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Sample records for monthly fly population

  1. Population dynamics of oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis(Diptera:Tephritidae)in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Hui; LIU Jianhong

    2007-01-01

    Annual monitoring of the population dynamics of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel)(Diptera:Tephritidae)in Xishuangbanna,southern Yunnan,was conducted by using methyl eugenol-baited traps in 1997,2000,and 2003,and factors including temperature,rainfall,and host species with respect to the population fluctuation were analyzed systematically.The results showed that the fruit fly was present all year round in Xishuangbanna.Its population remained at a lower level from November to February,and increased from March until it reached a peak in June or July,depending on the rainfall that year.Afterward,the fly population declined remarkably until October.Temperature,rainfall,and host fruits were major factors comprehensively influencing the population fluctuation.The monthly mean temperature was in a range of temperatures suitable for development and reproduction of the fly.But the monthly mean minimum temperature from December to February was lower than the suitable temperature range,which was suggested a possible reason for the lower populations in winter months.Rainfall was another essential factor influencing the population fluctuations.The population was depressed when the monthly rainfall amount was lower than 50 mm,but increased when rainfall ranged from 100 mm to 200 mm.When the monthly rainfall amount was higher than 250 mm,the fruit fly population was reduced remarkably.The heavy rain in July and August explained the decreasing population.Mango,orange,pear,longan,and peach were found to be the main host species of the fly in Xishuangbanna.Among them,mango and longan were most preferred by the fly.Therefore,the planted areas,fruiting period,and production exerted essential effects on the fly population fluctuations,which were regarded as another major factor influencing the fly population in that area.Briefly,temperature,monthly rainfall,and the host species,through the way of their functions,the influence strength,as well as the period that they

  2. The genetic polymorphisms and colonization process of olive fly populations in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaç, Ersin; Kandemir, İrfan; Taskin, Vatan

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest of olives in olive growing regions worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean basin and North America. Despite the economic importance of the olive fly, the colonization route of this species is unclear. We used nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA to provide information about the population structure and invasion route of olive fly populations in Turkey, as representative of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Adult fly samples were collected from 38 sublocations covering all olive growing regions in Turkey. The simple sequence variability data revealed a significant genetic variability in olive fly populations and a certain degree of differentiation between Mediterranean and Aegean populations. Mediterranean populations harbor higher levels of microsatellite variation than Aegean populations, which points to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of invasion. mtDNA results suggest olive flies from the western part of Turkey are closely related to Italo-Aegean flies of the Mediterranean basin and the olive fly populations have invaded the northern part of the Mediterranean basin through western Turkey. In addition, finding specific American haplotypes in high frequencies might indicate that Turkey is the possible source of American olive fly populations. In order to more precisely characterize the population structure and invasion routes of this organism, more DNA-based sequence analysis should be carried out worldwide.

  3. Population vulnerability and disability in Kenya's tsetse fly habitats.

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    Sue C Grady

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT, also referred to as sleeping sickness, and African Animal Trypanosomaisis (AAT, known as nagana, are highly prevalent parasitic vector-borne diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. Humans acquire trypanosomiasis following the bite of a tsetse fly infected with the protozoa Trypanosoma brucei (T.b. spp. -i.e., T.b. gambiense in West and Central Africa and T.b. rhodesiense in East and Southern Africa. Over the last decade HAT diagnostic capacity to estimate HAT prevalence has improved in active case-finding areas but enhanced passive surveillance programs are still lacking in much of rural sub-Saharan Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This retrospective-cross-sectional study examined the use of national census data (1999 to estimate population vulnerability and disability in Kenya's 7 tsetse belts to assess the potential of HAT-acquired infection in those areas. A multilevel study design estimated the likelihood of disability in individuals, nested within households, nested within tsetse fly habitats of varying levels of poverty. Residents and recent migrants of working age were studied. Tsetse fly's impact on disability was conceptualised via two exposure pathways: directly from the bite of a pathogenic tsetse fly resulting in HAT infection or indirectly, as the potential for AAT takes land out of agricultural production and diseased livestock leads to livestock morbidity and mortality, contributing to nutritional deficiencies and poverty. Tsetse belts that were significantly associated with increased disability prevalence were identified and the direct and indirect exposure pathways were evaluated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Incorporating reports on disability from the national census is a promising surveillance tool that may enhance future HAT surveillance programs in sub-Saharan Africa. The combined burdens of HAT and AAT and the opportunity costs of agricultural production in AAT areas are likely

  4. Do climatic and physical factors affect populations of the blow fly Chrysomya megacephala and house fly Musca domestica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoen-klan, Ratchadawan; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Klong-klaew, Tunwadee; Irvine, Kim N; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Prangkio, Chira; Somboon, Pradya; Sukontason, Kom

    2011-11-01

    The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and house fly, Musca domestica L., are medically and forensically important flies. The population dynamic of these flies is essential for both control and forensical aspects. The aim of this study was to investigate the climatic and physical factors affecting the population trend of both species in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand, using the Geographic Information System (GIS). Based on systematic random sampling, 18 study sites were selected in three districts (Mueang Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, and Hang Dong). Six land use types were involved in the study sites, i.e., disturbed mixed deciduous, mixed deciduous forest, mixed orchard, lowland village, city, and paddy field. Adult flies were sampled every 2 weeks using an in-house prototype reconstructable funnel trap. Two types of bait were used--one with fresh beef viscera for luring M. domestica and the other with 1-day tainted beef viscera for luring C. megacephala. Collections were conducted from May 2009 to May 2010, and analysis of climatic factors (temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity) was carried out. Correlation bivariate analysis was performed initially to determine the relationship between climatic factors and the number of flies. Consequently, an ordinary co-kriging approach, in ArcGIS 9.2, was performed to predict the spatial distribution of flies with land use and climatic factors as co-variables. A total of 63,158 flies were captured, with C. megacephala being the most common species collected (68.37%), while only 1.3% were M. domestica, thus proving that C. megacephala was the most abundant species in several land use types. A significantly higher number of females than males was found in both species. Fly populations can be collected throughout most of the year with a peak in late summer, which shows a positive relation to temperature but negative correlation with relative humidity. C. megacephala was predicted to be abundant in every

  5. Semivariogram models for estimating fig fly population density throughout the year

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    Mauricio Paulo Batistella Pasini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to select semivariogram models to estimate the population density of fig fly (Zaprionus indianus; Diptera: Drosophilidae throughout the year, using ordinary kriging. Nineteen monitoring sites were demarcated in an area of 8,200 m2, cropped with six fruit tree species: persimmon, citrus, fig, guava, apple, and peach. During a 24 month period, 106 weekly evaluations were done in these sites. The average number of adult fig flies captured weekly per trap, during each month, was subjected to the circular, spherical, pentaspherical, exponential, Gaussian, rational quadratic, hole effect, K-Bessel, J-Bessel, and stable semivariogram models, using ordinary kriging interpolation. The models with the best fit were selected by cross-validation. Each data set (months has a particular spatial dependence structure, which makes it necessary to define specific models of semivariograms in order to enhance the adjustment to the experimental semivariogram. Therefore, it was not possible to determine a standard semivariogram model; instead, six theoretical models were selected: circular, Gaussian, hole effect, K-Bessel, J-Bessel, and stable.

  6. Population fluctuation of fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae in peach and passion fruit orchards in Iraceminha, Santa Catarina

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    Sheila Alberti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was learn more about the population fluctuation of fruit flies in peach and passion fruit orchards in the municipality of Iraceminha, Santa Catarina. In order to carry out the survey, McPhail traps were set up with 10% inverted glucose from April 2006 to March 2007. Captured flies were identified at the Laboratório de Entomologia at UNOCHAPECÓ. The collected females belonged to twelve species and four genera. The adults of Anastrepha fraterculus were trapped during all seasons, with a population peak in October 2006 in the peach orchards. The population levels of Anastrepha grandis remained higher during the first five months in the passion fruit orchard. There were low infestation rates by flies of the genera Ceratitis, Blepharoneura and Tomoplagia when compared to flies of the genus Anastrepha. The results showed that the presence of flies in the orchards was associated with the availability of host fruit and not with climatic conditions.

  7. Control of bloodsucking black fly (Simuliidae) populations in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Bartninkaitė, Ilona; Bernotienė, Rasa; Pakalniškis, Saulius; Žygutienė, Milda

    2006-01-01

    The outbreak of bloodsucking black flies began in the 70s of the 20th century in the south-eastern part of Lithuania. By 1990, the biting activity of bloodsucking black flies increased and had become a serious problem. The bloodsucking insects caused losses of cattle and domestic birds and tormented holiday-makers in the Druskininkai health-resort. Biological larvicide based on Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis was used for bloodsucking black fly control in 1999–2005. The larvicide was ...

  8. Population dynamics of stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) at an organic dairy farm in Denmark based on mark-recapture with destructive sub-sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Skovgård; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2012-01-01

    A population of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), was studied on a Danish cattle farm in two successive years. Flies were captured monthly by sweep nettings and marked with fluorescent dust. Absolute population size, dilution rate, loss rate, and adult longevity were estimated by means of a...

  9. Estimation of populations and sterility induction in Anastrepha luden (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge; Enkerlin, Walther; Liedo, Pablo

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between different release densities of sterile flies and fly trap captures, expressed as flies per trap per day, in the monitoring of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) populations was evaluated in mango orchards. The induction of sterility in fertile females was evaluated using different ratios of sterile: fertile males under field cage conditions. A direct relationship between recaptured flies and densities of release sterile flies was found. However, trap efficiency, expressed as percentage of recaptured flies, decreased as the density of released flies increased. Sterility induction was positively correlated to the ratio of sterile: fertile flies. A significant difference in egg fertility among treatments was observed. The trajectory of sterility induction slowed down after a sterile: wild ratio of 30:1, which suggests that this ratio could be appropriate in an sterile insect technique program with A. ludens. Sterility induction was greater when only sterile males were released than when releasing both sterile males and females, but the differences were not significant. Our findings contribute to a better interpretation of fly captures obtained from the field trapping networks, and to an improvement in the efficiency of sterile insect technique against A. ludens fruit flies, through the implementation of more rational sterile fly release densities.

  10. Population dynamics, distribution, and species diversity of fruit flies on cucurbits in Kashmir Valley, India.

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    Ganie, S A; Khan, Z H; Ahangar, R A; Bhat, H A; Hussain, Barkat

    2013-01-01

    Given the economic importance of cucurbits and the losses incurred by fruit fly infestation, the population dynamics of fruit flies in cucurbit crops and the influence of abiotic parameters, such as temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and total sunshine hours per day on the fruit fly population were studied. The study was carried out at six locations; in district Srinagar the locations were Batmaloo, Shalimar, and Dal, while in district Budgam the locations were Chadoora, Narkara, and Bugam (Jammu and Kashmir, India). Various cucurbit crops, such as cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd and bitter gourd, were selected for the study. With regard to locations, mean fruit fly population was highest (6.09, 4.55, 3.87, and 3.60 flies/trap/week) at Batamaloo and Chadoora (4.73, 3.93, 2.73, and 2.73 flies/trap/week) on cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd, and bitter gourd, respectively. The population of fruit flies was significantly correlated with the minimum and maximum temperature. The maximum species diversity of fruit flies was 0.511, recorded in Chadoora. Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was the most predominant species in both Srinagar and Budgam, followed by B. dorsalis (Hendel) and B. tau (Walker), while B. scutellaris (Bezzi) was found only in Chadoora. Results of the present investigation may be utilized in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the agroecological system.

  11. Horn fly population dynamics as prediction tool for the fixation of pesticide resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research project was conducted to establish the population dynamics of the horn fly. Two cattle herds were monitored to establish if contrasting climatic regional conditions, in addition to temperature and precipitation, related to the number of rainy days as a factor influencing horn fly infes...

  12. Differential estimates of southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) population structure based on capture method

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    Kevin S. Laves; Susan C. Loeb

    2005-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that population estimates derived from trapping small mammals are accurate and unbiased or that estimates derived from different capture methods are comparable. We captured southern flying squirrels (Glaucmrtys volam) using two methods to study their effect on red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides bumah) reproductive success. Southern flying...

  13. Fauna and Monthly Activity of Sand flies in The Focus of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Bushehr District (2007-2008

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    Abdolrasoul Forouzani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is one of the endemic diseases in Bushehr Province, which its prevalence has increased in some districts, as well as Bushehr district recently. This is essential to access minute information about epidemiology of diseases (Parasite, Vector, Reservior, in order to achieve effective control of disease. One of the basic information in respect of controlling measures, is the knowledge and information of fauna and monthly activities of vectors which is essential, because ignoring of different biological aspects of vectors, could cause failure to control strategies. Methods: This is a descriptive- cross sectional study, carried out in four villages of Bushehr district (2007-2008 which were affected by cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Sand flies were collected by standard sticky traps, and identified by electric microscope, using reliable identification keys. Results: Sixteen species. (six Phelebotomus and ten Sergentomyia were identified from a total of 15952 sand flies caught for this study, out of which eight species are reported for the first time in Bushehr district, namely: Phelobotomus mongolensis, P.caucasicus, P.ansari, Sergentomyia tiberiadis, S.clydei, S.antenata, S.iranica, S.palestiensis. Monthly activity of sand flies starts in mid March and ends by the end of December. The peack of sand flies monthly activities is in June, while the peack activity of P.papatasi is in the end of July. Conclusion: Considering nine months activity period of sand flies in Bushehr district, and their peack of activities, specially for P.paptasi, it is suggested that the controlling measures to be administrated in July.

  14. Recrudescent infection supports Hendra virus persistence in Australian flying-fox populations.

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    Hsiao-Hsuan Wang

    Full Text Available Zoonoses from wildlife threaten global public health. Hendra virus is one of several zoonotic viral diseases that have recently emerged from Pteropus species fruit-bats (flying-foxes. Most hypotheses regarding persistence of Hendra virus within flying-fox populations emphasize horizontal transmission within local populations (colonies via urine and other secretions, and transmission among colonies via migration. As an alternative hypothesis, we explore the role of recrudescence in persistence of Hendra virus in flying-fox populations via computer simulation using a model that integrates published information on the ecology of flying-foxes, and the ecology and epidemiology of Hendra virus. Simulated infection patterns agree with infection patterns observed in the field and suggest that Hendra virus could be maintained in an isolated flying-fox population indefinitely via periodic recrudescence in a manner indistinguishable from maintenance via periodic immigration of infected individuals. Further, post-recrudescence pulses of infectious flying-foxes provide a plausible basis for the observed seasonal clustering of equine cases. Correct understanding of the infection dynamics of Hendra virus in flying-foxes is fundamental to effectively managing risk of infection in horses and humans. Given the lack of clear empirical evidence on how the virus is maintained within populations, the role of recrudescence merits increased attention.

  15. Evaluation of cocomposted coal fly ash on dynamics of microbial populations and heavy metal uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallini, G.; Vaccari, F.; Pera, A.; Agnolucci, M.; Scatena, S.; Varallo, G. [University of Verona, Verona (Italy). Science and Technology Dept.

    1999-06-01

    Vicia faba, in a pot experiment with sandy and clayey soils under greenhouse conditions, was checked for growth response to different amendments with coal alkaline fly ash or cocomposted fly ash mixed with lignocellulosic residues. Soil microbial populations, pH and electrical conductivity as well as heavy metal uptake by plants were monitored. At rates of five and ten percent (on a dry matter basis) in both soils, neither fly ash alone nor cocomposted fly ash exerted any negative effect. Plant biomass production was not influenced in either clayey or sandy soil. Alkaline fly ash did not promote microbial growth when applied alone to the soils. However, cocomposted fly ash generally increased bacterial and actinomycetes counts in both soils. Fungi were not affected by ash. Due to the increase of soil pH by alkaline fly ash or cocomposted fly ash, plant uptake of heavy metals was depressed in the sandy soil. Heavy metal mobility did not cause change in the clayey soil where a high buffering capacity mitigated the effects of fly ash amendments.

  16. Bot fly parasitism of the red-backed vole: host survival, infection risk, and population growth.

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    Lemaître, Jérôme; Fortin, Daniel; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Darveau, Marcel

    2009-03-01

    Parasites can play an important role in the dynamics of host populations, but empirical evidence remains sparse. We investigated the role of bot fly (Cuterebra spp.) parasitism in red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi) by first assessing the impacts of the parasite on the probability of vole survival under stressful conditions as well as on the reproductive activity of females. We then identified the main factors driving both the individual risk of infection and the abundance of bot flies inside red-backed voles. Finally, we evaluated the impacts of bot fly prevalence on the growth rate of vole populations between mid-July and mid-August. Thirty-six populations of red-backed voles were sampled in the boreal forest of Québec, Canada. The presence and the abundance of parasites in voles, two host life history traits (sex and body condition), three indices of habitat complexity (tree basal area, sapling basal area, coarse woody debris volume), and vole abundance were considered in models evaluating the effects of bot flies on host populations. We found that the probability of survival of red-backed voles in live traps decreased with bot fly infection. Both the individual risk of infection and the abundance of bot flies in red-backed voles were driven mainly by vole abundance rather than by the two host life history traits or the three variables of habitat complexity. Parasitism had population consequences: bot fly prevalence was linked to a decrease in short-term growth rate of vole populations over the summer. We found that bot flies have the potential to reduce survival of red-backed voles, an effect that may apply to large portions of populations.

  17. A Mathematic Model That Describes Modes of MdSGHV Transmission within House Fly Populations

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    Celeste R. Vallejo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is proposed that one potential component by which the Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV infects individual flies is through cuticular damage. Breaks in the cuticle allow entry of the virus into the hemocoel causing the infection. Male flies typically have a higher rate of infection and a higher rate of cuticular damage than females. A model for the transmission of MdSGHV was formulated assuming several potential and recognized means of transmission. The model yields results that are in agreement with field data that measured the infection rate in house flies on dairy farms in Florida. The results from this model indicate that MdSGHV will be maintained at a stable rate within house fly populations and support the future use of MdSGHV as a birth control agent in house fly management.

  18. Population Vulnerability and Disability in Kenya's Tsetse Fly Habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Grady, Sue C.; Messina, Joseph P.; McCord, Paul F.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), also referred to as sleeping sickness, and African Animal Trypanosomaisis (AAT), known as nagana, are highly prevalent parasitic vector-borne diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. Humans acquire trypanosomiasis following the bite of a tsetse fly infected with the protozoa Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) spp. -i.e., T.b. gambiense in West and Central Africa and T.b. rhodesiense in East and Southern Africa. Over the last decade HAT diagnostic capacity to est...

  19. Population dynamics of safflower capsule flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in Kohgiluyeh safflower farms of Iran

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    K. Saeidi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oilseeds such as flax, canola, safflower, soybean and sunflower, which are annual plants, provide the world’s major source of vegetable oils, although the highest oil yield comes from oil-bearing tree fruits. One of the most popular oil seeds is safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L., which belongs to the Asteraceae family. Due to the ability of this plant to grow in dry and semi-dry conditions, safflower oil has the potential to be a commercially profitable product in Iran. Seasonal populations of safflower capsule flies were studied in Kohgiluyeh safflower farms, Iran, from March to May in 2008 and 2009. Four yellow sticky traps were used to monitor populations of fruit flies in the safflower farms. Traps were checked once a week during the sampling period. The traps were emptied weekly into insect collection vials containing 70% ethanol. Data were analysed with a two-way ANOVA. The relation between abiotic factors and species abundance was analysed with multiple linear regression. The results emphasized that Acanthiophilus helianthi was the most serious pest of safflower under the ecological conditions found in Gachsaran, being present in the field throughout three months of the year (March to May. Chaetorellia carthami was present in safflower fields from March to May, but in significant numbers only during April and May. Terellia luteola was present in safflower fields from March to May and in significant numbers only in late April, it does not seem to be a serious pest in safflower farms under Gachsaran’s ecological conditions.

  20. Sand fly population dynamics and cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers in an Atlantic forest remnant in northeastern Brazil.

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    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis are relatively common among soldiers involved in nocturnal activities in tropical forests. We investigated the population dynamics of sand flies in a military training camp located in a remnant of Atlantic rainforest in northeastern Brazil, where outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis have sporadically been described. From July 2012 to July 2014, light traps were monthly placed in 10 collection sites, being nine sites located near the forest edge and one near a sheep and goat stable. Light traps operated from 5:00 pm to 6:00 am, during four consecutive nights. Leishmania infection in sand flies was assessed using a fast real-time PCR assay. Cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers were also investigated. In total, 24,606 sand flies belonging to 25 species were identified. Males (n = 12,683 predominated over females (n = 11,923. Sand flies were present during all months, being more numerous in March (n = 1,691 and April 2013 (n = 3,324. Lutzomyia choti (72.9% was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia longispina (13.8%, Lutzomyia complexa (5.3%, representing together >90% of the sand flies collected. Forty cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded among soldiers from January 2012 to December 2014. Leishmania isolates were obtained from eight patients and were all characterized as Leishmania braziliensis. Soldiers and anyone overnighting in Atlantic rainforest remnants should adopt preventative measures such as the use of repellents on bare skin or clothes and insecticide-treated tents.

