data is scarce in Colombia when dealing with the current circumstances of programs for detecting hearing loss in children younger than six months and, therefore, statistical data is limited on congenital or earlyacquired deafness. Studies have been conducted in the country on detection and prevention of hearing problems in the healthcare institutions in Antioquia, Quindío, Cauca, Valle, and Risaralda. All these studies were carried out between 1993 and 1995 and included children older than one year of age, which shows evidence of the lack of knowledge about the importance of early detection in the hearing-communicative health of children. Objective: To identify the current procedures and protocols to detect hearing loss in children younger than six months in Cali through a descriptive research in different healthcare institutions of the city. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out with a population of 722 private, public and/or mixed Health Service Providing Institutions from the city of Cali, registered in the database of the Department of Health of Valle del Cauca, Colombia in February 2007. A list was filled out to determine which of these institutions had services like delivery room and/or growth-development programs and/or audiology services and it was found that these aspects were met in 151 institutions that constituted the research sample. Thereafter, a survey was applied in these institutions to identify the procedures utilized for hearing loss detection, the health professionals that carry this out, and the follow up and the speech-language treatment performed to the children detected. Results: 95% of the healthcare institutions surveyed (144 institutions do not perform procedures to detect hearing loss in children younger than six months. Only six of the private-sector institutions in Cali performed such procedures. The procedures used by these six institutions are all performed with equipment and protocols for

  14. Allographic agraphia for single letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichelli, Alina; Machetta, Francesca; Zadini, Antonella; Semenza, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The case is reported of a patient (PS) who, following acute encephalitis with residual occipito-temporal damage, showed a selective deficit in writing cursive letters in isolation, but no difficulty to write cursive-case words and non-words. Notably, he was able to recognize the same allographs he could not write and to produce both single letters and words in print. In addition to this selective single letter writing difficulty, the patient demonstrated an inability to correctly perform a series of imagery tasks for cursive letters. PS's performance may indicate that single letter production requires explicit imagery. Explicit imagery may not be required, instead, when letters have to be produced in the context of a word: letter production in this case may rely on implicit retrieval of well learned scripts in a procedural way.

  15. Anemia and Micronutrient Status of Women of Childbearing Age and Children 6–59 Months in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Harvey-Leeson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the micronutrient status of women and children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is critical for the design of effective nutrition interventions. We recruited 744 mother-child pairs from South Kivu (SK and Kongo Central (KC. We determined hemoglobin (Hb, serum zinc, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, retinol binding protein (RBP, C-reactive protein, and α-1 acid glycoprotein concentrations. Anemia prevalence was determined using Hb adjusted for altitude alone and Hb adjusted for both altitude and ethnicity. Anemia prevalence was lower after Hb adjustment for altitude and ethnicity, compared to only altitude, among women (6% vs. 17% in SK; 10% vs. 32% in KC, children 6–23 months (26% vs. 59% in SK; 25% vs. 42% in KC, and children 24–59 months (14% vs. 35% in SK; 23% vs. 44% in KC, respectively. Iron deficiency was seemingly higher with sTfR as compared to inflammation-adjusted ferritin among women (18% vs. 4% in SK; 21% vs. 5% in KC, children 6–23 months (51% vs. 14% in SK; 74% vs. 10% in KC, and children 24–59 months (23% vs. 4% in SK; 58% vs. 1% in KC. Regardless of indicator, iron deficiency anemia (IDA never exceeded 3% in women. In children, IDA reached almost 20% when sTfR was used but was only 10% with ferritin. Folate, B12, and vitamin A (RBP deficiencies were all very low (<5%; RBP was 10% in children. The prevalence of anemia was unexpectedly low. Inflammation-adjusted zinc deficiency was high among women (52% in SK; 58% in KC, children 6–23 months (23% in SK; 20% in KC, and children 24–59 months (25% in SK; 27% in KC. The rate of biochemical zinc deficiency among Congolese women and children requires attention.

  16. Anemia and Micronutrient Status of Women of Childbearing Age and Children 6-59 Months in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Leeson, Sarah; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Hawes, Meaghan; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Bahizire, Esto; Akilimali, Pierre Z; Michaux, Kristina D; Lynd, Larry D; Whitfield, Kyly C; Moursi, Mourad; Boy, Erick; Foley, Jennifer; McLean, Judy; Houghton, Lisa A; Gibson, Rosalind S; Green, Tim J

    2016-02-17

    Little is known about the micronutrient status of women and children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is critical for the design of effective nutrition interventions. We recruited 744 mother-child pairs from South Kivu (SK) and Kongo Central (KC). We determined hemoglobin (Hb), serum zinc, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), retinol binding protein (RBP), C-reactive protein, and α-1 acid glycoprotein concentrations. Anemia prevalence was determined using Hb adjusted for altitude alone and Hb adjusted for both altitude and ethnicity. Anemia prevalence was lower after Hb adjustment for altitude and ethnicity, compared to only altitude, among women (6% vs. 17% in SK; 10% vs. 32% in KC), children 6-23 months (26% vs. 59% in SK; 25% vs. 42% in KC), and children 24-59 months (14% vs. 35% in SK; 23% vs. 44% in KC), respectively. Iron deficiency was seemingly higher with sTfR as compared to inflammation-adjusted ferritin among women (18% vs. 4% in SK; 21% vs. 5% in KC), children 6-23 months (51% vs. 14% in SK; 74% vs. 10% in KC), and children 24-59 months (23% vs. 4% in SK; 58% vs. 1% in KC). Regardless of indicator, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) never exceeded 3% in women. In children, IDA reached almost 20% when sTfR was used but was only 10% with ferritin. Folate, B12, and vitamin A (RBP) deficiencies were all very low (children. The prevalence of anemia was unexpectedly low. Inflammation-adjusted zinc deficiency was high among women (52% in SK; 58% in KC), children 6-23 months (23% in SK; 20% in KC), and children 24-59 months (25% in SK; 27% in KC). The rate of biochemical zinc deficiency among Congolese women and children requires attention.

  17. Young Children's Letter-Sound Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Barbara; Carr, Alex

    2003-01-01

    This study with 83 normally developing children (ages 4-6) compared three essential skills in early literacy, letter-sound recognition, letter-sound recall, and letter reproduction. Children performed better in letter-sound recognition than in letter-sound recall and letter reproduction. There were no performance differences due to sex or age.…

  18. Peer assessment of outpatient consultation letters – feasibility and satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dojeiji Suzan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Written correspondence is one of the most important forms of communication between health care providers, yet there is little feedback provided to specialists. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility and satisfaction of a peer assessment program on consultation letters and to determine inter-rater reliability between family physicians and specialists. Methods A rating scale of nine 5-point Likert scale items including specific content, style items, education value of the letter and an overall rating was developed from a previous validated tool. Nine Internal Medicine specialists/subspecialists from two tertiary care centres submitted 10 letters with patient and physician identifiers removed. Two Internal Medicine specialists, and 2 family physicians from the other centre rated each letter (to protect writer anonymity. A satisfaction survey was sent to each writer and rater after collation of the results. A follow-up survey was sent 6–8 months later. Results There was a high degree of satisfaction with the process and feedback. The rating scale information was felt to be useful and appropriate for evaluating the quality of consultation letters by 6/7 writers. 5/7 seven writers felt that the feedback they received resulted in immediate changes to their letters. Six months later, 6/9 writers indicated they had maintained changes in their letters. Raters rank ordered letters similarly (Cronbach's alpha 0.57–0.84 but mean scores were highly variant. At site 1 there were significant differences in scoring brevity (p Conclusion Most participants found peer assessment of letters feasible and beneficial and longstanding changes occurred in some individuals. Family physicians and specialists appear to have different expectations on some items. Further studies on reliability and validity, with a larger sample, are required before high stakes professional assessments include consultation letters.

  19. Effect of colostrum redox balance on the oxidative status of calves during the first 3 months of life and the relationship with passive immune acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, Angel; Pérez-Santos, María; Hernández, Joaquín; Castillo, Cristina

    2014-02-01

    New-born calves depend upon colostrum intake for the acquisition of immunoglobulins (Ig) and other beneficial substances. However, colostrum is also a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Intrinsic production of ROS also increases after birth, so the combination of colostral and intrinsic ROS could overwhelm the antioxidant capacity of the calf leading to oxidative stress (OS), a condition that has been shown to play a key role in the initiation and development of several pathological conditions. The aim of this observational study was to assess the effects of the redox balance of colostrum on the oxidative status of calves and on passive immune transfer. Serum samples were taken from 20 calves on their day of birth, every week during their first month of life and at 2 and 3 months of age, and the concentrations of ROS and serum antioxidant capacity (SAC) assayed. The oxidative/anti-oxidative profile and IgG content of the colostrum were also assessed. The redox balance of the colostrum had a significant effect on both calf oxidative status and on passive immune transfer (as measured by calf serum IgG concentration), which indicates that the oxidative/antioxidative profile of colostrum should be measured when colostrum quality is assessed. The highest risk of OS during the study period was found to be when the calves were fed artificial milk replacer; this suggests that calves should be supplemented with antioxidants during this period in order to minimize any harmful consequences of high ROS generation.

  20. The Relationship between Protein, Zinc and Phosphorus Consumption to IGF-1 Status of Children Aged 6-24 Months in Timur Tengah Selatan Regency, Nusa Tenggara Timur Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matius Rantesalu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Status of malnutrition in children should watch out because it can lead to immunological suppression, impaired growth, increased morbidity from infectious diseases, developmental disorders and the presence of locomotor coordination in infants and children, inhibition of learning progress and speaking, a deficit of intelligence quotient (IQ permanently 5 points below normal, as well as developmental disorders and cognitive behavior. This study aimed to examines the relationship between protein intake, Zink and Phosphorus with IGF-1 status in Timur Tengah, Selatan Regency, Nusa Tenggara Timur Province. This study was an observational study with cross-sectional design. The experiment was conducted in nine sub-district of South Central Timur. Children's levels of IGF-1 are determined using Elisa Quantikine Human IGF-1 Immunoassay. Other data that food consumption in children 6-24 months of age is obtained through consumption recall, while other supporting data obtained through questionnaires by enumerators power. Analysis of nutrients content in foods used a food processor 2 (FP2. The statistical test used was t-test. The results showed that the father work mostly farmers while the mother does not work. Mother's education and father respectively 51 people (70.8% and 48 (66.7% 9 years of basic education. IGF-1 levels below the average in children aged 6-24 months by 59 (81.9%. Statistical test between nutrient consumption of protein, Zinc and Phosphorus with a confidence level of 95% indicates that there is a is significant correlation between protein intake Zinc and Phosphorus with IGF-1 status.

  1. An audit of letters of referral to a prosthodontic department in a dental teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenlon, Michael R; Glick, Shiri; Sherriff, Martyn

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality and number of letters of referral for new patients received in the Prosthodontics Department of a Dental Teaching Hospital. Letters received during the month of May 2006 were included. Each letter of referral was tested against five criteria which might be expected in an appropriate letter of referral. These were information on the following: relevant dental history, relevant medical history, teeth present, diagnosis, and treatment plan. The results showed that only 8% of letters met all five criteria and 11% met none of them. Letters requesting better information were sent to referring practitioner as a result of this audit. However a re-audit in May 2007 showed that 9% of letters met all five criteria and 15% met none of them. A need has been identifiedfor better referral letters and ways of achieving this were discussed.

  2. Letters to the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Comment on `Magnetic and electric field strengths of high voltage power lines and household appliances' José Luis Giordano Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales y Fluidos, CPSI, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain Twins paradox S R Carson Norton College, Malton, North Yorkshire, UK On alternative ways of finding the ratio of specific heats of gases Tomas Ficker Physics Department, Technical University of Brno, Czech Republic

  3. European collaboration for improved monitoring of Icelandic volcanoes: Status of the FUTUREVOLC project after the initial 18 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Stéphanie; Parks, Michelle; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Vogfjörð, Kristín; Einarsdóttir, Heiðveig Maria; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnús; Kristinsson, Ingvar; Loughlin, Sue; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Hooper, Andrew; Kylling, Arve; Witham, Claire; Bean, Chris; Braiden, Aoife; Ripepe, Maurizio; Prata, Fred; Pétur Heiðarsson, Einar; Other Members Of The Futurevolc Team

    2014-05-01

    The FUTUREVOLC project funded by the European Union (FP7) is devoted to volcanic hazard assessment and establishing an integrated volcanological monitoring procedure through a European collaboration. To reach these objectives the project combines broad expertise from 26 partners from 10 countries, focusing on the four most active volcanoes of Iceland: Grímsvötn, Katla, Hekla and Bárdarbunga. The geological setting of Iceland, the high rate of eruptions and the various eruption styles make this country an optimal natural laboratory to study volcanic processes from crustal depths to the atmosphere. The project, which began on 1 October 2012, integrates advanced monitoring and analytical techniques in an innovative way, focusing on (i) detailed monitoring to improve our understanding of the seismic/magmatic unrest, in order to estimate the amount of magma available for an eruption and to provide early warnings (ii) the dynamics of magma in the conduit and a near real time estimation of the mass eruption rate and (iii) observing and modelling the plume dynamics. The project design considers effective collaboration between partners and aims for efficient cross-disciplinary workflows. A major step during the first 18 months of the project was the installation of additional equipment in the volcanic regions of Iceland to reinforce and complement the existing monitoring. The instruments include: seismometers, GPS stations, MultigGAS detectors, DOAS, infrasonic arrays, electric field sensors, radars, and optical particle sizers. Data streaming is designed to withstand extreme weather conditions. The FUTUREVOLC project has an open data policy for real and near-time data. Implementation of a data hub is currently under way, based on open access to data from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Access to volcano monitoring data through a common interface will allow timely information on magma movements facilitated through combined analysis. A key part of the project is to

  4. A 6-month "self-monitoring" lifestyle modification with increased sunlight exposure modestly improves vitamin D status, lipid profile and glycemic status in overweight and obese Saudi adults with varying glycemic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Alfawaz, Hanan; Aljohani, Naji J; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Wani, Kaiser; Alnaami, Abdullah M; Alharbi, Mohammad; Kumar, Sudhesh

    2014-05-26

    The over-all age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) in Saudi Arabia is unprecedented at 31%. Aggressive measures should be done to curb down increasing incidence. In this prospective 6-month study we aim to determine whether a self-monitoring, life-style modification program that includes increased sunlight exposure confer improvement in vitamin D status and health benefits among adult Saudi overweight and obese patients with varying glycemic status. A total of 150 overweight and obese Saudi adults with varying glycemic status aged 30-60 years were included in this study. They were divided into 3 groups (Non-DMT2, Pre-diabetes and DMT2). Baseline anthropometrics and blood glucose were taken at baseline and after 6 months. Fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, calcium, albumin and phosphate were measured routinely. Serum 25(OH) vitamin D was measured using standard assays. Within the time period they were instructed to reduce total intake of fat, increased fiber intake and increase sun exposure. In all groups there was a significant improvement in vitamin D levels as well as serum triglycerides, LDL- and total cholesterol. However, a significant increase in serum glucose levels was noted in the non-DMT2 group, and a significant decrease in HDL-cholesterol in both non-DMT2 and pre-diabetes group. In the pre-diabetes group, 53.2% were able to normalize their fasting blood levels after 6 months, with 8.5% reaching the DMT2 stage and 38.3% remaining pre-diabetic. In all groups there was a significant increase in the prevalence of hypertension. Improving vitamin D status with modest lifestyle modifications over a short-period translates to improvement in lipid profile except HDL-cholesterol among overweight and obese Saudi adults, but not BMI and blood pressure. Findings of the present study merit further investigation as to whether full vitamin D status correction can delay or prevent onset of DMT2.

  5. [Status of, and factors associated with, complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months in poor rural areas of Hunan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Fang, J Q; Luo, J Y; Wang, H; Du, Q Y; Huang, G W; Feng, B B

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To describe the status of, and to identify the factors associated with, complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months in poor rural areas of Hunan Province, China. Methods: A total of 8 735 infants and young children aged 6- 23 months from 30 poor rural counties in the Wuling and Luoxiao Mountains in Hunan Province were selected by township-level probability-proportional-to-size sampling in August 2015. Questionnaires were used to collect information on the feeding status of the infants in the previous 24 hours, along with personal/family information. The qualified rate of minimum dietary diversity (MDD), the minimum meal frequency (MMF) and the minimum acceptable diet (MAD) were calculated according to the WHO indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices. Multi non-conditional logistic regression models were used to analyze factors associated with complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months. Results: The findings indicated that 73.9% (6 452/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6-23 months received the minimum dietary diversity, 81.6% (7 124/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6- 23 months received the minimum meal frequency and 49.0% (4 276/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6- 23 months received an acceptable diet. Compared with the boys, the OR for the MMF and MAD for the girls were 1.15 and 1.11, respectively. Compared with the 6-11 month group, the OR for the MDD for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 0.41 and 0.38, respectively; the OR for the MMF for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 1.53 and 2.46, respectively; and the OR for the MAD for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 0.60 and 0.60, respectively. Compared with the Han ethnic group, the OR for the MDD, MMF and MAD for the Miao ethnic group were 1.43, 1.72 and 1.56, respectively; for the Tujia ethnic group were 2.21, 2.02 and 2.11, respectively; and for the Dong ethnic

  6. [Complementary feeding and nutritional status of 6-24-month-old children in Acrelândia, Acre State, Western Brazilian Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mariana Tarricone; Granado, Fernanda Serra; Cardoso, Marly Augusto

    2011-02-01

    Our objective was to investigate nutritional status and complementary feeding practices in children from 6 to 24 months of age living in the Western Brazilian Amazon. A cross-sectional study was conducted within an urban area of Acrelândia, Acre State. A total of 164 children were studied. Prevalence rates for stunting and anemia were 12% and 40%, respectively, and overall prevalence of iron deficiency was 85%. Vitamin A and B12 serum levels were below normal thresholds in 15% and 12% of children, respectively. Low intake was observed for the following nutrients (% of children): folic acid (33%), vitamin C (40%), vitamin A (42%), zinc (46%), and iron (71%). Iron bioavailability in the diet was approximately 8%. Very low dietary intakes of fruits, vegetables, and meats were observed, in contrast with excessive consumption of cow's milk and porridge.

  7. Parent–Child Conversations About Letters and Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Sarah; Treiman, Rebecca; Rosales, Nicole; Otake, Shoko

    2014-01-01

    Learning about letters, and how they differ from pictures, is one important aspect of a young child’s print awareness. To test the hypothesis that parent speech provides children with information about these differences, we studied parent–child conversations in CHILDES (MacWhinney, 2000). We found that parents talk to their young children about letters, differentiating them from pictures, by 1–2 years of age and that some of these conversational patterns change across the preschool years in ways that emphasize important features of letters, such as their shape. We also found that children talk about letters and pictures in distinct ways, suggesting an implicit understanding of some of the differences between letters and pictures at an early age. Some differences in parent–child conversations about letters were found as a function of socioeconomic status: Lower SES families appeared to focus more on alphabetic order than higher SES families. The general letter knowledge expressed in these conversations suggests that everyday interactions are an important component of the home literacy environment and that they differ, in some respects, as a function of child age and family background. PMID:25525295

  8. Effect of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) supplementation for 12 months on the indices of vitamin K status and bone health in adult patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Eibhlís M; Grealy, Geraldine; McCarthy, Jane; Desmond, Alan; Craig, Orla; Shanahan, Fergus; Cashman, Kevin D

    2014-10-14

    Although epidemiological findings support a role for vitamin K status in the improvement of bone indices in adult patients with Crohn's disease (CD), this needs to be confirmed in double-blind, randomised controlled trials (RCT) with phylloquinone (vitamin K1). By conducting two RCT, the present study aimed to first establish whether supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily near-maximally suppresses the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin in serum (%ucOC; marker of vitamin K status) in adult patients with CD currently in remission as it does in healthy adults and second determine the effect of supplementation with phylloquinone at this dose for 12 months on the indices of bone turnover and bone mass. The initial dose-ranging RCT was conducted in adult patients with CD (n 10 per group) using 0 (placebo), 1000 or 2000 μg of phylloquinone daily for 2 weeks. In the main RCT, the effect of placebo v. 1000 μg vitamin K/d (both co-administered with Ca (500 mg/d) and vitamin D3 (10 μg/d)) for 12 months (n 43 per group) on the biochemical indices of bone turnover (determined by enzyme immunoassay) and bone mass (determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were investigated. At baseline, the mean %ucOC was 47 %, and this was suppressed upon supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily ( - 81 %; P0·1) on bone turnover markers or on the bone mass of the lumbar spine or femur, but modestly increased (Pvitamin D3) had no effect on the indices of bone health in adult CD patients with likely vitamin K insufficiency.

  9. Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim

    2013-09-01

    The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency.

  10. A STUDY ON LEGIBILITY OF LETTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve ERSAN,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the most general sense, lettering is the art of drawing letters, in which the letter forms carry illustrtive features. In this research which is titled "An Analysis on Legibility in Letterings Used in Print Advertisements", letterings used in and specially designed for print ads are analysed and their contribution to the ads are examined. Legibility, which is the fundamental function of writing and typography is examined in the field of lettering that has an illustrative approach. Also, the article puts emphasis on the technique and form’s contribution on content in letterings. Keywords: Lettering, print advertisements, letter design, illustration, legibility.

  11. [The changes in hormonal status of the cardiovascular and the thyroid systems in rats with 18-month type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, K V; Ignatieva, P A; Bogush, I V; Balluzek, M F; Shpakov, A O

    2016-01-01

    Among the most common complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) are disorders of the cardiovascular and the thyroid systems. The functions of these systems may be weakened with increasing age. However, the mechanisms of these disorders, including the role of alterations in the adenylyl cyclase signaling system (ACSS), are not fully elucidated. Objective was to study thyroid status and ACSS activity of the myocardium and the thyroid gland (TG) of rats with 8- and 18-month DM2 (DM-8 and DM-18) as compared to control animals of the same age (C-8 and C-18). In the myocardium of rats with DM2 an imbalance of β-adrenergic regulation of ACSS was detected, and these disturbances were amplified with increasing age. In the myocardium of rats of the C-18 group the disturbances of ACSS hormonal regulation were also identified, but they were less pronounced. In diabetic rats, the levels of free thyroxine and total triiodothyronine decreased, the level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) increased, and the stimulatory effect of TSH on the ACSS in TG was attenuated, which indicates the hypothyroid state in long-term DM2. In the C-18 group, these changes were absent. Thus, in the myocardium and TG of rats with 18-month DM2 the hormonal regulation of ACSS was violated, which may be one of the causes of cardiovascular pathology and hypothyroid states in long-term DM2.

  12. Contribution of Phonemic Segmentation Instruction with Letters and Articulation Pictures to Word Reading and Spelling in Beginners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Nancy; Ehri, Linnea C.

    2011-01-01

    English-speaking preschoolers who knew letters but were nonreaders (M = 4 years 9 months; n = 60) were taught to segment consonant-vowel (CV), VC, and CVC words into phonemes either with letters and pictures of articulatory gestures (the LPA condition) or with letters only (the LO condition). A control group received no treatment. Both trained…

  13. Checklist Evaluation for Teaching Business Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, M. Latif

    1981-01-01

    Offers a checklist for use in evaluating business letters written by students. Contends that the checklist can simplify paper checking, objectify grading, help students better prepare their letter assignments, and facilitate their understanding of letter writing principles. (FL)

  14. Analysis of feeding status of infants aged 0-24 months%0~24月龄婴幼儿喂养状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩虹; 朱宗涵; 戴耀华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To obtain the information on feeding status of infants aged 0-24 months so as to provide references for further nutritional intervention. Methods Beijing, Changzhi, Huanggang, Suzhou and Nanning were selected as study areas. Questionnaires were distributed to parents of infants who attended the out-patient clinic of maternal and child health hospitals ( MCH ) at the time of recruitment, and the survey results were input into computer to analyze. Results The rate of exclusive breastfeeding in first 4 months was 55.2% , and that in first 6 months decreased to 19.0%. The median of weaning was 8 months. Weaning was mainly due to "insufficient breast milk secretion" , " parents think that infants need weaning" and " mothers return to work". 69. 1% of infants started receiving complementary food before 6 months, 20.5% at 6 months and 10.4% after 6 months. Compared with rural infants, the complementary rate of fruits (X2 = 4. 366 ,P = 0. 037 ), vegetables (x2 = 6. 562, P = 0. 010 ), meet ( X2 = 10. 812, P = 0. 001 ) and fishes (x2 = 20. 208, P <0. 001 ) in urban infants was significantly higher. Conclusion The rate of exclusive breasffeeding in study areas is relatively low, and theduration of breastfeeding is short. Further efforts are needed to reinforce complementary feeding.%目的 获取调查地区0~24月龄婴幼儿的喂养情况,为进一步的营养干预提供参考依据.方法 以北京、长治、黄冈、苏州和南宁为研究地,在五地妇幼保健院儿保门诊对婴幼儿父母进行问卷调查,结果输入计算机进行分析.结果 受访婴幼儿4月龄纯母乳喂养率为55.2%,6月龄纯母乳喂养率降至19.0%.断奶月龄中位数是8个月,断奶的主要原因是"母乳不足"、"家长认为应该断奶了"和"母亲上班".未满6月龄即添加辅食的婴幼儿占69.1%,6月龄时添加的为20.5%,10.4%的婴幼儿6月龄后才添加;城市婴幼儿在水果(χ2=4.366,P=0.037)、蔬菜(χ2=6.562,P=0.010)、肉类(χ2

  15. How to Write a Business Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N·J·斯特克

    2004-01-01

    @@ Generally speaking, there are two kinds of letters, business letters and personal letters. By "business" we do not mean buying, selling, or exchanging goods with people or companies, although it can mean that, but important matters we have to discuss or deal with. A business letter may be a recommendation, a job/college application, an inquiry, an answer, an invitation, a complaint, etc. In other words, all letters that are not "personal"are "business" letters.

  16. Letter to editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichmann JP

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available James P ReichmannSales & Marketing, American HomePatient, Brentwood, TN, USA, I would like to congratulate the authors of the article entitled, "Optimal management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy" for the comprehensive review of treatments for a frequent complication of pregnancy.1 Although this letter arrives well after publication I think it is important for researchers in the future to have clarification on one seemingly minor but important point. In order to avoid confusion it must be pointed out that in the metoclopramide section the statement "subcutaneous metoclopramide is effective in many women with NVP and HG" is supported by one observational trial on continuous subcutaneous metoclopramide.2 This distinction is very important because that study reported patients were receiving the drug for 26.7 days on average at a cost of $4432 per patient. Unfavorable cost comparisons have been previously published.3 The recommendation that more studied and less expensive alternatives are explored prior to subjecting the patient to this extreme measure seems prudent.4 Perhaps the use of the reference to continuous subcutaneous metoclopramide may have been accidental but the suggestion that "these findings are reassuring, especially for women who experience excessive sleepiness…" implies that women on Diclectin® who report being tired are advanced to continuous subcutaneous metoclopramide seems like a waste of health care resources and a little reckless.1View original paper by Ebrahimi and colleagues.

  17. Do changes in socio-demographic characteristics impact up-to-date immunization status between 3 and 24 months of age? A prospective study among an inner-city birth cohort in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Susmita; Huang, Jiayu; Wong, Angie; Baba, Zeinab; Ostapenko, Svetlana; Fiks, Alexander G; Cnaan, Avital

    2017-05-04

    Low-income child populations remain under-vaccinated. Our objective was to determine differences in the relative importance of maternal health literacy and socio-demographic characteristics that often change during early childhood on up-to-date (UTD) immunization status among a low-income population. We performed secondary data analysis of a longitudinal prospective cohort study of 744 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads recruited at the time of the infant's birth from an inner-city hospital in the United States and surveyed every 6 months for 24 months. Our primary outcome was infant UTD status at 24 months abstracted from a citywide registry. We assessed maternal health literacy with the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (short version). We collected socio-demographic information via surveys at birth and every 6 months. We compared predictors of UTD status at 3, 7, and 24 months. The cohort consisted of primarily African-American (81.5%) mothers with adequate health literacy (73.9%). Immunizations were UTD among 56.7% of infants at 24 months of age. Maternal health literacy was not a significant predictor of UTD immunization status. Instead, adjusted results showed that significant predictors of not-UTD status at 24 months were lack of a consistent health care location or "medical home" (OR 0.17, 95%CI 0.18-0.37), inadequate prenatal care (OR 0.48, 95%CI 0.25-0.95), and prior not-UTD status (OR 0.31, 95%CI 0.20-0.47). Notably, all upper confidence limits are less than 1.0 for these variables. Health care location type (e.g., hospital-affiliate, community-based, none) was a significant predictor of vaccine status at age 3 months, 7 months, and 24 months. Investing in efforts to support early establishment of a medical home to obtain comprehensive coordinated preventive care, including providing recommended vaccines on schedule, is a prudent strategy to improve vaccination status at the population level.

  18. Long-term vitamin D3 supplementation is more effective than vitamin D2 in maintaining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status over the winter months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Victoria F; Gray, Andrew R; Peddie, Meredith C; Harper, Michelle J; Houghton, Lisa A

    2013-03-28

    Public health recommendations do not distinguish between vitamin D2 and vitamin D3, yet disagreement exists on whether these two forms should be considered equivalent. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a daily physiological dose of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status over the winter months in healthy adults living in Dunedin, New Zealand (latitude 46°S). Participants aged 18-50 years were randomly assigned to 25 μg (1000 IU) vitamin D3 (n 32), 25 μg (1000 IU) vitamin D2 (n 31) or placebo (n 32) daily for 25 weeks beginning at the end of summer. A per-protocol approach, which included ≥ 90 % supplement compliance, was used for all analyses. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25(OH)D2) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured at baseline and at 4, 8, 13 and 25 weeks. Geometric mean total serum 25(OH)D concentrations (sum of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3) at baseline was 80 nmol/l. After 25 weeks, participants randomised to D2 and placebo had a significant reduction in serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations over the winter months compared with vitamin D3-supplemented participants (both Pvitamin D2 increased serum 25(OH)D2 but produced a 9 (95 % CI 1, 17) nmol/l greater decline in the 25(OH)D3 metabolite compared with placebo (Pvitamin D2 compared with those receiving D3 (Pvitamin D3 was more effective than D2; however, the functional consequence of the differing metabolic response warrants further investigation.

  19. Osterc's letters to Milojević

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Melita B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The correspondence between two of the most important composers in Yugoslavia during the period between the two world wars: Miloje Milojević (1884-1946, a Serb living in Belgrade, and Slavko Osterc (1895-1946, Slovene living in Ljubljana, gives us valuable insight into their musical aspirations ambitions, relations to other colleagues, the functioning of musical institutions and the cultural and even political climate of the times. The stylistic features of their works are basically different, Milojević being a modernist with late romantic roots, while Osterc was inclined to objectivity of the neoclassical and "constructive expressionist type. The main topics of their correspondence include: the activities of the Yugoslav section of the International Society for Contemporary Music, in which they were very much involved, and the efforts they made to have their works performed both in the country and abroad. Milojević and Osterc maintained very good relations throughout the period covered by this exchange of letters, that is from 1933-1941 (Osterc's last letter was sent three months before his death in May 1941 and their correspondence provides evidence of several instances of the mutual generosity, as they helped each other in their careers. The portion of this correspondence that is kept in Ljubljana - Milojević's letters to Osterc - has already been published and analyzed by Dragotin Cvetko. As such, the edition of the remaining correspondence, Osterc's letters to Milojević, that is kept in the private archive of Milojević's grandson Vlastimir Trajković in Belgrade, completes the picture. The language Osterc used was his mother tongue, Slovenian, with "borrowings" from the Serbian, the result being an often amusing mixture of the two.

  20. Osler and the infected letter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ambrose, Charles T

    2005-01-01

    .... The dissemination of anthrax spores in the US mail in 2001 was a recent example. In 1901, two medical journals reported outbreaks of smallpox presumably introduced by letters contaminated with variola viruses...

