WorldWideScience

Sample records for monthly median nme

  1. Statistical properties of the deviations of f 0 F 2 from monthly medians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tulunay

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The deviations of hourly f 0 F 2 from monthly medians for 20 stations in Europe during the period 1958-1998 are studied. Spectral analysis is used to show that, both for original data (for each hour and for the deviations from monthly medians, the deterministic components are the harmonics of 11 years (solar cycle, 1 year and its harmonics, 27 days and 12 h 50.49 m (2nd harmonic of lunar rotation period L 2 periodicities. Using histograms for one year samples, it is shown that the deviations from monthly medians are nearly zero mean (mean < 0.5 and approximately Gaussian (relative difference range between %10 to %20 and their standard deviations are larger for daylight hours (in the range 5-7. It is shown that the amplitude distribution of the positive and negative deviations is nearly symmetrical at night hours, but asymmetrical for day hours. The positive and negative deviations are then studied separately and it is observed that the positive deviations are nearly independent of R12 except for high latitudes, but negative deviations are modulated by R12 . The 90% confidence interval for negative deviations for each station and each hour is computed as a linear model in terms of R12. After correction for local time, it is shown that for all hours the confidence intervals increase with latitude but decrease above 60N. Long-term trend analysis showed that there is an increase in the amplitude of positive deviations from monthly means irrespective of the solar conditions. Using spectral analysis it is also shown that the seasonal dependency of negative deviations is more accentuated than the seasonal dependency of positive deviations especially at low latitudes. In certain stations, it is also observed that the 4th harmonic of 1 year corresponding to a periodicity of 3 months, which is missing in f 0 F 2 data, appears in the spectra of negative variations.

  2. 76 FR 39474 - Monthly Median Cost of Funds Reporting, and Publication of Cost of Funds Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Mae) and to the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC or Freddie Mac) that use these indices... determine, after notice and opportunity for comment, that (A) the new indices are based upon data... values and changes of 17 publicly available indices on a monthly basis from January 1990 through...

  3. Stratified analysis of 800 Asian patients after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy with a median 64 months of follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Raheem, Ali; Kim, Dae Keun; Santok, Glen Denmer; Alabdulaali, Ibrahim; Chung, Byung Ha; Choi, Young Deuk; Rha, Koon Ho

    2016-09-01

    To report the 5-year oncological outcomes of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy from the largest series ever reported from Asia. A retrospective analysis of 800 Asian patients who were treated with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy from July 2005 to May 2010 in the Department of Urology and Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea was carried out. The primary end-point was to evaluate the biochemical recurrence. The secondary end-point was to show the biochemical recurrence-free survival, metastasis-free survival and cancer-specific survival. A total of 197 (24.65%), 218 (27.3%), and 385 (48.1%) patients were classified as low-, intermediate- and high-risk patients according to the D'Amico risk stratification risk criteria, respectively. The median follow-up period was 64 months (interquartile range 28-71 months). The overall incidence of positive surgical margin was 36.6%. There was biochemical recurrence in 183 patients (22.9%), 38 patients (4.8%) developed distant metastasis and 24 patients (3%) died from prostate cancer. Actuarial biochemical recurrence-free survival, metastasis-free survival, and cancer-specific survival rates at 5 years were 76.4%, 94.6% and 96.7%, respectively. Positive lymph node was associated with lower 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival (9.1%), cancer-specific survival (75.7%) and metastasis-free survival (61.9%) rates (P < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, among all the predictors, positive lymph node was the strongest predictor of biochemical recurrence, cancer-specific survival and metastasis-free survival (P < 0.001). Herein we report the largest robot-assisted radical prostatectomy series from Asia. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy is confirmed to be an oncologically safe procedure that is able to provide effective 5-year cancer control, even in patients with high-risk disease. © 2016 The Japanese Urological Association.

  4. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of acoustic neuroma. Volume changes and hearing results after 89-month median follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranzinger, Manfred; Fastner, Gerd [Paracelsus Medical University Clinics (PMU), University Clinic of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Salzburg County Hospital, Salzburg (Austria); Zehentmayr, Franz; Sedlmayer, Felix [Paracelsus Medical University Clinics (PMU), University Clinic of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Salzburg County Hospital, Salzburg (Austria); Salzburg County Hospital, Paracelsus Medical University Clinics, radART - Institute for Research and Development on Advanced Radiation Technologies, Salzburg (Austria); Oberascher, Gerhard [Paracelsus Medical University Clinics (PMU), University Clinic of Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases, Salzburg County Hospital, Salzburg (Austria); Merz, Florian; Rahim, Hassan [Salzburg County Hospital, Paracelsus Medical University Clinics, Medical Radiation Protection Unit, Salzburg (Austria); Nairz, Olaf [Clinic Bad Trissl, Oberaudorf (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    The goal of this work was to evaluate toxicity and local control following hypofractionated stereotactic radiation treatment with special focus on changes in tumor volume and hearing capacity. In all, 29 patients with unilateral acoustic neuroma were treated between 2001 and 2007 within a prospective radiation protocol (7 x 4 Gy ICRU dose). Median tumor volume was 0.9 ml. Follow-up started at 6 months and was repeated annually with MRI volumetry and audiometry. Hearing preservation was defined as preservation of Class A/B hearing according to the guidelines of the American Academy of Otolaryngology (1995). No patient had any intervention after a median imaging follow-up of 89.5 months, one patient showed radiological progression. Transient increase of tumor volume developed in 17/29 patients, whereas 22/29 patients (75.9 %) presented with a volume reduction at last follow-up. A total of 21 patients were eligible for hearing evaluation. Mean pure tone average (PTA) deteriorated from 39.3 to 65.9 dB and mean speech discrimination score (SDS) dropped from 74.3 to 38.1 %. The 5-year actuarial Class A/B hearing preservation rate was 50.0 ± 14.4 %. Radiation increases only minimally, if at all, the hearing deterioration which emerges by observation alone. Presbyacusis is not responsible for this deterioration. Transient tumor enlargement is common. Today radiation of small- and medium-sized acoustic neuroma can be performed with different highly conformal techniques as fractionated treatment or single low-dose radiosurgery with equal results regarding tumor control, hearing preservation, and side effects. Hypofractionation is more comfortable for the patient than conventional regimens and represents a serious alternative to frameless radiosurgery. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Studie war die Evaluierung der Toxizitaet und der lokalen Tumorkontrolle einer hypofraktionierten stereotaktischen Bestrahlung mit besonderem Augenmerk auf Veraenderungen von Tumorvolumen und

  5. Flow Durations, Low-Flow Frequencies, and Monthly Median Flows for Selected Streams in Connecticut through 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    Flow durations, low-flow frequencies, and monthly median streamflows were computed for 91 continuous-record, streamflow-gaging stations in Connecticut with 10 or more years of record. Flow durations include the 99-, 98-, 97-, 95-, 90-, 85-, 80-, 75-, 70-, 60-, 50-, 40-, 30-, 25-, 20-, 10-, 5-, and 1-percent exceedances. Low-flow frequencies include the 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) low flow; 7-day, 2-year (7Q2) low flow; and 30-day, 2-year (30Q2) low flow. Streamflow estimates were computed for each station using data for the period of record through water year 2005. Estimates of low-flow statistics for 7 short-term (operated between 3 and 10 years) streamflow-gaging stations and 31 partial-record sites were computed. Low-flow estimates were made on the basis of the relation between base flows at a short-term station or partial-record site and concurrent daily mean streamflows at a nearby index station. The relation is defined by the Maintenance of Variance Extension, type 3 (MOVE.3) method. Several short-term stations and partial-record sites had poorly defined relations with nearby index stations; therefore, no low-flow statistics were derived for these sites. The estimated low-flow statistics for the short-term stations and partial-record sites include the 99-, 98-, 97-, 95-, 90-, and 85-percent flow durations; the 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) low flow; 7-day, 2-year (7Q2) low flow; and 30-day, 2-year (30Q2) low-flow frequencies; and the August median flow. Descriptive information on location and record length, measured basin characteristics, index stations correlated to the short-term station and partial-record sites, and estimated flow statistics are provided in this report for each station. Streamflow estimates from this study are stored on USGS's World Wide Web application 'StreamStats' (http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/connecticut.html).

  6. Microsurgical decompression of the median nerves for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy in the upper limbs: A 21-month follow-up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Lin; Li Zhang; Yanbing Yu; Xiaoli Xu; Jiang Liu; Fang Li; Jun Xu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injured by abnormal glucose metabolism is compressed, which is an important etiological factor of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Microsurgical decompression of peripheral nerve maybe effectively releases the symptoms of DPN.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the curative effects of microsurgical decompression of median nerves for treatment of DPN in upper limbs.DESIGN: Case-follow up observation.SETTING: Department of Orthopaedics, Department of Neurosurgery, China-Japan Friendship Hospital,Ministry of Health.PARTICIPANTS: Twelve patients with DPN in upper limbs (19 hands) who received treatment in the Department of Orthopaedics, Department of Neurosurgery, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Ministry of Public Health between March 2004 and July 2006 were involved in this experiment. The involved patients, 5 male and 7 female, were aged 44 to 77 years, with DPN course of 6 months to 16 years. They all met 1999 WHO diabetic diagnosis criteria. Both two hands had symptom in 7 patients, and only one hand had symptom in 5 patients. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from all the patients, who also received 21 months of follow-up treatment.microscope, transverse carpal ligament was exposed. Subsequently, transverse carpal ligament, forearm superficial fascia and palmar aponeurosis were fully liberated, and then part of them was cut off. Connective tissue around median nerve, superficial flexor muscle of fingers, radial flexor, palmaris longus and other flexor tendons were completely loosened. Finally, epineurium was opened with microinstrument for neurolysis. After tourniquet was loosened, and bipolar coagulator was used to stop bleeding, and the incision distance of two normal points was 3 to 6 mm), nerve conduction velocity and action potential amplitude (short abductor muscle of thumb end Lat < 4.5 ms; Motor nerve conduction velocity of forearm > 50 m/s),etc. of all the patients were followed up.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The

  7. Range Medians

    OpenAIRE

    Har-Peled, Sariel; Muthukrishnan, S.

    2008-01-01

    We study a generalization of the classical median finding problem to batched query case: given an array of unsorted $n$ items and $k$ (not necessarily disjoint) intervals in the array, the goal is to determine the median in {\\em each} of the intervals in the array. We give an algorithm that uses $O(n\\log n + k\\log k \\log n)$ comparisons and show a lower bound of $\\Omega(n\\log k)$ comparisons for this problem. This is optimal for $k=O(n/\\log n)$.

  8. Association between NME8 locus polymorphism and cognitive decline, cerebrospinal fluid and neuroimaging biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    Full Text Available Recently, a large meta-analysis of five genome wide association studies (GWAS identified a novel locus (rs2718058 adjacent to NME8 that played a preventive role in Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, this link between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2718058 and the pathology of AD have not been mentioned yet. Therefore, this study assessed the strength of association between the NME8 rs2718058 genotypes and AD-related measures including the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF amyloid beta, tau, P-tau concentrations, neuroimaging biomarkers and cognitive performance, in a large cohort from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI database. We used information of a total of 719 individuals, including 211 normal cognition (NC, 346 mild cognitive impairment (MCI and 162 AD. Although we didn't observe a positive relationship between rs2718058 and AD, it was significantly associated with several AD related endophenotypes. Among the normal cognitively normal participants, the minor allele G carriers showed significantly associated with higher CDRSB score than A allele carriers (P = 0.021. Occipital gyrus atrophy were significantly associated with NME8 genotype status (P = 0.002, with A allele carriers has more atrophy than the minor allele G carriers in AD patients; lateral ventricle (both right and left cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgl were significantly associated with NME8 genotype (P < 0.05, with GA genotype had higher metabolism than GG and AA genotypes in MCI group; the atrophic right hippocampus in 18 months is significantly different between the three group, with GG and AA genotypes had more hippocampus atrophy than GA genotypes in the whole group. Together, our results are consistent with the direction of previous research, suggesting that NME8 rs2718058 appears to play a role in lowering the brain neurodegeneration.

  9. Establishment of a rat model for canine necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, E-S; Uchida, K; Nakayama, H

    2014-11-01

    The pathogenesis of necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME), necrotizing leukoencephalitis (NLE), and granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis (GME) is still uncertain, although they are considered immune-mediated diseases. The purpose of the present study is to generate a rodent model(s) of these diseases. Rats were injected with rat cerebral or cerebellar homogenate. Rats injected with cerebral homogenate (Cbr) exhibited vacuolar or malacic changes mainly in the cerebral cortex. CD3-positive T cells and Iba-1-positive and CD163-negative microglia infiltrated and activated around the lesions. IgG deposited in the glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP)-positive glia limitans from the early phase, and CD3-positive T cells attached to GFAP-positive astrocytes. Autoantibodies against GFAP were detected in the sera. These pathological features of Cbr rats were consistent with those of canine NME. In contrast, rats injected with cerebral homogenate (Cbe) exhibited demyelinating lesions with inflammatory reactions in the cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord. The presence of demyelination and autoantibodies against myelin proteins in Cbe rats was similar to murine experimental autoimmune encephalitis and differed from NME, NLE, and GME. All the present findings indicate that autoantibodies together with microglia and T cells may play a major role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic canine meningoencephalomyelitis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. NME2 reduces proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells to limit metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-fei Liu

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and has a high rate of metastasis. We hypothesize that NME2 (Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase 2, which has previously been considered as an anti-metastatic gene, plays a role in the invasiveness of gastric cancer cells. Using a tissue chip technology and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that NME2 expression was associated with levels of differentiation of gastric cancer cells and their metastasis into the lymph nodes. When the NME2 gene product was over-expressed by ;in vitro stable transfection, cells from BGC823 and MKN45 gastric cancer cell lines had reduced rates of proliferation, migration, and invasion through the collagen matrix, suggesting an inhibitory activity of NME2 in the propagation and invasion of gastric cancer. NME2 could, therefore, severe as a risk marker for gastric cancer invasiveness and a potential new target for gene therapy to enhance or induce NME2 expression.

  11. Metastases suppressor NME2 associates with telomere ends and telomerase and reduces telomerase activity within cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Anirban; Saha, Dhurjhoti; Purohit, Gunjan; Singh, Ankita; Kumar, Parveen; Yadav, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Pankaj; Thakur, Ram Krishna; Chowdhury, Shantanu

    2012-03-01

    Analysis of chromatin-immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) usually disregards sequence reads that do not map within binding positions (peaks). Using an unbiased approach, we analysed all reads, both that mapped and ones that were not included as part of peaks. ChIP-seq experiments were performed in human lung adenocarcinoma and fibrosarcoma cells for the metastasis suppressor non-metastatic 2 (NME2). Surprisingly, we identified sequence reads that uniquely represented human telomere ends in both cases. In vivo presence of NME2 at telomere ends was validated using independent methods and as further evidence we found intranuclear association of NME2 and the telomere repeat binding factor 2. Most remarkably, results demonstrate that NME2 associates with telomerase and reduces telomerase activity in vitro and in vivo, and sustained NME2 expression resulted in reduced telomere length in aggressive human cancer cells. Anti-metastatic function of NME2 has been demonstrated in human cancers, however, mechanisms are poorly understood. Together, findings reported here suggest a novel role for NME2 as a telomere binding protein that can alter telomerase function and telomere length. This presents an opportunity to investigate telomere-related interactions in metastasis suppression.

  12. Towards optimal range medians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Gfeller, Beat; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund

    2011-01-01

    that in the cell-probe model, any data structure which supports updates in O(logO(1)n) time must have Ω(log n/loglog n) query time. Our approach naturally generalizes to higher-dimensional range median problems, where element positions and query ranges are multidimensional - it reduces a range median query...... to a logarithmic number of range counting queries....

  13. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-08-03

    This article proposes functional median polish, an extension of univariate median polish, for one-way and two-way functional analysis of variance (ANOVA). The functional median polish estimates the functional grand effect and functional main factor effects based on functional medians in an additive functional ANOVA model assuming no interaction among factors. A functional rank test is used to assess whether the functional main factor effects are significant. The robustness of the functional median polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science, including one-way and two-way ANOVA when functional data are either curves or images. Specifically, Canadian temperature data, U. S. precipitation observations and outputs of global and regional climate models are considered, which can facilitate the research on the close link between local climate and the occurrence or severity of some diseases and other threats to human health. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  14. Robustifying Vector Median Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentín Gregori

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two methods for impulse noise reduction in colour images that outperform the vector median filter from the noise reduction capability point of view. Both methods work by determining first the vector median in a given filtering window. Then, the use of complimentary information from componentwise analysis allows to build robust outputs from more reliable components. The correlation among the colour channels is taken into account in the processing and, as a result, a more robust filter able to process colour images without introducing colour artifacts is obtained. Experimental results show that the images filtered with the proposed method contain less noisy pixels than those obtained through the vector median filter. Objective measures demonstrate the goodness of the achieved improvement.

  15. Hyperbolicity in Median Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    José M Sigarreta

    2013-11-01

    If is a geodesic metric space and $x_1,x_2,x_3\\in X$, a geodesic triangle $T=\\{x_1,x_2,x_3\\}$ is the union of the three geodesics $[x_1 x_2],[x_2 x_3]$ and $[x_3 x_1]$ in . The space is -hyperbolic (in the Gromov sense) if any side of is contained in a -neighborhood of the union of the two other sides, for every geodesic triangle in . If is hyperbolic, we denote by () the sharp hyperbolicity constant of , i.e.,$(X)=\\inf\\{≥ 0: X \\quad\\text{is}\\quad -\\text{hyperbolic}\\}$. In this paper we study the hyperbolicity of median graphs and we also obtain some results about general hyperbolic graphs. In particular, we prove that a median graph is hyperbolic if and only if its bigons are thin.

  16. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  17. Atomic layer deposition of ZrO{sub 2} thin film on Si(100) using {η"5:η"1-Cp(CH_2)_3NMe}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2}/O{sub 3} as precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae-Sun, E-mail: jungjes@sbsial.com [Department of Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Soulbrain Sigma-Aldrich Co., Ltd. 34-12, Gongju-si, Chungcheoungnam-do, 314-240 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Kyung; Hong, Chang-Sung; Shin, Jin-Ho; Kim, Jong-Moon [Soulbrain Sigma-Aldrich Co., Ltd. 34-12, Gongju-si, Chungcheoungnam-do, 314-240 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jun-Gill, E-mail: jgkang@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-31

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZrO{sub 2} thin films was investigated using a linked cyclopentadienyl-amido compound of zirconium, {η"5:η"1-Cp(CH_2)_3NMe}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} with ozone. The ALD-window was established as 300–380 °C with a growth rate of about 0.95 Å/cycle. A good film conformality of 0.95 for 5.7–6.1 nm-thick film was obtained for bottom and sidewall step coverages of 0.93 and 0.95, respectively. The ALD at 330 °C yielded a ZrO{sub 2} having good crystallinity. The film showed low impurity levels and a strong tendency to form the tetragonal/cubic phases despite a low film thickness of 8.58 nm (root-mean-square roughness = 0.49 nm). Better ALD performance was obtained with this linked precursor than with the commonly used CpZr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 3} precursor. Furthermore, theoretical calculations for the ALD processes on hydroxylated Si wafer surfaces were performed by using density function theory. Initial growth mechanism of ZrO{sub 2} from CpZr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 3} and {η"5:η"1-Cp(CH_2)_3NMe}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} were proposed on atomic-scale structure. - Highlights: • Linked and non-linked cyclopentadienyl-related Zr(IV) precursors were synthesized. • ZrO{sub 2} thin films were fabricated on Si wafer via atomic layer deposition (ALD). • The linked precursor resulted in excellent thin film, compared with the non-linked one. • Quantum mechanical calculations were performed for initial ALD growth mechanism.

  18. An IIR median hybrid filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Peter H.; Sartori, Michael A.; Bryden, Timothy M.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of nonlinear filters, the so-called class of multidirectional infinite impulse response median hybrid filters, is presented and analyzed. The input signal is processed twice using a linear shift-invariant infinite impulse response filtering module: once with normal causality and a second time with inverted causality. The final output of the MIMH filter is the median of the two-directional outputs and the original input signal. Thus, the MIMH filter is a concatenation of linear filtering and nonlinear filtering (a median filtering module). Because of this unique scheme, the MIMH filter possesses many desirable properties which are both proven and analyzed (including impulse removal, step preservation, and noise suppression). A comparison to other existing median type filters is also provided.

  19. Copper(I) arenethiolates with intramolecular coordination and the formation of mixed organo(arenethiolate) copper(I) aggregates. X-ray structures of trimeric [Cu(S-1-C10H6NMe2-8)]9, and hexanuclear [Cu3(S-1-C10H6NMe2-8)2(C_CtBu)]2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Janssen, M.D.; Donkervoort, J.G.; Berlekom, S.B. van; Spek, A.L.; Grove, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Two new copper(I) arenethiolates with ortho-chelating nitrogen donor atoms [Cu(SC6H4NMe2-2)]3 (5) and [Cu(S-1-C10H6NMe2-8)]9 (6) have been synthesized by reacting Me3SiSAr (Ar = C6H4NMe2-2 or 1-C10H6NMe2-8) with copper(I) chloride in a 1:1 molar ratio. Copper(I) arenethiolate 5 is a white to pale ye

  20. GPU Accelerated Vector Median Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    Noise reduction is an important step for most image processing tasks. For three channel color images, a widely used technique is vector median filter in which color values of pixels are treated as 3-component vectors. Vector median filters are computationally expensive; for a window size of n x n, each of the n(sup 2) vectors has to be compared with other n(sup 2) - 1 vectors in distances. General purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPUs) is the paradigm of utilizing high-performance many-core GPU architectures for computation tasks that are normally handled by CPUs. In this work. NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) paradigm is used to accelerate vector median filtering. which has to the best of our knowledge never been done before. The performance of GPU accelerated vector median filter is compared to that of the CPU and MPI-based versions for different image and window sizes, Initial findings of the study showed 100x improvement of performance of vector median filter implementation on GPUs over CPU implementations and further speed-up is expected after more extensive optimizations of the GPU algorithm .

  1. Non-Local Euclidean Medians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Kunal N; Singer, Amit

    2012-11-01

    In this letter, we note that the denoising performance of Non-Local Means (NLM) can be improved at large noise levels by replacing the mean by the Euclidean median. We call this new denoising algorithm the Non-Local Euclidean Medians (NLEM). At the heart of NLEM is the observation that the median is more robust to outliers than the mean. In particular, we provide a simple geometric insight that explains why NLEM performs better than NLM in the vicinity of edges, particularly at large noise levels. NLEM can be efficiently implemented using iteratively reweighted least squares, and its computational complexity is comparable to that of NLM. We provide some preliminary results to study the proposed algorithm and to compare it with NLM.

  2. Median statistics cosmological parameter values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crandall, Sara, E-mail: sara1990@ksu.edu; Ratra, Bharat, E-mail: ratra@phys.ksu.edu

    2014-05-01

    We present median statistics central values and ranges for 12 cosmological parameters, using 582 measurements (published during 1990–2010) collected by [9]. On comparing to the recent Planck Collaboration [1] estimates of 11 of these parameters, we find good consistency in ten cases.

  3. The nucleoside diphosphate kinase gene Nme3 acts as quantitative trait locus promoting non-Mendelian inheritance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Bauer

    Full Text Available The t-haplotype, a variant form of the t-complex region on mouse chromosome 17, acts as selfish genetic element and is transmitted at high frequencies (> 95% from heterozygous (t/+ males to their offspring. This phenotype is termed transmission ratio distortion (TRD and is caused by the interaction of the t-complex responder (Tcr with several quantitative trait loci (QTL, the t-complex distorters (Tcd1 to Tcd4, all located within the t-haplotype region. Current data suggest that the distorters collectively impair motility of all sperm derived from t/+ males; t-sperm is rescued by the responder, whereas (+-sperm remains partially dysfunctional. Recently we have identified two distorters as regulators of RHO small G proteins. Here we show that the nucleoside diphosphate kinase gene Nme3 acts as a QTL on TRD. Reduction of the Nme3 dosage by gene targeting of the wild-type allele enhanced the transmission rate of the t-haplotype and phenocopied distorter function. Genetic and biochemical analysis showed that the t-allele of Nme3 harbors a mutation (P89S that compromises enzymatic activity of the protein and genetically acts as a hypomorph. Transgenic overexpression of the Nme3 t-allele reduced t-haplotype transmission, proving it to be a distorter. We propose that the NME3 protein interacts with RHO signaling cascades to impair sperm motility through hyperactivation of SMOK, the wild-type form of the responder. This deleterious effect of the distorters is counter-balanced by the responder, SMOK(Tcr, a dominant-negative protein kinase exclusively expressed in t-sperm, thus permitting selfish behaviour and preferential transmission of the t-haplotype. In addition, the previously reported association of NME family members with RHO signaling in somatic cell motility and metastasis, in conjunction with our data involving RHO signaling in sperm motility, suggests a functional conservation between mechanisms for motility control in somatic cells and

  4. Comparison of the reactivity of 2-Li-C6H4CH2NMe2 with MCl4 (M=Th, U): isolation of a thorium aryl complex or a uranium benzyne complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Lani A; Pedrick, Elizabeth A; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Wu, Guang; Jakubikova, Elena; Hayton, Trevor W

    2013-09-27

    Why do U react like that? Reaction of 2-Li-C6H4CH2NMe2 with [MCl4(DME)n] (M=Th, n=2; M=U, n=0) results in the formation of a thorium aryl complex, [Th(2-C6H4CH2NMe2)4] or a uranium benzyne complex, [Li][U(2,3-C6H3CH2NMe2)(2-C6H4CH2NMe2)3]. A DFT analysis suggests that the formation of a benzyne complex with U but not with Th is a kinetic and not thermodynamic effect.

  5. PERSISTENT MEDIAN ARTERY IN THE CARPAL TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raviprasanna.K.H

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Persistent median artery originates from the anterior interosseous artery in proximal one-third of the forearm and accompanies median nerve. Median artery may regress in the forearm or enter palm through the carpal tunnel deep to flexor retinaculum of wrist and supply palm by anastomosing with the superficial palmar arch. Objective: In present study the objective was to study presence of persistent median artery accompanying median nerve and its termination Materials and Methods: The study included 50 human cadaver upper limb specimens at the Department of Anatomy, Mysore Medical College & Research Institute, Mysore during 2011-13. These specimens fixed in 10% formalin were finely dissected and persistent median artery was traced from origin to termination. Results: Out of 50 human cadaver specimens, persistent median artery was present in 4 specimens (8%. All the 4 median arteries originated from anterior interosseous artery and were of palmar type which reached palm. Out of 4 median arteries, 3 median arteries (6% took part in completion of superficial palmar arch, supplying the distal aspect of palm and 1 median artery (2% directly supplied radial two and half fingers without forming arch. Conclusion: Knowledge of unusual variations helps in proper treatment of disorders of the median nerve. Presence of persistent median artery usually will be asymptomatic but may cause symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome or pronator teres syndrome when subjected to compression. Rarely this artery can be taken for reconstruction

  6. Düşünme Stilleri Ve Anne-Baba Tutumları Arasındaki İlişki

    OpenAIRE

    Palut, Birsen

    2008-01-01

    Düşünme stili bireyin zihninde olup bitenlerin ve düşünme süreçlerinin farklı şekillerde dışa yansıması olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Düşünme stillerinin oluşum ve gelişim sürecinde bireyin sosyalleşme süreci önemli bir yer tutmaktadır. Bu süreçte anne ve baba tutumları bireylerde hangi tür düşünme süreçlerinin baskın hale geleceğinin belirlenmesinde en önemli faktörlerden birini oluşturmaktadır. Ailelerin içinde yaşadığı kültürel değerler ve inançlar ebeveynlerin çocuk yetiştirme değerlerini, gel...

  7. Unusual course of the median nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vashishtha K

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One extremely unusual observation has been reported in this case report. During dissection of left hand of an adult human cadaver we found median nerve passing through the substance of flexor retinaculum. Median nerve coursed through the entire extent of flexor retinaculum in a fascial canal. No other structure was found along with nerve in the fascial canal. After emerging from the flexor retinaculum median nerve took its usual course in the hand. To the best of our knowledge this kind of variant median nerve course has not been described in published literature.

  8. Sosiaalisen median strategia : Case Yritys X

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomola, Miikka

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli luoda sosiaalisen median strategia Yritys X:n käyttöön. Tavoitteena oli löytää suomalaiselle telekommunikaatioalalla toimivalle yritykselle sopivat sosiaalisen median kanavat, jotka tarjoavat väylän markkinoinnin tehostamiseen ja yrityksen imagon vahvistamiseen. Toimeksiantaja keskittyy liiketoiminnassaan B2B-liiketoimintaan. Strategia oli ajankohtainen sosiaalisen median roolin jatkuvan kasvun vuoksi. Sosiaalisen median merkitys ja rooli on merkittäv...

  9. Advanced median method for timing jitter compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chen; Zhu Jiangmiao; Jan Verspecht; Liu Mingliang; Li Yang

    2008-01-01

    Timing jitter is one of the main factors that influence on the accuracy of time domain precision measurement. Timing jitter compensation is one of the problems people concern. Because of the flaws of median method, PDF deconvolution method and synthetic method, we put forward a new method for timing jitter compensation, which is called advanced median method. The theory of the advanced median method based on probability and statistics is analyzed, and the process of the advanced median method is summarized in this paper. Simulation and experiment show that compared with other methods, the new method could compensate timing jitter effectively.

  10. Epigenetic suppression of human telomerase (hTERT) is mediated by the metastasis suppressor NME2 in a G-quadruplex dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dhurjhoti; Singh, Ankita; Hussain, Tabish; Srivastava, Vivek; Sengupta, Suman; Kar, Anirban; Dhapola, Parashar; Dhople, Vishnu; Ummani, Ramesh; Chowdhury, Shantanu

    2017-07-17

    Transcriptional activation of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, which remains repressed in adult somatic cells, is critical during tumorigenesis. Several transcription factors and the epigenetic state of the hTERT promoter are known to be important for tight control of hTERT in normal tissues, but the molecular mechanisms leading to hTERT reactivation in cancer are not well understood. Surprisingly, here we found occupancy of the metastasis suppressor nonmetastatic 2 (NME2) within hTERT core promoter in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells and HCT116 colon cancer cells, and NME2 mediated transcriptional repression of hTERT in these cells. We also report that loss of NME2 results in upregulated hTERT expression. Mechanistically, additional results indicated that the RE1 silencing transcription factor (REST), lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1) co-repressor complex associates with the hTERT promoter in a NME2-dependent way, and that this assembly is required for maintaining repressive chromatin at the hTERT promoter. Interestingly, a G-quadruplex motif at the hTERT promoter was essential for occupancy of NME2 and the REST repressor complex on the hTERT promoter. In light of this mechanistic insight, we studied the effects of G quadruplex binding ligands on hTERT expression and observed that several of these ligands repressed hTERT expression. Together, our results support a mechanism of hTERT epigenetic control involving a G quadruplex promoter motif, which potentially can be targeted by tailored small molecules. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. The Ultrasonographic Findings of Bifid Median Nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Jin; Park, Noh Hyuck; Joh, Joon Hee [Myoungji Hospital, Gwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Moon [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    We wanted to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of bifid median nerve and its clinical significance. We retrospectively reviewed five cases (three men and two women, mean age: 54 years) of incidentally found bifid median nerve from 264 cases of clinically suspected carpal-tunnel syndrome that were seen at our hospital during last 6 years. Doppler sonography was performed in all five cases and MR angiography was done in one case for detecting a persistent median artery. The difference ({Delta}CSA) between the sum of the cross-sectional areas of the bifid median nerve at the pisiform level (CSA2) and the cross-sectional area proximal to the bifurcation(CSA1) was calculated. The incidence of a bifid median nerve was 1.9%. All the patients presented with a tingling sensation on a hand and two patients had nocturnal pain. All the cases showed bifurcation of the nerve bundle proximal to the carpal tunnel. The margins appeared relatively smooth and each bundle showed a characteristic fascicular pattern. A persistent median artery was noted between the bundles in four cases. {Delta}CSA was more than 2 mm 2 in four cases. Bifid median nerve with a persistent median artery is a relatively rare normal variance and these are very important findings before performing surgical intervention to avoid potential nerve injury and massive bleeding. We highly suggest that radiologists should understand the anatomical characteristics of this anomaly and make efforts to detect it

  12. Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Roger K

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI is a complex disorder consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects of development resulting from unknown factor(s operating in utero about the 35th–38th day(s from conception. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. Aetiology is uncertain. Missense mutation in the SHH gene (I111F at 7q36 may be associated with SMMCI. The SMMCI tooth differs from the normal central incisor, in that the crown form is symmetric; it develops and erupts precisely in the midline of the maxillary dental arch in both primary and permanent dentitions. Congenital nasal malformation (choanal atresia, midnasal stenosis or congenital pyriform aperture stenosis is positively associated with SMMCI. The presence of an SMMCI tooth can predict associated anomalies and in particular the serious anomaly holoprosencephaly. Common congenital anomalies associated with SMMCI are: severe to mild intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, cleft lip and/or palate and less frequently, microcephaly, hypopituitarism, hypotelorism, convergent strabismus, oesophageal and duodenal atresia, cervical hemivertebrae, cervical dermoid, hypothyroidism, scoliosis, absent kidney, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. Short stature is present in half the children. Diagnosis should be made by eight months of age, but can be made at birth and even prenatally at 18–22 weeks from the routine mid-trimester ultrasound scan. Management depends upon the individual anomalies present. Choanal stenosis requires emergency surgical treatment. Short stature may require growth hormone therapy. SMMCI tooth itself is mainly an aesthetic problem, which is ideally managed by combined orthodontic, prosthodontic and oral surgical treatment; alternatively, it can be left untreated.

  13. Adaptive Marginal Median Filter for Colour Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almanzor Sapena

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new filter for impulse noise reduction in colour images which is aimed at improving the noise reduction capability of the classical vector median filter. The filter is inspired by the application of a vector marginal median filtering process over a selected group of pixels in each filtering window. This selection, which is based on the vector median, along with the application of the marginal median operation constitutes an adaptive process that leads to a more robust filter design. Also, the proposed method is able to process colour images without introducing colour artifacts. Experimental results show that the images filtered with the proposed method contain less noisy pixels than those obtained through the vector median filter.

  14. Four communications between median and musculocutaneous nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article is in reference to a case, encountered in routine dissection, displaying four sites of communication between the musculocutaneous and the median nerves, whereas in the literature not more than two communications have been reported.

  15. Allegheny County Median Age at Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The median age at death is calculated for each municipality in Allegheny County. Data is based on the decedent's residence at the time of death, not the location...

  16. Median nail dystrophy involving the thumb nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahulkrishna Kota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Median canaliform dystrophy of Heller is a rare entity characterized by a midline or a paramedian ridge or split and canal formation in nail plate of one or both the thumb nails. It is an acquired condition resulting from a temporary defect in the matrix that interferes with nail formation. Habitual picking of the nail base may be responsible for some cases. Histopathology classically shows parakeratosis, accumulation of melanin within and between the nail bed keratinocytes. Treatment of median nail dystrophy includes injectable triamcinalone acetonide, topical 0.1% tacrolimus, and tazarotene 0.05%, which is many a times challenging for a dermatologist. Psychiatric opinion should be taken when associated with the depressive, obsessive-compulsive, or impulse-control disorder. We report a case of 19-year-old male diagnosed as median nail dystrophy.

  17. Sosiaalisen median toimintasuunnitelma, case Guild Travel Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhanen, Anni

    2014-01-01

    Tämän työn tarkoituksena on luoda käyttökelpoinen sosiaalisen median markkinointi-suunnitelma lontoolaiselle matkatoimistolle, joka myy matkoja Suomeen. Työn toimek-siantaja on Guild Travel Ltd. Työ toteutettiin vuoden 2014 keväällä. Työssä esitellään toimeksiantaja matkailualan toimijana ja perehdytään markkinoinnin teoriaan. Käsittelyssä ovat useat eri markkinoinnin teoriat, kuten SOSTAC, SMART ja marketing mix. Näitä malleja hyödyntäen luodaan yrityksen sosiaalisen median toimin-tasuun...

  18. Sosiaalisen median merkitys asiakkaan ravintolan valinnalle

    OpenAIRE

    Virtanen, Tessa

    2014-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin sosiaalisen median merkitystä asiakkaan ravintolan valintaan. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana oli HOK-Elanto. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tuottaa tietoa ja ymmärrystä HOK-Elannolle sosiaalisen median vaikutuksesta asiakkaan ravintolapäätöksen tekoon HOK-Elannon ravintoloissa Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää, millainen ja kuinka suuri merkitys on sosiaalisella medialla ja sen erilaisilla yhteisöillä asiakkaan ostopäätökseen eli käyntiin HOK-Elanno...

  19. Management of sternal osteomyelitis and mediastinal infection following median sternotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ju; WANG Wen-zhang; WANG You-li; LU Shu-qiang; CAI Ai-bing; YANG Zhi-fu; HAN Zhi-yi; LI Jiu-jiang; WEN Yu-ming; GENG Feng-yong

    2010-01-01

    Background Median sternotomy is considered the most usually performed procedure in cardiac operations. This study aimed to assess clinical effectiveness of bilateral pectoralis major muscle flaps (BPMMF) for management of sternal osteomyelitis and mediastinal infection following median sternotomy.Methods Clinical data were collected and retrospectively analyzed from twelve patients who underwent the BPMMF transposition for management of sternal osteomyelitis and mediastinal infection following median sternotomy from January 2006 to June 2009. Procedure consisted of rigorous debridement of necrotic tissues, dead space obliteration using the BPMMF, and placement of drainage tubes connected to a negative pressures generator for adequate drainage.Results No patients died of drainage, and all 12 patients had viable BPMMF when discharged from hospital. At 1 week post discharge, 2 patients presented with sternal infection but recovered following local debridement and medication. No patients showed infection recurrence during the follow-up period over 10 months.Conclusions Sternal osteomyelitis and mediastinal infection following median sternotomy may be effectively managed through rigorous debridement of infected soft tissues, resection of the damaged stermal segment, transposition of the BPMMF to fill the damaged sternum resulting from debridement, and adequate postoperative drainage.

  20. Median Citation Index vs Journal Impact Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    2015-03-01

    The Journal Impact Factor is an arithmetic mean: It is the average number of citations, in a year, to a journal's articles that were published the previous two years. But for the vast majority of scholarly journals, the distribution of these citations is skewed (non-symmetric). We argue that a more representative member of the skewed distribution of citations is its median, not the mean. We thus introduce the Median Citation Index (MCI) and compare it to the journal Impact Factor (JIF) as a potentially more suitable choice of the ``center'' of the distribution, or its typical value. Unlike the JIF, the MCI is far less sensitive to outlier (very highly cited) papers or to gaming, and does not lend itself to the hype of calculating it to three decimal digits.

  1. Median sternotomy closure: review and update research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Kun; Yang Xiubin

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac surgery is a very common operation nowadays all over the world. Median stemotomy is a routine procedure required for cardiac access during open heart surgery. The complications of this procedure after the cardiac surgery range from 0.7% to 1.5% of all cases, and bear a high mortality rate if they occur. Every individual surgeon must pay great attention on every detail during the sternal closure. This article shows the details as to conventional information and updated progress on median sternotomy closure. The update contents involve in biomechanics, number of wires twists, biomaterial and so on.According to our experience, we recommend four peristernal single/double steel wires for sternal closure as our optimal choice.

  2. COLOUR IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY USING MEDIAN MAINTENANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arivazhagan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Steganographic algorithms in the recent past have been producing stego images with perceptual invisibility, better secrecy and certain robustness against attacks like cropping, filtering etc. Recovering a good quality secret from a good quality stego image may not always be possible. The method proposed in this paper works in transform domain and attempts to extract the secret almost as same as the embedded one maintaining minimal changes to the cover image by using techniques like median maintenance, offset and quantization.

  3. Shoulder posture and median nerve sliding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilley Andrew

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with upper limb pain often have a slumped sitting position and poor shoulder posture. Pain could be due to poor posture causing mechanical changes (stretch; local pressure that in turn affect the function of major limb nerves (e.g. median nerve. This study examines (1 whether the individual components of slumped sitting (forward head position, trunk flexion and shoulder protraction cause median nerve stretch and (2 whether shoulder protraction restricts normal nerve movements. Methods Longitudinal nerve movement was measured using frame-by-frame cross-correlation analysis from high frequency ultrasound images during individual components of slumped sitting. The effects of protraction on nerve movement through the shoulder region were investigated by examining nerve movement in the arm in response to contralateral neck side flexion. Results Neither moving the head forward or trunk flexion caused significant movement of the median nerve. In contrast, 4.3 mm of movement, adding 0.7% strain, occurred in the forearm during shoulder protraction. A delay in movement at the start of protraction and straightening of the nerve trunk provided evidence of unloading with the shoulder flexed and elbow extended and the scapulothoracic joint in neutral. There was a 60% reduction in nerve movement in the arm during contralateral neck side flexion when the shoulder was protracted compared to scapulothoracic neutral. Conclusion Slumped sitting is unlikely to increase nerve strain sufficient to cause changes to nerve function. However, shoulder protraction may place the median nerve at risk of injury, since nerve movement is reduced through the shoulder region when the shoulder is protracted and other joints are moved. Both altered nerve dynamics in response to moving other joints and local changes to blood supply may adversely affect nerve function and increase the risk of developing upper quadrant pain.

  4. Portfolio optimization using median-variance approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Mohd, Wan Rosanisah; Mohamad, Daud; Mohamed, Zulkifli

    2013-04-01

    Optimization models have been applied in many decision-making problems particularly in portfolio selection. Since the introduction of Markowitz's theory of portfolio selection, various approaches based on mathematical programming have been introduced such as mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, mean-variance-skewness and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) mainly to maximize return and minimize risk. However most of the approaches assume that the distribution of data is normal and this is not generally true. As an alternative, in this paper, we employ the median-variance approach to improve the portfolio optimization. This approach has successfully catered both types of normal and non-normal distribution of data. With this actual representation, we analyze and compare the rate of return and risk between the mean-variance and the median-variance based portfolio which consist of 30 stocks from Bursa Malaysia. The results in this study show that the median-variance approach is capable to produce a lower risk for each return earning as compared to the mean-variance approach.

  5. Medians and means in Finsler geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaudon, Marc

    2010-01-01

    We investigate existence and uniqueness of p-means and the median of a probability measure on a Finsler manifold, in relation with the convexity of the support of the measure. We prove that the p-mean is the limit point of a continuous time gradient flow. Under some additional condition which is always satisfied for larger than or equal to 2, a discretization of this path converges to the p-mean. This provides an algorithm for determining those Finsler center points.

  6. Robust non-local median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes a novel image filter with superior performance on detail-preserving removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on natural gray-scale images. The non-local means filter is in the limelight as a way of Gaussian noise removal with superior performance on detail preservation. By referring the fundamental concept of the non-local means, we had proposed a non-local median filter as a specialized way for random-valued impulse noise removal so far. In the non-local processing, the output of a filter is calculated from pixels in blocks which are similar to the block centered at a pixel of interest. As a result, aggressive noise removal is conducted without destroying the detailed structures in an original image. However, the performance of non-local processing decreases enormously in the case of high noise occurrence probability. A cause of this problem is that the superimposed noise disturbs accurate calculation of the similarity between the blocks. To cope with this problem, we propose an improved non-local median filter which is robust to the high level of corruption by introducing a new similarity measure considering possibility of being the original signal. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural gray-scale images.