  1. Fly ash application in nutrient poor agriculture soils: impact on methanotrophs population dynamics and paddy yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jay Shankar; Pandey, Vimal Chandra

    2013-03-01

    There are reports that the application of fly ash, compost and press mud or a combination thereof, improves plant growth, soil microbial communities etc. Also, fly ash in combination with farmyard manure or other organic amendments improves soil physico-chemical characteristics, rice yield and microbial processes in paddy fields. However, the knowledge about the impact of fly ash inputs alone or in combination with other organic amendments on soil methanotrophs number in paddy soils is almost lacking. We hypothesized that fly ash application at lower doses in paddy agriculture soil could be a potential amendment to elevate the paddy yields and methanotrophs number. Here we demonstrate the impact of fly ash and press mud inputs on number of methanotrophs, antioxidants, antioxidative enzymatic activities and paddy yields at agriculture farm. The impact of amendments was significant for methanotrophs number, heavy metal concentration, antioxidant contents, antioxidant enzymatic activities and paddy yields. A negative correlation was existed between higher doses of fly ash-treatments and methanotrophs number (R(2)=0.833). The content of antioxidants and enzymatic activities in leaves of higher doses fly ash-treated rice plants increased in response to stresses due to heavy metal toxicity, which was negatively correlated with rice grain yield (R(2)=0.944) and paddy straw yield (R(2)=0.934). A positive correlation was noted between heavy metals concentrations and different antioxidant and enzymatic activities across different fly ash treated plots.The data of this study indicate that heavy metal toxicity of fly ash may cause oxidative stress in the paddy crop and the antioxidants and related enzymes could play a defensive role against phytotoxic damages. We concluded that fly ash at lower doses with press mud seems to offer the potential amendments to improving soil methanotrophs population and paddy crop yields for the nutrient poor agriculture soils.

  2. Diversity of knockdown resistance alleles in a single house fly population facilitates adaptation to pyrethroid insecticides.

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    Kasai, S; Sun, H; Scott, J G

    2017-02-01

    Insecticide use exerts a tremendous selection force on house fly populations, but the frequencies of the initial resistance mutations may not reach high levels if they have a significant fitness cost in the absence of insecticides. However, with the continued use of the same (or similar) insecticides, it is expected that new mutations (conferring equal or greater resistance, but less of a fitness cost) will evolve. Pyrethroid insecticides target the insect voltage sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) and have been widely used for control of house flies at animal production facilities for more than three decades. There are three Vssc mutations known that cause resistance to pyrethroids in house flies: knockdown resistance (kdr, L1014F), kdr-his (L1014H) and super-kdr (M918T + L1014F). Whether or not there are any new mutations in house fly populations has not been examined for decades. We collected house flies from a dairy in Kansas (USA) and selected this population for three generations. We discovered multiple new Vssc alleles, including two that give very high levels of resistance to most pyrethroids. The importance of these findings to understanding the evolution of insecticide resistance, designing appropriate resistance monitoring and management schemes, and the future of pyrethroids for house fly control are discussed. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  3. Population and Species of Fruit Fly (Bactrocera spp.) In Atractant Sticky Yellow Trap Formulation (ASYTA) From Natural Plant Product

    OpenAIRE

    Sjam, Sylvia; Zulfitriany; Sulaeha

    2011-01-01

    ASYTA is formulated as sticky attractant from natural plant product Andropogon nardus where use for attract fruit fly in the field The experiment was aimed to know the ability of ASYTA to attract fruit fly (Batrocera spp.) .The experiment was conducted in the laboratory and field at mango, matermelon and chili . The results indicated that ASYTA had potency to attract of fruit fly population not only attract male fruit fly but also female. ASYTA was able to attract 1.241 fruit ...

  4. Susceptibility to diazinon in populations of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae, in Central Brazil

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    Barros Antonio Thadeu M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available From October 2000 to April 2001, insecticide bioassays were conducted in 18 ranches from 10 counties in the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, in Central Brazil. Horn flies from wild populations were exposed to diazinon-impregnated filter papers immediately after collection on cattle, and mortality was recorded after 2 h. A high susceptibility to diazinon was observed in all tested populations. The LC50s ranged from 0.15 to 0.64 µg/cm², and resistance ratios were always lower than one (ranging 0.1-0.6. Pyrethroid products, most applied by backpack sprayers, have been used since the horn fly entered the region, about 10 years ago. The high susceptibility observed to diazinon indicates that this insecticide (as probably other organophosphate insecticides represents an useful tool for horn fly control and resistance management, particularly in pyrethroid-resistant populations.

  5. Differential Estimates of Southern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys volans) Population Structure Based on Capture Method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laves, Kevin S.; Loeb, Susan C.

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT.—It is commonly assumed that population estimates derived from trapping small mammals are accurate and unbiased or that estimates derived from different capture methods are comparable. We captured southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) using two methods to study their effect on red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success. Southern flying squirrels were captured at and removed from 30 red-cockaded woodpecker cluster sites during March to July 1994 and 1995 using Sherman traps placed in a grid encompassing a red-cockaded woodpecker nest tree and by hand from red-cockaded woodpecker cavities. Totals of 195 (1994) and 190 (1995) red-cockaded woodpecker cavities were examined at least three times each year. Trappability of southern flying squirrels in Sherman traps was significantly greater in 1995 (1.18%; 22,384 trap nights) than in 1994 (0.42%; 20,384 trap nights), and capture rate of southern flying squirrels in cavities was significantly greater in 1994 (22.7%; 502 cavity inspections) than in 1995 (10.8%; 555 cavity inspections). However, more southern flying squirrels were captured per cavity inspection than per Sherman trap night in both years. Male southern flying squirrels were more likely to be captured from cavities than in Sherman traps in 1994, but not in 1995. Both male and female juveniles were more likely to be captured in cavities than in traps in both years. In 1994 males in reproductive condition were more likely to be captured in cavities than in traps and in 1995 we captured significantly more reproductive females in cavities than in traps. Our data suggest that population estimates based solely on one trapping method may not represent true population size or structure of southern flying squirrels.

  6. Monthly Distribution of Phlebotomine Sand Flies, and Biotic and Abiotic Factors Related to Their Abundance, in an Urban Area to Which Visceral Leishmaniasis Is Endemic in Corumbá, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Fernandes, Wagner Souza; Ravanelli, Michelle de Saboya; Paranhos Filho, Antônio Conceição; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    The monthly distribution and abundance of sand flies are influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. The present study aimed to evaluate the seasonal distribution of sand flies and the relation between their abundance and environmental parameters, including vegetation and climate. This study was conducted over a 2-year period (April 2012 to March 2014). Monthly distribution was evaluated through the weekly deployment of CDC light traps in the peridomicile area of 5 residences in an urban area of the municipality of Corumbá in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Meteorological data were obtained from the Mato Grosso do Sul Center for Weather, Climate, and Water Resources. The spectral indices were calculated based on spatial resolution images (GeoEye) and the percentage of vegetal coverage. Differences in the abundance of sand flies among the collection sites were assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and the strength of correlations between environmental variables was determined by calculating Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Lutzomyia cruzi, Lu. forattinii, and Evandromyia corumbaensis were the most frequently found species. Although no significant association was found among these sand fly species and the tested environmental variables (vegetation and climate), high population peaks were found during the rainy season, whereas low peaks were observed in the dry season. The monthly distribution of sand flies was primarily determined by Lu. cruzi, which accounted for 93.94% of the specimens collected each month throughout the experimental period. The fact that sand flies were detected year-round indicates a continuous risk of infection to humans, demonstrating the need for targeted management and education programs. PMID:27783667

  7. Y-Linked markers for improved population control of the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pest control programs incorporating the sterile insect technique (SIT) rely on the mass production and release of sterilized insects to reduce the wild-type population through infertile matings. Most effective programs release only males to avoid any crop damage caused by female fruit flies o...

  8. Population sizes and dispersal pattern of tsetse flies: rolling on the river?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyer, J; Balenghien, T; Ravel, S; Vial, L; Sidibé, I; Thévenon, S; Solano, P; De Meeûs, T

    2009-07-01

    The West African trypanosomoses are mostly transmitted by riverine species of tsetse fly. In this study, we estimate the dispersal and population size of tsetse populations located along the Mouhoun river in Burkina Faso where tsetse habitats are experiencing increasing fragmentation caused by human encroachment. Dispersal estimated through direct (mark and recapture) and indirect (genetic isolation by distance) methods appeared consistent with one another. In these fragmented landscapes, tsetse flies displayed localized, small subpopulations with relatively short effective dispersal. We discuss how such information is crucial for designing optimal strategies for eliminating this threat. To estimate ecological parameters of wild animal populations, the genetic measures are both a cost- and time-effective alternative to mark-release-recapture. They can be applied to other vector-borne diseases of medical and/or economic importance.

  9. Prevalence of Candidatus Erwinia dacicola in wild and laboratory olive fruit fly populations and across developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Anne M; Hearn, David J; Burrack, Hannah J; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Pierson, Elizabeth A

    2012-04-01

    The microbiome of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), a worldwide pest of olives (Olea europaea L.), has been examined for >100 yr as part of efforts to identify bacteria that are plant pathogens vectored by the fly or are beneficial endosymbionts essential for the fly's survival and thus targets for possible biological control. Because tephritid fruit flies feed on free-living bacteria in their environment, distinguishing between the transient, acquired bacteria of their diet and persistent, resident bacteria that are vertically transmitted endosymbionts is difficult. Several culture-dependent and -independent studies have identified a diversity of species in the olive fruit fly microbiome, but they have not distinguished the roles of the microbes. Candidatus Erwinia dacicola, has been proposed to be a coevolved endosymbiont of the olive fruit fly; however, this was based on limited samples from two Italian populations. Our study shows that C. Erwinia dacicola was present in all New and Old World populations and in the majority of individuals of all life stages sampled in 2 yr. Olive fruit flies reared on olives in the laboratory had frequencies of C. Erwinia dacicola similar to that of wild populations; however, flies reared on artificial diets containing antibiotics in the laboratory rarely had the endosymbiont. The relative abundance of C. Erwinia dacicola varied across development stages, being most abundant in ovipositing females and larvae. This uniform presence of C. Erwini dacicola suggests that it is a persistent, resident endosymbiont of the olive fruit fly.

  10. Hsp90 is important for fecundity, longevity, and buffering of cryptic deleterious variation in wild fly populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Bing

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the laboratory, the Drosophila melanogaster heat shock protein Hsp90 can buffer the phenotypic effects of genetic variation. Laboratory experiments either manipulate Hsp90 activity pharmacologically, or they induce mutations with strong effects in the gene Hsp83, the single-copy fly gene encoding Hsp90. It is unknown whether observations from such laboratory experiments are relevant in the wild. Results We here study naturally occurring mutations in Hsp83, and their effects on fitness and phenotypic buffering in flies derived from wild populations. We examined more than 4500 flies from 42 Drosophila populations distributed world-wide for insertions or deletions of mobile DNA in or near the Hsp83 gene. The insertions we observed occur at low population frequencies, and reduce Hsp83 gene expression. In competition experiments, mutant flies performed much more poorly than wild-type flies. Mutant flies were also significantly less fecund and shorter-lived than wild-type flies, as well as less well buffered against cryptic deleterious variation, as we show through inbreeding experiments. Specifically, in Hsp83 mutant flies female fecundity dropped to much lower levels after inbreeding than in wild-type flies. At even slightly elevated temperatures, inbred mutant Hsp83 populations went extinct, whereas inbred wild-type populations persisted. Conclusions Our work shows that Hsp90, a regulator of the stress response and of signaling, helps buffer deleterious variation in fruit flies derived from wild population, and that its buffering role becomes even more important under heat stress.

  11. High chromosomal variation in wild horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Forneris

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The horn fly, Haematobia irritans is an obligate haematophagous cosmopolitan insect pest. The first reports of attacks on livestock by H. irritans in Argentina and Uruguay occurred in 1991, and since 1993 it is considered an economically important pest. Knowledge on the genetic characteristics of the horn fly increases our understanding of the phenotypes resistant to insecticides that repeatedly develop in these insects. The karyotype of H. irritans, as previously described using flies from an inbred colony, shows a chromosome complement of 2n=10 without heterochromosomes (sex chromosomes. In this study, we analyze for the first time the chromosome structure and variation of four wild populations of H. irritans recently established in the Southern Cone of South America, collected in Argentina and Uruguay. In these wild type populations, we confirmed and characterized the previously published “standard” karyotype of 2n=10 without sex chromosomes; however, surprisingly a supernumerary element, called B-chromosome, was found in about half of mitotic preparations. The existence of statistically significant karyotypic diversity was demonstrated through the application of orcein staining, C-banding and H-banding. This study represents the first discovery and characterization of horn fly karyotypes with 2n=11 (2n=10+B. All spermatocytes analyzed showed 5 chromosome bivalents, and therefore, 2n=10 without an extra chromosome. Study of mitotic divisions showed that some chromosomal rearrangements affecting karyotype structure are maintained as polymorphisms, and multiple correspondence analyses demonstrated that genetic variation was not associated with geographic distribution. Because it was never observed during male meiosis, we hypothesize that B-chromosome is preferentially transmitted by females and that it might be related to sex determination.

  12. High chromosomal variation in wild horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Muscidae) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forneris, Natalia S.; Otero, Gabriel; Pereyra, Ana; Repetto, Gustavo; Rabossi, Alejandro; Quesada-Allué, Luis A.; Basso, Alicia L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The horn fly, Haematobia irritans is an obligate haematophagous cosmopolitan insect pest. The first reports of attacks on livestock by Haematobia irritans in Argentina and Uruguay occurred in 1991, and since 1993 it is considered an economically important pest. Knowledge on the genetic characteristics of the horn fly increases our understanding of the phenotypes resistant to insecticides that repeatedly develop in these insects. The karyotype of Haematobia irritans, as previously described using flies from an inbred colony, shows a chromosome complement of 2n=10 without heterochromosomes (sex chromosomes). In this study, we analyze for the first time the chromosome structure and variation of four wild populations of Haematobia irritans recently established in the Southern Cone of South America, collected in Argentina and Uruguay. In these wild type populations, we confirmed and characterized the previously published “standard” karyotype of 2n=10 without sex chromosomes; however, surprisingly a supernumerary element, called B-chromosome, was found in about half of mitotic preparations. The existence of statistically significant karyotypic diversity was demonstrated through the application of orcein staining, C-banding and H-banding. This study represents the first discovery and characterization of horn fly karyotypes with 2n=11 (2n=10+B). All spermatocytes analyzed showed 5 chromosome bivalents, and therefore, 2n=10 without an extra chromosome. Study of mitotic divisions showed that some chromosomal rearrangements affecting karyotype structure are maintained as polymorphisms, and multiple correspondence analyses demonstrated that genetic variation was not associated with geographic distribution. Because it was never observed during male meiosis, we hypothesize that B-chromosome is preferentially transmitted by females and that it might be related to sex determination. PMID:25893073

  13. Impact of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill on population size and genetic structure of horse flies in Louisiana marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseneder, Claudia; Donaldson, Jennifer R; Foil, Lane D

    2016-01-12

    The greenhead horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart, is frequently found in coastal marshes of the Eastern United States. The greenhead horse fly larvae are top predators in the marsh and thus vulnerable to changes in the environment, and the adults potentially are attracted to polarized surfaces like oil. Therefore, horse fly populations could serve as bioindicators of marsh health and toxic effects of oil intrusion. In this study, we describe the impact of the April 2010 Deep Water Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico on tabanid population abundance and genetics as well as mating structure. Horse fly populations were sampled biweekly from oiled and unaffected locations immediately after the oil spill in June 2010 until October 2011. Horse fly abundance estimates showed severe crashes of tabanid populations in oiled areas. Microsatellite genotyping of six pristine and seven oiled populations at ten polymorphic loci detected genetic bottlenecks in six of the oiled populations in association with fewer breeding parents, reduced effective population size, lower number of family clusters and fewer migrants among populations. This is the first study assessing the impact of oil contamination at the level of a top arthropod predator of the invertebrate community in salt marshes.

  14. Precipitation and Temperature Effects on Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Population Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David B; Friesen, Kristina; Zhu, Jerry

    2017-06-01

    The dynamics of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), populations relative to temperature and precipitation were evaluated in a 13-yr study in eastern Nebraska. During the course of the study, >1.7 million stable flies were collected on an array of 25 sticky traps. A log-normal model using degree-days with a 15 °C threshold and weekly lags 0-4 for temperature and 2-7 for precipitation provided the best fit with the observed data. The relationships of temperature and precipitation to stable fly trap catches were both curvilinear, with maxima at 6.6 degree-day-15 (≈22 °C) and 7.4 mm precipitation per day, respectively. The temperature and precipitation model accounted for 72% of the variance in seasonal trap catches. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae) Population Dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean: Influence of Exogenous Uncertainty on a Monophagous Frugivorous Insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordano, Mariano; Engelhard, Izhar; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Nemny-Lavy, Esther; Blum, Moshe; Yasin, Sami; Lensky, Itamar M; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nestel, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the economic importance of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the large amount of biological and ecological studies on the insect, the factors driving its population dynamics (i.e., population persistence and regulation) had not been analytically investigated until the present study. Specifically, our study investigated the autoregressive process of the olive fly populations, and the joint role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors molding the population dynamics of the insect. Accounting for endogenous dynamics and the influences of exogenous factors such as olive grove temperature, the North Atlantic Oscillation and the presence of potential host fruit, we modeled olive fly populations in five locations in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Our models indicate that the rate of population change is mainly shaped by first and higher order non-monotonic, endogenous dynamics (i.e., density-dependent population feedback). The olive grove temperature was the main exogenous driver, while the North Atlantic Oscillation and fruit availability acted as significant exogenous factors in one of the five populations. Seasonal influences were also relevant for three of the populations. In spite of exogenous effects, the rate of population change was fairly stable along time. We propose that a special reproductive mechanism, such as reproductive quiescence, allows populations of monophagous fruit flies such as the olive fly to remain stable. Further, we discuss how weather factors could impinge constraints on the population dynamics at the local level. Particularly, local temperature dynamics could provide forecasting cues for management guidelines. Jointly, our results advocate for establishing monitoring programs and for a major focus of research on the relationship between life history traits and populations dynamics.

  16. A Cross-Cultural Validation of VR Treatment System for Flying Phobia in the Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Georgina; Botella, Cristina; Quero, Soledad; Moreyra, Liliana; De La Rosa, Anabel; Muñoz, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety as a symptom or disorder is affected by multiple variables such as antecedent events, interpretation of the events, psychological vulnerability, and individual differences in the reaction towards an event. Nowadays, virtual-reality therapy is used as therapeutic tool for patients suffering from some kind of anxiety disorder. In Mexico, the National Survey on Psychiatric Epidemiology [1] informed that anxiety disorders are the most common disorders followed by affective disorders, which are more prevalent in women than in men. Among the different anxiety disorders, the category of specific phobias (7.1%) was the most common. Based on this demand, a collaborative effort between research groups from the University Jaume I in Spain and the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), initiated a project which purpose was the technological transfer of systems based on virtual reality for the treatment of Fear of Flying to be implemented and evaluated in the Mexican population. The treatment protocol developed by Botella et al., [2] has been applied to five volunteer participants. In this paper we present data of adapted treatment protocols in Mexican population that support the efficacy of VR of treatment of fear of flying, achieved by the Spanish research group.

  17. Cuticular hydrocarbons corroborate the distinction between lowland and highland Natal fruit fly (Tephritidae, Ceratitis rosa) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Pompeiano, Antonio; Ekesi, Sunday; Meyer, Marc De

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs) and morphology of two Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations, putatively belonging to two cryptic taxa, were analysed. The chemical profiles were characterised by two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. CHs of Ceratitis rosa that originated from the lowlands and highlands of Kenya comprised of n-alkanes, monomethylalkanes, dimethylalkanes and unsaturated hydrocarbons in the range of the carbon backbone from C14 to C37. Hydrocarbons containing C29, C31, C33 and C35 carbon atoms predominated in these two populations. 2-Methyltriacontane was the predominant compound in both populations. Quantitative differences in the distribution of hydrocarbons of different chain lengths, mainly the C22, C32, C33 and C34 compounds of these two populations, were observed despite indistinct qualitative differences in these hydrocarbons. Morphological analyses of male legs confirmed that the flies belong to different morphotypes of Ceratitis rosa previously labelled as R1 and R2 for lowland and highland populations, respectively. A statistical analysis of the CH compositions of the putative R1 and R2 species showed distinct interspecific identities, with several CHs specific for each of the lowland and highland populations. This study supports a hypothesis that the taxon Ceratitis rosa consists of at least two biological species. PMID:26798275

  18. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Chi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis.