  1. Letter from the Friends Chairman

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Letter from the Friends Chairman Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents ... FNLM Chairman Paul Rogers converse at a recent Friends function at the National Library of Medicine. Photo ...

  2. The Style of Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Kai

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the application of Systemic Functional Granunar (SFG) to the analysis of English Business Letters (EBL). With China's opening up to the outside, especially its entrance into WTO, international business is becoming more and more popular. Most of the transactions in international business are discussed in detail through airmail letters, telegrams, telexes, faxes or E-mails.As a world language, English is used widely in the negotiation of international businesses. Writing a piece of effective English Business Letter is of great importance. As a medium between the business partners, EBL affects the interaction and negotiation between them. This article is intended to seek the linguistic characteristics of business letters and prove that the theories of SFG can be used to analyze EBL discourse and they are actually effective.

  3. Readability of standard appointment letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Daniel M; Gilchrist, Anne

    2010-06-01

    Introduction and aims The first contact a clinical service has with a patient is often an appointment letter and thus it is important that this letter is written in a way which is accessible. One concern is to write in language which is easily able to be read by the majority of recipients. A simple initial way to assess this is by using measures of readability of text.Methods We applied measures to examine the readability of appointment and administrative letters sent to young people by clinicians in the Young People's Department at the Royal Cornhill Hospital in Aberdeen.Results Many letters were unlikely to be understood by our youngest patients. We revised the letters to meet an agreed standard of readability, and agreed their routine use within the team. All letters were significantly improved on standard measures of readability and were preferred by patients.Conclusions The methods used are feasible, easily available and may be helpful to clinicians working in other specialties to improve the level of readability of written communication. This will help patients and families in their first contact with any clinical service.

  4. Letter from the Editors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Editors

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With grateful hearts we offer this, the first issue of our third volume. The result of months of back-breaking thinking, emailing, looking, clicking, watching, writing and reading, our new issue is here. The editors could not have done this without your support. We welcome your materials for our future issues as well as your continued contributions.

  5. Letter from the Editors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Boshears

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With grateful hearts we offer this, the third issue of our second volume. The result of months of back-breaking thinking, emailing, looking, clicking, watching, writing and reading, our fall issue is here. The editors could not have done this without your support. We welcome your materials for our future issues as well as your continued contributions.

  6. Letter from the Editors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Boshears

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With grateful hearts we offer this, the second issue of our second volume. The result of months of back-breaking thinking, emailing, looking, clicking, watching, writing and reading, our summer issue is here. The editors could not have done this without your support. We welcome your materials for our future issues as well as your continued contributions.

  7. Letter from the Editors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Allen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This fourth issue of continent. was created, for you, dear reader. The result of months of back-breaking thinking, emailing, looking, clicking, watching, writing and reading, our winter issue is here. We celebrate the completion of the first year and can't wait to share with you what's in store for the next.

  8. Analysis of the Application Status and Countermeasures of Micro Letter Public Platform in E-government%微信公众平台在电子政务中的应用现状及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏利峰; 沈振华; 贾丹; 王梦瑶

    2014-01-01

    The micro letter to the real-time, interactive, privacy, the unique advantage of economy of the sudden appearance of a new force in many social media networks, and in the aspect of government communication and publication are playing a more and more important role, micro letter with the E-government is becoming the main platform to reflect social conditions and pub⁃lic opinion. This article on the government function of small letter public accounts were analyzed, through the actual observation and sampling survey method, using quantitative method and qualitative method, analyses and studies the application of the cur⁃rent government release characteristics, micro letter public account content, interactive function and other aspects of the current situation and existing problems in the future, and in the administrative service and development orientation and gives reasonable suggestions.%微信以其即时性、互动性、隐私性,经济性等独特优势在众多网络社会化媒体中异军突起,并在政务传播和发布方面扮演着越来越重要的角色,微信与电子政务的结合正在逐渐成为反映社情民意的主要平台。该文对政务功能的微信公众账号进行了分析,通过实际观察法和取样调查法,采用定量方法和定性方法相结合的方式,对当前政务微信公众账号的特性、发布的内容、互动的功能等方面的应用现状和存在问题进行了分析和研究,并对其未来在政务服务和发展定位给出了合理化建议。

  9. Letter Writing: A Tool for Counselor Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Rachel M.

    2008-01-01

    Letter writing is an integral component of narrative therapy practice. In addition to the benefits of letter writing in counseling practice, letter writing may hold interesting possibilities for use in counselor education. This article provides a brief review of the benefits of letter writing in counseling practice and discusses the potential use…

  10. Essay: Physical Review Letters; Sam Goudsmit's Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Robert K

    2008-01-18

    Sam Goudsmit implemented his vision of converting the Letters section of Physical Review into a distinct journal fifty years ago. Physical Review Letters was designed to publish "only papers that really deserve rapid communication." The new journal became so successful with physicists throughout the world that Physical Review Letters now publishes 3500 Letters per year.

  11. Unit 2: Application Letters & The Job Interview

    OpenAIRE

    Aleson Carbonell, Marian

    2007-01-01

    Unit 2a_ Letters of Application and the CV: Reading the employment section. Unit 2b_Letters of Application and the CV:Writing Letters and the Job Hunting Process. Unit 2c_ Letters of Application and the CV: The Job Interview.

  12. Association between the Infant and Child Feeding Index (ICFI) and nutritional status of 6- to 35-month-old children in rural western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Pengfei; Mi, Baibing; Wang, Duolao; Zhang, Ruo; Yang, Jiaomei; Liu, Danmeng; Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the quality of feeding practices and children’s nutritional status in rural western China. Methods A sample of 12,146 pairs of 6- to 35-month-old children and their mothers were recruited using stratified multistage cluster random sampling in rural western China. Quantile regression was used to analyze the relationship between the Infant and Child Feeding Index (ICFI) and children’s nutritional status. Results In rural western China, 24.37% of all infants and young children suffer from malnutrition. Of this total, 19.57%, 8.74% and 4.63% of infants and children are classified as stunting, underweight and wasting, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, the quantile regression results suggested that qualified ICFI (ICFI > 13.8) was associated with all length and HAZ quantiles (P<0.05) and had a greater effect on the following: poor length and HAZ, the β-estimates (length) from 0.76 cm (95% CI: 0.53 to 0.99 cm) to 0.34 cm (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.59 cm) and the β-estimates (HAZ) from 0.17 (95% CI: 0.10 to 0.24) to 0.11 (95% CI: 0.04 to 0.19). Qualified ICFI was also associated with most weight quantiles (P<0.05 except the 80th and 90th quantiles) and poor and intermediate WAZ quantiles (P<0.05 including the 10th, 20th 30th and 40th quantiles). Additionally, qualified ICFI had a greater effect on poor weight and WAZ quantiles in which the β-estimates (weight) were from 0.20 kg (95% CI: 0.14 to 0.26 kg) to 0.06 kg (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.12 kg) and the β-estimates (WAZ) were from 0.14 (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.21) to 0.05 (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10). Conclusions Feeding practices were associated with the physical development of infants and young children, and proper feeding practices had a greater effect on poor physical development in infants and young children. For mothers in rural western China, proper guidelines and messaging on complementary feeding practices are necessary. PMID:28207774

  13. Letter from the Editors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Allen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With grateful hearts we offer this, the fourth issue of our second volume. The result of months of back-breaking thinking, emailing, looking, clicking, watching, writing and reading, our winter issue is here. The editors could not have done this without your support. We welcome your materials for our future issues as well as your continued contributions. Purchase your copy of our first book from Punctum Books.

  14. Letter from the Editors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Boshears

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This third issue of continent. was created, for you, dear reader. The result of months of back-breaking thinking, emailing, looking, clicking, watching, writing and reading, our fall issue is here. The issue features works by some of the finest creative and philosophical minds we've been in contact with—and so are proud to showcase their work here.

  15. Syllable and Letter Knowledge in Early Korean Hangul Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeung-Ryeul

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the development of Korean consonant-vowel (CV) syllable identification, consonant and vowel letter knowledge, and their relationships to phonological awareness and the reading of regular Hangul words among Korean kindergartners as a 6-month longitudinal study. Results showed that Korean children identified CV syllables better…

  16. Parallel public spheres: distance and discourse in letters to the editor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Andrew J; Vaisey, Stephen

    2008-11-01

    This article examines letters to the editor as one of the ways citizens seek to enact a public sphere using technological mediation. Using a sample of all letters received by a metropolitan newspaper during a three-month period (N = 1,113), the authors demonstrate that the tone and argumentative styles of letters differ with the scope of the issues the letters address. Local issues evoke more reasoned, conciliatory tones, while issues beyond the local context evoke more emotional, confrontational tones, even after controlling for individual writers' characteristics and anger as a motivation to write.

  17. Effects of Letter-Identification Training on Letter Naming in Prereading Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Schmidt, Anna C.; Saunders, Kathryn J.

    2013-01-01

    Three prereading children who named 0 to 3 of 20 targeted letters were taught to select the 20 printed letters when they heard spoken letter names. For all participants, letter-identification training resulted in naming for the majority of letters.

  18. Romanian letter-writing: a cultural-rhetorical perspective (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Iuliana Morcov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at revealing the features of Romanian letter-writing during its stages of formation and consolidation. The structural and the stylistic analysis of letters is carried out with regard to the composition of the documents written in Old Romanian according to the requirements imposed by the Slavonic template and with regard to the rhetorical division of the three styles: the simple style, the middle style and the grand style. The description of the Old Romanian epistolary style is based on a taxonomy inspired by Roman Jakobson’s functional communicative model (1964. Following the six factors identified by Jakobson, letters are classified according to the socio-cultural status and the communicative competence of the addresser and of the addressee and in line with the context, the channel and the linguistic code used to write them.

  19. Symbolism in the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑文良

    2005-01-01

    A famous writer in American Renaissance, Nathaniel Hawthorne was deeply influenced by three thoughts, Puritanism consciousness, transcendental philosophy and transcendentalism .Novel The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most remarkable masterpiece. It thoroughly response to people's spirit wreck of Puritanism and unbridled pursuit for happy life. Meanwhile, The Scarlet Letter also makes Nathanael Hawthorne known all around the world. Hawthorne uses the symbolism so skilfful that it enhances the artistic effects of his work greatly. This paper researches the symbolism in this novel from the following aspects: the changing symbolic meaning of the scarlet letter, the names of the major characters and many objects that are described in the novel to make the symbolism clear to the readers.

  20. Symbolism in the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑文良

    2005-01-01

    A famous writer in American Renaissance, Nathaniel Hawthorne was deeply influenced by three thoughts, Puritanism consciousness, transcendental philosophy and transcendentalism .Novel The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most remarkable masterpiece. It thoroughly response to people's spirit wreck of Puritanism and unbridled pursuit for happy life. Meanwhile, The Scarlet Letter also makes Nathaniel Hawthorne known all around the world. Hawthorne uses the symbolism so skillful that it enhances the artistic effects of his work greatly. This paper researches the symbolism in this novel from the following aspects: the changing symbolic meaning of the scarlet letter, the names of the major characters and many objects that are described in the novel to make the symbolism clear to the readers.

  1. Effect of supplementation with a lipid-based nutrient supplement on the micronutrient status of children aged 6–18 months living in the rural region of Intibucá, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) have been effective in the treatment of acute malnutrition among children. We evaluated the use of LNS supplementation for improving the micronutrient status of young children. Methods: A 12-month randomised controlled trial was conducted among chil...

  2. A letter signed: the very beginnings of Dalton's atomic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Herbert T

    2010-11-01

    This paper explores the provenance and content of a previously unknown personal letter by John Dalton (1766-1844), which is dated 12 April 1803. It relates to a startling breakthrough in Dalton's research, which pre-dates by five months the earliest date in his laboratory notebook, namely, 6 September 1803. The author acquired the letter about thirty years ago, and now offers it to the public. He makes no attempt to explain how it contributes to--or even changes--our understanding of Dalton, but leaves that privilege to Dalton scholars.

  3. THE POWER OF LOWERCASE LETTERS IN READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdevs GÜNEŞ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the most superior way of obtaining knowledge is reading. Reading gives direction to the individual's language, cognitive, social skills and future. For this reason, great importance is given to the teaching of reading. The teaching of reading is carried out based on two basic skills including word recognition and comprehension. In the word recognition process, appearance of the letters the shapes of the wordswritten in uppercase or lowercase letters are effective. Brain research reveal that the words written in small letters more quickly recognized and understood. Based on the recognition of words written in capital letters, small letters become stronger and they are recognised easier than the capital letters. For this reason, a text written in small letter is read more quickly than in capital letters. In addition, text in lowercase letters makes to examine all the details of the text, in-depth awareness and understanding. Small letters are in the process of visual recognition, attention, and remember the rule affects reading, seeing, understanding, and accelerates the configuration tasks in mind. This situation makes the use of lowercase letters in advertising. The advertising in small letters and logos were more easily recognized and remembered. Therefore, in order to increase strength of association big companies and brands, are used lowercase letters. In reading activities taking these results into well known and necessary precautions should be taken about lowercase letters.

  4. Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Triana, Michel; Ternier, Stefaan; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Drachsler, Hendrik; Maher, Bridget; Henn, Patrick; Orrego, Carola; Marcus, Specht

    2014-01-01

    The electronic discharge letter mobile app takes advantage of Near Field Communication (NFC) within the PATIENT project and a related post-doc study. NFC enabled phones to read passive RFID tags, but can also use this short-range wireless technology to exchange (small) messages. NFC in that sense co

  5. Curriculum Vitae and Related Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sharyl Bender

    This booklet, which was developed by a college career center, explains the purpose of and procedures for writing curriculum vitae (CV) and related letters. The following topics are covered: when a CV is appropriate, points to consider when writing a CV, items usually included, possible sections to include in a CV, and steps in writing cover…

  6. Letter to a Young Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Describes, in the form of a letter to a young writer, how the author celebrates the pendulous life of the poet: from arrogance to uncertainty, from misstep to breakthrough. Emphasizes the sustaining force of reading and the need to be initiated into one's own work by the work of others. (SG)

  7. "The Scarlet Letter". [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Nathaniel Hawthorne's novel "The Scarlet Letter," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that the ending of a novel does not resolve all of the questions that may occur to readers; and that readers may imagine characters living out their lives beyond the ending the author gave to a novel. The main…

  8. Melanie Klein's letters addressed to Marcelle Spira (1955-1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinodoz, Jean-Michel

    2009-12-01

    Between 1955 and 1960, Melanie Klein wrote some 45 hitherto unpublished letters to Marcelle Spira, the Swiss psychoanalyst living at that time in Geneva. In 2006, after Spira's death, these letters were deposited with the Raymond de Saussure Psychoanalysis Centre in Geneva. They are the only known letters that Klein addressed to her psychoanalyst colleagues. Several topics are mentioned in them: (1) the meetings between the two women in Geneva and London; (2) Spira's contribution to Boulanger's translation into French of The Psychoanalysis of Children, which Klein herself carefully revised; (3) the papers that Klein was at that time working on, including Envy and Gratitude; (4) Spira's own work; (5) the difficulties that Spira, a Kleinian psychoanalyst who trained in Buenos Aires, was encountering in her attempt to be admitted to the Swiss Psychoanalytical Society; and (6) a few items of personal and family news. In addition to the invaluable historical information that these letters provide, they offer us a very moving epistolary self-portrait of Melanie Klein, enabling us to discover her personality in the final years of her life - she died in September 1960, just two months after writing her last letter to Spira.

  9. Comparison of Obesity Rates in Early Childhood (4 to 80 months by Parental Socioeconomic Status Using National Cohort Dataset in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insook Lee, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Low parental SES can affect the weight status of offspring from early childhood. Thus, early obesity prevention interventions should be provided especially for children in low-income families.

  10. Effects of stimulus duration and inter-letter spacing on letter-in-string identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouki, Yousri; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    Effects of stimulus duration and inter-letter spacing were studied in a letter-in-string identification paradigm. Participants were shown strings of 5 random consonants (e.g., PGKDM) centered on fixation and were asked to identify the letter that had appeared at a post-cued location. Stimulus duration was manipulated in Experiment 1 (13 ms-91 ms), and inter-letter spacing manipulated in Experiment 2 (for a fixed stimulus duration of 26 ms). We contrasted performance to outer-letters (positions 1 and 5) with non-central inner letters (positions 2 and 4), the first-letter (position 1) with the final letter (position 5), and the central-letter (position 3) with the other inner letters (positions 2 and 4). The outer-letter advantage and the first-letter advantage were present throughout the entire range of exposure durations, whereas the central-letter advantage increased with longer exposures. On the other hand, increased spacing reduced both the outer-letter advantage and the first-letter advantage, whereas it led to a greater central-letter advantage. Changes in acuity and crowding as a function of stimulus exposure and inter-letter spacing, can account for this pattern of results.

  11. Initial and noninitial name-letter preferences as obtained through repeated letter rating tasks continue to reflect (different aspects of) self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorens, Vera; Takano, Keisuke; Franck, Erik; Roberts, John E; Raes, Filip

    2015-09-01

    We tested the usefulness of name-letter preference scores as indirect indicators of self-esteem by exploring whether multiple unsupervised self-administrations of letter rating tasks within a short period of time yield useful data. We also examined whether preferences for initials and noninitial name-letters tap different aspects of self-esteem. Participants from a community sample (N = 164; 58 men and 106 women, 17-67 years, Mage = 34.57, SD = 13.28) completed daily letter rating tasks and state self-esteem questionnaires for 7 consecutive days. They also completed a trait self-esteem questionnaire on the first measurement day as well as 6 months later. Preference scores for first-name initials were stronger but more unstable than preference scores for other name-letters. Preferences for first-name initials were primarily associated with directly measured state self-esteem whereas preferences for noninitials were primarily associated with directly measured trait self-esteem even if the latter was measured 6 months later. Thus, we showed that preferences for initials and noninitials are not simply interchangeable. Previous letter rating studies, which almost exclusively used initial preferences, should be interpreted in terms of state rather than trait self-esteem. In future studies, researchers should focus on the name-letter preference that reflects the aspect of self-esteem they wish to address.

  12. Letter to President [Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Lostwood Wilderness area. The letter discusses the...

  13. The Presentation of Courtesy in Business Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文君

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays the tendency of economic globalization in the world brings about increasingly closer international trade cooperation. The business letter has been an important communicative tool in the international trade. A polite business letter could promote the trade and help achieve the business cooperation. Therefore the presentation of courtesy in the business letter is of great significance. This paper presents a study of the courtesy in the business letter from the lexical aspect.

  14. 7 CFR 3560.709 - Demand letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demand letter. 3560.709 Section 3560.709 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Unauthorized Assistance § 3560.709 Demand letter. (a) If a... repayment schedule, the Agency will send the borrower a demand letter specifying: (1) The amount of...

  15. 31 CFR 29.511 - Demand letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Demand letters. 29.511 Section 29.511... Overpayments § 29.511 Demand letters. Except as provided in § 29.516(e), before starting collection action to recover an overpayment, the Benefits Administrator must send a demand letter that informs the debtor in...

  16. Beyond Zebra: Preschoolers' Knowledge about Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Richmond-Welty, E. Daylene; Tincoff, Ruth

    1997-01-01

    Argues that an important type of child knowledge about letters is knowledge of the phonological structure of the letters' names in English. Concludes that learning the alphabet forms the basis for generalizations about the structure of letter names. (22 references) (Author/CK)

  17. Letter names and phonological awareness help children to learn letter-sound relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Martins, Cláudia; Mesquita, Tereza Cristina Lara; Ehri, Linnea

    2011-05-01

    Two experimental training studies with Portuguese-speaking preschoolers in Brazil were conducted to investigate whether children benefit from letter name knowledge and phonological awareness in learning letter-sound relations. In Experiment 1, two groups of children were compared. The experimental group was taught the names of letters whose sounds occur either at the beginning (e.g., the letter /be/) or in the middle (e.g., the letter /'eli/) of the letter name. The control group was taught the shapes of the letters but not their names. Then both groups were taught the sounds of the letters. Results showed an advantage for the experimental group, but only for beginning-sound letters. Experiment 2 investigated whether training in phonological awareness could boost the learning of letter sounds, particularly middle-sound letters. In addition to learning the names of beginning- and middle-sound letters, children in the experimental group were taught to categorize words according to rhyme and alliteration, whereas controls were taught to categorize the same words semantically. All children were then taught the sounds of the letters. Results showed that children who were given phonological awareness training found it easier to learn letter sounds than controls. This was true for both types of letters, but especially for middle-sound letters. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Letter to Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Sadrizadeh

    2009-12-01

    media/press concerning the intensity and the dangers of the pandemic which creates a lot of tension among the populations and results in a great deal of unnecessary expenses due to over doings by the Member States. I believe, while we should closely and seriously continue to monitor the spread, trend and intensity of the pandemic and its impact on the health system, at the same time we should miti­gate its harmful effects on the populations and be prepared for unusual /unexpected changes of the vi­rus. In my view, we should not overestimate the magnitude of the problem as it may result in overspend­ing of the limited resources which are badly needed for other priority problems of the coun­tries. Furthermore, we may lose the trust and confidence of the decision makers and the communities, should we commit mistakes in our judgments or make unjustified recommendations. Although I have a lot more to say and share with you, I stop here and look forward to receiving your comments and guid­ance on the subject. Last but not least, may be because of the same reasons, as a member of the National Technical Committee on Influenza. Most of the times I have different views on the issues. That is why sometimes, I think either I am "Dumb" or others are "Deaf" or both.                    With best wishes                              Bijan     Surprisingly, I received the following response from Dr Fukuda the same day in two hours:   Dear Dr Sadrizadeh Thank you for your note. I think we are now entering into the most difficult period so far in terms of commu­nications. There is so much second guessing going on. Plus there is the usual reporting in which the reporters did not get it right. For example, after the Le monde article I believe the DG was quoted in some places as saying "unbelievable" rate when she said that the speed of spread is unprecedented, and that this H1N1 virus spread further in 6 weeks than in 6 months with

  19. Michelangelo, a Tireless Letter Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Charles Fiorato

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A titan of artistic creation, the sculptor-painter-architect Michelangelo was also a tireless letter writer. Five hundred and eighteen of his letters have reached us, stretching from his youth to the eve of his death, but we know that many others have been lost. Written in a kind of familiar Florentine and in a style of minimalist ‘realism’ – which does not prevent the presence of either impetuous polemical flights or pages of literary indulgence – these letters deal mainly with everyday subjects: day-by-day relationships, either endearing or resentful, with his relatives, financial or property matters and, above all, the marriage problems which concerned his nephew Leonardo, the sole heir of the family. But one also discovers in them the artist’s warm feelings of friendship and love, his poetic and aesthetic exchanges, his relationships, often conflictual, with his fellow-artists and patrons as well as his reflections on old age and death. All in all, these letters represent a documentary chronicle of a Florentine bourgeois family and the technical hassle of an entrepreneur’s activity. If, on the one hand, the Carteggio does not shed light either on Michelangelo’s conception of art or the way in which he realized his works, on the other it illustrates certain latent aspects of his projects, as well as of his personality, which was at the same time melancholy and aggressive, surprisingly whole and manifold. This luxuriant correspondence presents, so to speak, a ‘genetic’ interest, since it reveals the hidden face of the brilliant conceiver and creator, of the artist and entrepreneur struggling with the obstacles whose overcoming makes creation possible. 

  20. Spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T. L.

    2016-01-01

    Crowding between adjacent letters has been investigated primarily as a spatial effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding. Specifically, we examined the systematic changes in the degradation effects in letter identification performance when adjacent letters were presented with a temporal asynchrony, as a function of letter separation and between the fovea and the periphery. We measured proportion-correct performance for identifying the middle target letter in strings of three lowercase letters at the fovea and 10° in the inferior visual field, for a range of center-to-center letter separations and a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) between the target and flanking letters (positive SOAs: target preceded flankers). As expected, the accuracy for identifying the target letters reduces with decreases in letter separation. This crowding effect shows a strong dependency on SOAs, such that crowding is maximal between 0 and ∼100 ms (depending on conditions) and diminishes for larger SOAs (positive or negative). Maximal crowding does not require the target and flanking letters to physically coexist for the entire presentation duration. Most importantly, crowding can be minimized even for closely spaced letters if there is a large temporal asynchrony between the target and flankers. The reliance of letter identification performance on SOAs and how it changes with letter separations imply that the crowding effect can be traded between space and time. Our findings are consistent with the notion that crowding should be considered as a spatio-temporal, and not simply a spatial, effect. PMID:27088895

  1. Spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T L

    2016-01-01

    Crowding between adjacent letters has been investigated primarily as a spatial effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding. Specifically, we examined the systematic changes in the degradation effects in letter identification performance when adjacent letters were presented with a temporal asynchrony, as a function of letter separation and between the fovea and the periphery. We measured proportion-correct performance for identifying the middle target letter in strings of three lowercase letters at the fovea and 10° in the inferior visual field, for a range of center-to-center letter separations and a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) between the target and flanking letters (positive SOAs: target preceded flankers). As expected, the accuracy for identifying the target letters reduces with decreases in letter separation. This crowding effect shows a strong dependency on SOAs, such that crowding is maximal between 0 and ∼100 ms (depending on conditions) and diminishes for larger SOAs (positive or negative). Maximal crowding does not require the target and flanking letters to physically coexist for the entire presentation duration. Most importantly, crowding can be minimized even for closely spaced letters if there is a large temporal asynchrony between the target and flankers. The reliance of letter identification performance on SOAs and how it changes with letter separations imply that the crowding effect can be traded between space and time. Our findings are consistent with the notion that crowding should be considered as a spatio-temporal, and not simply a spatial, effect.

  2. A bread-and-butter letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王道庚

    2007-01-01

    @@ letter作"信"讲是很常用的词,私人信件是personal letter,业务信件叫做business letter,祝贺信是letter of congratulation,邀请信是letter of invitation 等等.还有一种信是a bread-and-butter letter,你知道是什么信吗?我们知道bread and butter是涂有黄油的面包,那么,a bread-and-butter letter就是"黄油面包信"吧?非也.

  3. Monthly errors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2006 monthly average statistical metrics for 2m Q (g kg-1) domain-wide for the base and MODIS WRF simulations against MADIS observations. This dataset is...

  4. LETTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco Problem Your recent cover story 'Tobacco Dilemma" (Issue No.9, March 2, 2006) should not be a dilemma at all. The Chinese Government should just come down very hard on cigarette smoking. It does not make sense to let tobacco smoking proliferate because it enriches government coffers through heftv taxes. Tobacco smokine is an

  5. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Despicable Acts Images of children starving to death are always disturbing.After reading a report about how food aid is being stolen and then sold on the market in Somalia I was saddened,sickened and outraged at the same time.A news report from Associated Press said that the food reaches the hungry people in the refugee camps and is then being removed from them with threats of violence and sold for profit.What kind of people are these that we share the planet with.What would make someone

  6. LETTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Dear Editor, Ref.To our tele talk to day,I have the honour to write you as you claimed that"Rarely do journalist challenge the Dalai Lama". Dalai Lama is an hypocrite who used to systematically fool people and his principle of peace are too bogus,he must be stopped in the frame work of peace as his fol-lowers are sluggish and kept themself burried under ignorance.

  7. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    EkooniBaje It brings me much joy to write about your article on Lagos(February issue).I felt obliged to use this opportunity to show to China and the rest of the world that there is a home for them in Lagos."Eko o ni Baje" is a popular local slogan in Lagos,Nigeria which simply means "Lagos will not spoil." Recently,the Nigerian community in Beijing and across China together with the Chinese Government celebrated 40 years of bilateral trade relations with China.This is to

  8. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Coulombic Models in Chemical Bonding by Lawrence J. Sacks and by Derek W. Smith Re: articles by R. J. Gillespie and by D. W. Smith D. W. Smith replies Capsaicin Hazard by Paul E. Vorndam Re: article by J. D. Batchelor and B. T. Jones B. T. Jones reply Editor's Note: Hazards Re: JCE 1999, 76, 240 and JCE 2000, 77, 266.

  9. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Give Peace a Chance The African Union(AU) has put forward a four-point formula to end the civil war in Libya.These points are:an immediate ceasefire by all military actions;continued humanitarian aid to those in need;protection of foreigners,including African expatriates living in Libya;and creation of a necessary political reforms agenda to eliminate the causes of the present crisis.This is all a clear indication that the AU is

  10. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Veggie Dream I was interested to read your articles about vegetarianism(January issue) and how it is catching on in China.I always imagined China to be a meat eating country before. Being vegetarian is very misunderstood by many people.I am a vegetarian and it has taught me to be very tolerant.If I go to any banquet,dinner,buffet,cocktail party,or any other event where food is served,I have learned to always try and eat beforehand or at least carry some of my own snacks.Vegetarians are rarely,if ever,catered for at social events,apart from the odd carrot or celery stick,tucked away in between the moun-

  11. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Female Farmers Zambian female farming groups are very happy to hear the news that the government has launched a $500,000 Sustainable Livelihood and Women Empowerment Project. Poor women farmer groups will now at least have some opportunity of getting financial help as well as help with new technology.We women farmers will also get help with training and livestock resources.The project is said to support 1,900 households and is in part of the process toward meeting the millennium goals.

  12. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    My name is Tom R. Chambers. I have been teaching English in Sheng Da College (near Zhengzhou) for two years,and faithfully reading your publication for over a year. I am also a documentary photographer, and I wonder if you'd be interested in publishing my experiences in China. I've created a Sheng Da College/China Travels website, which I feel is aninteresting approach to a travelogue,

  13. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Winter's Entertainment by Terry L. Helser Ammonia-Air Mixtures Can Be Explosive by David Tudela Re: article by S. Toby The author replies Teaching Statistical Methods by Ken Muranaka Re: article by K. Thomasson, S. Lofthus-Merschman, M. Humbert, and N. Kulevsky The author K. A. Thomasson replies Properties of Zeolite A Obtained from Powdered Laundry Detergent by Pamela J. Davis, Herman van Bekkum, and Eric N. Coker Re: article by D. A. Lindquist and A. L. Smoot The author D. A. Lindquist replies Photon-Initiated Hydrogen-Chlorine Reaction by Richard W. Schwenz and Lynn Geiger Re: article by L. M. Egolf and J. T. Keiser (J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A208) Precision and Accuracy in Measurements by Volker B. E. Thomsen Re: article by R. Treptow The author replies

  14. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Waste Not,Want Not I enjoy reading your magazine and was moved by your story about the massive famine in the Horn of Africa in your September issue.Last week I attended a banquet for an outgoing official at a popular restaurant in Beijing.We had many different dishes and after we had finished I noticed how much food remained uneaten on the table.After having read your story I thought about how so much is wasted in one place and so much needed in another.How does that happen? I felt guilty and wanted to do something to help at that moment. I think as people sharing the same planet we must be aware of what goes on

  15. LETTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deqyi

    2008-01-01

    Dear degyi, Number two arrived-it looks good-it looks normal Tibet again after all that NEWS NEWS NEWS we had last week about Lhasa.I haven't read it yet-just turning the pages to get first impression. I like the clear printing pictures of mountains Tibetan areas,Tibetan horse,Tibetan sheep grazing at foot of mountains,Tibetan girls in out of this world Tibetan dresses,Tibetan town under Heaven, Kyirong men,rope bridge with streamers.Tibetan history engraved in rock; I like beer-but I don't like beer tac...

  16. The Relationship between Protein, Zinc and Phosphorus Consumption to IGF-1 Status of Children Aged 6-24 Months in Timur Tengah Selatan Regency, Nusa Tenggara Timur Province

    OpenAIRE

    Matius Rantesalu

    2016-01-01

    Status of malnutrition in children should watch out because it can lead to immunological suppression, impaired growth, increased morbidity from infectious diseases, developmental disorders and the presence of locomotor coordination in infants and children, inhibition of learning progress and speaking, a deficit of intelligence quotient (IQ) permanently 5 points below normal, as well as developmental disorders and cognitive behavior. This study aimed to examines the relationship between protei...