  7. Inference with the Median of a Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad-Djafari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of inference on one of the two parameters of a probability distribution when we have some prior information on a nuisance parameter. When a prior probability distribution on this nuisance parameter is given, the marginal distribution is the classical tool to account for it. If the prior distribution is not given, but we have partial knowledge such as a fixed number of moments, we can use the maximum entropy principle to assign a prior law and thus go back to the previous case. In this work, we consider the case where we only know the median of the prior and propose a new tool for this case. This new inference tool looks like a marginal distribution. It is obtained by first remarking that the marginal distribution can be considered as the mean value of the original distribution with respect to the prior probability law of the nuisance parameter, and then, by using the median in place of the mean.

  8. Outcome of contralateral C7 nerve transferring to median nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Kai-ming; LAO Jie; ZHAO Xin; GU Yu-dong

    2013-01-01

    Background Contralateral C7 (cC7) transfer had been widely used in many organizations in the world,but the outcomes were significantly different.So the purpose of the study was to evaluate the outcome of patients treated with cC7 transferring to median nerve and to determine the factors affecting the outcome of this procedure.Methods A retrospective review of 51 patients with total root avulsion brachial plexus injuries who underwent cC7 transfer was conducted.All of the surgeries were performed with two surgery stages and median nerve was the recipient nerve.The cC7 nerve was used in three different ways.The entire C7 root was used in 11 patients; the posterior division together with the lateral part of the anterior division was used in 15 patients; the anterior or the posterior division alone was used in 25 patients.The mean follow-up period was 6.9 years.Results The efficiency of the surgery in these 51 patients was 49.02% in motor and 62.75% in sensory function.The patients with entire C7 root transfer obtained significantly better recovery in both motor and sensory function than the patients with partial C7 transfer.The best function recovery could be induced if the interval between the two surgery stages was 4-8 months.Conclusions cC7 transfer is an effective procedure in repairing median nerve.But using the entire C7 root transfer can obtain better recovery; so we emphasize using the entire root as the donor.The optimal interval between two surgery stages is 4-8 months.

  9. Robust Mediation Analysis Based on Median Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; MacKinnon, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Mediation analysis has many applications in psychology and the social sciences. The most prevalent methods typically assume that the error distribution is normal and homoscedastic. However, this assumption may rarely be met in practice, which can affect the validity of the mediation analysis. To address this problem, we propose robust mediation analysis based on median regression. Our approach is robust to various departures from the assumption of homoscedasticity and normality, including heavy-tailed, skewed, contaminated, and heteroscedastic distributions. Simulation studies show that under these circumstances, the proposed method is more efficient and powerful than standard mediation analysis. We further extend the proposed robust method to multilevel mediation analysis, and demonstrate through simulation studies that the new approach outperforms the standard multilevel mediation analysis. We illustrate the proposed method using data from a program designed to increase reemployment and enhance mental health of job seekers. PMID:24079925

  10. Ultra Low-Power Analog Median Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Diaz-Sanchez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of three analog median filter topologies, whose transistors operate in the deep weak-inversion region, is described. The first topology is a differential pairs array, in which drain currents are driven into two nodes in a differential fashion, while the second topology is based on a wide range OTA, which is used to maximize the dynamic range. Finally, the third topology uses three range-extended OTAs. The proposed weak-inversion filters were designed and fabricated in ON Semiconductor 0.5 micrometer technology through MOSIS. Experimental results of three-input fabricated prototypes for all three topologies are show, where power consumptions of 90nW in the first case, and 270nW in the other two cases can be noticed. A dual power supply +/-1.5 Volts were used.

  11. Synthesis of undoped and manganese-doped hgte nanoparticles using [Hg(TeCH2CH2NMe2)2] as a single source precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedarnath, Gotluru; Dey, Sandip; Jain, Vimal K; Dey, Gautam K; Kadam, Ramakant M

    2008-09-01

    The Reaction of [HgCl2(tmeda)] with NaTeCH2CH2NMe2 gave a mercury tellurolate, [Hg(TeCH2CH2. NMe2)2] (1) as a yellow crystalline solid, which was characterized by elemental analysis, UV-vis, mass and NMR (1H, 13C, 125Te, 199Hg) spectroscopy. Thermolysis of 1 in hexadecylamine (HDA) at 90 degrees C in the absence and presence of Mn(OAc)2.4H2O gave undoped and Mn-doped HgTe nanoparticles which were characterized by XRD, EDAX, TEM, EPR and magnetic measurements. These particles could be synthesized with mean particle size of 6-7 nm (from TEM). Manganese substitution at Hg site in HgTe lead to a linear decrease in lattice parameter with increasing concentration of Mn. Magnetization measurements showed ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature with very small coercive field (Hc, 50 Oe) for Hg0.973 Mn0.027 Te sample. This sample also exhibited distinct ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in the EPR spectrum.

  12. [Safety of repeat median sternotomy in the palliative treatment of patients with univentricular heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díliz-Nava, Héctor; Meléndez-Sagaón, Isis; Tamaríz-Cruz, Orlando; García-Benitez, Luis; Araujo-Martínez, Aric; Palacios-Macedo, Alexis

    2017-01-13

    Establish the morbidity and mortality of patients with univentricular hearts who underwent repeat median sternotomy at the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría METHOD: We retrospectively review the clinical charts of all patient who underwent repeat median sternotomy from 2001 to 2016. Sixty-five patients underwent 76 surgeries through repeat median sternotomy. Fifty-nine patients had a first repeat median sternotomy with a mean age of 36months (range 4-176months) and a mean weight of 12.2kg (range 3.2-21.5kg). Forty patients had a Glenn procedure and 19 patients had a Fontan procedure. There were 17 patients with second repeat median sternotomy, mean age of 89months (range 48-156months) and mean weight of 22.7kg (14.4-41kg). In all 17 patients a Fontan procedure was done. Section of the right coronary artery with electrocardiographic changes and a right atrium tear that caused hypotension, occurred during first repeat sternotomy. An aortic tear occurred during a second repeat sternotomy with massive bleeding and consequent death. This represents a 3.9% of reentry injury. We conclude that repeat median sternotomy is a safe procedure. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiographic signs of open median sternotomy in neonates and infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, George [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA (United States); Jaimes, Camilo; Markowitz, Richard I. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gaynor, J.W. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Leaving the median sternotomy wound open following cardiac surgery is employed to avoid cardiovascular compression. Horizontal struts can be used. Radiologists interpreting portable radiographs might be unaware of the open median sternotomy (OMS). To describe the frequency of radiographic signs of OMS and to increase awareness among radiologists to prevent misdiagnosis of pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. Radiographs of 41 infants (17 girls/24 boys) with OMS were studied (age range 2 days to 8 months, mean 33 days). Central lucency and sternal edges were noted. Interclavicular distances before and after sternotomy were compared. Central lucency was seen in 25/41 (61%) children. Sternal struts were apparent in 27 (66%). In 14 without struts, central lucency was present in 8 (57%). In 27 children with struts, central lucency was present in 17 (63%) and absent in 10 (37%). Split sternal centers were identified in 6/41 (15%). The mean interclavicular distance was 23.5 mm (SD = 4.39) before sternotomy and 38.2 mm (SD = 7.0 mm) after sternotomy (P < 0.001). OMS has characteristic signs in the majority of cases. Recognition of these findings is useful and can prevent misinterpretation. (orig.)

  14. Sequential C-H and C-Ru Bond Formation and Cleavage During the Thermally Induced Rearrangement of Aryl Ruthenium(II) Complexes with [C6H3(CH2NMe2)2-2,6]-as a Bidentate n2-C,N Coordinated Ligand. The Crystal Structures of the Isomeric Pairs [RuCI{n6-C10H14 n2-C,n-C6H3(CH2NMe2)2,n}] (N=4 or 6) and [Ru(n5-C5H5){n2-C,N-C6H3(CH2NMe2)2-2,n}(PPh)] (n= 4 or 6)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Steenwinkel, P.; James, S.L.; Gossage, R.A.; Grove, D.M.; Kooijman, H.; Smeets, W.J.J.; Spek, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    New air-stable ruthenium(II) complexes that contain the aryldiamine ligand [C6H3(CH2NMe2)2-2,6]- (NCN) are described. These complexes are [RuCl{2-C,N-C6H3(CH2NMe2)2-2,6}(6-C10H14)] (2; C10H14 = p-cymene = C6H4Me-iPr-4), [Ru{2-C,N-C6H3(CH2NMe2)2-2,6}(5-C5H5)(PPh3)] (5), and their isomeric forms [RuCl

  15. Monthly errors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2006 monthly average statistical metrics for 2m Q (g kg-1) domain-wide for the base and MODIS WRF simulations against MADIS observations. This dataset is...

  16. Hf(NMe2)4-Catalyzed aza-Michael addition of aromatic amines and acrylates%Hf(NMe2)4催化下芳香胺与丙烯酸叔丁酯的氮杂迈克加成反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 李玉峰; 潘毅; 陈强; 庄韦; 冯美丽; 朱红军

    2013-01-01

    研究了以Hf(NMe2)4为催化剂的芳香胺与丙烯酸叔丁酯的氮杂迈克加成反应,讨论了催化反应过程中催化剂用量,反应温度,以及芳胺取代基对反应收事的影响.利用该方法合成了6种取代的氮杂加成产物,并对反应条件进行优化,使收率在18 ~63%之间.研究发现,芳香胺上取代基的给电子能力越强,反应收率越高,产物结构经1H NMR,13C NMR表征,证明为目标产物.%Hf(NMe2)4 were used as catalysts to study the aza-michael addition between arylamines with different electronic effect groups and tert-butyl acrylate. It is found that the aromatic amines can only react with one molecule of acrylate to generate secondary amines. Being catalyzed by Hf( NME2)4, in toluene,under 100 ℃,tert-butyl acrylate were reacted with six kinds of arylamines with different electronic effect substituent groups. We find that,the stronger the electron capacity of the substituent,the higher the yield of the reaction(from 18% to 63% ). The products were characterized by 1H NMR and 13C NMR,there were proved to be the target compounds.

  17. Reorganisation of alkyl chains in vesicles formed in aqueous solution by dialkyldimethylammonium bromide, R2N+Me2Br- where R = C12H25, C14H29, C16H33 or C18H37

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blandamer, Michael J.; Briggs, Barbara; Cullis, Paul M.; Kirby, Stuart D.; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.

    1997-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) scans are reported for aqueous solutions containing vesicles formed by four dialkyldimethylammonium bromides; R2N+Me2Br- where R = dodecyl (DDAB), tetradecyl (DTAB), hexadecyl (DHAB) or octadecyl (DOAB). Electron micrographs of DTAB (aq; 2x10-3 mol dm-3) confi

  18. Electrodiagnostic evaluation of median nerve conduction in Type II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-12-29

    Dec 29, 2015 ... them at high risk of developingdevastating hand and foot .... range in the case of parametric and non- parametric data ... The median value of median nerve velocities. (motor) with ... clinical approaches are, to a large extent,.

  19. Intraneural fibroma of the median nerve at the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anthony M; Folpe, Andrew L; Wenger, Doris E; Spinner, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Distal median neuropathy from carpal tunnel syndrome is the most well known lesion affecting the median nerve. Mass lesions may affect the nerve at the wrist. We present to our knowledge the first histologically confirmed case of an intraneural fibroma.

  20. EMG MEDIAN POWER FREQUENCY IN AN EXHAUSTING EXERCISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AMENT, W; BONGA, GJJ; HOF, AL; VERKERKE, GJ

    1993-01-01

    EMG median power frequency of the calf muscles was investigated during an exhausting treadmill exercise. This exercise was an uphill run, the average endurance time was 1.5 min. Median power frequency of the calf muscles declined by more than 10% during this exercise. In addition EMG median power fr

  1. EMG MEDIAN POWER FREQUENCY IN AN EXHAUSTING EXERCISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AMENT, W; BONGA, GJJ; HOF, AL; VERKERKE, GJ

    1993-01-01

    EMG median power frequency of the calf muscles was investigated during an exhausting treadmill exercise. This exercise was an uphill run, the average endurance time was 1.5 min. Median power frequency of the calf muscles declined by more than 10% during this exercise. In addition EMG median power fr

  2. Compression of the median nerve in the proximal forearm by a giant lipoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Toole Greg A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compression of the median nerve by a tumour in the elbow and forearm region is rare. We present a case of neuropathy of the median nerve secondary to compression by giant lipoma in the proximal forearm. Case presentation A 46-year-old man presented with a six month history of gradually worsening numbness and paresthesia on the palmar aspect of the left thumb and thenar eminence. Clinical examination reveals a hypoaesthesia in the median nerve area of the left index and thumb compared to the contralateral side. Electromyography showed prolonged sensory latency in the distribution of the median nerve corresponding to compression in the region of the pronator teres (pronator syndrome. Radiological investigations were initially reported as normal. Conservative treatment for one month did not result in any improvement. Surgical exploration was performed and a large intermuscular lipoma enveloped the median nerve was found. A complete excision of the tumour was performed. Postoperative revaluation the X-ray of the elbow was seen to demonstrate a well-circumscribed mass in the anterior aspect of the proximal forearm. At follow-up, 14 months after surgery, the patient noted complete return of the sensation and resolution of the paresthesia. Conclusion In case of atypical findings or non frequent localization of nerve compression, clinically interpreted as an idiopathic compression, it is recommended to make a pre-operative complementary Ultrasound or MRI study.

  3. Stabilization and reactivity of a terminal phosphidounit on Pt(II). Synthesis and X-ray structure of cationic diphelylphosphine [Pt{C6H3(CH2NMe2)2-2,6}(PHPh2)][CF3SO3] and Diphenyl-phosphido Bridged Pt(II)-Pd(II) Complex [Pt{C6H3(CH2NMe2)2-2,6} (µ-PPh2) Pd(C6H4CH2NMe2-2)(H2O)][BF4] CH2Cl2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Maassarani, F.; Davidson, M.F.; Wehman-Ooyevaar, ICM; Grove, D.M.; Koten, M.A. van; Smeets, W.J.J.; Spek, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Reaction of diphenylphosphine with the complexes [Pt(NCN)(H{2}O)]X (NCN = C{6}H{3}(CH{2}NMe{2}){2}-2, 6; X = BF{4} (1a), OSO{2}CF{3} (1b)) leads to substitution of the H{2}O ligand to afford the ionic Pt(II) complexes [Pt(NCN)(PHPh{2})]X (X = BF{4} (2a), OSO{2}CF{3} (2b)). The X-ray structure of the

  4. Medians and means in Riemannian geometry: existence, uniqueness and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaudon, Marc; Yang, Le

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a short summary of our recent work on the medians and means of probability measures in Riemannian manifolds. Firstly, the existence and uniqueness results of local medians are given. In order to compute medians in practical cases, we propose a subgradient algorithm and prove its convergence. After that, Fr\\'echet medians are considered. We prove their statistical consistency and give some quantitative estimations of their robustness with the aid of upper curvature bounds. We also show that, in compact Riemannian manifolds, the Fr\\'echet medians of generic data points are always unique. Stochastic and deterministic algorithms are proposed for computing Riemannian p-means. The rate of convergence and error estimates of these algorithms are also obtained. Finally, we apply the medians and the Riemannian geometry of Toeplitz covariance matrices to radar target detection.

  5. LANGUAGE SKILLS AND THE CRITICAL THINKING DİL BECERİLERİ VE ELEŞTİREL DÜŞÜNME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan KARADÜZ

    2010-07-01

    şturulan ilköğretim programında yer verilen sekiz temel beceriden birisi de eleştirel düşünme becerisidir. Eleştirel düşünmenin Türkçe öğretiminde de öğrencilere kazandırılması programın hedeflerinin gerçekleştirilmesi bakımından önem taşımaktadır. Eleştirel düşünmenin, programda yer alan yaratıcı düşünme, iletişim, araştırma-sorgulama, problem çözme, bilgi teknolojilerini kullanma, girişimcilik, Türkçeyi doğru, etkili ve güzel kullanma gibi becerilerle de ilişkisi vardır.Eleştirel düşünme; kuşku temelli sorgulayıcı bir yaklaşımla konulara bakma, yorum yapma ve karar verme becerisidir. Sebep-sonuç ilişkisini bulma, ayrıntılarda benzerlik ve farklılıkları yakalama, çeşitli ölçütleri kullanarak sıralama yapma, verilen bilgilerin kabul edilebilirliğini, geçerliliğini belirleme, analiz etme, değerlendirme, anlamlandırma, çıkarımda bulunma gibi alt becerileri içerir. Türkçe öğretiminde eleştirel düşünme becerilerini kazandırma, dil becerilerinin desteklenip geliştirilmesi bakımından oldukça önemlidir. Dinleme, konuşma, okuma ve yazma gibi temel dil becerilerine ait kazanımların gerçekleştirilebilmesi için öğrencilerin eleştirel düşünme becerilerini geliştirmek gerekir. Eleştirel okuma, eleştirel dinleme, eleştirel konuşma ve eleştirel yazma ile ilgili kazanımların varlığı eleştirel düşünmeye bağlıdır. Öğrencilerin temel dil becerilerinin geliştirilebilmesi için eleştirel düşünme becerilerini öğrenme ortamında yaşatacak yöntem ve tekniklere yer vermek gerekir. Öğrenme ortamında eleştirel düşünme atmosferi oluşturmada öğretmenin rolü, yaklaşımı ve bu beceriye sahip olması da oldukça önemlidir.Dil becerilerinin temel becerilerle ilişkilendirilerek öğretilmesi, yapılandırmacı programda esas alınan öğrenme felsefesinin gereğidir. Düşüncenin temel aracı olan dilin eğitiminde de eleştirel düşünebilen öğrenciler yeti

  6. Some properties of Fr\\'echet medians in Riemannian manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Le

    2011-01-01

    The consistency of Fr\\'echet medians is proved for probability measures in proper metric spaces. In the context of Riemannian manifolds, assuming that the probability measure has more than a half mass lying in a convex ball and verifies some concentration conditions, the positions of its Fr\\'echet medians are estimated. It is also shown that, in compact Riemannian manifolds, the Fr\\'echet sample medians of generic data points are always unique.

  7. Duration of symptomatology and median segmental sensory latency in 993 carpal tunnel syndrome hands (668 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOUYOUMDJIAN JOAO ARIS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available According to median sensory nerve action potential onset-latency to index finger in a 140 mm fixed distance, 993 carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS hands from 668 patients were grouped into MIld (3.0 to 3.5 ms, 384 hands, MOderate (3.6 to 4.4 ms, 332 hands, SEvere (> 4.4 ms, 135 hands and UNrecordable (142 hands and correlated with CTS symptomatology duration. All patients have sensory antidromic median-radial latency difference (MRD e > or = 1.0 ms without any doubt about CTS diagnosis. Patients with systemic disease, trauma or previous surgery were excluded. There is a remarkable cumulative percentage increase from 1 to 12 months in group UN (3.5% to 38.7%, 11 folds, much less than the group MI (13.8% to 54.6%, 3.9 folds. There is also a remarkable non-cumulative percentage increase in group UN, from 1 to 4-12 months; the group MI had a relatively uniform distribution in all symptomatic duration groups from 1 to > 60 months. The conclusion is that median nerve compression at carpal tunnel can lead to unrecordable potentials in a relatively short period from 1 to 12 months of evolution, suggesting acute/subacute deterioration. Electrophysiological evaluation must be done periodically in patients that underwent clinical treatment, since cumulative 38.7% of group UN was found in 12 months period.

  8. Preparation and Reactions of Base-FreeBis(1,2,4-tri-tert-butylcyclopentadienyl)uranium Methylimide, Cp'2U=NMe,and Related Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zi, Guofu; Blosch, Laura L.; Jia, Li; Andersen, Richard A.

    2005-05-27

    The uranium metallocenes, [eta5-1,3-(Me3E)2C5H3]2UMe2 (E =C, Si), react with NH3 to give the dimers{[eta5-1,3-(Me3E)2C5H3]2U}2(mu-NH)2 (E = C (1), Si (2)) but withp-toluidine to give the monomeric diamides,[eta5-1,3-(Me3E)2C5H3]2U(NH-p-tolyl)2 (E = C (3), Si (4)). The diamides[eta5-1,3-(Me3E)2C5H3]2U(NH-p-tolyl)2 (E = C (3), Si (4)) do noteliminate p- toluidine but sublime intact at 140oC in vacuum. The uraniummetallocene, [eta5-1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2UMe2, reacts with RNH2 to yield[eta5-1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2U(NHR)2 (R = Me (8), PhCH2 (9), p-tolyl (10)),which are isolated as crystalline solids. In benzene solution thesediamides are in equilibrium with [eta5-1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2U=NR, which maybe isolated pure when R is Me (11) or p-tolyl (12), and the primaryamine. The monomeric imide, [eta5-1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2U=NMe (11), reactswith R'=CR' to yield the cycloaddition products[eta5-1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2U[N(Me)C(R')=C(R')](R' = Me (15), Ph (16)),which react with excess MeNH2 to regenerate the diamide[eta5-1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2U(NHMe)2 (8) and MeN=C(R')CH(R'). Themethylimide, [eta5-1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2U=NMe (11), does not react withMe3SiX reagents; a model is proposed that rationalizes this reactivitypattern.

  9. Comparison of the reactivity of 2-Li-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 2}NMe{sub 2} with MCl{sub 4} (M=Th, U): isolation of a thorium aryl complex or a uranium benzyne complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaman, Lani A.; Pedrick, Elizabeth A.; Wu, Guang; Hayton, Trevor W. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Tsuchiya, Takashi; Jakubikova, Elena [Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2013-09-27

    Reaction of 2-Li-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 2}NMe{sub 2} with [MCl{sub 4}(DME){sub n}] (M=Th, n=2; M=U, n=0) results in the formation of a thorium aryl complex, [Th(2-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 2}NMe{sub 2}){sub 4}] or a uranium benzyne complex, [Li][U(2,3-C{sub 6}H{sub 3}CH{sub 2}NMe{sub 2})(2-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 2}NMe{sub 2}){sub 3}]. A DFT analysis suggests that the formation of a benzyne complex with U but not with Th is a kinetic and not thermodynamic effect. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Adaptive Threshold Median Filter for Multiple-Impulse Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Bo; HUANG Wei

    2007-01-01

    Attenuating the noises plays an essential role in the image processing. Almost all the traditional median filters concern the removal of impulse noise having a single layer, whose noise gray level value is constant. In this paper, a new adaptive median filter is proposed to handle those images corrupted not only by single layer noise. The adaptive threshold median filter(ATMF) has been developed by combining the adaptive median filter (AMF) and two dynamic thresholds. Because of the dynamic threshold being used, the ATMF is able to balance the removal of the multiple-impulse noise and the quality of image. Comparison of the proposed method with traditional median filters is provided. Some visual examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed Filter.

  11. Head rotation and sound image localization in the median plane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Dan; XIE Bosun

    2005-01-01

    The effect of head rotation on median plane sound source (or image) localization is studied. It is suggested that, at low frequency, the change of interaural time difference (ITD) caused by head rotation supplies information for determining sound source direction in the median plane. Based on the suggestion, the summed sound image localization equations for multiple loudspeakers arranged in the median plane are derived. Especially, for a pair of loudspeakers arranged front-back symmetrically in the median plane, the localization equations are similar to that of stereophonic sound in horizontal plane. A sound image localization experiment was carried out to prove the theoretical analysis. The results of this paper are not only available to virtual spatial auditory, but also supply a quantitative validation of the hypothesis that head rotation is a cue for sound source localization in the median plane at low frequency.

  12. Mono-, di- and tetranuclear rhodium(I) complexes of morpholine and -methylpiperazine functionalized cyclodiphosph(III)azanes, cis-[(tBuN-)2(PNC4H8X)2] (X = O, NMe)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maravanji S Balakrishna; D Suresh; Joel T Mague

    2011-11-01

    The reactions of cyclodiphosphazanes, cis-[(tBuN-)2(PNC4H8O)2] (1, R = NC4H8O; 2, R = NC4H8NMe ) (2) with [{RhCl(COD)}2] and [{RhCl(CO)2}2] are described. The reactions of 1 or 2 with [{RhCl(COD)}2] in 2:1 molar ratio yielded the mononuclear complexes [(COD)RhCl{(-NtBuP)2(NC4H8X)2}] (3, X = O; 4, X = NMe) in good yield. Treatment of one equivalent of [{RhCl(CO)2}2] with four equivalents of 1 or 2 produced the trans-[(CO)RhCl{(-NtBuP)2(NC4H8X)2}2] (5, X = O; 6, X = NMe) complexes as pale yellow solids. On changing the molar ratio of [{RhCl(CO)2}2] and 1 or 2 from 1:4 to 1:1 resulted in the formation of tetranuclear complexes [{(CO)Rh(-Cl)(-NtBuP)(NC4H8X)}4] (7, X = O; 8, X = NMe) under similar reaction conditions. The tetranuclear rhodium(I) complex 8 upon stirring with wet acetonitrile or in the presence of four equivalents of water at room temperature afforded a novel hydroxo bridged zwitterionic dirhodium(I) complex [{(ClRh(CO))2(-OH)(MeNC4H8N)(-NBuP)2(NC4H8NHMe)}] (9). The crystal structures of 5, 6 and 9 were established by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

  13. Comparison of the reactivity of 2-Li-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 2}NMe{sub 2} with MCl{sub 4} (M=Th, U). Isolation of a thorium aryl complex or a uranium benzyne complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaman, Lani A.; Pedrick, Elizabeth A.; Wu, Guang; Hayton, Trevor W. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Jakubikova, Elena [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2013-09-27

    Individualism under actinoids: The reaction of 2-Li-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 2}NMe{sub 2} with [MCl{sub 4} (dme) {sub n}] (M=Th, n=2; M=U, n=0) gives the thorium aryl complex [Th(2-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 2}NMe{sub 2}){sub 4}] or the uranium benzene complex Li[U(2,3-C{sub 6}H{sub 3}CH{sub 2}NMe{sub 2})(2-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 2}NMe{sub 2}){sub 3}]. A DFT analysis suggests that the formation of a benzyne complex with uranium but not with thorium is a kinetic and not thermodynamic effect. [German] Individualismus unter Actinoiden: Die Reaktion von 2-Li-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 2}NMe{sub 2} mit [MCl{sub 4} (dme) {sub n}] (M=Th, n=2; M=U, n=0) ergibt den Thoriumarylkomplex [Th(2-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 2}NMe{sub 2}){sub 4}] bzw. den Uranbenz-inkomplex Li[U(2,3-C{sub 6}H{sub 3}CH{sub 2}NMe{sub 2})(2-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 2}NMe{sub 2}){sub 3}]. Einer dichtefunktionaltheoretischen Analyse zufolge ist es kinetisch und nicht thermodynamisch bedingt, dass der Benz-inkomplex im Fall von Uran entsteht, nicht aber im Fall von Thorium.

  14. 10-Dimethylamino Derivatives of Benzo[h]quinoline and Benzo[h]quinazolines: Fluorescent Proton Sponge Analogues with Opposed peri-NMe2/-N═ Groups. How to Distinguish between Proton Sponges and Pseudo-Proton Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozharskii, Alexander F; Ozeryanskii, Valery A; Mikshiev, Vladimir Y; Antonov, Alexander S; Chernyshev, Anatoly V; Metelitsa, Anatoly V; Borodkin, Gennady S; Fedik, Nikita S; Dyablo, Olga V

    2016-07-01

    For the first time, 10-dimethylamino derivatives of benzo[h]quinoline 6 and benzo[h]quinazoline 7a-e as mixed analogues of archetypal 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene ("proton sponge") 1 and quino[7,8-h]quinoline 2a have been examined. Similar to 1 and 2, compounds 6 and 7 display rather high basicity, forming chelated monocations. At the same time, unexpected specifics of the protonated NMe2/-N═ systems consist of a strong shift of the NH proton to the 10-NMe2 group, contrary to the "aniline-pyridine" basicity rule. In case of 4H(+), a rapid migration (in the NMR time scale) of the NH proton between two nitrogen atoms along the N-H···N hydrogen bond was registered at room temperature and frozen below -30 °C with the proton fixed on the NMe2 group. Two different approaches for classification of strong neutral nitrogen organic bases as proton sponges (kinetically inert compounds) or pseudo-proton sponges (kinetically active) are discussed. On this basis, benzoquinoline 6 was identified as staying closer to pseudo-proton sponges while 7a-e to proton sponges due to the presence in their molecules of bulky substituents in the pyrimidine ring. Other remarkable peculiarities of 6 and 7 are their yellow color and luminescence in the visible region distinguishing them from colorless 1 and 2a.

  15. Median cleft of the upper lip associated with a mass: a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Xin-Chun; Zheng, Lian; Xu, Pu; Liu, De-Yu

    2014-12-01

    Median cleft lip is a midline vertical cleft through the upper lip. This is a very rare anomaly described in the literature. Median cleft lip is caused by the failure of fusion of the medial nasal prominences. In this case report, a 4-month-old boy with a median cleft associated with a mass of the upper lip is presented. The patient has no other anomalies of the nose or alveolus. The patient has normotelorism. A Z-plasty technique was used on the skin of the base of the columella. A vertical excision of the cleft with muscle approximation was performed on the white roll and the wet-dry border of either side of the defect of the upper lip. Postoperatively, the patient had a satisfactory result. The incisive scars were not visible. Cupid's bow was appropriately aligned, and the height of the upper lip was equal on both sides.

  16. Differences in excitability between median and superficial radial sensory axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Yumi; Kanai, Kazuaki; Misawa, Sonoko; Shibuya, Kazumoto; Isose, Sagiri; Nasu, Saiko; Sekiguchi, Yukari; Ohmori, Shigeki; Noto, Yu-ichi; Kugio, Yumiko; Shimizu, Toshio; Matsubara, Shiro; Lin, Cindy S Y; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in excitability properties of human median and superficial radial sensory axons (e.g., axons innervating the glabrous and hairy skin in the hand). Previous studies have shown that excitability properties differ between motor and sensory axons, and even among sensory axons between median and sural sensory axons. In 21 healthy subjects, threshold tracking was used to examine excitability indices such as strength-duration time constant, threshold electrotonus, supernormality, and threshold change at the 0.2 ms inter-stimulus interval in latent addition. In addition, threshold changes induced by ischemia for 10 min were compared between median and superficial radial sensory axons. Compared with radial sensory axons, median axons showed shorter strength-duration time constant, greater threshold changes in threshold electrotonus (fanning-out), greater supernormality, and smaller threshold changes in latent addition. Threshold changes in both during and after ischemia were greater for median axons. These findings suggest that membrane potential in human median sensory axons is more negative than in superficial radial axons, possibly due to greater activity of electrogenic Na(+)/K(+) pump. These results may reflect adaptation to impulses load carried by median axons that would be far greater with a higher frequency. Biophysical properties are not identical in different human sensory axons, and therefore their responses to disease may differ. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Siun M

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression.

  18. Median age at death as an indicator of premature mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Jannerfeldt, Eric; Hörte, Lars-Gunnar

    1988-01-01

    The median age at death from certain diseases was calculated for each year for 1969-85 and compared with that at death from all causes. The results indicated the impact of these diseases in terms of premature mortality and changes over time. Cancer was a more important cause of premature mortality among women than among men. For cancer of the cervix the median age at death increased appreciably whereas for cancer of the lung in women it slightly decreased. The median age at death is easy to c...

  19. Concurrent Variations of Lateral Pectoral, Median, and Musculocutaneous Nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satheesha B Nayak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus frequently presents variations of its cords and branches. We saw concurrent variations of lateral pectoral, median and musculocutaneous nerves. There were two lateral pectoral nerves. Median nerve was formed by the union of 3 roots; two lateral roots and one medial root. Medial root arose from the ulnar nerve. Musculocutaneous nerve did not pierce the coracobrachialis muscle. There was a thick communicating branch between the musculocutaneous and median nerves. Though there are reports on individual variations mentioned above, it is very rare to see all of them in the same individual. Knowledge of these variations may be handy in axillary lymph node clearance and performing nerve blocks

  20. A theoretical analysis of the median LMF adaptive algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Tommy Kristensen; Rusu, C.

    1999-01-01

    Higher order adaptive algorithms are sensitive to impulse interference. In the case of the LMF (Least Mean Fourth), an easy and effective way to reduce this is to median filter the instantaneous gradient of the LMF algorithm. Although previous published simulations have indicated that this reduces...... the speed of convergence, no analytical studies have yet been made to prove this. In order to enhance the usability, this paper presents a convergence and steady-state analysis of the median LMF adaptive algorithm. As expected this proves that the median LMF has a slower convergence and a lower steady...

  1. An exact solver for the DCJ median problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Arndt, William; Tang, Jijun

    2009-01-01

    The "double-cut-and-join" (DCJ) model of genome rearrangement proposed by Yancopoulos et al. uses the single DCJ operation to account for all genome rearrangement events. Given three signed permutations, the DCJ median problem is to find a fourth permutation that minimizes the sum of the pairwise DCJ distances between it and the three others. In this paper, we present a branch-and-bound method that provides accurate solution to the multichromosomal DCJ median problems. We conduct extensive simulations and the results show that the DCJ median solver performs better than other median solvers for most of the test cases. These experiments also suggest that DCJ model is more suitable for real datasets where both reversals and transpositions occur.

  2. REGRESI KUANTIL MEDIAN UNTUK MENGATASI HETEROSKEDASTISITAS PADA ANALISIS REGRESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDA AYU PRASETYA UTHAMI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In regression analysis, the method used to estimate the parameters is Ordinary Least Squares (OLS. The principle of OLS is to minimize the sum of squares error. If any of the assumptions were not met, the results of the OLS estimates are no longer best, linear, and unbiased estimator (BLUE. One of the assumptions that must be met is the assumption about homoscedasticity, a condition in which the variance of the error is constant (same. Violation of the assumptions about homoscedasticity is referred to heteroscedasticity. When there exists heteroscedas­ticity, other regression techniques are needed, such as median quantile regression which is done by defining the median as a solution to minimize sum of absolute error. This study intended to estimate the regression parameters of the data were known to have heteroscedasticity. The secondary data were taken from the book Basic Econometrics (Gujarati, 2004 and analyzing method were performed by EViews 6. Parameter estimation of the median quantile regression were done by estimating the regression parameters at each quantile ?th, then an estimator was chosen on the median quantile as regression coefficients estimator. The result showed heteroscedasticity problem has been solved with median quantile regression although error still does not follow normal distribution properties with a value of R2 about 71 percent. Therefore it can be concluded that median quantile regression can overcome heteroscedasticity but the data still abnormalities.

  3. REGRESI KUANTIL MEDIAN UNTUK MENGATASI HETEROSKEDASTISITAS PADA ANALISIS REGRESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDA AYU PRASETYA UTHAMI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In regression analysis, the method used to estimate the parameters is Ordinary Least Squares (OLS. The principle of OLS is to minimize the sum of squares error. If any of the assumptions were not met, the results of the OLS estimates are no longer best, linear, and unbiased estimator (BLUE. One of the assumptions that must be met is the assumption about homoscedasticity, a condition in which the variance of the error is constant (same. Violation of the assumptions about homoscedasticity is referred to heteroscedasticity. When there exists heteroscedas­ticity, other regression techniques are needed, such as median quantile regression which is done by defining the median as a solution to minimize sum of absolute error. This study intended to estimate the regression parameters of the data were known to have heteroscedasticity. The secondary data were taken from the book Basic Econometrics (Gujarati, 2004 and analyzing method were performed by EViews 6. Parameter estimation of the median quantile regression were done by estimating the regression parameters at each quantile ?th, then an estimator was chosen on the median quantile as regression coefficients estimator. The result showed heteroscedasticity problem has been solved with median quantile regression although error still does not follow normal distribution properties with a value of R2 about 71 percent. Therefore it can be concluded that median quantile regression can overcome heteroscedasticity but the data still abnormalities.

  4. Testing the gravity p-median model empirically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Carling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the location of a facility, the presumption in the widely used p-median model is that the customer opts for the shortest route to the nearest facility. However, this assumption is problematic on free markets since the customer is presumed to gravitate to a facility by the distance to and the attractiveness of it. The recently introduced gravity p-median model offers an extension to the p-median model that account for this. The model is therefore potentially interesting, although it has not yet been implemented and tested empirically. In this paper, we have implemented the model in an empirical problem of locating vehicle inspections, locksmiths, and retail stores of vehicle spare-parts for the purpose of investigating its superiority to the p-median model. We found, however, the gravity p-median model to be of limited use for the problem of locating facilities as it either gives solutions similar to the p-median model, or it gives unstable solutions due to a non-concave objective function.

  5. MEDIAN PARAPETELLAR VERSUS MIDVASTUS APPROACH ON THE OUTCOMES IN TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokarakonda Sree Vamsi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common approaches used in Total Knee Replacement surgery are Midvastus, subvastus, median parapetellar, lateral patellar and trivector approach. There is uncertainty as to the best surgical approach to the knee joint for knee replacement. Median parapetellar approach is the standard of practice, but off late quadriceps sparing approaches as like subvastus and midvastus are performed. Subvastus approach has its own limitation of less joint exposure. In our clinical setup, orthopaedic surgeons perform median parapetellar and midvastus approach. The present study has compared outcome of knee function between a standard median parapetellar arthrotomy and mid vastus arthrotomy for patients undergone primary total knee arthroplasty. The post op quadriceps function depend on the type of surgical approach Materials and methods: 30 subjects were recruited who had undergone Total knee arthroplasty with Median parapetellar and Midvastus approach at Sri Ramachandra medical hospital; received standard physiotherapy care. The pre-op and post quadriceps angle were measured and the quadriceps, hamstrings isometric muscle strength and 6 minute walk test of the patients were recorded at the time of discharge and after one month of follow-up, and the data were statistically analyzed. Results: Median parapetellar and Midvastus approach were significant within the groups; with respect to quadriceps angle (QA (p<0.05, isometric strength of quadriceps (QS (p<0.05 and 6 minute walk test (WT (p<0.05. On comparing between the groups at one month follow-up isometric strength of hamstrings (HS (p<0.01 and 6 minute walk test (p<0.01 were found to be significant. Discussion: Findings show that Mid-vastus approach provides better results in terms of quadriceps angle, isometric strength of quadriceps and 6 minute walk test compared to median parapetellar approach. Conclusion: Study concludes that, the isometric strength of quadriceps and hamstrings has

  6. Adaptive weighted median filter utilizing impulsive noise detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Jun; Meguro, Mitsuhiko; Hamada, Nozomu

    1999-10-01

    The removal of noise in image is one of the current important issues. It is also useful as a preprocessing for edge detection, motion estimation and so on. In this paper, an adaptive weighted median filter utilizing impulsive noise detection is proposed for the removal of impulsive noise in digital images. The aim of our proposed method is to eliminate impulsive noise effectively preserving original fine detail in images. This aim is same for another median-type nonlinear filters try to realized. In our method, we use weighted median filter whose weights should be determined by balancing between the signal preserving ability and noise reduction performance. The trade off between these two inconsistent properties is realized using the noise detection mechanism and optimized adaptation process. In the previous work, threshold value between the signal and the output of the median filter have to be decided for the noise detection. Adaptive algorithm for optimizing WM filters uses the teacher image for training process. In our method, following two new approaches are introduced in the filtering. (1) The noise detection process uses the discriminant method to the histogram distribution of the derivation from median filter output. (2) Filter weights which have been learned by uncorrupted pixels and their neighborhood without the original image are used for the restoration filtering for noise corrupted pixels. The validity of the proposed method is shown through some experimental results.

  7. Sequential Metastatic Breast Cancer Chemotherapy:Should the Median be the Message?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yon eJung

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Counseling and anticipatory guidance of the expected course of treatment for women newly diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer (MBC are difficult due to multiple factors influencing survival following metastatic breast cancer therapy. In order to better tailor counseling at the onset and through the duration of metastatic breast cancer we used non-clinical trial data to better characterize real life experience of sequential metastatic breast cancer treatment. We examined the following aims:1. What demographic and tumor characteristics are predictive of survival in metastatic breast cancer?2. What is the median duration of each sequential chemotherapy regimen and subsequent survival of women following each sequence of chemotherapy regimen in metastatic breast cancer?Methods: Retrospective study included 792 women diagnosed from January 1999 through December 2009 at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Program.Results: Median duration of sequential chemotherapy regimen and median survival from completion of sequence of chemotherapy regimens were relatively short with a wide range of treatment duration and survival. Characteristics for poor survival included hormone status, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER 2/neu status, and increased number and type of metastatic sites. Women who took more than the second sequential chemotherapy regimens had no more than median 3 months of treatment duration and 6 months survival from treatment termination.Discussion: Median clinical response and survival shorten with sequential chemotherapy regimen but with wide ranges. The rare clinical response of the minority should not set the standard for treatment expectations. All cancer clinicians, including oncology nurses, must ensure that patients are receiving tailored counseling regarding their specific risks and benefits for sequential metastatic breast cancer chemotherapy.

  8. Landscaping of highway medians and roadway safety at unsignalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongyun; Fabregas, Aldo; Lin, Pei-Sung

    2016-05-01

    Well-planted and maintained landscaping can help reduce driving stress, provide better visual quality, and decrease over speeding, thus improving roadway safety. Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) Standard Index (SI-546) is one of the more demanding standards in the U.S. for landscaping design criteria at highway medians near intersections. The purposes of this study were to (1) empirically evaluate the safety results of SI-546 at unsignalized intersections and (2) quantify the impacts of geometrics, traffic, and landscaping design features on total crashes and injury plus fatal crashes. The studied unsignalized intersections were divided into (1) those without median trees near intersections, (2) those with median trees near intersections that were compliant with SI-546, and (3) those with median trees near intersections that were non-compliant with SI-546. A total of 72 intersections were selected, for which five-year crash data from 2006-2010 were collected. The sites that were compliant with SI-546 showed the best safety performance in terms of the lowest crash counts and crash rates. Four crash predictive models-two for total crashes and two for injury crashes-were developed. The results indicated that improperly planted and maintained median trees near highway intersections can increase the total number of crashes and injury plus fatal crashes at a 90% confidence level; no significant difference could be found in crash rates between sites that were compliant with SI-546 and sites without trees. All other conditions remaining the same, an intersection with trees that was not compliant with SI-546 had 63% more crashes and almost doubled injury plus fatal crashes than those at intersections without trees. The study indicates that appropriate landscaping in highway medians near intersections can be an engineering technology that not only improves roadway environmental quality but also maintains intersection safety.

  9. Somesoppa : sosiaalisen median kehittämissuunnitelma ravintola Rustikille

    OpenAIRE

    Hartikainen, Lotta

    2016-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tehdä Ravintola Rustikille sosiaalisen median kehittämissuunnitelma. Kehittämissuunnitelmaa varten ideoita ja kehittämiskohtia kerättiin kolmen eri keinon avulla. Ensimmäiseksi tehtiin vertaileva kirjoituspöytätutkimus neljän muun ravintolan toiminnasta sosiaalisessa mediassa ja etsittiin muiden toiminnasta vinkkejä Rustikia varten. Seuraavaksi tehtiin kartoitus Rustikin toiminnasta sosiaalisessa mediassa. Rustikin käyttämät sosiaalisen median alustat ova...

  10. FASCICULAR NEURORRHAPHY FOR NEUROMA IN CONTINUITY OF MEDIAN NERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is not common for an orthopaedic surgeon to anastomose or repair a peripheral nerve lesion. Fascicular neurorrhaphy has variable out come with median nerve repairs. The recovery by neuropathy as evidenced by NCVS does not correlate with the clinical out come. We treated a post traumatic median nerve neuroma in continuity of right hand proximal to wrist with sensory hyperaesthesisa. It was treated with excision of neuroma internal neurolysis and fascicular neurorrhaphy along with, carpal tunnel release whi ch gave him good relief from pain in the immediate post - operative period.