  19. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Michael W; Griffith, Leslie C; Vecsey, Christopher G

    2014-08-11

    Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis.

  20. Sequential utilization of hosts from different fly families by genetically distinct, sympatric populations within the Entomophthora muscae species complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii P Gryganskyi

    Full Text Available The fungus Entomophthora muscae (Entomophthoromycota, Entomophthorales, Entomophthoraceae is a widespread insect pathogen responsible for fatal epizootic events in many dipteran fly hosts. During epizootics in 2011 and 2012 in Durham, North Carolina, we observed a transition of fungal infections from one host, the plant-feeding fly Delia radicum, to a second host, the predatory fly Coenosia tigrina. Infections first appeared on Delia in the middle of March, but by the end of May, Coenosia comprised 100% of infected hosts. Multilocus sequence typing revealed that E. muscae in Durham comprises two distinct subpopulations (clades with several haplotypes in each. Fungi from either clade are able to infect both fly species, but vary in their infection phenologies and host-specificities. Individuals of the more phylogenetically diverse clade I predominated during the beginning of the spring epizootic, infecting mostly phytophagous Delia flies. Clade II dominated in late April and May and affected mostly predatory Coenosia flies. Analysis of population structure revealed two subpopulations within E. muscae with limited gene exchange. This study provides the first evidence of recombination and population structure within the E. muscae species complex, and illustrates the complexity of insect-fungus relationships that should be considered for development of biological control methods.

  1. Phenology and population dynamics of sand flies in a new focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Eastern Azarbaijan Province, North western of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teimour Hazratian; Yavar Rassi; Mohammad Ali Oshaghi; Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi; Esmael Fallah; Mohammad Reza Shirzadi; Sina Rafizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate species composition, density, accumulated degree-day and diversity of sand flies during April to October2010in Azarshahr district, a new focus of visceral leishmaniasis in north western Iran.Methods: Sand flies were collected using sticky traps biweekly and were stored in96% ethanol. All specimens were mounted in Puri's medium for species identification using valid keys of sandflies. The density was calculated by the formula: number of specimens/m2 of sticky traps and number of specimens/ number of traps. Degree-day was calculated as follows: (Maximum temperature + Minimum temperature)/2-Minimum threshold. Diversity indices of the collected sand flies within different villages were estimated by s the Shannon- weaver formula (H'=ΣPilogePi i=1 ).Results:Totally5 557 specimens comprising 16Species (14Phlebotomus, and 2Sergentomyia) were indentified. The activity of the species extended from April to October. Common sand-flies in resting places werePhlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus sergenti andPhlebotomus mongolensis. The monthly average density was 37.6, 41.1, 40.23, 30.38 and30.67 for Almalodash, Jaragil, Segaiesh, Amirdizaj and Germezgol villages, respectively. Accumulated degree-day from early January to late May was approximately289 degree days. The minimum threshold temperature for calculating of accumulated degree-day was17.32℃. According on the Shannon-weaver (H'), diversity of sand flies within area study were estimated as0.917, 1.867, 1.339, 1.673, and1.562in Almalodash, Jaragil, Segaiesh, Amirdizaj and Germezgol villages, respectively.Conclusions: This study is the first detailed research in terms of species composition, density, accumulated degree-day and diversity of sand flies in an endemic focus of visceral leishamaniasis in Azarshahr district. The population dynamics of sand flies in Azarshahr district were greatly affected by climatic factors. According to this study the highest activity of the collected sand fly species

  2. High genetic diversity in the offshore island populations of the tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chunyan; Zheng, Chunyan; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan

    2016-10-13

    Geographic isolation is an important factor that limit species dispersal and thereby affects genetic diversity. Because islands are often small and surrounded by a natural water barrier to dispersal, they generally form discrete isolated habitats. Therefore, islands may play a key role in the distribution of the genetic diversity of insects, including flies. To characterize the genetic structure of island populations of Bactrocera dorsalis, we analyzed a dataset containing both microsatellite and mtDNA loci of B. dorsalis samples collected from six offshore islands in Southern China. The microsatellite data revealed a high level of genetic diversity among these six island populations based on observed heterozygosity (Ho), expected heterozygosity (HE), Nei's standard genetic distance (D), genetic identity (I) and the percentage of polymorphic loci (PIC). These island populations had low F ST values (F ST = 0.04161), and only 4.16 % of the total genetic variation in the species was found on these islands, as determined by an analysis of molecular variance. Based on the mtDNA COI data, high nucleotide diversity (0.9655) and haplotype diversity (0.00680) were observed in all six island populations. F-statistics showed that the six island populations exhibited low or medium levels of genetic differentiation among some island populations. To investigate the population differentiation between the sampled locations, a factorial correspondence analysis and both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and Bayesian clustering methods were used to analyze the microsatellite data. The results showed that Hebao Island, Weizhou Island and Dong'ao Island were grouped together in one clade. Another clade consisted of Shangchuan Island and Naozhou Island, and a final, separate clade contained only the Wailingding Island population. Phylogenetic analysis of the mtDNA COI sequences revealed that the populations on each of these six islands were closely related to

  3. Molecular genetic analysis of populations of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly, Wohlfahrtia magnifica, in outbreak populations from Greece and Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M J R; Testa, J M; Smith, L; Adams, Z J O; Khallaayoune, K; Sotiraki, S; Stefanakis, A; Farkas, R; Ready, P D

    2009-06-01

    Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly, Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), is the most important cause of traumatic myiasis in the southern Palaearctic region. Larval stages are obligate parasites and the wounds caused by infestations are very similar to those caused by Old and New World screwworm flies. During the last decade, W. magnifica appears to have expanded its range to parts of northern and central Morocco, and to Crete, Greece. Specimens of W. magnifica were collected in Morocco and Crete either as larvae (preserved in 80% ethanol) or as adults (dry-pinned). Comparison specimens were collected in Spain, Hungary and mainland Greece. A DNA fragment containing the 3' 715 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from each of 132 larvae or adults of W. magnifica and the amplicons were directly sequenced and analysed phylogeographically. Twelve cytochrome b haplotypes were detected. All haplotypes from Morocco belonged to a lineage that included specimens from the Iberian peninsula, and restricted mixing of central and northern populations in Morocco was demonstrated. Cytochrome b haplotyping combined with an analysis of larval size provided clear evidence of multiple infestations of hosts in all geographical areas, with one quarter of wounds containing larvae from two to at least four females. More than 80% of specimens from Crete contained a haplotype predominating in mainland Greece and Hungary. Our survey indicated that wohlfahrtiosis was more widespread in northern and central Morocco than previously recorded by government veterinarians. However, the prevalence of wohlfahrtiosis was low (< 1%). The high genetic diversity of Moroccan populations is consistent with longterm endemicity, rather than recent introduction. Crete showed a higher prevalence of wohlfahrtiosis (< or = 15%) and less genetic diversity of W. magnifica, which is consistent with a recent introduction. The western and

  4. Changes of Sand Fly Populations and Leishmania infantum Infection Rates in an Irrigated Village Located in Arid Central Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoumi, Walid; Fares, Wasfi; Cherni, Saifedine; Derbali, Mohamed; Dachraoui, Khalil; Chelbi, Ifhem; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo; Beier, John C; Zhioua, Elyes

    2016-03-16

    The current spread of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) throughout arid areas of Central Tunisia is a major public health concern. The main objective of this study is to investigate whether the development of irrigation in arid bio-geographical areas in Central Tunisia have led to the establishment of a stable cycle involving sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius and Leishmania infantum, and subsequently to the emergence of ZVL. Sand flies were collected from the village of Saddaguia, a highly irrigated zone located within an arid bio-geographical area of Central Tunisia by using modified Centers for Diseases Control (CDC) light traps. Morphological keys were used to identify sand flies. Collected sand flies were pooled with up to 30 specimens per pool according to date and tested by nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) DNA sequencing from positive pools was used to identify Leishmania spp. A total of 4915 sand flies (2422 females and 2493 males) were collected from Saddaguia in September and in October 2014. Morphological identification confirmed sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius to be predominant. PCR analysis followed by DNA sequencing indicated that 15 pools were infected with L. infantum yielding an overall infection rate of 0.6%. The majority of the infected pools were of sand fly species belonging to subgenus Larroussius. Intense irrigation applied to the arid bio-geographical areas in Central Tunisia is at the origin of the development of an environment capable of sustaining important populations of sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius. This has led to the establishment of stable transmission cycles of L. infantum and subsequently to the emergence of ZVL.

  5. Phenetic and genetic structure of tsetse fly populations (Glossina palpalis palpalis) in southern Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Dramane; Ravel, Sophie; Acapovi-Yao, Geneviève; Solano, Philippe; Allou, Koffi; Bosson-Vanga, Henriette; Gardes, Laetitia; N'Goran, Eliezer Kouakou; Schofield, Christopher John; Koné, Moussa; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    2012-07-30

    Sleeping sickness, transmitted by G. p. palpalis, is known to be present in the Ivory Coast. G. p. palpalis has recently been reported to occur in several places within the town of Abidjan, including: (i) the Banco forest, (ii) the Abobo Adjamé University campus and (iii) the zoological park. Could these three places be treated sequentially, as separate tsetse populations, or should they be taken as one area comprising a single, panmictic population? The amount of gene flow between these places provides strategic information for vector control. It was estimated by the use of both microsatellite DNA and morphometric markers. The idea was to assess the interest of the faster and much less expensive morphometric approach in providing relevant information about population structure. Thus, to detect possible lack of insect exchange between these neighbouring areas of Abidjan, we used both genetic (microsatellite DNA) and phenetic (geometric morphometrics) markers on the same specimens.Using these same markers, we also compared these samples with specimens from a more distant area of south Ivory Coast, the region of Aniassué (186 km north from Abidjan). Neither genetic nor phenetic markers detected significant differentiation between the three Abidjan G. p. palpalis samples. Thus, the null hypothesis of a single panmictic population within the city of Abidjan could not be rejected, suggesting the control strategy should not consider them separately. The markers were also in agreement when comparing G. p. palpalis from Abidjan with those of Aniassué, showing significant divergence between the two sites. Both markers suggested that a successful control of tsetse in Abidjan would require the three Abidjan sites to be considered together, either by deploying control measures simultaneously in all three sites, or by a continuous progression of interventions following for instance the "rolling carpet" principle. To compare the geometry of wing venation of tsetse flies is a

  6. Life history parameters of two geographically separated populations of Spalangia cameroni, a microhymenopteran pupal parasitoid of muscoid flies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkemoe, Tone; Soleng, Arnulf; Skovgård, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is used as a biological control agent against house flies and stable flies in livestock farms in Northern Europe. In the present study, the juvenile development, survival, and sex ratio of one Danish and one Norwegian population of S. cameron...... the populations were small, but might still be important for inundative release programs...

  7. Estimating effective population size from linkage disequilibrium between unlinked loci: theory and application to fruit fly outbreak populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Sved

    Full Text Available There is a substantial literature on the use of linkage disequilibrium (LD to estimate effective population size using unlinked loci. The Ne estimates are extremely sensitive to the sampling process, and there is currently no theory to cope with the possible biases. We derive formulae for the analysis of idealised populations mating at random with multi-allelic (microsatellite loci. The 'Burrows composite index' is introduced in a novel way with a 'composite haplotype table'. We show that in a sample of diploid size S, the mean value of x2 or r2 from the composite haplotype table is biased by a factor of 1-1/(2S-12, rather than the usual factor 1+1/(2S-1 for a conventional haplotype table. But analysis of population data using these formulae leads to Ne estimates that are unrealistically low. We provide theory and simulation to show that this bias towards low Ne estimates is due to null alleles, and introduce a randomised permutation correction to compensate for the bias. We also consider the effect of introducing a within-locus disequilibrium factor to r2, and find that this factor leads to a bias in the Ne estimate. However this bias can be overcome using the same randomised permutation correction, to yield an altered r2 with lower variance than the original r2, and one that is also insensitive to null alleles. The resulting formulae are used to provide Ne estimates on 40 samples of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, from populations with widely divergent Ne expectations. Linkage relationships are known for most of the microsatellite loci in this species. We find that there is little difference in the estimated Ne values from using known unlinked loci as compared to using all loci, which is important for conservation studies where linkage relationships are unknown.

  8. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Michael W.; Leslie C. Griffith; Vecsey, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of pop...

  9. Phenetic and genetic structure of tsetse fly populations (Glossina palpalis palpalis in southern Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba Dramane

    2012-07-01

    . To compare the geometry of wing venation of tsetse flies is a cheap and fast technique. Agreement with the microsatellite approach highlights its potential for rapid assessment of population structure.

  10. Dynamics and mechanisms of permethrin resistance in a field population of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew Y. Li; Kimbedy H. Lohmeyer; J. Allen Miller

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted at the Pressler ranch, near Kerrville, Texas, USA between 2002 and 2006 to determine the dynamics and mechanisms of resistance to permethrin in a field population of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.). Changes of resistance to pyrethroid insecticide associated with use of a pour-on formulation of cyfluthrin in 2002 and use of diazinon ear tags in subsequent years were studied using a filter paper bioassay technique and a polymerase chain reaction assay that detects two sodium channel mutations, kdr and super-kdr resistance alleles. A maximum of 294-fold resistance to permethrin was observed in the summer of 2002. A significant decrease in the resistance level was observed in spring 2003, and resistance continued to decline after animals were treated with diazinon ear tags. In response to pyrethroid treatments, the allelic kdr and super-kdr frequency increased from 56.3% to 93.8% and from 7.5% to 43.8%, respectively in 2002, and decreased significantly in 2003 when the pyrethroid insecticide was no longer used to treat animals. Females were found to have a higher allelic super-kdr frequency than males in 2002, while no difference was detected between males and females in the allelic kdr frequency. There was a significant positive correlation between frequencies of the sodium channel mutations and levels of permethrin resistance, suggesting that the sodium channel mutations, kdr and super-kdr, are the major mechanisms of resistance to pyrethroids in this horn fly population. Results of synergist bioassays also indicated possible contributions of two metabolic detoxification mechanisms, the mixed function oxidases (MFO) and glutathione S-trans-ferases (GST). Compared to a horn fly infestation of an untreated herd, treatments with the pyrethroid pour-on formulation failed to control horn flies at the Pressler ranch in 2002. Sustained control of horn flies was achieved with the use of diazinon ear tags in 2003 and subsequent years.

  11. Marked Genetic Differentiation between Western Iberian and Italic Populations of the Olive Fly: Southern France as an Intermediate Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Barbara; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest affecting the olive industry, to which it is estimated to cause average annual losses in excess of one billion dollars. As with other insects with a wide distribution, it is generally accepted that the understanding of B. oleae population structure and dynamics is fundamental for the design and implementation of effective monitoring and control strategies. However, and despite important advances in the past decade, a clear picture of B. oleae's population structure is still lacking. In the Mediterranean basin, where more than 95% of olive production is concentrated, evidence from several studies suggests the existence of three distinct sub-populations, but the geographical limits of their distributions, and the level of interpenetration and gene flow among them remain ill-characterized. Here we use mitochondrial haplotype analysis to show that one of the Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages displays geographically correlated substructure and demonstrate that Italic populations, though markedly distinct from their Iberian and Levantine counterparts are more diverse than previously described. Finally, we show that this distinction does not result from extant hypothetical geographic limits imposed by the Alps or the Pyrenees nor, more generally, does it result from any sharp boundary, as intermixing is observed in a broad area, albeit at variable levels. Instead, Bayesian phylogeographic analysis suggests the interplay between isolation-mediated differentiation during glacial periods and bi-directional dispersal and population intermixing in the interglacials has played a major role in shaping current olive fly population structure.

  12. Marked Genetic Differentiation between Western Iberian and Italic Populations of the Olive Fly: Southern France as an Intermediate Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara van Asch

    Full Text Available The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest affecting the olive industry, to which it is estimated to cause average annual losses in excess of one billion dollars. As with other insects with a wide distribution, it is generally accepted that the understanding of B. oleae population structure and dynamics is fundamental for the design and implementation of effective monitoring and control strategies. However, and despite important advances in the past decade, a clear picture of B. oleae's population structure is still lacking. In the Mediterranean basin, where more than 95% of olive production is concentrated, evidence from several studies suggests the existence of three distinct sub-populations, but the geographical limits of their distributions, and the level of interpenetration and gene flow among them remain ill-characterized. Here we use mitochondrial haplotype analysis to show that one of the Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages displays geographically correlated substructure and demonstrate that Italic populations, though markedly distinct from their Iberian and Levantine counterparts are more diverse than previously described. Finally, we show that this distinction does not result from extant hypothetical geographic limits imposed by the Alps or the Pyrenees nor, more generally, does it result from any sharp boundary, as intermixing is observed in a broad area, albeit at variable levels. Instead, Bayesian phylogeographic analysis suggests the interplay between isolation-mediated differentiation during glacial periods and bi-directional dispersal and population intermixing in the interglacials has played a major role in shaping current olive fly population structure.

  13. Marked Genetic Differentiation between Western Iberian and Italic Populations of the Olive Fly: Southern France as an Intermediate Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Barbara; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest affecting the olive industry, to which it is estimated to cause average annual losses in excess of one billion dollars. As with other insects with a wide distribution, it is generally accepted that the understanding of B. oleae population structure and dynamics is fundamental for the design and implementation of effective monitoring and control strategies. However, and despite important advances in the past decade, a clear picture of B. oleae's population structure is still lacking. In the Mediterranean basin, where more than 95% of olive production is concentrated, evidence from several studies suggests the existence of three distinct sub-populations, but the geographical limits of their distributions, and the level of interpenetration and gene flow among them remain ill-characterized. Here we use mitochondrial haplotype analysis to show that one of the Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages displays geographically correlated substructure and demonstrate that Italic populations, though markedly distinct from their Iberian and Levantine counterparts are more diverse than previously described. Finally, we show that this distinction does not result from extant hypothetical geographic limits imposed by the Alps or the Pyrenees nor, more generally, does it result from any sharp boundary, as intermixing is observed in a broad area, albeit at variable levels. Instead, Bayesian phylogeographic analysis suggests the interplay between isolation-mediated differentiation during glacial periods and bi-directional dispersal and population intermixing in the interglacials has played a major role in shaping current olive fly population structure. PMID:25951107

  14. Detection and characterization of Wolbachia infections in laboratory and natural populations of different species of tsetse flies (genus Glossina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doudoumis Vangelis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolbachia is a genus of endosymbiotic α-Proteobacteria infecting a wide range of arthropods and filarial nematodes. Wolbachia is able to induce reproductive abnormalities such as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI, thelytokous parthenogenesis, feminization and male killing, thus affecting biology, ecology and evolution of its hosts. The bacterial group has prompted research regarding its potential for the control of agricultural and medical disease vectors, including Glossina spp., which transmits African trypanosomes, the causative agents of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals. Results In the present study, we employed a Wolbachia specific 16S rRNA PCR assay to investigate the presence of Wolbachia in six different laboratory stocks as well as in natural populations of nine different Glossina species originating from 10 African countries. Wolbachia was prevalent in Glossina morsitans morsitans, G. morsitans centralis and G. austeni populations. It was also detected in G. brevipalpis, and, for the first time, in G. pallidipes and G. palpalis gambiensis. On the other hand, Wolbachia was not found in G. p. palpalis, G. fuscipes fuscipes and G. tachinoides. Wolbachia infections of different laboratory and natural populations of Glossina species were characterized using 16S rRNA, the wsp (Wolbachia Surface Protein gene and MLST (Multi Locus Sequence Typing gene markers. This analysis led to the detection of horizontal gene transfer events, in which Wobachia genes were inserted into the tsetse flies fly nuclear genome. Conclusions Wolbachia infections were detected in both laboratory and natural populations of several different Glossina species. The characterization of these Wolbachia strains promises to lead to a deeper insight in tsetse flies-Wolbachia interactions, which is essential for the development and use of Wolbachia-based biological control methods.