  17. Periodontal health status in patients treated with the Invisalign® system and fixed orthodontic appliances: A 3 months clinical and microbiological evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrini, Luca; Mangano, Alessandro; Montanari, Paola; Margherini, Silvia; Caprioglio, Alberto; Abbate, Gian Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this prospective study was to compare the periodontal health and the microbiological changes via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances and Invisalign® system (Align Technology, Santa Clara, California). Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven patients were enrolled in this study and divided into three groups (Invisalign® group, fixed orthodontic appliances group and control group). Plaque index, probing depth, bleeding on probing were assessed. Total biofilm mass and periodontal pathogens were analyzed and detected via real-time PCR. All these data were analyzed at the T0 (beginning of the treatment) T1 (1-month) and T2 (3 months); and statistically compared using the Mann–Whitney test for independent groups. Results: After 1-month and after 3 months of treatment there was only one sample with periodontopathic anaerobes found in patient treated using fixed orthodontic appliances. The Invisalign® group showed better results in terms of periodontal health and total biofilm mass compared to the fixed orthodontic appliance group. A statistical significant difference (P Invisalign® System show a superior periodontal health in the short-term when compared to patients in treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Invisalign® should be considered as a first treatment option in patients with risk of developing periodontal disease. PMID:26430371

  18. Nutritional status of breastfed infants in rural Zambia : comparison of the National Center for Health Statistics growth reference versus the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautvast, J.L.A.; Pandor, A.; Burema, J.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Chishimba, N.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Cross-sectional data for breastfed infants in rural Zambia were used to evaluate the effect of applying two different data sets as a reference, i.e. the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth reference in terms of prevalence of malnutrition

  19. Revised management plan, milestone plan, cost plan, and manpower plan. Sixth and seventh monthly status reports, October 1-November 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1978-01-01

    The following are included: project background and discussion, technical progress reports for all subtasks, contract management summary report, milestone schedule and status report, milestone log, cost plans, cost management reports, manpower plans, and manpower management reports. The following appendices are included: selection of heat pumps simulation locations, economic computations, fuel costs, system studies, recommended methodology for calculating residential load models, potential performance of heat pumps, data required from cooling contractors, cooling locations, thermal outputs: cooling, recommended inputs for the 25 ton advanced cooling simulation study, meteorological data, and contract modification. (MHR)

  20. Letter-By-Letter Reading: Natural Recovery and Response to Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Pélagie M.; Magloire, Joël G.; Robey, Randall R.

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation provides a longitudinal study of an individual (RB) with acquired alexia following left posterior cerebral artery stroke. At initial testing, RB exhibited acquired alexia characterized by letter-by-letter (LBL) reading, mild anomic aphasia, and acquired agraphia. Repeated measures of reading accuracy and rate were collected for single words and text over the course of one year, along with probes of naming and spelling abilities. Improvements associated with natural recovery (i.e., without treatment) were documented up to the fourth month post onset, when text reading appeared to be relatively stable. Multiple oral reading (MOR) treatment was initiated at 22 weeks post-stroke, and additional improvements in reading rate and accuracy for text were documented that were greater than those expected on the basis of spontaneous recovery alone. Over the course of one year, reading reaction times for single words improved, and the word-length effect that is the hallmark of LBL reading diminished. RB's response to treatment supports the therapeutic value of MOR treatment to in LBL readers. His residual impairment of reading and spelling one-year post stroke raised the question as to whether further progress was impeded by degraded orthographic knowledge. PMID:16518009

  1. Pragmatic Functions of Hedges in Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璐璐

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present research to explore the hedges used English business letters. Several samples have been chosen to make qualitative study in order to achieve the goal of answering the following question: what are the pragmatic functions of hedges being used in business letters? After analyzing the samples, the conclusion could be came that the employment of hedges in business letters has three pragmatic functions—giving the right amount of information, being polite and self-production.

  2. Resource Letter: GW-1: Global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firor, John W.

    1994-06-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate change—a global warming. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field. The letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature, and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material.

  3. Quality of life and metabolic status in mildly depressed patients with type 2 diabetes treated with paroxetine: A double-blind randomised placebo controlled 6-month trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahlbeck Kristian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is prevalent in people with type 2 diabetes and affects both glycaemic control and overall quality of life. The aim of this investigator-initiated trial was to evaluate the effect of the antidepressant paroxetine on quality of life, metabolic control, and mental well-being in mildly depressed diabetics aged 50–70 years. Methods We randomised 49 mildly depressed primary care outpatients with non-optimally controlled diabetes to a 6-month double-blind treatment with either paroxetine 20 mg per day or matching placebo. Primary efficacy measurements were quality of life and glycaemic control. The primary global outcome of the study was defined as a 10 points improvement in the SF-36 quality of life score. The primary metabolic outcome of the study was defined as a 0.8%-units decrease in glycosylated haemoglobin A1c(GHbA1c. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results Six patients withdrew their consent before starting medication and six dropped out later in the study. We performed analysis of covariance with the baseline value as a covariate. Quality of life and glycaemic control as well as symptoms of depression and anxiety improved in both groups over the 6-month study period. After three months of treatment we found a statistically significant difference between the two treatment groups in GHbA1c (mean difference = 0.59%-units, p = 0.018 and in SF-36 score (mean difference = 11.0 points, p = 0.039. However, at the end of the study, no statistically significant differences between the treatment groups were observed. No severe adverse events occurred. Conclusion This pragmatic study of primary care patients did not confirm earlier preliminary findings indicating a beneficial effect of paroxetine on glycaemic control. The study indicates that in pragmatic circumstances any possible benefit from administration of paroxetine in diabetic patients with sub

  4. Effect of orthographic processes on letter-identity and letter-position encoding in dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eReilhac

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify letters and encode their position is a crucial step of the word recognition process. However and despite their word identification problem, the ability of dyslexic children to encode letter-identity and letter-position within strings was not systematically investigated. This study aimed at filling this gap and further explored how letter identity and letter position encoding is modulated by letter context in developmental dyslexia. For this purpose, a letter-string comparison task was administered to French dyslexic children and two chronological-age (CA and reading-age (RA-matched control groups. Children had to judge whether two successively and briefly presented 4-letter-strings were identical or different. Letter-position and letter-identity were manipulated through the transposition (e.g., RTGM vs. RMGT or substitution of two letters (e.g., TSHF vs. TGHD. Non-words, pseudo-words and words were used as stimuli to investigate sub-lexical and lexical effects on letter encoding. Dyslexic children showed both substitution and transposition detection problems relative to CA controls. A substitution advantage over transpositions was only found for words in dyslexic children whereas it extended to pseudo-words in RA controls and to all type of items in CA controls. Letters were better identified in the dyslexic group when belonging to orthographically familiar strings. Letter position encoding was very impaired in dyslexic children who did not show any word context effect in contrast to CA controls. Overall, the current findings point to a strong letter identity and letter position encoding disorder in developmental dyslexia.

  5. Morphology and spelling in French students with dyslexia: the case of silent final letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quémart, Pauline; Casalis, Séverine

    2017-04-01

    Spelling is a challenge for individuals with dyslexia. Phoneme-to-grapheme correspondence rules are highly inconsistent in French, which make them very difficult to master, in particular for dyslexics. One recurrent manifestation of this inconsistency is the presence of silent letters at the end of words. Many of these silent letters perform a morphological function. The current study examined whether students with dyslexia (aged between 10 and 15 years) benefit from the morphological status of silent final letters when spelling. We compared, their ability to spell words with silent final letters that are either morphologically justified (e.g., tricot, "knit," where the final "t" is pronounced in morphologically related words such as tricoter, "to knit" and tricoteur "knitter") or not morphologically justified (e.g., effort, "effort") to that of a group of younger children matched for reading and spelling level. Results indicated that the dyslexic students' spelling of silent final letters was impaired in comparison to the control group. Interestingly, morphological status helped the dyslexics improve the accuracy of their choice of final letters, contrary to the control group. This finding provides new evidence of morphological processing in dyslexia during spelling.

  6. Letters from the Future: Suggestions for Using Letter Writing as a School Counselling Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Victoria E.; Hinkle, Michelle Gimenez; Protivnak, Jake J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a school counselling intervention that utilises letters written from the future. Few peer-reviewed articles have addressed the use of letter writing in a school counselling context, and none have focused on the use of letters from the future as a means of school counsellor intervention. The authors present a theoretical…

  7. Disentangling the Developmental Trajectories of Letter Position and Letter Identity Coding Using Masked Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezilas, Yvette; McKague, Meredith; Kohnen, Saskia; Badcock, Nicholas A.; Castles, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Masked transposed-letter (TL) priming effects have been used to index letter position processing over the course of reading development. Whereas some studies have reported an increase in TL priming over development, others have reported a decrease. These findings have led to the development of 2 somewhat contradictory accounts of letter position…

  8. Disentangling the Developmental Trajectories of Letter Position and Letter Identity Coding Using Masked Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezilas, Yvette; McKague, Meredith; Kohnen, Saskia; Badcock, Nicholas A.; Castles, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Masked transposed-letter (TL) priming effects have been used to index letter position processing over the course of reading development. Whereas some studies have reported an increase in TL priming over development, others have reported a decrease. These findings have led to the development of 2 somewhat contradictory accounts of letter position…

  9. The last months of Andreas Vesalius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesbrouck, Maurits; Steeno, Omer

    2010-12-01

    A good deal has already been written about the last months of Andreas Vesalius' life. Most of it has been fairly speculative, because the necessary primary sources have been lacking. Much of what was supposedly known for sure seemed bizarre, and various writers even frankly characterised their own accounts as 'legend'. It is only since the discovery of several letters in the archives of Simancas by Josh Baron in 1962 that various points have become somewhat clearer. Baron presented these letters at the 19th International Congress on the History of Medicine in Basel in September 1964.

  10. From Numbers to Letters: Feedback Regularization in Visual Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Nicola; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Marin-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Word reading in alphabetic languages involves letter identification, independently of the format in which these letters are written. This process of letter "regularization" is sensitive to word context, leading to the recognition of a word even when numbers that resemble letters are inserted among other real letters (e.g., M4TERI4L). The present…

  11. TEACHERS' VIEWS ON CURSIVE LETTERS FONTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol DURAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is subject to forms of writing letters in cursive font. Research is descriptive screening model. Researcher, 227 primary school teachers with the first writing in cursive writing teaching to previously made in the province and district in Ankara, " Cursive Letters Shape Writing Assessment" named semi-structure interview form applied. Teachers in this survey, the shape of the letter, if appropriate, the letter an "appropriate" to write, did not find the appropriate letter in the shape of the new propositions were asked to spell. The data was descriptively analysed and interpreted after then. 16% of teachers participating in the research, the teaching of cursive writing not find a significant and steep wants to return to perpendicular to the basic text writing. 12% of the teachers, the cursive letters stated that the whole appropriate shape patterns grows. Participated in the study with other teachers, most of the letters in "appropriate" expression while falling, "b, d, f, k, r, s, ş, v, z, B, D, L, T, Z" the letters and shape patterns indicate that it should be changed new faces in this case suggested shape.

  12. Statistical Learning, Letter Reversals, and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Gordon, Jessica; Boada, Richard; Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2014-01-01

    Reversal errors play a prominent role in theories of reading disability. We examined reversal errors in the writing of letters by 5- to 6-year-old children. Of the 130 children, 92 had a history of difficulty in producing speech sounds, a risk factor for reading problems. Children were more likely to reverse letter forms that face left, such as…

  13. Essay: the origin of physical review letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigg, George L

    2008-11-21

    When Sam Goudsmit, then Editor of Physical Review, decided to publish the Letters separately, he asked me to become Assistant Editor of the new journal. I wound up staying at PRL for a quarter of a century. I describe some of the new techniques we developed to speed up review and production so that Letters could be quickly published.

  14. 24 CFR 241.1010 - Feasibility letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Feasibility letter. 241.1010 Section 241.1010 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1010 Feasibility letter. (a) Request for study. The owner may request...

  15. Letters to the Editor: What Is Stuttering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yairi, Ehud; Watkins, Ruth; Ambrose, Nicoline; Paden, Elaine

    2001-01-01

    The authors of a research report (1999) on the diagnosis of stuttering in young children respond to a critical letter by questioning the accuracy, validity, credibility, and internal consistency of the letter writer's criticisms. The reply goes on to clarify the evaluation of stuttering-like disfluencies and single-syllable word repetitions in…

  16. Writing Back and Forth: Class Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulwiler, Toby

    1997-01-01

    Recommends that college teachers and their students exchange weekly letters, in either paper or electronic form, as a familiar and friendly means of communication. The method increases dialog, suggests rethinking, and encourages rewriting while keeping the stakes low. Students respond well to the assignment. Samples of student letters and comments…

  17. Feminist Criticism in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏福林; 何志燕

    2007-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter written by Nathaniel Hawthorne is a great book. Through feminist criticism we can get how The Scarlet Letter may be read as dramatizing Hester Prynne's spiritual and physical struggle to survive as an individual in a society whose values authorize the privileged power of men.

  18. Genre Analysis of Letters of Complaint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹劲草

    2014-01-01

    This article makes a genre analysis of letter of complaint according to Swales’ theory in hope that some enlightenment wil be provided for the traders in writing letters of complaint in a more efficient way. The study focus on the structural features, grammatical features and lexical features.

  19. Design Improvements for Frequently Misrecognized Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Larson, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    To enhance typeface legibility we studied how to improve the design of individual letters. Three diff erent fonts were created, each containing several variations of the most frequently misrecognized letters. These variations were tested both with distance and short exposure methodologies. Creati...

  20. Prefix Codes: Equiprobable Words, Unequal Letter Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Golin, Mordecai; Young, Neal E.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a near-linear-time algorithm for a variant of Huffman coding, in which the letters may have non-uniform lengths (as in Morse code), but with the restriction that each word to be encoded has equal probability. [See also ``Huffman Coding with Unequal Letter Costs'' (2002).

  1. Reflection on Letter from Birmingham Jail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远艳; 罗瑞

    2015-01-01

    "Letter from Birmingham Jail" is written by Martin Luther King,Jr.,who is a famous American civil rights leader.This essay attempts to analyze three major arguments in this letter to arouse people’s consciousness to cherish and protect our freedom.

  2. Reflection on Letter from Birmingham Jail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远艳; 罗瑞

    2015-01-01

    Letter from Birmingham Jail” is written by Martin Luther King,Jr.,who is a famous American civil rights leader.This essay attempts to analyze three major arguments in this letter to arouse people’s consciousness to cherish and protect our freedom.

  3. Reading Comprehension in a Large Cohort of French First Graders from Low Socio-Economic Status Families: A 7-Month Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentaz, Edouard; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane; Theurel, Anne; Colé, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Background The literature suggests that a complex relationship exists between the three main skills involved in reading comprehension (decoding, listening comprehension and vocabulary) and that this relationship depends on at least three other factors orthographic transparency, children’s grade level and socioeconomic status (SES). This study investigated the relative contribution of the predictors of reading comprehension in a longitudinal design (from beginning to end of the first grade) in 394 French children from low SES families. Methodology/Principal findings Reading comprehension was measured at the end of the first grade using two tasks one with short utterances and one with a medium length narrative text. Accuracy in listening comprehension and vocabulary, and fluency of decoding skills, were measured at the beginning and end of the first grade. Accuracy in decoding skills was measured only at the beginning. Regression analyses showed that listening comprehension and decoding skills (accuracy and fluency) always significantly predicted reading comprehension. The contribution of decoding was greater when reading comprehension was assessed via the task using short utterances. Between the two assessments, the contribution of vocabulary, and of decoding skills especially, increased, while that of listening comprehension remained unchanged. Conclusion/Significance These results challenge the ‘simple view of reading’. They also have educational implications, since they show that it is possible to assess decoding and reading comprehension very early on in an orthography (i.e., French), which is less deep than the English one even in low SES children. These assessments, associated with those of listening comprehension and vocabulary, may allow early identification of children at risk for reading difficulty, and to set up early remedial training, which is the most effective, for them. PMID:24250802

  4. Reading comprehension in a large cohort of French first graders from low socio-economic status families: a 7-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentaz, Edouard; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane; Theurel, Anne; Colé, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    The literature suggests that a complex relationship exists between the three main skills involved in reading comprehension (decoding, listening comprehension and vocabulary) and that this relationship depends on at least three other factors orthographic transparency, children's grade level and socioeconomic status (SES). This study investigated the relative contribution of the predictors of reading comprehension in a longitudinal design (from beginning to end of the first grade) in 394 French children from low SES families. Reading comprehension was measured at the end of the first grade using two tasks one with short utterances and one with a medium length narrative text. Accuracy in listening comprehension and vocabulary, and fluency of decoding skills, were measured at the beginning and end of the first grade. Accuracy in decoding skills was measured only at the beginning. Regression analyses showed that listening comprehension and decoding skills (accuracy and fluency) always significantly predicted reading comprehension. The contribution of decoding was greater when reading comprehension was assessed via the task using short utterances. Between the two assessments, the contribution of vocabulary, and of decoding skills especially, increased, while that of listening comprehension remained unchanged. These results challenge the 'simple view of reading'. They also have educational implications, since they show that it is possible to assess decoding and reading comprehension very early on in an orthography (i.e., French), which is less deep than the English one even in low SES children. These assessments, associated with those of listening comprehension and vocabulary, may allow early identification of children at risk for reading difficulty, and to set up early remedial training, which is the most effective, for them.

  5. Reading comprehension in a large cohort of French first graders from low socio-economic status families: a 7-month longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Gentaz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The literature suggests that a complex relationship exists between the three main skills involved in reading comprehension (decoding, listening comprehension and vocabulary and that this relationship depends on at least three other factors orthographic transparency, children's grade level and socioeconomic status (SES. This study investigated the relative contribution of the predictors of reading comprehension in a longitudinal design (from beginning to end of the first grade in 394 French children from low SES families. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Reading comprehension was measured at the end of the first grade using two tasks one with short utterances and one with a medium length narrative text. Accuracy in listening comprehension and vocabulary, and fluency of decoding skills, were measured at the beginning and end of the first grade. Accuracy in decoding skills was measured only at the beginning. Regression analyses showed that listening comprehension and decoding skills (accuracy and fluency always significantly predicted reading comprehension. The contribution of decoding was greater when reading comprehension was assessed via the task using short utterances. Between the two assessments, the contribution of vocabulary, and of decoding skills especially, increased, while that of listening comprehension remained unchanged. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results challenge the 'simple view of reading'. They also have educational implications, since they show that it is possible to assess decoding and reading comprehension very early on in an orthography (i.e., French, which is less deep than the English one even in low SES children. These assessments, associated with those of listening comprehension and vocabulary, may allow early identification of children at risk for reading difficulty, and to set up early remedial training, which is the most effective, for them.

  6. Evolutionary theory in letters to the editor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Eric Orion; Lowe, Clayton Cory

    2015-05-01

    This research note presents the results of a content analysis of 234 letters to the editors that discuss evolutionary theory and were published in American newspapers. We find that letters to the editor both support and hinder the cause of teaching evolutionary theory in American secondary schools. On the one hand, anti-evolutionary theory messages are marginalized in the letters section. This marginalization signals a low level of legitimacy for creationism. It might also contribute to the sense of tension that sustains creationist identities. On the other hand, relatively few letters explicitly note the fact that scientists or the scientific community accept evolution. Interestingly, the obscuration of the scientific community's support for evolutionary theory occurs both in letters supporting and opposing evolutionary theory. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Letter identification and the neural image classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B; Ahumada, Albert J

    2015-02-12

    Letter identification is an important visual task for both practical and theoretical reasons. To extend and test existing models, we have reviewed published data for contrast sensitivity for letter identification as a function of size and have also collected new data. Contrast sensitivity increases rapidly from the acuity limit but slows and asymptotes at a symbol size of about 1 degree. We recast these data in terms of contrast difference energy: the average of the squared distances between the letter images and the average letter image. In terms of sensitivity to contrast difference energy, and thus visual efficiency, there is a peak around ¼ degree, followed by a marked decline at larger sizes. These results are explained by a Neural Image Classifier model that includes optical filtering and retinal neural filtering, sampling, and noise, followed by an optimal classifier. As letters are enlarged, sensitivity declines because of the increasing size and spacing of the midget retinal ganglion cell receptive fields in the periphery.

  8. Factors that influence fatigue status in patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and good disease outcome following 6 months of TNF inhibitor therapy: a comparative analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Minnock, Patricia

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine the factors associated with persistent fatigue in patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and good disease response to 6 months of tumour necrosis factor inhibitor therapy. Eligible patients with either persistent (PF) or no fatigue (NF) were compared. Using validated questionnaires and bivariate analysis, this cross-sectional survey explored if clinical characteristics, pain, self-efficacy, sleep and mood\\/depression differed between groups. Patients with PF (PF; NF) (n = 28; 28) reported significantly more overall pain (11.3 ± 9.4 (0-33); 6.9 ± 8.9 (0-33)), more recent and current pain intensity (41.4 ± 26.6 (0-80) 24.4 ± 26.6 (0-100) and depression (11.8 ± 7.5 (1-35); 8.2 ± 6.6 (0-26)), than the NF group. There was no significant difference between groups in self-efficacy and both groups experienced poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index >5). Despite having good disease response, the PF group had significantly higher rheumatoid factor incidence, disease activity score-28, early morning stiffness duration and lower incidence of ever-failing disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs than the NF group. These findings enhance the fatigue literature in patients with RA prescribed tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibition therapy, identifying the potentially modifiable factors of pain and depression, previously demonstrated to be strongly associated with fatigue in non-biologic populations. In addition, this study highlights the association between persistent fatigue and an on-going state of low disease activity. This infers that more judicious disease management could minimise the symptom burden of pain and depression and consequentially fatigue.

  9. Breast cancer screening outreach effectiveness: Mammogram-specific reminders vs. comprehensive preventive services birthday letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Diana S M; Gao, Hongyuan; Anderson, Melissa L; Onega, Tracy; Brandzel, Susan; Rabelhofer, Melissa A; Bradford, Susan Carol; Aiello Bowles, Erin J

    2017-09-01

    We compared the effectiveness of two outreach strategies on timely mammography adherence: a mammogram-specific reminder letter (sent just before a woman was due) to a birthday letter (addresses multiple preventive services and not timed around due dates). We evaluated screening mammography adherence following 79,848 mammogram-specific and 151,626 birthday letters mailed between 2002 and 2012 to women aged 40-74years enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Washington. Screening mammogram adherence was specifically tied to due date and was evaluated separately by age group and up-to-date or overdue status at the time of mailing. We used generalized estimating equations to account for correlation between repeated observations, to model the odds of screening mammography adherence by letter type. Among women up-to-date, adherence following birthday letters was 22-76% lower compared to the mammogram-specific reminders, with the greatest decreases in adherence in women aged 70-74. Birthday letters were more effective at activating screening uptake among some subgroups of overdue women aged 50-69 and most overdue women aged 70-74, but universally low adherence rates were observed in overdue women. Increasing number of recommended services for women aged 50-74 who were up-to-date resulted in 12-17% lower mammography adherence, but had no effect in women aged 40-49 or in overdue women. Birthday letters are less effective than mammogram-specific reminder letters at prompting women to undergo timely breast cancer screening, particularly among women up-to-date with screening. Birthday letters may be effective at increasing overall preventive care; however, supplemental outreach may be needed around the due date to increase timely preventive services receipt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Critical contrastive rhetoric: The influence of L2 letter writing instruction on L1letter writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Fakharzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study employed critical contrastive rhetoric to investigate the L2 to L1 transfer of organizational pattern and directness level of speech acts in business complaint letters. By examining the L1 complaint letters of 30 tourism university students in two phases of study, pre and post instruction of English complaint letter, the study revealed that the rhetorical organization of Persian letters are in a state of hybridity. The post instruction comparison of letters, however, showed a tendency towards applying English conventions both in organization and directness level of complaint speech act in the L1 complaint letters. The results also revealed that after instruction the expert in the field of tourism viewed some letters as inappropriate in terms of politeness which is reflected through some lexical items.

  11. Differences between English and Chinese Sales Promotion Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Yu-yan

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to figure out the differences in English and Chinese sales promotion letters by analyzing ten selected letters from business writing books and websites, which might provide more valuable information for businessmen in their sales promotion letter writing.

  12. Statistical mechanics of letters in words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Greg J; Bialek, William

    2010-06-01

    We consider words as a network of interacting letters, and approximate the probability distribution of states taken on by this network. Despite the intuition that the rules of English spelling are highly combinatorial and arbitrary, we find that maximum entropy models consistent with pairwise correlations among letters provide a surprisingly good approximation to the full statistics of words, capturing ∼92% of the multi-information in four-letter words and even "discovering" words that were not represented in the data. These maximum entropy models incorporate letter interactions through a set of pairwise potentials and thus define an energy landscape on the space of possible words. Guided by the large letter redundancy we seek a lower-dimensional encoding of the letter distribution and show that distinctions between local minima in the landscape account for ∼68% of the four-letter entropy. We suggest that these states provide an effective vocabulary which is matched to the frequency of word use and much smaller than the full lexicon.

  13. Letters are functional in word identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, D W; Klitzke, D

    1977-05-01

    Are words identified as if they are single-unit patterns, or does letter processing mediate word identification? In the main, accuracy experiments have been found to support the mediated model, whereas recent reaction time experiments have been interpreted in favor of the single-unit pattern hypothesis. In the latter experiments, subjects could search for a target word in a test word as quickly as for a target letter in a test letter. The analysis of these results, however, did not consider the role of parallel processing of individual letters, lateral masking, limited capacity, and similarity between the target and test alternatives. In the present experiment, the advantage of parallel processing of letters in words was attenuated by manipulating similarity. The reaction times showed a processing advantage for single letters over words. This result as well as all of the previous results can be described in terms of processing mechanisms of the mediated model, the same mechanisms that have already been utilized to describe the accuracy of letter and word identification in tachistoscopic experiments.

  14. A red-letter day !

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Today is a red-letter day for the LHC and CERN as a beam of protons has travelled around the LHC ring for the very first time! The start of LHC operation marks the end of a long period in which you have given your all, and this first particle beam circulating in the accelerator now paves the way for discoveries that will open up a whole new field of knowledge. The history of the LHC began in 1984 with a debate on the possible objectives of a future accelerator, based on the state of our knowledge at that time. The CERN Council then approved the single-stage construction of the LHC in 1996, giving the go-ahead for the work that has now reached completion. For the past twelve years, physicists, engineers and technicians from CERN and its associated institutes have been engaged in constructing the three pillars of the LHC: the accelerator (including the upgrade of the existing accelerator chain), the four experiments, and the computing ...

  15. Silicon Detector Letter of Intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, H.; Burrows, P.; Oreglia, M.

    2010-05-26

    This document presents the current status of SiD's effort to develop an optimized design for an experiment at the International Linear Collider. It presents detailed discussions of each of SiD's various subsystems, an overview of the full GEANT4 description of SiD, the status of newly developed tracking and calorimeter reconstruction algorithms, studies of subsystem performance based on these tools, results of physics benchmarking analyses, an estimate of the cost of the detector, and an assessment of the detector R&D needed to provide the technical basis for an optimised SiD.

  16. A letter from Janet Benshoof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benshoof, J

    1997-06-06

    This letter to readers of "Reproductive Freedom News" criticizes the American Medical Association's (AMA) Board of Trustees for endorsing a bill in the US Senate that would ban "partial-birth" abortions and allow the imprisonment of physicians who perform the procedure. The decision of the Board of Trustees was made in total disregard to the AMA bylaws, because the decision ran counter to the recommendations of an AMA task force that concluded that the AMA should take no action on this bill but seek to preserve the ability of physicians to use their discretion in providing medical care and the viability line in abortion legislation. The proposed criminal ban fails to contain a viability line; provides no exception to protect a woman's health, medical choice, or safety; and provides no exception in cases of fetal anomaly. The action by the Board of Trustees seriously undermines the work of the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy and gives abortion opponents ammunition to mount a serious challenge to the Roe vs. Wade decision. The AMA endorsement goes beyond simply stating that the procedure should never be used; it endorses giving physicians who perform such abortions, for whatever reason, prison terms. This position undermines two critical principles long upheld by the AMA: 1) that physicians must be able to carry out their medical responsibilities free from government interference and 2) that women have a fundamental right to decide on the appropriate provision of abortion services within their physician-patient relationship. The damage from this endorsement can and should be undone by the AMA's House of Delegates at their meeting in June 1997.

  17. Gender bias found in recommendation letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-11-01

    Female postdoctoral fellowship applicants are half as likely as their male counterparts to receive glowing recommendation letters, according to a study by researchers at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO).

  18. Army Response Letter - signed February 3, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    A response letter to Ms. Hanmer regarding her request related to a permit application being considered by the New Orleans District Corps of Engineers for a project proposed by Plantation Landing Resort, Inc.

  19. Army Response Letter - signed April 27, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army response letter regarding a request to elevate the decision of the New England Division Engineer (DE) to issue a permit to the Maine Department of Transportation to construct a marine terminal at Sears Island.

  20. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter U

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 7 of 7 ... African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter U ... English and other European languages and literatures, Chinese and other Asian languages and ... UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology.

  1. Why doctors do not answer referral letters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the obvious benefits to patient care, answers to referral letters .... value on brevity and educational value than specialists.9 As brevity is preferred, PHC doctors ... suggested that personal contact plays an important role in the decision.

  2. Scott's Lake Excavation Letters on Human Remains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is two letters written about the repatriation of Santee Indian human remains and funerary objects to Santee Sioux Tribe. Includes an inventory of human remains...

  3. 2013 FEMA Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  4. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter D

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes original research, case report/case series, letter to the editor, reviews of health ... Democracy & Development: Journal of West African Affairs ... Civic organisations and the new and innovative programmes, activities, and ...

  5. Stochastic Flips on Two-letter Words

    CERN Document Server

    Bodini, Olivier; Regnault, Damien

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a simple Markov process inspired by the problem of quasicrystal growth. It acts over two-letter words by randomly performing \\emph{flips}, a local transformation which exchanges two consecutive different letters. More precisely, only the flips which do not increase the number of pairs of consecutive identical letters are allowed. Fixed-points of such a process thus perfectly alternate different letters. We show that the expected number of flips to converge towards a fixed-point is bounded by $O(n^3)$ in the worst-case and by $O(n^{5/2}\\ln{n})$ in the average-case, where $n$ denotes the length of the initial word.

  6. Letter to President [Valentine National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Valentine National Wildlife Refuge Wilderness area....

  7. 双相障碍共病状况及半年随访调查研究%An investigation of status and 6-month follow-up for co-morbidity in patients with bipolar disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩存奇; 李庆梅; 刘炳伦

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status and 6-month follow-up for co-morbidity in patients with bipolar disorder. Methods A total of 161 patients with bipolar disorder were divided into co-morbidity group (n=94)and non-co-morbidity group (n=67)according to the status of co-morbidity.They were assessed with general information,clinical features,Clinical Global Impression(CGI)and Social Disability Screening Schedule(SDSS)before and at the 3rd month end,6th month end of treatment. Results The rate of co-morbidity in all patients with bipolar disorder was 58.4%,including the co-morbidity of anxiety disorder (46.6%),personality disorder (22.3%)and so on.The proportion of women,suicidal behavior and psychiatric symptoms in co-morbidity group were significantly higher than those in non-co-morbidity group(P<0.05),and the work status in co-morbidity group was significantly worse than that in non-co-morbidity group(P<0.05).At the 3rd month end,6th month end of treatment, the scores of CGI and SDSS in co-morbidity group were all significantly higher than those in non-co-morbidity group(P<0.05). Conclusions It’s high for the co-morbidity rate in patients with bipolar disorder and there are complex clinical symptoms,poor efficacy and serious impairment of social function for the co-morbidity patients with bipolar disorder.%目的:调查双相障碍共病状况及半年随访的临床特征。方法将161例双相障碍患者根据共病情况分为共病组(94例)和非共病组(67例),于治疗前进行一般资料和临床特征评定,于治疗前及治疗后第3、6个月末进行临床疗效总评量表(CGI)、社会功能缺陷筛查量表(SDSS)的评估分析。结果双相障碍患者共病率58.4%,其中最常见为焦虑障碍46.6%,人格障碍22.3%。临床特点显示共病组女性比例高于非共病组(P<0.05),共病组的伴自杀行为、伴有精神病性症状高于非共病组(P<0.05),职业

  8. Referral letters to the emergency department: is the medication list accurate?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCullagh, M

    2015-02-01

    Medication errors are common when patients transfer across healthcare boundaries. This study was designed to investigate the quality of information on medicines provided by general practitioners (GPs) on emergency department (ED) referral letters. A convenience sample of referral letters to the ED of a teaching hospital was reviewed. The medication list and\\/or patient\\'s drug allergy status were noted. Medicines reconciliation including patient (or carer) interview was conducted to determine the patient\\'s actual home medication list. This was compared with the GP list and any discrepancies were identified and addressed. A total of 92 referral letters were included in the analysis of which 60 were computer-generated and 32 were hand-written. GPs provided dose and frequency of administration information in 47 (51%) of the letters sampled i.e. 44 (71%) computer-generated versus 3 (10%) hand-written; p < 0.001. In addition, the patient was taking their medicines exactly as per the GP list in 20 (22%) of cases. The patient\\'s drug allergy status was documented in 13 (14%) of the letters.