  11. The Median Solution of the Newsvendor Problem and Some Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Pritibhushan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the median solution of the Newsvendor Problem. Some properties of such a solution are shown through a theoretical analysis and a numerical experiment. Sometimes, though not often, median solution may be better than solutions maximizing expected profit, or maximizing minimum possible, over distribution with the same average and standard deviation, expected profit, according to some criteria. We discuss the practical suitability of the objective function set and the solution derived, for the Newsvendor Problem, and other such random optimization problems.

  12. Correlations in daily deviations from the median of f0F2, M(3000F2 and VF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Xenos

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The statistical analysis of the hourly daily deviations from the corresponding monthly-median values of the factor M(3000F2 and of the critical frequency of the F2-layer, f0F2, reveals that the correlation between these parameters is poor. A similar analysis between the hourly daily deviations from the corresponding monthly-median of the height h’F and the f0F2 leads to similar results. These results indicate that the factor M(3000F2, the height h’F and the critical frequency f0F2 may have a different daily variability.

  13. Epithelioid Sarcoma of the Forearm Arising from Perineural Sheath of Median Nerve Mimicking Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromasa Fujii

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here a case of epithelioid sarcoma in the forearm of a 33-year-old male presenting with symptoms and signs of carpal tunnel syndrome originating from the direct involvement of the median nerve. Due to the slow growing of the tumor, the patient noticed the presence of tumor mass in his forearm after several months from the initial onset of the symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an 8×4 cm mass involving the median nerve in the middle part of the forearm, and histological analysis of the biopsy specimen revealed the diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma. Radical surgical resection was performed in conjunction with adjuvant chemotherapy. The function of the flexors were restored by the multiple tendon transfers (EIP→FDS; ECRL→FDP; BrR→FPL; EDM→opponens with superficial cutaneous branch of radial nerve transfer to the resected median nerve. The function of the affected hand showed excellent with the DASH disability/symptom score of 22.5, and both the grasp power and sensory of the median nerve area has recovered up to 50% of the normal side. The patient returned to his original vocation and alive with continuous disease free at 3.5-year follow-up since initial treatment.

  14. Mean, Median and Mode from a Decision Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Melinda Miller; Scariano, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    The classroom activity described here allows mathematically mature students to explore the role of mean, median and mode in a decision-making environment. While students discover the importance of choosing a measure of central tendency, their understanding of probability distributions, maximization, and prediction is reinforced through active…

  15. A novel image inpainting technique based on median diffusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajkumar L Biradar; Vinayadatt V Kohir

    2013-08-01

    Image inpainting is the technique of filling-in the missing regions and removing unwanted objects from an image by diffusing the pixel information from the neighbourhood pixels. Image inpainting techniques are in use over a long time for various applications like removal of scratches, restoring damaged/missing portions or removal of objects from the images, etc. In this study, we present a simple, yet unexplored (digital) image inpainting technique using median filter, one of the most popular nonlinear (order statistics) filters. The median is maximum likelihood estimate of location for the Laplacian distribution. Hence, the proposed algorithm diffuses median value of pixels from the exterior area into the inner area to be inpainted. The median filter preserves the edge which is an important property needed to inpaint edges. This technique is stable. Experimental results show remarkable improvements and works for homogeneous as well as heterogeneous background. PSNR (quantitative assessment) is used to compare inpainting results.

  16. Elementary School Teachers' Understanding of the Mean and Median

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobbe, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a snapshot of elementary school teachers' understanding of the mean and median. The research is presented in light of recent work regarding preservice teachers' understanding of the mean. Common misconceptions are identified which lead to potential implications for teacher preparation programs. One of the primary concerns…

  17. Iatrogenic selective lesion of the median nerve at the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Roberto; Casali, Carlo; Pierelli, Francesco

    2010-03-01

    A lesion of the median nerve may occur as a consequence of a compression by a haematoma or for a direct damage of the axons caused by a needle insertion. To date, no investigation reported a very selective lesion of the median nerve at the elbow, with the suffering limited only to the fibres for the first digit. A 53 year-old left-handed violinist underwent an arterial blood gas drawing. The patient complained immediately of an electrical shock impression going down the arm, followed by pin sensation into the first finger. A tingling sensation associated with numbness in the first fingertip and difficulty in the index-thumb pinch became progressively evident. The ENG-EMG findings showed an impairment mainly of the sensory fibres innervating the first digit and a drop of the motor action potential amplitude when the nerve was stimulated at the elbow. We reported a very partial lesion of the left median nerve at the elbow in a violinist who had a selective involvement of the fibres for his first digit. Even minimal lesions of the median nerve may impair severely the quality of life of patients.

  18. Functionalization of N2 to NH3 via direct N ≡ N bond cleavage using M(III)(NMe2)3 (M=W/Mo): A theoretical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sambath Baskaran; Perumal Balu; Chinnappan Sivasankar

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric N2 can be cleaved directly to yield metal-nitride (before proceeding to the functionalization of N of coordinated N2) and subsequently functionalized to ammonia using M(III)(NMe2)3 (M = W/Mo) as a catalyst, and suitable proton and electron sources. The calculated energies of thermodynamic and kinetic states of the various intermediates and transition states in the reaction coordinate to yield ammonia confirmed the viability of the proposed reaction pathway. Rationale of different pathways have been examined and discussed in detail. Changes in the structural features of the catalyst and some important intermediates and transition states have also been examined.

  19. Linear homobimetallic 4-thioacetyl-substituted NCN pincer palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes with N-bidentate connecting units (NCN = [C6H2(CH2NMe2)2-2,6-R-4]−)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Döring, K.; Taher, D.; Walfort, B.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; van Klink, G.P.M.; van Koten, G.; Lang, H.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of homobimetallic palladium and platinum complexes of type [(Me(O)CS-4-NCN–M ← N∩N → M–NCN-4-SC(O)Me](OTf)2 (Me(O)CS-4-NCN = [C6H2(CH2NMe2)2-2,6-SC(O)Me-4]−; N∩N = 4,4′-bipyridine (bipy); M = Pd, 12; M = Pt, 13) is reported. The required bifunctional thio-acetyl NC

  20. Oral leiomyomatous hamartoma of the median maxillary gingiva: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALQahtani, Dalal; Qannam, Ahmed

    2013-08-01

    Oral leiomyomatous hamartoma (OLH) is a rare lesion seen in the oral cavity. It mainly presents on the median maxilla and tongue. In the literature in English, there are only 10 reported cases of OLH of the median maxilla. Most of the cases were found in patients of Japanese and Latin American origin. We report a case of OLH in an 18-month-old boy of Middle Eastern ancestry. The lesion presented as a pedunculated, light pink, soft swelling that was located on the labial gingiva of tooth number 21. Microscopically, it showed proliferative smooth-muscle fascicles dispersed in loose fibrous stroma and multiple small vessels. The lesional cells looked mature and elongated and were deeply eosinophilic spindle cells with basophilic, central "cigar-shaped" nuclei. The diagnosis of OLH was supported by positive immunohistochemical reactivity of smooth-muscle actin and desmin. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of OLH in a Middle Eastern patient.

  1. Intraneural hemangioma of the median nerve: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Teoman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hemangiomas of the median nerve are very rare and, so far, only ten cases of intraneural hemangioma of this nerve have been reported in the literature. We present a case of 14-year-old girl who had a soft tissue mass in the region of the left wrist with signs and symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Total removal of the mass was achieved using microsurgical epineural and interfasicular dissection. The symptoms were relieved completely, after this procedure, without any neurologic deficit. On follow-up two years later, no recurrence was observed. Whenever a child or young adult patient presents with CTS the possibility of a hemangioma involving the median nerve should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis.

  2. Median Statistics and the Mass Density of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, G; Chen, Gang; Ratra, Bharat

    2003-01-01

    We use weighted mean and median statistics techniques to combine individual estimates of Omega_m0, the present mean mass density in non-relativistic matter, and determine the observed values and ranges of Omega_m0 from different combinations of data. The derived weighted mean Omega_m0 values are not good representatives of the individual measurements, under the assumptions of Gaussianity and negligible correlation between the individual measurements. This could mean that some observational error bars are under-estimated. Discarding the most discrepant about 5% of the measurements generally alleviates but does not completely resolve this problem. While the results derived from the different combinations of data are not identical, they are mostly consistent, and a reasonable summary of the median statistics analyses is 0.2 <= Omega_m0 <= 0.35 at two standard deviations.

  3. A Rank Test on Equality of Population Medians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooi Ah Hin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Kruskal-Wallis test is a non-parametric test for the equality of K population medians. The test statistic involved is a measure of the overall closeness of the K average ranks in the individual samples to the average rank in the combined sample. The resulting acceptance region of the test however may not be the smallest region with the required acceptance probability under the null hypothesis. Presently an alternative acceptance region is constructed such that it has the smallest size, apart from having the required acceptance probability. Compared to the Kruskal-Wallis test, the alternative test is found to have larger average power computed from the powers along the evenly chosen directions of deviation of the medians.

  4. The median recoil direction as a WIMP directional detection signal

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Anne M

    2010-01-01

    Direct detection experiments have reached the sensitivity required to detect dark matter WIMPs. Demonstrating that a putative signal is due to WIMPs, and not backgrounds, is a major challenge however. The direction dependence of the WIMP scattering rate provides a potential WIMP `smoking gun'. If the WIMP distribution is predominantly smooth, the Galactic recoil distribution is peaked in the direction opposite to the direction of Solar motion. Previous studies have found that, for an ideal detector, of order 10 WIMP events would be sufficient to reject isotropy, and rule out an isotropic background. We examine how the median recoil direction could be used to confirm the WIMP origin of an anisotropic recoil signal. Specifically we determine the number of events required to reject the null hypothesis that the median direction is random (corresponding to an isotropic Galactic recoil distribution) at 95% confidence. We find that for zero background 31 events are required, a factor of roughly 2 more than are requi...

  5. Cortical plasticity in response to median nerve trauma

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Median nerve injuries in adults, repaired with nerve suture, lead to incomplete functional recovery despite improved surgical technique. This results in a reduction in quality of life, poorer working ability and a considerable expense for society. Misrouting of axons at the suture site connects regenerating axons to the wrong distal end organs. When distorted signals are conveyed to the dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, thalamus and the somatosensory cortex, somatotopic maps at...

  6. Educational system, income inequality and growth: the median voter's decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilson Dias

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available I analyze a long run educational policy as a mechanism to close the income gap among low, median and high-income families. If the choice is made endogenous by the use of the median voter theorem, the results are as follow: i public education system guarantees income convergence, however the income growth rate of the median voter is smaller; ii the combination public and private (hybrid educational system allows faster income growth rate, but income inequality is almost the natural outcome. The ending result is that the combination public and private system will prevail, since the income growth rate of the median voter is higher in this system. This might explain the persistence and differences of income inequality among the economies.O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a utilização da política educacional no longo prazo como mecanismo para a redução da desigualdade de renda entre famílias de renda baixa, mediana e alta. Se a decisão sobre a política for endogeneizada, de acordo com o teorema do eleitor mediano, os resultados são os seguintes: i o sistema educacional público para todos, apesar de garantir convergência de renda, produz uma menor taxa de crescimento da renda do eleitor mediano; ii a combinação público-privado (sistema educacional híbrido permite uma maior taxa de crescimento da renda do eleitor mediano, no entanto a desigualdade de renda é inerente a este sistema. Como resultado final, o eleitor mediano irá escolher o sistema público-privado, pois o crescimento da sua renda é maior, o que pode explicar a persistência e as diferenças na desigualdade de renda das economias.

  7. Male median raphe cysts: serial retrospective analysis and histopathological classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao I-Hung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To review the clinical and pathological characteristics of median raphe cysts and to classify the lesions according to pathogenesis and histopathological findings. Methods The medical records of patients who were diagnosed with median raphe cysts between 2001 and 2010 were reviewed to document the clinical presentation and pathological findings of the cysts. Results Most patients were asymptomatic; however, 9 patients had inflammatory or infectious cysts that were tender or painful. Four patients who had cysts on the parameatus and distal prepuce had difficulty voiding. Hematuria and hematospermia were noted in 2 cases. Thirty-one cysts were lined with an urothelium-like epithelium, and a squamous epithelium lining was found in 3 cases. In 2 cases, a well-formed mucinous glandular structure was observed. The other 20 cysts consisted of mixed epithelia. After excision of the cysts under local or general anesthesia, an urethral fistula developed as a complication in only 1 case. Conclusions Median raphe cysts are benign lesions formed due to tissue trapping during the development of urethral folds. The cysts can be defined into 4 types based on pathological findings: urethral, epidermoid, glandular, and mixed. The associated symptoms and signs should be taken into consideration when determining the treatment for the cysts. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http//http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7727074877500751

  8. Microseismic event denoising via adaptive directional vector median filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Lu, Ji-Ren; Jiang, Tian-Qi; Liang, Zhe

    2017-03-01

    We present a novel denoising scheme via Radon transform-based adaptive vector directional median filters named adaptive directional vector median filter (AD-VMF) to suppress noise for microseismic downhole dataset. AD-VMF contains three major steps for microseismic downhole data processing: (i) applying Radon transform on the microseismic data to obtain the parameters of the waves, (ii) performing S-transform to determine the parameters for filters, and (iii) applying the parameters for vector median filter (VMF) to denoise the data. The steps (i) and (ii) can realize the automatic direction detection. The proposed algorithm is tested with synthetic and field datasets that were recorded with a vertical array of receivers. The P-wave and S-wave direct arrivals are properly denoised for poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) records. In the simulation case, we also evaluate the performance with mean square error (MSE) in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The result shows that the distortion of the proposed method is very low; the SNR is even less than 0 dB.

  9. Social Security: a financial appraisal for the median voter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galasso, V

    Several explanations have been proposed for why voters continue to support unfunded social security systems. Browning (1975) suggests that the extremely large unfunded pension systems of most democracies depend on the existence of a voting majority composed of middle-aged and older people who fail to fully internalize the cost of financing the system. In fact, when voting, economically rational workers consider only their current and future contributions to the system and their expected pension benefits--not their past contributions, which they regard as sunk costs. If, for a majority of voters, the expected continuation return from social security exceeds the return from alternative assets, an unfunded social security system is politically sustainable. This article explores the validity of Browning's proposition by quantifying the returns that U.S. voters in presidential elections from 1964 to 1996 have obtained, or expect to obtain, from Social Security. Did "investments" in Social Security outperform alternative forms of investment, such as mutual funds or pension funds, for a majority of the voters? What can be expected for the future? The U.S. Social Security system redistributes income within age cohorts on the basis of sex, income, and marital status. To account for some of these features, the median voter is represented by a family unit whose members--a husband who accounts for 70 percent of household earnings and a wife who accounts for 30 percent--make joint economic and voting decisions. Thus, retirement and survival benefits paid out to the spouse of an insured worker can be included in the calculation of Social Security returns. Interval estimates of voters' family incomes from the U.S. Census Bureau were used to obtain the median voter's household earnings. The median voter's age is derived from the ages of those who voted in presidential elections, not from the ages of the entire electorate. The median voter's contributions to Social Security are the

  10. Quadratic Assignment of Hubs in p-Hub Median Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin

    We introduce Generalized p-Hub Median Problem (GpHMP) that seeks to locate p hub nodes and install p distinct hub facilities/operators on the hubs while discount factor resulted by consolidation of flow on the hub links depends on the facilities/operators that are installed/operating on both hub...... nodes end-point. In contrast, in traditional hub location problems it is commonly assumed that all the hub facilities share a similar characteristic and economy of scale resulted by consolidation of flow over hub edges is not directly relevant to the hub facilities being installed at both end...

  11. The p-median Facility Location Problem and Solution Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet BASTI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s globalized and increasingly competitive environment, organizations’ need to implement successful strategies for supply chain management has become indispensable. Transportation costs within the supply chain comprise an important part of the organizations’ expenses. For this reason, the strategic selection of location is an issue that directly affects supply chain performance and costs. At this stage, it becomes very important to apply the latest and the best methods to the facility location problem. The focus of this study is the p-median problem and its solution techniques, one of the location allocation problems aimed at minimizing the costs arising from shipments between facilities and demand points.

  12. Post-traumatic Median Nerve Neuroma in Wrist. A Case Report and brief review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Aslan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Distal median nerve masses may be developed post-traumatic or non-traumatic. In this paper, we aim to present a 52 year old female case with a postraumatic neuroma of the median nerve in the left wrist. Case Report: A 52-year-old female patient had accidental incised wound over her left wrist which was primarily sutured. She presented 6 months later with unrelieved pain and growing swelling at the wrist. USG showed solid mass of size 2×3 cms. Intraoperatively the mass was seen to arise from medial nerve and careful excision was done protecting the nerve. At one year follow up the patient is relived of her symptoms with no sensorimotor deficit. Conclusion: Post traumatic neuroma present as unrelieved pain and progressive swelling. A high index of suspicion should be kept in cases of wound that are primarily sutured over an area with superficial nerves. Careful excision of the lesion is very effective in relieving patients symptoms Keywords: Neuroma, wrist, median nerve, nerve ınjury.

  13. Neural Organization of the Median Ocellus of the Dragonfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, John E.; Chappell, Richard L.

    1972-01-01

    Two types of presumed synaptic contacts have been recognized by electron microscopy in the synaptic plexus of the median ocellus of the dragonfly. The first type is characterized by an electron-opaque, button-like organelle in the presynaptic cytoplasm, surrounded by a cluster of synaptic vesicles. Two postsynaptic elements are associated with these junctions, which we have termed button synapses. The second synaptic type is characterized by a dense cluster of synaptic vesicles adjacent to the presumed presynaptic membrane. One postsynaptic element is observed at these junctions. The overwhelming majority of synapses seen in the plexus are button synapses. They are found most commonly in the receptor cell axons where they synaptically contact ocellar nerve dendrites and adjacent receptor cell axons. Button synapses are also seen in the ocellar nerve dendrites where they appear to make synapses back onto receptor axon terminals as well as onto adjacent ocellar nerve dendrites. Reciprocal and serial synaptic arrangements between receptor cell axon terminals, and between receptor cell axon terminals and ocellar nerve dendrites are occasionally seen. It is suggested that the lateral and feedback synapses in the median ocellus of the dragonfly play a role in enhancing transients in the postsynaptic responses. PMID:5049076

  14. Monthly Meteorological Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly forms that do not fit into any regular submission. Tabulation sheets and generic monthly forms designed to capture miscellaneous monthly observations.

  15. TiN KAPLANMIŞ KESİCİ TAKIMLARDA GERİLME ANALİZİ VE TAKIM-TALAŞ ARA YÜZEYİNDEKİ SÜRTÜNME KATSAYISININ ETKİSİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubilay ASLANTAŞ

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Kaplanmış takımlar günümüz metal işleme endüstrisinde yaygın olarak kullanılmaktadır. Çünkü, ince ve sert kaplamalar takım aşınmasını azaltırken, takım ömrünü ve verimliliği de arttırabilmektedir. Bu tür kaplamalar daha düşük takım aşınmaları ve azalan kesme kuvvetleri nedeniyle, işleme ekonomisine ve kesici takım performansına önemli katkıda bulunmaktadırlar. Özellikle TiN kaplamalar yüksek mukavemet ve düşük sürtünme katsayılarına sahiptir. Kesme esnasında sürtünme katsayısının düşük olması, kesici takımda meydana gelebilecek hasarları da en aza indirecektir. Bununla birlikte kaplama ile kaplanan malzeme ara yüzeyinde meydana gelen maksimum gerilmeler de daha düşük düzeyde meydana gelecektir. Bu çalışmada, TiN kaplanmış HSS (Yüksek Hız Çeliği kesici takımlar için iki boyutlu gerilme analizi yapılmıştır. Takım ve talaş arasındaki sürtünme katsayının kesici yüzeyinde ve ara yüzeyde meydana gelen gerilmeler üzerindeki etkisi araştırılmıştır. Bununla birlikte, kesici takımda muhtemel hasar oluşum bölgeleri tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Problemin çözümünde sonlu elemanlar metodu kullanılmış ve nümerik çözümleme için FRANC2D sonlu elemanlar paket programı seçilmiştir.

  16. Influence of process parameters on atomic layer deposition of ZrO{sub 2} thin films from CpZr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 3} and H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarik, Lauri, E-mail: lauri.aarik@ut.ee [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Ravila 14C, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Alles, Harry; Aidla, Aleks; Kahro, Tauno [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Ravila 14C, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Kukli, Kaupo [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Ravila 14C, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Niinistö, Jaakko [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Mändar, Hugo; Tamm, Aile; Rammula, Raul [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Ravila 14C, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Sammelselg, Väino [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Ravila 14C, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); University of Tartu, Institute of Chemistry, Ravila 14A, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Aarik, Jaan [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Ravila 14C, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2014-08-28

    Atomic layer deposition of ZrO{sub 2} films from tris(dimethylamino)cyclopentadienylzirconium CpZr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 3} and H{sub 2}O, was investigated using real-time characterization of the growth process and post-growth measurements of the films. Self-limited nature of the deposition process was observed at substrate temperatures ranging from 120 to 350 °C. In this temperature range growth rate of 0.08–0.1 nm per cycle was obtained on silicon substrates. The films deposited on silicon substrates at 200 °C and higher temperatures contained tetragonal and monoclinic phases of ZrO{sub 2}. The phase composition of the films depended on the deposition temperature as well as on the film thickness. The concentration of carbon residues decreased with increasing deposition temperature and did not exceed 0.9 at.% in the films deposited at 250 °C and higher temperatures. The refractive indices and densities of films grown from CpZr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 3} and H{sub 2}O at 250–350 °C ranged from 2.15 to 2.20 (at a wavelength of 633 nm) and 5.6 to 6.0 g/cm{sup 3}, respectively, being close to the highest values obtained for films deposited from ZrCl{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O. The former process ensured, however, more uniform nucleation of ZrO{sub 2} on graphene than the latter process did. - Highlights: • Thin films were grown from CpZr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 3} and H{sub 2}O on Si substrates by ALD. • The growth of ZrO{sub 2} was obtained at temperatures 120–350 °C. • Growth rates up to 0.1 nm per cycle were observed. • Films with refractive indices up to 2.2 at 633 nm were obtained.

  17. Recursive estimation of the conditional geometric median in Hilbert spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Cardot, Hervé; Zitt, Pierre-André

    2012-01-01

    A recursive estimator of the conditional geometric median in Hilbert spaces is studied. It is based on a stochastic gradient algorithm whose aim is to minimize a weighted L1 criterion and is consequently well adapted for robust online estimation. The weights are controlled by a kernel function and an associated bandwidth. Almost sure convergence and L2 rates of convergence are proved under general conditions on the conditional distribution as well as the sequence of descent steps of the algorithm and the sequence of bandwidths. Asymptotic normality is also proved for the averaged version of the algorithm with an optimal rate of convergence. A simulation study confirms the interest of this new and fast algorithm when the sample sizes are large. Finally, the ability of these recursive algorithms to deal with very high-dimensional data is illustrated on the robust estimation of television audience profiles conditional on the total time spent watching television over a period of 24 hours.

  18. Electrodiagnostic Studies of Median and Ulnar Nerves in Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D L

    1989-09-01

    In brief: Twenty long-distance cyclists (13 men, 7 women) completed a questionnaire and underwent a neurologic examination and electrodiagnostic studies of the median and ulnar nerves. The purpose was to determine the frequency, severity, and clinical significance of numbness or pain in the hand or wrist and to assess the correlation of electrodiagnostic findings with these complaints. Results of the studies were normal for all 20 cyclists, nine of whom reported symptoms. These cyclists attributed their discomfort to prolonged riding without changing hand position, especially on rough road surfaces. They also reported that their symptoms diminished after they modified their cycling technique and adjusted their bicycle to better fit their body dimensions.

  19. Median cleft of mandible and lower lip with ankyloglossia and ectopic minor salivary gland on tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Roshani

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Median cleft of lower lip and mandible is a rare anomaly. This Cleft has also been described as Cleft No. 30 of Tessier′s classification. In minor forms only lower lip is cleft. Frequently, the cleft extends into the mandibular symphysis and the tongue is attached to the cleft alveolar margin. At times the tongue may be bifid or absent, hyoid absent, thyroid cartilage underdeveloped, strap muscles atrophic, manubrium sterni absent, clavicles widely spaced etc. The earliest report of this anomaly was by Couronne′ in 1819. Since then very few cases have been reported in literature with variations. We describe a male child who presented at the age of 6 months with an ectopic salivary gland on the dorsum of the tongue in addition to median cleft of lower lip, ankyloglossia and notching of the mandible. Excision of mass on dorsum of tongue, release of ankyloglossia and lip from the alveolus followed by repair was done. No bony work was done since the mandible was only notched. On post-operative follow-up at 18 months, dentition was delayed in both maxillary as well as mandibular teeth and there was a gap between the lower central incisors. At the age of 2 years 4 months, the dentition is still not complete and the gap between the lower central incisors is very apparent. There is a supernumerary upper central incisor on right side. There is no mobility between the two segments of mandible. Speech is normal. A regular follow-up will be done to study the eruption of permanent central incisors at the age of 7 years and till eruption of all permanent teeth to assess the occlusion and to decide whether any bony work is needed or not.

  20. Aprotic synthesis and structural determination of the nanosized nonprotonated nu3-octahedral [Pt6Ni38(CO)48]6- hexaanion stabilized as a cubic solvated [NMe4]+ salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Namal; Dahl, Lawrence F

    2006-10-30

    The nonprotonated member, 1 (n = 6), of the previously established nanosized nu3-octahedral [H(6-n)Pt6Ni38(CO)48]n- series (n = 3-6) has been isolated from an aprotic synthetic route and stabilized as the crystal-ordered cyclohexane/acetonitrile-solvated [NMe4]+ salt. A highly precise X-ray determination (cubic; Pa3; Z = 4 with 1 possessing -3 site symmetry) has allowed a comparative analysis of the nonprotonated pseudo-D3d structure of 1 with the monoprotonated structure of 2 (n = 5), which constitutes the only previously reported complete geometry of any member of this extraordinary Pt6-encapsulated nu3-octahedral Pt6Ni38 cluster series.

  1. Efficient, stable, tunable, and easy to synthesize, handle and recycle luminescent materials: [H2NMe2]3[Ln(III)(2,6-dipicolinolate)3] (Ln = Eu, Tb, or its solid solutions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooibroek, Tiddo Jonathan; Gamez, Patrick; Pevec, Andrej; Kasunic, Marta; Kozlevcar, Bojan; Fu, Wen-Tian; Reedijk, Jan

    2010-07-28

    Three compounds with the general formulae [H(2)N(Me)(2)](3)[Ln(2,6-dpa)(3)] were prepared from cheap and readily available reactants. Microcrystalline compounds could be isolated in high yields (>80%) by a simple filtration, after only one hour reaction time in refluxing DMF. The Eu and Tb compounds have been structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compounds have unusual high-absorption coefficients (>95%) and quantum efficiencies (approximately 70%). Furthermore, they are thermally stable up to 250 degrees C and appear to be UV and water tolerant. The emission colour of the final compound can be easily fine-tuned, by varying the Eu:Tb ratio during the preparation.

  2. Intrinsic hand muscle reinnervation by median-ulnar end-to-side bridge nerve graft: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdi Sherif, M; Amr, Adel H

    2010-03-01

    Recovery of either the motor or sensory functions has not been consistently achieved in upper extremity end-to-side neurorrhaphy; this technique was only indicated when more conventional nerve repair was not possible. In most studies, the whole median or ulnar nerve was used for end-to-side neurotization. In this report, we present 4 cases of high-median or ulnar nerve laceration in which a nerve graft was placed end-to-side between the median and ulnar motor fascicles close to the wrist. At 4 months after surgery, 3 of 4 patients began to recover active movement of the affected small muscles of the hand. EMG and nerve conduction studies confirmed that nerve conduction was through the nerve grafts.

  3. Fatigue testing of three peristernal median sternotomy closure techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffin Lanny V

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Failure of a sternotomy closure because of closure system fatigue is a complication that may result in dehiscence and put the individual at risk for serious complications. The purpose of this study was to assess the fatigue performance of three peristernal median sternotomy closure techniques (figure-of-eight stainless-steel wires, figure-of-eight stainless-steel cables, or Pectofix Dynamic Sternal Fixation [DSF] stainless-steel plates in order to quantify the potential risk of fatigue failure of these devices when subject to cyclic loads in physiologically relevant loading directions. Study Design All tests were conducted on polyurethane foam sternal models. A cardiothoracic surgeon divided each sternal model longitudinally and repaired it with a closure device. Tests were performed using a materials testing system that applied cyclic loading in a uniaxial direction until the test model catastrophically broke or data run-out occurred. For each loading direction (lateral distraction and longitudinal shear, five trials of each closure technique were tested. Life data and location of device failure (if present were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using regression with life data allowed for correlation between life data and the various closure techniques to develop risk assessment curves for each device. Results The data show that the figure-of-eight stainless-steel cable and the DSF plate systems are considerably less likely to fail under both lateral distraction and longitudinal shear cyclic loading conditions as compared to the figure-of-eight stainless-steel wire system. Moreover, the figure-of-eight stainless-steel cable system is the most resistant to failure, particularly for high cycle counts. Conclusion This study in addition to Cohen and Griffin's earlier published biomechanical comparison of the ultimate strength of these same three closure techniques provide extensive experimental evidence regarding the

  4. Adaptation of median partial sternotomy in head and neck surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpitzer, Thomas; Saute, Milton; Gilat, Hanna; Raveh, Eyal; Koren, Ilan; Shvero, Jacob; Bahar, Gideon; Feinmesser, Raphael

    2007-12-01

    Upper mediastinum involvement in diseases of the head and neck may require a sternal split. This study describes our adaptation of the upper median or "minimal" sternotomy technique for the treatment of head and neck pathologies. Between April 2002 and October 2005, 17 patients aged 4 to 82 years underwent minimal sternotomy in our institution for a variety of head and neck pathologies. The 17 patients included 11 adults with metastatic thyroid disease (six metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma, two medullary carcinoma, and one Hiirthle cell carcinoma) and huge retrosternal goiter (n = 2), four adults with parathyroid disease (two primary parathyroid adenoma, one secondary hyperplasia, and one parathyroid carcinoma), and two children with lymphangioma and huge thymic cyst (one each). Average hospitalization was 8 days. Four patients needed a thoracic drain for 2 days, one had recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, and one had phrenic nerve paresis. There were no postoperative deaths. Minimal sternotomy appears to be an excellent alternative for surgical exploration of the mediastinum and may be used in head and neck surgery for a range of indications.

  5. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  6. Proposing Chinese Pharmacists Month

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dear Pharmacists: Today I would like to share with you about the American Pharmacists Month which is celebrated in October every year.This month-long observance is promoted by American Pharmacist Association.

  7. A widely displaced Galeazzi-equivalent lesion with median nerve compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanopoulos, Ilias; Fogg, Quentin; Ashwood, Neil; Fu, Katherine

    2012-08-18

    We present the case of a 14-year-old boy with a right distal radial fracture accompanied by a severely displaced complete distal ulnar physeal separation and associated median nerve compromise. This injury is known as Galeazzi-equivalent lesion in children and is an extremely rare injury associated with growth arrest. Recognition of the lesion can be difficult but wide displacement may be associated with other significant injuries such as neurovascular compromise. Prompt intervention reversed the neurological symptoms. At 10-month postoperation there was neither growth arrest nor loss of motion. Complete separation of the ulna physis remains often because of soft tissue interposition or capsule problems and prompt reduction is recommended in the literature as a priority.

  8. Cross-chest median nerve transfer: a new model for the evaluation of nerve regeneration across a 40 mm gap in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinis, Nektarios; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Becker, Stephan Thomas; Lanaras, Tatjana; Schulte-Eversum, Caterina; Müller, Hans-Werner; Vonthein, Reinhard; Rösner, Harald; Haerle, Max

    2006-09-30

    A new animal model for the study of nerve regeneration in rats across a 40 mm gap between both median nerves is described. For autologous grafting, the ulnar nerves were dissected and sutured together. From the left median nerve, they were transplanted across the chest to the right median nerve. Animals having undergone this operation were observed for 12 months and periodically assessed using the grasping test and measurements of body-weight. For histological analysis rats were sacrificed after this period and axon counts were determined at the suture points of operated animals and in the median nerve of non-operated animals. Functional recovery could be seen, although partially, beginning as early as the fifth postoperative month, as demonstrated by the grasping test. Quantification of the number of axons demonstrated axonal regeneration across all three coaptation points. This model provides a new approach for analysis of long distance peripheral nerve regeneration without impairment of behaviour.

  9. Median effective dose of remifentanil for awake laryngoscopy and intudation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ya-chao; XUE Fu-shan; LUO Mad-ping; YANG Quan-yong; LIAO Xu; LU Yi; ZHANG Yan-ming

    2009-01-01

    Background Awake intubation requires an anesthetic management that provides sufficient patient safety and comfort, adequate intubating conditions, and stable hemodynamics. In this prospective clinical study, our aim was to determine the median effective dose (ED50) of remifentanil in combination with midazolam and airway topical anesthesia for awake laryngoscopy and intubation.Methods Thirty-six female adult patients, scheduled for elective plastic surgery under general anesthesia requiring orotracheal intubation were included in this study. Ten minutes after intravenous administration of midazolam 0.1 mg/kg, patients were assigned to receive remifentanil in bolus, followed by a continuous infusion. The bolus dose and infusion rate of remifentanil were adjusted by a modified Dixon's up-and-down method. Patient's reaction score at laryngoscopy and an Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale (OAA/S) were used to determine whether the remifentanil dosage regimen was accepted. During laryngoscopy, 2% lidocaine was sprayed into the airway to provide the topical anesthesia. EDso of remifentanil was calculated by the modified Dixon up-and-clown method, and the probit analysis was then used to confirm the results obtained from the modified Dixon's up-and-down method. In the patients who were scored as "accept", patient's OAA/S and reaction scores at different observed points, intubating condition score and patient's tolerance to the endotracheal tube after intubation were evaluated and recorded. Blood pressure and heart rate at different measuring points were also noted.Results ED50 of remifentanil for awake laryngoscopy and intubation obtained by the modified Dixon's up-and-down method was (0.62±0.02) pg/kg. Using probit analysis, ED50 and ED95 of remifentanil were 0.63 μg/kg (95% Cl, 0.54-0.70) and 0.83 μg/kg (95% Cl, 0.73-2.59), respectively. Nineteen patients who were scored as =accept" had an OAA/S of 15 and tolerated well laryngoscopy without significant

  10. Influence of body mass index on median nerve function, carpal canal pressure, and cross-sectional area of the median nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Robert A; Jacobson, Jon A; Jamadar, David A

    2004-10-01

    Obese individuals have slowed conduction in the median nerve across the wrist, but the mechanism for this is not established. This case-control study of 27 obese subjects and 16 thin subjects was designed to test the hypothesis that obese individuals have higher carpal canal pressures and more median nerve swelling than thin individuals. All subjects were asymptomatic for hand symptoms, and had measurements of median and ulnar sensory nerve conduction in the nondominant hand, ultrasound measurement of the median nerve cross-sectional area proximal to the carpal canal, and carpal canal pressure measurement. There was no difference in age or gender ratio between the obese and thin groups. The median nerve cross-sectional area was equal in the obese and thin groups (9.3 mm2 vs. 9.4 mm2), as was the carpal canal pressure (16.2 mmHg vs. 15.5 mmHg, respectively). There was a strong correlation between median nerve conduction slowing across the wrist and median nerve cross-sectional area at the wrist (r = 0.55, P = 0.002). Obesity does not influence carpal canal pressure or the size of the median nerve at the wrist. However, there is a strong association between slowed median nerve conduction and increased nerve size which suggests endoneurial edema as a metabolic mechanism; the conduction slowing does not appear to be related to mechanical stress.

  11. Inconel 718 süper alaşımının farklı gerilme ve sıcaklıklarda yüksek sıcaklık sürünme davranışının incelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergün Subaşı

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, havacılıkta yaygın olarak kullanılan Inconel 718 süper alaşımının sürünme davranışına sıcaklık ve gerilmenin etkileri incelenmiştir. Deneyler; 750°C, 800°C sıcaklıklarında ve 200-350MPa gerilme aralığında gerçekleştirilmiştir. Deneysel çalışma sonuçlarından, gerilme üssü (n, sürünme hızı (έ ve aktivasyon enerjisi (Q hesaplanmıştır. Hesaplanan sonuçlara göre; sürünme hızlarının artan gerilme ile arttığı, ayrıca sıcaklığın artmasıyla birlikte sürünme hızları çok daha fazla artmaktadır. Aynı şekilde, artan gerilme ile birlikte aktivasyon enerjisi artmaktadır. Deney sonuçlarından elde edilen gerilme üssü değerlerine göre; etkin deformasyon mekanizmasının dislokasyon sürünmesi olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Inconel 718 süper alaşımının kopma sürünme ömrünü tahmin etmek için, Larson Miller grafiği çizilmiştir. Bu grafikle, Inconel 718’in yüksek sıcaklık sürünme ömürleri hesaplanabilir.

  12. Shortening of median door-to-balloon time in primary percutaneous coronary intervention in Singapore by simple and inexpensive operational measures: clinical practice improvement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Hang; Ooi, Shirley B S; Tay, Edgar L; Low, Adrian F; Teo, Swee-Guan; Lau, Cindy; Tai, Bee-Choo; Lim, Irene; Lam, Susan; Lim, Ing-Haan; Chai, Ping; Tan, Huay-Cheem

    2008-10-01

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the standard reperfusion strategy for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in our center. We aimed to shorten the median door-to-balloon time from over 100 minutes to 90 minutes or less. We have been using three strategies since March 2007 to shorten the door-to-balloon time: (1) the intervention team is now activated by emergency department physicians (where previously it had been activated by coronary care unit); (2) all members of the intervention team have converted from using pagers to using cell phones; and (3) as soon as the intervention team is activated, patients are transferred immediately to the cardiac catheterization laboratory (where previously they had waited in the emergency department for the intervention team to arrive). An in-house physician and a nurse would stay with the patients before arrival of the intervention team. During 12 months, 285 nontransfer patients (analyzed, n = 270) underwent primary PCI. The shortest monthly median door-to-balloon time was 59 minutes; the longest monthly median door-to-balloon time was 111 minutes. The overall median door-to-balloon time for the entire 12 months was 72 minutes. On a per-month basis, the median door-to-balloon time was 90 minutes or less in 10 of 12 months. On a per-patient basis, the median door-to-balloon time was 90 minutes or less in 182 patients (67.4%). There was 1 case (0.4%) of inappropriate activation by the emergency department. While waiting for the intervention team to convene, 1 patient (0.4%) deteriorated and had to be resuscitated in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Improved health care delivery can be achieved by changing simple and inexpensive operational processes.

  13. Hispanic Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    Hispanic heritage month is from September 15 to October 15. One problem that arises when grouping people into categories such as Hispanic or Latino is stereotyping, stereotypes can be promoted or used in this Hispanic month to promote a greater understanding of Latino cultures.

  14. Progress report, 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests...... of the multimirror cutting head have been started....

  15. Progress report, 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests...... of the multimirror cutting head have been started....

  16. Progress report, 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  17. Progress report, 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  18. Eight years experience in the management of median arcuate ligament syndrome by decompression, celiac ganglion sympathectomy, and selective revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sherif; Hynes, Niamh; Elsafty, Naisrin; Tawfick, Wael

    2013-11-01

    We aim to review an 8-year experience of median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) with chronic gastrointestinal ischemia (CGI) and evaluate clinical outcomes of arcuate ligament decompression, celiac sympathectomy, and selective revascularization. Between December 2002 and March 2012, of 25 patients referred with symptoms of CGI, 11 patients (10 women and 1 man) had clinical signs of abdominal angina and radiological evidence of MALS. Mean age was 50 ± 20.4 years. Median symptom duration was 34 months. All patients had median arcuate decompression and celiac sympathectomy. In all, 8 did not require revascularization, 2 had retrograde celiac and/or superior mesenteric artery (SMA) stenting, and 1 had SMA bypass. There was no mortality. The 30-day morbidity was 9%. Mean follow-up was 60 months. Eight patients noted complete relief of abdominal pain, and 1 reported some improvement. The MALS is not solely a vascular compression syndrome. The neurological component requires careful celiac plexus sympathectomy in addition to arcuate ligament decompression.

  19. A persisting median artery in a patient with symbrachydactyly and carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollan, C J; Sivarajan, V

    2008-07-01

    A persisting median artery associated with carpal tunnel syndrome in a patient with symbrachydactyly has not been previously described in the literature. It is unclear whether there may be a developmental association between persistence of a median artery and Symbrachydactyly.

  20. Comparison of the pulsed MIG welding process for different median current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Yuanmei; Xue Jiaxiang; Yao Ping; Huang Shisheng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the high speed video system with electrical signals collecting and wavelet analyzing, the welding processes under three different median currents with the same median time were detected. The experimental results show that, when the median current is higher, the input peak energy is lower. And the droplet transfer is almost in spray mode. The welding process is the stablest.

  1. Cold months in a warming climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, Jouni; Ylhäisi, Jussi S.

    2011-11-01

    The frequency of cold months in the 21st century is studied using the CMIP3 ensemble of climate model simulations, using month-, location- and model-specific threshold temperatures derived from the simulated 20th century climate. Unsurprisingly, cold months are projected to become less common, but not non-existent, under continued global warming. As a multi-model mean over the global land area excluding Antarctica and under the SRES A1B scenario, 14% of the months during the years 2011-2050 are simulated to be colder than the 20th century median for the same month, 1.3% colder than the 10th percentile, and 0.1% record cold. The geographic and seasonal variations in the frequency of cold months are strongly modulated by variations in the magnitude of interannual variability. Thus, for example, cold months are most infrequently simulated over the tropical oceans where the variability is smallest, not over the Arctic where the warming is largest.

  2. Fast water exchange on a Pt(II) center: variable temperature and pressure 17O NMR study at 14.1 tesla of the ionic arylplatinum species [Pt{C6H3(CH2NMe2)2-2,6}(OH2)]+(OSO2CF3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Frey, U.; Grove, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The water-soluble ionic aryl platinum species [Pt{C{6}H{3}(CH{2}NMe{2})-2, 6} (OH{2})]}+{ undergoes water exchange at a rate 10}7{ times faster than the coordination complex [Pt(OH{2}){4}]}2{}+{; a clear-cut example of the trans effect of the C-bonded organic group. Lineshape analysis of high pressu

  3. Reaction of (CP(2)asterisk-lnH)(2) (ln=Y, La) and CP(2)asterisk-Y(2-C(6)H(4)CH(2)NMe(2)) with esters and amides and molecular-structure of [CP(2)asterisk-Y(mu- ocme=chc(oet)o)](2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelman, B.J; Wierda, F.; Meetsma, A.; Teuben, J.H

    1995-01-01

    The activation of esters and amides by (Cp(2)*LnH)(2) [Ln = Y (1a), Ln = La (1b), Cp*=C(5)Me] and Cp(2)*Y(2-C(6)H(4)CH(2)NMe(2)) (2) is described. Compounds 1a and 1b react with ethyl acetate to form Cp(2)*YOEt (3a) and Cp(2)*LaOEt (30). With 1a and ethyl benzoate a 1:1 mixture of 3a and

  4. TARP Monthly Housing Scorecard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Treasury and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) jointly produce a Monthly Housing Scorecard on the health of the nation’s housing market. The...

  5. Lightship Monthly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily Weather Observations (Monthly Form 1001) from lightship stations in the United States. Please see the 'Surface Weather Observations (1001)' library for more...

  6. Oceanographic Monthly Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Monthly Summary contains sea surface temperature (SST) analyses on both regional and ocean basin scales for the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans....