  15. Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests: case studies of tsetse and screwworm flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, U; Ready, P D

    2014-10-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have supported a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests'. This six-year CRP (2008-2013) focused on research aimed at under-pinning the Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) of populations of tsetse and screwworm flies, and this introductory paper to the Special Issue integrates the findings of the CRP participants and discusses them in a broader context. The tools and techniques for mapping and modelling the distributions of genetically-characterised populations of tsetse and screwworm flies are increasingly used by researchers and managers for more effective decision-making in AW-IPM programmes, as illustrated by the reports in this Special Issue. Currently, the insect pests are often characterized only by neutral genetic markers suitable for recognizing spatially isolated populations that are sometimes associated with specific environments. Two challenges for those involved in AW-IPM are the standardization of best practice to permit the efficient application of GIS and genetic tools by regional teams, and the need to develop further the mapping and modelling of parasite and pest phenotypes that are epidemiologically important. Copyright © 2014 International Atomic Energy Agency 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Forest fragments as barriers to fruit fly dispersal: Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in orchards and adjacent forest fragments in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David A; Kendra, Paul E; Van Bloem, Skip; Whitmire, Stefanie; Mizell, Russ; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    McPhail-type traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine were used to monitor populations of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) in two orchards with hosts of these flies (mango, Mangifera indica L., and carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), as well as in forest fragments bordering these orchards. Contour maps were constructed to measure population distributions in and around orchards. Our results indicate that Anastrepha populations are focused around host fruit in both space and time, that traps do not draw fruit flies away from hosts, even when placed within 15 m of the host, and that lures continue to function for 6 mo in the field. The contour mapping analyses reveal that populations of fruit flies are focused around ovipositional hosts. Although the trapping system does not have a very long effective sampling range, it is ideal, when used in combination with contour analyses, for assessing fine-scale (on the order of meters) population distributions, including identifying resources around which fly populations are focused or, conversely, assessing the effectiveness of management tools. The results are discussed as they pertain to monitoring and detecting Anastrepha spp. with the McPhail-type trap and ammonium acetate and putrescine baiting system and the dispersal of these flies within Puerto Rico.

  17. Flutuação populacional de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil Population fluctuation of fruit flies in citrus orchards in the West of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antônio Chiaradia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritidae causam danos econômicos em muitas frutíferas. Para conhecer a flutuação populacional destas moscas em pomares de citros da região Oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil, e estudar as interferências de fatores climáticos sobre estes insetos, cinco frascos "caça-mosca", tendo vinagre de vinho tinto a 25% como atrativo, foram semanalmente instalados em dois pomares de laranjeiras da variedade Valência, em Águas de Chapecó e Chapecó, no período de outubro de 1999 a setembro de 2001. As moscas capturadas nas armadilhas foram triadas no Laboratório de Fitossanidade da Epagri de Chapecó. Análises de correlação e regressão polinomial foram realizadas entre o número mensal de moscas do gênero Anastrepha e os dados mensais de precipitação pluviométrica, insolação, umidade relativa do ar, velocidade do vento e temperatura ambiente. Temperatura máxima e mínima mostraram interferir na população destas moscas mais do que os outros fatores climáticos. O número mensal acumulado de moscas capturadas foi submetido à análise de regressão não linear, que revelou picos de captura destes insetos de março a junho. Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 predominou sobre outras espécies de moscas-das-frutas.Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae cause economic damages in many fruit orchards. To know the population fluctuation of these flies in Citrus orchards in the west of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and to study the environmental factor interferences on these insects, five traps with 25% vinegar were weekly installed in two orange Valência variety orchards, in Águas de Chapecó and Chapecó, from October of 1999 to September of 2001. The samples of flies trap captured were counted at Epagri Fitossanity Laboratory in Chapecó. A correlation and regression polynomial analyses between flies monthly captured of genus Anastrepha and monthly datas of rain precipitation, isolation, air humidity, wind speed

  18. Population pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in neonates and young infants less than three months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Hill, Helen; Le Guellec, Chantal; Neal, Tim; Mahoney, Sarah; Paulus, Stephane; Castellan, Charlotte; Kassai, Behrouz; van den Anker, Johannes N; Kearns, Gregory L; Turner, Mark A; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne

    2014-11-01

    Ciprofloxacin is used in neonates with suspected or documented Gram-negative serious infections. Currently, its use is off-label partly because of lack of pharmacokinetic studies. Within the FP7 EU project TINN (Treat Infection in NeoNates), our aim was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in neonates and young infants <3 months of age and define the appropriate dose in order to optimize ciprofloxacin treatment in this vulnerable population. Blood samples were collected from neonates treated with ciprofloxacin and concentrations were quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using NONMEM software. The data from 60 newborn infants (postmenstrual age [PMA] range, 24.9 to 47.9 weeks) were available for population pharmacokinetic analysis. A two-compartment model with first-order elimination showed the best fit with the data. A covariate analysis identified that gestational age, postnatal age, current weight, serum creatinine concentration, and use of inotropes had a significant impact on ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that 90% of hypothetical newborns with a PMA of <34 weeks treated with 7.5 mg/kg twice daily and 84% of newborns with a PMA ≥34 weeks and young infants receiving 12.5 mg/kg twice daily would reach the AUC/MIC target of 125, using the standard EUCAST MIC susceptibility breakpoint of 0.5 mg/liter. The associated risks of overdose for the proposed dosing regimen were <8%. The population pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin was evaluated in neonates and young infants <3 months old, and a dosing regimen was established based on simulation.

  19. Population Pharmacokinetics of Ciprofloxacin in Neonates and Young Infants Less than Three Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Hill, Helen; Le Guellec, Chantal; Neal, Tim; Mahoney, Sarah; Paulus, Stephane; Castellan, Charlotte; Kassai, Behrouz; van den Anker, Johannes N.; Kearns, Gregory L.; Turner, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is used in neonates with suspected or documented Gram-negative serious infections. Currently, its use is off-label partly because of lack of pharmacokinetic studies. Within the FP7 EU project TINN (Treat Infection in NeoNates), our aim was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in neonates and young infants ciprofloxacin treatment in this vulnerable population. Blood samples were collected from neonates treated with ciprofloxacin and concentrations were quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using NONMEM software. The data from 60 newborn infants (postmenstrual age [PMA] range, 24.9 to 47.9 weeks) were available for population pharmacokinetic analysis. A two-compartment model with first-order elimination showed the best fit with the data. A covariate analysis identified that gestational age, postnatal age, current weight, serum creatinine concentration, and use of inotropes had a significant impact on ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that 90% of hypothetical newborns with a PMA of ciprofloxacin was evaluated in neonates and young infants <3 months old, and a dosing regimen was established based on simulation. PMID:25155587

  20. Full dates (day, month, year) should be used in population-based cancer survival studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Laura M; Rachet, Bernard; Ellis, Libby; Coleman, Michel P

    2012-10-01

    Accurate survival estimates are essential for monitoring cancer survival trends, for health care planning and for resource allocation. To obtain precise estimates of survival, full dates (day, month and year) rather than partial dates (month and year) are required. In some jurisdictions, however, cancer registries are constrained from providing full dates on the grounds of confidentiality. The bias resulting from the use of partial dates in the estimation and comparison of survival makes it impossible to determine precisely the differences in the risk of death from cancer between population groups or in successive calendar periods. Important operational arguments also exist against the use of incomplete dates for survival analysis, including increased workload for cancer registry staff and the introduction of avoidable complexity for quality control of survival data. Cancer survival is one of the most widely known outputs produced by population-based cancer registries, and it is a crucial metric for the comparative effectiveness of health services. The bodies that set data access guidelines must take a more balanced view of the risks and benefits of using full dates for the estimation of cancer survival.

  1. Identifying children with autism spectrum disorder at 18 months in a general population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Nina; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Gunnes, Nina; Hirtz, Deborah; Hornig, Mady; Lie, Kari Kveim; Lipkin, W Ian; Lord, Catherine; Magnus, Per; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Schjølberg, Synnve; Surén, Pål; Susser, Ezra; Svendsen, Britt Kveim; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Oyen, Anne-Siri; Stoltenberg, Camilla

    2014-05-01

    Previous research on clinical and high-risk samples suggests that signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be detected between 1 and 2 years of age. We investigated signs of ASD at 18 months in a population-based sample and the association with later ASD diagnosis. The study sample includes 52,026 children born 2003 through 2008 and is a subset of children that participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa), a population-based longitudinal study, and the Autism Birth Cohort (ABC), a sub-study on ASD. Parents completed all 23 items from the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) at 18 months. The M-CHAT 6-critical-item criterion and the 23-item criterion had a specificity of 97.9% and 92.7% and a sensitivity of 20.8% and 34.1%, respectively. In the 173 children diagnosed with ASD to date, 60 children (34.7%) scored above the cut-off on either of the screening criteria. The items with the highest likelihood ratios were 'interest in other children', 'show objects to others' and 'response to name'. Even though one-third of the children who later received an ASD diagnosis were identified through M-CHAT items, the majority scored below cut-off on the screening criteria at 18 months. The results imply that it might not be possible to detect all children with ASD at this age. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Mexican Fruit Fly Populations in the Semi-Arid Highlands of the Sierra Madre Oriental in Northeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanoye-Eligio, V; Mora-Olivo, A; Gaona-García, G; Reyes-Zepeda, F; Rocandio-Rodríguez, M

    2017-01-04

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most important pests of citrus in Mexico. We report the results of an analysis of A. ludens populations that inhabit the semi-arid highlands of the Sierra Madre Oriental in northeastern Mexico. This study aimed to provide information on population fluctuation of A. ludens and how it relates to climate variables, as well as insights into habitat and native parasitoids. Population peaked in the period July-November when ripe fruits of the wild host, Casimiroa pubescens Ramírez, were available. No adults were captured the rest of the year, suggesting that high populations depend on the availability of wild host fruit. No significant relationships between population fluctuation and climatic variables were observed, except for minimum temperature. Fruit samples of citron (Citrus medica L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and C. pubescens were collected to determine degree of infestation. Infestation levels (pupae/g) ranged between 0.0006 for citron, 0.0047 for pomegranate, and 0.0240 for C. pubescens. A native parasitoid of Tephritidae, Doryctobracon crawfordii (Viereck) (Braconidae), was identified. Parasitism percentage was calculated at 12.5% on C. pubescens fruits. No parasitoids were observed on citron or pomegranate fruit samples. These results contribute to knowledge on behavior of A. ludens native to temperate environments where no commercial hosts are available. Further research on host expansion of this pest in light of scenarios of global climate change is suggested.

  3. Genetic variability among populations of the sand fly Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutebi, J P; Rowton, E; Herrero, M V; Ponce, C; Belli, A; Valle, S; Lanzaro, G C

    1998-03-01

    Eleven Central American populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were analyzed for genetic variation at 16 enzyme loci. The aim was to study the genetic structure among populations within this region and to identify demes that may represent different sibling species. Genotypic frequencies within populations agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, indicating that there were no sympatric sibling species among these 11 populations. Levels of genetic distance between pairs of populations were very low (migration rates among populations (Nm) were low (3.7), indicating that gene flow was restricted. These data explained observed genetic substructuring when all genotypes were pooled.

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Musca domestica L.: temporospatial examination of bacteria population dynamics and house fly antimicrobial responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies associate with microbes throughout their life history. Bacteria ingested by adult flies enter the alimentary canal and face a hostile environment including antimicrobial defenses. Because the outcome of this interaction impacts bacterial survival and dissemination, our primary objective ...

  5. Genetic diversity and population structure of the New World screwworm fly from the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fresia, Pablo; Lyra, Mariana L; Rodrigues, Rosangela A; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L

    2014-10-01

    Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) is a myiasis fly that causes economic losses to livestock farmers in warmer American regions. Previous studies of this pest had found population structure at north and south of the Amazon Basin, which was considered to be a barrier to dispersal. The present study analyzed three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and eight nuclear microsatellite loci to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity and population structure across the Brazilian Amazon region (Amazonia). Both mtDNA and microsatellite data supported the existence of much diversity and significant population structure among nine regional populations of C. hominivorax, which was found to be surprisingly common in Amazonia. Forty-six mtDNA haplotypes were identified, of which 39 were novel and seven had previously been found only at south of Amazonia. Seventy microsatellite alleles were identified by size, moderate to high values of heterozygosity were discovered in all regions, and a Bayesian clustering analysis identified four genetic groups that were not geographically distributed. Reproductive compatibility was also investigated by laboratory crossing, but no evidence of hybrid dysgenesis was found between an Amazonian colony and one each of from Northeast and Southeast Brazil. The results have important implications for area-wide control by the Sterile Insect Technique.

  6. Polyandry is a common event in wild populations of the Tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and may impact population reduction measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Bonomi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the main vector of human and animal trypanosomiasis in Africa, particularly in Uganda. Attempts to control/eradicate this species using biological methods require knowledge of its reproductive biology. An important aspect is the number of times a female mates in the wild as this influences the effective population size and may constitute a critical factor in determining the success of control methods. To date, polyandry in G.f. fuscipes has not been investigated in the laboratory or in the wild. Interest in assessing the presence of remating in Ugandan populations is driven by the fact that eradication of this species is at the planning stage in this country.Two well established populations, Kabukanga in the West and Buvuma Island in Lake Victoria, were sampled to assess the presence and frequency of female remating. Six informative microsatellite loci were used to estimate the number of matings per female by genotyping sperm preserved in the female spermathecae. The direct count of the minimum number of males that transferred sperm to the spermathecae was compared to Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian probability estimates. The three estimates provided evidence that remating is common in the populations but the frequency is substantially different: 57% in Kabukanga and 33% in Buvuma.The presence of remating, with females maintaining sperm from different mates, may constitute a critical factor in cases of re-infestation of cleared areas and/or of residual populations. Remating may enhance the reproductive potential of re-invading propagules in terms of their effective population size. We suggest that population age structure may influence remating frequency. Considering the seasonal demographic changes that this fly undergoes during the dry and wet seasons, control programmes based on SIT should release large numbers of sterile males, even in residual surviving target populations, in the dry season.

  7. Polyandry is a common event in wild populations of the Tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and may impact population reduction measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomi, Angelica; Bassetti, Federico; Gabrieli, Paolo; Beadell, Jon; Falchetto, Marco; Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Regazzini, Eugenio; Ouma, Johnson O; Caccone, Adalgisa; Okedi, Loyce M; Attardo, Geoffrey M; Guglielmino, Carmela R; Aksoy, Serap; Malacrida, Anna R

    2011-06-01

    Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the main vector of human and animal trypanosomiasis in Africa, particularly in Uganda. Attempts to control/eradicate this species using biological methods require knowledge of its reproductive biology. An important aspect is the number of times a female mates in the wild as this influences the effective population size and may constitute a critical factor in determining the success of control methods. To date, polyandry in G.f. fuscipes has not been investigated in the laboratory or in the wild. Interest in assessing the presence of remating in Ugandan populations is driven by the fact that eradication of this species is at the planning stage in this country. Two well established populations, Kabukanga in the West and Buvuma Island in Lake Victoria, were sampled to assess the presence and frequency of female remating. Six informative microsatellite loci were used to estimate the number of matings per female by genotyping sperm preserved in the female spermathecae. The direct count of the minimum number of males that transferred sperm to the spermathecae was compared to Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian probability estimates. The three estimates provided evidence that remating is common in the populations but the frequency is substantially different: 57% in Kabukanga and 33% in Buvuma. The presence of remating, with females maintaining sperm from different mates, may constitute a critical factor in cases of re-infestation of cleared areas and/or of residual populations. Remating may enhance the reproductive potential of re-invading propagules in terms of their effective population size. We suggest that population age structure may influence remating frequency. Considering the seasonal demographic changes that this fly undergoes during the dry and wet seasons, control programmes based on SIT should release large numbers of sterile males, even in residual surviving target populations, in the dry season.

  8. Age structure and abundance in populations of muscoid flies from a poultry facility in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avancini Rita MP

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscina stabulans, M. domestica, Chrysomya putoria, C. megacephala and Stomoxys calcitrans were the most abundant muscoid flies captured in a poultry facility in southeastern Brazil. We examined the gonadotrophic profiles of the females caught at different sites and different times and found that Mu. stabulans and M. domestica, the predominant species, presented similar gonadotrophic profiles only when captured on the manure under the cages, but very different and sometimes opposite gonadotrophic profiles when sampled from wooden posts, vegetation or electric cords. We also determined sex ratios and relative abundance for these two species and found significant differences between them. More than 50% of the females of both species of Chrysomya captured on manure carried eggs or exhibited signs of recent oviposition. The vast majority of S. calcitrans presented ovaries with eggs or signs of recent oviposition. A small proportion of them had ovaries in the recent emerged condition. Our data on ovarian stages, sex ratio and relative abundance allowed us to associate different gonadotrophic profiles with each site and characterize each site as a resting, ovipositing or mating site.

  9. A centralised remote data collection system using automated traps for managing and controlling the population of the Mediterranean (Ceratitis capitata) and olive (Dacus oleae) fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philimis, Panayiotis; Psimolophitis, Elias; Hadjiyiannis, Stavros; Giusti, Alessandro; Perelló, Josep; Serrat, Albert; Avila, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The present paper describes the development of a novel monitoring system (e-FlyWatch system) for managing and controlling the population of two of the world's most destructive fruit pests, namely the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae, Rossi - formerly Dacus oleae) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, also called medfly). The novel monitoring system consists of a) novel automated traps with optical and motion detection modules for capturing the flies, b) local stations including a GSM/GPRS module, sensors, flash memory, battery, antenna etc. and c) a central station that collects, stores and publishes the results (i.e. insect population in each field, sensor data, possible error/alarm data) via a web-based management software.The centralised data collection system provides also analysis and prediction models, end-user warning modules and historical analysis of infested areas. The e-FlyWatch system enables the SMEs-producers in the Fruit, Vegetable and Olive sectors to improve their production reduce the amount of insecticides/pesticides used and consequently the labour cost for spraying activities, and the labour cost for traps inspection.

  10. Population fluctuation of adult males of the fruit fly, Bactrocera tau Walker (Diptera: Tephritidae) in passion fruit orchards in relation to abiotic factors and sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasyim, A.; Muryati, M.; Kogel, de W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Fruit fly (Bactrocera tau) is the most destructive pest on some fruits in Indonesia. Monitoring of the pest population is essential as one of the procedures in the IPM concept. The study aimed to investigate the seasonal fluctuation of adult males of B. tau and their damage on passion fruits in rela

  11. Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, an endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations were investigated in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, North Greece from May to October 2011. Sampling was conducted weekly in 3 different environments (animal facilities, open fields, residential areas) al...

  12. Sequential Utilization of Hosts from Different Fly Families by Genetically Distinct, Sympatric Populations within the Entomophthora muscae Species Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Gryganskyi, Andrii P.; Humber, Richard A.; Stajich, Jason E.; Bradley Mullens; Anishchenko, Iryna M.; Rytas Vilgalys

    2013-01-01

    The fungus Entomophthora muscae (Entomophthoromycota, Entomophthorales, Entomophthoraceae) is a widespread insect pathogen responsible for fatal epizootic events in many dipteran fly hosts. During epizootics in 2011 and 2012 in Durham, North Carolina, we observed a transition of fungal infections from one host, the plant-feeding fly Delia radicum, to a second host, the predatory fly Coenosia tigrina. Infections first appeared on Delia in the middle of March, but by the end of May, Coenosia co...

  13. Flying between sky islands: the effect of naturally fragmented habitat on butterfly population structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Sandhya; Karanth, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    High elevation montane areas are called "sky islands" when they occur as a series of high mountains separated by lowland valleys. Different climatic conditions at high elevations makes sky islands a specialized type of habitat, rendering them naturally fragmented compared to more continuous habitat at lower elevations. Species in sky islands face unsuitable climate in the intervening valleys when moving from one montane area to another. The high elevation shola-grassland mosaic in the Western Ghats of southern India form one such sky island complex. The fragmented patches make this area ideal to study the effect of the spatial orientation of suitable habitat patches on population genetic structure of species found in these areas. Past studies have suggested that sky islands tend to have genetically structured populations, possibly due to reduced gene flow between montane areas. To test this hypothesis, we adopted the comparative approach. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we compared population genetic structures of two closely related, similar sized butterfly species: Heteropsis oculus, a high elevation shola-grassland specialist restricted to the southern Western Ghats, and Mycalesis patnia, found more continuously distributed in lower elevations. In all analyses, as per expectation the sky island specialist H. oculus exhibited a greater degree of population genetic structure than M. patnia, implying a difference in geneflow. This difference in geneflow in turn appears to be due to the natural fragmentation of the sky island complexes. Detailed analysis of a subset of H. oculus samples from one sky island complex (the Anamalais) showed a surprising genetic break. A possible reason for this break could be unsuitable conditions of higher temperature and lower rainfall in the intervening valley region. Thus, sky island species are not only restricted by lack of habitat continuity between montane areas, but also by the nature of the intervening habitat.