  9. Due lettere di Friedrich Hölderlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Hölderlin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Here's the first italian translation of two letters by Friedrich Hölderlin, written between November 1798 and January 1799 and adressed respectively to Christian Ludwig Neuffer (the first one and to Hölderlin's youngest brother Karl (the second one. Aim of these two letters is to clarify and to take a deeper look into the notion of lebendiges, the “living element”, which is at the heart of Hölderlins' poetics. Translated by Mariagrazia Portera.

  10. Attentional Processing of Letter Strings by Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Virginie; Siéroff, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Reading a letter string requires attentional orienting toward the beginning of the string (left-dominant orientation), followed by orienting along the string. These attentional-orienting processes differ according to the lexicality of the letter string: Sequential processes apply when reading nonwords or pseudowords, while words can be processed more globally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of these attentional processes involved in reading. We conducted two experiments in 6- (first grade), 7- (second grade), and 9-year-old (fourth grade) children, using a procedure that required the detection of a letter (Experiment 1) or a nonletter (Experiment 2) target in a string of five characters. The target character could occur in the second (left) or fourth (right) position in the string. Results showed an advantage for left nonletter targets as early as age 6 and of left letter targets as early as age 7. In 6-year-olds, only good readers detected a left letter target faster than a right letter target; others detected a right letter target faster. Thus, dominant orienting toward the beginning of the letter string is not fully developed in children before the second year of reading. A possibility is that beginning readers have difficulties inhibiting an attention-orienting bias toward the right visual field in linguistic tasks. The results also showed that the lexicality effect on these attentional processes develops gradually until the fourth year of reading. We believe that the procedure used in this study will be very valuable for evaluating attentional difficulties during reading acquisition.

  11. On the Commercial Features of Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬娜

    2008-01-01

    Effective business communication is the"lifeblood"of every organization and a key to success in your business career. Generally,each trade or each business achieves an agreement and then draws up a contract after buyer and seller exchange business letter. Thus,a successful business letter is one of the most personal method to promote a business career. The paper informs how to write suc-cessful correspondence.

  12. Symbols of Pearl in The Scarlet letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Aiqing

    2002-01-01

    This article evaluates The Scatet Letter with the help of analyzing the symbolic meanings of Pearl. In this article, the author attempts to propose the symbols of Pearl from four aspects: the function of the letter, the symbol of Hester's distillation of instinct;the symbol of freedom; the symbol of consummation. From the interpretation of the symbols of Pearl, it has been proved that Pearl becomes Hawthorne' s best vehicle to convey his attitudes toward Puritanism.

  13. Peripheral dysgraphia characterized by the co-occurrence of case substitutions in uppercase and letter substitutions in lowercase writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, M; Schnider, A; Ptak, R

    2011-10-01

    Patients with peripheral dysgraphia due to impairment at the allographic level produce writing errors that affect the letter-form and are characterized by case confusions or the failure to write in a specific case or style (e.g., cursive). We studied the writing errors of a patient with pure peripheral dysgraphia who had entirely intact oral spelling, but produced many well-formed letter errors in written spelling. The comparison of uppercase print and lowercase cursive spelling revealed an uncommon pattern: while most uppercase errors were case substitutions (e.g., A - a), almost all lowercase errors were letter substitutions (e.g., n - r). Analyses of the relationship between target letters and substitution errors showed that errors were neither influenced by consonant-vowel status nor by letter frequency, though word length affected error frequency in lowercase writing. Moreover, while graphomotor similarity did not predict either the occurrence of uppercase or lowercase errors, visuospatial similarity was a significant predictor of lowercase errors. These results suggest that lowercase representations of cursive letter-forms are based on a description of entire letters (visuospatial features) and are not - as previously found for uppercase letters - specified in terms of strokes (graphomotor features). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  14. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric eDandurand

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity.

  15. Computer-generated recall letters for underimmunized children: how cost-effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, T A; Black, S B; Ray, P; Schwalbe, J A; Lewis, E M; Lavetter, A; Morozumi, P A; Shinefield, H R

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of computer-generated recall letters to parents of children overdue for immunizations. This randomized controlled trial included children of two facilities in a regional health maintenance organization. Parents of 20-month-olds who had not yet received a measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunization were identified via a computerized immunization tracking system. One half were mailed personalized letters that included the recommended immunization schedule and a request to call for an appointment; the other half served as a control group. Receipt of the MMR between 20 and 24 months of age was evaluated with the computerized tracking system. A telephone survey was conducted with parents whose children had not received the MMR by 24 months. Decision analysis was used to project the theoretical outcomes and costs of a recall letter policy for other populations. Among 20-month-old children 10% had not received the MMR; 289 families were included in the analysis. Of families who were mailed letters, 54% (82 of 153) received the MMR by 24 months of age, compared with 35% (47 of 136) of those in the control group (P = 0.001). The telephone survey was completed with 110 parents of children who still did not appear on the health plan computer as having received the MMR by 24 months. Fifteen percent said the child had received an immunization at an outside provider, and of the rest 62% said they had not been aware that an immunization was due. In the cost effectiveness analysis it was projected that recall letters would increase the immunization rate for the regional population of approximately 30000 children from 86% to 90% at a total cost of $5031 annually. The cost per additional child appropriately immunized was $4.04. In sensitivity analyses this cost effectiveness ratio varied depending on the baseline population coverage rate as well as the estimated effectiveness of recall letters. Computer-generated letters to recall

  16. Effects of a large-scale micronutrient powder and young child feeding education program on the micronutrient status of children 6–24 months of age in the Kyrgyz Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdula, MK; Lundeen, E; Nichols, EK; Imanalieva, C; Minbaev, M; Mamyrbaeva, T; Timmer, A; Aburto, NJ

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES To combat iron and other micronutrient deficiencies, the Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyz Republic launched a regional Infant and Young Child Nutrition (IYCN) program in 2009, which included promotion of home fortification with micronutrient powder (MNP) containing iron (12.5 mg elemental iron), vitamin A (300 μg) and other micronutrients. Every 2 months children aged 6–24 months were provided 30 sachets to be taken on a flexible schedule. The objective was to assess biochemical indicators of iron and vitamin A status among children aged 6–24 months at the baseline and follow-up surveys. SUBJECTS/METHODS Cross-sectional representative cluster surveys were conducted in 2008 (n =571 children) and 2010 (n =541). Data collected included measurement of hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), retinol-binding protein, C-reactive protein (CRP) and α1-glycoprotein acid (AGP). RESULTS Among all children, declines were observed in the prevalence of: anemia, 50.6% versus 43.8% (P =0.05); total iron deficiency (either low ferritin or high sTfR), 77.3% versus 63.7% (P<0.01); and iron deficiency anemia, 45.5% versus 33.4% (P<0.01). Among children without inflammation as measured by CRP and AGP, similar declines were observed, but only declines in total iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia reached statistical significance. Among all children and those without inflammation, the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency remained the same. CONCLUSIONS One year after the introduction of home fortification with MNP, within a larger IYCN program, the prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia declined, but vitamin A deficiency remained unchanged. PMID:23531779

  17. Letter Position Dyslexia in Arabic: From Form to Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Naama; Haddad-Hanna, Manar

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the reading of 11 Arabic-speaking individuals with letter position dyslexia (LPD), and the effect of letter form on their reading errors. LPD is a peripheral dyslexia caused by a selective deficit to letter position encoding in the orthographic-visual analyzer, which results in migration of letters within words, primarily of middle letters. The Arabic orthography is especially interesting for the study of LPD because Arabic letters have different forms in different positions in the word. As a result, some letter position errors require letter form change. We compared the rate of letter migrations that change letter form with migrations that do not change letter form in 10 Arabic-speaking individuals with developmental LPD, and one bilingual Arabic and Hebrew-speaking individual with acquired LPD. The results indicated that the participants made 40% letter position errors in migratable words when the resulting word included the letters in the same form, whereas migrations that changed letter form almost never occurred. The error rate of the Arabic-Hebrew bilingual reader was smaller in Arabic than in Hebrew. However, when only words in which migrations do not change letter form were counted, the rate was similar in Arabic and Hebrew. Hence, whereas orthographies with multiple letter forms for each letter might seem more difficult in some respects, these orthographies are in fact easier to read in some forms of dyslexia. Thus, the diagnosis of LPD in Arabic should consider the effect of letter forms on migration errors, and use only migratable words that do not require letter-form change. The theoretical implications for the reading model are that letter form (of the position-dependent type found in Arabic) is part of the information encoded in the abstract letter identity, and thus affects further word recognition processes, and that there might be a pre-lexical graphemic buffer in which the checking of orthographic well-formedness takes place

  18. Crossmodal deficit in dyslexic children: practice affects the neural timing of letter-speech sound integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žarić, Gojko; Fraga González, Gorka; Tijms, Jurgen; van der Molen, Maurits W; Blomert, Leo; Bonte, Milene

    2015-01-01

    A failure to build solid letter-speech sound associations may contribute to reading impairments in developmental dyslexia. Whether this reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds changes over time within individual children and how this relates to behavioral gains in reading skills remains unknown. In this research, we examined changes in event-related potential (ERP) measures of letter-speech sound integration over a 6-month period during which 9-year-old dyslexic readers (n = 17) followed a training in letter-speech sound coupling next to their regular reading curriculum. We presented the Dutch spoken vowels /a/ and /o/ as standard and deviant stimuli in one auditory and two audiovisual oddball conditions. In one audiovisual condition (AV0), the letter "a" was presented simultaneously with the vowels, while in the other (AV200) it was preceding vowel onset for 200 ms. Prior to the training (T1), dyslexic readers showed the expected pattern of typical auditory mismatch responses, together with the absence of letter-speech sound effects in a late negativity (LN) window. After the training (T2), our results showed earlier (and enhanced) crossmodal effects in the LN window. Most interestingly, earlier LN latency at T2 was significantly related to higher behavioral accuracy in letter-speech sound coupling. On a more general level, the timing of the earlier mismatch negativity (MMN) in the simultaneous condition (AV0) measured at T1, significantly related to reading fluency at both T1 and T2 as well as with reading gains. Our findings suggest that the reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds in dyslexic children may show moderate improvement with reading instruction and training and that behavioral improvements relate especially to individual differences in the timing of this neural integration.

  19. Crossmodal deficit in dyslexic children: practice affects the neural timing of letter-speech sound integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojko eŽarić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A failure to build solid letter-speech sound associations may contribute to reading impairments in developmental dyslexia. Whether this reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds changes over time within individual children and how this relates to behavioral gains in reading skills remains unknown. In this research, we examined changes in event-related potential (ERP measures of letter-speech sound integration over a 6-month period during which 9-year-old dyslexic readers (n=17 followed a training in letter-speech sound coupling next to their regular reading curriculum. We presented the Dutch spoken vowels /a/ and /o/ as standard and deviant stimuli in one auditory and two audiovisual oddball conditions. In one audiovisual condition (AV0, the letter ‘a’ was presented simultaneously with the vowels, while in the other (AV200 it was preceding vowel onset for 200 ms. Prior to the training (T1, dyslexic readers showed the expected pattern of typical auditory mismatch responses, together with the absence of letter-speech sound effects in a late negativity (LN window. After the training (T2, our results showed earlier (and enhanced crossmodal effects in the LN window. Most interestingly, earlier LN latency at T2 was significantly related to higher behavioral accuracy in letter-speech sound coupling. On a more general level, the timing of the earlier mismatch negativity (MMN in the simultaneous condition (AV0 measured at T1, significantly related to reading fluency at both T1 and T2 as well as with reading gains. Our findings suggest that the reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds in dyslexic children may show moderate improvement with reading instruction and training and that behavioral improvements relate especially to individual differences in the timing of this neural integration.

  20. 33 CFR 127.009 - Letter of recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Letter of recommendation. 127.009... General § 127.009 Letter of recommendation. After the COTP receives the Letter of Intent under § 127.007(a) or (b), the COTP issues a Letter of Recommendation as to the suitability of the waterway for LNG...

  1. Neural Correlates of Top-Down Letter Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Hongchuan; Rieth, Cory A.; Huber, David E.; Li, Wu; Lee, Kang; Tian, Jie

    2010-01-01

    This fMRI study investigated top-down letter processing with an illusory letter detection task. Participants responded whether one of a number of different possible letters was present in a very noisy image. After initial training that became increasingly difficult, they continued to detect letters even though the images consisted of pure noise,…

  2. Representation of Letter Position in Spelling: Evidence from Acquired Dysgraphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; McCloskey, Michael; Rapp, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The graphemic representations that underlie spelling performance must encode not only the identities of the letters in a word, but also the positions of the letters. This study investigates how letter position information is represented. We present evidence from two dysgraphic individuals, CM and LSS, who perseverate letters when spelling: that…

  3. Letter-Transposition Effects Are Not Universal: The Impact of Transposing Letters in Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of letter-transposition in Hebrew in three masked-priming experiments. Hebrew, like English has an alphabetic orthography where sequential and contiguous letter strings represent phonemes. However, being a Semitic language it has a non-concatenated morphology that is based on root derivations. Experiment 1 showed that…

  4. Analysis of reliability of professor recommendation letters based on concordance with self-introduction letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyun

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the concordance between a checklist's categories of professor recommendation letters and characteristics of the self-introduction letter. Checklists of professor recommendation letters were analyzed and classified into cognitive, social, and affective domains. Simple correlation was performed to determine whether the characteristics of the checklists were concordant with those of the self-introduction letter. The difference in ratings of the checklists by pass or fail grades was analyzed by independent sample t-test. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine whether a pass or fail grade was influenced by ratings on the checklists. The Cronbach alpha value of the checklists was 0.854. Initiative, as an affective domain, in the professor's recommendation letter was highly ranked among the six checklist categories. Self-directed learning in the self-introduction letter was influenced by a pass or fail grade by logistic regression analysis (pprofessor recommendation letters and the sum of all characteristics in the self-introduction letter.

  5. ERP Correlates of Letter Identity and Letter Position Are Modulated by Lexical Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Martinez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gomez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created…

  6. The thyroid status of children and adolescents in Fukushima Prefecture examined during 20-30 months after the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster: a cross-sectional, observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Watanobe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A possible increase in thyroid cancer in the young represents the most critical health problem to be considered after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan (March 2011, which is an important lesson from the Chernobyl disaster (April 1986. Although it was reported that childhood thyroid cancer had started to increase 3-5 yr after the Chernobyl accident, we speculate that the actual period of latency might have been shorter than reported, considering the delay in initiating thyroid surveillance in the then Soviet Union and also the lower quality of ultrasonographic testing in the 1980s. Our primary objectives in the present study were to identify any possible thyroid abnormality in young Fukushima citizens at a relatively early timepoint (20-30 months after the accident, and also to strive to find a possible relationship among thyroid ultrasonographic findings, thyroid-relevant biochemical markers, and iodine-131 ground deposition in the locations of residence where they stayed during very early days after the accident. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a cross-sectional study. We targeted the Fukushima residents who were 18 yr old or younger (including fetuses at the time of the accident. Our examinations comprised a questionnaire, thyroid ultrasonography, thyroid-related blood tests, and urinary iodine measurement. We analyzed a possible relationship among thyroid ultrasonographic findings (1,137 subjects, serum hormonal data (731 subjects, urinary iodine concentrations (770 subjects, and iodine-131 ground deposition (1,137 subjects. We did not find any significant relationship among these indicators, and no participant was diagnosed to contract thyroid cancer. CONCLUSIONS: At the timepoint of 20-30 months after the accident, we did not confirm any discernible deleterious effects of the emitted radioactivity on the thyroid of young Fukushima residents. This is the first report in English detailing the thyroid status of young Fukushima

  7. The Symbolic Significance of The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力

    2007-01-01

    As a great romantic novelist in America in 19th century, Hawthorne was outstanding in handling the application of symbolism. The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most important symbolic novel, which stands as the best work of Hawthorne and one of the indubitable masterpieces of American literature. This thesis aims at the exploration of the usage of the symbolism in the novel. It mainly discusses the deep symbolic significance of the scarlet letter "A" and the little pearl. The scarlet letter is the central symbol of the novel. Its symbolic meaning changes from 'adultery' to 'able', even 'angelic' in the novel. It also examines the symbolic meanings of little Pearl and some typical natural surroundings such as the jail, the forest, the rosebush and so on.

  8. Self-Regulation Abilities and Spanish-Speaking Preschoolers' Vocabulary and Letter-Word Skills in Spanish and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Francisco; Mikulski, Ariana M.; Conejo, L. Diego

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the heterogeneity in Spanish-speaking children's (N = 117; M age = 53 months; SD = 5 months; 57% boys) vocabulary and letter-word skills in English and Spanish after one year of preschool and the extent to which early self-regulation abilities (i.e., executive function and effortful control) were associated…

  9. Self-Regulation Abilities and Spanish-Speaking Preschoolers' Vocabulary and Letter-Word Skills in Spanish and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Francisco; Mikulski, Ariana M.; Conejo, L. Diego

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the heterogeneity in Spanish-speaking children's (N = 117; M age = 53 months; SD = 5 months; 57% boys) vocabulary and letter-word skills in English and Spanish after one year of preschool and the extent to which early self-regulation abilities (i.e., executive function and effortful control) were associated…

  10. Ombuds' Corner: letter from Ombudsland

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2014-01-01

    Early this month, over 400 Ombuds met in Denver for their annual conference and networking event. It was an excellent opportunity to meet colleagues from all over the world and to share best practices and benefit from an ongoing exchange of professional experience.   Twenty-seven countries were represented at the 2014 annual conference of the International Ombudsman Association. Participants came from the private sector as well as from various universities and organisations. Networking and exchanging experience with all the different colleagues was extremely interesting, in particular as there was also an opportunity to meet a few people who were amongst the pioneers in the field and had contributed significantly to developing the Ombuds' role and practices into the established professional body it is today. The main focus of the conference was to review and underline the Ombuds' code of ethics and the common standards of practice, which are based on four basic principles, na...

  11. [Structured electronic consultation letter for shoulder disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloneva, Juha; Oikari, Marjo; Ylinen, Jari; Ingalsuo, Minna; Ilkka, Kunnamo; Ilkka, Kiviranta

    2012-01-01

    Referral to a specialist has a significant influence on management of the patient and costs associated with the treatments. However, development and research of the process by which patients are referred has been almost neglected. Expectations considering the purpose, contents, and timing of the referral of the consulting physician and the consultant do not always meet. A structured, electronic consultation letter was developed to respond this need. Functionality and interactivity are the key elements of the referral, including (1) an electronic referral letter to a specialist, (2) interactive education in clinical examination and management of shoulder disorders, and (3) an instrument of clinical examination and documentation of shoulder disorders.

  12. A bread-and-butter letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王道庚

    2007-01-01

    letter作“信”讲是很常用的词,私人信件是personal letter。业务信件叫做business letter,祝贺信是letter of congratulation,邀请信是letter of invitation等等。还有一种信是a bread—and—butter letter,你知道是什么信吗?我们知道bread and butter是涂有黄油的面包,那么,a bread—and—butter leuer就是“黄油面包信”吧?非也。

  13. Traditions of martyrdom in the Ignatian Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuhrmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The letters of Ignatius represent one of the key texts for the emergence of martyrdom during the second century AD in Christianity. This article is concerned with the question whether Ignatius contributed to a “theology of martyrdom” or whether he rather relied on previous traditions. The author argues, by undertaking an analysis of certain pragmatics and semantics, that the motif of martyrdom is solely used to buttress Ignatius’ claim for authority among his intended addressees by referring to an understanding of martyrdom that has its roots in the New Testament. An identification of the author of the letters with a historical martyr is regarded as unlikely.

  14. Visual and proprioceptive recognition of cursive letters in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinter, Annie; Chartrel, Estelle

    2008-09-01

    Two experiments investigated visual and proprioceptive recognition of cursive letters in young children. In Experiment 1, children aged 3-5 years were asked to recognize a visually presented target letter after a 3s inspection time, from among two distracters: a highly and a moderately similar letter. Visual letter recognition improved rapidly between 3 and 5 years and was a function of the "uniqueness" of letter shape and of letter frequency. In Experiment 2, children aged 4-6 years were asked to recognize a target letter from among 2 distracters, after having traced over the letter in a "blind" condition, with their hand guided by the experimenter. Proprioceptive recognition developed more slowly than visual recognition, and was not a function of letter frequency. The results are discussed in terms of integration versus differentiation of perceptual information, and of the tendency to base recognition on local rather than global similarity.

  15. Representation of Letter Position in Spelling: Evidence from Acquired Dysgraphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; McCloskey, Michael; Rapp, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The graphemic representations that underlie spelling performance must encode not only the identities of the letters in a word, but also the positions of the letters. This study investigates how letter position information is represented. We present evidence from two dysgraphic individuals, CM and LSS, who perseverate letters when spelling: that is, letters from previous spelling responses intrude into subsequent responses. The perseverated letters appear more often than expected by chance in the same position in the previous and subsequent responses. We used these errors to address the question of how letter position is represented in spelling. In a series of analyses we determined how often the perseveration errors produced maintain position as defined by a number of alternative theories of letter position encoding proposed in the literature. The analyses provide strong evidence that the grapheme representations used in spelling encode letter position such that position is represented in a graded manner based on distance from both edges of the word. PMID:20378104

  16. Adaptation of the human visual system to the statistics of letters and line configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Claire H C; Pallier, Christophe; Wu, Denise H; Nakamura, Kimihiro; Jobert, Antoinette; Kuo, W-J; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2015-10-15

    By adulthood, literate humans have been exposed to millions of visual scenes and pages of text. Does the human visual system become attuned to the statistics of its inputs? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether the brain responses to line configurations are proportional to their natural-scene frequency. To further distinguish prior cortical competence from adaptation induced by learning to read, we manipulated whether the selected configurations formed letters and whether they were presented on the horizontal meridian, the familiar location where words usually appear, or on the vertical meridian. While no natural-scene frequency effect was observed, we observed letter-status and letter frequency effects on bilateral occipital activation, mainly for horizontal stimuli. The findings suggest a reorganization of the visual pathway resulting from reading acquisition under genetic and connectional constraints. Even early retinotopic areas showed a stronger response to letters than to rotated versions of the same shapes, suggesting an early visual tuning to large visual features such as letters.

  17. Letters in the Forest: Global precedence effect disappears for letters but not for non-letters under reading-like conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eLachmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Normally-skilled reading involves special processing strategies for letters, which are habitually funneled into an abstract letter code. On the basis of previous studies we argue that this habit leads to the preferred usage of an analytic strategy for the processing of letters, while non-letters are preferably processed via a holistic strategy. The well-known Global Precedence Effect (GPE seems to contradict to this assumption, since, with compound, hierarchical figures, including letter items, faster responses are observed to the global than to the local level of the figure, as well as an asymmetric interference effect from global to local level. We argue that with letters these effects depend on presentation conditions; only when they elicit the processing strategies automatized for reading, an analytic strategy for letters in contrast to non-letters is to be expected. We compared the GPE for letters and non-letters in central viewing, with the global stimulus size close to the functional visual field in whole word reading (6.5o of visual angle and local stimuli close to the critical size for fluent reading of individual letters (.5o of visual angle. Under these conditions, the GPE remained robust for non-letters. For letters, however, it disappeared: letters showed no overall response time advantage for the global level and symmetric congruence effects (local-to-global as well as global-to local interference. We interpret these results as according to the view that reading is based on resident analytic visual processing strategies for letters.

  18. Survey on nutrition and health status in infants under 36 months in Zhen'an, Shaanxi.%陕西镇安县36月龄以下婴幼儿营养与健康状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟丽苹; 付萍; 张坚; 常峰; 王林江; 张发胜; 满青青; 宋鹏坤; 李丽祥

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To analyse the nutrition and health status of infants under 36 months in Zhen'an county. Shaanxi province. [Method] By PPS sampling method, total 422 infants under 36 months in Zhen'an were chosen randomly and investigated using the questionnaire, anthropometries. Children aged 6-35 months were taken blood samples to measure hemoglobin and serum 25-(OH)D3 concentration. [Results] The prevalence of stunting, low weight and wasting were 8. 5%, 3. 6% and 3.1 %, respectively. The prevalence of diarrhea and the respiratory tract disease for the last two weeks were 22. 2% and 14. 5% , respectively. The prevalence of anemia, vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D borderline deficiency in 6-35 months children were 25. 1%, 15. 2% and 34. 8%. [Conclusions] The growth level of the infants in Zhen'an county is well, but the prevalence of anemia and vitamin D deficiency are high. It is necessary to take a nutrients supplement rich in iron and vitamin D to remedy the problem of anemia and vitamin D deficiency for infants aged 6 ~ 35 months.%[目的]分析陕西省镇安县36月龄以下婴幼儿营养与健康状况,为探讨适宜的儿童营养改善措施提供依据. [方法]采用成比例概率抽样方法,在陕西省镇安县随机抽取422名36月龄以下婴幼儿,进行问卷调查、体格测量,并对6~35月龄婴幼儿进行血红蛋白和血清维生素D( Vit D)测定. [结果]36月龄以下婴幼儿生长迟缓率为8.5%,低体重率为3.6%,消瘦率为3.1%;过去两周腹泻发病率22.2%,呼吸道疾病发病率14.5%.6~35月龄儿童贫血率为25.1%,Vit D缺乏率为15.2%,边缘缺乏率为34.8%. [结论]镇安地区婴幼儿体格发育尚可,但贫血和以VitD为代表的微量营养素缺乏较为严重.建议对该地区适龄儿童进行适当补充富含铁和Vit D的营养素补充剂,以有效的纠正该地区婴幼儿Vit D缺乏和贫血问题.

  19. Blindness and the age of enlightenment: Diderot's letter on the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margo, Curtis E; Harman, Lynn E; Smith, Don B

    2013-01-01

    Several months after anonymously publishing an essay in 1749 with the title "Letter on the Blind for the Use of Those Who Can See," the chief editor of the French Encyclopédie was arrested and taken to the prison fortress of Vincennes just east of Paris, France. The correctly assumed author, Denis Diderot, was 35 years old and had not yet left his imprint on the Age of Enlightenment. His letter, which recounted the life of Nicolas Saunderson, a blind mathematician, was intended to advance secular empiricism and disparage the religiously tinged rationalism put forward by Rene Descartes. The letter's discussion of sensory perception in men born blind dismissed the supposed primacy of visual imagery in abstract thinking. The essay did little to resolve any philosophical controversy, but it marked a turning point in Western attitudes toward visual disability.

  20. Thomas Birch's 'Weekly Letter' (1741-66): correspondence and history in the mid-eighteenth-century Royal Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Markman

    2014-09-20

    Thomas Birch (1705-66), Secretary of the Royal Society from 1752 to 1765, and Philip Yorke, second Earl of Hardwicke (1720-90), wrote a 'Weekly Letter' from 1741 to 1766, an unpublished correspondence of 680 letters now housed in the British Library (Additional Mss 35396-400). The article examines the dimensions and purposes of this correspondence, an important conduit of information for the influential coterie of the 'Hardwicke circle' gathered around Yorke in the Royal Society. It explores the writers' self-conception of the correspondence, which was expressed in deliberately archaic categories of seventeenth-century news exchange, such as the newsletter, aviso and a-la-main. It shows how the letter writers negotiated their difference in status through the discourse of friendship, and concludes that the 'Weekly Letter' constituted for the correspondents a form of private knowledge, restricted in circulation to their discrete group, and as such unlike the open and networked model of Enlightenment science.

  1. Crowding Affects Letters and Symbols Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Jonathan; Tydgat, Ilse; Issele, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Five experiments examined crowding effects with letter and symbol stimuli. Experiments 1 through 3 compared 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) identification accuracy for isolated targets presented left and right of fixation with targets flanked either by 2 other items of the same category or a single item situated to the right or left of targets.…

  2. The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Ternier, Stefaan; Drachsler, Hendrik; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Lezcano, L., Ternier, S., Drachsler, H., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2013, September). The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App. In iProceedings of MEDICINE 2.0: 6th World Congress on Social Media, Mobile Apps, Internet/Web 2.0 (pp. 221-222). London, England. Retrieved from http://www.medicine20congre

  3. Readerly and Writerly "Letters from the Park."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Susana

    1993-01-01

    Discusses in depth the film "Cartas del parque" ("Letters from the Park"), the first of six films in the "Amores Dificiles" series. Notes that the film is pervaded by the traditional overdetermination of gender roles. Suggests that an intrusive and authoritative narrator makes of this both a "readerly" and a…

  4. "Physical Review Letters" in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolillo, Paul J.; Lynch, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Ask any physicist what the preeminent journal in the field is, and I think the almost unanimous answer will be "Physical Review Letters" ("PRL"). This weekly journal of the American Physical Society publishes high-impact research from all the major subdisciplines of physics. This journal is not the one you would think is the first place a high…

  5. Reply to letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the letter by Dr. Amir Arav I would like to mention the following. The application of the principle of directional solidification to cryopreservation of living cells was, as far as I am aware, not the invention of Dr. Arav. It was first published and patented by Rubinsky (Berkeley,

  6. The Best Use of a Cover Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    So when should you use a cover letter? Only as part of a limited, targeted campaign to reach potential employers. Take the time to research and understand a company before committing yourself on paper as a potential employee, if you have no idea what the company does,

  7. Varsity letters documenting modern colleges and universities

    CERN Document Server

    Samuels, Helen Willa

    1998-01-01

    A study of the functions of colleges and universities, Varsity Letters is intended to aid those responsible for the documentation of these institutions. Samuels offers specific advice about the records of modern colleges and universities and proposes a method to ensure their adequate documentation. She also offers a method to analyze and plan the preservation of records for any type of institution.