  7. Sternal Reconstruction of Deep Sternal Wound Infections Following Median Sternotomy by Single-stage Muscle Flaps Transposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-yan Xie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess clinical effectiveness of using bilateral pectoralis major or plus rectus abdominis muscle flaps in treating deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) following median sternotomy. Methods Between January 2009 and December 2013, 19 patients with DSWI after median sternotomy for cardiac surgery were admitted to our hospital, including 14 males (73.7%) and 5 females (26.3%), aged 55±13 (18-78) years. According to the Pairolero classification of infected median sternotomies, 3 (15.8%) patients were type II, and the other 16 (84.2%) were type III. Surgical procedure consisted of adequate debridement of infected sternum, costal cartilage, granulation, steel wires, suture residues and other foreign substances. Sternal reconstruction used the bilateral pectoralis major or plus rectus abdominis muscle flaps to obliterate dead space. The drainage tubes were placed and connected to a negative pressure generator for adequate drainage. Results There were no intraoperative deaths. In 15 patients (78.9%), bilateral pectoral muscle flaps were mobilized sufficiently to cover and stabilize the defect created by wound debridement. 4 patients (21.0%) needed bilateral pectoral muscle flaps plus rectus abdominis muscle flaps because their pectoralis major muscle flaps could not reach the lowest portion of the wound. 2 patients (10.5%) presented with subcutaneous infection, and 3 patients (15.8%) had hematoma. They recovered following local debridement and medication. 17 patients (89.5%) were examined at follow-up 12 months later, all healed and having stable sternum. No patients showed infection recurrence during the follow-up period over 12 months. Conclusion DSWI following median sternotomy may be effectively managed with adequate debridement of infected tissues and reconstruction with bilateral pectoralis major muscle or plus rectus abdominis muscle flap transposition.

  8. Bilmecelerin Dil-Düşünme Bağlamında Eğitimdeki Yeri ve Önemi The Place and Importance of Riddles in the Context of Language and Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Emine BALTA

    2013-03-01

    bilmeceler, eski popülerliğini kaybetmiştir. Yaşam koşullarının farklılaşması, sosyal ortamların niteliğini değişmesi, bireyselleşme ve benzer sebepler, insanların ihtiyaçları ve anlayışlarında olduğu gibi ilgi ve zevklerini de değiştirdiği için bu durum normal karşılanabilir.Akademik anlamda, bilmeceler ile ilgili çalışmalar halkbilim sahasında sınırlı kalmıştır. Bu sahada yapılmış olan değerli çalışmalar ise eğitim-öğretim boyutunda yeteri kadar değerlendirilmemiştir. Eğitim öğretim alanında da bilmecelere yeteri kadar yer verilmediği görülmektedir. Oysa bilmeceler, dil ve kavram öğretiminde, bunlarla yakından ilişkili olan düşünme öğretiminde de başarı sağlamada araç olarak kullanılabilecek zenginlik ve derinlik özelliğine sahiptir. Eğitim-öğretim sürecinde, bilmecelerin en önemli katkısı, anadili eğitiminde görülür. Kavram öğretiminde ve kelime hazinesini zenginleştirmede bilmeceler yardımcı araç olarak görülebilir. Bilmecede cevabı arama süreci dinamiktir; birey, zihninden geçen tüm kavramları soruda belirtilen özellikleri ile karşılaştırır. Açık bir ifadeyle bilmeceler üst düzey düşünme becerilerinden olan yaratıcı düşünme, eleştirel düşünme ve problem çözme becerileri ile ilişkilidir. Bilmecelerin eğitsel ve düşünsel bağlamda değerinin farkına varılmalı ve diğer edebi türler gibi eğitim ortamlarına dahil edilmelidir. Bu çalışmada, bilmece türünün eğitim-öğretimde etkili bir araç, zengin bir uyaran olarak yeri ve önemi belirlenmiş ve açıklanmıştır.

  9. Alüminyum ve bakırın yüksek devirli sürtünme karıştırma kaynağında takım pozisyonunun etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    Çakır, Recep; Çelik, Sare

    2015-01-01

    Sürtünme karıştırma kaynağı (SKK) aynı veya farklı cins malzemelerin birleştirilmesinde kullanılan katı hal birleştirme yöntemidir. Bu yöntem, ilk olarak ergitme kaynak teknikleri ile birleştirilmesinde zorluklarla karşılaşılan alüminyum alaşımlarının birleştirilmesinde kullanılmış olmakla beraber günümüzde farklı malzeme çiftlerinin başarılı bir şekilde birleştirilmesine de olanak vermektedir. Bu çalışmada, alüminyum (AA1050) ve bakır levhalar, ısı girdisini arttırmak amacı ile yüksek takım ...

  10. Mass spectrometric study of the pyrolysis of organometallic precursors usable in GaAs vapor phase epitaxy. The fluorine-containing derivatives (C 6F 5) 3- nMe nGaAsEt 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauray, F.; El Hammadi, A.

    1988-08-01

    Thermal decomposition of the coordination compounds Rf 3- nMe nGaAsEt 3 (Rf = C 6F 5; n = 0, 2) in a CVD reactor has been investigated under helium and hydrogen atmosphere by a quadrupole mass analyzer. At 600°C, hydrogen facilitates the Rf elimination forming C 6F 5H but under inert atmosphere, decomposition of these cyclic groups generates HC≡CF and stable gallium flouride entities which prevent, in the case of Rf 3GaAsEt 3, the growth of the layer. The ethyl elimination mechanism is a β elimination for RfMe 2GaAsEt 3 in helium, hydrogenolysis and homolytic fission followed by disproportionation of Et radical for RfMe 2GaAsEt 3 in hydrogen. The reaction mechanism becomes complicated for Rf 3GaAsEt 3 in helium. The electroattractive Rf group stabilizes the donor-acceptor Ga-As bond as this is required for adducts used as a single source but, its use as ligand in organometallic precursor for GaAs epitaxy must be limited accordingly to its low thermal stability.

  11. Study of recurrent branch of median nerve (Thenar's muscular branch in relation to the flexor retinaculum and median in 64 hands (32 Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirsadri R

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Variation of recurred branch of median nerve in relation to the median and flexor retinaculum are significant for both hand surgeons and specialists always. In this study, 64 cadaver hands (32 men have been dissected. The median nerve was identified at the proximal edge of the flexor retinaculum, and in order to expose carpal tunnel the ligament was divided, and the above subjects were studied. The results are: 1 The relation of recurrent nerve to the flexor retinaculum was classified into 4 types: A In (53.1% of subjects, this branch arises from the median after the flexor retinaculum. B In (31.3% of subjects, it arises from the median in the carpal tunnel and the moves around the lower edge of flexor retinaculum and enters the thenar region. C In (14.1% of subjects, it arises from the median in the carpal tunnel and pierces the flexor retinaculum. D In (1.56% of subjects it arises, in the carpal tunnel and it divides into two subbranches here. One follows pattern A and the other pattern C. 2 In this step, the relation of the recurrent branch to the median nerve was studied. The results show that inspite of this image even though most often the recurrent branch arises from the lateral side of median, in (68.75% of subjects it arises from it's anterior surface. The MC Nemar test reveals that there is no relation between manifestation of mentioned patterns with right or left hands.

  12. Presentation and management of keloid scarring following median sternotomy: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javangula Kalyana C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Keloid scars following median sternotomy are rare and occur more frequently in pigmented skin. Different management strategies have been described with variable success. We present a case of keloid scar formation following cardiac surgery including our management and the final aesthetic result. Case description A 64 year old female of fair complexion underwent mitral valve replacement. The procedure and postoperative recovery were uncomplicated, however, during the following year, thick keloid scars formed over the incision sites. Initial non surgical measures failed to relieve pain and did not offer any tangible aesthetic benefit. Eventually surgical excision was attempted. She presented to our clinic for nine months follow up with significant improvement in pain and aesthetic result. Discussion and Evaluation Several theories have attempted to explore the pathophysiology of keloid scar formation. A number of predisposing factors have been documented however none existed in this case. A variety of invasive and non invasive approaches have been described but significant differences in success rates and methodology of investigations still precludes a standardized management protocol. Conclusions In this case study a rare presentation of keloid scar has been presented. The variety of methods used to improve pain and aesthetic result demonstrates the propensity of keloid scars to recur and the therapeutic challenges that surgeons have to face in their quest for a satisfactory patient outcome.

  13. Hydrogen for X-group exchange in CH3X, X = Cl, Br, I, OMe and NMe2 byMonomeric [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeH: Experimental and Computational Support for a Carbenoid Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werkema, Evan; Andersen, Richard; Yahia, Ahmed; Maron, Laurent; Eisenstein, Odile

    2009-05-15

    The reaction between [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeH, referred to as Cp'2CeH, andCH3X where X is Cl, Br, I, OMe and NMe2, are described. The reactions fall intothree distinct classes. Class a, where X = Cl, Br and I rapidly form Cp'2CeX and CH4without formation of identifiable intermediates in the 1H NMR spectra. Class b, whereX = OMe proceeds rapidly to Cp'2Ce(eta2-CH2OMe) and H2 and then to Cp'2CeOMeand CH4. The methoxymethyl derivative is sufficiently stable to be isolated andcharacterized and it is rapidly converted to Cp'2CeOMe in presence of BPh3. Class c,where X = NMe2 does not result in formation of Cp'2CeNMe2, but deuterium labelingexperiments show that H for D exchange occurs in NMe3. Density functionalcalculations DFT(B3PW91) on the reaction of (C5H5)2CeH, referred to as Cp2CeH,and CH3X show that the barrier for alpha-CH activation, resulting in formation ofCp2Ce(eta2-CH2X), proceeds with a relatively low activation barrier (DeltaG++) but thesubsequent ejection of CH2 and trapping by H2 has a higher barrier; the height of thesecond barrier lies in the order F, Cl, Br, I< OMe<< NMe2, consistent with theexperimental studies. The DFT calculations also show that the two-step reaction,which proceeds through a carbenoid intermediate, has a lower barrier than a directone-step sigma bond metathesis mechanism. The reaction of Cp2CeCH2OMe and BPh3 is calculated to be a low barrier process and the ylide, CH2(+)BPh3(-), is a transition state and not an intermediate.

  14. Hydrogen for X-group exchange in CH3X, X = Cl, Br, I, OMe and NMe2 byMonomeric [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeH: Experimental and Computational Support for a Carbenoid Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werkema, Evan; Andersen, Richard; Yahia, Ahmed; Maron, Laurent; Eisenstein, Odile

    2009-05-15

    The reaction between [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeH, referred to as Cp'2CeH, andCH3X where X is Cl, Br, I, OMe and NMe2, are described. The reactions fall intothree distinct classes. Class a, where X = Cl, Br and I rapidly form Cp'2CeX and CH4without formation of identifiable intermediates in the 1H NMR spectra. Class b, whereX = OMe proceeds rapidly to Cp'2Ce(eta2-CH2OMe) and H2 and then to Cp'2CeOMeand CH4. The methoxymethyl derivative is sufficiently stable to be isolated andcharacterized and it is rapidly converted to Cp'2CeOMe in presence of BPh3. Class c,where X = NMe2 does not result in formation of Cp'2CeNMe2, but deuterium labelingexperiments show that H for D exchange occurs in NMe3. Density functionalcalculations DFT(B3PW91) on the reaction of (C5H5)2CeH, referred to as Cp2CeH,and CH3X show that the barrier for alpha-CH activation, resulting in formation ofCp2Ce(eta2-CH2X), proceeds with a relatively low activation barrier (DeltaG++) but thesubsequent ejection of CH2 and trapping by H2 has a higher barrier; the height of thesecond barrier lies in the order F, Cl, Br, I< OMe<< NMe2, consistent with theexperimental studies. The DFT calculations also show that the two-step reaction,which proceeds through a carbenoid intermediate, has a lower barrier than a directone-step sigma bond metathesis mechanism. The reaction of Cp2CeCH2OMe and BPh3 is calculated to be a low barrier process and the ylide, CH2(+)BPh3(-), is a transition state and not an intermediate.

  15. Analysis of Prognostic Factors of 80 Advanced NSCLC Patients Treated with Gefitinib for more than 6 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling DAI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Some clinical predictors can be used to evaluate the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, including female, East-Asian, non-smoker, adenocarcinoma, skin rash, etc. The aim of this study is to explore the prognosis of advanced NSCLC patients treated with gefitinib for more than 6 months. Methods Eighty advanced NSCLC patients treated with gefitinib for more than 6 months were collected from January, 2005 to March, 2010. The association of their clinical characteristics with median progression-free survival time (PFS was analysed. Results Significantly longer median PFS were found in patients with > 70 years old, earlier clinical stage (IIIb, non-bone metastasis (27 months vs 12 months; 32 months vs 12 months; 16 months vs 10 months, P < 0.05. There was no significant difference in median PFS between ECOG performance status 0-1 group and 2-4 group, between more than 4 cycles of chemotherapy and 1-4 cycles, between PFS of chemotherapy > 6 months group and ≤6 months group, however, ECOG 0-1 group and more than 4 cycles of chemotherapy or PFS of chemotherapy > 6 months group seemed to have longer median PFS (15 months vs 10 months; 16 months vs 12 months; 14months vs 12 months. Compared with no skin rash and grade 0-I rash group, the patients with rash or grade ≥II rash had longer median PFS (16 months vs 13 months, P=0.171; 19 months vs 11 months, P=0.085. The median PFS was not related with sex, smoking index, pathological types, metastatic sites except bone, treatment strategy, etc (P > 0.05. Conclusion For gefitinib treatment, longer median PFS is likely to be obtained in patients with > 70 years old, earlier clinical stage (IIIb, non-bone metastasis.

  16. Monthly energy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  17. Photos of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Congratulations to Adele Rimoldi, ATLAS physicist from Pavia, who ran her first marathon in New York last month. Adele completed the 42.2 km in a time of 4:49:19. She sure makes it look easy!!! The ATLAS pixel service quarter panel in SR1

  18. Monthly Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-28

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief ``energy plugs`` (reviews of EIA publications) are included, as well.

  19. Minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum in an adolescent with a history of a median sternotomy as an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Huckaby

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The report by Nuss et al., in 1998 of their 10-year experience with minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum introduced the possibility of a less invasive approach for the correction of chest wall abnormalities. This procedure is now well-accepted around the world, although serious complications such as intraoperative cardiac perforation and postoperative bar displacement have been reported. The Nuss procedure has been performed concurrently with sternotomy for cardiac operations. However, there have been no reports of minimally invasive pectus excavatum correction in a child with a remote history of a median sternotomy. With IRB approval (Protocol #1308002283 we report the successful completion of a Nuss procedure in an adolescent with a history of a median sternotomy in infancy. During the procedure, thoracoscopy on the right side revealed significant adhesions of the lung and pericardium to the posterior sternum. Additional trocars were placed bilaterally to facilitate visualization and to allow for lysis of the adhesions with bipolar cautery. Passage of the bar was accomplished uneventfully and the patient has an excellent cosmetic outcome 28 months following the operation. We believe that a previous median sternotomy should not be viewed as a contraindication to the minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum.

  20. A method for determining the median line of measured cylindrical and conical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecki, Dariusz; Zwierzchowski, Jarosław

    2015-08-01

    The paper presents a novel method for the determination of the median line of the cylindrical and conical surfaces. This method can be incorporated into virtually any cylindricity measurement strategy, including the bird-cage strategy and the helical line strategy. In the study, a median line was determined by minimizing the functional made up of two components. The form of the first component results from the classic definition of the median line provided in the corresponding standard. The other, termed the bending energy, is responsible for ensuring appropriate smoothness of the median line. In order to solve this variational problem, the median line was approximated by means of linear combination of cubic B-spline functions. A simulation and experiments were conducted to establish the suitability of the algorithm developed for the determination of the median line using the helical-line and the cross-section measurement strategy.

  1. Your Child's Development: 9 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Baby's Growth: 9 Months Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 9 Months Your Child's Checkup: 9 Months Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Sleep and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Contact ...

  2. Laser Therapy After Repair of the Distal Half of the Median Nerve; a Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Forootan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Nerve injuries resulting from major or minor trauma often cause some disabilities for patients. Neurotmesis, characterized by complete anatomical rupture of the nerve, is the most severe form of the injury which will not recover without reconstructive surgery and nowadays such neural damages are improved by microsurgical procedures. Some studies have used low power laser for nerve cell growth in order to improve the rehabilitation results of peripheral nerves. Low power laser can complement the reformation of postsurgical nerve injuries. Objectives The current study aimed to assess the effects of laser therapy after repair of median nerve rupture in the distal third of the forearm and to compare the results with that of the standard method. Patients and Methods The current study was a case-control clinical trial of 36 patients with volar surface rupture of the distal third of forearm admitted to the emergency ward of Hazrat-e-Fatemeh Hospital within 72 hours of injury, they had anesthesia in the first, second, and third fingers as a result of Median Nerve Injury. Patients were divided into two groups. The first group included subjects treated with standard methods and the second group included those treated with low power laser therapy (LT along with the standard method. The same surgeon operated the subjects in the two groups. The second group underwent 10 sessions of LT every other day. Clinical Examination, Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV were done after six months and the results were compared. Results In the two -point discrimination- test, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the thumbs but a significant improvement was observed in the index finger of the LT group. Improvement of muscular examinations such as opposition and thumb abduction supported the usage of laser in the second group. Regarding electromyography and NCV, significant statistical difference was observed in the motor

  3. The Median-Median Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Graphing bivariate data in a scatter plot and drawing an approximate line of best fit for the data have become commonly recommended activities for middle school and high school students. The graphing calculator has provided a mechanism for students both to approximate a best-fit line and to calculate the best-fit line using a built-in option. Two…

  4. Acceptable differences in sensory and motor latencies between the median and ulnar nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossart, Elizabeth A; Prahlow, Nathan D; Buschbacher, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The median and ulnar nerves are often studied during the same electrodiagnostic examination. The sensory and motor latencies of these nerves have been compared to detect a common electrodiagnostic entity: median neuropathy at the wrist. However, this comparison could also be used to diagnose less common ulnar pathology. For this reason, it is important to establish normal values for comparing median and ulnar sensory and motor latencies. Previous research deriving these differences in latency has had some limitations. The purpose of this study was to derive an improved normative database for the acceptable differences in latency between the median and ulnar sensory and motor nerves of the same limb. Median and ulnar sensory and motor latencies were obtained from 219 and 238 asymptomatic risk-factor-free subjects, respectively. An analysis of variance was performed to determine whether physical characteristics, specifically age, race, gender, height, or body mass index (as an indicator of obesity), correlated with differences in latency. Differences in sensory latencies were unaffected by physical characteristics. The upper limit of normal difference between median and ulnar (median longer than ulnar) onset latency was 0.5 ms (97th percentile), whereas the peak latency value was 0.4 ms (97th percentile). The upper limit of normal difference between ulnar-versus-median (ulnar longer than median) onset latency was 0.3 ms (97th percentile), whereas the peak-latency value was 0.5 ms (97th percentile). The mean difference in motor latencies correlated with age, with older subjects having a greater variability. In subjects aged 50 and over, the mean difference in median-versus-ulnar latency was 0.9 ms +/- 0.4 ms. The upper limit of normal difference (median longer than ulnar) was 1.7 ms (97th percentile). The upper limit of normal ulnar motor latency is attained if the ulnar latency comes within 0.3 ms of the median latency. In individuals less than 50 years of age, the

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  7. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  8. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  9. Median and ulnar nerve injuries: prognosis and predictors for clinical outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. Jaquet (Jean)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn chapter 1 the author provide a general introduction on median and ulnar nerve injuries. Furthermore the aims for this thesis, entitled median and ulnar nerve injuries: prognosis and predictors for clinical outcome, are defi ned. Chapter 2 comprises an investigation into the overall fu

  10. Median sternotomy for double lung transplantation with cardiopulmonary bypass in seven consecutive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohno, Mitsutomo; Steinbrüchel, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    We describe our technique of using median sternotomy to perform double lung transplantations with cardiopulmonary bypass. By sparing the respiratory muscles, median sternotomy is probably less invasive and preserves lung function. Furthermore, it causes less long-term discomfort than intercostal...

  11. The median of the distance between two leaves in a phylogenetic tree

    CERN Document Server

    Mir, Arnau

    2010-01-01

    We establish a limit formula for the median of the distance between two leaves in a fully resolved unrooted phylogenetic tree with n leaves. More precisely, we prove that this median is equal, in the limit, to the square root of 4*ln(2)*n.

  12. In vivo three-dimensional reconstruction of human median nerves by diffusion tensor imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Stenekes, MW; Hoogduin, HM; Nicolai, JPA

    2006-01-01

    The in vivo assessment of axonal projections of the peripheral nervous system has been severely limited by the lack of noninvasive techniques. We examined whether MR diffusion tensor imaging with fiber tracking of the human median nerve is feasible. The median nerve was examined with a 3-T MRI scann

  13. Electromyogram median power frequency in dynamic exercise at medium exercise intensities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Bonga, GJJ; Hof, AL; Verkerke, GJ

    1996-01-01

    The electromyogram (EMG) median power Frequency of the calf muscles was investigated during an exhausting treadmill exercise and a 20-min recovery period. The exercise was an uphill run at a speed of 5 km . h(-1) and a gradient of 20%. During exercise there was no decrease of EMG median power freque

  14. Magnetic resonance neurography of median neuropathies proximal to the carpal tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thawait, Gaurav K. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Subhawong, Ty K.; Eng, John; Carrino, John A.; Chhabra, Avneesh [Johns Hopkins Hospital, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Thawait, Shrey K. [Yale University, Bridgeport Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bridgeport, CT (United States); Andreisek, Gustav [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Belzberg, Alan J. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-06-15

    This review provides magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) imaging appearances of median neuropathy proximal to the carpal tunnel. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and its imaging have been extensively described in the literature; however, there is a relative paucity of information on the MR imaging appearances of different pathologies of the median nerve proximal to the carpal tunnel. (orig.)

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  16. Shadow Probability of Detection and False Alarm for Median-Filtered SAR Imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynal, Ann Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). ISR Analysis and Applications Dept.; Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). ISR Mission Engineering Dept.; Miller, John A. [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States). Mission Systems; Bishop, Edward E. [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States). Mission Systems; Horndt, Volker [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States). Mission Systems

    2014-06-01

    Median filtering reduces speckle in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery while preserving edges, at the expense of coarsening the resolution, by replacing the center pixel of a sliding window by the median value. For shadow detection, this approach helps distinguish shadows from clutter more easily, while preserving shadow shape delineations. However, the nonlinear operation alters the shadow and clutter distributions and statistics, which must be taken into consideration when computing probability of detection and false alarm metrics. Depending on system parameters, median filtering can improve probability of detection and false alarm by orders of magnitude. Herein, we examine shadow probability of detection and false alarm in a homogeneous, ideal clutter background after median filter post-processing. Some comments on multi-look processing effects with and without median filtering are also made.

  17. Assessment of Median Nerve Mobility by Ultrasound Dynamic Imaging for Diagnosing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Tzung Kuo

    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common peripheral neuropathy and is characterized by median nerve entrapment at the wrist and the resulting median nerve dysfunction. CTS is diagnosed clinically as the gold standard and confirmed with nerve conduction studies (NCS. Complementing NCS, ultrasound imaging could provide additional anatomical information on pathological and motion changes of the median nerve. The purpose of this study was to estimate the transverse sliding patterns of the median nerve during finger movements by analyzing ultrasound dynamic images to distinguish between normal subjects and CTS patients. Transverse ultrasound images were acquired, and a speckle-tracking algorithm was used to determine the lateral displacements of the median nerve in radial-ulnar plane in B-mode images utilizing the multilevel block-sum pyramid algorithm and averaging. All of the averaged lateral displacements at separate acquisition times within a single flexion-extension cycle were accumulated to obtain the cumulative lateral displacements, which were curve-fitted with a second-order polynomial function. The fitted curve was regarded as the transverse sliding pattern of the median nerve. The R2 value, curvature, and amplitude of the fitted curves were computed to evaluate the goodness, variation and maximum value of the fit, respectively. Box plots, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, and a fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm were utilized for statistical analysis. The transverse sliding of the median nerve during finger movements was greater and had a steeper fitted curve in the normal subjects than in the patients with mild or severe CTS. The temporal changes in transverse sliding of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel were found to be correlated with the presence of CTS and its severity. The representative transverse sliding patterns of the median nerve during finger movements were demonstrated to be useful for

  18. Commissioners' Monthly Case Activity Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission — Total cases pending at the beginning of the month, total cases added to the docket during the month, total cases disposed of during the month, and total cases...

  19. Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. C. Venema

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide trend was added.

    Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii the error in linear trend estimates and (iii traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve

  20. Review on the US Application of Countervailing Duty Law to NME Countries and the Way out for China%美国对华适用反补贴法的实践检视——基才“非市场经济国家”的考量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘素霞

    2012-01-01

    历史上.美国的反补贴法从未适用于“非市场经济国家”。受国内经济、政治、贸易政策等原因影响,美国商务部不顾国内立法无授权的客观情况,逐渐对华启动反补贴制裁,但最终在美国受到司法的否定性评价。为消除“非公路用轮胎案”判决的不利影响,美国国会迅速修改了关税法以适用于“非市场经济国家”。新形势下,中国政府和企业应面对现实、放长眼光,提升产品竞争能力,打造升级版的“中国制造”,使我国产品立足国际市场。%In history, the US countervailing duty law has never been applied to non- market-economy (NME) countries. The US Department of Commerce gradually applies the countervailing duty law to China regardless of being unauthorized in its domestic legislation. In the end, the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit decides that the countervailing duty law does not apply to NME countries. To eliminate the adverse effect of the case of GPX, the US Congress has quickly enacted the countervailing duty law so as to enable it to apply to NME countries. In the new situation, Chinese government and enterprises should be committed to enhancing their competitiveness of products in order to win in the international market.

  1. Normalised monthly shortage curves: a contribution for a better understanding of monthly rain deficit in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M. D.; Lana, X.; Burgueño, A.; Serra, C.

    2012-05-01

    A new approach to the statistics of rainfall shortage at monthly scale in Western Europe is obtained from precipitation records of 115 gauges over the twentieth century. In this paper, a month is considered to have rainfall deficit when its rain amount is below the 50th percentile of the respective calendar month. The monthly shortage, MS, for every month with deficit is then computed as the absolute value of the difference between its monthly amount and the corresponding truncation level. The cumulative distributions of monthly shortage, CMS, and number of shortage months, CNM, constitute a new description of the monthly rainfall deficit. Both CMS and CNM distributions fit well to a Weibull model. Using the analogy to the normalised daily rainfall curves formulation, NRC, the relationship between CMS and CNM, named as normalised shortage curve, NSC, is modelled by the same function applied to NRCs. Similarly to NRCs, the behaviour of the NSCs strongly depends on the coefficient of variation of the monthly shortage, CVMS. Four coordinates characterising every NSC are then introduced: the CMS percentile associated with the median of CNM; the CNM percentile related to the median of CMS; and the percentiles of CMS and CNM for the average monthly shortage. In this way, the degree of asymmetric distribution of the monthly deficit is quantified. With the aim of performing a clustering process based on these four coordinates, a principal component analysis, is previously applied to remove redundancies, being obtained two uncorrelated principal components, PCs, characterising every NSC. An average linkage algorithm is then applied to these two PCs, leading to obtain spatially coherent groups of gauges with very similar NSC patterns. This clustering process permits to discard latitude and vicinity to the Atlantic Ocean or the Mediterranean Sea as main factors conditioning the monthly shortage regime.

  2. Sosiaalisen median hyödyntäminen hotellin markkinointiviestinnässä

    OpenAIRE

    Veikkolainen, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Sosiaalisen median eli yhteisöllisen median suosio on kasvanut kovaa vauhtia viime vuosina. Maailmanlaajuisesti sosiaalista mediaa käyttää satoja miljoonia ihmisiä päivittäin. Suomessa sosiaalisen median käyttäjiä on reilusti yli miljoona. Sosiaalinen media käsittää internetissä olevat sovellukset, mitkä mahdollistavat ihmisten välisen vapaan tiedon jakamisen ja kommunikoinnin. Tunnetuimpia sovelluksia ovat muun muassa yhteisöpalvelu Facebook sekä videopalvelu Youtube. Monet hotellit ovat hav...

  3. A rare case of mucormycosis of median sternotomy wound caused by Rhizopus arrhizus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawla R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of mucormycosis of median sternotomy wound caused by Rhizopus arrhizus . The patient, a known diabetic and a case of coronary artery disease underwent coronary artery bypass surgery. In the postoperative period, patient developed infection of the median sternotomy wound, from which R. arrhizus was isolated on culture. Patient succumbed in spite of being treated with surgical debridement and amphotericin B. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of mucormycosis of median sternotomy wound from India.

  4. Median Filter Noise Reduction of Image and Backpropagation Neural Network Model for Cervical Cancer Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutsqa, D. U.; Marwah, M.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we consider spatial operation median filter to reduce the noise in the cervical images yielded by colposcopy tool. The backpropagation neural network (BPNN) model is applied to the colposcopy images to classify cervical cancer. The classification process requires an image extraction by using a gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method to obtain image features that are used as inputs of BPNN model. The advantage of noise reduction is evaluated by comparing the performances of BPNN models with and without spatial operation median filter. The experimental result shows that the spatial operation median filter can improve the accuracy of the BPNN model for cervical cancer classification.

  5. An improved video median noise reduction algorithm for ambulance vehicle terminal monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xian-Min; Zhang, Hang

    2012-04-01

    An improved video median noise reduction algorithm is presented for 120 vehicle terminal monitoring system in this paper. The noise causes of the video images in many 120 ambulance vehicle video terminal monitor equipments are analyzed, and the space rigid body model of self-adaptive median noise reduction filter is established to decrease the noises of the video image transmission process. The noise reduction experiment of video images shows that the proposed video median noise reduction algorithm is superior to the traditional adaptive filtering method, because the new method has the superiority of space-time joint noise reduction.

  6. Sürtünme Karıştırma Kaynak Yöntemiyle Birleştirilen Farklı Tipteki Alüminyum Bağlantıların Tahribatlı ve Tahribatsız Muayenesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furkan SARSILMAZ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada farklı kimyasal ve mekanik özelliklere sahip AA 5754 (AlMg3 ile AA 5083 (AlMg4,5Mn0,7 alüminyum alaşım levhaları, günümüzde yeni geliştirilen sürtünme karıştırma kaynak (SKK yöntemiyle birleştirilmiştir. Çalışmada farklı devir ve ilerleme hızlarının, kaynaklı bağlantıların mekanik özelliklerini belirlemek amacıyla tahribatlı (çekme, çentik darbe, ve yorulma ve tahribatsız (floroskopik testler uygulanmıştır. Tahribatlı testler sonucunda farklı kaynak dönme ve ilerleme hızlarının, bağlantının mekanik test sonuçlarını etkilediği belirlenmiştir. Tahribatsız test sonucunda ise düşük devir sayısının ve yüksek ilerleme hızının, kaynak bölgesinde yetersiz birleşme meydana getirmesiyle, dikiş boyunca bölgesel porozite, tünel ve boşluklu bölgelerin oluştuğu görülmüştür. En iyi mekanik test sonucunu, 1400 devir dönme hızı ve 250 mm/dak ilerleme hızı işlem parametresi ile birleştirilen numune sergilemiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Sürtünme Karıştırma Kaynağı, Alüminyum Alaşımları, Tahribatlı Ve Tahribatsız Muayene, Kaynak Bölgesi

  7. Reaction of (CP(2)asterisk-lnH)(2) (ln=Y, La) and CP(2)asterisk-Y(2-C(6)H(4)CH(2)NMe(2)) with esters and amides and molecular-structure of [CP(2)asterisk-Y(mu- ocme=chc(oet)o)](2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelman, B.J; Wierda, F.; Meetsma, A.; Teuben, J.H

    1995-01-01

    The activation of esters and amides by (Cp(2)*LnH)(2) [Ln = Y (1a), Ln = La (1b), Cp*=C(5)Me] and Cp(2)*Y(2-C(6)H(4)CH(2)NMe(2)) (2) is described. Compounds 1a and 1b react with ethyl acetate to form Cp(2)*YOEt (3a) and Cp(2)*LaOEt (30). With 1a and ethyl benzoate a 1:1 mixture of 3a and Cp(2)*YOCH(

  8. B-B bond activation and NHC ring-expansion reactions of diboron(4) compounds, and accurate molecular structures of B2(NMe2)4, B2eg2, B2neop2 and B2pin2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Martin; Würtemberger-Pietsch, Sabrina; Eichhorn, Antonius; Berthel, Johannes H J; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Paul, Ursula S D; Schneider, Heidi; Friedrich, Alexandra; Kleeberg, Christian; Radius, Udo; Marder, Todd B

    2017-03-14

    In this detailed study we report on the structures of the widely employed diboron(4) compounds bis(pinacolato)diboron (B2pin2) and bis(neopentyl glycolato)diboron (B2neop2), as well as bis(ethylene glycolato)diboron (B2eg2) and tetrakis(dimethylamino)diboron (B2(NMe2)4), and their reactivity, along with that of bis(catecholato)diboron (B2cat2) with backbone saturated and backbone unsaturared N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) of different steric demand. Depending on the nature of the diboron(4) compound and the NHC used, Lewis-acid/Lewis-base adducts or NHC ring-expansion products stemming from B-B and C-N bond activation have been observed. The corresponding NHC adducts and NHC ring-expanded products were isolated and characterised via solid-state and solution NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. In general, we observed B-B bond and C-N bond activation at low temperature for B2eg2, at room temperature for B2neop2 and at higher temperature for B2cat2. The reactivity strongly depends on steric effects of the NHCs and the diboron(4) compounds, as well as on the corresponding Lewis-basicity and Lewis-acidity. Our results provide profound insight into the chemistry of these diboron(4) reagents with the nowadays ubiquitous NHCs, the stability of the corresponding NHC adducts and on B-B bond activation using Lewis-bases in general. We demonstrate that B-B bond activation may be triggered even at temperatures as low as -40 °C to -30 °C without any metal species involved. For example, the reactions of B2eg2 with sterically less demanding NHCs such as Me2Im(Me) and iPr2Im in solution led to the corresponding ring-expanded products at low temperatures. Furthermore, boronium [L2B(OR)2](+) and borenium [LB(OR)2](+) cations have been observed from the reaction of the bis-borate B2eg3 with the NHCs iPr2Im and Me2Im(Me), which led to the conclusion that the activation of bis-borates with NHCs (or Lewis-bases in general) might be a facile and simple route to access such species.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  10. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  11. COSMIC monthly progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of May 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Nine articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) WFI - Windowing System for Test and Simulation; (2) HZETRN - A Free Space Radiation Transport and Shielding Program; (3) COMGEN-BEM - Composite Model Generation-Boundary Element Method; (4) IDDS - Interactive Data Display System; (5) CET93/PC - Chemical Equilibrium with Transport Properties, 1993; (6) SDVIC - Sub-pixel Digital Video Image Correlation; (7) TRASYS - Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (HP9000 Series 700/800 Version without NASADIG); (8) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (VAX VMS Version); and (9) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version). Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  12. Effects of smartphone overuse on hand function, pinch strength, and the median nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnal, Esra Erkol; Demİrcİ, kadİr; Çetİntürk, Azİze; Akgönül, Mehmet; Savaş, Serpİl

    2015-08-01

    In this study we investigated the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon and median nerve in smartphone users by ultrasonography to assess the effects of smartphone addiction on the clinical and functional status of the hands. One hundred two students were divided into 3 groups: non-users, and high or low smartphone users. Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) scores and grip and pinch strengths were recorded. Pain in thumb movement and rest and hand function were evaluated on the visual analog scale (VAS) and the Duruöz Hand Index (DHI), respectively. The cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the median nerve and the FPL tendon were calculated bilaterally using ultrasonography. Significantly higher median nerve CSAs were observed in the dominant hands of the high smartphone users than in the non-dominant hands (PSmartphone overuse enlarges the median nerve, causes pain in the thumb, and decreases pinch strength and hand functions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. New England observed and predicted median August stream/river temperature points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted median August stream/river temperatures in New England based on a spatial statistical network...

  14. Prevalence of HIV infection and median CD4 counts among health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of HIV infection and median CD4 counts among health care workers in South Africa. ... Outcome measures. HIV prevalence and CD4 ... By occupation, prevalence was highest among student nurses (13.8%) and nurses (13.7%).

  15. Removing Noises Induced by Gamma Radiation in Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging Using a Temporal Median Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zhan, Yonghua; Kang, Fei; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) can provide information of medical radionuclides used in nuclear imaging based on Cerenkov radiation, which makes it possible for optical means to image clinical radionuclide labeled probes. However, the exceptionally weak Cerenkov luminescence (CL) from Cerenkov radiation is susceptible to lots of impulse noises introduced by high energy gamma rays generating from the decays of radionuclides. In this work, a temporal median filter is proposed to remove this kind of impulse noises. Unlike traditional CLI collecting a single CL image with long exposure time and smoothing it using median filter, the proposed method captures a temporal sequence of CL images with shorter exposure time and employs a temporal median filter to smooth a temporal sequence of pixels. Results of in vivo experiments demonstrated that the proposed temporal median method can effectively remove random pulse noises induced by gamma radiation and achieve a robust CLI image. PMID:27648450

  16. Removing Noises Induced by Gamma Radiation in Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging Using a Temporal Median Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI can provide information of medical radionuclides used in nuclear imaging based on Cerenkov radiation, which makes it possible for optical means to image clinical radionuclide labeled probes. However, the exceptionally weak Cerenkov luminescence (CL from Cerenkov radiation is susceptible to lots of impulse noises introduced by high energy gamma rays generating from the decays of radionuclides. In this work, a temporal median filter is proposed to remove this kind of impulse noises. Unlike traditional CLI collecting a single CL image with long exposure time and smoothing it using median filter, the proposed method captures a temporal sequence of CL images with shorter exposure time and employs a temporal median filter to smooth a temporal sequence of pixels. Results of in vivo experiments demonstrated that the proposed temporal median method can effectively remove random pulse noises induced by gamma radiation and achieve a robust CLI image.

  17. STUDY OF COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN MUSCULOCUTANEOUS NERVE AND MEDIAN NERVE IN ADULT CADAVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangulappa Derangula

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Variations of the musculocutaneous nerve and the median nerve, like the communications between the two, may prove valuable in the traumatology of the shoulder joint and upper arm region. These variations are important in the procedure of blocking the brachial plexus and in clinical neurology. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted on 100 upper limbs belonging to 50 cadavers (Right 50 &left 50 obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Kakatiya medical college, Warangal, Telangana. Dissection of the infraclavicular part of the brachial plexus was done. The variations in the origin, course and communications with the median nerve were noted. RESULTS In 2% of the limbs the nerve was found to give one communicating branch to the median nerve after piercing the coracobrachialis. CONCLUSION Knowledge of possible variations between musculocutaneous nerve and median nerve is necessary to general surgeons, plastic surgeons, neurologists and orthopaedic surgeons.

  18. Predicting Mean Survival Time from Reported Median Survival Time for Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lousdal, Mette L; Kristiansen, Ivar S; Møller, Bjørn;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mean duration of survival following treatment is a prerequisite for cost-effectiveness analyses used for assessing new and costly life-extending therapies for cancer patients. Mean survival time is rarely reported due to censoring imposed by limited follow-up time, whereas the median...... survival time often is. The empirical relationship between mean and median survival time for cancer patients is not known. AIM: To derive the empirical associations between mean and median survival time across cancer types and to validate this empirical prediction approach and compare it with the standard...... approach of fitting a Weibull distribution. METHODS: We included all patients in Norway diagnosed from 1960 to 1999 with one of the 13 most common solid tumor cancers until emigration, death, or 31 December 2011, whichever came first. Observed median, restricted mean, and mean survival times were obtained...

  19. Estimates of Median Flows for Streams on the 1999 Kansas Surface Water Register

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Charles A.; Wolock, David M.; Artman, Joshua C.

    2004-01-01

    The Kansas State Legislature, by enacting Kansas Statute KSA 82a?2001 et. seq., mandated the criteria for determining which Kansas stream segments would be subject to classification by the State. One criterion for the selection as a classified stream segment is based on the statistic of median flow being equal to or greater than 1 cubic foot per second. As specified by KSA 82a?2001 et. seq., median flows were determined from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging-station data by using the most-recent 10 years of gaged data (KSA) for each streamflow-gaging station. Median flows also were determined by using gaged data from the entire period of record (all-available hydrology, AAH). Least-squares multiple regression techniques were used, along with Tobit analyses, to develop equations for estimating median flows for uncontrolled stream segments. The drainage area of the gaging stations on uncontrolled stream segments used in the regression analyses ranged from 2.06 to 12,004 square miles. A logarithmic transformation of the data was needed to develop the best linear relation for computing median flows. In the regression analyses, the significant climatic and basin characteristics, in order of importance, were drainage area, mean annual precipitation, mean basin permeability, and mean basin slope. Tobit analyses of KSA data yielded a model standard error of prediction of 0.285 logarithmic units, and the best equations using Tobit analyses of AAH data had a model standard error of prediction of 0.250 logarithmic units. These regression equations and an interpolation procedure were used to compute median flows for the uncontrolled stream segments on the 1999 Kansas Surface Water Register. Measured median flows from gaging stations were incorporated into the regression-estimated median flows along the stream segments where available. The segments that were uncontrolled were interpolated using gaged data weighted according to the drainage area and the bias between the

  20. Development of Kinematic Graphs of Median Nerve during Active Finger Motion: Implications of Smartphone Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi-Chi Woo

    Full Text Available Certain hand activities cause deformation and displacement of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel due to the gliding motion of tendons surrounding it. As smartphone usage escalates, this raises the public's concern whether hand activities while using smartphones can lead to median nerve problems.The aims of this study were to 1 develop kinematic graphs and 2 investigate the associated deformation and rotational information of median nerve in the carpal tunnel during hand activities.Dominant wrists of 30 young adults were examined with ultrasonography by placing a transducer transversely on their wrist crease. Ultrasound video clips were recorded when the subject performing 1 thumb opposition with the wrist in neutral position, 2 thumb opposition with the wrist in ulnar deviation and 3 pinch grip with the wrist in neutral position. Six still images that were separated by 0.2-second intervals were then captured from the ultrasound video for the determination of 1 cross-sectional area (CSA, 2 flattening ratio (FR, 3 rotational displacement (RD and 4 translational displacement (TD of median nerve in the carpal tunnel, and these collected information of deformation, rotational and displacement of median nerve were compared between 1 two successive time points during a single hand activity and 2 different hand motions at the same time point. Finally, kinematic graphs were constructed to demonstrate the mobility of median nerve during different hand activities.Performing different hand activities during this study led to a gradual reduction in CSA of the median nerve, with thumb opposition together with the wrist in ulnar deviation causing the greatest extent of deformation of the median nerve. Thumb opposition with the wrist in ulnar deviation also led to the largest extent of TD when compared to the other two hand activities of this study. Kinematic graphs showed that the motion pathways of median nerve during different hand activities were complex

  1. Median nerve cross-sectional area and MRI diffusion characteristics: normative values at the carpal tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Lawrence; Gai, Neville [Clinical Center, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Enlargement of the median nerve is an objective potential imaging sign of carpal tunnel syndrome. Diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) may provide additional structural information that may prove useful in characterizing median neuropathy. This study further examines normal values for median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fractional anisotropy (FA). Twenty-three wrists in 17 healthy volunteers underwent MRI of the wrist at 3 T. In 13 subjects, DTI was performed at a B value of 600 mm{sup 2}/s. Median nerve CSA, ADC, and FA were analyzed at standardized anatomic levels. Mean (SD) median nerve CSA within the proximal carpal tunnel was 10.0 (3.4) mm{sup 2}. The mean (SD) FA of the median nerve was 0.71 (0.06) and 0.70 (0.13) proximal to and within the carpal tunnel, respectively. There was a significant difference between nerve CSA and ADC, but not FA, at the distal forearm and proximal carpal tunnel. Nerve CSA, ADC, and FA did not differ between men and women or between dominant and non-dominant wrists. Nerve CSA at the proximal carpal tunnel was positively correlated with subject age and body mass index. Our results suggest a 90% upper confidence limit for normal median nerve CSA of 14.4 mm{sup 2} at the proximal carpal tunnel, higher than normal limits reported by many ultrasound studies. We observed a difference between the CSA and ADC, but not the FA, of the median nerve at the distal forearm and proximal carpal tunnel levels. (orig.)