  14. Natural Parasitism in Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations in Disturbed Areas Adjacent to Commercial Mango Orchards in Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Pablo; Ayala, Amanda; López, Patricia; Cancino, Jorge; Cabrera, Héctor; Cruz, Jassmin; Martinez, Ana Mabel; Figueroa, Isaac; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    To determine the natural parasitism in fruit fly populations in disturbed areas adjacent to commercial mango orchards in the states of Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico, we recorded over one year the fruit fly-host associations, fly infestation, and parasitism rates in backyard orchards and patches of native vegetation. We also investigated the relationship between fruit size, level of larval infestation, and percent of parasitism, and attempted to determine the presence of superparasitism. The most recurrent species in trap catches was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), followed by Anastrepha ludens (Loew), in both study zones. The fruit infestation rates were higher in Chiapas than in Veracruz, with A. obliqua again being the most conspicuous species emerging from collected fruits. The diversity of parasitoids species attacking fruit fly larvae was greater in Chiapas, with a predominance of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) in both sites, although the exotic Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) was well established in Chiapas. Fruit size was positively correlated with the number of larvae per fruit, but this relationship was not observed in the level of parasitism. The number of oviposition scars was not related to the number of immature parasitoids inside the pupa of D. areolatus emerging from plum fruits. Mass releases of Di. longicaudata seem not to affect the presence or prevalence of the native species. Our findings open new research scenarios on the role and impact of native parasitoid species attacking Anastrepha flies that can contribute to the development of sound strategies for using these species in projects for augmentative biological control.

  15. Population dynamics of the oriental fruit fly in Nanao County,Guangdong%广东海岛南澳县桔小实蝇种群动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈其生; 吴剑光; 柯松林; 李小健; 郑少波; 陈捷先; 刘晓莹; 鄞杰平; 黄锦炎

    2012-01-01

    Annual monitoring was conducted on the population dynamics of the oriental fruit fly,Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae) through methyl eugenol-baited traps in Nanao County of Shantou City,Guangdong from 2009 to 2011.The results indicated the oriental fruit fly damages seriourly in Nanao County and the oriental fruit fly occurred all year round.Usually,its peak was from June to September of every year.Influenced by factors as temperature,rainfall and ecological environment around monitoring stations,number of population dynamics of the oriental fruit fly at the same monitoring stations obviously differed every year.%2009~2011年在广东省汕头市南澳县使用桔小实蝇诱剂监测桔小实蝇种群动态数量。研究结果表明:南澳县桔小实蝇为害极为严重,南澳县一年四季均有桔小实蝇的发生为害,一般情况下,高峰期在每年6~9月;受温度、雨量和监测点周围生态环境等因素的影响,同一监测点每年桔小实蝇种群出现高峰的数量有明显差异。

  16. Estimating SIT-driven population reduction in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, from sterile mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Blasco, M; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Pla, I; Argilés, R; Castañera, P; Jacas, J A; Ibáñez-Gual, M V; Urbaneja, A

    2014-04-01

    Area-wide sterile insect technique (SIT) programs assume that offspring reduction of the target population correlates with the mating success of the sterile males released. However, there is a lack of monitoring tools to prove the success of these programs in real-time. Field-cage tests were conducted under the environmental conditions of the Mediterranean coast of Spain to estimate: (a) the mating success of sterile Vienna-8 (V8) Ceratitis capitata males using molecular markers and (b) their efficacy to reduce C. capitata populations under six release ratios of wild females to wild males to V8 males (1:0:0, 1:1:0, 1:1:1, 1:1:5, 1:1:10, and 1:1:20). Statistical models were developed to predict: (a) the number of females captured in traps, (b) sperm ID (sterile or not) in spermathecae of the trapped females, and (c) the viable offspring produced, using release ratio and temperature as predictors. The number of females captured was affected by relative humidity. However, its influence in the model was low. Female captures were significantly higher in ratios 1:0:0 compared to ratios where V8 males were released. The proportion of V8 sperm in spermathecae increased with temperature and with the number of V8 males released, but leveled off between ratios 1:1:10 and 1:1:20. In all seasons, except winter (no offspring), viable offspring increased with temperature and was lowest for ratio 1:1:20. For the first time, a strong negative relationship between proportion of V8 sperm detected by molecular tools and C. capitata offspring was established. The models obtained should contribute to enhance the efficacy of SIT programs against this pest.

  17. [Health related quality of life and kidney transplantation: a comparison with population values at 6 months post-transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Requena, Gema; Cantarell Aixendri, M Carmen; Rodriguez Urrutia, Amanda; Seron Micas, Daniel

    2014-05-06

    Transplantation is an effective treatment for end stage renal failure. The aim of this study was to compare patient's perceived health related quality of life (HRQoL) with population values, at one moth and 6 moths of kidney post-transplantation. The Questionnaire of Quality of Life in Kidney Disease was administered during the first month and also at the 6 months following transplantation. A comparison with the general population was done with the generic part of the questionnaire. In the statistical analyses, typical standardized scores were used. In this study 72 patients were included with a median age of 57 years. At the 6 month post-transplantation, the patient's HRQoL showed values that were similar to the general population. When we compared the HRQoL at the first month and at the 6 month post-transplantation, the differences of HRQoL were significant in all dimensions, except on the General health and Emotional role. At 6 moths after transplantation, there was an improvement in the perceived HRQoL that was similar to the general population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. More than one rabbit out of the hat: Radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based approaches for sustainable management of mosquito and tsetse fly populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtzis, Kostas; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Hendrichs, Jorge; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2016-05-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) are bloodsucking vectors of human and animal pathogens. Mosquito-borne diseases (malaria, filariasis, dengue, zika, and chikungunya) cause severe mortality and morbidity annually, and tsetse fly-borne diseases (African trypanosomes causing sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock) cost Sub-Saharan Africa an estimated US$ 4750 million annually. Current reliance on insecticides for vector control is unsustainable: due to increasing insecticide resistance and growing concerns about health and environmental impacts of chemical control there is a growing need for novel, effective and safe biologically-based methods that are more sustainable. The integration of the sterile insect technique has proven successful to manage crop pests and disease vectors, particularly tsetse flies, and is likely to prove effective against mosquito vectors, particularly once sex-separation methods are improved. Transgenic and symbiont-based approaches are in development, and more advanced in (particularly Aedes) mosquitoes than in tsetse flies; however, issues around stability, sustainability and biosecurity have to be addressed, especially when considering population replacement approaches. Regulatory issues and those relating to intellectual property and economic cost of application must also be overcome. Standardised methods to assess insect quality are required to compare and predict efficacy of the different approaches. Different combinations of these three approaches could be integrated to maximise their benefits, and all have the potential to be used in tsetse and mosquito area-wide integrated pest management programmes.

  19. Thermal tolerance in a south-east African population of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera, Glossinidae): implications for forecasting climate change impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terblanche, John S; Clusella-Trullas, Susana; Deere, Jacques A; Chown, Steven L

    2008-01-01

    For tsetse (Glossina spp.), the vectors of human and animal trypanosomiases, the physiological mechanisms linking variation in population dynamics with changing weather conditions have not been well established. Here, we investigate high- and low-temperature tolerance in terms of activity limits and survival in a natural population of adult Glossina pallidipes from eastern Zambia. Due to increased interest in chilling flies for handling and aerial dispersal in sterile insect technique control and eradication programmes, we also provide further detailed investigation of low-temperature responses. In wild-caught G. pallidipes, the probability of survival for 50% of the population at low-temperatures was at 3.7, 8.9 and 9.6 degrees C (95% CIs: +/-1.5 degrees C) for 1, 2 and 3 h treatments, respectively. At high temperatures, it was estimated that treatments at 37.9, 36.2 and 35.6 degrees C (95% CIs: +/-0.5 degrees C) would yield 50% population survival for 1, 2 and 3 h, respectively. Significant effects of time and temperature were detected at both temperature extremes (GLZ, pcoma temperatures under natural conditions (approximately 20-21 degrees C). The results from acute hardening experiments in the Zambian population demonstrate limited ability to improve low-temperature tolerance over short (hourly) timescales after non-lethal pre-treatments. In flies which survived chilling, recovery times were non-linear with plateaus between 2-6 and 8-12 degrees C. Survival times ranged between 4 and 36 h and did not vary between flies which had undergone chill coma by comparison with flies which had not, even after factoring body condition into the analyses (p>0.5 in all cases). However, flies with low chill coma values had the highest body water and fat content, indicating that when energy reserves are depleted, low-temperature tolerance may be compromised. Overall, these results suggest that physiological mechanisms may provide insight into tsetse population dynamics, hence

  20. Repeat Colonoscopy within 6 Months after Initial Outpatient Colonoscopy in Ontario: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Paszat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The goal of this study is to examine utilization of early repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months after an index procedure. Methods. We identified persons having repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months following outpatient colonoscopy without prior colonoscopy ≤ 5 years or prior diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC. We modeled repeat colonoscopy using a generalized estimating equation with an exchangeable correlation structure to account for clustering of patients by endoscopist. Results. The population included 334,663 persons, 7,892 (2.36% of whom had an early repeat colonoscopy within 6 months. Overall, endoscopist prior year colonoscopy volume was inversely related to repeat ≤ 6 months. Repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months varied by the clinical setting of the index colonoscopy (adjusted OR = 1.41 (95% CI 1.29–1.55 at nonhospital facilities compared to teaching or community hospitals. Among those who had polypectomy or biopsy, the adjusted OR for early repeat ≤ 6 months was elevated among those whose index colonoscopy was at a nonhospital facility (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.30–1.60, compared to those at a teaching hospital or community hospital. Conclusions. Repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months after an index procedure is associated with the clinical setting of the index colonoscopy.

  1. Flying Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Flying Things. Installation. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Flying Things. Installation. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016....

  2. Community Structure and Population Dynamics of the Fruit Fly in Kejie Region%柯街地区实蝇群落结构及其动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉

    2012-01-01

    2007~2008年对云南柯街地区实蝇(Bactrocera spp.)群落调查研究的结果表明,柯街地区实蝇类害虫共有11种,其中橘小实蝇(B.dorsalis)属于绝对优势种,瓜实蝇(B.cucurbitae)次之.物种丰富度动态和数量动态基本一致,6~8月为发生高峰期;群落Shannon多样性指教、Simpson指数和均匀度具有同增同减性,且6~8月为最低.分析表明,温度和寄主是影响当地实蝇类害虫个体数量变动的关键因子.另外,柯街实蝇优势种的优势地位明显,群落生态优势度高,是造成6~8月多样性和均匀度低的主要原因.%According to the study and investigation on the fruit fly in Kejie during 2007-2008, there are eleven species of Bactrocera. The local dominant species of fruit flies is B. Dorsalis; and the second was B. Cucurbitae. The dynamics of fruit fly abundance and fruit fly individuals wre all the same, which reached the peak from June to August. The community diversity, simpson and eveniness were similar in increasion and reduction which were the lowest from June to August. The correlation analysis indicated that temperature and host plant species were the main factors influencing the population fluctuations. In addition, the main reason causing diversity and eviness lower was the obvious position of the dominant species of fruit flies from June to August.

  3. Comparison of ArcGIS and SAS Geostatistical Analyst to Estimate Population-Weighted Monthly Temperature for US Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaopeng, Q I; Liang, Wei; Barker, Laurie; Lekiachvili, Akaki; Xingyou, Zhang

    Temperature changes are known to have significant impacts on human health. Accurate estimates of population-weighted average monthly air temperature for US counties are needed to evaluate temperature's association with health behaviours and disease, which are sampled or reported at the county level and measured on a monthly-or 30-day-basis. Most reported temperature estimates were calculated using ArcGIS, relatively few used SAS. We compared the performance of geostatistical models to estimate population-weighted average temperature in each month for counties in 48 states using ArcGIS v9.3 and SAS v 9.2 on a CITGO platform. Monthly average temperature for Jan-Dec 2007 and elevation from 5435 weather stations were used to estimate the temperature at county population centroids. County estimates were produced with elevation as a covariate. Performance of models was assessed by comparing adjusted R(2), mean squared error, root mean squared error, and processing time. Prediction accuracy for split validation was above 90% for 11 months in ArcGIS and all 12 months in SAS. Cokriging in SAS achieved higher prediction accuracy and lower estimation bias as compared to cokriging in ArcGIS. County-level estimates produced by both packages were positively correlated (adjusted R(2) range=0.95 to 0.99); accuracy and precision improved with elevation as a covariate. Both methods from ArcGIS and SAS are reliable for U.S. county-level temperature estimates; However, ArcGIS's merits in spatial data pre-processing and processing time may be important considerations for software selection, especially for multi-year or multi-state projects.

  4. Use of wing morphometrics to identify populations of the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae): a preliminary study of the utility of museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M J R; MacLeod, N; Wardhana, A H

    2014-10-01

    The Old World screwworm (OWS) fly, Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a major economic and welfare problem for humans and animals in the Old World tropics. Using a bootstrapped log likelihood ratio test of the output of Procrustes principal components and canonical variates analyses for a small sample of museum specimens from which 19 2D wing landmarks had been collected: (1) a consistent and statistically significant difference exists between landmark configurations derived from wings of pinned specimens and those removed from the body and mounted on slides; (2) a highly statistically significant sexual dimorphism in wing morphometry was identified; and (3) a highly statistically significant difference in wing morphometry between populations of the OWS fly from Africa (Tanzania, South Africa Sudan, Zaire, Zimbabwe,) and Asia (Sumba, Indonesia) exists. These results show that wing orientation and gender must be considered when conducting morphometric investigations of OWS fly wings. The latter result is also consistent with results from previous molecular and morphological studies, which indicate there are two distinct genetic lineages within this species. Wing morphometry holds great promise as a practical tool to aid in identification of the geographical origin of introductions of this important pest species, by providing diagnostic markers to distinguish geographical populations and complement molecular diagnostics.

  5. Investigation of fly population and seasonal variation at Wuxi international airport%无锡国际机场蝇类种群及季节消长情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁均; 丁永健; 李宗; 陆永贵

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解无锡国际机场蝇类本底情况,为蝇类防治提供基础数据.方法 采用诱蝇笼法对蝇类密度、种群分布、季节消长情况进行调查.结果 无锡国际机场有蝇类5科13属20种;绿蝇为优势种;7,8,9月为蝇类活动高峰期.结论 控制蝇类种群与孳生物的种类、数量以及气温有很大关系,应采取综合防治措施来有效控制蝇类.%Objective To investigate flies background conditions and provide basic data for fly prevention and control at Wuxi international airport. Methods Using cone traps to investigate fly density, population distribution and seasonal fluctuation. Results Five families, 13 genera and 20 species of flies were found ,green flies was the dominant species. The peak fly activity was in July,August and September. Conclusion Controlling flies breeding population and type of material, quantity and temperature were closely related. Integrated management should be taken to control flies.

  6. Incongruent nuclear and mitochondrial genetic structure of new world screwworm fly populations due to positive selection of mutations associated with dimethyl- and diethyl-organophosphates resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamo, Luana Walravens; Fresia, Pablo; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is an important economic activity in Brazil, which has been suffering significant losses due to the impact of parasites. The New World screwworm (NWS) fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, is an ectoparasite and one of the most important myiasis-causing flies endemic to the Americas. The geographic distribution of NWS has been reduced after the implementation of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), being eradicated in North America and part of Central America. In South America, C. hominivorax is controlled by chemical insecticides, although indiscriminate use can cause selection of resistant individuals. Previous studies have associated the Gly137Asp and Trp251Leu mutations in the active site of carboxylesterase E3 to resistance of diethyl and dimethyl-organophosphates insecticides, respectively. Here, we have sequenced a fragment of the carboxylesterase E3 gene (ChαE7), comprising part of intron iII, exon eIII, intron iIII and part of exon eIV, and three mitochondrial gene sequences (CR, COI and COII), of NWS flies from 21 locations in South America. These markers were used for population structure analyses and the ChαE7 gene was also investigated to gain insight into the selective pressures that have shaped its evolution. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and pairwise FST analysis indicated an increased genetic structure between locations in the ChαE7 compared to the concatenated mitochondrial genes. Discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA) indicated different degrees of genetic structure for all markers, in agreement with the AMOVA results, but with low correlation to geographic data. The NWS fly is considered a panmitic species based on mitochondrial data, while it is structured into three groups considering the ChαE7 gene. A negative association between the two mutations related to organophosphate resistance and Fay & Wu's H significant negative values for the exons, suggest

  7. Molecular detection of canine parvovirus in flies (Diptera) at open and closed canine facilities in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagshaw, Clarence; Isdell, Allen E; Thiruvaiyaru, Dharma S; Brisbin, I Lehr; Sanchez, Susan

    2014-06-01

    More than thirty years have passed since canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as a significant pathogen and it continues to pose a severe threat to world canine populations. Published information suggests that flies (Diptera) may play a role in spreading this virus; however, they have not been studied extensively and the degree of their involvement is not known. This investigation was directed toward evaluating the vector capacity of such flies and determining their potential role in the transmission and ecology of CPV. Molecular diagnostic methods were used in this cross-sectional study to detect the presence of CPV in flies trapped at thirty-eight canine facilities. The flies involved were identified as belonging to the house fly (Mucidae), flesh fly (Sarcophagidae) and blow/bottle fly (Calliphoridae) families. A primary surveillance location (PSL) was established at a canine facility in south-central South Carolina, USA, to identify fly-virus interaction within the canine facility environment. Flies trapped at this location were pooled monthly and assayed for CPV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. These insects were found to be positive for CPV every month from February through the end of November 2011. Fly vector behavior and seasonality were documented and potential environmental risk factors were evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the mean numbers of each of the three fly families captured, and after determining fly CPV status (positive or negative), it was determined whether there were significant relationships between numbers of flies captured, seasonal numbers of CPV cases, temperature and rainfall. Flies were also sampled at thirty-seven additional canine facility surveillance locations (ASL) and at four non-canine animal industry locations serving as negative field controls. Canine facility risk factors were identified and evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted on the number of CPV cases reported within the past year

  8. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in relation to region, trap type, season, and availability of fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Miller, Gina T; Stewart-Leslie, Judy; Rice, Richard E; Phillips, Phil A

    2006-12-01

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), was monitored with adult captures by season and trap type, and was related to fruit volume and nonharvested fruit to elucidate the occurrence of the newly introduced pest in California. The highest numbers of adults captured in ChamP traps in olive trees, Olea europaea, were in October in an inland valley location, and in September in a coastal location. Comparisons of trap types showed that the number of olive fruit fly adults captured in Pherocon AM traps in a commercial orchard was significantly greater than in ChamP traps. A significantly greater number of females were captured in Pherocon AM traps with bait packets and pheromone lures than traps with pheromone lures alone, while a significantly greater number of adults and males were captured in traps with pheromone lures alone. Significantly more adults were captured in ChamP traps with bait packets and pheromone lures versus traps with bait packets alone. Fruit volume increased by four times from mid-June to mid-November. Olive fruit fly was found to oviposit on small olive fruit fruit set, the maximum number of ovipositional sites per fruit occurred in October, and the greatest number of pupae and adults were reared from fruit collected in September and October. The highest numbers of pupae were collected from nonharvested fruit in March when high numbers of adults were captured in the same orchard.

  9. Flying Scared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Sie, Marco; Josiassen, Alexander

    service quality expectations and fear of flying affect travellers' flight choices on long-haul flights. The study was set in Bangkok and primary data were obtained from a large sample of travelers departing from Suvarnabhumi Airport. While service quality emerged as a relevant factor, fear of flying didn......’t turn out as a variable affecting travellers’ choices....

  10. Physical aggression and language ability from 17 to 72 months: cross-lagged effects in a population sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Christine Girard

    Full Text Available Does poor language ability in early childhood increase the likelihood of physical aggression or is language ability delayed by frequent physical aggression? This study examined the longitudinal associations between physical aggression and language ability from toddlerhood to early childhood in a population sample while controlling for parenting behaviours, non-verbal intellectual functioning, and children's sex.Children enrolled in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD (N = 2, 057 were assessed longitudinally from 17 to 72 months via parent reports and standardized assessments.The cross-lagged models revealed modest reciprocal associations between physical aggression and language performance from 17 to 41 months but not thereafter.Significant associations between physical aggression and poor language ability are minimal and limited to the period when physical aggression and language performance are both substantially increasing. During that period parenting behaviours may play an important role in supporting language ability while reducing the frequency of physical aggression. Further studies are needed that utilize multiple assessments of physical aggression, assess multiple domains of language abilities, and that examine the potential mediating role of parenting behaviours between 12 and 48 months.