  8. Hester Prynne in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽

    2011-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter is the masterpiece of Nathaniel Hawthorne, one of the great writers in the nineteenth century America. Since it was published in the year of 1850, it has been reread in the circle of literary criticism..In the book, Hawthorne Portrays H

  9. SiD Letter of Intent

    CERN Document Server

    Aihara, H; Oreglia, M.; Berger, E.L.; Guarino, V.; Repond, J.; Weerts, H.; Xia, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Srivastava, A.; Butler, J.M.; Goldstein, Joel; Velthuis, J.; Radeka, V.; Zhu, R.-Y.; Lutz, P.; de Roeck, A.; Elsener, K.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Grefe, C.; Klempt, W.; Linssen, L.; Schlatter, D.; Speckmayer, P.; Thom, J.; Yang, J.; Christian, D.C.; Cihangir, S.; Cooper, W.E.; Demarteau, M.; Fisk, H.E.; Garren, L.A.; Krempetz, K.; Kutschke, R.K.; Lipton, R.; Para, A.; Tschirhart, R.; Wenzel, H.; Yarema, R.; Grunewald, M.; Pankov, A.; U., Gomel State Tech.; Dutta, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Balbuena, J.P.; Fleta, C.; Lozano, M.; Ullan, M.; Christian, G.B.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Fuster, J.; Lacasta, C.; Marinnas, C.; Vos, M.; Duarte, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Jaramillo, R.; Lopez, Virto, A.; Martinez-Eivero, C.; Moya, D.; Ruiz-Mimeno, A.; Vila, I.; Colledani, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Hu-Guo, C.; Winter, M.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Onoprienko, D.V.; Kim, G.N.; Park, H.; Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.-J.; Cap, S.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Espargiliare, A.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Jacquemier, J.; Karyotakis, Y.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Gronberg, J.; Walston, S.; Wright, D.; Sawyer, L.; Laloum, M.; Ciobanu, C.; Chauveau, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Andricek, L.; Moser, H.-G.; Cowan, R.f.; Fisher, P.; Yamamoto, R.K.; Kenney, ClMl; Boos, E.E.; Merkin, M.; Chen, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Dyshkant, A.; Hedin, D.; Zutshi, V.; Galkin, V.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Ossetski, D.; Saveliev, V.; Kapusta, F.; De Masi, R.; Vrba, V.; Lu, C.; McDonald, K.T.; Smith, A.J.S.; Bortoletto, D.; Coath, R.; Crooks, J.; Damerell, C.; Gibson, M.; Nichols, A.; Stanitzki, M.; Strube, J.; Turchetta, R.; Tyndel, M.; Weber, M.; Worm, S.; Zhang, Z.; Barklow, T.L.; Belymam, A.; Breidenbach, M.; Cassell, R.; Craddock, W.; Deaconu, C.; Dragone, A.; Graf, N.A.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Hewett, J.L.; Jaros, J.A.; Johnson, A.S.; Kim, P.C.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Markiewicz, T.; Maruyama, T.; McCormick, J.; Moffeit, K.; Neal, H.A.; Nelson, T.K.; Oriunno, M.; Partridge, R.; Peskin, M.E.; Rizzo, T.G.; Rowson, P.; Su, D.; Woods, M.; Chakrabarti, S.; Dieguez, A.; Garrido, Ll.; Kaminski, J.; Conway, J.S.; Chertok, M.; Gunion, J.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Tripathi, S.M.; Fadeyev, V.; Schumm, B.A.; Oreglia, M.; Gill, J.; Nauenberg, U.; Oleinik, G.; Wagner, S.R.; Ranjan, K.; Shivpuri, R.; Varner, G.S.; Orava, R.; Van Kooten, R.; Bilki, B.; Charles, M.; Kim, T.J.; Mallik, U.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Brau, B.P.; Willocq, S.; Taylor, G.N.; Riles, Keith; Yang, H.-J.; Kriske, R.; Cremaldi, L.; Rahmat, R.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Seidel, S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Wayne, M.; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N.; Strom, D.M.; Torrence, E.; Banda, Y.; Burrows, P.N.; Devetak, E.; Foster, B.; Lastovicka, T.; Li, Y.-M.; Nomerotski, A.; Riera-Babures, J.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Manly, S.; Adeva, B.; Iglesias Escudero, C.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Gao, D.; Jie, W.; Jungfeng, Y.; Li, C.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Sun, Y.; Wang, Q.; Yi, J.; Yonggang, W.; Zhao, Z.; De, K.; Farbin, A.; Park, S.; Smith, J.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Lou, X.C.; Abe, T.; Aihara, H.; Iwasaki, M.; Lubatti, H.J.; Band, H.R.; Feyzi, F.; Prepost, R.; Karchin, P.E.; Milstene, C.; Baltay, C.; Dhawan, S.; Kwon, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Letter of intent describing SiD (Silicon Detector) for consideration by the International Linear Collider IDAG panel. This detector concept is founded on the use of silicon detectors for vertexing, tracking, and electromagnetic calorimetry. The detector has been cost-optimized as a general-purpose detector for a 500 GeV electron-positron linear collider.

  10. Letter of the Editor-in-chief

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwen Wang; Mathew Sorrentino; Thach Nguyen

    2006-01-01

    @@ Dear Friends and Colleagues, In this letter, I would like to celebrate the second anniversary of the Journal of Geriatric Cardiology (JGC).With the help of all of you, friends and colleagues, readers,editorials consultants, authors and editorial staff, the JGC was able to grow and publish many quality papers from the world.

  11. Fallout from Chernobyl [Letters to the editor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, E.D. (Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Abelin, T.; Egger, M. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland)) (and others)

    1994-11-12

    Six brief letters discuss the possible health effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident including an increase in thyroid cancer in children in Belarus, chromosomal abnormalities in workers from Latvia who cleared up the Chernobyl accident site, an increased trisomy 21 in Berlin but a lack of increased childhood leukaemia incidence in Greece. (UK).

  12. Researches Made on The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王舫

    2011-01-01

    Being the first American native novel,a great number of researches have been made on The Scarlet Letter.This paper collects some popular researches that have been made on this novel and classifies them into five perspectives --- romance,symbolism,Puritanism,feminism and psychoanalysis.

  13. Reply to letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the letter by Dr. Amir Arav I would like to mention the following. The application of the principle of directional solidification to cryopreservation of living cells was, as far as I am aware, not the invention of Dr. Arav. It was first published and patented by Rubinsky (Berkeley, CA

  14. An Unknown Letter by Maria Komornicka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Bourkane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents an unpublished letter by Maria Komornicka, which the poet sent in July 1899 to her aunt, Aleksandra Oszacka. The epistolary communication, which contains several pieces of information about the life and activities of the poet living in Warsaw, can be a valuable material for researchers interested in her biography.

  15. 42 CFR 93.202 - Charge letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Charge letter. 93.202 Section 93.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON...

  16. The anthrax letters: a medical detective story

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, Leonard A

    2003-01-01

    .... Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Cole, Leonard A., 1933The anthrax letters : a medical detective story / Leonard A. Cole. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-08881-X - ISBN 0-309-52584-5 (PDF) 1. Bioterrorism- United States. 2. Anthrax- United States. 3. Postal service- United States. 4. Victims of...

  17. The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Ternier, Stefaan; Drachsler, Hendrik; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Lezcano, L., Ternier, S., Drachsler, H., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2013, September). The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App. In iProceedings of MEDICINE 2.0: 6th World Congress on Social Media, Mobile Apps, Internet/Web 2.0 (pp. 221-222). London, England. Retrieved from

  18. Samuel Beckett: Color, Letter, and Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Tom

    1985-01-01

    Through a bilingual reading of Beckett's "Mal vu mal dit," the illusion of painted relief for printed letters is created. Colors manifest themselves through the continual process of translation. The French translation adds color to the black and white English text. (DF)

  19. Application of Politeness Strategies in Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雅婷

    2015-01-01

    As is known to all,businesses are very image - conscious. Most of the companies try to conduct themselves decently and politely in their business transactions,among which business letters are major manifestations of politeness. Application of Politeness Strategies is of great significance.

  20. Letters to a Young Education Reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2017-01-01

    In "Letters to a Young Education Reformer," Frederick M. Hess distills knowledge from twenty-five years of working in and around school reform. Inspired by his conversations with young, would-be reformers who are passionate about transforming education, the book offers a window into Hess's thinking about what education reform is and…

  1. Introduction to Literary Criticism: "The Scarlet Letter."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Lisa

    This course seeks to provide high school students the opportunity to sharpen their critical thinking skills and use of language through acquaintance with some ideas of literary criticism. The course features Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter," assuming that the students have just finished reading that American classic novel. The…

  2. An Open Letter to Ninth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Many studies and reports in recent years have argued that there's an important "expectations gap" between the skills students are typically bringing to college and what college teachers think students should be bringing with them to college. This article, presented in the form of an open letter to first-year high school students, is an attempt…

  3. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter W

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 7 of 7 ... African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter W ... treatment and disposal of sewage sludge; environmental pollution ... Water SA is the WRC's accredited scientific journal which contains ... Aims: The aims of the Journal are: To provide a medium for international dissemination of information about ...

  4. Psychotherapists as gatekeepers: An evidence-based case study highlighting the role and process of letter writing for transgender clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Stephanie L

    2015-09-01

    In order to receive medically necessary gender-affirming treatments, transgender individuals are required to provide evidence of their readiness for gender transitioning. Most often, this evidence includes 1 letter for hormone therapy and 2 letters for surgery. According to the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) Standards of Care (SOC), psychotherapists or other eligible health professionals are the only individuals qualified to write these letters. The present case study examined how psychotherapist gatekeeping and letter writing for a transgender client were intertwined with psychotherapy processes and outcomes. Over the course of 12 months of treatment, the client was assessed through 8 time points using multiple methods. Six of the assessments were conducted with validated outcome measures (baseline; Sessions 5, 10, 15, and 20; and termination); 1 of the assessments was conducted as a clinical interview for letter-writing purposes and additional outcome measures (Session 8); and evaluating the process of letter writing was an aspect of psychotherapy (Session 20). Symptom alleviation, improvement in psychological well-being, and increases in overall quality of life occurred from baseline to termination. Results indicate that psychotherapy assisted with the process of gender transitioning, which in turn improved client outcomes. Recommendations for writing letters for clients who desire a gender transition are included.

  5. 汶川大地震3个月后灾区特殊人群的营养状况%The nutrition status of special population living in the areas affected by Wenchuan Earthquake after 3 months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽云; 于冬梅; 黄建; 赵显峰; 李建文; 杜文雯; 于文涛; 苏畅; 荫士安

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the nutritional status of infants,preschool and primary school students, pregnant and lactating women in Wenchuan earthquake disaster area after 3 months. Methods In August 2008,the nutritional and health status information of special population were collected and evaluated using the questionnaires, anthropometric and hemoglobin concentration measurements from four settlements of villages and towns in Mao and Mianzhu Country of Sichuan and Kang Country and Wudu District in Gansu provinces. A total of 236 infants aged below 36 months,48 preschool children, 368 primary students,32 pregnant women and 72 lactating women were investigated. Principal investigator indexes included the low body weight, growth retardation, anemia prevalence, two-week prevalence of diarrhea and respiratory disease, food intake and nutrition-related diseases, the percentage of patients morbidity of 36 months infants, preschool and primary school students; the prevalence of anemia, the prevalence of nutritionrelated diseases of pregnant and lactating women. Results The stunting prevalence was 14. 6% (34/236) and the anemia prevalence was up to 40. 1% (61/236) among infants younger than 36 months. Besides,the percentages of infants and young children suffered from the respiratory-infected disease and diarrhea within recent two weeks were 40. 4% (95/236) and 30. 2% (71/236) respectively. The percentage of low body weight of preschool children was 14. 6% (7/48) and the growth retardation and anemia prevalence was 14. 6% (7/48) and 39.6% (19/48) ,respectively. Among primary students,6. 3% (23/368) showed growth retardation and 12. 2% (45/368) were anemia. The prevalence of anemia status of pregnant women and lactating mothers were 53.9% (17/32) and 24.4% (18/72) respectively. The main food composition of 45. 8% (33/72) lactating women were grain and vegetables,29 (40. 3 % ) ,32 (44. 4% ) ,28 ( 38.9% )and 53 (73.6%) lactating women did not have animal originated

  6. 河北省6月~5岁儿童贫血患病率现况分析%Analysis on anemia status of children between six months and five years old in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚煜; 李进华; 闫承生; 刘静; 李小萍; 霍相杰; 张丽萍; 江燕

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To analyze the anemia status of children between six months and five years old in Hebei province. Methods: The children between six months and five years old were studied using stratified random sampling method in 24 counties and 3 cities in Hebei province. . The haemoglobin was measured by cyanmethemoglobin and physical was examined. Results; The 3 992 children had been investigated, average haemoglobin was (123. 5 ±11.7) g/L. The 835 children were anemia, the prevalence of anemia was 20. 92% , light anemia was mainly. The prevalence of anemia in rural areas was 22. 71% , the prevalence of anemia in urban was 11.69% 0k-2=39.9, P = 0.000) . The prevalence of anemia of boys was 24. 18% , the prevalence of anemia of girls was 23.02% (j(2 = 1.92, P = 0. 17 ) . The prevalence of anemia was vary along with the age, the peak of anemia prevalence was found among the children of 12 - 18 months, that was 32. 51%. Compared with non -anemia children, prevalence of underweight and stunting for the anemia children in were higher, RR = 1. 68 and RR = 1. 80. Conclusion; The anemia prevalence among the children between six months and five years old in Hebei province is higher, especially in rural areas and under two years old children, the feasible measures should be set down to decrease the prevalence of anemia.%目的:了解河北省6月~5岁儿童贫血患病状况,为今后开展儿童贫血防治工作提供科学依据.方法:采用分层随机整群抽样法,以河北省24个县、3个城市6月~5岁儿童为研究对象,进行体格测量和血红蛋白(Hb)含量测定.结果:共检测儿童3 992人,平均Hb含量为(123.5±11.7) g/L,贫血人数为835人,贫血患病率为20.92%,以轻度贫血为主,占88.9%.农村儿童贫血患病率(22.71%)高于城市(11.69%),差异有统计学意义(x2=39.9,P=0.000).男孩贫血患病率为24.18%,女孩为23.02%,差异无统计学意义(x2=1.92,P=0.17).6~24月龄儿童是贫血患病

  7. Use of calcium, folate, and vitamin D₃-fortified milk for 6 months improves nutritional status but not bone mass or turnover, in a group of Australian aged care residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, Jessica A; Nowson, Caryl A

    2009-07-01

    In residential care, inadequate calcium and folate intakes and low serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations are common. We assessed whether daily provision of calcium, folate, and vitamin D₃-fortified milk for 6 months improved nutritional status (serum micronutrients), bone quality (heel ultrasound), bone turnover markers (parathyroid hormone, C-terminal collagen I telopeptide, terminal propeptide of type I procollagen), and/or muscle strength and mobility in a group of Australian aged care residents. One hundred and seven residents completed the study (mean (SD) age: 79.9 (10.1) years; body weight: 68.4 (15.4) kg). The median (inter-quartile range) volume of fortified milk consumed was 160 (149) ml/day. At the end of the study, the median daily vitamin D intake increased to 10.4 (8.7) μg (P < .001), which is 70% of the adequate intake (15 μg); and calcium density (mg/MJ) was higher over the study period compared with baseline (161 ± 5 mg/MJ vs. 142 ± 4 mg/MJ, P < .001). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased by 23 ± 2 nmol/L (83 (107)%, P < .001), yet remained in the insufficient range (mean 45 ± 2 nmol/L). Consumption of greater than the median intake of milk (160 ml/day) (n = 54, 50%) increased serum 25(OH)D levels into the adequate range (53 ± 2 nmol/L) and reduced serum parathyroid hormone by 24% (P = .045). There was no effect on bone quality, bone turnover markers, muscle strength, or mobility. Consumption of fortified milk increased dietary vitamin D intake and raised serum 25(OH)D concentrations, but not to the level thought to reduce fracture risk. If calcium-fortified milk also was used in cooking and milk drinks, this approach could allow residents to achieve a dietary calcium intake close to recommended levels. A vitamin D supplement would be recommended to ensure adequate vitamin D status for all residents.

  8. Letter to President [Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Assistant Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Back Bay Wilderness area. The letter...

  9. The Effects of Academic Positive Practice on Cursive Letter Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabee, W. Scott

    1988-01-01

    Academic positive practice was used to correct errors of cursive letter writing in three third graders. Following each writing error, students correctly formed each incorrect letter 20 times. Students demonstrated improvement over baseline levels of performance. (Author/DB)

  10. Letter to President [Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Laguna Atascosa Wilderness area. The letter...

  11. 50 CFR 216.257 - Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE... Mexico § 216.257 Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless suspended or...

  12. Letter to President [Cedar Island National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Assistant Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Cedar Island Wilderness area. The letter...

  13. 6个月内婴儿母乳喂养现状及影响因素研究%An analysis on the status and influencing factors of breastfeeding among infants within six months of age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕; 邱丽倩

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the status of breastfeeding and to explore the influencing factors among infants within six months of age in Yongkang City.Methods A total of 667 infants aged 0 -6 months from 9 towns in Yongkang City was selected by random cluster sampling method and their mothers were interviewed by self -designed questionnaire .Results By 7 days,1 month,3 months and 4 -6 months,the rate of pure breastfeeding was 69.72%,77.66%,58.32% and 27.97% respectively;the rate of almost pure breastfeeding was 1.95%,0.45%,0.60% and 1.69% respectively;the rate of partial breastfeeding was 13.34%,14.39%,30.13% and 47.46% respectively;the rate of artificial feeding was 14.99%,7.50%,10.95% and 22.88% respectively.There were statistical differences on the rates of breastfeeding among four groups(P <0.05).Non -conditional logistic regression analysis showed that mother's age below 30 (OR =0.464,95%CI =0.315 -0.682),low education level (OR =0.507,95%CI =0.305 -0.842)and part -time working (OR =0.517,95%CI =0.352 -0.758)were protective factors of breastfeeding.Family income above 6 000 yuan was the risk factor of breastfeeding (OR =1.923,95%CI =1.306 -2.833).Conclusion The rate of breastfeeding for infants within six month of age was high,but the rate of breastfeeding by 4 -6 months dropped sharply.The mothers aged below 30 with the family income above 6 000 yuan,with full -time job and higher education level have low breastfeeding rate relatively.%目的:了解永康市6个月内婴儿的母乳喂养现状及影响因素。方法采用随机整群抽样方法对永康市9个镇(街道)667名0~6个月婴儿的母亲进行调查。结果婴儿在出生7 d、1个月、3个月和4~6个月时纯母乳喂养率分别为69.72%、77.66%、58.32%和27.97%;几乎纯母乳喂养率分别为1.95%、0.45%、0.60%和1.69%;部分母乳喂养率分别为13.34%、14.39%、30.13%和47.46%;人工喂养率分别为14.99%、7

  14. Severe events in the first 6 months of life in a cohort of HIV-unexposed infants from South Africa: effects of low birthweight and breastfeeding status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Tanya; Jackson, Debra; Swanevelder, Sonja; Lombard, Carl; Engebretsen, Ingunn M S; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Goga, Ameena; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Sanders, David

    2014-10-01

    To report on risk factors for severe events (hospitalisation or infant death) within the first half of infancy amongst HIV-unexposed infants in South Africa. South African data from the multisite community-based cluster-randomised trial PROMISE EBF promoting exclusive breastfeeding in three sub-Saharan countries from 2006 to 2008 were used. The South African sites were Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal. This analysis included 964 HIV-negative mother-infant pairs. Data on severe events and infant feeding practices were collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks post-partum. We used a stratified extended Cox model to examine the association between the time to the severe event and covariates including birthweight, with breastfeeding status as a time-dependent covariate. Seventy infants (7%) experienced a severe event. The median age at first hospitalisation was 8 weeks, and the two main reasons for hospitalisation were cough and difficult breathing followed by diarrhoea. Stopping breastfeeding before 6 months (HR 2.4; 95% CI 1.2-5.1) and low birthweight (HR 2.4; 95% CI 1.3-4.3) were found to increase the risk of a severe event, whilst maternal completion of high school education was protective (HR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.7). A strengthened primary healthcare system incorporating promotion of breastfeeding and appropriate caring practices for low birthweight infants (such as kangaroo mother care) are critical. Given the leading reasons for hospitalisation, early administration of oral rehydration therapy and treatment of suspected pneumonia are key interventions needed to prevent hospitalisation in young infants. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Can words be read without abstract letter identities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fischer-Baum

    2014-04-01

    CH’s acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia left him with a profound impairment in processing abstract letter identities. This impairment affected his ability to process strings of letters in a variety of tasks; for example nonword reading, spelling, recognizing orally spelled words. However, while impaired, his single word reading was surprisingly good given his single letter impairment, suggesting an additional route to word meaning from visually-presented familiar words that does not require abstract letter identities.

  16. The Barthel index-dyspnea a tool for respiratory rehabilitation: reply to the letter by Chuang [Letter of clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carone M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mauro Carone,1 Michele Vitacca,2 Mara Paneroni,2 Paola Baiardi,3 Antonio Spanevello,4,5 Giorgio Bertolotti6 1Respiratory Division, ICS MAUGERI SPA SB, Institute of Cassano Murge (BA IRCCS, Italy; 2Respiratory Rehabilitation Division, ICS MAUGERI SPA SB, Institute of Lumezzane (BS IRCCS, Italy; 3Scientific Direction, ICS MAUGERI SPA SB, Institute of Pavia, IRCCS, Italy; 4Respiratory Rehabilitation Division, ICS MAUGERI SPA SB, Institute of Tradate (VA IRCCS, Italy; 5Respiratory Diseases Unit, University of Insubria, Varese; 6Psychology Unit, ICS MAUGERI SPA SB, Institute of Tradate (VA IRCCS, Italy We read the remarkable letter by Chuang.1 We thank him for his valid suggestions on our paper. Interestingly, he focused on the two dimensions of the Barthel index-dyspnea (BI-d, which was exactly our goal. As rehabilitators, our goal is to provide patients with physical therapy depending on their health status and to improve their respiratory function. We need to verify and demonstrate the efficacy and the outcomes of respiratory rehabilitation, supported by physical therapy. For these reasons, we need an assessment device that measures respiratory improvement during daily motor activities that should be monitored.The modified Barthel index2 is a well-consolidated and widely used instrument to assess the performance of a person in a predetermined and fixed set of activities of daily living (ADLs. By proposing BI-d,3 we aimed to develop a scale to measure how dyspnea precludes or reduces the same ADLs, with the ultimate goal of globally assessing the effectiveness of rehabilitation. Hence, an assessment method that measures the impact of dyspnea on activities monitored by a rehabilitation program is of utmost importance for rehabilitators. Large part of Chuang’s letter is based on the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire-dyspnea (CRQ-d. The CRQ-d is a health-related quality of life (health status questionnaire, with a dyspnea “domain”.4 However

  17. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2006-12-01

    within 55 days. Once accepted, papers are published within 40 days (on average), and although this means that on average papers are published less than 6 months after first being received, we will continue to work to improve the service we provide. There simply remains for me to say thank you again for your contribution to Measurement Science and Technology this year, and I wish you all the best for a successful 2007!

  18. Transposed-Letter and Laterality Effects in Lexical Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Fraga, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    Two divided visual field lexical decision experiments were conducted to examine the role of the cerebral hemispheres in transposed-letter similarity effects. In Experiment 1, we created two types of nonwords: nonadjacent transposed-letter nonwords ("TRADEGIA"; the base word was "TRAGEDIA," the Spanish for "TRAGEDY") and two-letter different…

  19. Letter representations in writing: An fMRI adaptation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eDufor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Behavioral and neuropsychological research in reading and spelling has provided evidence for the role of the following types of orthographic representations in letter writing: letter forms, letter case, and abstract letter identities. We report on the results of an fMRI investigation designed to identify the neural substrates of these different representational types. Using a neural adaptation paradigm we examined the neural distribution of inhibition and release from inhibition in a letter-writing task in which, on every trial, participants produced three repetitions of the same letter and a fourth letter that was either identical to (no-change trial or different from the previous three (change trial. Change trials involved a change in the shape, case and/or identity of the letter. After delineating the general letter writing network by identifying areas that exhibited significant neural adaptation effects on no-change trials, we used deconvolution analysis to examine this network for effects of release from inhibition on change trials. In this way we identified regions specifically associated with the representation of letter shape (left SFS and SFG/pre-CG and letter identity (left fusiform gyrus or both (cerebellum, post-central gyrus and middle frontal gyrus. No regions were associated with the representation of letter case. This study showcases an investigational approach that allows for the differentiation of the neurotopography of the representational types that are key to our ability to produce written language.

  20. Return to sender: Constantijn Huygens as a man of letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosseye, L.; Blom, F.; Leerintveld, A.

    2013-01-01

    Return to Sender takes as its starting point Constantijn Huygens’ letters and shows us the author in his different guises: intimus of René Descartes, translator of John Donne, collector of art, writer of flirtatious love letters and the author of a long consolatory letter-poem for an ailing friend w

  1. Covert Reading of Letters in a Case of Global Alexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Chiara; Bencini, Giulia; Meneghello, Francesca; Piron, Lamberto; Semenza, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the case of a global alexic patient with a severe reading deficit affecting words, letters and Arabic numbers, following a left posterior lesion. The patient (VA) could not match spoken letters to their graphic form. A preserved ability to recognize shape and canonical orientation of letters indicates intact access to the…

  2. 48 CFR 52.228-14 - Irrevocable Letter of Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Credit. 52.228-14 Section 52.228-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....228-14 Irrevocable Letter of Credit. As prescribed in 28.204-4, insert the following clause: Irrevocable Letter of Credit (DEC 1999) (a) “Irrevocable letter of credit” (ILC), as used in this clause...

  3. 31 CFR 535.416 - Letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Letters of credit. 535.416 Section... § 535.416 Letters of credit. (a) Question. Prior to the effective date, a bank subject to the jurisdiction of the United States has issued or confirmed a documentary letter of credit for a non-Iranian...

  4. Perceptual-Motor Complexity of Printed and Cursive Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenbroek, Ruud G. J.; Van Galen, Gerard P.

    1990-01-01

    Seventy-five Dutch elementary school students wrote letters of a cursive alphabet after presentation of printed and cursive letters. Analysis revealed that spatial ambiguity, allographic variability, contextual ambiguity, and letter frequency are determinants of the time needed by children for perceiving printed and producing corresponding cursive…

  5. 33 CFR 62.43 - Numbers and letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... letters. (a) All solid red and solid green aids are numbered, with red aids bearing even numbers and green... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Numbers and letters. 62.43... to assist in their identification, or to indicate their purpose. Sidemarks may carry letters...

  6. Transposed-Letter and Laterality Effects in Lexical Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Fraga, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    Two divided visual field lexical decision experiments were conducted to examine the role of the cerebral hemispheres in transposed-letter similarity effects. In Experiment 1, we created two types of nonwords: nonadjacent transposed-letter nonwords ("TRADEGIA"; the base word was "TRAGEDIA," the Spanish for "TRAGEDY") and two-letter different…

  7. A Logical Letter-Sound System in Five Phonic Generalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Louis; Yale, Ian

    2011-01-01

    In five phonic generalizations, this article introduces a logical system of letter-sound relationships. Ranging from 91% to 99% phonic transparency, these statements generalize a study of 16,928 words in children's literature. The r-controlled vowels aside, the analysis shows 54 basic transparent letters and letter combinations, 39 transparent…

  8. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  9. Resource Letter QI-1: Quantum Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Frederick W.

    2016-07-01

    This Resource Letter surveys the history and modern developments in the field of quantum information. It is written to guide advanced undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and other new researchers to the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. The topics covered include quantum states and processes, quantum coding and cryptography, quantum computation, the experimental implementation of quantum information processing, and the role of quantum information in the fundamental properties and foundations of physical theories.

  10. Resource Letter: TE-1: Teaching electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Dennis C.

    2002-01-01

    This Resource Letter examines the evolution, roles, and content of courses in electronics in the undergraduate physics curriculum, and provides a guide to resources for faculty teaching such courses. It concludes with a brief section addressing problems of electromagnetic interference in electronic systems, and provides an introduction to the literature and practice of electromagnetic compatibility. I have included textbooks, reference books, articles, collections of laboratory experiments and projects, sources of equipment and parts, software packages, videos, and websites.

  11. Essay: reflections on Physical Review Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, David

    2008-08-01

    During my tenure as APS Editor-in-Chief Physical Review Letters changed from a journal whose authors were mostly from the U.S. to one whose authors were mostly from abroad. I encouraged authors to publicize their work even before their papers were accepted for publication. And I sought to raise the quality of the papers that were published even higher than before.

  12. An open letter to Magic Johnson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazin, G J

    1992-01-01

    The last installment in this series dealt with post-test counseling of a person whose HIV test was negative. The plan was to provide counseling for an HIV-infected person in this installment. NBA basketball star Magic Johnson's surprise announcement on November 7, 1991, of his infection with HIV has provided an unexpected opportunity to counsel a well-known person through an "open letter."

  13. LEXICAL PHRASEOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH BUSINESS LETTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivoruchko I. S.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of international cooperation has promoted the updating of problems connected with business communication effectiveness. These problems are very crucial, because their solution may predetermine the collaboration success of business partners. The integral part of this success is the efficiency of the exchange of textual information. Nowadays the main information exchange method in modern business relations is business correspondence in English; therefore, its research makes an important contribution to the solution of the pressing problem connected with the achievement of some goals in business. In the article, we analyze both general and specific linguistic features of English business letters, which differ them from texts of other fields of human activity. A special attention is paid to the question of the content and presence degree of lexicological and phraseological units in English business letters. In the end the author comes to the conclusion that business communication is considered effective if it contributes to the mutual understanding of partners with the help of the most optimal means. The analysis of practical material showed that these means could be lexicological and phraseological units. The correct choice of these units helps with the formation of those features of a business letter, which would make it effective

  14. Neural correlates of letter reversal in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburne, Liwei King; Eddy, Marianna D; Kalra, Priya; Yee, Debbie; Sinha, Pawan; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-01-01

    Children often make letter reversal errors when first learning to read and write, even for letters whose reversed forms do not appear in normal print. However, the brain basis of such letter reversal in children learning to read is unknown. The present study compared the neuroanatomical correlates (via functional magnetic resonance imaging) and the electrophysiological correlates (via event-related potentials or ERPs) of this phenomenon in children, ages 5-12, relative to young adults. When viewing reversed letters relative to typically oriented letters, adults exhibited widespread occipital, parietal, and temporal lobe activations, including activation in the functionally localized visual word form area (VWFA) in left occipito-temporal cortex. Adults exhibited significantly greater activation than children in all of these regions; children only exhibited such activation in a limited frontal region. Similarly, on the P1 and N170 ERP components, adults exhibited significantly greater differences between typical and reversed letters than children, who failed to exhibit significant differences between typical and reversed letters. These findings indicate that adults distinguish typical and reversed letters in the early stages of specialized brain processing of print, but that children do not recognize this distinction during the early stages of processing. Specialized brain processes responsible for early stages of letter perception that distinguish between typical and reversed letters may develop slowly and remain immature even in older children who no longer produce letter reversals in their writing.

  15. Neural correlates of letter reversal in children and adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei King Blackburne

    Full Text Available Children often make letter reversal errors when first learning to read and write, even for letters whose reversed forms do not appear in normal print. However, the brain basis of such letter reversal in children learning to read is unknown. The present study compared the neuroanatomical correlates (via functional magnetic resonance imaging and the electrophysiological correlates (via event-related potentials or ERPs of this phenomenon in children, ages 5-12, relative to young adults. When viewing reversed letters relative to typically oriented letters, adults exhibited widespread occipital, parietal, and temporal lobe activations, including activation in the functionally localized visual word form area (VWFA in left occipito-temporal cortex. Adults exhibited significantly greater activation than children in all of these regions; children only exhibited such activation in a limited frontal region. Similarly, on the P1 and N170 ERP components, adults exhibited significantly greater differences between typical and reversed letters than children, who failed to exhibit significant differences between typical and reversed letters. These findings indicate that adults distinguish typical and reversed letters in the early stages of specialized brain processing of print, but that children do not recognize this distinction during the early stages of processing. Specialized brain processes responsible for early stages of letter perception that distinguish between typical and reversed letters may develop slowly and remain immature even in older children who no longer produce letter reversals in their writing.

  16. Gender differences in recommendation letters for postdoctoral fellowships in geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Kuheli; Pfaff, Danielle L.; Bernstein, Ariel F.; Dillard, Joseph S.; Block, Caryn J.

    2016-11-01

    Gender disparities in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics, including the geosciences, are well documented and widely discussed. In the geosciences, despite receiving 40% of doctoral degrees, women hold less than 10% of full professorial positions. A significant leak in the pipeline occurs during postdoctoral years, so biases embedded in postdoctoral processes, such as biases in recommendation letters, may be deterrents to careers in geoscience for women. Here we present an analysis of an international data set of 1,224 recommendation letters, submitted by recommenders from 54 countries, for postdoctoral fellowships in the geosciences over the period 2007-2012. We examine the relationship between applicant gender and two outcomes of interest: letter length and letter tone. Our results reveal that female applicants are only half as likely to receive excellent letters versus good letters compared to male applicants. We also find no evidence that male and female recommenders differ in their likelihood to write stronger letters for male applicants over female applicants. Our analysis also reveals significant regional differences in letter length, with letters from the Americas being significantly longer than any other region, whereas letter tone appears to be distributed equivalently across all world regions. These results suggest that women are significantly less likely to receive excellent recommendation letters than their male counterparts at a critical juncture in their career.