  2. Determination of Median Nerve Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in 27 Patients with Hemiplegia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雅丽; 尤春景; 黄杰; 刘培玲

    2002-01-01

    Summary: Twenty-seven in-patients with hemiplegia following brain injury were studied by using up per extremity median nerve somatosensory evoked patentials (SVEP), Brunnstrom assessment in hemiplegic hand and assessment of the patients' activities of daily lioing (ADL) (Barthel index). The upper extremity median nerve SEP on the affected and normal sides was determined. By using Kovin dba standard, upper extremity median nerve SEP was graded in accordance with N20. The correla tion between the differences of SEP N20 amplitude and the latencies on the both sides and the Barthel index scores was analyzed. A Spearman correlation analysis was made between the median nerve SEP N20 grades and Brunnstrom stages in hand or ADL on the affected side. The results showed that up per extremity median nerve SEP grades were positively correlated with those of the Brunnstrom stages in hand (r1 =0. 6925, P1<0. 01). The correlation coefficient between SEP N20 grades and patients' ADL grades was r2= 0. 5015, P2<0.01. It was concluded that upper extremity median nerve SEP could be used as a sensitive electrophysiological predictor to clinically assess hemiplegic hand function. SEP N20 might play a role in predicting the ADL of the patients with hemiplegia to some extent, but could not be used as a sensitive predictor to directly observe and predict the ADL of the patients.

  3. Analyzing the influence of median cross-section design on highway safety using vehicle dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine, Jason S; Hamblin, Bridget C; Brennan, Sean N; Donnell, Eric T

    2010-11-01

    Although vehicle dynamics simulations have long been used in vehicle design and crash reconstruction, their use for highway design is rare. This paper investigates the safety of highway medians through iterative simulations of off-road median encroachments. The commercially available software CarSim was used to simulate over one hundred thousand encroachments, representing the entire passenger vehicle fleet and a wide range of encroachment angles, departure speeds, steering inputs, and braking inputs. Each individual simulation output was then weighted using data from previous studies to reflect the probability of each specific accident scenario occurring in a real-life median encroachment. Results of this analysis illustrate the relative influence of median cross-section geometry on the resulting accident outcomes. The simulations indicate that the overall safety of a highway median depends on the occurrence of both vehicle rollover and median crossover events, and the cross-section shape, slope, and width are all shown to greatly affect each of these incidents. An evaluation of the simulation results was conducted with vehicle trajectories from previous experimental crash tests. Further assessment of the aggregate simulation results to actual crash data was achieved through comparison with several databases of crash statistics. Both efforts showed a strong agreement between the simulations and the real-life crash data.

  4. Modeling Nonlinear Adsorption with a Single Chemical Parameter: Predicting Chemical Median Langmuir Binding Constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Craig Warren; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2015-07-07

    Procedures for accurately predicting linear partition coefficients onto various sorbents (e.g., organic carbon, soils, clay) are reliable and well established. However, similar procedures for the prediction of sorption parameters of nonlinear isotherm models are not. The purpose of this paper is to present a procedure for predicting nonlinear isotherm parameters, specifically the median Langmuir binding constants, K̃L, obtained utilizing the single-chemical parameter log-normal Langmuir isotherm developed in the accompanying work. A reduced poly parameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER) is able to predict median Langmuir binding constants for graphite, charcoal, and Darco granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption data. For the larger F400 GAC data set, a single pp-LFER model was insufficient, as a plateau is observed for the median Langmuir binding constants of larger molecular volume sorbates. This volumetric cutoff occurs in proximity to the median pore diameter for F400 GAC. A log-linear relationship exists between the aqueous solubility of these large compounds and their median Langmuir binding constants. Using this relationship for the chemicals above the volumetric cutoff and the pp-LFER below the cutoff, the median Langmuir binding constants can be predicted with a root-mean square error for graphite (n = 13), charcoal (n = 11), Darco GAC (n = 14), and F400 GAC (n = 44) of 0.129, 0.307, 0.407, and 0.424, respectively.

  5. Effects of perineural steroid injections on median nerve conduction during the carpal tunnel release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepić Nenad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The treatment outcome of the median nerve compressive neuropathy in the carpal zone due to carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is represented by recovering the nerves sensibility, conductivity, condition and strength. Perineural application of betamethasone during the surgical decompression might result in faster recovery of compressed median nerve's conduction speed. Methods. In this study 40 patients with CTS were randomly divided in the two groups. In the first group (n = 20 we performed the surgical decompression of the median nerve by the open release of the carpal tunnel, and in the second group (n = 20 we applicated a perineural injection of 1 ml of betamethason immediately after the surgical decompression. We performed the electrodiagnostic (ED examinations 7, 30 and 90 days after the surgery, and measured the conduction speed of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel zone and the sensitivity conduction speed of the median nerve. Results. Significant differences in examined ED respective variable values in different time intervals were obtained. At the final measurements, 90 days after the surgical procedure, both groups evidenced a full recovery of the conduction speed in the carpal tunnel with statistically significant better results in the second group of the patients (t = -2.116; p = 0.043. Conclusion. Intraoperative application of the corticosteroid injection during the surgical decompression results in faster regaining of conduction speed of the median nerve.

  6. Hamartoma fibrolipomatoso de nervo mediano: relato de caso Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Lorenzoni

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O hamartoma fibrolipomatoso é neoplasia benigna rara que em alguns casos esta associada com macrodactilia. Descrevemos o caso de homem de 31 anos que apresentava desde o nascimento aumento de volume em região de punho, segundo e terceiro quirodáctilos da mão esquerda. Aos 23 anos iniciou dor contínua, de forte intensidade, predominante no período noturno e de evolução progressiva em mão esquerda. Associada à dor havia hipoestesia e parestesias de predomínio nos segundo e terceiro quirodáctilos esquerdos. A investigação complementar com radiografia, ultrassonografia, estudo eletrofisiológico e ressonância magnética de mão e punho esquerdos confirmaram a suspeita de síndrome do túnel do carpo secundária a macrodactilia com hamartoma fibrolipomatoso do nervo mediano. O paciente foi submetido à descompressão cirúrgica do túnel do carpo esquerdo devido a ausência de resposta ao tratamento clínico e evoluiu com melhora dos sintomas em avaliação após três meses do procedimento.Fibrolipomatous hamartoma is a rare benign neoplasm that in some cases is associated with macrodactylia. We describe a 31-years-old man who had a tissue enlargement in the wrist, second and third fingers of the left hand since infancy. At 23-years-old he began with continuous, progressive and high intensity pain that occurred more frequently at night, localized in the left hand. It was associated with paraesthesias and hypostesias predominantly at the fingers described above. Investigation with X-ray, ultrasonography, electrodiagnosis, magnetic resonance image of the left wrist and hand showed carpal tunnel syndrome with macrodactylia by fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve. The patient did not a have good response to clinical therapy, so he was submitted to a surgical decompression of the left carpal tunnel, and after three months of follow up is asymptomatic.

  7. Age-dependent improvement in median and long-term survival in unselected population-based Nordic registries of patients with synchronous metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbye, H; Cvancarova, M; Qvortrup, C; Pfeiffer, P; Glimelius, B

    2013-09-01

    In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) trials, median survival has increased from 6 months to above 20 months during the previous decades. Uncertainty exists in how this survival improvement has translated to the general mCRC population. Survival data from patients with synchronous mCRC were collected from the Norwegian (1980-2008), Swedish (1996-2008) and Danish (2001-09) cancer registries. A total of 29 628 patients were identified. From 1980-1985 to 2006-2008, median survival increased from 5 to 10 months for Norwegian patients. Three-year survival increased from 7% to 21% and 5-year survival from 4% to 9%. For patients 75 years of age. An increase in median and long-term survival over time was found in unselected population-based registries of patients with synchronous mCRC. The improved outcome in survival was especially seen in younger patients, raising concerns over our ability to adapt available treatment options for elderly patients.

  8. An analysis of the relationship between systematic thinking skills and academic achievement of middle school studentsOrtaokul öğrencilerinde sistemik düşünme becerilerileri ile akademik başarı arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak Büşra Özyurt Soytürk

    2016-03-01

    Araştırmada belirlenen konularda sistemik düşünme hiyerarşisine göre hazırlanan etkinliklerin kullanılarak öğretilmesinin mevcut fen öğretime göre öğrenci başarısını olumlu yönde etkilediği tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca  deney grubu öğrencilerinin büyük bir çoğunluğunun üst düzey sistemik düşünme basamağına ulaştığı belirlenmiştir. Araştırmanın sonucunda öğretmenlere, araştırmacılara ve program hazırlayıcılara önerilerde bulunulmuştur.

  9. August Median Streamflow on Ungaged Streams in Eastern Aroostook County, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.; Tasker, Gary D.; Nielsen, Martha G.

    2003-01-01

    Methods for estimating August median streamflow were developed for ungaged, unregulated streams in the eastern part of Aroostook County, Maine, with drainage areas from 0.38 to 43 square miles and mean basin elevations from 437 to 1,024 feet. Few long-term, continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations with small drainage areas were available from which to develop the equations; therefore, 24 partial-record gaging stations were established in this investigation. A mathematical technique for estimating a standard low-flow statistic, August median streamflow, at partial-record stations was applied by relating base-flow measurements at these stations to concurrent daily flows at nearby long-term, continuous-record streamflow- gaging stations (index stations). Generalized least-squares regression analysis (GLS) was used to relate estimates of August median streamflow at gaging stations to basin characteristics at these same stations to develop equations that can be applied to estimate August median streamflow on ungaged streams. GLS accounts for varying periods of record at the gaging stations and the cross correlation of concurrent streamflows among gaging stations. Twenty-three partial-record stations and one continuous-record station were used for the final regression equations. The basin characteristics of drainage area and mean basin elevation are used in the calculated regression equation for ungaged streams to estimate August median flow. The equation has an average standard error of prediction from -38 to 62 percent. A one-variable equation uses only drainage area to estimate August median streamflow when less accuracy is acceptable. This equation has an average standard error of prediction from -40 to 67 percent. Model error is larger than sampling error for both equations, indicating that additional basin characteristics could be important to improved estimates of low-flow statistics. Weighted estimates of August median streamflow, which can be used when

  10. June and August median streamflows estimated for ungaged streams in southern Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    Methods for estimating June and August median streamflows were developed for ungaged, unregulated streams in southern Maine. The methods apply to streams with drainage areas ranging in size from 0.4 to 74 square miles, with percentage of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer ranging from 0 to 84 percent, and with distance from the centroid of the basin to a Gulf of Maine line paralleling the coast ranging from 14 to 94 miles. Equations were developed with data from 4 long-term continuous-record streamgage stations and 27 partial-record streamgage stations. Estimates of median streamflows at the continuous-record and partial-record stations are presented. A mathematical technique for estimating standard low-flow statistics, such as June and August median streamflows, at partial-record streamgage stations was applied by relating base-flow measurements at these stations to concurrent daily streamflows at nearby long-term (at least 10 years of record) continuous-record streamgage stations (index stations). Weighted least-squares regression analysis (WLS) was used to relate estimates of June and August median streamflows at streamgage stations to basin characteristics at these same stations to develop equations that can be used to estimate June and August median streamflows on ungaged streams. WLS accounts for different periods of record at the gaging stations. Three basin characteristics-drainage area, percentage of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer, and distance from the centroid of the basin to a Gulf of Maine line paralleling the coast-are used in the final regression equation to estimate June and August median streamflows for ungaged streams. The three-variable equation to estimate June median streamflow has an average standard error of prediction from -35 to 54 percent. The three-variable equation to estimate August median streamflow has an average standard error of prediction from -45 to 83 percent. Simpler one-variable equations that use only

  11. Calculation of statistic estimates of kinetic parameters from substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation using the median method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L. Valencia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We provide initial rate data from enzymatic reaction experiments and tis processing to estimate the kinetic parameters from the substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation using the median method published by Eisenthal and Cornish-Bowden (Cornish-Bowden and Eisenthal, 1974; Eisenthal and Cornish-Bowden, 1974. The method was denominated the direct linear plot and consists in the calculation of the median from a dataset of kinetic parameters Vmax and Km from the Michaelis–Menten equation. In this opportunity we present the procedure to applicate the direct linear plot to the substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation; a three-parameter equation. The median method is characterized for its robustness and its insensibility to outlier. The calculations are presented in an Excel datasheet and a computational algorithm was developed in the free software Python. The kinetic parameters of the substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation Vmax, Km and Ks were calculated using three experimental points from the dataset formed by 13 experimental points. All the 286 combinations were calculated. The dataset of kinetic parameters resulting from this combinatorial was used to calculate the median which corresponds to the statistic estimator of the real kinetic parameters. A comparative statistical analyses between the median method and the least squares was published in Valencia et al. [3].

  12. Calculation of statistic estimates of kinetic parameters from substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation using the median method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Pedro L; Astudillo-Castro, Carolina; Gajardo, Diego; Flores, Sebastián

    2017-04-01

    We provide initial rate data from enzymatic reaction experiments and tis processing to estimate the kinetic parameters from the substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation using the median method published by Eisenthal and Cornish-Bowden (Cornish-Bowden and Eisenthal, 1974; Eisenthal and Cornish-Bowden, 1974). The method was denominated the direct linear plot and consists in the calculation of the median from a dataset of kinetic parameters Vmax and Km from the Michaelis-Menten equation. In this opportunity we present the procedure to applicate the direct linear plot to the substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation; a three-parameter equation. The median method is characterized for its robustness and its insensibility to outlier. The calculations are presented in an Excel datasheet and a computational algorithm was developed in the free software Python. The kinetic parameters of the substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation Vmax , Km and Ks were calculated using three experimental points from the dataset formed by 13 experimental points. All the 286 combinations were calculated. The dataset of kinetic parameters resulting from this combinatorial was used to calculate the median which corresponds to the statistic estimator of the real kinetic parameters. A comparative statistical analyses between the median method and the least squares was published in Valencia et al. [3].

  13. Median Sternotomy or Right Thoracotomy Techniques for Total Artificial Heart Implantation in Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, Jamshid H; Moazami, Nader; Sunagawa, Gengo; Kobayashi, Mariko; Byram, Nicole; Sale, Shiva; Such, Kimberly A; Horvath, David J; Golding, Leonard A R; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2016-10-01

    The choice of optimal operative access technique for mechanical circulatory support device implantation ensures successful postoperative outcomes. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the median sternotomy and lateral thoracotomy incisions for placement of the Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) in a bovine model. The CFTAH was implanted in 17 calves (Jersey calves; weight range, 77.0-93.9 kg) through a median sternotomy (n = 9) or right thoracotomy (n = 8) for elective chronic implantation periods of 14, 30, or 90 days. Similar preoperative preparation, surgical techniques, and postoperative care were employed. Implantation of the CFTAH was successfully performed in all cases. Both methods provided excellent surgical field visualization. After device connection, however, the median sternotomy approach provided better visualization of the anastomoses and surgical lines for hemostasis confirmation and repair due to easier device displacement, which is severely limited following right thoracotomy. All four animals sacrificed after completion of the planned durations (up to 90 days) were operated through full median sternotomy. Our data demonstrate that both approaches provide excellent initial field visualization. Full median sternotomy provides larger viewing angles at the anastomotic suture line after device connection to inflow and outflow ports.

  14. Sensoric Protection after Median Nerve Injury: Babysitter-Procedure Prevents Muscular Atrophy and Improves Neuronal Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicta E. Beck-Broichsitter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The babysitter-procedure might offer an alternative when nerve reconstruction is delayed in order to overcome muscular atrophy due to denervation. In this study we aimed to show that a sensomotoric babysitter-procedure after median nerve injury is capable of preserving irreversible muscular atrophy. The median nerve of 20 female Wistar rats was denervated. 10 animals received a sensory protection with the N. cutaneous brachii. After six weeks the median nerve was reconstructed by autologous nerve grafting from the contralateral median nerve in the babysitter and the control groups. Grasping tests measured functional recovery over 15 weeks. At the end of the observation period the weight of the flexor digitorum sublimis muscle was determined. The median nerve was excised for histological examinations. Muscle weight (P<0.0001 was significantly superior in the babysitter group compared to the control group at the end of the study. The histological evaluation revealed a significantly higher diameter of axons (P=0.0194, nerve fiber (P=0.0409, and nerve surface (P=0.0184 in the babysitter group. We conclude that sensory protection of a motor nerve is capable of preserving muscule weight and we may presume that metabolism of the sensory nerve was sufficient to keep the target muscle’s weight and vitality.

  15. Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography of the median nerve in carpal tunnel syndrome: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, C.; Hancart, C.; Thuc, V.Le; Cotten, A. [Service de Radiologie Osteoarticulaire, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU de Lille (France); Chantelot, C. [Clinique d' Orthopedie, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU de Lille (France); Chechin, D. [Philips Medical Systems, Suresnes (France)

    2008-10-15

    The purpose was to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography of the human median nerve with a 1.5-T MR scanner and to assess potential differences in diffusion between healthy volunteers and patients suffering from carpal tunnel syndrome. The median nerve was examined in 13 patients and 13 healthy volunteers with MR DTI and tractography using a 1.5-T MRI scanner with a dedicated wrist coil. T1-weighted images were performed for anatomical correlation. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were quantified in the median nerve on tractography images. In all subjects, the nerve orientation and course could be detected with tractography. Mean FA values were significantly lower in patients (p=0.03). However, no statistically significant differences were found for mean ADC values. In vivo assessment of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel using DTI with tractography on a 1.5-T MRI scanner is possible. Microstructural parameters can be easily obtained from tractography images. A significant decrease of mean FA values was found in patients suffering from chronic compression of the median nerve. Further investigations are necessary to determine if mean FA values may be correlated with the severity of nerve entrapment. (orig.)

  16. Median Fisher Discriminator: a robust feature extraction method with applications to biometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian YANG; Jingyu YANG; David ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    In existing Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) models,the class population mean is always estimated by the class sample average.In small sample size problems,such as face and palm recognition,however,the class sample average does not suffice to provide an accurate estimate of the class population mean based on a few of the given samples,particularly when there are outliers in the training set.To overcome this weakness,the class median vector is used to estimate the class population mean in LDA modeling.The class median vector has two advantages over the class sample average:(1) the class median (image) vector preserves useful details in the sample images,and (2) the class median vector is robust to outliers that exist in the training sample set.In addition,a weighting mechanism is adopted to refine the characterization of the within-class scatter so as to further improve the robustness of the proposed model.The proposed Median Fisher Discriminator (MFD) method was evaluated using the Yale and the AR face image databases and the PolyU (Polytechnic University) palmprint database.The experimental results demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. PERSISTENT MEDIAN ARTERY ASSOCIATED WITH SUPERFICIA L RADIAL ARTERY AT THE WRIST- A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasabarinathan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vascular variations are usually the result of deve lopmental anomaly during the formation of blood vessels in any respective part of the body. In this case a rare unilateral variation was found on the left upper limb during rou tine dissection in the Department of Anatomy. Brachial artery divided into radial artery and a common trunk. The common trunk in turn divided into ulnar, median and common inteross eous artery. The median artery was palmar type, had two proper palmar digital branches in t he palm. The radial artery had normal course in the forearm till the junction between upper two third and lower one third where it turned dorsally and reached the anatomical snuff bo x and ran superficial to the abductor pollicis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis and extensor carpi radialis longus along the cephalic vein medially and superficial branch of radial nerve late rally. The median artery, arose from the common trunk, had pierced the median nerve about 4cm from its origin then ran along the median nerve in the forearm thereby reached the palm where it gave off two common palmar digital branches but did not anastomose with the ul nar artery hence formed incomplete superficial palmar arch. But on the right side no suc h variations found. These vascular variations have been studied in detail and their cl inical implications and embryological significance are emphasized.

  18. Electronic Services Monthly MI Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This electronic services monthly MI report contains monthly MI data for most public facing online online applications such as iClaim, electronic access, Mobile wage...

  19. Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months Print A A A What's in ... months of life are a period of rapid growth. Your baby will gain about 1 to 1½ ...

  20. Monthly energy review, August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review for the month of August 1997, presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  1. Comparison of clinical outcomes and postoperative recovery between two open heart surgeries:minimally invasive right subaxillary vertical thoracomy and traditional median sternotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Xian Hu; Juan Tan; Sheng Chen; Hui Ding; Zhi-Wei Xu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To compare the clinical outcomes of minimally invasive right subaxillary vertical thoracotomy and traditional median sternotomy through right atrium in treatment of common congenital heart diseases.Methods:Clinical data of59 cases of common congenital heart diseases treated with minimally invasive right axillary vertical thoracotomy fromMay,2011 to February,2013 and77 cases of same diseases withtraditional median sternotomy in the past three years were retrospectively analyzed, including atrial septal defect, membranous ventricular septal defect and partial endocardial cushion defect.The results were compared from the two groups, including the time for operation and cardiopulmonary bypass, amount of blood transfusion, postoperative drainage, ventilation time, hospital stay, and prognosis.Results:No severe complications happened in both groups, like deaths or secondary surgery caused by bleeding.No significant differences were inCPB time and postoperative ventilator time between groups(P>0.05), while for all of the operative time, the length of incision, postoperative drainage and hospital stay, minimally invasive right axillary vertical thoracotomy was superior to median sternotomy, with statistically significant differences(P<0.05).In six-month followup after operation, no complications of residual deformity and pericardial effusion were found in both groups by doing echocardiography, but mild pectus carinatum was found in8 patients in the traditional median sternotomy group(traditional group), whereas patients in another group were well recovered. Conclusions:Minimally invasive right subaxillary vertical thoracotomy for common congenital heart diseases is as safe as traditional median sternotomy, without the increasing incidence of postoperative complications.Additionally, compared with traditional median sternotomy, minimally invasive right subaxillary vertical thoracotomy is better in the aspects of hidden incision, appearance, and postoperative

  2. The usefulness of terminal latency index of median nerve and f-wave difference between median and ulnar nerves in assessing the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kang Min; Shin, Kyong Jin; Park, Jinse; Ha, Sam Yeol; Kim, Sung Eun

    2014-04-01

    The calculated electrophysiological parameters, such as terminal latency index (TLI), residual latency, modified F ratio, and F-wave inversion, have been investigated as a diagnostic tool for detection of early stage of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in the literature. However, the correlation of these calculated electrophysiological parameters with the clinical severity of CTS has not been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of the calculated electrophysiological parameters and clinical severity in patients with CTS. A retrospective study was performed with 212 hands of 106 CTS patients. The CTS hands were classified as asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe according to the clinical severity. The distal motor latency and distal motor conduction velocity of median nerve, minimal F-wave latency of median and ulnar nerves, and sensory nerve conduction velocity in the finger-wrist and palm-wrist segment of median nerve (SNCV f-w and SNCV p-w) were obtained in a conventional nerve conduction study. The TLI, residual latency, and modified F ratio of the median nerve and the difference of minimal F-wave latencies between the median and ulnar nerves (F-diff M-U) were calculated. The distal motor latency, residual latency, and F-diff M-U were significantly increased according to the clinical severity of CTS. The motor conduction velocity, SNCV p-w, SNCV f-w, TLI, and modified F ratio were significantly decreased according to the clinical severity of CTS. In analyses of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test, we used the Scheffe test as a post-hoc comparison analysis. The TLI, F-diff M-U, and SNCV f-w showed a significant difference among all groups of each CTS severity. The sensitivity, specificity, and cut-off value of TLI, F-diff M-U, and SNCV f-w between asymptomatic and mild, mild and moderate, and moderate and severe CTS groups were calculated by using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The cut-off values of TLI, F-diff M-U, and

  3. Median Hetero-Associative Memories Applied to the Categorization of True-Color Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Roberto A.; Sossa, Humberto

    Median associative memories (MED-AMs) are a special type of associative memory based on the median operator. This type of associative model has been applied to the restoration of gray scale images and provides better performance than other models, such as morphological associative memories, when the patterns are altered with mixed noise. Despite of his power, MED-AMs have not been applied in problems involving true-color patterns. In this paper we describe how a median hetero-associative memory (MED-HAM) could be applied in problems that involve true-color patterns. A complete study of the behavior of this associative model in the restoration of true-color images is performed using a benchmark of 14400 images altered by different type of noises. Furthermore, we describe how this model can be applied to an image categorization problem.

  4. AN AMELIORATED DETECTION STATISTICS FOR ADAPTIVE MASK MEDIAN FILTRATION OF HEAVILY NOISED DIGITAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Hanji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Noise reduction is an important area of research in image processing applications. The performance of the digital image noise filtering method primarily depends upon the accuracy of noise detection scheme. This paper presents an effective detector based, adaptive mask, median filtration of heavily noised digital images affected with fixed value (or salt and pepper impulse noise. The proposed filter presents a novel approach; an ameliorated Rank Ordered Absolute Deviation (ROAD statistics to judge whether the input pixel is noised or noise free. If a pixel is detected as corrupted, it is subjected to adaptive mask median filtration; otherwise, it is kept unchanged. Extensive experimental results and comparative performance evaluations demonstrate that the proposed filter outperforms the existing decision type, median based filters with powerful noise detectors in terms of objective performance measures and visual retrieviation accuracy.

  5. The Acupuncture Effect on Median Nerve Morphology in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: An Ultrasonographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Fatma Gülçin; Öztürk, Gökhan Tuna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the acupuncture effect on the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve at the wrist in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and, additionally, to identify whether clinical, electrophysiological, and ultrasonographic changes show any association. Forty-five limbs of 27 female patients were randomly divided into two groups (acupuncture and control). All patients used night wrist splint. The patients in the acupuncture group received additional acupuncture therapy. Visual analog scale (VAS), Duruöz Hand Index (DHI), Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire scores, electrophysiologic measurements, and median nerve CSAs were noted before and after the treatment in both groups. VAS, DHI, Quick DASH scores, and electrophysiological measurements were improved in both groups. The median nerve CSA significantly decreased in the acupuncture group, whereas there was no change in the control group. After acupuncture therapy, the patients with CTS might have both clinical and morphological improvement.

  6. Anomalous Innervation of the Median Nerve in the Arm in the Absence of the Musculocutaneous Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khursheed Raza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The brachial plexus innervates the upper extremities. While variations in the formation of the brachial plexus and its terminal branches are quite common, it is uncommon for the median nerve to innervate the muscles of the arm. During the dissection of an elderly male cadaver at the Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, in 2016, the coracobrachialis muscle was found to be supplied by a direct branch from the lateral root of the median nerve and the musculocutaneous nerve was absent. The branches of the median nerve supplied the biceps brachii and brachialis muscles and the last branch continued as the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm. These variations may present atypically in cases of arm flexor paralysis or sensory loss on the lateral forearm. Knowledge of these variations is important in surgeries and during the administration of regional anaesthesia near the shoulder joint and upper arm.

  7. PSO Algorithm based Adaptive Median Filter for Noise Removal in Image Processing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Verma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A adaptive Switching median filter for salt and pepper noise removal based on genetic algorithm is presented. Proposed filter consist of two stages, a noise detector stage and a noise filtering stage. Particle swarm optimization seems to be effective for single objective problem. Noise Dictation stage works on it. In contrast to the standard median filter, the proposed algorithm generates the noise map of corrupted Image. Noise map gives information about the corrupted and non-corrupted pixels of Image. In filtering, filter calculates the median of uncorrupted neighbouring pixels and replaces the corrupted pixels. Extensive simulations are performed to validate the proposed filter. Simulated results show refinement both in Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR and Image Quality Index value (IQI. Experimental results shown that proposed method is more effective than existing methods.

  8. PENERAPAN METODE LEAST MEDIAN SQUARE-MINIMUM COVARIANCE DETERMINANT (LMS-MCD DALAM REGRESI KOMPONEN UTAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I PUTU EKA IRAWAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principal Component Regression is a method to overcome multicollinearity techniques by combining principal component analysis with regression analysis. The calculation of classical principal component analysis is based on the regular covariance matrix. The covariance matrix is optimal if the data originated from a multivariate normal distribution, but is very sensitive to the presence of outliers. Alternatives are used to overcome this problem the method of Least Median Square-Minimum Covariance Determinant (LMS-MCD. The purpose of this research is to conduct a comparison between Principal Component Regression (RKU and Method of Least Median Square - Minimum Covariance Determinant (LMS-MCD in dealing with outliers. In this study, Method of Least Median Square - Minimum Covariance Determinant (LMS-MCD has a bias and mean square error (MSE is smaller than the parameter RKU. Based on the difference of parameter estimators, still have a test that has a difference of parameter estimators method LMS-MCD greater than RKU method.

  9. The geometric median on Riemannian manifolds with application to robust atlas estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, P Thomas; Venkatasubramanian, Suresh; Joshi, Sarang

    2009-03-01

    One of the primary goals of computational anatomy is the statistical analysis of anatomical variability in large populations of images. The study of anatomical shape is inherently related to the construction of transformations of the underlying coordinate space, which map one anatomy to another. It is now well established that representing the geometry of shapes or images in Euclidian spaces undermines our ability to represent natural variability in populations. In our previous work we have extended classical statistical analysis techniques, such as averaging, principal components analysis, and regression, to Riemannian manifolds, which are more appropriate representations for describing anatomical variability. In this paper we extend the notion of robust estimation, a well established and powerful tool in traditional statistical analysis of Euclidian data, to manifold-valued representations of anatomical variability. In particular, we extend the geometric median, a classic robust estimator of centrality for data in Euclidean spaces. We formulate the geometric median of data on a Riemannian manifold as the minimizer of the sum of geodesic distances to the data points. We prove existence and uniqueness of the geometric median on manifolds with non-positive sectional curvature and give sufficient conditions for uniqueness on positively curved manifolds. Generalizing the Weiszfeld procedure for finding the geometric median of Euclidean data, we present an algorithm for computing the geometric median on an arbitrary manifold. We show that this algorithm converges to the unique solution when it exists. In this paper we exemplify the robustness of the estimation technique by applying the procedure to various manifolds commonly used in the analysis of medical images. Using this approach, we also present a robust brain atlas estimation technique based on the geometric median in the space of deformable images.

  10. Spherical/gyroid phase diagram of the diblock copolymer in the median selective solvent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the median selective solution on the lamellar,spherical and gyroid structures is studied. The self-consistent field equations of the diblock copolymer solution are solved by using the reciprocal space method. It is shown that the spherical and gyroid phases have the lowest free energy in the certain range of the solution concentration. Furthermore,the phase diagram of the ordered structures in the diblock copolymer solution with the median selective solvent is calculated,which is consistent with the experimental results.

  11. Clinical and radiologic review of uncommon cause of profound iron deficiency anemia: Median arcuate ligament syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunduz, Yasemin; Asil, Kiyasrttin; Aksoy, Yakup Ersel; Ayhan, Lacin Tatli [Dept. of Radiology, Sakarya University Medical Faculty, Sakarya (Turkmenistan)

    2014-08-15

    Median arcuate ligament syndrome is an anatomic and clinical entity characterized by dynamic compression of the proximal celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament, which leads to postprandial epigastric pain, vomiting, and weight loss. These symptoms are usually nonspecific and are easily misdiagnosed as functional dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, or gastropathy. In this report, we presented a 72-year-old male patient with celiac artery compression syndrome causing recurrent abdominal pain associated with gastric ulcer and iron deficiency anemia. This association is relatively uncommon and therefore not well determined. In addition, we reported the CT angiography findings and three-dimensional reconstructions of this rare case.

  12. MRI shows thickening and altered diffusion in the median and ulnar nerves in multifocal motor neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haakma, Wieke; Jongbloed, Bas A.; Froeling, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To study disease mechanisms in multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the median and ulnar nerves. Methods We enrolled ten MMN patients, ten patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ten healthy controls...... (HCs). Patients underwent MRI (in a prone position) and nerve conduction studies. DTI and fat-suppressed T2-weighted scans of the forearms were performed on a 3.0T MRI scanner. Fibre tractography of the median and ulnar nerves was performed to extract diffusion parameters: fractional anisotropy (FA...... nerves. CSA was significantly larger in MMN patients compared to ALS patients and HCs (p nerves...

  13. Analysis of association between posterior crossbite, median line deviation and facial asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, R. R.; Garbin,Artênio José Isper; Saliba, O. [UNESP; Garbin, C. A. S. [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Facial asymmetry is a common human characteristic and can occur on many levels, originate of genetic factors, and can be caused by traumas or due to cross bite and/or muscular disability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between posterior crossbite, median line deviation and facial asymmetry. For this study 70 children aged between 3 and 10 years-old were examined and photographed. Using Microsoft Office Power Point 2007, horizontal lines and one vertical line on median line...

  14. A case of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve with macrodactyly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Arakeri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve is a tumor-like lipomatous process principally involving affecting young persons. The median nerve is most commonly affectedinvolved. The lesion is characterized by a soft slowly growing mass, surrounding and infiltrating major nerves and their branches. It may cause symptoms of compression neuropathy and is associated with macrodactyly in one third of cases. Here, we present a case of Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve in the wrist of a young man arising from median nerve. Debulking of the tumour was performed.

  15. ECG baseline wander correction based on mean-median filter and empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yi; Chen, Yu; Hao, Wei Tuo

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach of ECG baseline wander correction based on mean-median filter and empirical mode decomposition is presented in this paper. The low frequency parts of the original signals were removed by the mean median filter in a nonlinear way to obtain the baseline wander estimation, then its series of IMFs were sifted by t-test after empirical mode decomposition. The proposed method, tested by the ECG signals in MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database and European ST_T database, is more effective compared with other baseline wander removal methods.

  16. Improving the Stability of the LMF Adaptive Algorithm Using the Median Filteer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Tommy Kristensen; Rusu, Corneliu

    1998-01-01

    The stability of the LMF (Least Mean Fourth) adaptive algorithm is improved by using the median of the gradient instead of the raw gradient for updating the coefficients of the adaptive filter. This operation has two advantages: first it improves the performance of the LMF in impulse noise...... environments and secondly it enables the use of larger step-size of the adaptive algorithm especially when the signals are corrupted by noise. The disadvantages are a small raise in the computational complexity and slower convergence than the LMF. Two examples are given which illustrates the behavior...... of the Median LMF compared to the LMF algorithm....

  17. SOSIAALISEN MEDIAN MARKKINOINTIVIESTINTÄ JA KÄYTTÖ LIIGA-OTTELUIDEN MARKKINOINNISSA

    OpenAIRE

    Lahdenperä, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli tutkia miten sosiaalista mediaa hyödynnetään ottelutapahtumien markkinoinnissa. Lähtökohtana tutkimukselle oli kaksi Jääkiekon SM-liigan jääkiekkoseuraa ja niiden sosiaalisen median käyttö. Tavoitteena oli selvittää sosiaalisen median merkitys otteluiden markkinoinnissa. Opinnäyteyössä tutkitaan myös, miten ja millainen markkinointiviestintä sosiaalisessa mediassa vaikuttaa kannattajiin. Teoreettisessa osuudessa käsitellään sosiaalisessa mediassa tapahtuvaa markkinoi...

  18. Median and quantile tests under complex survey design using SAS and R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yi; Caudill, Samuel P; Li, Ruosha; Caldwell, Kathleen L

    2014-11-01

    Techniques for conducting hypothesis testing on the median and other quantiles of two or more subgroups under complex survey design are limited. In this paper, we introduce programs in both SAS and R to perform such a test. A detailed illustration of the computations, macro variable definitions, input and output for the SAS and R programs are also included in the text. Urinary iodine data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) are used as examples for comparing medians between females and males as well as comparing the 75th percentiles among three salt consumption groups.

  19. Median nerve neuropathy in the forearm due to recurrence of anterior wrist ganglion that originates from the scaphotrapezial joint: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okada Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Median nerve neuropathy caused by compression from a tumor in the forearm is rare. Cases with anterior wrist ganglion have high recurrence rates despite surgical treatment. Here, we report the recurrence of an anterior wrist ganglion that originated from the Scaphotrapezial joint due to incomplete resection and that caused median nerve neuropathy in the distal forearm. Case presentation A 47-year-old right-handed housewife noted the appearance of soft swelling on the volar aspect of her left distal forearm, and local resection surgery was performed twice at another hospital. One year after the last surgery, the swelling reappeared and was associated with numbness and pain in the radial volar aspect of the hand. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the multicystic lesion originated from the Scaphotrapezial joint and had expanded beyond the wrist. Exploration of the left median nerve showed that it was compressed by a large ovoid cystic lesion at the distal forearm near the proximal end of the carpal tunnel. We resected the cystic lesion to the Scaphotrapezial joint. Her symptoms disappeared 1 week after surgery, and complications or recurrent symptoms were absent 13 months after surgery. Conclusions A typical median nerve compression was caused by incomplete resection of an anterior wrist ganglion, which may have induced widening of the cyst. Cases with anterior wrist ganglion have high recurrence rates and require extra attention in their treatment.

  20. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1203 - ISO Headform-Basic, Reference, and Median Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false ISO Headform-Basic, Reference, and Median Planes 2 Figure 2 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  1. Median Nerve Deformation and Displacement in the Carpal Tunnel during Index Finger and Thumb Motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doesburg, Margriet H. M.; Yoshii, Yuichi; Villarraga, Hector R.; Henderson, Jacqueline; Cha, Stephen S.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the deformation and displacement of the normal median nerve in the carpal tunnel during index finger and thumb motion, using ultrasound Thirty wrists from 15 asymptomatic volunteers were evaluated Cross-sectional images during motion from full extension t

  2. The "p"-Median Model as a Tool for Clustering Psychological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Hans-Friedrich; Steinley, Douglas; Brusco, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The "p"-median clustering model represents a combinatorial approach to partition data sets into disjoint, nonhierarchical groups. Object classes are constructed around "exemplars", that is, manifest objects in the data set, with the remaining instances assigned to their closest cluster centers. Effective, state-of-the-art implementations of…

  3. The primary Maxillary Central Incisor in the Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, I; Balslev-Olesen, M

    2012-01-01

    Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor (SMMCI) is a developmental anomaly in the permanent dentition with one single central incisor in the maxilla, positioned exactly in the midline. This condition has been associated with extra- and intraoral malformations in the frontonasal segment of the c...

  4. Relation between B-mode Gray-scale Median and Clinical Features of Carotid Stenosis Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkert, Joé L.; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Loonstra, Jan; Schenk, Miranda; Palen, van der Job; Dungen, van den Jan J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vulnerability of the carotid plaque might be useful as a predictor for ischemic stroke risk. The gray-scale median (GSM) of the carotid plaque at B-mode imaging has been described as an objective tool to quantify vulnerability. However, its use is disputed in the published literature. Thi

  5. Relation between B-mode Gray-scale Median and Clinical Features of Carotid Stenosis Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkert, Joe L.; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Loonstra, Jan; Schenk, Miranda; van der Palen, Job; van den Dungen, Jan J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vulnerability of the carotid plaque might be useful as a predictor for ischemic stroke risk. The gray-scale median (GSM) of the carotid plaque at B-mode imaging has been described as an objective tool to quantify vulnerability. However, its use is disputed in the published literature. Th

  6. PROJECTIONS OF DORSAL AND MEDIAN RAPHE NUCLEI TO DORSAL AND VENTRAL STRIATUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Hassanzadeh G. Behzadi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The ascending serotonergic projections are derived mainly from mesencephalic raphe nuclei. Topographical projections from mesencephalic raphe nuclei to the striatum were examined in the rat by the retrograde transport technique of HRP (horseradish peroxidase. In 29 rats stereotaxically injection of HRP enzyme were performed in dorsal and ventral parts of striatum separately. The extent of the injection sites and distribution of retrogradely labeled neuronal cell bodies were drawed on representative sections using a projection microscope. Following ipsilateral injection of HRP into the dorsal striatum, numerous labeled neurons were seen in rostral portion of dorsal raphe (DR nucleus. In the same level the cluster of labeled neurons were hevier through caudal parts of DR. A few neurons were also located in lateral wing of DR. More caudally some labeled neurons were found in lateral, medial line of DR. In median raphe nucleus (MnR the labeled neurons were scattered only in median portion of this nucleus. The ipsilateral injection of HRP into the ventral region of striatum resulted on labeling of numerous neurons in rostral, caudal and lateral portions of DR. Through the caudal extension of DR on 4th ventricle level, a large number of labeled neurons were distributed along the ventrocaudal parts of DR. In MnR, labeled neurons were observed only in median part of this nucleus. These findings suggest the mesencephalic raphe nuclei projections to caudo-putamen are topographically organized. In addition dorsal and median raphe nuclei have a stronger projection to the ventral striatum.

  7. Effects of Thai Dancing on Median Neurodynamic Response During 4-Hour Computer Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhora, Keerin; Septham, Chatdao; Jalayondeja, Wattana

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effects of Thai dancing on median neurodynamic response during 4-hour computer use. Twenty-four healthy participants aged 20-30 years performed 5 minutes of Thai dancing including Prom See Na, Yoong Fon Hang, Sod Soy Mala, Lor Keaw and Cha Nee Rai Mai during a 10-minute break of 4-hour computer use. All participants were assessed for nerve tension by elbow range of motion ofupper limb neurodynamic test 1 (ULNT1) and components of quick test. The discomfort was measured by visual analogue discomfort scale (VADS). These measurements were assessed before and after computer work. The statistical analyses employed paired t-test for continuous outcome and Friedman's test. The median nerve tension (indicated by elbow range of motion) was significantly reduced at before and after work, when 5 minutes of Thai dancing was introduced during the break. While components of the quick test emphasized that Thai dance immediately helped reduce the median nerve tension. The VADS in eight body areas increased over the period of 4 hours, but decreased after performing Thai dancing (pdancing helped relieve median nerve tension and body discomfort. It may be recommended as an exercise during break for computer users who continuously work to prevent WMSDs.

  8. BREAST IMPLANT RUPTURE AS A COMPLICATION OF HEART SURGERY IN MEDIAN STERNOTOMY

    OpenAIRE

    G. Nisi; CAMPANA, M.; GRIMALDI, L; C. Brandi; R. Cuomo; C. D'Aniello

    2014-01-01

    The authors report a case of a woman who underwent heart surgery in median sternotomy after breast reconstruction using prosthesis in 1984. After this open heart surgery in 2008, she developed an injury at right breast implant with intra and extra capsular silicone gel spread out the prosthesis.

  9. Combined radial and median nerve injury in diaphyseal fracture of humerus: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajesh Rohilla; Rohit Singla; Narender Kumar Magu; Roop Singh; Ashish Devgun; Reetadyuti Mukhopadhyay; Paritosh Gogna

    2013-01-01

    Radial nerve palsy is the most common neurological involvement in humeral shaft fractures.But combined radial and median nerve injury in a closed diaphyseal fracture of the humerus is rare.Combined injury to both radial and median nerve can cause significant disability.A detailed clinical examination is therefore necessary following humeral shaft fractures.We report a patient with closed diaphyseal humeral fracture (AO 12A-2.3) together with radial and median nerve palsy,its management and review of the literature.As the patient had two nerves involved,surgical exploration was planned.Fracture was reduced and fixed with a 4.5 mm narrow dynamic compression pla te.There was no external injury to both radial and median nerves on surgical exploration.Neurological recovery started at 3 weeks' follow-up.Complete recovery was seen at 12 weeks.Careful clinical examination is of the utmost importance in early diagnosis of combined nerve injuries,which allows better management and rehabilitation of the patient.