  11. Influence of neighbourhood purchasing power on breastfeeding at four months of age: a Swedish population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almquist-Tangen, Gerd; Strömberg, Ulf; Holmén, Anders; Alm, Bernt; Roswall, Josefine; Bergman, Stefan; Dahlgren, Jovanna

    2013-11-15

    Parental socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant in child health, influencing beneficial factors such as breastfeeding. A better understanding of the influence of neighbourhood-level SES measures, relating to spatial determinants, might lead to targeted actions to promote breastfeeding during infancy. A cross-sectional study analysis the association between breastfeeding at four months of age and neighbourhood purchasing power, taking account of individual-level variables including maternal age, smoking and parental level of education. Data were obtained from a prospective population- based cohort study recruited from birth in 2007-2008 in the Halland region, southwestern Sweden. Questionnaire data on the individual-level variables and the outcome variable of breastfeeding at four months (yes/no) were used (n=2,407). Each mother was geo-coded with respect to her residential parish (there are 61 parishes in the region) and then stratified by parish-level household purchasing power. It emerged that four neighbourhood characteristics were reasonable to use, viz. purchasing power. The proportion of mothers not breastfeeding at four months of age showed a highly significant trend across the neighbourhood strata (p=0.00004): from 16.3% (purchasing power) to 29.4% (≥ 30% with low purchasing power), yielding an OR of 2.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.45-3.16). After adjusting for the individual-level variables, the corresponding OR=1.63 (1.07-2.56) was significant and the trend across the strata was still evident (p=0.05). A multi-level analysis estimated that, in the neighbourhoods with ≥ 30% of the families with low purchasing power, 20% more mothers than expected, taking account of the individual-level factors, reported no breastfeeding at four months of age (≥ 95% posterior probability of an elevated observed-to-expected ratio). The neighbourhood purchasing power provided a spatial determinant of low numbers of mothers breastfeeding at four months

  12. Temperature-dependent development and survival of Brazilian populations of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, from tropical, subtropical and temperate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricalde, Marcelo P; Nava, Dori E; Loeck, Alci E; Donatti, Michele G

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the principal exotic pests affecting Brazilian production in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil. In the south, it is has potential as a serious threat to temperate-climate fruit farms, since it is already found in urban and suburban communities in this region. We studied the biological characteristics of C. capitata populations from Pelotas-RS (temperate climate), Petrolina-PE (tropical), and Campinas-SP (subtropical). Ceratitis capitata biology was studied under controlled temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 ± 1 °C), 70 ± 10% RH, and 14:10 L:D photoperiod. The duration and survival rate of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were evaluated and the thermal requirements of these three populations were determined. The duration and survival of these developmental stages varied with temperature, with similar values for the three populations, except for some variation in the egg phase. Egg to adult developmental time for all three populations was inversely proportional to temperature; from 15 to 30 °C developmental time varied from 71.2 to 17.1, 70.2 to 17.1, and 68.5 to 16.9 days, respectively. Survival during development was affected at 15 to 30 °C, and differed significantly from survival at 20 to 25 °C. At 35 °C, immature stages did not develop. The basal temperature and degree-day requirement were similar for all immature stages except for the egg stage. The basal temperatures and thermal constants were 9.30 and 350, 8.47 and 341, and 9.60 °C and 328 degree-days for the Pelotas, Petrolina, and Campinas populations, respectively. Results suggested that survival and thermal requirements are similar for these tropical, subtropical, and temperate populations of C. capitata, and demonstrate the species' capacity to adapt to different climate conditions.

  13. Genetic analysis of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations based on mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 gene sequences from India and other Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Jaipal S; Naaz, Naiyar; Prabhakar, Chandra S; Lemtur, Moanaro

    2016-10-01

    The study examined the genetic diversity and demographic history of Bactrocera dorsalis, a destructive and polyphagous insect pest of fruit crops in diverse geographic regions of India. 19 widely dispersed populations of the fly from India and other Asian countries were analysed using partial sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) genes to investigate genetic diversity, genetic structure, and demographic history in the region. Genetic diversity indices [number of haplotypes (H), haloptype diversity (Hd), nucleotide diversity (π) and average number of nucleotide difference (k)] of populations revealed that B. dorsalis maintains fairly high level of genetic diversity without isolation by distance among the geographic regions. Demographic analysis showed significant (negative) Tajimas' D and Fu's F S with non significant sum of squared deviations (SSD) values, which indicate the possibility of recent sudden expansion of species and is further supported through distinctively star-like distribution structure of haplotypes among populations. Thus, the results indicate that both ongoing and historical factors have played important role in determining the genetic structure and diversity of the species in India. Consequently, sterile insect technique (SIT) could be a possible management strategy of species in the regions.

  14. Time flies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wit, Janneke

    , the LS fly might be able to spend energy more generously on different tasks. Therefor, the capacity of LS and C lines to locate resources in a natural environment was tested. It turns out that LS flies are less likely to find food than C flies in such a setting, yet that as they age, their ability...... to locate food decreases slower than that of C lines. Gene expression of 10 candidate genes for longevity was quantified in two types of C and LS lines at three different ages. One of these genes, CG32638, indeed appears to be involved in life span determination in both males and females, regardless...... of mating status. Generalising studies on ageing in D. melanogaster can be cumbersome, especially in light of discrepancy between correlated responses between studies. To elucidate which mechanisms might be conserved due to evolutionary constraints, life span of 13 species of Drosophila was determined...

  15. Microsatellite markers from the 'South American fruit fly' Anastrepha fraterculus: a valuable tool for population genetic analysis and SIT applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann is a horticultural pest which causes significant economic losses in the fruit-producing areas of the American continent and limits the access of products to international markets. The use of environmentally friendly control strategies against this pest is constrained due to the limited knowledge of its population structure. Results We developed microsatellite markers for A. fraterculus from four genomic libraries, which were enriched in CA, CAA, GA and CAT microsatellite motifs. Fifty microsatellite regions were evaluated and 14 loci were selected for population genetics studies. Genotypes of 122 individuals sampled from four A. fraterculus populations were analyzed. The level of polymorphism ranged from three to 13 alleles per locus and the mean expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.60 to 0.64. Comparison between allelic and genotypic frequencies showed significant differences among all pairs of populations. Conclusions This novel set of microsatellite markers provides valuable information for the description of genetic variability and population structure of wild populations and laboratory strains of A. fraterculus. This information will be used to identify and characterize candidate strains suitable to implement effective pest control strategies and might represent a first step towards having a more comprehensive knowledge about the genetics of this pest. PMID:25471285

  16. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    . This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art......Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction...

  17. Comparative analysis of development and survival of two Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera, Tephritidae) populations from Kenya and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanga, Chrysantus M; Manrakhan, Aruna; Daneel, John-Henry; Mohamed, Samira A; Fathiya, Khamis; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analysis of development and survivorship of two geographically divergent populations of the Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch designated as Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from Kenya and South Africa were studied at seven constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 33, 35 °C). Temperature range for development and survival of both populations was 15-35 °C. The developmental duration was found to significantly decrease with increasing temperature for Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from both countries. Survivorship of all the immature stages of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from Kenya was highest over the range of 20-30 °C (87-95%) and lowest at 15 and 35 °C (61-76%). Survivorship of larvae of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from South Africa was lowest at 35 °C (22%) and 33 °C (0.33%), respectively. Results from temperature summation models showed that Ceratitis rosa R2 (egg, larva and pupa) from both countries were better adapted to low temperatures than R1, based on lower developmental threshold. Minimum larval temperature threshold for Kenyan populations were 11.27 °C and 6.34 °C (R1 and R2, respectively) compared to 8.99 °C and 7.74 °C (R1 and R2, respectively) for the South African populations. Total degree-day (DD) accumulation for the Kenyan populations were estimated at 302.75 (Ceratitis rosa R1) and 413.53 (Ceratitis rosa R2) compared to 287.35 (Ceratitis rosa R1) and 344.3 (Ceratitis rosa R2) for the South African populations. These results demonstrate that Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from both countries were physiologically distinct in their response to different temperature regimes and support the existence of two genetically distinct populations of Ceratitis rosa. It also suggests the need for taxonomic revision of Ceratitis rosa, however, additional information on morphological characterization of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 is needed.

  18. Population Pharmacokinetics Analysis To Inform Efavirenz Dosing Recommendations in Pediatric HIV Patients Aged 3 Months to 3 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Man; Chapel, Sunny; Sevinsky, Heather; Savant, Ishani; Cirincione, Brenda; Bertz, Richard; Roy, Amit

    2016-06-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor approved worldwide for the treatment of HIV in adults and children over 3 years of age or weighing over 10 kg. Only recently EFV was approved in children over 3 months and weighing at least 3.5 kg in the United States and the European Union. The objective of this analysis was to support the selection of an appropriate dose for this younger pediatric population and to explore the impact of CYP2B6 genetic polymorphisms on EFV systemic exposures. A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model was developed using data from three studies in HIV-1-infected pediatric subjects (n = 168) and one study in healthy adults (n = 24). The EFV concentration-time profile was best described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Body weight was identified as a significant predictor of efavirenz apparent clearance (CL), oral central volume of distribution (VC), and absorption rate constant (Ka). The typical values of efavirenz apparent CL, VC, oral peripheral volume of distribution (VP), and Ka for a reference pediatric patient were 4.8 liters/h (4.5 to 5.1 liters/h), 84.9 liters (76.8 to 93.0 liters), 287 liters (252.6 to 321.4 liters), and 0.414 h(-1) (0.375 to 0.453 h(-1)), respectively. The final model was used to simulate steady-state efavirenz concentrations in pediatric patients weighing <10 kg to identify EFV doses that produce comparable exposure to adult and pediatric patients weighing ≥10 kg. Results suggest that administration of EFV doses of 100 mg once daily (QD) to children weighing ≥3.5 to <5 kg, 150 mg QD to children weighing ≥5 to <7.5 kg, and 200 mg QD to children weighing ≥7.5 to <10 kg produce exposures within the target range. Further evaluation of the impact of CYP2B6 polymorphisms on EFV PK showed that the identification of CYP2B6 genetic status is not predictive of EFV exposure and thus not informative to guide pediatric dosing regimens.

  19. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...... of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  20. Changes in fungal population of fly ash and vinasse mixture during vermicomposting by Eudrilus eugeniae and Eisenia fetida: documentation of cellulase isozymes in vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Prabhat; Chung, Young Ryun

    2011-06-01

    Fly ash (FA) and vinasse (VN), two industrial wastes, are generated in huge amounts and cause serious hazards to the environment. In this experiment, different proportions of these two wastes were used as food for two epigeic earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Eudrilus eugeniae) to standardize the recycling technique of these two wastes and to study their effect on fungal especially cellulolytic fungal population, cellulase activity and their isozyme pattern, chitin content and microbial biomass of waste mixture during vermicomposting. Increasing VN proportion from 25% to 50% or even higher, counts of both fungi and cellulolytic fungi in waste mixtures were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased during vermicomposting. Higher cellulase activity in treatments having 50% or more vinasse might be attributed to the significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher concentration of group I isozyme while concentrations of other isozymes (group II and III) of cellulase were statistically at par. Higher chitin content in vinasse-enriched treatments suggested that fungal biomass and fungi-to-microbial biomass ratio in these treatments were also increased due to vermicomposting. Results revealed that Eudrilus eugeniae and Eisenia fetida had comparable effect on FA and VN mixture during vermicomposting. Periodical analysis of above-mentioned biochemical and microbial properties and nutrient content of final vermicompost samples indicated that equal proportion (1:1, w/w) of FA and VN is probably the optimum composition to obtain best quality vermicompost.

  1. An examination of periodontal treatment and per member per month (PMPM medical costs in an insured population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papapanou Panos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic medical conditions have been associated with periodontal disease. This study examined if periodontal treatment can contribute to changes in overall risk and medical expenditures for three chronic conditions [Diabetes Mellitus (DM, Coronary Artery Disease (CAD, and Cerebrovascular Disease (CVD]. Methods 116,306 enrollees participating in a preferred provider organization (PPO insurance plan with continuous dental and medical coverage between January 1, 2001 and December 30, 2002, exhibiting one of three chronic conditions (DM, CAD, or CVD were examined. This study was a population-based retrospective cohort study. Aggregate costs for medical services were used as a proxy for overall disease burden. The cost for medical care was measured in Per Member Per Month (PMPM dollars by aggregating all medical expenditures by diagnoses that corresponded to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, (ICD-9 codebook. To control for differences in the overall disease burden of each group, a previously calculated retrospective risk score utilizing Symmetry Health Data Systems, Inc. Episode Risk Groups™ (ERGs were utilized for DM, CAD or CVD diagnosis groups within distinct dental services groups including; periodontal treatment (periodontitis or gingivitis, dental maintenance services (DMS, other dental services, or to a no dental services group. The differences between group means were tested for statistical significance using log-transformed values of the individual total paid amounts. Results The DM, CAD and CVD condition groups who received periodontitis treatment incurred significantly higher PMPM medical costs than enrollees who received gingivitis treatment, DMS, other dental services, or no dental services (p Conclusion This two-year retrospective examination of a large insurance company database revealed a possible association between periodontal treatment and PMPM medical costs. The findings suggest that

  2. Adverse events following 12 and 18 month vaccinations: a population-based, self-controlled case series analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumanan Wilson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Live vaccines have distinct safety profiles, potentially causing systemic reactions one to 2 weeks after administration. In the province of Ontario, Canada, live MMR vaccine is currently recommended at age 12 months and 18 months. METHODS: Using the self-controlled case series design we examined 271,495 12 month vaccinations and 184,312 18 month vaccinations to examine the relative incidence of the composite endpoint of emergency room visits or hospital admissions in consecutive one day intervals following vaccination. These were compared to a control period 20 to 28 days later. In a post-hoc analysis we examined the reasons for emergency room visits and the average acuity score at presentation for children during the at-risk period following the 12 month vaccine. RESULTS: Four to 12 days post 12 month vaccination, children had a 1.33 (1.29-1.38 increased relative incidence of the combined endpoint compared to the control period, or at least one event during the risk interval for every 168 children vaccinated. Ten to 12 days post 18 month vaccination, the relative incidence was 1.25 (95%, 1.17-1.33 which represented at least one excess event for every 730 children vaccinated. The primary reason for increased events was statistically significant elevations in emergency room visits following all vaccinations. There were non-significant increases in hospital admissions. There were an additional 20 febrile seizures for every 100,000 vaccinated at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: There are significantly elevated risks of primarily emergency room visits approximately one to two weeks following 12 and 18 month vaccination. Future studies should examine whether these events could be predicted or prevented.

  3. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of chlamydia testing and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Bethan; Turner, Katy M E; Leung, Stella

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months in s...

  4. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance......The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...

  5. Flying Fortress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    当欧洲的年轻人想到关于德国的两种熊,一个是传统的布娃娃熊,另一个就是充满欧洲街头墙上的Teddy熊涂鸦,而这个涂鸦熊的创作者就是著名的涂鸦艺术家“Flying Fortress”,他称这些熊军队为“Teddy Tmops”。

  6. WEIGHT LOSS AND METABOLIC OUTCOMES 12 MONTHS AFTER ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS IN A POPULATION OF SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhel, Marcela A S; Nicoletti, Carolina F; de Oliveira, Bruno A P; Chaves, Raoana Cássia Paixão; Parreiras, Luciana Tabajara; Sivieri, Thiago; Vulcano, Vinicius M C; Luz, Gabriela R L; Annunciato, Danielle R; Morgado, Luiza M A; Marcatto, Gustavo; Salgado Junior, Wilson; Souza, Dorotéia R S; Nonino, Carla Barbosa

    2015-09-01

    BACKGROUNGD: previous outcome research in bariatric surgery has to document positive changes in co-morbidities associated with obesity. the study aimed report a description of the impact of bariatric surgery on weight loss and on the resolution of diseases associated with obesity in patients followed up for 12 months in the public health service of São Paulo/Brazil. the study was conducted on the data for 598 selected patients with grade III obesity subjected to Rouxen- Y gastric bypass evaluated postoperatively and 6 and 12 months after surgery. Anthropometric, demographic and biochemical data and personal history were determined at each time point. Serum glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were determined in the biochemical evaluation. Data were analyzed statistically by the Chi-square test, by ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test and by the Student t-test for independent data, significance set at p < 0.05. weight loss of 45.5 ± 13.7kg (33.5%) was observed during the first year after surgery. Serum glucose, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were reduced during the first six months after surgery and the values were maintained up to 12 months, whereas weight and triglycerides were reduced throughout the study period. A reduced prevalence of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia was observed after surgery (p < 0.001). Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is an important procedure for weight loss and control of comorbidities such as diabetes and dyslipidemia at least during the first postoperative year. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a primary forest-crop interface, Salta, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, M G; Salomón, O D; De Grosso, M S Lizarralde

    2010-11-01

    Disordered urbanization and deforestation are the main activities proposed as causal factors of re-emergence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis. The purpose of this work was to investigate, in the hyperendemic area of Argentina, the distribution of Phlebotomine sand flies at the modified primary vegetation-crop interface, as one of the potential sites where the effects of changing landscape on sand fly populations may be manifested. Twenty samplings were made between June 2004 and August 2005. The traps to catch sand flies were set on two consecutive nights every month (except in 5 mo, where it became every 15 d). The relationship between sand fly abundance and meteorological and landscape variables was analyzed using non-metric multidimensional scaling and Kendall's correlation coefficients. Lutzomyia neivai (Pinto) was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia migonei (França), Lutzomyia cortelezzii (Brèthes), Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar), and Lutzomyia punctigeniculata (Floch and Abonnenc). Traps located close to modified areas collected the greatest numbers of sand flies, whereas traps located in the least modified area (adjacent to the primary vegetation) collected the fewest. There was a strong negative correlation between the abundance of sand flies and precipitation. This study shows that even small modifications in the landscape led to an increase in sand fly abundance, mainly Lu. neivai, a Leishmania braziliensis vector. This underscores the need for recommendations about the risk of American cutaneous leishmaniasis before any environmental intervention is done in an endemic area, as well as for the monitoring of sand fly population dynamics at the site of intervention, before, during, and after the process.

  8. Cognitive and Psychological Reactions of the General Population Three Months After the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami

    OpenAIRE

    Yasushi Kyutoku; Ryoko Tada; Takahiko Umeyama; Kenji Harada; Senichiro Kikuchi; Eiju Watanabe; Angela Liegey-Dougall; Ippeita Dan

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The largest earthquake on record in Japan (magnitude 9.0) occurred on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of Northern Japan. These further triggered the Fukushima I nuclear power plant accidents. Such a hugely complex disaster inevitably has negative psychological effects on general populations as well as on the direct victims. While previous disaster studies enrolled descriptive approaches focusing on direct victims, the structure of the psycho...

  9. Physical Aggression and Language Ability from 17 to 72 months: Cross-lagged Effects in a Population Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa-Christine Girard; Jean-Baptiste Pingault; Bruno Falissard; Michel Boivin; Ginette Dionne; Tremblay, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Does poor language ability in early childhood increase the likelihood of physical aggression or is language ability delayed by frequent physical aggression? This study examined the longitudinal associations between physical aggression and language ability from toddlerhood to early childhood in a population sample while controlling for parenting behaviours, non-verbal intellectual functioning, and children's sex. Methods: Children enrolled in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child ...