  17. Neural Correlates of Letter Reversal in Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Priya; Yee, Debbie; Sinha, Pawan; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Children often make letter reversal errors when first learning to read and write, even for letters whose reversed forms do not appear in normal print. However, the brain basis of such letter reversal in children learning to read is unknown. The present study compared the neuroanatomical correlates (via functional magnetic resonance imaging) and the electrophysiological correlates (via event-related potentials or ERPs) of this phenomenon in children, ages 5–12, relative to young adults. When viewing reversed letters relative to typically oriented letters, adults exhibited widespread occipital, parietal, and temporal lobe activations, including activation in the functionally localized visual word form area (VWFA) in left occipito-temporal cortex. Adults exhibited significantly greater activation than children in all of these regions; children only exhibited such activation in a limited frontal region. Similarly, on the P1 and N170 ERP components, adults exhibited significantly greater differences between typical and reversed letters than children, who failed to exhibit significant differences between typical and reversed letters. These findings indicate that adults distinguish typical and reversed letters in the early stages of specialized brain processing of print, but that children do not recognize this distinction during the early stages of processing. Specialized brain processes responsible for early stages of letter perception that distinguish between typical and reversed letters may develop slowly and remain immature even in older children who no longer produce letter reversals in their writing. PMID:24859328

  18. Monthly Meteorological Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly forms that do not fit into any regular submission. Tabulation sheets and generic monthly forms designed to capture miscellaneous monthly observations.

  19. Multinational study in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes: association of age, ketoacidosis, HLA status, and autoantibodies on residual beta-cell function and glycemic control 12 months after diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, H.B.; Swift, P.G.F.; Holl, R.W.;

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of residual beta-cell function and glycemic control during the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Subjects and Methods: Clinical information and blood samples were collected from 275 children. HbA1c, antibodies, HLA typing and mixed meal......-stimulated C-peptide levels 1, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis were analyzed centrally. Results: Mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 yr. DKA with standard bicarbonate 1 (p = 0.004) and 12 months (p = 0.0003) after diagnosis. At 12...... months, the decline in stimulated C-peptide levels compared with the levels at 1 month was 69% in the youngest age group and 50% in patients 10 yr and above (p 12 months was predicted by younger age (p

  20. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  1. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  2. Letter-by-letter processing in the phonological conversion of multiletter graphemes: searching for sounds in printed pseudowords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peereman, Ronald; Brand, Muriele; Rey, Arnaud

    2006-02-01

    Current models of word reading differ in their descriptions of how print-to-sound conversion is performed. Whereas a parallel procedure is generally assumed, the dual-route cascaded model developed by Coltheart and colleagues (Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, and Ziegler, 2001) holds that the nonlexical conversion operates letter by letter, serially from left to right. An interesting aspect of the hypothesized serial procedure is that only the first letter of two-letter graphemes is thought to cause activation of its corresponding phonological code, the second letter of multiletter graphemes being directly merged with the preceding letter to form a complex grapheme. This hypothesis was examined in a task in which participants had to detect target phonemes in visually presented pseudowords. The data suggest that phonological codes associated with all the letters of the multiletter graphemes are activated.

  3. Multinational study in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes: association of age, ketoacidosis, HLA status, and autoantibodies on residual beta-cell function and glycemic control 12 months after diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Henrik B; Swift, Peter G F; Holl, Reinhard W;

    2010-01-01

    To identify predictors of residual beta-cell function and glycemic control during the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D).......To identify predictors of residual beta-cell function and glycemic control during the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D)....

  4. Resource Letter NO-1: Nonlinear Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmire, Elsa

    2011-03-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on nonlinear optics. Books, journals, and websites are introduced that cover the general subject. Journal articles and websites are cited covering the following topics: second-order nonlinearities in transparent media including second-harmonic generation and optical parametric oscillation, third-order and higher nonlinearities, nonlinear refractive index, absorptive nonlinearities such as saturable absorption and multiphoton absorption, and scattering nonlinearities such as stimulated Raman scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering. Steady-state and transient phenomena, fiber optics, solitons, nonlinear wave mixing, optical phase conjugation, nonlinear spectroscopy, and multiphoton microscopy are all outlined.

  5. Letters to Solovine 1906-1955

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2011-01-01

    A provocative collection of letters to his longtime friend and translator that spans Einstein's career and reveals the inner thoughts and daily life of a transformative genius From their early days as tutor and scholar, discussing philosophy over Spartan dinners, to their work together to publish Einstein's books in Europe, in Maurice Solovine Einstein found both an engaged mind and a loyal friend. While Einstein frequently shared his observations on science, politics, philosophy, and religion in his correspondence with Solovine, he was just as likely to express his feelings about everyday l

  6. Resource Letter OSE-1: Observing Solar Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Fraknoi, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the available literature, listing selected books, articles, and online resources about scientific, cultural, and practical issues related to observing solar eclipses. It is timely, given that a total solar eclipse will cross the continental United States on August 21, 2017. The next total solar eclipse path crossing the U.S. and Canada will be on April 8, 2024. In 2023, the path of annularity of an annular eclipse will cross Mexico, the United States, and Canada, with partial phases visible throughout those countries.

  7. Algoritmi matematici nelle lettere di Gerbert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P.

    The content of Gerbert's "scientific" letters is analyzed in detail, with special emphasis on arithmetical and geometrical issues, such as multiplication and division rules related to the use of abacus, superparticular numbers and evaluation of the area of an equilateral triangle. It is shown that Gerbert's area formula, albeit based on rational fractions, could hardly be conceived without knowledge of Pythagoras' theorem. This fact casts a light also on the astronomical tools created by Gerbert, where the didactical aspect cannot be separated from the accuracy of the demonstrations and of the measurements.

  8. ERP correlates of letter identity and letter position are modulated by lexical frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gómez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created two pseudowords: A transposed-letter (TL: BRIGDE) and a replaced-letter pseudoword (RL: BRITGE). ERPs were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in two tasks: Semantic categorization (Experiment 1) and lexical decision (Experiment 2). For high-frequency stimuli, similar ERPs were obtained for words and TL-pseudowords, but the N400 component to words was reduced relative to RL-pseudowords, indicating less lexical/semantic activation. In contrast, TL- and RL-pseudowords created from low-frequency stimuli elicited similar ERPs. Behavioral responses in the lexical decision task paralleled this asymmetry. The present findings impose constraints on computational and neural models of visual-word recognition. PMID:23454070

  9. The Function of Letters and Visits System and Its Regression to the Right Position from the Perspective of Constitutionalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Quanzeng; Zha Zhigang

    2011-01-01

    The Letters and Visits system is a kind of system with unique Chinese characteristics,whose function mainly includes democratic supervision,communication between governments and the public,and civil rights relief etc.The system itself does not conflict with the rule of law while the reason for the flooding of letters -or -visits' matters lies in the understanding of its misplaced function,particularly for the unlimited expansion of relief function and neglect of supervision and communication functions.Through the practice of democracy,the administrative self - restraint idea and protection of the independent status of the department for letters and visits,its function can return to the right position.

  10. Writing effective consultation letters: 12 tips for teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keely, Erin; Dojeiji, Suzan; Myers, Kathryn

    2002-11-01

    Written correspondence is the standard mode of communication between healthcare providers. Despite the importance of this skill and increased emphasis on ambulatory care, communication skills and professionalism in training programs, there has been very little written on the teaching and evaluation of consultation letter writing. Consultation letter writing is an essential skill that cannot be learned simply by reading others' letters and should be taught in a formal manner. This article describes the authors' experience in teaching the skill of writing effective consultation letters to residents and describes strategies for evaluating this skill.

  11. 50 CFR 216.256 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND... in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.256 Applications for Letters of Authorization. To incidentally...

  12. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  13. Proposing Chinese Pharmacists Month

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dear Pharmacists: Today I would like to share with you about the American Pharmacists Month which is celebrated in October every year.This month-long observance is promoted by American Pharmacist Association.

  14. Open Letter to the European Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej; Schwemer, Sebastian Felix

    2016-01-01

    to the information society. A key component of this acquis is the prohibition of general monitoring obligations to the benefit of providers of intermediary services. It is a means to achieve at least two central objectives: the encouragement of innovation as well as the protection of fundamental rights of all...... Internet users, namely the rights protected by Articles 8 and 11 of the European Convention of Human Rights. Yet, the proposed Copyright Directive, in particular, seems to negatively affect both the domain and effect of Article 15 of the E-commerce Directive. The signatories of this open letter therefore...... urge the European Commission to take into account the human rights dimension of Article 15 of the E-commerce Directive, as made explicit by the Court of the Justice of the European Union, and to make sure its implications are carefully examined across sectors. Authors: Sophie Stalla-Bourdillon Eleonora...

  15. Original Sin in the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婷

    2012-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter,a representative work of Nathaniel Hawthorne,is a classical novel in American literature of 19th century.It vividly portrays people's life which was greatly influenced by Puritanism and Calvinism.And the author Nathaniel Hawthorne,who lived in that er-a,is also inevitably influenced by these mainstream thoughts.He ex-pressed his black romanticism,black view of human nature and original sin theory in almost each of his work.In his masterpiece,the Scarlet Let-ter,one important theme is original sin.This essay will first analyze where the original sin theory stems from and how it's developed by Hawthorne,and secondly will study how this theory influences the plot and major characters.

  16. NEESPI focus issues in Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julian; Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2010-05-01

    In 2007 and 2009 Environmental Research Letters published focus issues (edited by Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja) made up of work carried out by NEESPI participants. Here, we present the content of those focus issues as an invaluable resource for researchers working in the NEESPI study area. The first of the two issues, published in 2007 with title 'Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change', presents a diverse collection of articles that are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions. The second issue, published in 2009, with title 'Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia' presents diverse, assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia.

  17. Resource Letter BH-2: Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, Elena

    2008-01-01

    This resource letter is designed to guide students, educators, and researchers through (some of) the literature on black holes. Both the physics and astrophysics of black holes are discussed. Breadth has been emphasized over depth, and review articles over primary sources. We include resources ranging from non-technical discussions appropriate for broad audiences to technical reviews of current research. Topics addressed include classification of stationary solutions, perturbations and stability of black holes, numerical simulations, collisions, the production of gravity waves, black hole thermodynamics and Hawking radiation, quantum treatments of black holes, black holes in both higher and lower dimensions, and connections to nuclear and condensed matter physics. On the astronomical end, we also cover the physics of gas accretion onto black holes, relativistic jets, gravitationally red-shifted emission lines, evidence for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems and super-massive black holes at the centers...

  18. Boscovich: scientist and man of letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, E.

    Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich (1711-1781) is known as one of the most important scientists of the second half of XVIII century, but he was active also as a man of letters, especially through an abundant production of poems in Latin verse. We try to interpret these two, apparently antinomic, aspects of his character in the framework of the culture of his epoch, in which science and literary productions were not considered as two separate or opposite fields, but only two different aspects of human knowledge. In particular we review the field of his poetic production in which this fundamental unity of knowledge is most evident, namely his poems with didactic-scientific subjects, which are examples of high-level popularization of the latest progresses in science (in particular astronomy and Newtonian physics) by means of elegant Latin verse.

  19. A Key to the Art of Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    2008-01-01

    The article examines A. Lane's grammar A Key to the Art of Letters and its contexts. Symbolically published at the threshold to the eighteenth century, Lane presents an unusually bold plan to make English a world language. Although Lane's book holds a key position in the development of English...... grammatical theory, there has been no comprehensive study of its innovative methods and radical proposals for a new national curriculum. Its challenge to Latin and French is analyzed in a historical perspective, and the impact of Lane's ideas during the eighteenth century is traced. The article shows...... that Lane is the first to use English as the basis for writing universal grammar, as part of his strategy to promote English as a universal code for learning and science...

  20. Multinational study in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes: Association of age, ketoacidosis, HLA status, and autoantibodies on residual beta-cell function and glycemic control 12 months after diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, H. B.; Swift, P G; Holl, R. W.; Hougaard, P; Hansen, L; Bjoerndalen, H.; de Beaufort, Carine; Knip, M

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of residual beta-cell function and glycemic control during the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D).Subjects and Methods: Clinical information and blood samples were collected from 275 children. HbA1c, antibodies, HLA typing and mixed meal-stimulated C-peptide levels 1, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis were analyzed centrally.Results: Mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 yr. DKA with standard bicarbonate

  1. 14 CFR 136.3 - Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS COMMERCIAL AIR TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.3 Letters of Authorization. Operators subject to this subpart who have Letters of Authorization may use the...

  2. Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Sexuality Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education" reinforces scriptural and theological commitments to truth-telling in calling for "full and honest education about sexual and reproductive health." This "Open Letter" was published in 2002, at about the midpoint of a decade-long federal government commitment to…

  3. Letter Position Coding Across Modalities: The Case of Braille Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; García-Chamorro, Cristina; Martín-Suesta, Miguel; Gómez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Background The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words. Methodology Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters. Principal Findings We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities. Conclusions The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality) occur at a relatively late, abstract locus. PMID:23071522

  4. Letter position coding across modalities: the case of Braille readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words. METHODOLOGY: Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities. CONCLUSIONS: The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality occur at a relatively late, abstract locus.

  5. Editorial: acceptance criteria and editorial procedures for Optics Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Andersen, Peter E; Justus, Brian L; Galtarossa, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    Optics Letters Editors strive to provide timely reviews and decisions for authors while bringing top quality papers to the optics community. The purpose of this editorial is to explain Optics Letters' acceptance criteria and editorial procedures. Our hope is that greater transparency concerning the decision-making process will increase understanding as well as acceptance of our criteria and procedures.

  6. Analyzing International Letters in a Business Communication Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devet, Bonnie

    1998-01-01

    Shows how students can use persuasive principles of communication (format and writer's purpose) and of classical rhetoric (organization, ethos, pathos, logos, and style) to improve their ability to analyze business letters. Shows how applying these principles to the analysis of business letters from other countries helps students write better and…

  7. 48 CFR 432.406 - Letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letters of credit. 432.406... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments for Non-Commercial Items 432.406 Letters of credit. The HCA is... of credit. ...

  8. Letters to Our Forebears: Reconnecting Generations through Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Gail Y.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes that students writing public letters to their forebears might provide a reminder of how individuals and communities can learn from the experience of their foremothers and forefathers. Includes the author's letter to her grandfather, who was imprisoned in internment camps for Japanese Americans during World War II. (PM)

  9. RESEARCH ON THE LETTER TO THE GALATIANS: 2000-2010

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an overall picture of developments pertaining to the research on the letter. Accordingly, I have ..... that the letter shows that the classical experiences of a democratic city ...... The Psalms in the New Testament (New York/London: T&T Clark), pp.

  10. An Approach to the Humanity of the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Feng; Wang qingping

    2009-01-01

    "The Scarlet Letter"is Hawthorne's realist representative.In his masterpiece the Scarlet letter.Hawthorne tells us that all human beings are combination of goodness and evil.As human nature changes between goodness and evil,the science mastered by human beings may bring happiness or pains.

  11. Persuasive Elements of 100 Successful Magazine Query Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliffe, Lee

    Building from scholarly works on persuasion and compliance-gaining, a study investigated magazine query letters that attempt to persuade an editor to buy the article offered, examining what message elements make them successful. Forty magazine editors provided copies of 100 recently accepted magazine query letters, which were compared with 50…

  12. 5 CFR 536.404 - Issuance of employee letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PAY RETENTION Appeals and Miscellaneous Provisions § 536.404 Issuance of employee letters. When an employee is entitled to grade and/or pay retention, the employing agency shall give to the employee, with a... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of employee letters. 536.404...

  13. Teaching Braille Letters, Numerals, Punctuation, and Contractions to Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Brittany C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Braille-character recognition is one of the foundational skills required for teachers of braille. Prior research has evaluated computer programming for teaching braille-to-print letter relations (e.g., Scheithauer & Tiger, 2012). In the current study, we developed a program (the Visual Braille Trainer) to teach not only letters but also…

  14. Transhuman Education? Sloterdijk's Reading of Heidegger's "Letter on Humanism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Fiachra

    2017-01-01

    Peter Sloterdijk presented a reading of Heidegger's "Letter on Humanism" at a conference held at Elmau in 1999. Reinterpreting the meaning of humanism in the light of Heidegger's "Letter," Sloterdijk focused his presentation on the need to redefine education as a form of genetic "taming" and proposed what seemed to be…

  15. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colizoli, O.; Murre, J.M.J.; Rouw, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter ‘a’ always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits

  16. Sidebearings analysis of alphabet letters with complex shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Banjanin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Defining inter-letter space is important part of typeface designing process. The purpose of defining the letter space is to make them visually equally distant from each other within words, sentences and paragraphs creating an even value of grey, without darker or lighter areas. Different approaches for determining letter space were developed in order to facilitate this demanding process. Miguel Sousa (2006 and Walter Tracy (2003 proposes their spacing methods and in paper of De Melo Vargas (2007 and our previous work (Banjanin & Nedeljković, 2014 these methods were tested. The problems occur when defining space around letters a, f, g, s, t, z, and S, for which neither Sousa nor Tracy propose any kind of guidelines (except visual. The aim of this paper is to measure and analyse spacing values for these letters and to see if there is some kind of “formula” or some kind of guidelines which will broaden existing methods in more accurate way. We measured left and right sidebearings of these 7 problematic letters and established additional guidelines for defining letter space of those letters more accurately.

  17. Character Invention in the Letters of Maimie Pinzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, A. Cheree

    1995-01-01

    Presents a case study of autobiographical letters written by a turn-of-the-century prostitute to a Boston matron. Shows how, in creating a narrative of her life, the author of the letters uses several rhetorical strategies to recreate her character to persuade her audience (and herself) that she is worthy of respect. (SR)

  18. Patient information letters on nutrition: development and implementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, J.J. van; Drenthen, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1998 the Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG) began developing patient information letters (PILs), based on the practice guidelines for family physicians (FPs) (NHG standards). Five nutritional guidance letters have since been developed with the Dutch Nutrition Center. METHODS

  19. Teaching Braille Letters, Numerals, Punctuation, and Contractions to Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Brittany C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Braille-character recognition is one of the foundational skills required for teachers of braille. Prior research has evaluated computer programming for teaching braille-to-print letter relations (e.g., Scheithauer & Tiger, 2012). In the current study, we developed a program (the Visual Braille Trainer) to teach not only letters but also…

  20. Motion Detection, Letter Position Encoding, and Single Word Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, P. L.; Hansen, P. C.

    1998-01-01

    A study involving 48 undergraduates found a link between motion detection and letter-position encoding and a positive relationship, albeit a nonlinear one, between motion detection threshold and the likelihood of making letter errors. This result held when age, IQ, reading age, and phonological awareness were taken into account. (CR)

  1. Editorial: acceptance criteria and editorial procedures for Optics Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Andersen, Peter E.; Justus, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    Optics Letters Editors strive to provide timely reviews and decisions for authors while bringing top quality papers to the optics community. The purpose of this editorial is to explain Optics Letters' acceptance criteria and editorial procedures. Our hope is that greater transparency concerning...

  2. Editorial: acceptance criteria and editorial procedures for Optics Letters.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Andersen, Peter E.; Justus, Brian L.; Galtarossa, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Optics Letters Editors strive to provide timely reviews and decisions for authors while bringing top quality papers to the optics community. The purpose of this editorial is to explain Optics Letters' acceptance criteria and editorial procedures. Our hope is that greater transparency concerning the decision-making process will increase understanding as well as acceptance of our criteria and procedures.

  3. Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Sexuality Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education" reinforces scriptural and theological commitments to truth-telling in calling for "full and honest education about sexual and reproductive health." This "Open Letter" was published in 2002, at about the midpoint of a decade-long federal government commitment to…

  4. [The letters of Hermann Rorschach to his brother].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signer, Rita; Müller, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Hermann Rorschach, brilliant creator of the projective test called after him, worked from the beginning to the middle of 1914 in a sanatorium near Moscow. Recently discovered letters to his brother Paul reveal his motives for abandoning his initial plan to settle in Russia. Apparently the impossibility of scientific work was of great importance. Additional letters complement our knowledge of Rorschach's personality.

  5. 50 CFR 216.106 - Letter of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... citizens, is required to conduct activities pursuant to any regulations established under § 216.105. Requests for Letters of Authorization shall be submitted to the Director, Office of Protected Resources... request. (d) Notice of issuance of all Letters of Authorization will be published in the Federal Register...

  6. Letters to a Young Baller: Exploring Epistolary Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawansky, Megan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibilities of epistolary criticism within the realm of sport studies and aspires to encourage scholars to consider the use of non-traditional sport memorabilia and source materials when telling emotive stories about sport and sport practices. The use of letters and the letter-writing format to tell a personal narrative…

  7. 12 CFR 614.4720 - Letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Code, or the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits, to or on behalf of its customers. In addition, as a matter of sound banking practice, letters of credit shall be issued in... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Letters of credit. 614.4720 Section 614.4720...

  8. Overt use of a tactile-kinesthetic strategy shifts to covert processing in rehabilitation of letter-by-letter reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Susan Nitzberg; Carney, Aimee Syms; Glezer, Laurie S; Friedman, Rhonda B

    2010-11-01

    BACKGROUND: Letter-by-letter readers identify each letter of the word they are reading serially in left to right order before recognizing the word. When their letter naming is also impaired, letter-by-letter reading is inaccurate and can render even single word reading very poor. Tactile and/or kinesthetic strategies have been reported to improve reading in these patients, but only under certain conditions or for a limited set of stimuli. AIMS: The primary aim of the current study was to determine whether a tactile/kinesthetic treatment could significantly improve reading specifically under normal reading conditions, i.e. reading untrained words presented in free vision and read without overt use of the strategy. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Three chronic letter-by-letter readers participated in a tactile/kinesthetic treatment aimed at first improving letter naming accuracy (phase 1) and then letter-by-letter reading speed (phase 2). In a multiple case series design, accuracy and speed of reading untrained words without overt use of the trained tactile/kinesthetic strategy was assessed before phase 1, after phase 1 and again after phase 2. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: All three patients significantly improved both their speed and accuracy reading untrained words without overt use of the trained tactile/kinesthetic strategy. All three patients required the additional practice in phase 2 to achieve significant improvement. Treatment did not target sentence level reading, yet two of the three patients became so adept that they could read entire sentences. CONCLUSIONS: This study replicates previous findings on the efficacy of tactile/kinesthetic treatment for letter-by-letter readers with poor letter naming. It further demonstrates that this treatment can alter cognitive processing such that words never specifically trained can be read in free vision without overtly using the trained strategy. The data suggest that an important element in achieving

  9. Digit and letter alexia in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyu Shen; Xiaoming Rong; Rui Pan; Ying Peng; Wei Peng; Yamei Tang

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a 24-year-old patient with delayed encephalopathy, who was admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and visual impairment 1 week after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. The results of a visual field assessment, electroencephalography and head magnetic resonance imaging indicated damage to the cerebral cortex. After a 2-week treatment period, the patient had recovered from the visual impairment, but exhibited digit- and letter-reading difficulty. The Chinese aphasia battery and the number and letter battery supplement were conducted. The results revealed that the patient exhibited digit and letter alexia, while the ability to read Chinese characters was preserved. In contrast, the patient exhibited a deficit in Chinese character writing, while number and letter writing remained intact. Following treatment, reading and writing ability was improved and electroencephalographic abnormalities were ameliorated. Overall, our experimental findings demonstrated that delayed encephalopathy following acute carbon monoxide poisoning was characterized by digit and letter alexia.

  10. Automatic adverse drug events detection using letters to the editor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Srinivasan, Padmini; Polgreen, Philip M

    2012-01-01

    We present and test the intuition that letters to the editor in journals carry early signals of adverse drug events (ADEs). Surprisingly these letters have not yet been exploited for automatic ADE detection unlike for example, clinical records and PubMed. Part of the challenge is that it is not easy to access the full-text of letters (for the most part these do not appear in PubMed). Also letters are likely underrated in comparison with full articles. Besides demonstrating that this intuition holds we contribute techniques for post market drug surveillance. Specifically, we test an automatic approach for ADE detection from letters using off-the-shelf machine learning tools. We also involve natural language processing for feature definitions. Overall we achieve high accuracy in our experiments and our method also works well on a second new test set. Our results encourage us to further pursue this line of research.

  11. Remarks about interaction, genre textual and text planin personal letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise Adriana Mamede Galvão

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a discussion concerning interaction, genre and text plan in personal letters from textual and interactional perspectives. The study is based on notions of verbal interaction, genre, and text plan, aiming to describe, analyze and interpret linguistic and textual evidences through personal letters. The research corpus is comprised of a letter written by Luis da Câmara Cascudo, addressed to Mário de Andrade, selected from a set of correspondences gathered into one volume under the title Cascudo and Mário de Andrade, Letters, 1924-1944. This study is carried out using a qualitative approach, focusing on social practices used by interactants to achieve specific goals through letters. Thus, reflections on this object have highlighted it as a form of sociability and involvement among people who use a genre in interactions and construct texts through fixed and occasional plans.

  12. Episodic effects on the visual comparison of letters in words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmurek, H H

    1992-11-01

    In two experiments, subjects compared the identity of either the first letters of displays or all the letters in displays. Words yielded faster decisions than did pseudowords (pronounceable items derived by changing a vowel in a word) only when entire displays were compared. In a training phase run before the comparison task, subjects had written down either the first letters or entire displays. Relative to items that had not appeared in the training phase, prior experience at writing entire displays facilitated same decisions about entire displays and interfered with different decisions about entire displays. Prior experiences did not moderate the processing of first-letter identities. It was concluded that episodic effects arise from the interaction of higher order information underlying lexical encoding. Prelexical processing of letters is not sensitive to episodic effects.

  13. The Contributions of Phonological Awareness and Letter-Name Knowledge to Letter-Sound Acquisition--A Cross-Classified Multilevel Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.; Zhou, Chengfu

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated critical factors in letter-sound acquisition (i.e., letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness) with data from 653 English-speaking kindergartners in the beginning of the year. We examined (a) the contribution of phonological awareness to facilitating letter-sound acquisition from letter names and (b)…

  14. Detecting letters and words in prose passages: a test of alternative theoretical accounts of the missing letter effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Alice F; Cunningham, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    College students searched for either h or the in prose passages in which every h occurred in the test word the. In Experiment 1, passage versions differed in that the critical noun phrases were either the alone (i.e., in citation form as a noun referring to itself) or "the definite article." Many more detection errors occurred for letter than word target items, especially with "the definite article." In Experiment 2, passage versions differed in that a given noun phrase containing the test word the occurred as a subject in one version and an object in the other. Again, many more detection errors occurred when the target item was the letter h than when it was the letter sequence the. Also, with letter but not letter sequence targets, more detection errors occurred for object than subject noun phrases. In Experiment 3, passages were presented either in regular format or with all capital letters. Students made more detection errors with the regular than with the capitals format, many more errors occurred when participants searched for letters than for letter sequences, and the effect of target item was larger with regular than with capitals format. These findings suggest that accounts of detection errors in reading must include the influence of unitization and processing time or attentional allocation.

  15. Resource Letter FuNP-1: The Future of Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, George; Kulynych, George; Parks, Cecil

    2010-10-01

    This Resource Letter is intended to summarize the status of nuclear power in the world today, prospects of significant expansion of nuclear power over the next several decades, the planning of and forecasts for the addition of new power reactors, and issues surrounding the addition of these new reactors. Owing to the breadth of this subject, the list of references includes journal articles, web pages, and reports to guide the reader on the subject. The subject of nuclear power and its related issues are dynamic, so the most current information is likely to be found on reputable websites.

  16. Deadline Compliance Status Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These monthly Deadline Compliance Status Reports assist Participating Jurisdictions and HUD Field Offices in monitoring compliance with the 2-year commitment and...

  17. Comparison of visual acuity estimates using three different letter charts under two ambient room illuminations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Hong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual acuity is an essential estimate to assess ability of the visual system and is used as an indicator of ocular health status. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the consistency of acuity estimates from three different clinical visual acuity charts under two levels of ambient room illumination. Materials and Methods: This study involved thirty Malay university students aged between 19 and 23 years old (7 males, 23 females, with their spherical refractive error ranging between plano and −7.75D, astigmatism ranging from plano to −1.75D, anisometropia less than 1.00D and with no history of ocular injury or pathology. Right eye visual acuity (recorded in logMAR unit was measured with Snellen letter chart (Snellen, wall mounted letter chart (WM and projected letter chart (PC under two ambient room illuminations, room light on and room light off. Results: Visual acuity estimates showed no statistically significant difference when measured with the room light on and with the room light off (F1,372 = 0.26, P = 0.61. Post-hoc analysis with Tukey showed that visual acuity estimates were significantly different between the Snellen and PC (P = 0.009 and between Snellen and WM (P = 0.002. Conclusions: Different levels of ambient room illumination had no significant effect on visual acuity estimates. However, the discrepancies in estimates of visual acuity noted in this study were purely due to the type of letter chart used.

  18. Hispanic Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    Hispanic heritage month is from September 15 to October 15. One problem that arises when grouping people into categories such as Hispanic or Latino is stereotyping, stereotypes can be promoted or used in this Hispanic month to promote a greater understanding of Latino cultures.

  19. Progress report, 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests...... of the multimirror cutting head have been started....

  20. Progress report, 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests...... of the multimirror cutting head have been started....

  1. Progress report, 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  2. Progress report, 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  3. Concurrent cognitive processing and letter sequence transcription deficits in stutterers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, W G

    1990-03-01

    Previous research has indicated that men who stutter transcribe rapidly presented sequences of letters more slowly and less accurately than nonstutterer controls. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the transcription deficit is not limited to task conditions that demand concurrent monitoring and responding. This was evidenced by comparable deficits on a successive response condition that required subjects to write letters after the presentation was complete. The results of Experiment 2 indicated that the deficit is not due to a difficulty by stutterers in parsing streams of stimulus information internally. Their performance did not differentially improve when letters were grouped with brief pauses, nor with experience in transcribing preparsed letter sequences. This experiment also demonstrated that the phenomenon is generalizable to women. In related testing, stutterers were slower than controls in writing internally generated sequences of letters, those of the alphabet forwards and backwards, but not in writing the same two letters, A and B, repetitively nor in the cognitively more demanding task of writing numbers backwards by three's. These results parallel those obtained with finger tapping of same versus unique sequences by stutterers and were interpreted as being consistent with the idea that while stutterers are not generally slower motorically than nonstutterers, they experience difficulty when required to organize and carry out tasks with new multiple response transitions. The two experiments have replicated and extended, under different conditions, the earlier findings of a letter sequence transcription deficit in stutterers, but the nature of the interference still remains to be clarified.

  4. Angles of Refraction: The Letters of Mary Delany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Chiavetta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mary Delany (1700-1788 is particularly famous for her paper-cuttings or ‘mosaicks’ based on botanical subjects. A very lively woman of fashion, she was close to Queen Charlotte and one of the Bluestocking Ladies. She left a vivid portrait of life and society in eighteenth century England and Ireland in the six volumes of her Autobiography and Letters, edited in 1861 by her descendant Lady Llanover. Her autobiography is made up of 18 letters sent to her most intimate friend, Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Portland. The first letter is dated 1740, but in this, as in the following ones, Mrs. Delany narrates her past life to her friend, starting from the early years of her life, describing her unhappy marriage, financial difficulties as a widow, and family relationships. Along with these ‘autobiographical’ letters, other letters written by her to her sister Ann are introduced, which date to the periods of life Mrs. Delany is dealing with. The aim of this paper is to focus on the textual, linguistic and content differences between the two letter types, and analyse how the identity of Mary Delany is differently constructed and perceived in the explicit autobiographical letters addressed to the Duchess of Portland, and the ones written to her sister. 