  10. The problem of margin calculation and its reduction via the p-median problem model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldengorin, B.; Krushynskyi, D.; Kuzmenko, V.; Mastorakis, NE; Demiralp, M; Mladenov,; Bojkovic, Z

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with a model for calculation of the regulatory margin on brokerage accounts. The model is based on the p-Median problem (PMP) that is known to be NP-hard. We use a pseudo-Boolean representation of the PMP and propose several problem size reduction and preprocessing techniques. Our co

  11. Median power frequency of the surface electromyogram and blood lactate concentration in incremental cycle ergometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R; Ament, W; Verkerke, GJ; Hof, AL

    1997-01-01

    The electromyogram (EMG) median power frequency of the vastus lateralis and flexor digitorum superficialis muscles was measured in 12 subjects during cycle ergometry with step-wise increasing exercise intensities up to 100% of VO2max. Blood lactate concentration was measured to investigate the relat

  12. Denoising of 4D cardiac micro-CT data using median-centric bilateral filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Johnson, G. A.; Badea, C. T.

    2012-02-01

    Bilateral filtration has proven an effective tool for denoising CT data. The classic filter uses Gaussian domain and range weighting functions in 2D. More recently, other distributions have yielded more accurate results in specific applications, and the bilateral filtration framework has been extended to higher dimensions. In this study, brute-force optimization is employed to evaluate the use of several alternative distributions for both domain and range weighting: Andrew's Sine Wave, El Fallah Ford, Gaussian, Flat, Lorentzian, Huber's Minimax, Tukey's Bi-weight, and Cosine. Two variations on the classic bilateral filter, which use median filtration to reduce bias in range weights, are also investigated: median-centric and hybrid bilateral filtration. Using the 4D MOBY mouse phantom reconstructed with noise (stdev. ~ 65 HU), hybrid bilateral filtration, a combination of the classic and median-centric filters, with Flat domain and range weighting is shown to provide optimal denoising results (PSNRs: 31.69, classic; 31.58 median-centric; 32.25, hybrid). To validate these phantom studies, the optimal filters are also applied to in vivo, 4D cardiac micro-CT data acquired in the mouse. In a constant region of the left ventricle, hybrid bilateral filtration with Flat domain and range weighting is shown to provide optimal smoothing (stdev: original, 72.2 HU; classic, 20.3 HU; median-centric, 24.1 HU; hybrid, 15.9 HU). While the optimal results were obtained using 4D filtration, the 3D hybrid filter is ultimately recommended for denoising 4D cardiac micro-CT data, because it is more computationally tractable and less prone to artifacts (MOBY PSNR: 32.05; left ventricle stdev: 20.5 HU).

  13. MODIS Snowcover in North America: A Comparison of Winter 2013/14 and 2014/15 to Median Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubilowicz, J. W.; Floyd, B. C.; D'Amore, D. V.; Bidlack, A.

    2015-12-01

    The winters from 2013-2015 had exceptionally low snow-packs in much of western North America. In particular, the winter of 2014/2015 had the lowest peak snow-water-equivalent (SWE) depths ever recorded in many areas of the Pacific Northwest. These low snow-packs have contributed to drought conditions from British Columbia to California. Along with the low SWE values, the snow covered area (SCA) of the previous two winters has been a significant departure from normal conditions. SCA is related to SWE, rain-on-snow events and the seasonal water supply, provides insulation for plant root systems from late season frost, and is an important factor in forest fire hazard, delaying the start of soil and fuel drying. Remote sensing can be a useful tool to monitor SCA over large regions, with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments providing a suitable temporal (twice daily), and spatial resolution (500m) to create detailed maps, even with high frequencies of cloud covered days. While comparison of SWE at snow monitoring sites to historical values is a standard analysis, doing the same for SCA has been difficult due to the technical and logistical problems related to processing the large amounts of spatial data required to determine a 'normal' annual SCA cycle. Through the use of new cloud-based computation methods from Google Earth Engine, we have calculated the monthly median (from 2002-2015) MODIS SCA, at a 500 m resolution, for all of the major Pacific draining watersheds of North America. Determining the 'normal' SCA cycle of the past 13 years allowed us to compare the past two winters to the median SCA levels, showing which basins have seen the most significant departures from normal SCA levels. Results indicate more significant departures from normal in basins with significant maritime-influenced snow-packs.

  14. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  15. Natural gas monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured articles for this month are: Opportunities with fuel cells, and revisions to monthly natural gas data.

  16. Monthly energy review, January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Major activities covered include production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  17. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR) replaces the Cost Distribution Report (CDR). The MPCR provides summary information about Veterans Affairs operational costs,...

  19. Uncommon Dorsal Radiocarpal Fracture Dislocation Complicated With Median Nerve Palsy: Case Report, Review of the Literature, and a New Classification System Guiding the Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing-Cheong Wong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 36-year-old lorry driver who sustained left dorsal radiocarpal fracture dislocation and left median nerve injury in a traffic accident in 2010. Emergency operation of closed reduction, cross-wrist-bridging external fixation, percutaneous transradial styloid Kirschner wire fixation, decompression of left median nerve, and repair of the partially torn palmar radiocarpal ligament were performed under general anaesthesia. Because of the persistent depressed dorsal articular rim fracture of left distal radius, another operation of open reduction, corticocancellous bone grafting, and dorsal buttress plating was performed 5 days after the initial operation. Six months after the operation, the patient enjoyed good range of wrist motion but weak twisting power, especially in supination. There was no radiological feature of radiocarpal subluxation.

  20. Management of carotid Dacron patch infection: a case report using median sternotomy for proximal common carotid artery control and in situ polytetrafluoroethylene grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calio', Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Pacilè, Maria Antonietta

    2009-01-01

    We report on a 58-year-old male who presented with an enlarging cervical hematoma 3 months following carotid endarterectomy with Dacron patch repair, due to septic disruption of the Dacron patch secondary to presumed infection. The essential features of this case are the control of the proximal common carotid artery gained through a median sternotomy, because the patient was markedly obese with minimal thyromental distance, and the treatment consisting of in situ polytetrafluoroethylene bypass grafting, due to the absence of a suitable autogenous saphenous vein. Median sternotomy is rarely required in case of reintervention for septic false aneurysms and hematomas following carotid endarterectomy but should be considered whenever difficult control of the common carotid artery, when entering the previous cervicotomy, is anticipated. In situ polytetrafluoroethylene grafting can be considered if autogenous vein material is lacking.

  1. Monthly energy review, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  2. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  3. Monthly energy review: April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This monthly report presents an overview of energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. A section is also included on international energy. The feature paper which is included each month is entitled ``Energy equipment choices: Fuel costs and other determinants.`` 37 figs., 59 tabs.

  4. ULTRAPLATE 30 month management report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl

    2003-01-01

    In the period from month 24 to month 30 focus has been on the work-package 3 activities concerning optimisation of the newly developed ULTRAPLATE technology towards specific industrial applications. Three main application areas have been pursued: 1) High- speed plating of lead free solder contact...

  5. Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months Print A A A What's in ... your child's birth, the doctor has been recording growth in weight, length, and head size (circumference) during ...

  6. Monthly energy review, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 91 tabs.

  7. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  8. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  9. Monthly energy review, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  10. Monthly energy review, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 36 figs., 61 tabs.

  11. Monthly energy review, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  12. Monthly energy review, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  13. Monthly energy review, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  14. Monthly energy review, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 74 tabs.

  15. Natural gas monthly, December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  16. Left behind by Birth Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Ingeborg Foldøy

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing comprehensive administrative data from Norway I investigate long-term birth month effects. I demonstrate that the oldest children in class have a substantially higher GPA than their younger peers. The birth month differences are larger for low-SES children. Furthermore, I find that the youngest children in class are lagging significantly…

  17. Monthly Energy Review, February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-26

    This monthly publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics, covering the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief descriptions (`energy plugs`) on two EIA publications are presented at the start.

  18. Haida Months of the Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Robert

    Students are introduced to Haida vocabulary in this booklet which briefly describes the seasons and traditional seasonal activities of Southeastern Alaska Natives. The first section lists the months in English and Haida; e.g., January is "Taan Kungaay," or "Bear Hunting Month." The second section contains seasonal names in…

  19. Monthly energy review, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 75 tabs.

  20. Monthly energy review, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs. 73 tabs.

  1. Video Denoising based on Stationary Wavelet Transform and Center Weighted Median Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundarya K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise removal using wavelet has the characteristic of preserving signal uniqueness even if noise is going to be minimized. Images are getting corrupted by impulse noise during image acquisition and transmission. A new median filter termed as the center weighted median filter (CWMF in the wavelet coefficient domain combined with stationary wavelet transform (SWT is proposed for video denoising. This filter iteratively smoothes the noisy wavelet coefficients variances preserving the edge information contained in the large magnitude wavelet coefficients. This Paper deals with uncompressed video of .avi format. The proposed algorithm works well for suppressing Gaussian noise with noise density from 10 to 70% while preserving image details. Simulation results show that higher peak signal to noise ratio can be obtained as compared to other recent image denoising methods.

  2. Poisson noise reduction from X-ray images by region classification and response median filtering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THAKUR KIRTI; KADAM JITENDRA; SAPKAL ASHOK

    2017-06-01

    Medical imaging is perturbed with inherent noise such as speckle noise in ultrasound, Poisson noise in X-ray and Rician noise in MRI imaging. This paper focuses on X-ray image denoising problem. X-ray image quality could be improved by increasing dose value; however, this may result in cell death or similar kinds of issues. Therefore, image processing techniques are developed to minimise noise instead of increasing dose value for patient safety. In this paper, usage of modified Harris corner point detector to predict noisy pixels and responsive median filtering in spatial domain is proposed. Experimentation proved that the proposed work performs better than simple median filter and moving average (MA) filter. The results are very close to non-local means Poisson noise filter which is one of the current state-of-the-art methods. Benefits of the proposed work are simple noise prediction mechanism, good visual quality and less execution time.

  3. Robust K-Median and K-Means Clustering Algorithms for Incomplete Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete data with missing feature values are prevalent in clustering problems. Traditional clustering methods first estimate the missing values by imputation and then apply the classical clustering algorithms for complete data, such as K-median and K-means. However, in practice, it is often hard to obtain accurate estimation of the missing values, which deteriorates the performance of clustering. To enhance the robustness of clustering algorithms, this paper represents the missing values by interval data and introduces the concept of robust cluster objective function. A minimax robust optimization (RO formulation is presented to provide clustering results, which are insensitive to estimation errors. To solve the proposed RO problem, we propose robust K-median and K-means clustering algorithms with low time and space complexity. Comparisons and analysis of experimental results on both artificially generated and real-world incomplete data sets validate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  4. Cannieu-Riche anastomosis of the ulnar to median nerve in the hand: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, G; Ioannidis, O; Martoglou, S

    2010-01-01

    We observed in a male cadaver the presence of a new type of very long Cannieu-Riche anastomosis between the proximal portion of the deep branch of the ulnar nerve for the adductor pollicis and ramus of the recurrent branch of the median nerve to the superficial head of the flexor pollicis brevis. The clinical relevance of such a communication is the possible preservation of the function of all or part of thenar muscles from the ulnar nerve in case of median nerve lesion. The ignorance of that anomaly can induce obscure clinical, surgical and electroneuromyographical findings. We report on the incidence, the double innervation and the clinical significance of Cannieu-Riche anastomosis and provide a new classification of the various types of this nerval connection.

  5. Median and Morphological Specialized Processors for a Real-Time Image Data Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Wiatr

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the considerations on selecting a multiprocessor MISD architecture for fast implementation of the vision image processing. Using the author′s earlier experience with real-time systems, implementing of specialized hardware processors based on the programmable FPGA systems has been proposed in the pipeline architecture. In particular, the following processors are presented: median filter and morphological processor. The structure of a universal reconfigurable processor developed has been proposed as well. Experimental results are presented as delays on LCA level implementation for median filter, morphological processor, convolution processor, look-up-table processor, logic processor and histogram processor. These times compare with delays in general purpose processor and DSP processor.

  6. Vector Nonlocal Euclidean Median: Principal Bundle Captures The Nature of Patch Space

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Chen-Yun; Qi, Xin Jessica; Wu, Hau-Tieng

    2016-01-01

    We extensively study the rotational group structure inside the patch space by introducing the fiber bundle structure. The rotational group structure leads to a new image denoising algorithm called the \\textit{vector non-local Euclidean median} (VNLEM). The theoretical aspect of VNLEM is studied, which explains why the VNLEM and traditional non-local mean/non-local Euclidean median (NLEM) algorithm work. The numerical issue of the VNLEM is improved by taking the orientation feature in the commonly applied scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), and a theoretical analysis of the robustness of the orientation feature in the SIFT is provided. The VNLEM is applied to an image database of 1,361 images and compared with the NLEM. Different image quality assessments based on the error-sensitivity or the human visual system are applied to evaluate the performance. The results confirmed the potential of the VNLEM algorithm.

  7. Effect of the Steindler procedure on the median nerve branches to the medial epicondylar muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelot, C; Feugas, C; Migaud, H; Guillem, F; Chapnikoff, D; Fontaine, C

    2000-06-01

    Usually the median nerve gives off six branches to the muscles arising from the medial epicondyle, which could be tightened during Steindler's procedure. We studied these branches before and after Steindler's procedure in 20 fresh cadavers and observed a considerable variation in the origin of the branches. The muscular branches arising from the median nerve did not seem to limit the mobilization of the medial epicondyle when performing Steindler's transfer. The limitation of the flexion observed after Steindler's procedure was mainly related to the tension of the transferred forearm flexor muscles. The variability of the origin of the branch to the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle could explain a lesion of this branch when Steindler's procedure is carried out with Brunelli's modification. The lateral transfer and the anterior transfer on to the humeral shaft did not influence the limitation of elbow flexion or result in tightness in any nerve branch to the transferred muscles.

  8. APPLICATION OF MEDIAN-EFFECT IN QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ANTITUMOR DRUGS IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Song; SHEN Wei; SHEN Ding-ming

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyze quantitatively the synergistic and antagonistic effects of combined oxymatrine (OMT) and 5-fluorouracil (5-GU) on a cell line of human liver cancer (HepG2) with median-effect principle in vitro. Methods: The median-effect principle and MTT method were used in the quantitative analysis of effects of the two drugs. Results: Cytotoxic activity of the individual drugs enhanced as drug concentration increased. As fa=0.41, a CI equal to 1 indicated additivity; fa0.41, a CI greater than 1 indicated antagonism. The sequence of administration did not influence the cytotoxic activity of the combined antitumor drugs. The ratio of drug concentration was a factor that can influence the killing effect. Conclusion: The combined drugs interaction (CI<1) was synergistic at lower concentration and antagonistic at higher concentration. The ratio of drug concentration is a factor that can influence the killing effect.

  9. Median and ulnar nerve compression at the wrist caused by anomalous muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, L

    2002-12-01

    Compression of the median and ulnar nerves at the wrist is frequently encountered. Carpal tunnel syndrome usually occurs without any obvious extrinsic cause; several cases have however been reported caused by anomalous or hypertrophic muscles. A survey of the literature shows that compression neuropathy of the median nerve has been reported in relation with anomalies affecting three muscles: the first (or second) lumbrical, the palmaris longus and its anatomic variants and the superficial flexor of the index finger. In the ulnar tunnel the situation is thoroughly different: so-called idiopathic ulnar tunnel syndrome is rare and an extrinsic compressing structure can usually be disclosed. Anomalous muscles belong to the palmaris longus/abductor digiti minimi group; the flexor carpi ulnaris is sometimes involved. One can suspect the presence of such an anomalous muscle when the compression syndrome concerns a patient who is not within the "usual" age group with symptoms initiated or aggravated by physical exercise.

  10. In uncertainty we trust: a median voter model with risk aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Yakovlev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The principal-agent problem and uncertainty are some of the key factors affecting financial and political markets. Fear of the unknown plays an important role in human decision making, including voting. This article describes a theoretical model where voter risk aversion towards uncertainty gives political incumbents a significant advantage over their challengers, exacerbating the principal-agent problem between voters and legislators. The model presented predicts that a rise in voter uncertainty concerning the challenger allows the incumbent to deviate from the median voter’s policy preference without losing the election. This model reconciles the paradoxical coexistence of ideological shirking and high incumbent reelection rates without abandoning the elegant median voter framework.

  11. The Inverse 1-Median Problem on Tree Networks with Variable Real Edge Lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longshu Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Location problems exist in the real world and they mainly deal with finding optimal locations for facilities in a network, such as net servers, hospitals, and shopping centers. The inverse location problem is also often met in practice and has been intensively investigated in the literature. As a typical inverse location problem, the inverse 1-median problem on tree networks with variable real edge lengths is discussed in this paper, which is to modify the edge lengths at minimum total cost such that a given vertex becomes a 1-median of the tree network with respect to the new edge lengths. First, this problem is shown to be solvable in linear time with variable nonnegative edge lengths. For the case when negative edge lengths are allowable, the NP-hardness is proved under Hamming distance, and strongly polynomial time algorithms are presented under l1 and l∞ norms, respectively.

  12. Simultaneous estimation and variable selection in median regression using Lasso-type penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinfeng; Ying, Zhiliang

    2010-06-01

    We consider the median regression with a LASSO-type penalty term for variable selection. With the fixed number of variables in regression model, a two-stage method is proposed for simultaneous estimation and variable selection where the degree of penalty is adaptively chosen. A Bayesian information criterion type approach is proposed and used to obtain a data-driven procedure which is proved to automatically select asymptotically optimal tuning parameters. It is shown that the resultant estimator achieves the so-called oracle property. The combination of the median regression and LASSO penalty is computationally easy to implement via the standard linear programming. A random perturbation scheme can be made use of to get simple estimator of the standard error. Simulation studies are conducted to assess the finite-sample performance of the proposed method. We illustrate the methodology with a real example.

  13. Digitaalisen markkinoinnin ja sosiaalisen median hyödyntäminen kampaamoalalla : Pienyritykset

    OpenAIRE

    Myllymäki, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli digitaalisen markkinoinnin ja sosiaalisen median hyödyntäminen kampaamoalalla, erityisesti pienissä yrityksissä. Tavoitteena oli opastaa lukijaa ymmärtämään digitaalisen markkinoinnin ja sosiaalisen median keskeisimmät perusteet ja antaa neuvoja parturi-kampaamoalan yrittäjälle, joka ei ole vielä huomioinut tai osannut hyödyntää niiden työkaluja. Työn teoriaosuudessa käsiteltiin mitä markkinointiviestintä on ja mitä sosiaalisen media on. Tämän lisäksi käsit...

  14. A study of median nerve entrapment neuropathy at wrist in uremic patients

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment neuropathy seen in uremic patients. The study was undertaken to estimate the frequency of CTS in uremic patients and to identify the most sensitive electrodiagnostic test. Study was conducted on 80 subjects of age 30–60 years. End-stage kidney disease patients were recruited for the clinical evaluation, motor nerve conduction studies (NCS), sensory NCS, F wave study and median-versus-ulnar comparison studies (palm-to-wrist mixed compa...

  15. Tractability results for the Double-Cut-and-Join circular median problem

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoody-Ghaidary, Ahmad; Stacho, Ladislav

    2011-01-01

    The circular median problem in the Double-Cut-and-Join (DCJ) distance asks to find, for three given genomes, a fourth circular genome that minimizes the sum of the mutual distances with the three other ones. This problem has been shown to be NP-complete. We show here that, if the number of vertices of degree 3 in the breakpoint graph of the three input genomes is fixed, then the problem is tractable

  16. Kalman-median Compound Filter for Gaussian and Impulse Noise Reduction on Digital Images

    OpenAIRE

    山森, 一人; 山田, 義治; 相川, 勝

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an image restoration method from degraded images which include additive gaussian noise and impulse noise. This method tries to achieve image restoration by using combination of canonical state space model kalman filter and median filter. Kalman filter estimates internal state of a dynamic system based on system model. The canonical state space models are described by two equations; state equation that expresses a transition process of the region including the focusing pixe...

  17. Pudendal and median nerve sensory perception threshold: a comparison between normative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaghebeur, Jörgen; Wyndaele, Jean Jacques

    2014-12-01

    For the evaluation of sensory innervation, normative data are necessary as a comparison. To compare our current perception thresholds (CPTs) with normative data from other research. Healthy volunteers were assessed for 2000, 250, and 5 Hz CPTs of the median and pudendal nerve and data were compared with other studies. Normative data in the studied group n = 41 (male: 21; female: 20) for the median nerve, 2 kHz, 250 Hz, and 5 Hz were respectively: 241.85 ± 67.72 (140-444); 106.27 ± 39.12 (45-229); 82.05 ± 43.40 (13-271). Pudendal nerve CPTs 250 Hz were: 126.44 ± 69.46 (6-333). For men 2 kHz: 349.95 ± 125.76 (100-588); 5 Hz: 132.67 ± 51.81 (59-249) and women 2 kHz:226.20 ± 119.65 (64-528); 5 Hz: 92.45 ± 44.66 (35-215). For the median nerve no statistical differences for gender were shown. For the pudendal nerve, only 250 Hz showed no difference for gender (t-test: 0.516). Comparison of our data with CPTs of other normative data showed no agreement for the pudendal nerve. For the median nerve only 2 kHz showed agreement in three studies and for 5 Hz with one study. Comparing normative data of multiple studies shows a variety of results and poor agreement. Therefore, referring to normative data of other studies should be handled with caution.

  18. Recurrent Primary Synovial Sarcoma of Median Nerve: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, A K; Jayakrishnan, K N; Acharya, A M

    2016-10-01

    We report a case of intraneural synovial sarcoma of the median nerve in a 39 year old lady with multiple local recurrences over thirteen years with no distant metastasis. The diagnosis of biphasic type of synovial sarcoma was confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. At the time of the fourth recurrence below elbow amputation was performed. This case is being reported for its rarity and propensity for local recurrence without distant metastasis.

  19. Effective median sternotomy closure in high-risk open heart patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bek, Eugene L; Yun, Kwok L; Kochamba, Gary S; Pfeffer, Thomas A

    2010-04-01

    We describe a novel surgical technique with a median sternotomy closure in high-risk open heart patients. In contrast to conventional sternal closure, in which sternal wires are passed through the intercostal space, the novel technique in sternal closure passes sternal wires transcostally or through costo-chondral joints. Copyright (c) 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional connectivity of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei at rest

    OpenAIRE

    Beliveau, Vincent; Svarer, Claus; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M; Greve, Douglas N.; Fisher, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter critically involved in a broad range of brain functions and implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses including major depression, anxiety and sleep disorders. Despite being widely distributed throughout the brain, there is limited knowledge on the contribution of 5-HT to intrinsic brain activity. The dorsal raphe (DR) and median raphe (MR) nuclei are the source of most serotonergic neurons projecting throughout the brain and thus pr...

  1. Single-stage repair of aortic coarctation and multiple concomitant cardiac lesions through a median sternotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervan, Umit; Yurdakok, Okan; Genc, Bahadir; Ozen, Anil; Saritas, Ahmet; Kucuker, Seref Alp; Pac, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Through a median sternotomy, we performed a single-stage repair of severe aortic coarctation, ventricular septal defect, patent foramen ovale, and mitral valve insufficiency. The severe aortic coarctation was repaired by interposing a synthetic graft between the distal ascending aorta and the descending aorta. We first repaired the coarctation with the 38-year-old man on cardiopulmonary bypass, before aortic cross-clamping, in order to shorten the cross-clamp time.

  2. Carbon dioxide-laser microsurgical median glossotomy for resection of lingual dermoid cysts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristien Corvers

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermoid cysts are epithelial-lined cavities with skin adnexae in the capsule. Only 7% present in the head and neck. Between 2004 and 2013, 4 patients with a lingual dermoid cyst underwent a microsurgical carbon dioxide (CO² laser resection via a median sagittal glossotomy approach. This approach is an elegant technique combining superior visualization, hemostasis, and little postoperative edema with good wound healing, allowing for perfect function preservation of the tongue.

  3. The prevalence of median neuropathy at wrist in systemic sclerosis patients at Srinagarind Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaporn Nimitbancha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence and factor related with median neuropathy at wrist (MNW in systemic sclerosis patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand. Participants: Systemic sclerosis patients who attended the Scleroderma Clinic, Srinagarind Hospital. Materials and Methods: Seventyfive systemic sclerosis patients were prospectively evaluated by questionnaire, physical examination, and electrodiagnostic study. The questionnaire consisted of the symptoms, duration, and type of systemic sclerosis. The physical examination revealed skin score of systemic sclerosis, pinprick sensation of median nerve distribution of both hands, and weakness of both abductor pollicis brevis muscles. The provocative test which were Tinel′s sign and Phalen′s maneuver were also examined. Moreover, electrodiagnostic study of the bilateral median and ulnar nerves was conducted. Results: The prevalence of MNW in systemic sclerosis patients was 44% - percentage of mild, moderate, and severe were 28%, 9.3%, and 6.7%, respectively. The prevalence of asymptomatic MNW was 88%. There were no association between the presence of MNW and related factors of systemic sclerosis. Conclusions: MNW is one of the most common entrapment neuropathies in systemic sclerosis patients. Systemic sclerosis patients should be screened for early signs of MNW.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW RECURSIVE MEDIAN FILTERING SCHEME FOR PROCESSING POTENTIOMETER SIGNAL IN CSRDM OF PFBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR which is in advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam has two shutdown systems, namely - Control & Safety Rod Drive Mechanisms (CSRDM and Diverse Safety Rod Drive Mechanisms (DSRDM. Since response time of Electromagnet (EM present in CSRDM is an important safety parameter, it is measured and monitored periodically. In PFBR, measurement of response time of EM is done by Current Decay method. An alternate approach to measure EM response time is Displacement Method, wherein it is proposed to utilise the existing potentiometer in CSRDM for position monitoring to measure EM response time. In light of this, a study was carried out to probe the feasibility of its implementation. To aid in the study, a new Recursive Median filtering scheme termed as ‘Multipass recursive median filter with variable window’ was developed to process the unconditioned potentiometer signal in Displacement method. EM response time obtained from Displacement Method and that obtained through Current decay method were found to be in good agreement with each other. This paper details the new Recursive Median filtering scheme developed.

  5. Effects of Wrist Posture and Fingertip Force on Median Nerve Blood Flow Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Katherine E.; Tat, Jimmy

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to assess nerve hypervascularization using high resolution ultrasonography to determine the effects of wrist posture and fingertip force on median nerve blood flow at the wrist in healthy participants and those experiencing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) symptoms. Methods. The median nerves of nine healthy participants and nine participants experiencing symptoms of CTS were evaluated using optimized ultrasonography in five wrist postures with and without a middle digit fingertip press (0, 6 N). Results. Both wrist posture and fingertip force had significant main effects on mean peak blood flow velocity. Blood flow velocity with a neutral wrist (2.87 cm/s) was significantly lower than flexed 30° (3.37 cm/s), flexed 15° (3.27 cm/s), and extended 30° (3.29 cm/s). Similarly, median nerve blood flow velocity was lower without force (2.81 cm/s) than with force (3.56 cm/s). A significant difference was not found between groups. Discussion. Vascular changes associated with CTS may be acutely induced by nonneutral wrist postures and fingertip force. This study represents an early evaluation of intraneural blood flow as a measure of nerve hypervascularization in response to occupational risk factors and advances our understanding of the vascular phenomena associated with peripheral nerve compression.

  6. Mechanical comparison of monofilament nylon leader and orthopaedic wire for median sternotomy closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCready, D J; Bell, J C; Ness, M G; Tarlton, J F

    2015-08-01

    To compare the mechanical properties of monofilament nylon leader and orthopaedic wire for median sternotomy closure in the dog. Median sternotomy was performed in 14 canine cadaver sternums with the manubrium intact. The sternotomy was closed with either 80 lb monofilament nylon leader or 20G orthopaedic stainless steel wire in a peristernal figure of 8 pattern. Constructs were loaded in a servohydraulic material testing machine. Load at yield, maximum load, stiffness, displacement and mode of failure were compared between constructs subjected to a single cycle load to failure. No significant differences were found in load at yield, maximum load, stiffness or displacement between the monofilament nylon leader and the stainless steel wire constructs. No implant failure was evident in the stainless steel wire constructs. Four of the monofilament nylon leader constructs failed by pulling of the nylon through the crimp. Monofilament nylon leader is mechanically comparable to stainless steel wire and potentially a suitable alternative for closure of median sternotomy in the dog. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  7. A switching median filter with boundary discriminative noise detection for extremely corrupted images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Pei-Eng; Ma, Kai-Kuang

    2006-06-01

    A novel switching median filter incorporating with a powerful impulse noise detection method, called the boundary discriminative noise detection (BDND), is proposed in this paper for effectively denoising extremely corrupted images. To determine whether the current pixel is corrupted, the proposed BDND algorithm first classifies the pixels of a localized window, centering on the current pixel, into three groups--lower intensity impulse noise, uncorrupted pixels, and higher intensity impulse noise. The center pixel will then be considered as "uncorrupted," provided that it belongs to the "uncorrupted" pixel group, or "corrupted." For that, two boundaries that discriminate these three groups require to be accurately determined for yielding a very high noise detection accuracy--in our case, achieving zero miss-detection rate while maintaining a fairly low false-alarm rate, even up to 70% noise corruption. Four noise models are considered for performance evaluation. Extensive simulation results conducted on both monochrome and color images under a wide range (from 10% to 90%) of noise corruption clearly show that our proposed switching median filter substantially outperforms all existing median-based filters, in terms of suppressing impulse noise while preserving image details, and yet, the proposed BDND is algorithmically simple, suitable for real-time implementation and application.

  8. Post-natal development of the median eminence of the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, A J; Desnoyers, P

    1975-11-01

    The ultrastructure of the median eminence of neonatal (newborn) 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-day old) and adult guinea pigs was studied to determine the dynamic changes occurring in this structure during early life. At birth the portal vasculature consists of the Mantelplexus and a few, non-fenestrated capillary loops. The number of ansae and the degree of fenestration increase rapidly after birth. The abundance of cytoplasmic and ciliary projections into the ventricular recess and the large numbers of organelles indicate that the ependymal cells are more active in the neonatal period than in the adult male. Moreover, the ependymal endfeet cover most of the surface area of the primary portal plexus during this time. The neuronal layers of the median eminence are difficult to distinguish at birth due to the lack of myelinated fibers in the zona interna. Significant myelination appears on day 3 but is not complete until day 10. There is a progressive increase in the numbers of Herring bodies and large neuro-secretory granules (1,500-1,700 A) during this same time period. In the zona externa, few nerve terminals abut on the perivascular space until day 3. Increases in numbers of granules per axon profile were noted for each day after birth. Despite the relatively long gestation period of the guinea pig (68-72 days), the morphologic appearance of the median eminence at birth suggests that the neurovascular link controlling anterior pituitary function is not yet complete.

  9. A study of median nerve entrapment neuropathy at wrist in uremic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, V S; Sharma, R D; Pawar, S M; Waghmare, S N

    2015-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment neuropathy seen in uremic patients. The study was undertaken to estimate the frequency of CTS in uremic patients and to identify the most sensitive electrodiagnostic test. Study was conducted on 80 subjects of age 30-60 years. End-stage kidney disease patients were recruited for the clinical evaluation, motor nerve conduction studies (NCS), sensory NCS, F wave study and median-versus-ulnar comparison studies (palm-to-wrist mixed comparison study, digit 4 sensory latencies study and lumbrical-interossei comparison study). Among three different diagnostic modalities, frequency of CTS was found to be 17.5% with clinical evaluation, 15% with routine NCS studies and 25% with median-versus-ulnar comparison studies. Among the median-versus-ulnar comparison studies, lumbrical-interossei comparison study was found to be most sensitive (90%). The comparative tests for CTS are more sensitive compared to routine NCS and clinical examination. Among the comparative tests, lumbrical-interossei comparison study is the most sensitive. Early diagnosis of CTS may help patients of uremia to seek proper treatment at an appropriate time.

  10. Effects of Wrist Posture and Fingertip Force on Median Nerve Blood Flow Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Wilson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to assess nerve hypervascularization using high resolution ultrasonography to determine the effects of wrist posture and fingertip force on median nerve blood flow at the wrist in healthy participants and those experiencing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS symptoms. Methods. The median nerves of nine healthy participants and nine participants experiencing symptoms of CTS were evaluated using optimized ultrasonography in five wrist postures with and without a middle digit fingertip press (0, 6 N. Results. Both wrist posture and fingertip force had significant main effects on mean peak blood flow velocity. Blood flow velocity with a neutral wrist (2.87 cm/s was significantly lower than flexed 30° (3.37 cm/s, flexed 15° (3.27 cm/s, and extended 30° (3.29 cm/s. Similarly, median nerve blood flow velocity was lower without force (2.81 cm/s than with force (3.56 cm/s. A significant difference was not found between groups. Discussion. Vascular changes associated with CTS may be acutely induced by nonneutral wrist postures and fingertip force. This study represents an early evaluation of intraneural blood flow as a measure of nerve hypervascularization in response to occupational risk factors and advances our understanding of the vascular phenomena associated with peripheral nerve compression.

  11. Distributions of median nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations across the Red River Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longing, D; Haggard, B E

    2010-01-01

    Acquisition and compilation of water-quality data for an 11-yr time period (1996-2006) from 589 stream and river stations were conducted to support nutrient criteria development for the multistate Red River Basin shared by Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Ten water-quality parameters were collected from six data sources (USGS, Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality, Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, Oklahoma Conservation Commission, Oklahoma Water Resources Board, and Texas Commission on Environmental Quality), and an additional 13 parameters were acquired from at least one source. Median concentrations of water-quality parameters were calculated at each individual station and frequency distributions (minimum, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th percentiles, and maximum) of the median concentrations were calculated. Across the Red River Basin, median values for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and sestonic chlorophyll-a (chl-a) ranged from water-quality parameters as the first step to support states in developing nutrient criteria to protect designated uses in the multijurisdictional Red River Basin.

  12. Median prior constrained TV algorithm for sparse view low-dose CT reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Shangguan, Hong; Zhang, Quan; Zhu, Hongqing; Shu, Huazhong; Gui, Zhiguo

    2015-05-01

    It is known that lowering the X-ray tube current (mAs) or tube voltage (kVp) and simultaneously reducing the total number of X-ray views (sparse view) is an effective means to achieve low-dose in computed tomography (CT) scan. However, the associated image quality by the conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) usually degrades due to the excessive quantum noise. Although sparse-view CT reconstruction algorithm via total variation (TV), in the scanning protocol of reducing X-ray tube current, has been demonstrated to be able to result in significant radiation dose reduction while maintain image quality, noticeable patchy artifacts still exist in reconstructed images. In this study, to address the problem of patchy artifacts, we proposed a median prior constrained TV regularization to retain the image quality by introducing an auxiliary vector m in register with the object. Specifically, the approximate action of m is to draw, in each iteration, an object voxel toward its own local median, aiming to improve low-dose image quality with sparse-view projection measurements. Subsequently, an alternating optimization algorithm is adopted to optimize the associative objective function. We refer to the median prior constrained TV regularization as "TV_MP" for simplicity. Experimental results on digital phantoms and clinical phantom demonstrated that the proposed TV_MP with appropriate control parameters can not only ensure a higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the reconstructed image, but also its resolution compared with the original TV method.

  13. Pre- and post-operative diffusion tensor imaging of the median nerve in carpal tunnel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiltunen, Jaana [Aalto University School of Science, Brain Research Unit, Low Temperature Laboratory, Aalto (Finland); Aalto University School of Science, Advanced Magnetic Imaging Centre, Aalto (Finland); Kirveskari, Erika [Aalto University School of Science, Brain Research Unit, Low Temperature Laboratory, Aalto (Finland); Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Helsinki (Finland); Numminen, Jussi [Aalto University School of Science, Brain Research Unit, Low Temperature Laboratory, Aalto (Finland); University of Helsinki, Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki (Finland); Lindfors, Nina; Goeransson, Harry [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Hand Surgery, Helsinki (Finland); Hari, Riitta [Aalto University School of Science, Brain Research Unit, Low Temperature Laboratory, Aalto (Finland); Aalto University School of Science, Advanced Magnetic Imaging Centre, Aalto (Finland); Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    To use pre- and post-operative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to monitor median nerve integrity in patients suffering from carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Diffusivity and anisotropy images along the median nerve were compared among 12 patients, 12 age-matched and 12 young control subjects and correlated with electrophysiological neurography results. Slice-wise DTI parameter values were calculated to focus on local changes. Results of pre-operative patients and age-matched control subjects differed only in the distal nerve. Moreover, pre-operative patients differed significantly from young controls and post-operative patients. The main abnormalities were increased diffusivity and decreased anisotropy in the carpal tunnel and distal median nerve. Post-operative clinical improvement was reflected in diffusivity, but not in anisotropy. Slice-wise analysis showed high pre-operative diffusivity at the distal nerve. All groups had relatively large inter-subject variation in both diffusivity and anisotropy. DTI can provide information complementary to clinical examination, electrophysiological recordings and anatomical MRI of diseases and injuries of peripheral nerves. However, similar age-related changes in diffusivity and anisotropy may weaken DTI specificity. Slice-wise analysis is necessary for detection of local changes in nerve integrity. circle Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging provides information complementary to conventional diagnostic methods. circle Age caused similar changes to diffusivity and anisotropy as carpal tunnel syndrome. circle Post-operative clinical improvement was reflected in diffusivity, but not in anisotropy. circle Inter-subject variation in diffusivity and anisotropy was considerable. (orig.)

  14. The developmental trend of labrum and median eyes of Orsten-type preserved Phosphatocopina (Crustacea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Phosphatocopina (Crustacea,Arthropoda) is an important group of ’Orsten-type’ preserved fossils.It is resolved as the sister-group of Eucrustacea.Here we study the labrum,the median eyes,and the inner lamella of Phosphatocopina based on the selected specimens respectively from western Hunan,South China,and Sweden.The labrum characters of different species exhibit interspecific difference.The ratio of labrum length/shield length is significant to the reconstruction of the ontogeny of phosphatocopines.The labrum characters should be introduced to the diagnosis of Phosphatocopina.In the earliest growth stage,the median eyes were inconspicuous,almost as flat as the other area of the hypstome.However,with the growth of the individuals they became conspicuous.There were two obviously concave structures on the ventral side of the hypostome in later stages,which were the positions where the median eyes should have been located.In addition,the two modes of preservation of the inner lamella,i.e.,that of shrinking and that of bulging up,are interpreted as the preservational artifact herein.

  15. Cadaveric Study of Anatomic Far Distal Musculocutaneous and Median Nerve Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Namath S

    2016-06-02

    One of the more commonly reported variations in musculocutaneous and median nerves is a communication between the two. Such communications have been noted in the literature for well over a century, and numerous studies have attempted to quantify their rate of incidence and classify their different patterns. Most communications occur close to the brachial plexus in the proximal arm; communications distal to the musculocutaneous nerve perforation of the coracobrachialis have been reported with less frequency, and several rare and unique communication patterns have been reported as case studies. This paper describes a case of a communicating branch between the musculocutaneous and median nerves, distal to the origin of the brachialis muscle. This communication was found during a routine educational dissection and is closer to the level of the elbow than previously documented communications that are distal to the musculocutaneous perforation of the coracobrachialis. Identification and documentation of the variety of musculocutaneous and median nerve communications is relevant to clinical diagnosis of peripheral nerve pathologies, as well as for planning surgical approaches and procedures.

  16. Percentiles of the run-length distribution of the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) median chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K. L.; Chong, Z. L.; Khoo, M. B. C.; Teoh, W. L.; Teh, S. Y.

    2017-09-01

    Quality control is crucial in a wide variety of fields, as it can help to satisfy customers’ needs and requirements by enhancing and improving the products and services to a superior quality level. The EWMA median chart was proposed as a useful alternative to the EWMA \\bar{X} chart because the median-type chart is robust against contamination, outliers or small deviation from the normality assumption compared to the traditional \\bar{X}-type chart. To provide a complete understanding of the run-length distribution, the percentiles of the run-length distribution should be investigated rather than depending solely on the average run length (ARL) performance measure. This is because interpretation depending on the ARL alone can be misleading, as the process mean shifts change according to the skewness and shape of the run-length distribution, varying from almost symmetric when the magnitude of the mean shift is large, to highly right-skewed when the process is in-control (IC) or slightly out-of-control (OOC). Before computing the percentiles of the run-length distribution, optimal parameters of the EWMA median chart will be obtained by minimizing the OOC ARL, while retaining the IC ARL at a desired value.

  17. A wakeboarding injury presented as acute carpal syndrome and median nerve contusion after wrist strangulation: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background We present a case of combined median nerve contusion with immediate loss of sensation after the strangulation with a wakeboarding rope and prolonged referral to our department 72 hours after the injury accompanied by an acute carpal tunnel syndrome with immediate relief of numbness of a significant proportion of the median nerve following surgical decompression. Case presentation The palmar branch of the median nerve was surrounded by a significant haematoma in addition to the strangulation damage caused by its more superficial location in contrast to the median nerve. Conclusion In case of acute median neuropathy, urgent surgical intervention with exploration, decompression of both, the median nerve and the superficial branch of the median nerve, accompanied by compartment measurements of the forearm should be performed to regain or re-establish neurological integrity. PMID:19178709

  18. Solvothermal synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of three lanthanide complexes with high luminescent properties [H2NMe2]3[Ln(III)(2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate)3] (Ln = Sm, Eu, Tb): In the presence of 4,4‧-Bipyridyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros-Andrade, Alan G.; Colorado-Peralta, Raúl; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; Castillo-Blum, Silvia E.; Durán-Hernández, Jesús; Rivera, José María

    2017-10-01

    Three lanthanide complexes, [H2NMe2]3[Ln(III)(2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate)3] (Ln = Sm, Eu, Tb) have been successfully synthesized using a solvothermal method in the presence of a base and they were prepared from inexpensive and readily available reactants. Infrared, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopies, elemental analyses and thermogravimetric analysis were employed for the characterization. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction were isolated in good yields by a simple filtration, their crystal structures were analyzed; the samarium structure has orthorhombic symmetry with space group Pbcn, exhibiting three-dimensional supramolecular architecture through hydrogen bonding interactions. The metal center is coordinated to nine atoms corresponding to three pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid molecules. These compounds are thermally stable up to 270 °C.

  19. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  20. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  1. Natural gas monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

  2. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  3. Long-term comparative outcomes of open versus laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial-cell carcinoma after a median follow-up of 13 years*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Grant D; Humphries, Katie J; Cutress, Mark L; Riddick, Antony C P; McNeill, S Alan; Tolley, David A

    2011-08-01

    Open nephroureterectomy (ONU) rather than laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) is still regarded as the standard of care for extirpative surgical management of upper urinary tract urothelial-cell carcinoma (UUT-UCC). The longest published follow-up of LNU is 7 years. We report outcomes for patients having surgery ≥10 years ago. Consecutive patients with UUT-UCC who were treated with ONU (n=39) or LNU (n=23) between April 1992 to September 2000 were included. Preoperative, tumor, operative and postoperative characteristics, recurrence, and outcomes were collated. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Median follow-up of censored patients was 163 months (13.6 y). Estimated mean overall survival (OS) was 111 months for ONU and 103 months for LNU. Mean progression free survival (PFS) was 175 months for ONU and 143 months for LNU. Probability of PFS at 10 years was 79% for ONU and 76% for LNU and was unchanged at 15 years. There was no significant difference between ONU and LNU in terms of OS (P=0.51, log-rank test), PFS (P=0.70) or cancer-specific survival (CSS; P=0.43). There were no prognostic differences between ONU and LNU after correcting for confounding variables. There was no increase in the probability of a bladder cancer recurrence from 10 to 15 years postoperation. Long-term follow-up of patients who were operated on more than 10 years ago suggests that LNU has oncologic equivalence to ONU because there were no significant differences in OS, PFS, or CSS between ONU and LNU patients followed for a median of 13 years.