  10. Cognitive and psychological reactions of the general population three months after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Kyutoku

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The largest earthquake on record in Japan (magnitude 9.0 occurred on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of Northern Japan. These further triggered the Fukushima I nuclear power plant accidents. Such a hugely complex disaster inevitably has negative psychological effects on general populations as well as on the direct victims. While previous disaster studies enrolled descriptive approaches focusing on direct victims, the structure of the psychological adjustment process of people from the general population has remained uncertain. The current study attempted to establish a path model that sufficiently reflects the early psychological adaptation process of the general population to large-scale natural disasters. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants from the primary disaster area (n = 1083 and other areas (n = 2372 voluntarily participated in an online questionnaire study. By constructing path models using a structural equation model procedure (SEM, we examined the structural relationship among psychological constructs known related to disasters. As post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTS were significantly more present in people in the primarily affected area than in those in secondary- or non-affected areas, the path models were constructed for the primary victims. The parsimoniously depicted model with the best fit was achieved for the psychological-adjustment centered model with quality of life (QoL as a final outcome. CONCLUSION: The paths to QoL via negative routes (from negative cognitive appraisal, PTS, and general stress were dominant, suggesting the importance of clinical intervention for reducing negative cognitive appraisal, and for caring for general stress and PTS to maintain QoL at an early stage of psychological adaptation to a disaster. The model also depicted the presence of a positive route where positive cognitive appraisal facilitates post-traumatic growth (PTG to achieve a higher Qo

  11. Cognitive and psychological reactions of the general population three months after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyutoku, Yasushi; Tada, Ryoko; Umeyama, Takahiko; Harada, Kenji; Kikuchi, Senichiro; Watanabe, Eiju; Liegey-Dougall, Angela; Dan, Ippeita

    2012-01-01

    The largest earthquake on record in Japan (magnitude 9.0) occurred on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of Northern Japan. These further triggered the Fukushima I nuclear power plant accidents. Such a hugely complex disaster inevitably has negative psychological effects on general populations as well as on the direct victims. While previous disaster studies enrolled descriptive approaches focusing on direct victims, the structure of the psychological adjustment process of people from the general population has remained uncertain. The current study attempted to establish a path model that sufficiently reflects the early psychological adaptation process of the general population to large-scale natural disasters. Participants from the primary disaster area (n = 1083) and other areas (n = 2372) voluntarily participated in an online questionnaire study. By constructing path models using a structural equation model procedure (SEM), we examined the structural relationship among psychological constructs known related to disasters. As post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTS) were significantly more present in people in the primarily affected area than in those in secondary- or non-affected areas, the path models were constructed for the primary victims. The parsimoniously depicted model with the best fit was achieved for the psychological-adjustment centered model with quality of life (QoL) as a final outcome. The paths to QoL via negative routes (from negative cognitive appraisal, PTS, and general stress) were dominant, suggesting the importance of clinical intervention for reducing negative cognitive appraisal, and for caring for general stress and PTS to maintain QoL at an early stage of psychological adaptation to a disaster. The model also depicted the presence of a positive route where positive cognitive appraisal facilitates post-traumatic growth (PTG) to achieve a higher QoL, suggesting the potential importance of positive

  12. Caribbean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Small Fruit in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most important pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is a tephritid pest that became established in Florida following introduction in 1965. Populations of this fruit fly also occur in Puerto Rico and Cuba, ...

  13. Pandora bullata (Entomophthorales) affecting calliphorid flies in Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi are where one finds them, and if one seeks fungal pathogens affecting flies, then a garbage dump may be an ideal place to find both persistent, abundant fly populations and their fungal pathogens. An obvious fungal epizootic affecting blue bottle flies, Chrysomyia megacephala (Diptera: Calliph...

  14. Immediate and longer term impact of the varicella shortage on children 18 and 24 months of age in a community population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Rick

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the impact of the recent varicella vaccine shortage. To assess the temporal trend in varicella vaccine administration before 18 and 24 months of age in a community cohort of children prior to, during and after the recent varicella vaccine shortage. And to compare the temporal trends in varicella vaccinations to trends of an older, more widely accepted vaccine, the MMR. Methods Community population-based birth cohorts were identified who were eligible for the varicella vaccination before, during and after the 2001 to 2002 varicella vaccine shortage. Only children (84% of all who remained in the community through their second birthday were included. For each child in the cohort, the medical records and immunization registry records from both medical facilities in the county were reviewed to identify the dates and sites for all varicella immunizations given. In addition to varicella immunizations, the dates of all MMR vaccinations were recorded. Additional data abstracted included the child's birth date, gender and dates of any recognized cases of chickenpox up through age 24 months. Results Of the 2,512 children in the birth cohorts, 50.8% were boys. In the three cohorts combined, 81.1% of the boys and 79.3% of the girls (p = 0.30 received the varicella vaccine by age 24 months. The pre-shortage community rate of varicella immunization was 79.7% by 24 months of age. During the varicella vaccine shortage, the rate of varicella immunization by 24 months fell to 77.2%. Only 6 additional children received a "catch-up" immunization by 36 months of age. In the post shortage period the community 24-month immunization rate rebounded to a level higher than the pre-shortage rate 84.0%. During the almost three years of observation, the MMR immunization rate by age 24 months was constant (87%. Conclusion The varicella shortage was associated with an immediate drop in the 24-month varicella immunizations rate but

  15. Immediate and longer term impact of the varicella shortage on children 18 and 24 months of age in a community population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawn, Barbara P; Schroeder, Clayton; Wollan, Peter; Rocca, Liliana; Zimmerman, Rick; Bardenheier, Barbara

    2006-08-15

    Little is known about the impact of the recent varicella vaccine shortage. To assess the temporal trend in varicella vaccine administration before 18 and 24 months of age in a community cohort of children prior to, during and after the recent varicella vaccine shortage. And to compare the temporal trends in varicella vaccinations to trends of an older, more widely accepted vaccine, the MMR. Community population-based birth cohorts were identified who were eligible for the varicella vaccination before, during and after the 2001 to 2002 varicella vaccine shortage. Only children (84% of all) who remained in the community through their second birthday were included. For each child in the cohort, the medical records and immunization registry records from both medical facilities in the county were reviewed to identify the dates and sites for all varicella immunizations given. In addition to varicella immunizations, the dates of all MMR vaccinations were recorded. Additional data abstracted included the child's birth date, gender and dates of any recognized cases of chickenpox up through age 24 months. Of the 2,512 children in the birth cohorts, 50.8% were boys. In the three cohorts combined, 81.1% of the boys and 79.3% of the girls (p = 0.30) received the varicella vaccine by age 24 months. The pre-shortage community rate of varicella immunization was 79.7% by 24 months of age. During the varicella vaccine shortage, the rate of varicella immunization by 24 months fell to 77.2%. Only 6 additional children received a "catch-up" immunization by 36 months of age. In the post shortage period the community 24-month immunization rate rebounded to a level higher than the pre-shortage rate 84.0%. During the almost three years of observation, the MMR immunization rate by age 24 months was constant (87%). The varicella shortage was associated with an immediate drop in the 24-month varicella immunizations rate but rebounded quickly to above pre-shortage rates. In this community the

  16. The seasonal abundance of phlebotomine sand flies, Lutzomyia species in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Rajinder S; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2010-03-01

    The seasonality of phlebotomine sand flies was studied in Florida, utilizing colored light-emitting diode- and attractant-baited Mosquito Magnet MM-X traps from September 2006 to September 2008 at San Felasco Hammock Preserve State Park, Gainesville, FL. A total of 6,278 sand flies were collected from 314 actual nights and 1,692 total trap-nights, yielding 3.7 sand flies per trap-night. Lutzomyia shannoni was the predominant species, constituting 55% to 80% of the total sand fly populations collected during the studies. Both L. shannoni and L. vexator populations were highly seasonal and were moderately influenced by weather factors. Lutzomyia shannoni populations peaked in May and showed reduced activity during December, January, and February. This species was active throughout the year and showed positive and negative correlations with average monthly temperature and relative humidity, respectively. Lutzomyia vexator showed peak activity during August and October with an activity lull from December to March. This species showed a positive correlation with average monthly temperature. No correlations were observed with either species for average daily, weekly, or 1- to 8-wk-lagging precipitation, number of rainy days, wind speed, or lunar phases. Lutzomyia shannoni abundance was weakly correlated to L. vexator abundance. No other Lutzomyia spp. were collected during the study.

  17. Mid- and long-term effects of family constellation seminars in a general population sample: 8- and 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Christina; Weinhold, Jan; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2015-06-01

    In a previous randomized controlled trial (RCT), short-term efficacy of family constellation seminars (FCSs) in a general population sample was demonstrated. In this article, we examined mid- and long-term stability of these effects. Participants were 104 adults (M = 47 years; SD = 9; 84% female) who were part of the intervention group in the original RCT (3-day FCS; 64 active participants and 40 observing participants). FCSs were carried out according to manuals. It was predicted that FCSs would improve psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2) at 8- and 12-month follow-up. Additionally, we assessed the effects of FCSs on psychological distress, motivational incongruence, individuals' experience in their personal social systems, and overall goal attainment. Participants yielded significant improvement in psychological functioning (d = 0.41 at 8-month follow-up, p = .000; d = 0.40 at 12-month follow-up, p = .000). Results were confirmed for psychological distress, motivational incongruence, the participants' experience in their personal social systems, and overall goal attainment. No adverse events were reported. This study provides first evidence for the mid- and long-term efficacy of FCSs in a nonclinical population. The implications of the findings are discussed. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  18. Knockdown resistance in pyrethroid-resistant horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae populations in Brazil Resistência Knockdown em populações de mosca-dos-chifres do Brasil resistentes aos piretróides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Sabatini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the kdr (knockdown resistance resistance-associated gene mutation and determine its frequency in pyrethroid-resistant horn fly (Haematobia irritans populations, a total of 1,804 horn flies of 37 different populations from all Brazilian regions (North, Northeast, Central-West, Southeast, and South were molecular screened through polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The kdr gene was not detected in 87.08% of the flies. However, the gene was amplified in 12.92% of the flies, of which 11.70% were resistant heterozygous and 1.22% were resistant homozygous. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE was found only in 1 ranch with an excess of heterozygous. When populations were grouped by region, three metapopulations showed significant deviations of HWE (Central-West population, South population and Southeast population. This indicates that populations are isolated one from another and kdr occurrence seems to be an independent effect probably reflecting the insecticide strategy used by each ranch. Although resistance to pyrethroids is disseminated throughout Brazil, only 48% of resistant populations had kdr flies, and the frequency of kdr individuals in each of these resistant populations was quite low. But this study shows that, with the apparent exception of the Northeast region, the kdr mechanism associated with pyrethroid resistance occurs all over Brazil.Com o objetivo de verificar a ocorrência e determinar a frequência da mutação kdr (knock down resistance em populações de Haematobia irritans (mosca-dos-chifres resistentes aos piretróides, foram analisados 1.804 indivíduos de 37 populações de todas as Regiões do Brasil. Com exceção da Região Nordeste, o kdr (knock down resistance gene foi encontrado em populações de todas as regiões. A mutação não foi detectada em 87,08% dos indivíduos. Entretanto, o gene foi amplificado de 12,92% das moscas, das quais 11,70% se mostraram heterozigotas resistentes e 1

  19. Estimating Orientation of Flying Fruit Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi En Cheng

    Full Text Available The recently growing interest in studying flight behaviours of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has highlighted the need for developing tools that acquire quantitative motion data. Despite recent advance of video tracking systems, acquiring a flying fly's orientation remains a challenge for these tools. In this paper, we present a novel method for estimating individual flying fly's orientation using image cues. Thanks to the line reconstruction algorithm in computer vision field, this work can thereby focus on the practical detail of implementation and evaluation of the orientation estimation algorithm. The orientation estimation algorithm can be incorporated into tracking algorithms. We rigorously evaluated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm by running experiments both on simulation data and on real-world data. This work complements methods for studying the fruit fly's flight behaviours in a three-dimensional environment.

  20. Sand fly (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) abundance and diversity in areas affected by the São Francisco River transposition project in Ceará State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Silva, Júlia; Caranha, Lindemberg; Moura Santos, Fabrício Kássio; Dos Santos, Antonio Pereira; Rodrigues da Silva, Luiz Osvaldo; Ferreira Rangel, Elizabeth

    2017-08-29

    Entomological surveillance of sand fly vectors was carried out to support leishmaniasis prevention and control measures in areas affected by the São Francisco River Transposition Project. Sand flies were collected monthly between May 2011 and December 2014 in seven municipalities: Missão Velha, Brejo Santo, Lavras da Mangabeira, Iguatu, Mauriti, Jaguaribe and Jaguaretama, in dwellings, peridomicile and forest areas for three consecutive days, for a period of 12 h each day (18:00 to 06:00 h). Differences in species composition between sites were tested with Shannon's diversity index, the similarity between habitats was estimated by the Sørensen's qualitative similarity index and, for the most abundant species in each municipality, a standardized index of species abundance was applied. The influence of climatic factors on sand fly population densities was analyzed using Spearman's correlation coefficients. A total of 214,213 sand fly specimens belonging to 18 species were captured. The most abundant species in all municipalities was Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912). The municipalities of Mauriti and Missão Velha stand out in terms of high species richness, with the latter exhibiting the greatest diversity. The number of sand flies in the Iguatu, Jaguaribe and Jaguaretama municipality was higher during the rainy months, whereas the populations declined in the drier months; the sand fly population density in other municipalities (Missão Velha, Brejo Santo, Lavras de Mangabeira and Mauriti) showed negative correlation with rainfall. This study confirms the presence of several Leishmania spp. vectors in the seven municipalities affected by the São Francisco River Transposition Project, with Lu. longipalpis being the most abundant species at all study sites. Vector populations in these municipalities should be monitored, ultimately to assess the associations between environmental changes and sand fly population dynamics and leishmaniasis transmission

  1. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  2. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    to broiler houses may be counted in thousands per broiler rotation during summer periods, even a low prevalence of Campylobacter positive flies constitute a risk of introduction of Campylobacter to the chickens. M. domestica – the house fly is the most important vector fly for Campylobacter transmission...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  3. Socioeconomic status and the risk of suspected autism spectrum disorders among 18-month-old toddlers in Japan: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo

    2014-06-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and the suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD) status of 18-month-old toddlers was investigated using a population-based sample in Japan, which has a universal healthcare system and a mandatory health checkup system for toddlers. Questionnaires including SES measurements and modified checklist for autism in toddlers were mailed to all families with 18-month-old toddlers in Chiba, a city near Tokyo (N = 6,061; response rate: 64%). The results of logistic regression analysis (which were adjusted for potential confounders) indicated that low maternal education, but not paternal education or family income, were associated with having suspected ASD offspring. Lower maternal education was associated with an increased risk of autistic traits in Japan.

  4. Is neck pain associated with worse health-related quality of life 6 months later? A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolet, P. S.; Cote, P.; Kristman, V. L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Current evidence suggests that neck pain is negatively associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, these studies are cross-sectional and do not inform the association between neck pain and future HRQoL. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate...... the association between increasing grades of neck pain severity and HRQoL 6 months later. In addition, this longitudinal study examines the crude association between the course of neck pain and HRQoL. STUDY DESIGN: This is a population-based cohort study. PATIENT SAMPLE: Eleven hundred randomly sampled...... Questionnaire to measure neck pain and its related disability. The SF-36 questionnaire was used to measure physical and mental HRQoL 6 months later. Multivariable linear regression was used to measure the association between graded neck pain and HRQoL while controlling for confounding. Analysis of variance...

  5. Use Of Fly Iarvae In Space Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    The concept of space agriculture is full use of biological and ecological components ot drive materials recycle loop. In an ecological system, producers, consumers and decomposers are its member. At limited resources acailable for space agriculture, full use of members' function is required to avoid food shortage and catastrophe.Fly is categrized to a decomposer at its eating excreta and rotten materials. However, is it could be edible, certainly it is eaten in several food culture of the world, it functions as a converter of inedible biomass ot edible substance. This conversion enhances the efficiency of usage of resource that will be attributed to space agriculture. In this context, we examine the value of melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae, as a candidate fly species ofr human food. Nutrients in 100g of melon fly larvae were protein 12g, lipid 4.6g Fe 4.74mg, Ca 275mg, Zn 6.37mg, Mn 4.00mg. Amino acids compositon in 100g of larvae was glutamic acid 1.43g and aspartic acid 1.12g. Because of high contents of these amino acids taste of fly larva might be good. Life time of adult melon fly is one to two month, and lays more than 1,000 eggs in total during the life. Larvae hatch after one to two days, and metamorphose after 8 to 15 days to pupae. Srxual maturity is reached after 22 days the earliest from it egg. Sixteen generations could be succeeded in a year for melon fly at maximum. The rate of proliferation of fly is quite high compared to silkworm that can have 8.7 generations per year. The wide food habit of fly, compared to mulberry leaf for silkworm, is another advantage to choose fly for entomophage. Rearing technology of melon fly is well established, since large scaled production of sterile male fly has been conducted in order ot exterminate melon fly in the field. Feeding substance for melon fly larvae in production line is a mixture of wheat, bran, raw sugar, olara, beer yeast, tissue paper, and additive chemicals. A 1 kg of feed substance can be converted to

  6. Adult population dynamics of the bolivian fruit flies Anastrepha sp. (Diptera: Tephritidae at Municipality Coroico, Department of The La Paz, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzáles Manuel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out in Paco (1603 msnm communities, it Marca (1511 msnm and Capellania (1720 msnm, of the Municipality of Coroico, department of La Paz, Bolivia. In orchards frutícolas semicomerciales, they settled 15 traps distributed McPhail in a similar way among areas, five for community, sampling" "points. The censuses were carried out with an interval of 15 days, they were identified and they quantified the mature flies of the fruit. For the captures of the individuals, they settled the traps McPhail, using the attractive (Buminal one and as conserving borax. The traps were distributed in representative parcels, having as main cultivations, orange, mandarin, grapefruit, guava and avocado. The identification taxonómica of the captured species was carried out in the laboratory of the National Program of Control of Flies of the fruit (PROMOSCA, clerk of the National Service of Agricultural Sanity and Alimentary (SENASAG Inocuidad. 1210 mature flies of the fruit were captures, those that grouped for species, sex, capture dates and community, corresponding to the seven carried out censuses. The species of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedeman were identified, Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastrepha serpentine (Wiedeman, Anastrepha sp, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, Blepharoneura sp Loew, Hexaresta sp Hering, Hexachaeta sp Loew, Tomoplagia sp Coquillett, Tetreuaresta sp Hendel, being that of more presence Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedeman with 818 and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, with 354. The temperature and presence of spices put up frutícolas of flies of the fruit in maturation state explain the observed fluctuations.

  7. Assessment of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Strain AM65-52 aqueous suspension for the control of black fly populations, (Simulium spp.) in northern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    P. Radeghieri; Santi, F.; Maini, S.

    2013-01-01

    Four field trials were conducted in Mantua province in northern Italy to evaluate the effect of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Strain AM65-52 based VectoBac® 12 AS larvicide on black flies. Our objective was to examine and compare the efficacy of different concentrations of this microbial larvicide in small plain streams. Larvicidal activity was exhibited in all trials. VectoBac® 12 AS at 2.5 ppm/min rate generated larval mortality from the treatment point to 500 meters downstr...

  8. Degradation of Insecticides in Poultry Manure: Determining the Insecticidal Treatment Interval for Managing House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Populations in Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Song-Quan; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Ahmad, Hamdan

    2016-04-01

    It is crucial to understand the degradation pattern of insecticides when designing a sustainable control program for the house fly, Musca domestica (L.), on poultry farms. The aim of this study was to determine the half-life and degradation rates of cyromazine, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin by spiking these insecticides into poultry manure, and then quantitatively analyzing the insecticide residue using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The insecticides were later tested in the field in order to study the appropriate insecticidal treatment intervals. Bio-assays on manure samples were later tested at 3, 7, 10, and 15 d for bio-efficacy on susceptible house fly larvae. Degradation analysis demonstrated that cyromazine has the shortest half-life (3.01 d) compared with chlorpyrifos (4.36 d) and cypermethrin (3.75 d). Cyromazine also had a significantly greater degradation rate compared with chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin. For the field insecticidal treatment interval study, 10 d was the interval that had been determined for cyromazine due to its significantly lower residue; for ChCy (a mixture of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin), the suggested interval was 7 d. Future work should focus on the effects of insecticide metabolites on targeted pests and the poultry manure environment.

  9. Seasonal occurrence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae in southern Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Population fluctuations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata, were investigated between 1999 and 2001 at several locations representing fruit production areas in the southern part of Syria (Damascus Ghota, Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab. Medfly adults were monitored weekly all year around using Jackson traps baited with trimedlure dispensers. Larvae were also sampled in Damascus Ghota by collecting fruits from ripe or ripening fruit trees and recording the number of larvae emerged from these fruits. In addition, suspected overwintering refuges were sampled at weekly intervals during the three coldest months of the year (December – February and the number of collected larvae was recorded. The results of trap catches and fruit sampling studies showed a similar pattern of occurrence of medfly populations in the study areas, particularly in Damascus Ghota, during the three years of the study. In Damascus Ghota, flies were caught continuously from early June to late December with some variability between years. Two distinct periods of high fly activity were observed: the first one occurred in August and the second in November with a much higher amplitude. In general, seasonal fluctuations in the pattern of occurrence were influenced by differences in temperature and abundance of preferred host fruits. Traps on fig Ficus carica and oriental persimmon Diospyros kaki trees caught the highest numbers of flies, and fruits collected from these trees showed the highest level of infestation, reaching 100% for fig fruit late in the season. Sampling fruits (in Damascus Ghota from trees during the three coldest months of the year showed that a small population of medfly larvae was able to survive winter conditions in prickly pear Opuntia vulgaris fruit left on the trees. In the other areas of the study (Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab, only a few flies were caught.