  5. Novel Moment Features Extraction for Recognizing Handwritten Arabic Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheith Abandah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Offline recognition of handwritten Arabic text awaits accurate recognition solutions. Most of the Arabic letters have secondary components that are important in recognizing these letters. However these components have large writing variations. We targeted enhancing the feature extraction stage in recognizing handwritten Arabic text. Approach: In this study, we proposed a novel feature extraction approach of handwritten Arabic letters. Pre-segmented letters were first partitioned into main body and secondary components. Then moment features were extracted from the whole letter as well as from the main body and the secondary components. Using multi-objective genetic algorithm, efficient feature subsets were selected. Finally, various feature subsets were evaluated according to their classification error using an SVM classifier. Results: The proposed approach improved the classification error in all cases studied. For example, the improvements of 20-feature subsets of normalized central moments and Zernike moments were 15 and 10%, respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: Extracting and selecting statistical features from handwritten Arabic letters, their main bodies and their secondary components provided feature subsets that give higher recognition accuracies compared to the subsets of the whole letters alone.

  6. PERKEMBANGAN EMBRIO DAN LARVA IKAN LETTER SIX, Paracanthurus hepatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniar Kusumawati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dalam upaya memperkaya populasi ikan letter six (Paracanthurus hepatus di alam yang telah mendekati kepunahan akibat adanya illegal fishing maka dilakukan usaha perbenihan. Kegiatan perbenihan ikan letter six memerlukan informasi awal tentang perkembangan telur dan pemeliharaan larva yang nantinya akan digunakan sebagai acuan dasar dalam menentukan pengembangan teknik pemeliharaan larva ikan letter six yang tepat. Koleksi induk ikan letter six hasil tangkapan di alam dari perairan Maluku dan Papua. Induk letter six dipelihara dalam tangki policarbonat bulat berkapasitas dua ton dengan sistem air mengalir. Selama pemeliharaan, induk letter six mampu memijah secara alami. Durasi perkembangan embrio hingga menetas memerlukan waktu 22 jam 24 menit pada suhu normal air laut 29°C. Penyerapan kuning telur optimum terjadi pada hari kedua dan maksimum terserap habis pada hari ketiga, sedangkan butir minyak terserap habis tepat pada hari ketiga. Korelasi pertumbuhan panjang dan tinggi larva mengikuti hubungan alometrik negatif di mana konstanta pertumbuhan b = 0,6629 (b < 1. Berdasarkan perkembangan larva, umur D-2 (terbentuk bintik mata mulai diberikan pakan alami berupa plankton dan pada D-3 (bukaan mulut mulai diberikan zooplankton yaitu rotifer. Dengan metode pemeliharaan ini, larva ikan letter six mati pada D-25 sehingga perlu adanya perbaikan metode pemeliharaan melalui pendekatan lingkungan maupun pakan.

  7. [Darwin in the Republic of Letters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    For those accustomed to thinking that the modern cultural dimension arose under the banner of a clash between the so-called "two cultures," the figure of Darwin the "humanist" could reserve numerous surprises. It was above all the well-known paleontologist S.J. Gould who pointed them out. He went so far as to track down, in the Italian cultural roots from Saint Francis to Galileo, an element of continuity between his own Darwinism and our literary tradition that passes through the writing of the masterpieces of the nineteenth-century natural sciences. On the basis of a similar, and also audacious, rereading of the cultural history, the essay proposes to indicate some possible developments of the new dialogue undertaken, beginning with the insertion of the scientist Darwin in the European horizon of the Republic of Letters. There are then indicated some historical-cultural categories that would merit reconsideration: the new figure of intellectual of the twenty-first century, the idea of a science immersed in the historical contingency and in the concrete pleasure of the subject that knows, the role of "sweetness" and of "wonder" also in the most rigorous study, and lastly the need of an in-depth knowledge of the Darwinian writing, not as a curiosity for the educational trend of the era of positivism, but as an indispensable epistemological requisite for a correct understanding of its science.

  8. Professor Eric G.L. Bywaters, Acute Kidney Injury and the "forgotten" letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The Bywaters seminal 1941 British Medical Journal paper on the crush syndrome was important both for its written content and for using a photomicrograph demonstrating pigmented casts in the renal tubules. He appeared to be reporting the first cases of renal failure secondary to crushing injuries. Most at this point would have been content yet Bywaters demonstrated both determination and humility by publishing a letter in the BMJ 4 months later. This letter, now almost forgotten and rarely referenced, significantly corrected his original paper. He identified that descriptions of the syndrome had been made before, not least by German pathologists in World War 1. The letter recognised various pathologists and surgeons, Colmers (1909) reporting on casualties from the Messina earthquake suffering from acute pressure necrosis and Frankenthal (1916) describing soldiers who had been buried in the trenches showing oedema, bloody urine and post mortem ischaemic muscle necrosis. Others were credited as describing similar cases in inaccessible journals or in "inaugural dissertations". Hackradt (1917) described injuries from burial with oedema of the leg and bloody urine containing albumin and casts, necropsy showed muscle necrosis and tubular degeneration in the kidneys with blood casts and Lewin (1919) described 3 similar cases. Bywaters subsequently credits Minami (1923) a Japanese dermatologist working in Germany for summarizing the literature and providing a description that tallied exactly with his own. Finally Bywaters puzzles why the standard textbooks on war surgery available in Great Britain and the U.S.A. in 1941 make no mention of this entity.

  9. SiD Letter of Intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, H., (Ed.); Burrows, P., (Ed.); Oreglia, M., (Ed.); Berger, E.L.; Guarino, V.; Repond, J.; Weerts, H.; Xia, L.; Zhang, J.; /Argonne, HEP; Zhang, Q.; /Argonne, HEP /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Srivastava, A.; /Birla Inst. Tech. Sci.; Butler, J.M.; /Boston U.; Goldstein, Joel; Velthuis, J.; /Bristol U.; Radeka, V.; /Brookhaven; Zhu, R.-Y.; /Caltech.; Lutz, P.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; de Roeck, A.; Elsener, K.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; /CERN /Cornell U., LNS /Ewha Women' s U., Seoul /Fermilab /Gent U. /Darmstadt, GSI /Imperial Coll., London /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /KLTE-ATOMKI /Valencia U., IFIC /Cantabria Inst. of Phys. /Louis Pasteur U., Strasbourg I /Durham U., IPPP /Kansas State U. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Annecy, LAPP /LLNL, Livermore /Louisiana Tech. U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Paris U., VI-VII /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /MIT, LNS /Chicago, CBC /Moscow State U. /Nanjing U. /Northern Illinois U. /Obninsk State Nucl. Eng. U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Strasbourg, IPHC /Prague, Inst. Phys. /Princeton U. /Purdue U. /Rutherford /SLAC /SUNY, Stony Brook /Barcelona U. /Bonn U. /UC, Davis /UC, Santa Cruz /Chicago U. /Colorado U. /Delhi U. /Hawaii U. /Helsinki U. /Indiana U. /Iowa U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /Melbourne U. /Michigan U. /Minnesota U. /Mississippi U. /Montenegro U. /New Mexico U. /Notre Dame U. /Oregon U. /Oxford U. /Ramon Llull U., Barcelona /Rochester U. /Santiago de Compostela U., IGFAE /Hefei, CUST /Texas U., Arlington /Texas U., Dallas /Tokyo U. /Washington U., Seattle /Wisconsin U., Madison /Wayne State U. /Yale U. /Yonsei U.

    2012-04-11

    This document presents the current status of the Silicon Detector (SiD) effort to develop an optimized design for an experiment at the International Linear Collider. It presents detailed discussions of each of SiD's various subsystems, an overview of the full GEANT4 description of SiD, the status of newly developed tracking and calorimeter reconstruction algorithms, studies of subsystem performance based on these tools, results of physics benchmarking analyses, an estimate of the cost of the detector, and an assessment of the detector R and D needed to provide the technical basis for an optimised SiD.

  10. The effects of feedback and consequences on transitional cursive letter formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trap, J J; Milner-Davis, P; Joseph, S; Cooper, J O

    1978-01-01

    Twelve first-grade students were employed to analyze the effects of (1) Verbal and Visual Feedback, (2) Verbal and Visual Feedback plus immediate rewriting of trained letters with one or more incorrect letter strokes, and (3) Potential Reinforcement on cursive letter strokes. Students practised both a set of trained and a set of untrained letters during each session. Feedback and reinforcement was administered only for trained letter strokes. The percentage of correct trained letter strokes increased during all conditions. Performance on the untrained but practiced and trained letter strokes followed the same general trend in response pattern. No consistent pattern of generalization was demonstrated with untrained and unpracticed letter strokes.

  11. The Social Name-Letter Effect on Online Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kooti, Farshad; Magno, Gabriel; Weber, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    The Name-Letter Effect states that people have a preference for brands, places, and even jobs that start with the same letter as their own first name. So Sam might like Snickers and live in Seattle. We use social network data from Twitter and Google+ to replicate this effect in a new environment. We find limited to no support for the Name-Letter Effect on social networks. We do, however, find a very robust Same-Name Effect where, say, Michaels would be more likely to link to other Michaels th...

  12. David Bohm : causality and chance, letters to three women

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The letters transcribed in this book were written by physicist David Bohm to three close female acquaintances in the period 1950 to 1956. They provide a background to his causal interpretation of quantum mechanics and the Marxist philosophy that inspired his scientific work in quantum theory, probability and statistical mechanics. In his letters, Bohm reveals the ideas that led to his ground breaking book Causality and Chance in Modern Physics. The political arguments as well as the acute personal problems contained in these letters help to give a rounded, human picture of this leading scientist and twentieth century thinker.

  13. Haptics in Learning to Read with Children from Low Socio-Economic Status Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economic status families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…

  14. Crowded letter and crowded picture logMAR acuity in children with amblyopia: a quantitative comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Boyle, Cathy; Chen, Sean I; Little, Julie-Anne

    2017-04-01

    Clinically, picture acuity tests are thought to overestimate visual acuity (VA) compared with letter tests, but this has not been systematically investigated in children with amblyopia. This study compared VA measurements with the LogMAR Crowded Kay Picture test to the LogMAR Crowded Keeler Letter acuity test in a group of young children with amblyopia. 58 children (34 male) with amblyopia (22 anisometropic, 18 strabismic and 18 with both strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia) aged 4-6 years (mean=68.7, range=48-83 months) underwent VA measurements. VA chart testing order was randomised, but the amblyopic eye was tested before the fellow eye. All participants wore up-to-date refractive correction. The Kay Picture test significantly overestimated VA by 0.098 logMAR (95% limits of agreement (LOA), 0.13) in the amblyopic eye and 0.088 logMAR (95% LOA, 0.13) in the fellow eye, respectively (pamblyopia on VA results (p>0.23). For both the amblyopic and fellow eyes, Bland-Altman plots demonstrated a systematic and predictable difference between Kay Picture and Keeler Letter charts across the range of acuities tested (Keeler acuity: amblyopic eye 0.75 to -0.05 logMAR; fellow eye 0.45 to -0.15 logMAR). Linear regression analysis (pamblyopia. Due to the predictable difference found between both crowded logMAR acuity tests, it is reasonable to adjust Kay Picture acuity thresholds by +0.10 logMAR to compute expected Keeler Letter acuity scores. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Advance letters as a way of reducing non-response in a National Health Telephone Survey: Differences between listed and unlisted numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena von der Lippe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a methodological study based on the German Health Update Survey 2009. The study generated telephone numbers randomly and determined the listing status of the selected numbers. The set of listed numbers was randomly split: one half received advance letters, the other half did not. Differences in response rates and demographic characteristics are analyzed in detail.

  16. International Large Detector. Letter of intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeck, Holger [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Falkiner High Energy Physics Group; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko [Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (AT). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik] (and others)

    2010-07-01

    In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their

  17. TARP Monthly Housing Scorecard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Treasury and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) jointly produce a Monthly Housing Scorecard on the health of the nation’s housing market. The...

  18. Lightship Monthly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily Weather Observations (Monthly Form 1001) from lightship stations in the United States. Please see the 'Surface Weather Observations (1001)' library for more...

  19. Oceanographic Monthly Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Monthly Summary contains sea surface temperature (SST) analyses on both regional and ocean basin scales for the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans....

  20. Secret letters cast light on Copenhagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, Matin

    2001-11-01

    Letters by Niels Bohr that have been kept secret since his death could explain the mystery of why Werner Heisenberg visited him in Copenhagen in 1941. When the author Michael Frayn spent two years writing Copenhagen, he had no idea how successful the play would become. He doubted that audiences would sit through a historical drama about a war-time meeting between Werner Heisenberg - head of Germany's nuclear programme - and his old mentor Niels Bohr in the Nazi-occupied Danish capital in 1941. But Frayn's efforts paid off. Audiences and critics alike have thrilled at the way the award-winning play probes the historical uncertainty that surrounds the encounter. Was Heisenberg fishing for information about the Allies' atomic plans - or was he trying to recruit Bohr for Germany's bomb programme? Did Heisenberg want to suggest that the Germans were close to finishing a bomb so that the Allies would make peace with Hitler? Maybe he was simply seeking approval from Bohr for his own atomic work. There is also a moral debate: did Heisenberg know how to build a bomb, but decided not to - or did he want to build one, but got his calculations wrong? Unfortunately, no-one was there to record or observe the encounter and we cannot know for sure what was said or implied between the two men. All we do know is that the pair dined together and took a short walk - and that the incident damaged Bohr and Heisenberg's friendship forever. To piece together what happened, historians of science have had to rely on Heisenberg's post-war recollections - which have been ambiguous and contradictory - along with scraps of evidence from secondary sources. (U.K.)

  1. Code-switching in letter writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Sobahle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The study sets out to investigate code switching in letter writing among a small group ofXhosa speaking people. Code switching is found in informal speech and informal writing. It was established from the data that the closer people are, the more code switching there is. Code switching seems to follow a pattern in that it was observed to occur: (a only with certain people (b when talking about certain topics (c when wanting to exclude another person (d when emphasising a point. Code switching also appears to have a 'grammar' of its own. It is not in any way a pidgin. It is clear from the data that code switching does not reflect denial of one's identity. English, being the medium of education for Blacks in South Africa, is therefore bound to be reflected not only in their speech but also in their writing. Die studie het ten doe/ om registeroorskakeling in die skryf van briewe deur 'n klein groepie Xhosasprekendes te ondersoek. Registeroorskakeling word gevind in informele spraak en informele skryfwerk. Daar is uit die data vasgestel dat hoe intiemer mense is hoe meer vind registeroorskakeling plaas. Volgens waarneming blyk dit dat registeroorskakeling 'n patroon volg, want dit het voorgekom: (a net by sekere mense (b wanneer oor sekere onderwerpe gepraat is (c wanneer 'n ander per soon uitgeskakel is (d wanneer 'n mening beklemtoon is. Registeroorskakeling blyk 'n eie grammatika te he. Dit is geensins "pidgin" nie. Dit blyk uit data dat die skrywer se identiteit nie verlore raak tydens registeroorskakeling nie. Omdat Engels die medium van onderrig vir Swartes in Suid-Afrika is, sal dit noodwendig nie net in hulle spraak nie, maar ook in hul skryfwerk gereflekteer word.

  2. Name-letter branding under scrutiny: real products, new algorithms, and the probability of buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan

    2010-06-01

    People like letters matching their own first and last name initials more than nonname letters. This name-letter effect has also been found for brands, i.e., people like brands resembling their own name letters (initial or first three). This has been termed name-letter branding effect. In the present study of 199 participants, ages 12 to 79 years, this name-letter branding effect was found for a modified design (1) using real products, (2) concentrating on product names rather than brand names, (3) using five different products for each letter of the Roman alphabet, (4) asking for the buying probability, and (5) using recently introduced algorithms, controlling for individual response tendencies (i.e., liking all letters more or less) and general normative popularity of particular letters (i.e., some letters are generally preferred more than other letters).

  3. [1979 letter regarding wading bird locations in Tennessee

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter discusses the known locations of colonial bird nesting species such as herons, egrets, terns, and bank or cliff swallows. Included are the site...

  4. [Letter of Concurrence : Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge Sport Fishing Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter states that the Illinois Department of Conservation concurs with Meredosia NWR's efforts to establish a public use program on the Refuge.

  5. Resource Letter PE-1: Physics and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonle, John I.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a Resource Letter on air pollution, noise pollution, transportation, and solid waste for the purpose of acquainting college physicists with some of the literature and teaching aids. Included are five bibliographies of which four are annotated. (CC)

  6. Toward a statistical mechanics of four letter words

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Greg J

    2008-01-01

    We consider words as a network of interacting letters, and approximate the probability distribution of states taken on by this network. Despite the intuition that the rules of English spelling are highly combinatorial (and arbitrary), we find that maximum entropy models consistent with pairwise correlations among letters provide a surprisingly good approximation to the full statistics of four letter words, capturing ~92% of the multi-information among letters and even "discovering" real words that were not represented in the data from which the pairwise correlations were estimated. The maximum entropy model defines an energy landscape on the space of possible words, and local minima in this landscape account for nearly two-thirds of words used in written English.

  7. Army Response Letter & Analysis - signed February 5, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    A reply to a letter from Mr. J. Charles Fox, former Administrator for Water requesting to review the proposed decision of the Army Corps of Engineers Sacramento District Department of the Army (DA) permit to Vail Associates.

  8. Sept 2013 NFHL Letter of Map Revision (LOMR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  9. Love letters to the dead: resurrecting an epistolary art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Dorothy A; Graham-Pole, John R

    This article explores the art of letter-writing, specifically to our beloved dead, as a form of autoethnographic research, pedagogy, and care work. As university teachers and qualitative researchers in palliative and end-of-life care, we review the literature and history of epistolary communications with the deceased, as a prelude to writing our own letters. John writes to his long-dead mother and Dorothy to her recently deceased spouse Patrick, each letter followed by a reflective dialogue between us. Through this dialogue, we highlight the potential application of this art, or handcraft, to formal and informal palliative care, and the implications for practice, pedagogy, policy, and research. We propose that such direct, non-mediated, communications can offer a valuable form of healing for bereaved people. The therapeutic potential of letter writing and the abundance of literary and popular culture exemplars of responses from the dead are also largely unexplored in death education and research.

  10. 78 FR 7784 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters AGENCY: Government... Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy...

  11. Consultation letters for medically unexplained physical symptoms in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, Rob; Blankenstein, Annette H.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; Krol, Boudien; Stewart, Roy; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, CM

    2010-01-01

    Background In primary care between 10% and 35% of all visits concern patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). MUPS are associated with high medical consumption, significant disabilities and psychiatricmorbidity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of consultation letters (CLs

  12. 50 CFR 216.259 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND... in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.259 Modifications to Letters of Authorization. (a) Except as provided...

  13. Politeness Strategies in Good-news Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕争; 李纳

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the presentation of politeness in good-news business letters at the lexical,syntactic,and discourse levels based on Leech's Politeness Principle and Brown and Levinson's Face-saving Theory.

  14. Letter from Federal Power Commission [Havasu National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Federal Power Commission to the Secretary of the Interior. It confirms that the Federal Power Commission has no plans that...

  15. Congruence between parents' and children's three-letter Holland codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M J

    1994-06-01

    In this study the associations of three-letter Holland codes of 40 parents and their children (20 mothers and daughters, 20 fathers and sons) were analyzed. Implications for school counselors, based on the results, are briefly discussed.

  16. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romke eRouw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days. The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457 of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes and participants who do not (non-synesthetes. We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for A, red for Monday, and white for Sunday. We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences shown by Simner et al (2005. While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups.

  17. On a Field, Sable, the Letter A, Gules——Comments on The Scarlet Letter%On a Field, Sable, the Letter A, Gules--Comments on The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑾

    2007-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter is a moral and psychological novel which focuses on human nature and the effects of sin. This paper is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on the analysis ofa sable field and the second part is about gules letter A. Actually the two parts are the answers to where the sin is and how to achieve redemption. Hawthorne's thoughts,good wishes and artistic characters are fully expressed in it.

  18. Politeness Strategies in English and Chinese Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查琳琳

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores similarities and differences in the application of positive and negative politeness strategies to Eng-lish and Chinese business letters and illuminates underlying causes of such similarities and differences. The results indicate that English and Chinese business letters have some common features and great discrepancies in categories and the distribution of posi-tive and negative politeness strategies. It is argued that common situational factors, different cultural backgrounds and different syntactic features result in their similarities and differences.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  1. The effects of alphabet and expertise on letter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Robert W; Wilson, Colin; Rapp, Brenda

    2016-08-01

    Long-standing questions in human perception concern the nature of the visual features that underlie letter recognition and the extent to which the visual processing of letters is affected by differences in alphabets and levels of viewer expertise. We examined these issues in a novel approach using a same-different judgment task on pairs of letters from the Arabic alphabet with 2 participant groups: 1 with no prior exposure to Arabic and 1 with reading proficiency. Hierarchical clustering and linear mixed-effects modeling of reaction times and accuracy provide evidence that both the specific characteristics of the alphabet and observers' previous experience with it affect how letters are perceived and visually processed. The findings of this research further our understanding of the multiple factors that affect letter perception and support the view of a visual system that dynamically adjusts its weighting of visual features as expert readers come to more efficiently and effectively discriminate the letters of the specific alphabet they are viewing. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Letters to those who Dare Feel: Using Reflective Letter-Writing to Explore the Emotionality of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Pithouse-Morgan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Using reflective letter-writing as a method of generating data, a group of four researchers embarked on a collaborative autoethnographic inquiry into the emotional dimensions of researching social aspects of HIV & AIDS. In this article, we use the medium of a narrative dialogue to represent and re-examine our reflective letter-writing method. The dialogue draws attention to key features of reflective letter-writing as a collaborative autoethnographic research method and, in so doing, highlights and explores the nature, potential significance, and challenges of this method. Our discussion points to the value of a collaborative process of reflective letter-writing as a way for researchers to access and portray emotional aspects of their research experience, to deepen their engagement with these emotional dimensions, and to gain insight into their own and others' lived research experiences.

  3. A linguistic kaleidoscope of the Malay letter; The case of the eighteenth century official letters from the Sultanate of Buton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suryadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Malay letters make up the largest category of documents among the Malay manuscripts preserved at Leiden University Library, the Netherlands. The corpus represents the scope of the territories under Dutch East Indies authority during the colonial era. In fact, they are authentic documents which denote not only political contact between the local kingdoms in the Archipelago (Nusantara with the Dutch East Indies government in Batavia during colonial times but also constitute an important source for the study of the historical development of the Malay language. This essay looks at the language characters of such letters which came from the court of Buton in Southeast Sulawesi. It aims to sketch the linguistic variety of the classical Malay language represented in its eighteenth century letter-writing tradition. Having specific diction and features that confirm local influences, the language of the letters shows distinctiveness in terms of phonology, morphology and syntax.

  4. Letter - Reply: Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-06-01

    In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ∼ 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ∼0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the

  5. Emergence of representations through repeated training on pronouncing novel letter combinations leads to efficient reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Atsuko; Hulzink, Iris; Wagensveld, Barbara; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-08-01

    Printed text can be decoded by utilizing different processing routes depending on the familiarity of the script. A predominant use of word-level decoding strategies can be expected in the case of a familiar script, and an almost exclusive use of letter-level decoding strategies for unfamiliar scripts. Behavioural studies have revealed that frequently occurring words are read more efficiently, suggesting that these words are read in a more holistic way at the word-level, than infrequent and unfamiliar words. To test whether repeated exposure to specific letter combinations leads to holistic reading, we monitored both behavioural and neural responses during novel script decoding and examined changes related to repeated exposure. We trained a group of Dutch university students to decode pseudowords written in an unfamiliar script, i.e., Korean Hangul characters. We compared behavioural and neural responses to pronouncing trained versus untrained two-character pseudowords (equivalent to two-syllable pseudowords). We tested once shortly after the initial training and again after a four days' delay that included another training session. We found that trained pseudowords were pronounced faster and more accurately than novel combinations of radicals (equivalent to letters). Imaging data revealed that pronunciation of trained pseudowords engaged the posterior temporo-parietal region, and engagement of this network was predictive of reading efficiency a month later. The results imply that repeated exposure to specific combinations of graphemes can lead to emergence of holistic representations that result in efficient reading. Furthermore, inter-individual differences revealed that good learners retained efficiency more than bad learners one month later.

  6. Development of complementary feeding recommendations for 12-23-month-old children from low and middle socio-economic status in West Java, Indonesia: contribution of fortified foods towards meeting the nutrient requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmida, Umi; Santika, Otte

    2016-07-01

    Inadequate nutrient intake as part of a complementary feeding diet is attributable to poor feeding practices and poor access to nutritious foods. Household socio-economic situation (SES) has an influence on food expenditure and access to locally available, nutrient-dense foods and fortified foods. This study aimed to develop and compare complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) for 12-23-month-old children in different SES and evaluate the contribution of fortified foods in meeting nutrient requirements. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in low and medium SES households (n 114/group) in urban Bandung district, West Java province, Indonesia. Food pattern, portion size and affordability were assessed, and CFR were developed for the low SES (LSES) and middle SES (MSES) using a linear programming (LP) approach; two models - with and without fortified foods - were run using LP, and the contribution of fortified foods in the final CFR was identified. Milk products, fortified biscuits and manufactured infant cereals were the most locally available and consumed fortified foods in the market. With the inclusion of fortified foods, problem nutrients were thiamin in LSES and folate and thiamin in MSES groups. Without fortified foods, more problem nutrients were identified in LSES, that is, Ca, Fe, Zn, niacin and thiamin. As MSES consumed more fortified foods, removing fortified foods was not possible, because most of the micronutrient-dense foods were removed from their food basket. There were comparable nutrient adequacy and problem nutrients between LSES and MSES when fortified foods were included. Exclusion of fortified foods in LSES was associated with more problem nutrients in the complementary feeding diet.

  7. Effect of socioeconomic disadvantage, remoteness and Indigenous status on hospital usage for Western Australian preterm infants under 12 months of age: a population-based data linkage study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Natalie A; Peter, Sue; McAuley, Kimberley E; McAullay, Daniel R; Marriott, Rhonda; Edmond, Karen M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our primary objective was to determine the incidence of hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous and non-Indigenous preterm infants aged postdischarge from birth admission to 11 months in Western Australia. Secondary objectives were to assess incidence in the poorest infants from remote areas and to determine the primary causes of hospital usage in preterm infants. Design Prospective population-based linked data set. Setting and participants All preterm babies born in Western Australia during 2010 and 2011. Main outcome measures All-cause hospitalisations and emergency department presentations. Results There were 6.9% (4211/61 254) preterm infants, 13.1% (433/3311) Indigenous preterm infants and 6.5% (3778/57 943) non-Indigenous preterm infants born in Western Australia. Indigenous preterm infants had a higher incidence of hospital admission (adjusted incident rate ratio (aIRR) 1.24, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.42) and emergency department presentation (aIRR 1.71, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.02) compared with non-Indigenous preterm infants. The most disadvantaged preterm infants (7.8/1000 person days) had a greater incidence of emergency presentation compared with the most advantaged infants (3.1/1000 person days) (aIRR 1.61, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.00). The most remote preterm infants (7.8/1000 person days) had a greater incidence of emergency presentation compared with the least remote preterm infants (3.0/1000 person days; aIRR 1.82, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.22). Conclusions In Western Australia, preterm infants have high hospital usage in their first year of life. Infants living in disadvantaged areas, remote area infants and Indigenous infants are at increased risk. Our data highlight the need for improved postdischarge care for preterm infants. PMID:28100563

  8. Pregnancy outcome and clinical status of gilts following experimental infection by H1N2, H3N2 and H1N1pdm09 influenza A viruses during the last month of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwit, Krzysztof; Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona

    2015-10-01

    The present study was planned to study the effect of various subtypes of swine influenza virus (SIV) circulating among pigs (H1N2, H3N2 and emerging pandemic strain of H1N1 influenza A virus (H1N1pdm09) on the course of pregnancy in naïve gilts experimentally infected during the last month of pregnancy. In addition, the clinical course of infection, distribution of viruses in various tissues (blood, placenta, fetal lung), and selected immunological, reproductive and productive parameters were also investigated. All SIV-inoculated gilts became infected. No abortions, stillbirths, intrauterine deaths or mummified fetuses were observed. No clinical signs of influenza virus infection or other disorders were observed in piglets born from infected and control gilts. There was a significant decrease in the number and frequency of lymphocytes in gilts inoculated with all influenza viruses. In general, the concentrations of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α were significantly higher in SIV-inoculated gilts as than in control animals, while IL-4 and IFN-γ were not detected in plasma at any time post-inoculation in SIV- or mock-inoculated gilts. No evidence for transplacental transmission of SIV was found. Viremia was also not observed in any of the infected females. On the basis of recent results, we hypothesize that pregnancy failure observed during SIV infection under field conditions is probably related to high fever and pro-inflammatory cytokines rather than a direct effect of the virus on the placenta, embryo or fetus.

  9. Using Incremental Rehearsal to Teach Letter Sounds to English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, Naomi L.; Wilson, Jennifer; Egan, Andrea; Brandes, Dana; Kunkel, Amy; Peterson, Meredith; McComas, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of incremental rehearsal (IR) on letter sound expression for one kindergarten and one first grade English learner who were below district benchmark for letter sound fluency. A single-subject multiple-baseline design across sets of unknown letter sounds was used to evaluate the effect of IR on letter-sound expression…

  10. Linking the Shapes of Alphabet Letters to Their Sounds: The Case of Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Levin, Iris; Kessler, Brett

    2012-01-01

    Learning the sounds of letters is an important part of learning a writing system. Most previous studies of this process have examined English, focusing on variations in the phonetic iconicity of letter names as a reason why some letter sounds (such as that of b, where the sound is at the beginning of the letter's name) are easier to learn than…

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  12. Monthly energy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  13. Photos of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Congratulations to Adele Rimoldi, ATLAS physicist from Pavia, who ran her first marathon in New York last month. Adele completed the 42.2 km in a time of 4:49:19. She sure makes it look easy!!! The ATLAS pixel service quarter panel in SR1

  14. Monthly Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-28

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief ``energy plugs`` (reviews of EIA publications) are included, as well.