  4. A case of false median cleft of upper lip with IV-A holoprosencephaly that underwent cheiloplasty at 2.5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, J; Arai, N; Kiyosaki, I; Uzawa, N; Ishii, J; Yoshimasu, H; Amagasa, T

    2000-11-01

    Holoprosencephaly results from the incomplete development of midline structures within the cerebrum and encompasses a series of abnormalities of mid-facial development. Here, we report a case of male holoprosencephaly associated with false median cleft of upper lip. This patient belonged clinically to the DeMyer's group IV holoprosencephaly, semilobar type. An infant with this type of holoprosencephaly has been thought to die generally within 1 to 2 years after birth and to rarely benefit from an operation. In this case, the patient had cheiloplasty at the age of 2.5 years at the request of his parents and he lives currently, being 3 years and 2 months old.

  5. Schwannoma of the Median Nerve at the Wrist and Palmar Regions of the Hand: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Kütahya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are also known as neurolemmas that are usually originated from Schwann cells located in the peripheric nerve sheaths. They are the most common tumours of the hand (0.8–2%. They usually present solitary swelling along the course of the nerve however multiple lesions may be present in cases of NF type 1, familial neurofibromatosis, and sporadic schwannomatosis. Schwannomas are generally represented as an asymptomatic mass; however pain, numbness and fatigue may take place with the increasing size of the tumour. EMG (electromyelography, MRI (magnetic resonance imagination, and USG (ultrasound are helpful in the diagnosis. Surgical removal is usually curative. In this paper, we present a 24-year-old male referred to our clinic for a lump located at the volar side of the left wrist and a lump located in his left palm and numbness at his 3rd and 4th fingers. Total excision was performed for both lesions. Histopathological examination of the masses revealed typical features of schwannoma. At the 6th-month followup the patient was symptom-free except for slight paresthesia of the 3rd and the 4th fingers. For our knowledge, this is the second case in the literature presenting wrist and palm involvement of the median nerve schwannoma.

  6. Differences in Median Ultraviolet Light Transmissions of Serial Homeopathic Dilutions of Copper Sulfate, Hypericum perforatum, and Sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sabine D; Sandig, Annegret; Baumgartner, Stephan; Wolf, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Homeopathic remedies are produced by potentising, that is, the serial logarithmic dilution and succussion of a mother tincture. Techniques like ultraviolet spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, calorimetry, or thermoluminescence have been used to investigate their physical properties. In this study, homeopathic centesimal (c) potencies (6c to 30c) of copper sulfate, Hypericum perforatum, and sulfur as well as succussed water controls were prepared. Samples of these preparations were exposed to external physical factors like heat, pressure, ultraviolet radiation, or electromagnetic fields to mimic possible everyday storage conditions. The median transmissions from 190 nm to 340 nm and 220 nm to 340 nm were determined by ultraviolet light spectroscopy on five measurement days distributed over several months. Transmissions of controls and potencies of sulfur differed significantly on two of five measurement days and after exposure to physical factors. Transmissions of potencies exposed to ultraviolet light and unexposed potencies of copper sulfate and Hypericum perforatum differed significantly. Potency levels 6c to 30c were also compared, and wavelike patterns of higher and lower transmissions were found. The Kruskal-Wallis test yielded significant differences for the potency levels of all three substances. Aiming at understanding the physical properties of homeopathic preparations, this study confirmed and expanded the findings of previous studies.

  7. Variation in nerve autograft length increases fibre misdirection and decreases pruning effectiveness: an experimental study in the rat median nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, J A; Taleb, M; Mira, J C; Ghizoni, M F

    2005-09-01

    In the clinical set, autologus nerve grafts are the current option for reconstruction of nerve tissue losses. The length of the nerve graft has been suggested to affect outcomes. Experiments were performed in the rat in order to test this assumption and to detect a possible mechanism to explain differences in recovery. The rat median nerve was repaired by ulnar nerve grafts of different lengths. Rats were evaluated for 12 months by behavioural assessment and histological studies, including ATPase myofibrillary histochemistry and retrograde neuronal labelling. It was demonstrated that graft length interferes in behavioural functional recovery that here correlates to muscle weight recovery. Short nerve grafts recovered faster and better. Reinnervation was not specific either at the trunk level or in the muscle itself. The normal mosaic pattern of Type I muscle fibres was never restored and their number remained largely augmented. An increment in the number of motor fibres was observed after the nerve grafting in a predominantly sensory branch in all groups. This increment was more pronounced in the long graft group. In the postoperative period, about a 20% reduction in the number of misdirected motor fibres occurred in the short nerve graft group only. Variation in the length of nerve grafts interferes in behavioural recovery and increases motor fibres misdirection. Early recovery onset was related to a better outcome, which occurs in the short graft group.

  8. US Monthly Pilot Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly winds aloft summary forms summarizing Pilot Balloon observational data for the United States. Generally labeled as Form 1114, and then transitioning to Form...

  9. Monthly energy review, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-26

    This publication presents information for the month of August, 1993 on the following: Energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices, and international energy.

  10. Monthly Energy Review, July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-07-27

    The Monthly Energy Review is prepared by the Energy Information Administration. Topics discussed include: Energy Overview, Energy Consumption, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Oil and Gas Resource Development, Coal, Electricity, Nuclear Energy, Energy Prices, International Energy. (VC)

  11. Monthly energy review, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Activities covered include: U.S. production, consumption, trade, stock, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  12. Monthly energy review, August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  13. Monthly energy review, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-26

    This publication presents information for the month of August, 1993 on the following: Energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices, and international energy.

  14. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 15 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  15. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 6 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  16. Your Child's Development: 2 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 2 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  17. Monthly energy review, August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  18. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  20. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  1. Natural gas monthly, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  2. Natural gas monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-26

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  3. Natural gas monthly, September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly, June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  6. Monthly energy review, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy data. A brief summary of the monthly and historical comparison data is provided in Section 1 of the report. A highlight section of the report provides an assessment of summer 1997 motor gasoline price increases.

  7. Monthly energy review, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  8. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  9. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  10. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  11. Natural Gas Monthly, March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  12. Natural gas monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-20

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  13. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-29

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  14. Natural gas monthly, October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-23

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

  15. CT image artifacts from brachytherapy seed implants: a postprocessing 3D adaptive median filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basran, Parminder S; Robertson, Andrew; Wells, Derek

    2011-02-01

    To design a postprocessing 3D adaptive median filter that minimizes streak artifacts and improves soft-tissue contrast in postoperative CT images of brachytherapy seed implantations. The filter works by identifying voxels that are likely streaks and estimating more reflective voxel intensity by using voxel intensities in adjacent CT slices and applying a median filter over voxels not identified as seeds. Median values are computed over a 5 x 5 x 5 mm region of interest (ROI) within the CT volume. An acrylic phantom simulating a clinical seed implant arrangement and containing nonradioactive seeds was created. Low contrast subvolumes of tissuelike material were also embedded in the phantom. Pre- and postprocessed image quality metrics were compared using the standard deviation of ROIs between the seeds, the CT numbers of low contrast ROIs embedded within the phantom, the signal to noise ratio (SNR), and the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of the low contrast ROIs. The method was demonstrated with a clinical postimplant CT dataset. After the filter was applied, the standard deviation of CT values in streak artifact regions was significantly reduced from 76.5 to 7.2 HU. Within the observable low contrast plugs, the mean of all ROI standard deviations was significantly reduced from 60.5 to 3.9 HU, SNR significantly increased from 2.3 to 22.4, and CNR significantly increased from 0.2 to 4.1 (all P mean CT in the low contrast plugs remained within 5 HU of the original values. An efficient postprocessing filter that does not require access to projection data, which can be applied irrespective of CT scan parameters has been developed, provided the slice thickness and spacing is 3 mm or less.

  16. CT image artifacts from brachytherapy seed implants: A postprocessing 3D adaptive median filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basran, Parminder S.; Robertson, Andrew; Wells, Derek [Department of Medical Physics, Vancouver Island Cancer Centre, 2410 Lee Avenue, Victoria, British Columbia V8R 6V5 (Canada) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Vancouver Island Cancer Centre, 2410 Lee Avenue, Victoria, British Columbia V8R 6V5 (Canada) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: To design a postprocessing 3D adaptive median filter that minimizes streak artifacts and improves soft-tissue contrast in postoperative CT images of brachytherapy seed implantations. Methods: The filter works by identifying voxels that are likely streaks and estimating more reflective voxel intensity by using voxel intensities in adjacent CT slices and applying a median filter over voxels not identified as seeds. Median values are computed over a 5x5x5 mm region of interest (ROI) within the CT volume. An acrylic phantom simulating a clinical seed implant arrangement and containing nonradioactive seeds was created. Low contrast subvolumes of tissuelike material were also embedded in the phantom. Pre- and postprocessed image quality metrics were compared using the standard deviation of ROIs between the seeds, the CT numbers of low contrast ROIs embedded within the phantom, the signal to noise ratio (SNR), and the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of the low contrast ROIs. The method was demonstrated with a clinical postimplant CT dataset. Results: After the filter was applied, the standard deviation of CT values in streak artifact regions was significantly reduced from 76.5 to 7.2 HU. Within the observable low contrast plugs, the mean of all ROI standard deviations was significantly reduced from 60.5 to 3.9 HU, SNR significantly increased from 2.3 to 22.4, and CNR significantly increased from 0.2 to 4.1 (all P<0.01). The mean CT in the low contrast plugs remained within 5 HU of the original values. Conclusion: An efficient postprocessing filter that does not require access to projection data, which can be applied irrespective of CT scan parameters has been developed, provided the slice thickness and spacing is 3 mm or less.

  17. Effect of Wrist Deviation on Median Nerve Cross-Sectional Area at Proximal Carpal Tunnel Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yeap LOH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders among computer users. Computer users exhibit various wrist angles while typing. Dynamic changes of wrist angle may cause different degrees of median nerve compression. The objective of this study was thus to investigate the effects of the combination of wrist flexion-extension with wrist deviation on median nerve cross-sectional area (MNCSA.Methods:  Eight right-handed participants were recruited in this study. Both wrists were examined by sonographic ultrasound (US at the proximal carpal tunnel level in the transverse plane. A total of nine wrist positions were examined, including wrist neutral (WN, wrist flexion (WF30°, and wrist extension (WE30°, together with three wrist deviation conditions, namely, without radial deviation (RD and ulnar deviation (UD, with maximal RD and with maximal UD. MNCSA was measured by tracing method with ImageJ.Results: Paired t-test showed a significant difference of WN MNCSA between the dominant hand (7.93 ± 0.63 mm2 and the non-dominant hand (6.98 ± 0.42 mm2 (P<0.001. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (handedness as an independent factor showed that WF30° and WE30° caused significant differences of MNCSA when compared with WN (P<0.001. However, wrist RD/UD did not have a significant interaction with the changes of MNCSA in WN, WF and WE positions.Conclusion: The results indicate a significant reduction of MNCSA when WN changed to WF and WE. Wrist RD and UD did not cause significant changes of MNCSA at different wrist positions. Keywords: Median nerve, Ultrasound, Wrist active holding, Nerve deformation

  18. Subungual glomus tumor: an uncommon cause of median canaliform nail-dystrophy of Heller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta, Vikas Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomus tumor is an uncommon vascular tumor involving mostly subunguum of the thumb or the index finger. It commonly presents as a pink or purplish circumscribed nodule underneath the nail plate. Pain is paroxysmal in nature and precipitated often from exposure to cold or pressure/blunt trauma. Dystrophy of the nail plate occurs rarely. The described case, a 40-year-old woman, had dystrophic thumbnail ascribed to subungual glomus tumor that resembled median canaliform nail-dystrophy of Heller.

  19. A Modified Decision Based Mean Median Algorithm for Removal of High Density Salt and Pepper Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitender Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modified decision based mean median filter for removal of salt and pepper noise in gray scale images. This is a computationally efficient filtering technique. It is implemented in two steps: In the first step, noisy pixels are identified and in the second step, the proposed algorithm is applied only on noisy pixels. The noise free pixels are not modified, which helps in retaining the image features. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than various recent denoising methods in terms of PSNR, IEF and MSE.

  20. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis in association with solitary median maxillary central incisor: unique radiologic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sara; Orta, Pedro; Renk, Elizabeth M; Inman, Jared C

    2016-09-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) coexists in 34%-65% of patients initially diagnosed with congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis. SMMCI, a genetic syndrome, warrants consideration for further screening because of its high prevalence of other diagnostic possibilities-specifically central defects, like nasal obstruction and hypothalamo-pituitary axis abnormalities. We report on a presentation of SMMCI with congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis which highlights the unique radiologic features and notes the relationship between these two central associated findings in the literature.

  1. Peripheral nerve lipoma: Case report of an intraneural lipoma of the median nerve and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Alisson Roberto; Finger, Guilherme; Schuster, Marcelo N.; Gobbato, Pedro Luis

    2016-01-01

    Adipose lesions rarely affect the peripheral nerves. This can occur in two different ways: Direct compression by an extraneural lipoma, or by a lipoma originated from the adipose cells located inside the nerve. Since its first description, many terms have been used in the literature to mention intraneural lipomatous lesions. In this article, the authors report a case of a 62-year-old female who presented with an intraneural median nerve lipoma and review the literature concerning the classification of adipose lesions of the nerve, radiological diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27695575

  2. Speckled lentiginous nevus syndrome with median nerve paresis: A rare syndrome with a new association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhu Mendiratta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Speckled lentiginous nevus (SLN represents a mosaic phenotype which consists of café au lait macule superimposed by melanocytic nevi. Recently, SLN syndrome has been characterized where ipsilateral neurological abnormalities have been reported in association with SLN with papular type of melanocytic nevi only. This case describes the presence of ipsilateral thenar muscle atrophy with median nerve paresis in nevus spilus which had melanocytic nevi of the macular type alone, thus delineating a new association in SLN syndrome, hitherto unreported.

  3. Neuropathy of motor branch of median or ulnar nerve induced by midpalm ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, N; Koshino, T; Nakazawa, A; Saito, T

    2001-05-01

    Two cases of neuropathy of a motor branch caused by a midpalmal ganglion are presented. In the first case the ganglion originated from the midcarpal joint, protruded into the thenar muscle, and compressed the motor branch of the median nerve. In the second case the ganglion, distal to the fibrous arch of the hypothenar muscles, originated from the third carpometacarpal joint and compressed the motor branch of the ulnar nerve. In both cases muscle weakness and finger deformity recovered well after resection of the ganglion. This clinical condition is rare compared with carpal tunnel syndrome and Guyon's tunnel syndrome, which are caused by a ganglion in the wrist.

  4. Median deficiency in the posterior arch of the atlas vertebra: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal P

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Isolated cases of partial agenesis of atlas were initially considered benign variations, without any clinical or pathological significance. However, there is increasing evidence that neurological symptoms may occur even after minor cervical trauma in subjects with defects in the posterior arch of the atlas. The present case study describes a rare case of median deficiency in the posterior arch of atlas vertebra. The knowledge of this benign variation is crucial as it may aid clinicians in correct management of subjects presenting with resolution of symptoms and avoid excessive investigations.

  5. Ant colony optimization techniques for the hamiltonian p-median problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zohrehbandian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Location-Routing problems involve locating a number of facilitiesamong candidate sites and establishing delivery routes to a set of users in such a way that the total system cost is minimized. A special case of these problems is Hamiltonian p-Median problem (HpMP. This research applies the metaheuristic method of ant colony optimization (ACO to solve the HpMP. Modifications are made to the ACO algorithm used to solve the traditional vehicle routing problem (VRP in order to allow the search of the optimal solution of the HpMP. Regarding this metaheuristic algorithm a computational experiment is reported as well.

  6. Lotsize optimization leading to a $p$-median problem with cardinalities

    CERN Document Server

    Gaul, Constantin; Rambau, Joerg

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of approximating the branch and size dependent demand of a fashion discounter with many branches by a distributing process being based on the branch delivery restricted to integral multiples of lots from a small set of available lot-types. We propose a formalized model which arises from a practical cooperation with an industry partner. Besides an integer linear programming formulation and a primal heuristic for this problem we also consider a more abstract version which we relate to several other classical optimization problems like the p-median problem, the facility location problem or the matching problem.

  7. Transverse Ultrasound Assessment of Median Nerve Deformation and Displacement in the Human Carpal Tunnel during Wrist Movements

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome, a compression neuropathy of the median nerve at the wrist, are aggravated by wrist motion, but the effect of these motions on median nerve motion are unknown. In order to better understand the biomechanics of the abnormal nerve, it is first necessary to understand normal nerve movement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deformation and displacement of the normal median nerve at the proximal carpal tunnel level on transverse ultrasound images...

  8. Accelerated partial breast irradiation using once-daily fractionation: analysis of 312 cases with four years median follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Arif Y

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited data on accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI using external beam techniques. Moreover, there are recent reports of increased fibrosis and unacceptable cosmesis with APBI using external beam with BID fractionation. We adopted a once daily regimen of APBI with fractionation similar to that shown to be effective in a Canadian randomized trial of whole breast irradiation. It is unclear whether patients with DCIS or invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC are suitable for APBI. Methods The retrospective cohort included 310 patients with 312 tumors of T1-T2N0-N1micM0 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC, ILC, or Tis (DCIS treated with APBI via external beam. Most patients were treated using IMRT with 16 daily fractions of 270 cGy to a dose of 4320 cGy. The target volume included the lumpectomy cavity plus 1.0 cm to account for microscopic disease and an additional 0.5 to 1.0 cm for setup uncertainty and breathing motion. Ipsilateral breast failure (IBF was pathologically confirmed as a local failure (LF or an elsewhere failure (EF. Results Median follow-up was 49 months. Among the 312 cases, 213 were IDC, 31 ILC, and 68 DCIS. Median tumor size was 1.0 cm. There were 9 IBFs (2.9% including 5 LFs and 4 EFs. The IBF rates among patients with IDC, ILC, and DCIS were 2.4%, 3.2%, and 4.4%, respectively, with no significant difference between histologies. When patients were analyzed by the ASTRO APBI consensus statement risk groups, 32% of treated cases were considered suitable, 50% cautionary, and 18% unsuitable. The IBF rates among suitable, cautionary, and unsuitable patients were 4.0%, 2.6%, and 1.8%, respectively, with no significant difference between risk groups. Acute skin reactions were rare and long-term cosmetic outcome was very good to excellent. Conclusions External beam APBI with once daily fractionation has a low rate of IBF consistent with other published APBI studies. The ASTRO risk stratification did not

  9. Visualization of spatiotemporal behavior of discrete maps via generation of recursive median elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daya Sagar, B S

    2010-02-01

    Spatial interpolation is one of the demanding techniques in Geographic Information Science (GISci) to generate interpolated maps in a continuous manner by using two discrete spatial and/or temporal data sets. Noise-free data (thematic layers) depicting a specific theme at varied spatial or temporal resolutions consist of connected components either in aggregated or in disaggregated forms. This short paper provides a simple framework: 1) to categorize the connected components of layered sets of two different time instants through their spatial relationships and the Hausdorff distances between the companion-connected components and 2) to generate sequential maps (interpolations) between the discrete thematic maps. Development of the median set, using Hausdorff erosion and dilation distances to interpolate between temporal frames, is demonstrated on lake geometries mapped at two different times and also on the bubonic plague epidemic spread data available for 11 consecutive years. We documented the significantly fair quality of the median sets generated for epidemic data between alternative years by visually comparing the interpolated maps with actual maps. They can be used to visualize (animate) the spatiotemporal behavior of a specific theme in a continuous sequence.

  10. Removal of ring artifacts in computed tomographic imaging using iterative center weighted median filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Fazle; Lee, Soo Yeol; Hasan, Md Kamrul

    2010-01-01

    A new iterative center weighted median filter (ICWMF) for ring artifact reduction from the micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) image is proposed in this paper. The center weight of the median filter is computed based on the characteristic of the ring artifact in the mean curve of the projection data. The filter operates on the deviation of the mean curve to smooth the ring generating peaks and troughs iteratively while preserving the details due to image. A convergence criterion for the iterative algorithm is determined from the distribution of the local deviation computed from the mean curve deviation. The estimate of the mean curve obtained using the ICWMF is used to correct the ring corrupted projection data from which reconstruction gives the ring artifact suppressed micro-CT image. Test results on both the synthetic and real images demonstrate that the ring artifacts can be more effectively suppressed using our method as compared to other ring removal techniques reported in the literature. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute effects of neural mobilization and infrared on the mechanics of the median nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Monara Kedma; Fontenele dos Santos, Gabrielly; Martins e Silva, Diandra Caroline; Mota de Freitas, Ana Cláudia; Henriques, Isadora Ferreira; Andrade, Peterson Marco; Machado, Dionis de Castro; Teixeira, Silmar; Neves, Marco Orsini; Dias, Gildário; Silva-Júnior, Fernando; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzed the acute effects of infrared and neural mobilization on the median nerve on the range of elbow extension of the dominant limb. [Subjects and Methods] Forty participants from university, neurologically asymptomatic, 12 males and 28 females (22.8 ± 1.9 years), were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 (control) rested for 25 minutes in the supine position; Group 2 received the specific neural mobilization for the median nerve; Group 3 received an application of infrared for 15 minutes on the forearm; Group 4 received the same application of infrared followed by neural mobilization. The goniometric parameters of elbow extension were evaluated after the intervention. [Results] Significant differences of extension value were observed between Group 1 and Group 3 (15.75 degrees), and between Group 1 and Group 4 (14.60 degrees), and the average higher in Group 3 (26.35 degrees). [Conclusion] This research provides new experimental evidence that NM in relation to superficial heat produces an immediate effect on elbow range of motion versus NM isolated. PMID:27390402

  12. Underwater sound localization of pure tones in the median plane by harbor seals (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byl, Jenny Ann; Miersch, Lars; Wieskotten, Sven; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2016-12-01

    In an underwater environment the physical characteristics of sound propagation differ considerably from those in air. For this reason, sound localization underwater is associated with difficulties, especially in the median plane. It was the approach of the present study to investigate whether harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) are able to determine the direction of a tonal signal form above or below in the underwater environment. Minimum audible angles (MAAs) or the angular range in which the animals could localize a pure tone stimulus in the vertical plane were obtained for frequencies from 0.35 up to 16 kHz. Testing was conducted with four male harbor seals in a semi-circle area of 6 m in diameter in about 2.5 m depth, by using a two alternative forced choice method. The results show that harbor seals are able to localize a pure tone in the median plane under water with a high performance for low frequency stimuli between 350 Hz and 2 kHz with MAAs ranging from below 2.5° up to about 25°. For higher frequencies the animals show strong individual differences.

  13. An Efficient Algorithm for Reverse 2-median Problem on A Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Wang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Location problems exist extensively in the real world and they mainly deal with finding optimal locations for facilities. However, the reverse location problem is also often met in practice, in which the facilities may already exist in a network and cannot be moved to a new place, the task is to improve the network within a given budget such that the improved network works as efficient as possible. This paper is dedicated to the problem of how to use a limited budget to modify the lengths of the edges on a cycle such that the overall sum of the weighted distances of the vertices to the respective closest facility of two prespecified vertices becomes as small as possible (shortly, R2MC problem. It has already been shown that the reverse 2-median problem with edge length modification on general graphs is strongly NP-hard. In this paper, we transform the R2MC problem to a reverse 3-median problem on a path and show that this problem can be solved efficiently by  strongly polynomial algorithm.

  14. Influence of a 50 Hz-1 mT Magnetic Field on Human Median Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem COŞKUN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing use of magnetic fields in recent five decades, the health effects of nonionized electromagnetic radiation is an important investigation subject. While the magnetic field is well known, it is difficult to investigate the health effects of radiation, because of the complex metabolism of human body. However, by the experimental and theorical studies, a lot of significant health effects of magnetic fields have been discovered. But, there are probabilities that can have much more adverse health effects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of 50 Hz-1 mT magnetic field on human median motor nerve conduction parameters. At this frequency, 1 mT value of magnetic field intensity is known and accepted as the marginal value where biological interaction starts. Standard nerve conduction techniques using constant measured distances were applied to evaluate the median nerve. Consequently in the measures conducted using the device of 4 channel NCS/EMG/ EPS there was a significant decrease in motor distal amplitude after the magnetic field application in comparison to the one during the application (p=0,000573 and also in the motor distal amplitude/ proximal amplitude in comparison to the ones before the application (p=0,037418.

  15. Characterization of melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland and median eminence of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Gonzalez, M.A.; Calvo, J.R.; Rubio, A.; Goberna, R.; Guerrero, J.M. (Univ. of Seville School of Medicine, Sevilla (Spain))

    1991-01-01

    The characterization of specific melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland (HG) and median eminence (ME) of the rat was studied using ({sup 125}I)melatonin. Binding of melatonin to membrane crude preparations of both tissues was dependent on time and temperature. Thus, maximal binding was obtained at 37{degree}C after 30-60 min incubation. Binding was also dependent on protein concentration. The specific binding of ({sup 125}I)melatonin was saturable, exhibiting only the class of binding sites in both tissues. The dissociation constants (Kd) were 170 and 190 pM for ME and HG, respectively. The concentration of the binding sites in ME was 8 fmol/mg protein, and in the HG 4 fmol/mg protein. In competition studies, binding of ({sup 125}I)melatonin to ME or HG was inhibited by increasing concentration of native melatonin; 50% inhibition was observed at about 702 and 422 nM for ME and HG, respectively. Additionally, the ({sup 125}I)melatonin binding to the crude membranes was not affected by the addition of different drugs such as norepinephrine, isoproterenol, phenylephrine, propranolol, or prazosin. The results confirm the presence of melatonin binding sites in median eminence and show, for the first time, the existence of melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland.

  16. [Application of new chest holder in the median sternotomy for open heart surgery in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C Y; Feng, D G; Wang, J X; Cheng, Z Y; Wang, F; Lin, B; Xie, Z L; Suo, L N; Du, P

    2016-09-13

    Objective: To explore the application of new chest holder in the median sternotomy for open heart surgery in adults. Methods: Two hundred adult patients in Henan Provincial People's Hospital from May 2013 to May 2015 were enrolled in the study and randomly divided into two groups. Experimental group included 100 cases who accepted the new type of chest holder in the open heart surgery. Control group were also composed of 100 cases whose sternums were fixed with the pure steel wire cerclage. Sternal closure time was recorded since the sternum closing. All subjects were followed up to obtain the chest incision healing, the incidence of sternal dehiscence, infection and secondary thoracotomy, and thus to estimated the effect of new chest holder. Results: All patients in the experimental group reached the effect of firm closed chest surgery. Sternal closure time of experimental group was much shorter than that of control group[(10±2) vs (21±4) min, Pholder in the median sternotomy for open heart surgery is more convenient with small surgical trauma. It can also effectively reduce the incidence of sternal instability, dehiscence, infection and secondary thoracotomy.

  17. Characterizing the continuously acquired cardiovascular time series during hemodialysis, using median hybrid filter preprocessing noise reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott; Bowyer, Andrea; Harrap, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    The clinical characterization of cardiovascular dynamics during hemodialysis (HD) has important pathophysiological implications in terms of diagnostic, cardiovascular risk assessment, and treatment efficacy perspectives. Currently the diagnosis of significant intradialytic systolic blood pressure (SBP) changes among HD patients is imprecise and opportunistic, reliant upon the presence of hypotensive symptoms in conjunction with coincident but isolated noninvasive brachial cuff blood pressure (NIBP) readings. Considering hemodynamic variables as a time series makes a continuous recording approach more desirable than intermittent measures; however, in the clinical environment, the data signal is susceptible to corruption due to both impulsive and Gaussian-type noise. Signal preprocessing is an attractive solution to this problem. Prospectively collected continuous noninvasive SBP data over the short-break intradialytic period in ten patients was preprocessed using a novel median hybrid filter (MHF) algorithm and compared with 50 time-coincident pairs of intradialytic NIBP measures from routine HD practice. The median hybrid preprocessing technique for continuously acquired cardiovascular data yielded a dynamic regression without significant noise and artifact, suitable for high-level profiling of time-dependent SBP behavior. Signal accuracy is highly comparable with standard NIBP measurement, with the added clinical benefit of dynamic real-time hemodynamic information.

  18. Median and Ulnar Neuropathy Assessment in Parkinson’s Disease regarding Symptom Severity and Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgul Yardimci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While increasing evidence suggests comorbidity of peripheral neuropathy (PNP and Parkinson’s disease (PD, the pathogenesis of PNP in PD is still a debate. The aim of this article is to search the core PD symptoms such as rigidity and tremor as contributing factors to mononeuropathy development while emphasizing each individual patient’s asymmetric symptom severity. Methods. We studied 62 wrists and 62 elbows of 31 patients (mean age 66.48±10.67 and 64 wrists and 64 elbows of 32 age-gender matched healthy controls (mean age 62.03±10.40, p=0.145. The Hoehn and Yahr disability scale and Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rated Scale were used to determine the severity of the disease. Results. According to electrodiagnostic criteria, we confirmed median neuropathy in 16.12% (bilateral in two-thirds of the patients and ulnar neuropathy in 3.22% of the PD group. While mean age (p=0.003, age at PD onset (p=0.019, and H&Y scores (p=0.016 were significant, tremor and rigidity scores were not. The comparison of the mean indices of electrophysiologic parameters indicated subclinical median and ulnar nerve demyelination both at the wrist and at the elbow in the patient groups where a longer disease duration and mild tremor and rigidity scores are prominent, remarkably. Conclusion. A disease related peripheral neurodegeneration beyond symptom severity occurs in PD.

  19. Ultrasound in the diagnosis of a median neuropathy in the forearm: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Joon-Shik

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrodiagnostic studies are traditionally used in the diagnosis of focal neuropathies, however they lack anatomical information regarding the nerve and its surrounding structures. The purpose of this case is to show that high-resolution ultrasound used as an adjunct to electrodiagnostic studies may complement this lack of information and give insight to the cause. Case presentation A 60-year-old male patient sustained a forearm traction injury resulting in progressive weakness and functional loss in the first three digits of the right hand. High-resolution ultrasound showed the presence of an enlarged nerve and a homogenous soft-tissue structure appearing to engulf the nerve. The contralateral side was normal. Surgery revealed fibrotic bands emanating from the flexor digitorum profundus muscle compressing the median nerve thus confirming the ultrasound findings. Conclusion A diagnostically challenging case of median neuropathy in the forearm is presented in which high-resolution ultrasound was valuable in establishing an anatomic etiology and directing appropriate management.

  20. Electric power monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Statistics by company and plant are published on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  1. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  2. Natural gas monthly, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  3. Electric power monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the U.S., Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. This April 1994 issue contains 1993 year-end data and data through January 1994.

  4. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  5. Electric power monthly, April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-07

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  6. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  7. Natural gas monthly, March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas analysis and geographic information systems.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  8. Natural gas monthly, October 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  9. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  10. Electric power monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  11. Monthly energy review, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. ULTRAPLATE 30 month management report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl

    2003-01-01

    In the period from month 24 to month 30 focus has been on the work-package 3 activities concerning optimisation of the newly developed ULTRAPLATE technology towards specific industrial applications. Three main application areas have been pursued: 1) High- speed plating of lead free solder contacts......, 2) electroforming of tools for moulding of low-cost precision polymer devices and 3) deposition of magnetic alloys to be used in new planar micro-devices. Within each of the three studied application areas, the targeted output is a finished demonstrator to show the potential of the new ULTRAPLATE...

  14. Monthly energy review, July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 75 tabs.

  15. Electric power monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  16. Electric power monthly, May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  17. Electric power monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  18. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  19. Monthly energy review, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum,natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal metric conversion factors.

  20. Monthly energy review, July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document presents an overview of the recent monthly energy statistics from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Statistical data covers activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels , nuclear energy, and electricity. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  1. Monthly energy review, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-24

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  2. Monthly energy review, November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal and metric conversion factors are included.

  3. Monthly energy review, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report presents an overview of monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal metric conversion factors are included.

  4. Monthly energy review, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  5. Monthly energy review, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-25

    The Monthly Energy Review provides an overview of the production, distribution, and consumption of energy derived from petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. It also discusses oil and gas resource development, energy prices, and issues relevant to international energy markets.

  6. Periodic progress report, 12 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the first 12 months of the project started with the establishment of the cutting theory for the cutting of heavy sections (phase 1). Phase 2 comprises the design of the first laboratory version cutting head with optics, nozzle systems and interfaces for the various...

  7. Monthly energy review, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review contains statistical data on the following: energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. In addition, an energy overview is provided, and, for the April issue, Energy use and carbon emissions; Some international comparisons.

  8. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  9. Prediction of Malaysian monthly GDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hin, Pooi Ah; Ching, Soo Huei; Yeing, Pan Wei

    2015-12-01

    The paper attempts to use a method based on multivariate power-normal distribution to predict the Malaysian Gross Domestic Product next month. Letting r(t) be the vector consisting of the month-t values on m selected macroeconomic variables, and GDP, we model the month-(t+1) GDP to be dependent on the present and l-1 past values r(t), r(t-1),…,r(t-l+1) via a conditional distribution which is derived from a [(m+1)l+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. The 100(α/2)% and 100(1-α/2)% points of the conditional distribution may be used to form an out-of sample prediction interval. This interval together with the mean of the conditional distribution may be used to predict the month-(t+1) GDP. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), estimated coverage probability and average length of the prediction interval are used as the criterions for selecting the suitable lag value l-1 and the subset from a pool of 17 macroeconomic variables. It is found that the relatively better models would be those of which 2 ≤ l ≤ 3, and involving one or two of the macroeconomic variables given by Market Indicative Yield, Oil Prices, Exchange Rate and Import Trade.

  10. Monthly energy review, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Monthly Energy Review provides information on production, distribution, consumption, prices, imports, and exports for the following US energy sources: petroleum; petroleum products; natural gas; coal; electricity; and nuclear energy. The section on international energy contains data for world crude oil production and consumption, petroleum stocks in OECD countries, and nuclear electricity gross generation.

  11. Monthly energy review, December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-22

    This document provides data on monthly energy use and fossil fuels. The following sections are included: Highlights: Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1985--1990; Highlights: assessment of energy use in multibuilding facilities; energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices; and international energy.

  12. Periodic progress report, 12 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the first 12 months of the project started with the establishment of the cutting theory for the cutting of heavy sections (phase 1). Phase 2 comprises the design of the first laboratory version cutting head with optics, nozzle systems and interfaces for the various machi...

  13. Monthly energy review, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  14. Monthly energy review, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-26

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities.

  15. Your Child's Development: 1 Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child’s Development: 1 Month KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: ...

  16. Electric Power Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-12

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost in fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 12 refs., 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  17. Electric power monthly, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-20

    This report for March 1995, presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  18. Natural gas monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-03

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  19. STD Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-19

    April is National STD Awareness Month. STDs can affect anyone. Many STDs don't have symptoms so it's important to get tested.  Created: 4/19/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 4/19/2011.

  20. Your Child's Development: 1 Year (12 Months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Child's Checkup: 1 Year (12 Months) Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 12 Months Sleep and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Growth ...

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  3. Electric power monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels. Data on quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels lag data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the US, Census division, and State level tables. However, for purposes of comparison, plant-level data are presented for the earlier month.

  4. Malleable Fuzzy Local Median C Means Algorithm for Effective Biomedical Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Arunkumar; Balakrishnan, Nagaraj; Varatharaj, Mithya

    2016-12-01

    The traditional way of clustering plays an effective role in the field of segmentation which was developed to be more effective and also in the recent development the extraction of contextual information can be processed with ease. This paper presents a modified Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm that provides the better segmentation in the contour grayscale regions of the biomedical images where effective cluster is needed. Malleable Fuzzy Local Median C-Means (M-FLMCM) is the proposed algorithm, proposed to overcome the disadvantage of the traditional FCM method in which the convergence time requirement is more, lack of ability to remove the noise, and the inability to cluster the contour region such as images. M-FLMCM shows promising results in the experiment with real-world biomedical images. The experiment results, with 96 % accuracy compared to the other algorithms.

  5. Propagating adaptive-weighted vector median filter for motion-field smoothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林梦冬; 余松煜

    2004-01-01

    In the field of predictive video coding and format conversion, there is an increasing attention towards estimation of the true inter-frame motion. The restoration of motion vector field computed by 3-D RS is addressed and a propagating adaptive-weighted vector median (PAWVM) post-filter is proposed. This approach decomposes blocks to make a betteres timation on object borders and propagates good vectors in the scanning direction. Furthermore, a hard-thresholding method is introduced into calculating vector weights to improve the propagating. By exploiting both the spatial correlation of the vector field and the matching error of candidate vectors, PAWVM makes a good balance between the smoothness of vector field and the prediction error, and the output vector field is more valid to reflect the true motion.

  6. Bridge recognition of median-resolution SAR images using pun histogram entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenyu Wu; Dong Yin; Rong Zhang; Yan Liu; Jia Pan

    2009-01-01

    A novel algorithm for bridge recognition of median synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images using histogram entropy presented by Pun is proposed. Firstly, Lee filter and histogram proportion are used to denoise the original image and to make the target evident. Then, water regions are gained through histogram segmentation and the contours of water regions are extracted. After these, the potential bridge targets are obtained based on the space relativity between bridges and water regions using improved contour search. At last, bridges are recognized by extracting the feature of Pun histogram entropy (PHE) of these potential bridge targets. Experimental results show the good qualities of the algorithm, such as fast speed, high rate of recognition, and low rate of false target.

  7. Functional connectivity of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei at rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliveau, Vincent; Svarer, Claus; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2015-01-01

    knowledge on the contribution of 5-HT to intrinsic brain activity. The dorsal raphe (DR) and median raphe (MR) nuclei are the source of most serotonergic neurons projecting throughout the brain and thus provide a compelling target for a seed-based probe of resting-state activity related to 5-HT. Here we...... implemented a novel multimodal neuroimaging approach for investigating resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between DR and MR and cortical, subcortical and cerebellar target areas. Using [(11)C]DASB positron emission tomography (PET) images of the brain serotonin transporter (5-HTT) combined...... with structural MRI from 49 healthy volunteers, we delineated DR and MR and performed a seed-based resting-state FC analysis. The DR and MR seeds produced largely similar FC maps: significant positive FC with brain regions involved in cognitive and emotion processing including anterior cingulate, amygdala, insula...

  8. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the elbow with rdial, median and ulnar nerve compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Chen, Qiang; Shen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare, idiopathic proliferative disorder of the synovium. While, PVNS of elbow is extremely rare. We report an 82-year-old female patient with 20-year-history of gradually increased PVNS in her left elbow. The multiple masses were located in anterior, medial and lateral of elbow. Her radial, median and ulnar nerves were compressed by the tumor. We resected tumor of extra-articular part piecemeally and released the compression of nerves. After the surgery, the patient gained a functional recovery. Two years after surgery she had a tumor recurrence, but without any symptoms of nerve compression syndromes. We discussed its clinical diagnosis, radiological features, MRI findings, pathophysiology, and treatment. PMID:26823718

  9. Object Tracking System Using Approximate Median Filter, Kalman Filter and Dynamic Template Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mallikarjuna Rao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we dealt with the tracking of single object in a sequence of frames either from a live camera or a previously saved video. A moving object is detected frame-by-frame with high accuracy and efficiency using Median approximation technique. As soon as the object has been detected, the same is tracked by kalman filter estimation technique along with a more accurate Template Matching algorithm. The templates are dynamically generated for this purpose. This guarantees any change in object pose which does not be hindered from tracking procedure. The system is capable of handling entry and exit of an object. Such a tracking scheme is cost effective and it can be used as an automated video conferencing system and also has application as a surveillance tool. Several trials of the tracking show that the approach is correct and extremely fast, and it's a more robust performance throughout the experiments.

  10. A molecular census of arcuate hypothalamus and median eminence cell types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John N; Macosko, Evan Z; Fenselau, Henning

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamic arcuate-median eminence complex (Arc-ME) controls energy balance, fertility and growth through molecularly distinct cell types, many of which remain unknown. To catalog cell types in an unbiased way, we profiled gene expression in 20,921 individual cells in and around the adult...... somatostatin neuron population. We extended Drop-seq to detect dynamic expression changes across relevant physiological perturbations, revealing cell type-specific responses to energy status, including distinct responses in AgRP and POMC neuron subtypes. Finally, integrating our data with human genome......-wide association study data implicates two previously unknown neuron populations in the genetic control of obesity. This resource will accelerate biological discovery by providing insights into molecular and cell type diversity from which function can be inferred....

  11. Combustion Quality Estimation in Power Station Boilers using Median Threshold Clustering Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Sujatha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of combustion quality in power station boilers is of great importance in the present scenario as it plays an important role in controlling the air pollution. The harmful gases like NOx and CO from the chimney causes air pollution. The amount of NOx and CO concentration in flue gas can be maintained within admissible limits by analyzing the flame colour. The colour of the flame is affected by combustion quality. When complete combustion takes place the amount these gases at the exit are within tolerance. Hence if the quality of combustion was estimated from the flame using image processing technique, it is possible to minimize the air pollution. This new strategy developed uses median threshold for feature reduction and various clustering algorithms to estimate the quality of combustion.

  12. Refinement of Enhanced Speech Using Hybrid-Median Filter and Harmonic Regeneration Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Ta Lu; Jun-Hong Shen; Kun-Fu Tseng; Chih-Tsung Chen

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes a post-processor to improve the harmonic structure of a vowel in an enhanced speech, enabling the speech quality to be improved. Initially, a speech enhancement algorithm is employed to reduce the background noise for a noisy speech. Hence the enhanced speech is post-processed by a hybrid-median filter to reduce the musical effect of residual noise. Since the harmonic spectra are impacted by background noise and a speech enhancement process, the quality of a vowel is deteriorated. A harmonic regenerated method is developed to improve the quality of post-processed speech. Experimental results show that the proposed method can improve the quality of post-processed speech by adequately regenerating harmonic spectra.

  13. Efficient Architecture and Implementation of Vector Median Filter in Co-Design Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Masmoudi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an efficient fast parallel architecture of the Vector Median Filter (VMF using combined hardware/software (HW/SW implementation. The hardware part of the system is implemented using VHDL language, whereas the software part is developed using C/C++ language. The software part of the embedded system uses the NIOS-II softcore processor and the operating system used is μClinux. The comparison between the software and HW/SW solutions shows that adding a hardware part in the design attempts to speed up the filtering process compared to the software solution. This efficient embedded system implementation can perform well in several image processing applications.

  14. A new approach based on the median filter to T-wave detection in ECG signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholkhal, Mourad; Bereksi Reguig, Fethi

    2014-07-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the most used signals in the diagnosis of heart disease. It contains different waves which directly correlate to heart activity. Different methods have been used in order to detect these waves and consequently lead to heart activity diagnosis. This paper is interested more particularly to the detection of the T-wave. Such a wave represents the re-polarization state of the heart activity. The proposed approach is based on the algorithm procedure which allows the detection of the T-wave using a lot of filter including mean and median filter. The proposed algorithm is implemented and tested on a set of ECG recordings taken from, respectively, the European STT, MITBIH and MITBIH ST databases. The results are found to be very satisfactory in terms of sensitivity, predictivity and error compared to other works in the field.

  15. Improved Estimation of Population Mean Using Median and Coefficient of Variation of Auxiliary Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Kumar Yadav,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript deals with the estimation of population mean of the variable under study using an improved ratio type estimator utilizing the known values of median and coefficient of variation of auxiliary variable. The expressions for the bias and mean square error (MSE of the proposed estimator are obtained up to the first order of approximation. The optimum estimator is also obtained for the optimum value of the constant of the estimator and its optimum properties are also studied. It is shown that the proposed estimator is better than the existing ratio estimators in the literature. For the justification of the improvement of the proposed estimator over others, an empirical study is also carried out.

  16. Synaptic contact between median preoptic neurons and subfornical organ neurons projecting to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Hitoshi

    2017-04-01

    It is known that the median preoptic nucleus (POMe) sends dense projections to the subfornical organ (SFO). However, the functional significance of these projections have not been well discussed. In this electron microscopic study, we investigated the presence of synapses between POMe-derived axon terminals and SFO neurons that project to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). After injection of a retrograde tracer, wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase-colloidal gold complex, into the PVN, many labeled neurons were found in the SFO. In contrast, after injection of an anterograde tracer, biotinylated dextran amine, in the POMe, abundant labeled axon varicosities were observed in the SFO. Using electron microscopy, synapses were identified between retrogradely labeled dendrites and cell bodies, and anterogradely labeled axon terminals, indicating that POMe neurons innervate SFO neurons projecting to the PVN. The possibility that POMe neurons play multiple roles in the neuronal circuit responsible for vasopressin release and/or cardiovascular regulation is also discussed.

  17. Transverse ultrasound assessment of median nerve deformation and displacement in the human carpal tunnel during wrist movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Wang (Yuexiang); C. Zhao; S.M. Passe (Sandra); A. Filius (Anika); A.R. Thoreson (Andrew); P. An (Ping); P.C. Amadio (Peter )

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome, a compression neuropathy of the median nerve at the wrist, are aggravated by wrist motion, but the effect of these motions on median nerve motion are unknown. To better understand the biomechanics of the abnormal nerve, it is first necessary to und

  18. Transverse ultrasound assessment of median nerve deformation and displacement in the human carpal tunnel during wrist movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Wang (Yuexiang); C. Zhao; S.M. Passe (Sandra); A. Filius (Anika); A.R. Thoreson (Andrew); P. An (Ping); P.C. Amadio (Peter )

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome, a compression neuropathy of the median nerve at the wrist, are aggravated by wrist motion, but the effect of these motions on median nerve motion are unknown. To better understand the biomechanics of the abnormal nerve, it is first necessary to und

  19. A study of retrograde degeneration of median nerve forearm segment in carpal tunnel syndrome of variable severities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mokhtar El Bardawil

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Retrograde degeneration exists in patients with CTS. Forearm median motor NCV and median mixed conduction study are valid electrophysiologic tools for the assessment of RGD in patients with CTS. Retrograde degeneration is not related to grade of severity of CTS.

  20. 75 FR 26780 - State Median Income Estimate for a Four-Person Family: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Families State Median Income Estimate for a Four-Person Family: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2011 State Median Income Estimates for Use Under the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP... Human Services (HHS), Administration for Children and Families, Office of Community Services,...

  1. MRI shows thickening and altered diffusion in the median and ulnar nerves in multifocal motor neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakma, Wieke [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Aarhus University, Department of Forensic Medicine and Comparative Medicine Lab, Aarhus (Denmark); Jongbloed, Bas A.; Goedee, H.S.; Berg, Leonard H. van den; Pol, W.L. van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Brain Centre Rudolf Magnus, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); Froeling, Martijn; Bos, Clemens; Hendrikse, Jeroen [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Leemans, Alexander [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-05-15

    To study disease mechanisms in multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the median and ulnar nerves. We enrolled ten MMN patients, ten patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ten healthy controls (HCs). Patients underwent MRI (in a prone position) and nerve conduction studies. DTI and fat-suppressed T2-weighted scans of the forearms were performed on a 3.0T MRI scanner. Fibre tractography of the median and ulnar nerves was performed to extract diffusion parameters: fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) were measured on T2-weighted scans. Forty-five out of 60 arms were included in the analysis. AD was significantly lower in MMN patients (2.20 ± 0.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) compared to ALS patients (2.31 ± 0.17 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; p < 0.05) and HCs (2.31± 0.17 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; p < 0.05). Segmental analysis showed significant restriction of AD, RD and MD (p < 0.005) in the proximal third of the nerves. CSA was significantly larger in MMN patients compared to ALS patients and HCs (p < 0.01). Thickening of nerves is compatible with changes in the myelin sheath structure, whereas lowered AD values suggest axonal dysfunction. These findings suggest that myelin and axons are diffusely involved in MMN pathogenesis. (orig.)

  2. Median Modified Wiener Filter for nonlinear adaptive spatial denoising of protein NMR multidimensional spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Cannistraci, Carlo Vittorio

    2015-01-26

    Denoising multidimensional NMR-spectra is a fundamental step in NMR protein structure determination. The state-of-the-art method uses wavelet-denoising, which may suffer when applied to non-stationary signals affected by Gaussian-white-noise mixed with strong impulsive artifacts, like those in multi-dimensional NMR-spectra. Regrettably, Wavelet\\'s performance depends on a combinatorial search of wavelet shapes and parameters; and multi-dimensional extension of wavelet-denoising is highly non-trivial, which hampers its application to multidimensional NMR-spectra. Here, we endorse a diverse philosophy of denoising NMR-spectra: less is more! We consider spatial filters that have only one parameter to tune: the window-size. We propose, for the first time, the 3D extension of the median-modified-Wiener-filter (MMWF), an adaptive variant of the median-filter, and also its novel variation named MMWF*. We test the proposed filters and the Wiener-filter, an adaptive variant of the mean-filter, on a benchmark set that contains 16 two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR-spectra extracted from eight proteins. Our results demonstrate that the adaptive spatial filters significantly outperform their non-adaptive versions. The performance of the new MMWF* on 2D/3D-spectra is even better than wavelet-denoising. Noticeably, MMWF* produces stable high performance almost invariant for diverse window-size settings: this signifies a consistent advantage in the implementation of automatic pipelines for protein NMR-spectra analysis.

  3. Rhein lysinate increases the median survival time of SAMP10 mice: protective role in the kidney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang HU; Jiang LIU; Yong-zhan ZHEN; Rong XU; Yu QIAO; Jie WEI; Ping TU

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the protective effects of rhein lysinate (RHL),a major bioactive constituent of the rhizome of rhubarb (Rheum palmatum Linn or Rheum tanguticum Maxim),against kidney impairment in senescence-prone inbred strain 10 (SAMP10) mice.Methods:SAMP10 mice were orally administered RHL (25 or 50 mg/kg) daily until 50% of the mice died.Senescence-resistant inbred strain 1 (SAMR1) mice administered no drug were taken as control.The kidneys were harvested after animal death,and examined morphologically and with immunochemical assays.The levels of MAD,SOD and GSH-px in the kidneys were measured with a photometric method.The expression of inflammatory factors and related proteins in the kidneys was analyzed using Western blotting.Results:Treatment of SAMP10 mice with RHL had no effect on the body weight or phenotype.However,RHL significantly prolonged the median survival time of SAMP10 mice by approximately 25%,as compared to untreated SAMP10 mice.Compared SAMR1 mice,SAMP10 mice had a significantly lower level of SOD in the kidneys,but had no significant difference in the MDA or GSH-px levels.Treatment of SAMP10 mice with RHL significantly reduced the MAD level,and increased the SOD and GSH-px levels in the kidneys.Glomerulonephritis was observed in SAMP10 mice but not in SAMR1 mice.RHL decreased the incidence of glomerulonephritis,and significantly decreased the levels of TNF-α,IL-6,NF-κB,collagen types Ⅰ and Ⅲ in the kidneys.Conclusion:Accelerated senescence is associated with glomerulonephritis in SAMP10 mice,and RHL prolongs their median survival time by red ucing the severity of glomeruloneph ritis.

  4. Food environments and childhood weight status: effects of neighborhood median income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechtner, Lauren; Sharifi, Mona; Sequist, Thomas; Block, Jason; Duncan, Dustin T; Melly, Steven J; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Taveras, Elsie M

    2015-06-01

    A key aspect of any intervention to improve obesity is to better understand the environment in which decisions are being made related to health behaviors, including the food environment. Our aim was to examine the extent to which proximity to six types of food establishments is associated with BMI z-score and explore potential effect modification of this relationship. We used geographical information software to determine proximity from 49,770 pediatric patients' residences to six types of food establishments. BMI z-score obtained from the electronic health record was the primary outcome. In multivariable analyses, living in closest proximity to large (β, -0.09 units; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.13, -0.05) and small supermarkets (-0.08 units; 95% CI, -0.11, -0.04) was associated with lower BMI z-score; living in closest proximity to fast food (0.09 units; 95% CI, 0.03, 0.15) and full-service restaurants (0.07 units; 95% CI, 0.01, 0.14) was associated with a higher BMI z-score versus those living farthest away. Neighborhood median income was an effect modifier of the relationships of convenience stores and full-service restaurants with BMI z-score. In both cases, closest proximity to these establishments had more of an adverse effect on BMI z-score in lower-income neighborhoods. Living closer to supermarkets and farther from fast food and full-service restaurants was associated with lower BMI z-score. Neighborhood median income was an effect modifier; convenience stores and full-service restaurants had a stronger adverse effect on BMI z-score in lower-income neighborhoods.

  5. Surgical Repair of a Median Cleft of the Upper Lip via a Pfeifer Incision: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rajeev; Gupta, Rajat; Bhagat, Nitin; Verma, Aviral

    2016-01-01

    Median cleft is the midline cleft of the lip. It develops due to incomplete or failed fusion of the median nasal prominence. It can present with minimal deformities such as involvement of the vermilion border, or complex clefting of the midline structures and brain. Median clefts are broadly classified as true and false clefts. This case report describes a rare case of median cleft of the upper lip involving the white roll, which was not associated with any other deformities. Treatment included reconstruction of the philtrum and the cupid's bow while maintaining vermilion fullness and continuity, and minimizing scar formation. Various techniques have been advocated for treatment of this type of median upper lip cleft. Here we describe a technique using Pfeifer incision to correct our patient's defect. Pfeifer incision consists of wavy lines and its use has been advocated for correction of various craniofacial abnormalities. PMID:27928243

  6. Natural Gas Monthly August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. Explanatory notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication.

  7. Natural gas monthly, August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This analysis presents the most recent data on natural gas prices, supply, and consumption from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The presentation of the latest monthly data is followed by an update on natural gas markets. The markets section examines the behavior of daily spot and futures prices based on information from trade press, as well as regional, weekly data on natural gas storage from the American Gas Association (AGA). This {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} closes with a special section comparing and contrasting EIA and AGA storage data on a monthly and regional basis. The regions used are those defined by the AGA for their weekly data collection effort: the Producing Region, the Consuming Region East, and the Consuming Region West. While data on working gas levels have tracked fairly closely between the two data sources, differences have developed recently. The largest difference is in estimates of working gas levels in the East consuming region during the heating season.

  8. Monthly energy review, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Energy production during December 1997 totaled 5.9 quadrillion Btu, a 2.8 percent increase from the level of production during December 1996. Coal production increased 9.5 percent, natural gas production increased 3.9 percent, and production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 1.1 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.9 percent from the level of production during December 1996.

  9. Natural gas monthly, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-05

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-25

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The NGM also features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  13. Monthly energy review, October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Information is also provided for oil and gas resource development. International energy statistics are given for petroleum production, consumption, and stocks, and for nuclear electricity gross generation. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  14. Laser fusion monthly -- August 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, H.G. [ed.

    1980-08-01

    This report documents the monthly progress for the laser fusion research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. First it gives facilities report for both the Shiva and Argus projects. Topics discussed include; laser system for the Nova Project; the fusion experiments analysis facility; optical/x-ray streak camera; Shiva Dante System temporal response; 2{omega}{sub 0} experiment; and planning for an ICF engineering test facility.

  15. Introducing 'Image of the Month'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Jones

    2016-04-01

    The Editors of Sedimentary Geology are pleased to announce the establishment of an 'Image of the Month', to appear in each issue of the journal. The idea is to publish outstanding examples of sedimentary features, at all scales, as a means of increasing their visibility and so promoting further discussion and exchange of ideas within the community. The image could be at the scale of satellite image, aerial photograph, outcrop, specimen or thin section.

  16. Monthly energy review, December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-21

    This publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. An energy preview of alternative fuel providers vehicle fleet surveys is included. The publication is intended for use by members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  17. Electric power monthly, May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and Stage agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities in Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  18. Electric Power monthly, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  19. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  20. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  1. Electric power monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-20

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  2. Natural gas monthly, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly contains estimates for March 1999 for many natural gas data series at the national level. Estimates of national natural gas prices are available through December 1998 for most series. Highlights of the data contained in this issue are listed below. Preliminary data indicate that the national average wellhead price for 1998 declined to 16% from the previous year ($1.96 compared to $2.32 per thousand cubic feet). At the end of March, the end of the 1998--1999 heating season, the level of working gas in underground natural gas storage facilities is estimated to be 1,354 billion cubic feet, 169 billion cubic feet higher than at the end of March 1998. Gas consumption during the first 3 months of 1999 is estimated to have been 179 billion cubic feet higher than in the same period in 1998. Most of this increase (133 billion cubic feet) occurred in the residential sector due to the cooler temperatures in January and February compared to the same months last year. According to the National Weather Service, heating degree days in January 1999 were 15% greater than the previous year while February recorded a 5% increase.

  3. Electric power monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-16

    The Electric Power Monthly (EMP) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  4. Electric power monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-26

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  5. Electric Power Monthly, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-13

    The EPM is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 40 tabs.

  6. Phorbol esters potentiate rapid dopamine release from median eminence and striatal synaptosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, C.; Selmanoff, M.

    1988-06-01

    In the present study, we investigated the ability of phorbol esters to potentiate Ca2+-dependent depolarization-induced release of tritium-labeled dopamine ((3H)DA) from median eminence and striatal synaptosomes. Phorbol esters potentiated (3H)DA release in a concentration-dependent manner in both kinds of dopaminergic nerve terminals and with a potency series similar to that reported for stimulation of protein kinase-C (PKC) activity in other cell systems. Evoked (3H)DA release was increased by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA; 10(-7) M) after 1, 3, 5, and 10 sec of depolarization. The effect of TPA was suppressed by sphingosine, a PKC inhibitor. TPA enhanced (3H)DA release evoked by high K+, veratridine or the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. Phorbol ester potentiation was found to be depolarization dependent, as it was present from 30-75 mM, but not at 5-20 mM external K+. Potentiation was seen at all external Ca2+ concentrations studied between 0.01-3 mM. However, in the absence of external free Ca2+ (i.e. with 0.1 mM EGTA), the phorbol effect was not present. These data indicate that an increase in intrasynaptosomal Ca2+ concentration is necessary for the enhancement of (3H)DA release by phorbol esters to occur. The combination of TPA and the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 does not show the marked synergism observed in some other systems, that is maximal release was not reinstated. This suggests that in dopaminergic nerve terminals, activation of PKC has a modulatory, rather than a mediating, effect on release. Recently, we have shown that hyperprolactinemia stimulated (3H)DA release from median eminence synaptosomes by an external Ca2+-independent mechanism which might involve the PKC pathway. However, in the present work we found that the TPA and PRL effects on evoked (3H)DA release were additive, suggesting that two independent mechanisms are involved.

  7. [Delirium in elderly inpatients. An 18 month follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Fernando J; Benchimol, Javier; Giunta, Diego; Cafferata, Carlos; Freixas, Antonio; Vallone, Marcelo; Andresik, Diego; Pollan, Javier; Aprile, Ana; Lorenzo, Jimena; Waisman, Gabriel; Camera, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Delirium usually hardens care during hospitalization and increases morbidity during hospital stay and after discharge. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of delirium in elderly inpatients in a Buenos Aires hospital, its morbidity and mortality during hospital stay and the next 18 month follow-up. Patients aged 70 or older admitted to internal medicine unit between September 2005 and May 2006 were enrolled. Delirium was assessed with the Spanish version of Confusion Assessment Method. Demographic data, cause of admition and length of stay, destination after discharge and mortality were registered. A new evaluation was made 18 months after discharge. We evaluated 194 patients and 74 were excluded. Of the 120 included, 52 (43.3%) presented delirium. We found significant differences between patients with and without delirium in previous placement in nursing home (17.3% vs. 1.5%; p < 0.002), dementia (40.4% vs. 8.8%; p < 0.001), median activity of daily living (5 vs. 6; p < 0.001), length-of-stay (7 vs. 5; p = 0.04) and mortality rate (21.2% vs. 1.5%; p < 0.001). Evaluation 18 months later showed differences between patients with and without delirium in median of activity of daily living (1/6 vs. 5/6), patients living in nursing homes (27.5% vs. 7.9%), estimated survival 35.3% (CI 95%: 24-49%) at day 569 and 49% (CI 95%: 32.9-65.4%) at day 644. The difference between survival curves was statistically significant (p = 0.027). Delirium increases morbidity and mortality during hospital stay. Elderly with delirium are at risk of worsening disability and of becoming dependent after discharge and it is a risk factor for higher mortality during the following months after discharge.

  8. A Center-Median Filtering Method for Detection of Temporal Variation in Coronal Images

    CERN Document Server

    Plowman, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Events in the solar corona are often widely separated in their timescales, which can allow them to be identified when they would otherwise be confused with emission from other sources in the corona. Methods for cleanly separating such events based on their timescales are thus desirable for research in the field. This paper develops a technique for identifying time-varying signals in solar coronal image sequences which is based on a per-pixel running median filter and an understanding of photon-counting statistics. Example applications to 'EIT Waves' and small-scale dynamics are shown, both using data from the 193 Angstrom channel on AIA. The technique is found to discriminate EIT Waves more cleanly than the running and base difference techniques most commonly used. It is also demonstrated that there is more signal in the data than is commonly appreciated, finding that the waves can be traced to the edge of the AIA field of view when the data are rebinned to increase the signal-to-noise ratio.

  9. High frequency oscillations after median nerve stimulations in healthy children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Sergio; Del Piero, Ivana; Martucci, Lucia; Restuccia, Domenico

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present research was to address somatosensory high frequency oscillations (400-800Hz) in healthy children and adolescents in comparison with healthy adults. We recorded somatosensory evoked potentials following median nerve stimulation in nineteen resting healthy children/adolescents and in nineteen resting healthy adults with eyes closed. We administered six consecutive stimulation blocks (500 sweeps each). The presynaptic component of high frequency oscillations amplitudes was smaller in healthy children/adolescents than in healthy adults (no difference between groups was found as far as the postsynaptic component was concerned). Healthy children/adolescents had smaller presynaptic component than the postsynaptic one (the postsynaptic component amplitude was 145% of the presynaptic one), while healthy adults showed the opposite (reduction of the postsynaptic component to 80% of the presynaptic one). No habituation phenomena concerning high frequency oscillation amplitudes were registered in neither healthy children/adolescents nor healthy adults. These findings suggest that healthy children/adolescents present with significantly different pattern of somatosensory high frequency oscillations compared with healthy adults' ones. This different pattern is reasonably expression of higher cortical excitability of the developing brain cortex. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A center-median filtering method for detection of temporal variation in coronal images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plowman Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Events in the solar corona are often widely separated in their timescales, which can allow them to be identified when they would otherwise be confused with emission from other sources in the corona. Methods for cleanly separating such events based on their timescales are thus desirable for research in the field. This paper develops a technique for identifying time-varying signals in solar coronal image sequences which is based on a per-pixel running median filter and an understanding of photon-counting statistics. Example applications to “EIT waves” (named after EIT, the EUV Imaging Telescope on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and small-scale dynamics are shown, both using 193 Å data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The technique is found to discriminate EIT waves more cleanly than the running and base difference techniques most commonly used. It is also demonstrated that there is more signal in the data than is commonly appreciated, finding that the waves can be traced to the edge of the AIA field of view when the data are rebinned to increase the signal-to-noise ratio.

  11. Median Lethal Dose, Antimalarial Activity, Phytochemical Screening and Radical Scavenging of Methanolic Languas galanga Rhizome Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulelah H. Al-Adhroey

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of Languas galanga rhizomes was investigated for antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK65 infections in mice. The median lethal dose was determined to ascertain the safety of the extract in ICR mice of both sexes. The antimalarial activities during early and established infections, as well as the prophylactic activity were evaluated. Phytochemical screening and radical scavenging activity of the extract were also investigated to elucidate the possible mechanism of the antimalarial properties. The acute oral toxicity (LD50 of Languas galanga extract in mice was established to be 4,998 mg/kg. The extract of Languas galanga rhizomes demonstrated significant antiplasmodial activity in all the three models of the antimalarial evaluations. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of some vital antiplasmodial constituents such as terpenoids and flavonoids. The extract also exhibited a moderate capacity to scavenge the free radicals. The rhizome extract of Languas galanga thus possesses antimalarial activity, which explains the rational usage of this plant in traditional Malaysian medicine.

  12. Median lethal dose, antimalarial activity, phytochemical screening and radical scavenging of methanolic Languas galanga rhizome extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Nor, Zurainee M; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahmud, Rohela

    2010-11-16

    The methanolic extract of Languas galanga rhizomes was investigated for antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei (NK65) infections in mice. The median lethal dose was determined to ascertain the safety of the extract in ICR mice of both sexes. The antimalarial activities during early and established infections, as well as the prophylactic activity were evaluated. Phytochemical screening and radical scavenging activity of the extract were also investigated to elucidate the possible mechanism of the antimalarial properties. The acute oral toxicity (LD₅₀) of Languas galanga extract in mice was established to be 4.998 mg/kg. The extract of Languas galanga rhizomes demonstrated significant antiplasmodial activity in all the three models of the antimalarial evaluations. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of some vital antiplasmodial constituents such as terpenoids and flavonoids. The extract also exhibited a moderate capacity to scavenge the free radicals. The rhizome extract of Languas galanga thus possesses antimalarial activity, which explains the rational usage of this plant in traditional Malaysian medicine.

  13. Pivotal role of median eminence tanycytes for hypothalamic function and neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoti, Karine; Lovell-Badge, Robin

    2017-04-15

    Along with the sub-ventricular zone of the forebrain lateral ventricles and the sub-granular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, the hypothalamus has recently emerged as a third gliogenic and neurogenic niche in the central nervous system. The hypothalamus is the main regulator of body homeostasis because it centralizes peripheral information to regulate crucial physiological functions through the pituitary gland and the autonomic nervous system. Its ability to sense signals originating outside the brain relies on its exposure to blood-born molecules through the median eminence, which is localized outside the blood brain barrier. Within the hypothalamus, a population of specialized radial glial cells, the tanycytes, control exposure to blood-born signals by acting both as sensors and regulators of the hypothalamic input and output. In addition, lineage-tracing experiments have recently revealed that tanycytes represent a population of hypothalamic stem cells, defining them as a pivotal cell type within the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic neurogenesis has moreover been shown to have an important role in feeding control and energy metabolism, which challenges previous knowledge and offers new therapeutic options.

  14. Enhancement of multichannel chromosome classification using a region-based classifier and vector median filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvelis, Petros S; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Tsalikakis, Dimitrios G; Georgiou, Ioannis A

    2009-07-01

    Multichannel chromosome image acquisition is used for cancer diagnosis and research on genetic disorders. This type of imaging, apart from aiding the cytogeneticist in several ways, facilitates the visual detection of chromosome abnormalities. However, chromosome misclassification errors result from different factors, such as uneven hybridization, spectral overlap among fluors, and biochemical noise. In this paper, we enhance the chromosome classification accuracy by making use of a region Bayes classifier that increases the classification accuracy when compared to the already developed pixel-by-pixel classifier and by incorporating the vector median filtering approach for filtering of the image. The method is evaluated using a publicly available database that contains 183 six-channel chromosome sets of images. The overall improvement on the chromosome classification accuracy is 9.99%, compared to the pixel-by-pixel classifier without filtering. This improvement in the chromosome classification accuracy would allow subtle deoxyribonucleic acid abnormalities to be identified easily. The efficiency of the method might further improve by using features extracted from each region and a more sophisticated classifier.

  15. Using the median and the mean of the income to establish the poverty lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Livia STEFANESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods to estimate the poverty level inside a given population is based on how to define the poverty line values. Each person having his income under the poverty threshold will be considered to be poor. In the literature we distinguish at least three approaches: to evaluate the absolute poverty line, to find a relative poverty threshold depending on the main indicators of the income distribution in the analyzed community or to assume a subjective point of view. The procedures for determining the relative poverty lines are based in practice on the mean or the median of the population income. To assure a concordance between the concrete estimation of several possible poverty thresholds and the poverty and inequality real phenomena we proposed to be verified three conditions. Finally, we also proved by examples that each of these restrictions are not obligatory satisfied by an arbitrary real positive data set. The present study will be extended in the future to assure a theoretical support for estimating more exactly the relative poverty lines.

  16. Median cleft of the upper lip: A new classification to guide treatment decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boutray, Marie; Beziat, Jean-Luc; Yachouh, Jacques; Bigorre, Michèle; Gleizal, Arnaud; Captier, Guillaume

    2016-06-01

    Median cleft of the upper lip (MCL) is a specific and rare entity on the spectrum of facial clefts. MCL have different clinical expressions and can be either isolated or part of multiple malformations. Confusion still exists regarding the explanation and classification of MCL; some cases have been reported in the literature, but no studies carried out a complete review of the literature. This study reviewed cases of MCL in 2 French units and conducted a systematic review of the literature, in order to derive a new classification. Fourteen patients with MCL in the 2 units and 195 cases in the literature were reviewed. They involved complete (42%), incomplete (49%), and minor forms (9%). Epidemiological and clinical data were collected, from which a classification was derived, based on the type of cleft and its belonging to other syndrome(s). Three main groups were distinguished, namely, isolated MCL, MCL within craniofacial malformations, and MCL with extrafacial malformations. Each group and subgroup was associated with a prognosis and led to specific management. This study reviewed all of the various forms of MCL and their associated anomalies, in order to have a global view of MCL and to derive a useful classification scheme to guide management of care. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Scaling and entropy in p-median facility location along a line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastner, Michael T.

    2011-09-01

    The p-median problem is a common model for optimal facility location. The task is to place p facilities (e.g., warehouses or schools) in a heterogeneously populated space such that the average distance from a person's home to the nearest facility is minimized. Here we study the special case where the population lives along a line (e.g., a road or a river). If facilities are optimally placed, the length of the line segment served by a facility is inversely proportional to the square root of the population density. This scaling law is derived analytically and confirmed for concrete numerical examples of three US interstate highways and the Mississippi River. If facility locations are permitted to deviate from the optimum, the number of possible solutions increases dramatically. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compute how scaling is affected by an increase in the average distance to the nearest facility. We find that the scaling exponents change and are most sensitive near the optimum facility distribution.

  18. Microcalorimetric Evaluation of the Effect of Kanamycin: An Analysis Based on the Median-Effect Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Li-Heng; FAN,Dai-Di; SHANG,Long-An; SHI,Hui-Juan; MA,Xiao-Xuan; MI,Yu; GU,Li-Feng; XU,Kang-Zhen

    2007-01-01

    A study of the effect of drug, kanamycin, on the growth metabolism of recombinant Escherichia coli B1 was carried out by microcalorimeter monitoring of the metabolic activity of treated cells. Power-time curves of growing recombinant Escherichia coli cell suspensions, treated with different kanamycin doses, were recorded. The extent of the effect was evaluated by changes in the slopes of the microcalorimetric curves and the kinetics of the drug action was interpreted from the time at which these changes reached their maximum values and maintained their maximum values. Experimental dose-effect relationships conform to the median-effect principle of the mass-action law:fa/(1-fa)=(D/D50)m. A plot of y=lg[(fa)1- 1]-1 versus x=lg D gives the slope m, D50 and R∞. The experimental results revealed that high concentration of kanamycin had an inhibitory effect on the growth of recombinant Escherichia coli B1 in the lg phase, and had a promoting effect in the stationary period. Moreover, it was demonstrated that microcalorimetry was a reliable method for the detection of modulatory effects in biology.

  19. Image Enhancement Using Homomorphic Filtering and Adaptive Median Filtering for Balinese Papyrus (Lontar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Ketut Surya Arnawa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Balinese papyrus (Lontar is one of the most popular media to write for more than a hundred years in Indonesia. Balinese papyrus are used to document things that are considered important in the past. Most of the balinese papyrus suffered damage caused by weathering, edible fungus and insects making it is difficult to read. One of the efforts made to preserve the existence of balinese papyrus is to perform digitization of it. The problems most often encountered in the process of digitizing the image of the balinese papyrus is less good results as there is noise caused by its conditions that have been damaged and the uneven distribution illumination in this part of the image. In this study the authors propose to combine homomorphic filtering with adaptive median filtering to perform image enhancement. Surve results obtained show the percentage of the average respondents stated that the image enhancement results are good is 83.4%, the percentage of the average respondents stated that the image enhancement results are very good is 4% and the percentage of the average respondents stated that the image enhancement results are enough is 12, 6%.

  20. Approximate Nonnegative Symmetric Solution of Fully Fuzzy Systems Using Median Interval Defuzzification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ezzati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose an approach for computing an approximate nonnegative symmetric solution of some fully fuzzy linear system of equations, where the components of the coefficient matrix and the right hand side vector are nonnegative fuzzy numbers, considering equality of the median intervals of the left and right hand sides of the system. We convert the m×n fully fuzzy linear system to two m×n real linear systems, one being related to the cores and the other being concerned with spreads of the solution. We propose an approach for solving the real systems using the modified Huang method of the Abaffy-Broyden-Spedicato (ABS class of algorithms. An appropriate constrained least squares problem is solved when the solution does not satisfy nonnegative fuzziness conditions, that is, when the obtained solution vector for the core system includes a negative component, or the solution of the spread system has at least one negative component, or there exists an index for which the component of the spread is greater than the corresponding component of the core. As a special case, we discuss fuzzy systems with the components of the coefficient matrix as real crisp numbers. We finally present two computational algorithms and illustrate their effectiveness by solving some randomly generated consistent as well as inconsistent systems.

  1. Dynamic Adaptive Median Filter (DAMF for Removal of High Density Impulse Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punyaban Patel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel adaptive filtering scheme to remove impulse noise from images. The scheme replaces the corrupted test pixel with the median value of non-corrupted neighboring pixels selected from a window dynamically. If the number of non-corrupted pixels in the selected window is not sufficient, a window of next higher size is chosen. Thus window size is automatically adapted based on the density of noise in the image as well as the density of corruption local to a window. As a result window size may vary pixel to pixel while filtering. The scheme is simple to implement and do not require multiple iterations. The efficacy of the proposed scheme is evaluated with respect to subjective as well as objective parameters on standard images on various noise densities. Comparative analysis reveals that the proposed scheme has improved performance over other schemes, preferably in high density impulse noise cases. Further, the computational overhead is also less as compared its competent scheme.

  2. Quantitative analysis of orofacial development and median clefts in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Allyson E; Dickinson, Amanda J

    2014-05-01

    Xenopus has become a useful tool to study the molecular mechanisms underlying orofacial development. However, few quantitative analyses exist to describe the anatomy of this region. In this study we combine traditional facial measurements with geometric morphometrics to describe anatomical changes in the orofacial region during normal and abnormal development. Facial measurements and principal component (PC) analysis indicate that during early tadpole development the face expands primarily in the midface region accounting for the development of the upper jaw and primary palate. The mouth opening correspondingly becomes flatter and wider as it incorporates the jaw elements. A canonical variate analysis of orofacial and mouth opening shape emphasized that changes in the orofacial shape occur gradually. Orofacial anatomy was quantified after altered levels of retinoic acid using all-trans retinoic acid or an inhibitor of retinoic acid receptors or by injecting antisense oligos targeting RALDH2. Such perturbations resulted in major decreases in the width of the midface and the mouth opening illustrated in facial measurements and a PC analysis. The mouth opening shape also had a gap in the primary palate resulting in a median cleft in the mouth opening that was only illustrated quantitatively in the morphometric analysis. Finally, canonical and discriminant function analysis statistically distinguished the orofacial and mouth opening shape changes among the different modes used to alter retinoic acid signaling levels. By combining quantitative analyses with molecular studies of orofacial development we will be better equipped to understand the complex morphogenetic processes involved in palate development and clefting.

  3. Does retraction of the sternum during median sternotomy result in brachial plexus injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Scott; O'Neill, Bridie; Bilal, Haris; Waterworth, Paul

    2013-07-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'does retraction of the sternum during median sternotomy result in brachial plexus injuries or peripheral neuropathies?' Altogether 58 papers were found using the reported search, of which 12 represented the best evidence to answer the question. The authors, date, journal and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers were tabulated. Caudal placement of the retractor or relieving the pressure superiorly by removing the upper blades of a retractor (P = 0.02) and use of a caudally placed symmetrical retractor has been shown to reduce neuropathy. Positioning of the patient with 'hands up' positioning showed significant reduction in the incidence of brachial plexus injuries. Furthermore, how wide the retractor is opened and use of an asymmetrical retractor for internal mammary artery (IMA) harvesting are also important factors in quantifying risk of postoperative neuropathy. Wider sternal retraction and longer bypass time did increase the risk of developing postoperative neuropathy. Three asymmetrical retractors were looked at that demonstrates the Delacroix-Chevalier to be the safest (P retractor and using a caudally placed retractor.

  4. Occult rib fractures and brachial plexus injury following median sternotomy for open-heart operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisden, C E; Greenwald, L V; Symbas, P N

    1984-09-01

    The incidence and the sites of rib fractures during open-heart operations through a median sternotomy incision were studied in 36 consecutive patients divided into two groups. In Group 1 (24 patients), a conventional Ankeney retractor was used to expose the heart, and in Group 2 (12 patients), a similar retractor was used but with its uppermost pair of blades removed. Thorough physical examinations and preoperative and postoperative chest roentgenograms were obtained, and postoperative bone scans were done in all patients. No rib fractures were detected on the routine chest roentgenograms in patients in either group. Bone scans, however, showed 44 rib fractures (15 of the first rib, 13 of the second rib, 4 of the third rib, 6 of the fourth rib, 3 of the fifth rib, and 3 of the sixth rib) in 16 patients in Group 1. Six patients in Group 2 had 9 rib fractures (2 of the first rib, 4 of the second rib, and 1 each of the third, fifth, and sixth ribs). None of the patients in Group 2 had brachial plexus injury and neither of the first rib fractures in this group were located posteriorly, whereas 3 patients in Group 1 had both brachial plexus injury and posterior first rib fractures.

  5. SEGMENTATION OF CT SCAN LUMBAR SPINE IMAGE USING MEDIAN FILTER AND CANNY EDGE DETECTION ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Punarselvam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The lumbar vertebrae are the largest segments of the movable part of the vertebral column, they are elected L1 to L5, starting at the top. The spinal column, more commonly called the backbone, is made up primarily of vertebrae discs, and the spinal cord. Acting as a communication conduit for the brain, signals are transmitted and received through the spinal cord. It is otherwise known as vertebralcolumn consists of 24 separate bony vertebrae together with 5 fused vertebrae, it is the unique interaction between the solid and fluid components that provides the disc strength and flexibility required to bear loading of the lumbar spine. In this work the Segmentation of Spine Image using Median Filter and Canny Edge Detection Algorithm between lumbar spine CT scan spine disc image. The result shows thatthe canny edge detection algorithm produced better result when compared other edge detection algorithm. Finding the correct boundary in a noisy image of spine disc is still a difficult one. To find outabsolute edges from noisy images, the comparative result can be verified and validated with the standard medical values. The result shows that the canny edge detection algorithm performs well and produced a solution very nearer to the optimal solution. This method is vigorous for all kinds of noisy images.

  6. Action spectra and chromatic mechanisms of cells in the median ocelli of dragonflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, R L; DeVoe, R D

    1975-04-01

    Spectral sensitivities were recorded intracellulary in median ocelli of Anax junius, Aeschnatuberculifera, and Libellulapulcella. All cells had peak sensitivities at 360 and 500 nm while UV-blue+green cells found only in Anax had a third peak sensitivity at 440 nm. Ratios of UV-to-green sensitivities varied from cell to cell in each ocellus, but no UV-only or green-only cells were recorded. Half of the cells tested had a reverse Purkinje shift: They were more sensitive in the green at low illuminations but more sensitive in the UV at high illuminations; their intensity-response curves at 370 and 520 nm crossed but became parallel for large responses. Wave-lengths 420 nm and shorter elicited a family of low intensity-response curves with one slope; wavelengths 440 nm and longer elicities a family of curves with another slope. Orange-adapting lights selectively adapted sensitivity in the green, but UV-adapting lights had little selective effect. Amounts of log-selective adaptation were proportional to log orange-adapting intensity. It is concluded that two spectral mechanisms can be recorded from each cell, possibly by coupling of UV and green cells or possibly because each cell contains two visual pigments. Selective chromatic adaptations may provide the ocellus with a kind of "authomatic color control," while the reverse Purkinje shift could extend the ocellus' sensitivity to prevailing skylight.

  7. Effects of muscle fiber type and size on EMG median frequency and conduction velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupa, E J; Roy, S H; Kandarian, S C; De Luca, C J

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes an in vitro method for comparing surface-detected electromyographic median frequency (MF) and conduction velocity (CV) parameters with histochemical measurements of muscle fiber type composition and cross-sectional area (CSA). Electromyographic signals were recorded during electrically elicited tetanic contractions from rat soleus, extensor digitorum longus, and diaphragm muscles placed in an oxygenated Krebs bath. Fibers were typed as slow oxidative, fast oxidative glycolytic, and fast glycolytic based on histochemical enzyme stains. Muscles with a greater percentage of fast glycolytic and fast oxidative glycolytic fibers exhibited greater initial values of MF and CV as well as a greater reduction in these variables over the course of the contraction. Regression indicated that fiber type composition could be predicted based on two MF parameters. A weighted measure of muscle fiber CSA was found to be linearly related to both initial MF and CV. The results of this study suggest that MF and CV parameters recorded during a muscular contraction are related to muscle fiber type composition and muscle fiber CSA.

  8. Machining risk of beryllium disease and sensitization with median exposures below 2 micrograms/m3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, K; Mroz, M M; Newman, L S; Martyny, J; Zhen, B

    1996-07-01

    We examined the prevalence of beryllium sensitization in relation to work process and beryllium exposure measurements in a beryllia ceramics plant that had operated since 1980. We interviewed 136 employees (97.8% of the workforce), ascertained beryllium sensitization with the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation blood test, and reviewed historical industrial hygiene measurements. Of eight beryllium-sensitized employees (5.9%), six (4.4% of participating employees) had granulomatous disease on transbronchial lung biopsy. Machinists had a sensitization rate of 14.3% compared to a rate of 1.2% among other employees. Machining had significantly higher general area and breathing zone measurements than did other processes in the time period in which most beryllium-sensitized cases had started machining work. Daily weighted average (DWA) estimates of exposure for matching processes also exceeded estimates for other work processes in that time period, with a median DWA of 0.9 microgram/m3. Machining process DWAs accounted for the majority of DWAs exceeding the 2.0 micrograms/m3 OSHA standard, with 8.1% of machining DWAs above the standard. We conclude that lowering machining process-related exposures may be important to lowering risk of beryllium disease.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  10. Monthly energy review, September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Information is also provided on international energy, including petroleum production, consumption, and stocks and nuclear electricity gross generation. This issues provides a brief industry overview and a detailed analysis of the spring 1996 gasoline price runup, crude oil supply issues, U.S. crude oil imports, petroleum stocks, futures markets, refining cash margin trends, and the financial performance of U.S. refining and marketing firms. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly: December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Data are presented which describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. Data are presented in two sections: Summary Statistics, presenting a time series of selected petroleum data on a U.S. level, and Detailed Statistics, presenting statistics for the most current month available as well as year to date.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase prices, the f.o b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-10

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  17. Statistical procedures for evaluating daily and monthly hydrologic model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, M.E.; Workman, S.R.; Taraba, J.L.; Fogle, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    The overall study objective was to evaluate the applicability of different qualitative and quantitative methods for comparing daily and monthly SWAT computer model hydrologic streamflow predictions to observed data, and to recommend statistical methods for use in future model evaluations. Statistical methods were tested using daily streamflows and monthly equivalent runoff depths. The statistical techniques included linear regression, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, nonparametric tests, t-test, objective functions, autocorrelation, and cross-correlation. None of the methods specifically applied to the non-normal distribution and dependence between data points for the daily predicted and observed data. Of the tested methods, median objective functions, sign test, autocorrelation, and cross-correlation were most applicable for the daily data. The robust coefficient of determination (CD*) and robust modeling efficiency (EF*) objective functions were the preferred methods for daily model results due to the ease of comparing these values with a fixed ideal reference value of one. Predicted and observed monthly totals were more normally distributed, and there was less dependence between individual monthly totals than was observed for the corresponding predicted and observed daily values. More statistical methods were available for comparing SWAT model-predicted and observed monthly totals. The 1995 monthly SWAT model predictions and observed data had a regression Rr2 of 0.70, a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.41, and the t-test failed to reject the equal data means hypothesis. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient and the R r2 coefficient were the preferred methods for monthly results due to the ability to compare these coefficients to a set ideal value of one.

  18. Monthly shortage trends for Central and Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Md; Lana, X.; Burgueño, A.; Serra, C.

    2009-09-01

    Monthly shortage time trends are analysed for Central and Western Europe by considering more than 100 rain records (European Climate Assessment, ECA, and the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, AEMET) covering the whole 20th century. Spells of monthly shortage are defined as consecutive months with amounts lowering the corresponding monthly median. Three annual variables are analysed: the average,, the largest, SM, and the cumulative, CS, monthly shortage. Due to the quite irregular annual evolution of these three variables, the Kendall-tau algorithm instead of a simple linear regression of the series has been applied to evaluate time trends. Positive and negative trends, never exceeding ±4.0 mm/decade, have been obtained for the three variables within the area delimited by 10°W-25°E longitude and 35°N-65°N latitude. The statistical significance at 95% level of local time trends has been assessed with the Mann-Kendall test. Additionally, the field significance of time trends is assessed by Monte Carlo simulations, randomly reproducing magnitudes and signs of time trends. The low number of empirical significant trends induces lack of field significance. A relatively high number of significant local trends (25) is only detected for CS, 6 of them are positive and 19 negative. Given that local significant trends are scattered throughout Central and Western Europe, a single spatial pattern for the monthly shortage should be discarded. Nevertheless, a close revision of local trends (statistically significant or not) manifests that positive values (increasing monthly shortage) are observed in France, a great part of the Iberian Peninsula, Central Europe and Italy.

  19. Best pictures of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    The last sector of the Big Muon Wheels was brought to the cavern in the morning of September 20... ... installed on one of the Big Muon Wheels during the same afternoon... ... just in time to sqeeze lots of people in between two of the all-completed Big Muon Wheels on the 21st of September to celebrate the installation of the last sector. Installation of the first ATLAS small wheel in building 191 on September 10. Some of the people involved in the construction and installation of the chambers on the first ATLAS small wheel in building 191 celebrating its completion on September 20. After hearing that the rock band The Police played in Geneva last month, Muriel got inspired and decided to become a rock star, just like one of her favorites, Keith Richards from the Rolling Stones. Special accomplishment of the month: (top) Martina Hurwitz (#908) and Monica Dunford (680), both from the Chicago University group, completed the Lausanne Marathon on October 21 in 4h 4...

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.