  15. Effect of a six-month iron-zinc fortified milk supplementation on nutritional status, physical capacity and speed learning process in Indonesian underweight schoolchildren: randomized, placebo-controlled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptawati Bardosono

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim to evaluated the effect of milk supplementation enriched with iron and zinc on indicators of growth, physical capacity and cognitive performance in underweight school-children.Method Two-armed, randomized controlled double-blind trial was performed in several primary schools in Jakarta and Surakarta, Indonesia. A total of 245 underweight schoolchildren aged 7-9 years living in urban poor areas of Jakarta and Solo were randomly allocated to receive two cups of iron-zinc fortified-milk (n = 121 or non-iron-zinc fortified milk (n= 124 supplementation daily for six months. Biochemical indicators, anthropometric indices, physical capacity and cognitive performance were measured at before and after the supplementation.Results The study shows that between the fortified and non-fortified milk group, there was no significant different in haemoglobin increase (0.01 + 0.96 mg/dL versus 0.17 + 0.81 mg/dL nor serum ferritin increase (12.77 + 25.50 mcg/dL versus 14.99 + 29.56 mcg/dL. Unexpectedly, decreased in serum zinc was found in both groups (3.01 + 3.24 mMol/dL and 3.12 + 3.71 mMol/dL. There was significant higher increment (P=0.045 in body weight among the fortified milk group (1.31 + 0.69 kg as compared to the non-fortified group (1.13 + 0.69 kg. Consistently, there was significant increase (P=0.025 in the indicator of underweight (WAZ among the fortified milk group (1.47 + 0.50 as compared to the non-fortified group (1.33 + 0.47. There was significant improvement (P=0.001 of cognitive performance, i.e. coding test-score among the fortified group (12.74 + 11.76 as compared to the non-fortified group (8.31 + 9.60, but there was no significant difference found in the improvement of physical capacity score in both groups (10323.77 + 9253.83 versus 8435.94 + 8824.55.Conclusion Among underweight schoolchildren aged 7-9 y, supplementation of milk fortified with iron and zinc can provide better growth, and better speed processing of learning ability

  16. Preventive letter: doubling the return rate after gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Pablo R; Borzone, Gisella R; Berkowitz, Loni; Mertens, Nicolás; Busso, Dolores; Santos, José L; Poblete, José A; Vera, Claudio; Belmar, Cristián; Goldenberg, Denisse; Samith, Bárbara; Acosta, Ana M; Escalona, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    To measure the impact of a "Preventive Letter" designed to encourage the return of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) mothers to follow up visit after delivery, in the context of a worldwide concern about low return rates after delivery of these patients. Mothers with GDM require medical evaluation and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 6 weeks after delivery, in order to: [a] confirm remission of GDM and [b] provide advice on the prevention of type 2 diabetes. In the year 2003 we developed a "Preventive Letter", containing three aspects: [a] current treatment, [b] suggested management during labor, and [c] a stapled laboratory order for OGTT to be performed 6 weeks after delivery. The return rate after delivery was assessed in two groups of GDM mothers: [a] "Without Preventive Letter" (n = 253), and "With Preventive Letter" (n = 215). Both groups, similar with respect to age (33.0 ± 5.4 and 32.3 ± 4.9 years respectively, p = 0.166) and education time (14.9 ± 1.8 and 15.0 ± 1.8 years respectively, p = 0.494), showed a significant difference in the 1-year return rate after delivery, as assessed by the Kaplan-Meier test: 32.0 % for the group "Without Preventive Letter", and 76.0 % for the group "With Preventive Letter" (p return rate after delivery of GDM mothers was 2.4 times higher in the group "With Preventive Letter" than in the group without it. We believe that this low-cost approach could be useful in other institutions caring for pregnant women with diabetes.

  17. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Rouw, Romke

    2012-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words) was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14) = 5.85, p = .030). Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13) = 0.51, p = .05). The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14) = 2.79, p = .014) and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term 'synesthetic' training program.

  18. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Colizoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue. In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14 = 5.85, p = .030. Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13 = 0.51, p = .05. The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14 = 2.79, p = .014 and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term 'synesthetic' training program.

  19. Phonological awareness and the use of phonological similarity in letter-sound learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Peter F

    2007-11-01

    The effects of the phonological similarity between a letter sound and the sound in a spoken word, and phonological awareness on letter-sound learning were examined. Two groups of 41 kindergartners were taught four letter sounds. First, both groups had to learn the associations between four symbols and four familiar words. Next, both groups were taught the letter sounds that were paired to these same symbols. Each letter sound corresponded to the first sound of the word that was previously associated with that symbol in the phonological similarity group, whereas such a relation was absent in the other group. In addition, measures of vocabulary, letter knowledge, and phonological awareness were administered. Phonological similarity facilitated letter-sound learning. Individual differences in phonological awareness had a strong effect on letter-sound learning even after current letter knowledge was controlled. Unexpectedly, the effects of phonological awareness and the ability to use phonological similarity on letter-sound learning were found to be independent.

  20. THE EFFECTS OF WORD FAMILIARITY AND LETTER STRUCTURE FAMILIARITY ON THE PERCEPTION OF WORDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that familiarity of letter structure (as opposed to familiarity of the word ) would facilitate the...perception of the word . The results showed an interaction between letter structure familiarity and work familiarity such that while letter structure...familiarity facilitated correct identification of the letters of the word , letter structure familiarity resulted in inhibiting the perception of

  1. Your Child's Development: 9 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Baby's Growth: 9 Months Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 9 Months Your Child's Checkup: 9 Months Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Sleep and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Contact ...

  2. Crowding and Cognitive Development: The Mediating Role of Maternal Responsiveness among 36-Month-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W.; Ricciuti, Henry N.; Hope, Steven; Schoon, Ingrid; Bradley, Robert H.; Corwyn, Robert F.; Hazan, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Residential crowding in both U.S. and U.K. samples of 36-month-old children is related concurrently to the Bracken scale, a standard index of early cognitive development skills including letter and color identification, shape recognition, and elementary numeric comprehension. In the U.S. sample, these effects also replicate prospectively.…

  3. Crowding and Cognitive Development: The Mediating Role of Maternal Responsiveness among 36-Month-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W.; Ricciuti, Henry N.; Hope, Steven; Schoon, Ingrid; Bradley, Robert H.; Corwyn, Robert F.; Hazan, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Residential crowding in both U.S. and U.K. samples of 36-month-old children is related concurrently to the Bracken scale, a standard index of early cognitive development skills including letter and color identification, shape recognition, and elementary numeric comprehension. In the U.S. sample, these effects also replicate prospectively.…

  4. Extra-large letter spacing improves reading in dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Marco; Barbiero, Chiara; Facoetti, Andrea; Lonciari, Isabella; Carrozzi, Marco; Montico, Marcella; Bravar, Laura; George, Florence; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Ziegler, Johannes C

    2012-07-10

    Although the causes of dyslexia are still debated, all researchers agree that the main challenge is to find ways that allow a child with dyslexia to read more words in less time, because reading more is undisputedly the most efficient intervention for dyslexia. Sophisticated training programs exist, but they typically target the component skills of reading, such as phonological awareness. After the component skills have improved, the main challenge remains (that is, reading deficits must be treated by reading more--a vicious circle for a dyslexic child). Here, we show that a simple manipulation of letter spacing substantially improved text reading performance on the fly (without any training) in a large, unselected sample of Italian and French dyslexic children. Extra-large letter spacing helps reading, because dyslexics are abnormally affected by crowding, a perceptual phenomenon with detrimental effects on letter recognition that is modulated by the spacing between letters. Extra-large letter spacing may help to break the vicious circle by rendering the reading material more easily accessible.

  5. Are All Letters Really Processed Equally and in Parallel? Further Evidence of a Robust First Letter Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaltritti, Michele; Balota, David A.

    2013-01-01

    This present study examined accuracy and response latency of letter processing as a function of position within a horizontal array. In a series of 4 Experiments, target-strings were briefly (33 ms for Experiment 1 to 3, 83 ms for Experiment 4) displayed and both forward and backward masked. Participants then made a two alternative forced choice. The two alternative responses differed just in one element of the string, and position of mismatch was systematically manipulated. In Experiment 1, words of different lengths (from 3 to 6 letters) were presented in separate blocks. Across different lengths, there was a robust advantage in performance when the alternative response was different for the letter occurring at the first position, compared to when the difference occurred at any other position. Experiment 2 replicated this finding with the same materials used in Experiment 1, but with words of different lengths randomly intermixed within blocks. Experiment 3 provided evidence of the first position advantage with legal nonwords and strings of consonants, but did not provide any first position advantage for non-alphabetic symbols. The lack of a first position advantage for symbols was replicated in Experiment 4, where target-strings were displayed for a longer duration (83 ms). Taken together these results suggest that the first position advantage is a phenomenon that occurs specifically and selectively for letters, independent of lexical constraints. We argue that the results are consistent with models that assume a processing advantage for coding letters in the first position, and are inconsistent with the commonly held assumption in visual word recognition models that letters are equally processed in parallel independent of letter position. PMID:24012723

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  8. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  9. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  10. Verteporfin photodynamic therapy combined with intravitreal ranibizumab in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: 24-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Giustolisi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined therapy with Photodynamic Therapy with Verteporfin (PDT-V and intravitreal ranibizumab same-day compared with monotherapy with ranibizumab (three monthly injections for the treatment of the choroidal neovascularization (CNV due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Type of study : open-label, randomized controlled trial (RCT. Materials and Methods: 17 eyes of 17 patients were consecutively enrolled and randomly assigned to ranibizumab intravitreal injection + PDT compared with a control group of 30 eyes of 30 patients treated with only ranibizumab 0.5mg in three monthly injections. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, central macular thickness (CMT on optical coherence tomography were examined before and after treatment. Patients were followed-up for twelve months. Results: in the combined therapy group, the mean baseline BCVA is 32.6 letters, at 24-months after treatment it’s 31.4 letters with a loss of 1.2 letters. The mean central thickness at baseline is 314.6 µm. After twenty four months the mean CMT is 222.5 µm, with mean CMT reduction of 92.1µm. In the ranibizumab-alone group, the mean baseline BCVA is 29.1 letters at 24-months it’s 28.6 letters with a little loss of 0.5 letters. The mean baseline CMT is 297.6 µm, at 24-months it is 235.9 µm, with mean CMT reduction of 61,7µm. Conclusions: the two treatments showed the same efficacy from a functional and anatomic point of view with a less number of retreatments in the combined therapy group. There were no serious ocular adverse events such as retinal detachment, endophthalmitis or ocular hypertone.

  11. Detection and identification of crowded mirror-image letters in normal peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T L

    2010-02-01

    Performance for discriminating single mirror-image letters in peripheral vision can be as good as that in central vision, provided that letter size is scaled appropriately [Higgins, K. E., Arditi, A., & Knoblauch, K. (1996). Detection and identification of mirror-image letter pairs in central and peripheral vision. Vision Research, 36, 331-337]. In this study, we asked whether or not there is a reduction in performance for discriminating mirror-image letters when the letters are flanked closely by other letters, compared with unflanked (single) letters; and if so, whether or not this effect is greater in peripheral than in central vision. We compared contrast thresholds for detecting and identifying mirror-image letters "b" and "d" for a range of letter separations, at the fovea and 10 degrees eccentricity, for letters that were scaled in size. For comparison, thresholds were also determined for a pair of non-mirror-image letters "o" and "x". Our principal finding is that there is an additional loss in sensitivity for identifying mirror-image letters ("bd"), compared with non-mirror-image letters ("ox"), when the letters are flanked closely by other letters. The effect is greater in peripheral than central vision. An auxiliary experiment comparing thresholds for letters "d" and "q" vs. "b" and "d" shows that the additional loss in sensitivity for identifying crowded mirror-image letters cannot be attributed to the similarity in letter features between the two letters, but instead, is specific to the axis of symmetry. Our results suggest that in the presence of proximal objects, there is a specific loss in sensitivity for processing broad-band left-right mirror images in peripheral vision.

  12. A Novel Handwritten Letter Recognizer Using Enhanced Evolutionary Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Fariborz; Mirzashaeri, Mohsen; Shahamatnia, Ehsan; Faridnia, Saed

    This paper introduces a novel design for handwritten letter recognition by employing a hybrid back-propagation neural network with an enhanced evolutionary algorithm. Feeding the neural network consists of a new approach which is invariant to translation, rotation, and scaling of input letters. Evolutionary algorithm is used for the global search of the search space and the back-propagation algorithm is used for the local search. The results have been computed by implementing this approach for recognizing 26 English capital letters in the handwritings of different people. The computational results show that the neural network reaches very satisfying results with relatively scarce input data and a promising performance improvement in convergence of the hybrid evolutionary back-propagation algorithms is exhibited.

  13. Letters from ainsworth: contesting the 'organization' of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Sophie; Duschinsky, Robbie

    2013-05-01

    As Main (1999) noted in her obituary for Mary Ainsworth, 'she was interacting weekly by letter and manuscript with her mentor and friend, John Bowlby, and their academic correspondence formed an important part of her, and implicitly our, life.' These letters of Ainsworth to John Bowlby during the 1980s, available in the Wellcome Trust Library in London, contain valuable reflections on the work of her pupils to extend her system of classifying infant behaviour in the Strange Situation Procedure. Mary Main proposed a D classification and interpreted such behaviour as a breakdown in an ABC strategy caused by a conflict between a disposition to approach and flee from the caregiver. Patricia Crittenden extended the subtypes of A and C, using a developmental model of information processing, and observed that they could be used together in A/C combinations. These letters offer insight into Ainsworth's intellectual rationale for encouraging both Main and Crittenden in their conflicting endeavours.

  14. Spatial representations of numbers and letters in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eLonnemann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Different lines of evidence suggest that children’s mental representations of numbers are spatially organized in form of a mental number line. It is, however, still unclear whether a spatial organization is specific for the numerical domain or also applies to other ordinal sequences in children. In the present study, children (n = 129 aged 8-9 years were asked to indicate the midpoint of lines flanked by task-irrelevant digits or letters. We found that the localization of the midpoint was systematically biased towards the larger digit. A similar, but less pronounced, effect was detected for letters with spatial biases towards the letter succeeding in the alphabet. Instead of assuming domain-specific forms of spatial representations, we suggest that ordinal information expressing relations between different items of a sequence might be spatially coded in children, whereby numbers seem to convey this kind of information in the most salient way.

  15. The Archetypes of the Characters in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成程

    2015-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorne and his works are deeply influenced by the religion and the Holy Bible.It has many corresponding relationships between the Biblical allusions and the characters,plot and theme in the Scarlet Letter.Hawthorne gave the novel symbolic characters in order to give this symbolism novel a deeper connotation,by borrowing quite a lot of the Biblical allusions.The Scarlet Letter established Hawthorne as the most important 19th century romantic novelist in the United States.This paper attempts to analyze the characteristics and the life experience of the figures in the novel,such as Hester Prynne,Chillingworth,Dimmesdale and Pearl by using the archetypal criticism.The paper also will compare the novel to the Holy Bible so that we canfind the archetypes of the Holy Bible hidden in the Scarlet Letter.

  16. The Archetypes of the Characters in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成程

    2015-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorne and his works are deeply influenced by the religion and the Holy Bible.It has many corresponding relationships between the Biblical allusions and the characters,plot and theme in the Scarlet Letter.Hawthorne gave the novel symbolic characters in order to give this symbolism novel a deeper connotation,by borrowing quite a lot of the Biblical allusions.The Scarlet Letter established Hawthorne as the most important 19 th century romantic novelist in the United States.This paper attempts to analyze the characteristics and the life experience of the figures in the novel,such as Hester Prynne,Chillingworth,Dimmesdale and Pearl by using the archetypal criticism.The paper also will compare the novel to the Holy Bible so that we can find the archetypes of the Holy Bible hidden in the Scarlet Letter.

  17. Musical expertise affects neural bases of letter recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2013-02-01

    It is known that early music learning (playing of an instrument) modifies functional brain structure (both white and gray matter) and connectivity, especially callosal transfer, motor control/coordination and auditory processing. We compared visual processing of notes and words in 15 professional musicians and 15 controls by recording their synchronized bioelectrical activity (ERPs) in response to words and notes. We found that musical training in childhood (from age ~8 years) modifies neural mechanisms of word reading, whatever the genetic predisposition, which was unknown. While letter processing was strongly left-lateralized in controls, the fusiform (BA37) and inferior occipital gyri (BA18) were activated in both hemispheres in musicians for both word and music processing. The evidence that the neural mechanism of letter processing differed in musicians and controls (being absolutely bilateral in musicians) suggests that musical expertise modifies the neural mechanisms of letter reading.

  18. A common left occipito-temporal dysfunction in developmental dyslexia and acquired letter-by-letter reading?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Richlan

    Full Text Available We used fMRI to examine functional brain abnormalities of German-speaking dyslexics who suffer from slow effortful reading but not from a reading accuracy problem. Similar to acquired cases of letter-by-letter reading, the developmental cases exhibited an abnormal strong effect of length (i.e., number of letters on response time for words and pseudowords.Corresponding to lesions of left occipito-temporal (OT regions in acquired cases, we found a dysfunction of this region in our developmental cases who failed to exhibit responsiveness of left OT regions to the length of words and pseudowords. This abnormality in the left OT cortex was accompanied by absent responsiveness to increased sublexical reading demands in phonological inferior frontal gyrus (IFG regions. Interestingly, there was no abnormality in the left superior temporal cortex which--corresponding to the onological deficit explanation--is considered to be the prime locus of the reading difficulties of developmental dyslexia cases.The present functional imaging results suggest that developmental dyslexia similar to acquired letter-by-letter reading is due to a primary dysfunction of left OT regions.

  19. A letter for Dr. Outgroup: On the effects of an indicator of competence and chances for altruism toward a member of a stigmatized out-group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens H. Hellmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The lost letter technique is an unobtrusive method to investigate attitudes in a particular population. Ostensibly lost letters from senders who apparently belong to different groups or addressed to recipients from apparently different groups are dispersed in public places, and return rates represent a measure of altruistic or discriminatory behavior toward one group or another. In two field experiments using the lost letter technique, we investigated the influence of group membership and the presence or absence of a doctorate degree as an indicator of competence on the likelihood of receiving helping behavior. Experiment 1 showed that a generic member of a low-status ethnic out-group (Turks living in Germany was the target of discrimination, while a generic member of a non-stigmatized out-group (French in Germany was not. Moreover, when the name of the member from the stigmatized out-group was (vs. was not preceded by a doctorate degree, more of the allegedly lost letters were returned. There were no such differential effects for recipients who were members of the in-group (Germans or the non-stigmatized out-group (French. Experiment 2 showed that a recipient from the stigmatized out-group (Turk with a doctorate degree received more letters when the sender was German versus Turkish (i.e., from the recipient’s own group. Overall, the sender’s ethnic group membership was an important factor for the likelihood of receiving an ostensibly lost letter, in that fewer letters arrived from a sender with a Turkish (vs. German name. We conclude that the likelihood of altruistic behavior toward out-group members can increase when in-group members intend to communicate with competent out-group members. Therefore, under certain conditions, the presentation of a highly competent member of an otherwise stigmatized out-group may serve as a discrimination buffer.

  20. Standardized Letter of Recommendation for Otolaryngology Residency Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jonathan N.; Liang, Conan; McFann, Kim; Abaza, Mona M.; Streubel, Sven-Olrik; Prager, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Develop a standardized letter of recommendation (SLOR) for otolaryngology residency application that investigates the qualities desired in residents and letter writer’s experience. Compare this SLOR to narrative letters of recommendation (NLOR). Study Design Prospective SLOR/NLOR Comparison. Methods The SLOR was sent to a NLOR writer for each applicant. The applicant’s NLOR/SLOR pair was blinded and ranked in seven categories by three reviewers. Inter-rater reliability and NLOR/SLOR rankings were compared. Means of cumulative NLOR and SLOR scores were compared to our departmental rank list. Results Thirty-one SLORs (66%) were collected. The SLORs had higher inter-rater reliability for applicant’s qualifications for otolaryngology, global assessment, summary statement, and overall letter ranking. Writer’s background, comparison to contemporaries/predecessors, and letter review ease had higher inter-rater reliability on the NLORs. Mean SLOR rankings were higher for writer’s background (p=0.0007), comparison of applicant to contemporaries/predecessors (p=0.0031), and letter review ease (p<0.0001). Mean SLOR writing time was 4.17±2.18 minutes. Mean ranking time was significantly lower (p<0.0001) for the SLORs (39.24±23.45 seconds) compared to the NLORs (70.95±40.14 seconds). Means of cumulative SLOR scores correlated with our rank list (p=0.004), whereas means of cumulative NLOR scores did not (p=0.18). Means of cumulative NLOR and SLOR scores did not correlate (p=0.26). Conclusions SLORs require little writing time, save reviewing time, and are easier to review compared to NLORs. Our SLOR had higher inter-rater reliability in 4 of 7 categories and was correlated with our rank list. This tool conveys standardized information in an efficient manner. PMID:23172646

  1. "Test" is a Four Letter Word

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, G M

    2005-05-03

    For a number of years I had the pleasure of teaching Testing Seminars all over the world and meeting and learning from others in our field. Over a twelve year period, I always asked the following questions to Software Developers, Test Engineers, and Managers who took my two or three day seminar on Software Testing: 'When was the first time you heard the word test'? 'Where were you when you first heard the word test'? 'Who said the word test'? 'How did the word test make you feel'? Most of the thousands of responses were similar to 'It was my third grade teacher at school, and I felt nervous and afraid'. Now there were a few exceptions like 'It was my third grade teacher, and I was happy and excited to show how smart I was'. But by and large, my informal survey found that 'testing' is a word to which most people attach negative meanings, based on its historical context. So why is this important to those of us in the software development business? Because I have found that a preponderance of software developers do not get real excited about hearing that the software they just wrote is going to be 'tested' by the Test Group. Typical reactions I have heard over the years run from: 'I'm sure there is nothing wrong with the software, so go ahead and test it, better you find defects than our customers'. to these extremes: 'There is no need to test my software because there is nothing wrong with it'. 'You are not qualified to test my software because you don't know as much as I do about it'. 'If any Test Engineers come into our office again to test our software we will throw them through the third floor window'. So why is there such a strong negative reaction to testing? It is primitive. It goes back to grade school for many of us. It is a negative word that congers up negative emotions. In other words, 'test' is a four letter word

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  3. Lapse resistance in the verbal letter reporting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arditi, Aries

    2006-04-01

    Lapses, or misreporting errors, can affect accuracy of threshold measurements. Assumptions about lapse rate, especially in untrained observers, have consequently guided the design of at least one clinical psychophysical test. Lapse rate was assessed using a verbal letter identification paradigm like that used in visual acuity and letter contrast sensitivity testing. Subjects occasionally made slip-of-the tongue errors but spontaneously corrected them. Lapse rate (excluding such errors) was 0-3 errors per 1,536 (average rate of 0.0005). In this common clinical paradigm, in which observers set their reporting pace, and where opportunity to amend responses is available, lapse rate is negligible.

  4. Letters of Gold: Enabling Primitive Accumulation through Neoliberal Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Büscher, Bram

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In Capital I, Marx wrote that the history of the separation of the producers from the means of production “is written in the annals of mankind in letters of blood and fire” (Marx, 1976: 875). This ‘so-called primitive accumulation’, or ‘accumulation by dispossession’ in David Harvey’s words, continues unabated. Yet, its framing has changed considerably. Increasingly, capitalists have tried to avoid writing primitive accumulation in ‘letters of blood and fire’. Instead, t...

  5. The medical palimpsest of The Scarlet Letter: an interdisciplinary reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, J

    2005-06-01

    The multiple historical layers of Roger Chillingworth's character have been overlooked in criticism of The Scarlet Letter. By considering the possible influence of Robert Browning's dramatic poem Paracelsus (1835) on Hawthorne's romance (1850), as well as the ways in which overtones of both herbalism and clinical medicine complicate Chillingworth's character, one rediscovers Chillingworth as Hawthorne's audience likely experienced him: as a fictional palimpsest bearing multiple inscriptions of medical history that reveal an interplay between integrity and corruption. Thus, an interdisciplinary reading of The Scarlet Letter challenges the conventional critical assessment of Chillingworth as a satanic or Faustian figure.

  6. Resource Letter: Research-based Assessments in Physics and Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Adrian; Sayre, Eleanor C

    2016-01-01

    This resource letter provides a guide to research-based assessments (RBAs) of physics and astronomy content. These are standardized assessments that were rigorously developed and revised using student ideas and interviews, expert input, and statistical analyses. RBAs have had a major impact on physics and astronomy education reform by providing a universal and convincing measure of student understanding that instructors can use to assess and improve the effectiveness of their teaching. In this resource letter, we present an overview of all content RBAs in physics and astronomy by topic, research validation, instructional level, format, and themes, to help faculty find the best assessment for their course.

  7. On the Elements of Tragedy in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冶静芳

    2014-01-01

    As the masterpiece of Nathaniel Hawthorn’s writing, The Scarlet Letter not only brings him fame forever, but also gives us more about people’s life in Puritan society in 17th. Since this novel is so important and excellent, the thesis mainly focus-es on probing into the theme of elements of tragedy in The Scarlet Letter. According to the whole story, the love tragedy is attrib-uted to four factors: the Puritan beliefs of original sin, the attitude of public on love outside marriage, the personalities of the main characters, and the differences between dream and reality.

  8. An Analysis of the Symbolic Colors in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Kai-lin

    2016-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorn is the greatest American romantic novelist during the nineteenth century. He is skillful at the using of symbolism in his works, especially in his masterpiece The Scarlet Letter. Hawthorn is a writer with art talent, who uses differ-ent colors to enhance the artistic effects of The scarlet Letter. Colors emerging on the most occasions are used as a mayor form of symbolism to reflect the character’s feelings, personalities and fates. This paper aims to elaborate the usage of colors as a form of symbolism in three parts:the symbolic meaning of red, the symbolic meaning of black, and the symbolic meaning of grey.

  9. Resource Letter SOP-1: Self-Organizing Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Donald T.

    2015-08-01

    This Resource Letter introduces the reader to an area of physics where systems can self-organize to a particular shape or behavior that, while dynamically changing, is surprisingly robust. The self-organization is due to the complex interactions that typically preclude explanation from just the forces among adjacent molecules or objects. How one recognizes such systems and explains their behavior is the topic of this Resource Letter. Some systems exhibit universal behavior that is well documented and understood, but other systems are just now being investigated.

  10. Dear Hacker Letters to the Editor of 2600

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Actual letters written to the leading hackers' magazine. For 25 years, 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has given voice to the hacker community in all its manifestations. This collection of letters to the magazine reveals the thoughts and viewpoints of hackers, both white and black hat, as well as hacker wannabes, technophiles, and people concerned about computer security. Insightful and entertaining, the exchanges illustrate 2600 's vast readership, from teenage rebels, anarchists, and survivalists to law enforcement, consumer advocates, and worried parents.: 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has been the

  11. EDITORIAL: The need and challenge for Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2006-11-01

    fields. To that illustrative list, the number and diversity of emerging areas of investigation have also blossomed—from the economics of biodiversity, to the interface of synthetic biology and agro- and bioenergy crops and systems, to the potential of the nanotechnology/energy interface to become the 'next trillion dollar industry', environment, science, and technology are changing at incredible rates. While many of these areas have, or will have, highly focused journals and publications, a massive void has developed in the linking and dialog around what are the truly seminal advances in environmental science, social science, business, law, and policy. The need for this dialog is vital, and yet it is far too easy to forget in the hectic and information overloaded academic, business, governmental, and non-governmental communities. Everyone recognizes that environmental research and practice today exists within an increasingly interdisciplinary setting. That simple statement, often echoed, but easily forgotten on a day-to-day basis, is the intellectual glue that we must not neglect, and from which will come many of the advances that make understanding the environment so unique. ERL begins publication this month, October 2006, in an intellectual milieu that lacks a journal and a forum for such an environmental discussion and dialog. Until now, there has been no place to access the combination of environmental research breadth and depth that is the goal of ERL. The format of the journal is intended to facilitate such exchanges. ERL will be built around concise, high-impact original research Letters that present important results from across the environmental spectrum. As the first open-access journal to cover the whole of environmental science, our aim for ERL is to offer: Completely free access to original research of the highest quality. The environmental research and action community is diverse, both intellectually and geographically. ERL's open-access publishing model

  12. Effects of ocular transverse chromatic aberration on near foveal letter recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shun-nan; Tai, Yu-chi; Laukkanen, Hannu; Sheedy, James

    2009-11-01

    Transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) smears retinal images of peripheral stimuli. In reading, text information is extracted from both foveal and near fovea, where TCA magnitude is relatively small and variable. The present study investigated whether TCA significantly affects near foveal letter identification. Subjects were briefly presented a string of five letters centered one degree of visual angle to the left or right of fixation. They indicated whether the middle letter was the same as a comparison letter subsequently presented. Letter strings were rendered with a reddish fringe on the left edge of each letter and a bluish fringe on the right edge, consistent with expected left periphery TCA, or with the opposite fringe consistent with expected right periphery TCA. Effect of the color fringing on letter recognition was measured by comparing the response accuracy for fringed and non-fringed stimuli. Effects of lateral interference were examined by manipulating inter-letter spacing and similarity of neighboring letters. Results demonstrated significantly improved response accuracy with the color fringe opposite to the expected TCA, but decreased accuracy when consistent with it. Narrower letter spacing exacerbated the effect of the color fringe, whereas letter similarity did not. Our results suggest that TCA significantly reduces the ability to recognize letters in the near fovea by impeding recognition of individual letters and by enhancing lateral interference between letters.

  13. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children’s emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4–5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name writing; whereas alphabet knowledge, print knowledge, and name writing made positive contributions to letter writing. Both name-writing and letter-writing skills made significant contributions to the prediction of spelling after controlling for age, parental education, print knowledge, phonological awareness, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge; however, only letter-writing abilities made a significant unique contribution to the prediction of spelling when both letter-writing and name-writing skills were considered together. Name writing reflects knowledge of some letters rather than a broader knowledge of letters that may be needed to support early spelling. Children’s letter-writing skills may be a better indicator of children’s emergent literacy and developing spelling skills than are their name-writing skills at the end of the preschool year. Spelling is a developmentally complex skill beginning in preschool and includes letter writing and blending skills, print knowledge, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge. PMID:21927537

  14. Visual and Artistic Functions of Letters Khaghani’s Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. Zolfaghari

    Full Text Available The intensity of emotion and vibration of meaning in the poet's mind causes him to go beyond the ordinary language and through metaphors, similes and linguistic preparation he conveys intellectual and emotional meanings. He has a sharp eye and a sensitive spirit and creative temprement and by inventing new images shows the creativity and imagination in various arenas and attempts in the way of literary strength and creating personal style and this point more than anything else must be done by presenting images and newness. Perhaps in the sixth century, and especially in Azerbaijani school, more than other periods, poets have been looking for creating innovative style in eloquence. Their major attempts were mainly in imaging, it was a wide field that they have competed and it is natural that in this illustration the alphabet letters would be very helpful. Khaghani poetry as one of the greatest poets of this school has the perfect poetrical book of painting and meaning, and delicated pattern in new and different scientific, cultural and religious paintings and letters are a broad range of elements that put a new field in front of the poet and he is aware of the potential features of the letters and also the new images and the artistic creativity.This paper shows descriptive - analytical study of various aspects of Khaghani’s poetry and frequency of letters in the alphabet, authentic images based on alphabet, taken at different pseudo relevance of poetry in the context of multiple semantic and literal characters, making figures of speech based on literary characters, images and characters and the sense of connection . . . which has been shown in his poetry.Letter has double and even multiple uses in Khaghani poetic works (divan and more than the construction of words which is the real and common sense that is used as an artistic. There is a world in the heart of every letter, word and morpheme lies in the poet's point of view is the last and

  15. How do we code the letters of a word when we have to write it? Investigating double letter representation in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Sonia; Peereman, Ronald; Ghimenton, Anna

    2014-05-01

    How do we code the letters of a word when we have to write it? We examined whether the orthographic representations that the writing system activates have a specific coding for letters when these are doubled in a word. French participants wrote words on a digitizer. The word pairs shared the initial letters and differed on the presence of a double letter (e.g., LISSER/LISTER). The results on latencies, letter and inter-letter interval durations revealed that L and I are slower to write when followed by a doublet (SS) than when not (ST). Doublet processing constitutes a supplementary cognitive load that delays word production. This suggests that word representations code letter identity and quantity separately. The data also revealed that the central processes that are involved in spelling representation cascade into the peripheral processes that regulate movement execution.

  16. Commissioners' Monthly Case Activity Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission — Total cases pending at the beginning of the month, total cases added to the docket during the month, total cases disposed of during the month, and total cases...

  17. A Mentoring Opportunity: A Joint Effort in Writing Letters of Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Zubin

    2017-01-01

    Integrity in writing letters of recommendation is important to academic research because it is an influential criterion used pervasively in peer review. While research in the integrity of recommendation letters has concentrated on contents of the letter, bias, and reliability, few have questioned the process of letter writing. Here, I argue that letter writing should be a joint opportunity between mentor/supervisor/advisor and trainee. It results in more compelling letters, may prevent errors and the use of biased language, and serves as an excellent mentoring opportunity promoting self-reflection.

  18. From word superiority to word inferiority: Visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    tasks for all patients, and this pattern was more pronounced in the more severely affected patients. The relationship between performance with single letters and words was, however, not straightforward: One patient performed within the normal range on the letter perception task, while being severely...... impaired in letter naming and word processing, and performance with letters and words was dissociated in all four patients, with word reading being more severely impaired than letter recognition. This suggests that the word reading deficit in pure alexia may not be reduced to an impairment in single letter...

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  20. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.