  10. The Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait in a bariatric surgery seeking population and ability to predict post-surgery weight loss at six months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Nina M; LePage, Marie L; Goldman, Rachel L; O'Neil, Patrick M; Borckardt, Jeffrey J; Byrne, T Karl

    2012-12-01

    Food cravings have been understudied in bariatric surgery patients and the Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait has not been validated in this population. Reliability and validity of the FCQ-T were examined and a regression analysis was run to determine whether or not preoperative scores on individual subscales of the instrument could predict weight loss at 6 months. The FCQ-T demonstrated excellent internal consistency in bariatric surgery-seeking patients, and individual subscales measuring emotion and mood were correlated with other measures of depression and anxiety. Endorsement of binge eating or emotional eating behaviors during a clinical interview was correlated with similar subscales on the FCQ-T. Higher scores on the subscale 'cues that may trigger food cravings' were associated with greater weight loss at 6 months post-surgery and higher scores on the subscale 'guilt from cravings and/or giving into them' was associated with less weight loss. Management of external cues may predict successful outcomes while emotional impact of cravings may indicate the need for further intervention to help manage specific food craving traits.

  11. Assessment of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Strain AM65-52 aqueous suspension for the control of black fly populations, (Simulium spp. in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Radeghieri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Four field trials were conducted in Mantua province in northern Italy to evaluate the effect of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Strain AM65-52 based VectoBac® 12 AS larvicide on black flies. Our objective was to examine and compare the efficacy of different concentrations of this microbial larvicide in small plain streams. Larvicidal activity was exhibited in all trials. VectoBac® 12 AS at 2.5 ppm/min rate generated larval mortality from the treatment point to 500 meters downstream. Larvae mortality (over 80% was observed for 3500 meters downstream of the application site when a concentration of 40 ppm/min was applied.

  12. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  13. Ecology of sand flies in a low-density residential rural area, with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation, in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis is endemic in Brazil, where Lutzomyia whitmani is the most important vector involved in the transmission to humans, particularly in the peridomestic environment. Herein, we assessed the ecology of sand flies, including Lu. whitmani, in a low-density residential rural area with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation in north-eastern Brazil, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Particularly, we hypothesized that sand fly abundance was correlated with climatic variables. Sand fly collections were carried out monthly from August 2013 to August 2014, using seven CDC light traps, for three consecutive nights, in three kinds of environments: indoor, peridomicile and forest. Collected sand flies were identified based on morphology and females of Lu. whitmani (n=169), Lu. amazonensis (n=134) and Lu. complexa (n=21) were selected and tested by PCR for Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In total, 5167 sand flies belonging to 19 species were identified, being that Lu. choti (43.2%) was the most frequent species, followed by Lu. amazonensis (16.6%), Lu. whitmani (15.8%), Lu. sordellii (10.7%) and Lu. quinquefer (5.8%), which together represented over 90% of the collected sand flies. All females tested by PCR were negative. The number of sand flies collected daily was positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between daily number of sand flies and daily average saturation deficit. This study points out that the number of sand flies captured daily is correlated to climatic variables, including saturation deficit, which may represent a useful parameter for monitoring sand fly populations in leishmaniasis-endemic areas.

  14. Formation Flying Concept Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Palkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “formation flying” implies coordinated movement of at least two satellites on coplanar and non-coplanar orbits with a maximum distance between them being much less than the length of the orbit. Peculiarities of formation flying concept also include:- automatic coordination of satellites;- sub-group specialization of formation flying satellites;- equipment and data exchange technology unification in each specialized group or subgroup.Formation flying satellites can be classified according to the configuration stability level (order (array, cluster («swarm», intergroup specialization rules («central satellite», «leader», «slave», manoeuvrability («active» and «passive» satellites.Tasks of formation flying include:- experiments with payload, distributed in formation flying satellites;- various near-earth space and earth-surface research;- super-sized aperture antenna development;- land-based telescope calibration;- «space advertisement» (earth-surface observable satellite compositions of a logotype, word, etc.;- orbital satellite maintenance, etc.Main issues of formation flying satellite system design are:- development of an autonomous satellite group manoeuvring technology;- providing a sufficient characteristic velocity of formation flying satellites;- ballistic and navigation maintenance for satellite formation flying;- technical and economic assessment of formation flying orbital delivery and deployment;- standardization, unification, miniaturization and integration of equipment;- intergroup and intersatellite function redistribution.

  15. Monthly errors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2006 monthly average statistical metrics for 2m Q (g kg-1) domain-wide for the base and MODIS WRF simulations against MADIS observations. This dataset is...

  16. Salivary gland hypertrophy virus of house flies in Denmark: Prevalence, host range, and comparison with a Florida isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geden, C. J.; Steenberg, T.; Lietze, V.-U.

    2011-01-01

    House flies (Musca domestica) infected with Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) were found in fly populations collected from 12 out of 18 Danish livestock farms that were surveyed in 2007 and 2008. Infection rates ranged from 0.5% to 5% and averaged 1.2%. None of the stable...... flies (Sarcophaga bullata), black dump flies (Hydrotaea aenescens), or face flies (Musca autumnalis) that were injected with MdSGHV from Danish house flies. However, in two species (stable fly and black dump fly), virus injection resulted in suppression of ovarian development similar to that observed...... in infected house flies, and injection of house flies with homogenates prepared from the salivary glands or ovaries of these species resulted in MdSGHV infection of the challenged house flies. Mortality of virus-injected stable flies was the highest among the five species tested. Virulence of Danish...

  17. What the fly's nose tells the fly's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Charles F

    2015-07-28

    The fly olfactory system has a three-layer architecture: The fly's olfactory receptor neurons send odor information to the first layer (the encoder) where this information is formatted as combinatorial odor code, one which is maximally informative, with the most informative neurons firing fastest. This first layer then sends the encoded odor information to the second layer (decoder), which consists of about 2,000 neurons that receive the odor information and "break" the code. For each odor, the amplitude of the synaptic odor input to the 2,000 second-layer neurons is approximately normally distributed across the population, which means that only a very small fraction of neurons receive a large input. Each odor, however, activates its own population of large-input neurons and so a small subset of the 2,000 neurons serves as a unique tag for the odor. Strong inhibition prevents most of the second-stage neurons from firing spikes, and therefore spikes from only the small population of large-input neurons is relayed to the third stage. This selected population provides the third stage (the user) with an odor label that can be used to direct behavior based on what odor is present.

  18. Comparative seroprevalence of measles virus immunoglobulin M antibodies in children aged 0–8 months and a control population aged 9–23 months presenting with measles-like symptoms in selected hospitals in Kaduna State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaitan AE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AE Olaitan, EE Ella, JB Ameh Department of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria Background: Measles remains the leading cause of vaccine-preventable childhood mortality in developing countries, with its greatest incidence in children younger than 2 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of measles virus in children (aged 0–8 months and older children (aged 9–23 months presenting with measles-like symptoms. Methods: A total of 273 blood samples comprising 200 from children aged 0–8 months and 73 from children aged 9–23 months were collected and analyzed for measles virus IgM antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: An overall prevalence of 21.2% was obtained, with a prevalence of 6.5% in children aged 0–8 months and 61.6% in children aged 9–23 months. The prevalence of measles virus increased with age in children aged 0–8 months and decreased with age in older children (aged 9–23 months, showing a significant association between measles virus and age of the child (P=0.000. A higher prevalence was found in females (27.5% than in males (16.3% and this difference was significant (odds ratio 1.942, P=0.025. There was no significant association with the level of parental education, parental occupation, or number of children in the family (P>0.05. With respect to children's vaccination status and breastfeeding, there was a significant association (P<0.05. The marital status of the family, place of residence, and household size showed no significant association with the prevalence of measles virus. However, a significant association was observed in relation to maternal measles history (odds ratio 2.535, P=0.005 and maternal vaccination status (odds ratio 1.791, P=0.049, as well as between measles virus infection and all presenting symptoms, except for vomiting, malaria, typhoid, and pneumonia, which showed no significant association (P>0.05. Conclusion: The findings of

  19. Association of diabetes in pregnancy with child weight at birth, age 12 months and 5 years--a population-based electronic cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Morgan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study examines the effect of diabetes in pregnancy on offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years. METHODS: A population-based electronic cohort study using routinely collected linked healthcare data. Electronic medical records provided maternal diabetes status and offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years (n = 147,773 mother child pairs. Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios to describe the association between maternal diabetes status and offspring size, adjusted for maternal pre-pregnancy weight, age and smoking status. FINDINGS: We identified 1,250 (0.9% pregnancies with existing diabetes (27.8% with type 1 diabetes, 1,358 with gestational diabetes (0.9% and 635 (0.4% who developed diabetes post-pregnancy. Children whose mothers had existing diabetes were less likely to be large at 12 months (OR: 0.7 (95%CI: 0.6, 0.8 than those without diabetes. Maternal diabetes was associated with high weight at age 5 years in children whose mothers had a high pre-pregnancy weight tertile (gestational diabetes, (OR:2.1 (95%CI:1.25-3.6, existing diabetes (OR:1.3 (95%CI:1.0 to 1.6. CONCLUSION: The prevention of childhood obesity should focus on mothers with diabetes with a high maternal pre-pregnancy weight. We found little evidence that diabetes in pregnancy leads to long term obesity 'programming'.

  20. Ever Fly a Tetrahedron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Few things capture the spirit of spring like flying a kite. Watching a kite dance and sail across a cloud spotted sky is not only a visually appealing experience it also provides a foundation for studies in science and mathematics. Put simply, a kite is an airfoil surface that flies when the forces of lift and thrust are greater than the forces of…

  1. Genetics and realized heritability of resistance to imidacloprid in a poultry population of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hussnain; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    Imidacloprid, a post-synaptic, nicotinic insecticide, has been commonly used for the management of different pests including Musca domestica worldwide. Many pests have developed resistance to this insecticide. A 16-fold imidacloprid-resistant population of M. domestica infesting poultry was selected using imidacloprid for 13 continuous generations to study the inheritance and realized heritability of resistance. Toxicological bioassay at G14 showed that the imidacloprid-selected population developed 106-fold resistance when compared to the susceptible population. Reciprocal crosses of susceptible and resistant populations showed an autosomal trait of resistance to imidacloprid in M. domestica. There was incompletely recessive resistance in F1 (Imida-SEL ♂ × Susceptible ♀) and F1(†) (Imida-SEL ♀ × Susceptible ♂) having dominance value 0.53 and 0.31, respectively. Monogenic model of inheritance showed that imidacloprid resistance was controlled by multiple factors. The realized heritability value was 0.09 in the imidacloprid-selected population of M. domestica. It was concluded that imidacloprid resistance in M. domestica was autosomally inherited, incompletely recessive and polygenic. These findings should be helpful for better and more successful management of M. domestica.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of cancer survivors’ supportive care needs 6 months after diagnosis: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyes Allison W

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the nature and magnitude of the impact of cancer is critical to planning how best to deliver supportive care to the growing population of cancer survivors whose need for care may span many years. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of and factors associated with moderate to high level unmet supportive care needs among adult cancer survivors six months after diagnosis. Methods A population-based sample of adult cancer survivors diagnosed with one of the eight most incident cancers in Australia was recruited from two state-based cancer registries. Data for 1323 survivors were obtained by self-report questionnaire and linkage with cancer registry data. Unmet needs were assessed by the 34-item Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-SF34. The data were examined using chi-square and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results A total of 444 (37% survivors reported at least one ‘moderate to high’ level unmet need and 496 (42% reported ‘no need’ for help. Moderate to high level unmet needs were most commonly reported in the psychological (25% and physical aspects of daily living (20% domains. The five most frequently endorsed items of moderate to high unmet need were concerns about the worries of those close to them (15%, fears about the cancer spreading (14%, not being able to do the things they used to do (13%, uncertainty about the future (13% and lack of energy/tiredness (12%. Survivors’ psychological characteristics were the strongest indicators of unmet need, particularly caseness for anxious preoccupation coping which was associated (OR = 2.2-5.9 with unmet need for help across all domains. Conclusions Unmet supportive care needs are prevalent among a subgroup of survivors transitioning from active treatment to survivorship, although lower than previously reported. In addition to coping support, valuable insight about how to prevent or address survivors’ unmet needs could be gained by

  3. The NuSTAR Serendipitous Survey: The 40-month Catalog and the Properties of the Distant High-energy X-Ray Source Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Stern, D.; Aird, J.; Alexander, D. M.; Fuentes, C.; Harrison, F. A.; Treister, E.; Bauer, F. E.; Tomsick, J. A.; Baloković, M.; Del Moro, A.; Gandhi, P.; Ajello, M.; Annuar, A.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Christensen, F. E.; Civano, F.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Forster, K.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R. C.; Jiang, B.; Jun, H. D.; Koss, M.; Marchesi, S.; Melo, A. D.; Mullaney, J. R.; Noirot, G.; Schulze, S.; Walton, D. J.; Zappacosta, L.; Zhang, W. W.

    2017-02-01

    We present the first full catalog and science results for the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) serendipitous survey. The catalog incorporates data taken during the first 40 months of NuSTAR operation, which provide ≈20 Ms of effective exposure time over 331 fields, with an areal coverage of 13 deg2, and 497 sources detected in total over the 3–24 keV energy range. There are 276 sources with spectroscopic redshifts and classifications, largely resulting from our extensive campaign of ground-based spectroscopic follow-up. We characterize the overall sample in terms of the X-ray, optical, and infrared source properties. The sample is primarily composed of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), detected over a large range in redshift from z = 0.002 to 3.4 (median of =0.56), but also includes 16 spectroscopically confirmed Galactic sources. There is a large range in X-ray flux, from {log}({f}3-24{keV}/{erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2)≈ -14 to ‑11, and in rest-frame 10–40 keV luminosity, from {log}({L}10-40{keV}/{erg} {{{s}}}-1)≈ 39 to 46, with a median of 44.1. Approximately 79% of the NuSTAR sources have lower-energy (population, from ≈15% at the highest luminosities ({L}{{X}}> {10}44 erg s‑1) to ≈80% at the lowest luminosities ({L}{{X}}sample. This is higher, albeit at a low significance level, than the type 2 fraction measured for redshift- and luminosity-matched AGNs selected by <10 keV X-ray missions.

  4. Hospital Utilisation in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Infants under 12 Months of Age in Western Australia, Prospective Population Based Data Linkage Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley McAuley

    Full Text Available Indigenous infants (infants aged under 12 months have the highest hospital admission and emergency department presentation risks in Australia. However, there have been no recent reports comparing hospital utilisation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous infants.Our primary objective was to use a large prospective population-based linked dataset to assess the risk of all-cause hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous infants in Western Australia (WA. Secondary objectives were to assess the effect of socio-economic status (Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage [IRSD] on hospital utilisation and to understand the causes of hospital utilisation.There were 3,382 (5.4% Indigenous and 59,583 (94.6% non-Indigenous live births in WA from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011. Indigenous infants had a greater risk of hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.77-2.04, p = <0.001 and emergency department presentation (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.98-2.33, p = <0.001 compared to non-Indigenous infants. Fifty nine percent (59.0% of admissions in Indigenous children were classified as preventable compared to 31.2% of admissions in non-Indigenous infants (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.88-2.39. The risk of hospital admission in the most disadvantaged (IRSD 1 infants in the total cohort (35.7% was similar to the risk in the least disadvantaged (IRSD 5 infants (30.6% (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.13, p = 0.356.WA Indigenous infants have much higher hospital utilisation than non Indigenous infants. WA health services should prioritise Indigenous infants regardless of their socio economic status or where they live.

  5. Effects of the Cessation of Mass Screening for Neuroblastoma at 6 Months of Age: A Population-Based Study in Osaka, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioka, Akiko; Inoue, Masami; Yoneda, Akihiro; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Hara, Junichi; Hashii, Yoshiko; Sakata, Naoki; Yamato, Kazumi; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Kawa, Keisei

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2004, the Japanese government halted the 6-month mass screening program for neuroblastoma. We investigated whether its cessation had led to an increase not only in mortality due to this disease but also in the incidence of advanced-stage disease among older children. Methods Study subjects were neuroblastoma patients retrieved from the population-based Osaka Cancer Registry. Trends of incidence and mortality from neuroblastoma were analyzed by calendar year and birth cohort. Prognostic factors, including stage and v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma derived homolog (MYCN) oncogene status, were compared before and after the cessation of mass screening. Results Age-standardized incidence rates in 2005–2009 (the cessation period of mass screening; 11.1 per million) were similar to those in 1975–1979 (the pre-screening period; 8.6 per million). Age-standardized mortality rates tended to decrease from 1975–1979 (4.0 per million) to 2005–2009 (2.7 per million) in parallel with the improvement in survival. Analysis by birth cohort indicated that the mortality rates in 2004–2005 (after cessation) for children 0–4 years of age were lower than those in 1975–1979 (O:E ratio 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.03–0.90). For children 1–9 years of age, there was a not significant difference in the distribution of stage, MYCN oncogene status, and DNA ploidy between 1991–2003 (the mass screening period) and 2004–2008 (after cessation). Conclusions The cessation of mass screening for neuroblastoma does not appear to have increased mortality due to this disease or incidence of advanced-stage disease among older children. PMID:26548355

  6. Forest fragments as barriers to fruit fly dispersal: Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in orchards and adjacent forest fragments in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail-type traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine were used to monitor populations of Anastrepha obliqua and A. suspensa at four sites in Guánica, Puerto Rico; one forest fragment in Ponce, Puerto Rico; in a commercial mango orchard in Guayanilla, PR; and an experimental carambola orcha...

  7. A Novel Method for Tracking Individuals of Fruit Fly Swarms Flying in a Laboratory Flight Arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xi En; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Shuo Hong; Jiang, Nan; Guo, Aike; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in studying social behaviours of swarming fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has heightened the need for developing tools that provide quantitative motion data. To achieve such a goal, multi-camera three-dimensional tracking technology is the key experimental gateway. We have developed a novel tracking system for tracking hundreds of fruit flies flying in a confined cubic flight arena. In addition to the proposed tracking algorithm, this work offers additional contributions in three aspects: body detection, orientation estimation, and data validation. To demonstrate the opportunities that the proposed system offers for generating high-throughput quantitative motion data, we conducted experiments on five experimental configurations. We also performed quantitative analysis on the kinematics and the spatial structure and the motion patterns of fruit fly swarms. We found that there exists an asymptotic distance between fruit flies in swarms as the population density increases. Further, we discovered the evidence for repulsive response when the distance between fruit flies approached the asymptotic distance. Overall, the proposed tracking system presents a powerful method for studying flight behaviours of fruit flies in a three-dimensional environment.

  8. A Novel Method for Tracking Individuals of Fruit Fly Swarms Flying in a Laboratory Flight Arena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi En Cheng

    Full Text Available The growing interest in studying social behaviours of swarming fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has heightened the need for developing tools that provide quantitative motion data. To achieve such a goal, multi-camera three-dimensional tracking technology is the key experimental gateway. We have developed a novel tracking system for tracking hundreds of fruit flies flying in a confined cubic flight arena. In addition to the proposed tracking algorithm, this work offers additional contributions in three aspects: body detection, orientation estimation, and data validation. To demonstrate the opportunities that the proposed system offers for generating high-throughput quantitative motion data, we conducted experiments on five experimental configurations. We also performed quantitative analysis on the kinematics and the spatial structure and the motion patterns of fruit fly swarms. We found that there exists an asymptotic distance between fruit flies in swarms as the population density increases. Further, we discovered the evidence for repulsive response when the distance between fruit flies approached the asymptotic distance. Overall, the proposed tracking system presents a powerful method for studying flight behaviours of fruit flies in a three-dimensional environment.

  9. Flying and Your Child's Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Flying and Your Child's Ears KidsHealth > For Parents > Flying and Your Child's Ears Print A A A What's in this article? Flying's Effects on Ears Tips for Easing Ear Pain en español Como cuidar los oídos de su hijo(a) cuando vuele en avión Flying's Effects on ...

  10. Flying in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Procházka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flying all over the world is very challenging and demanding. Although ICAO is covering every specific detail by rules, there are some personal experiences which cannot be substituted. Some of them are point out in the article.

  11. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    Artist talk / Work-in-progress What is the purpose of a machine or an artifact, like the Fly Printer, that is dislocated, that produces images that have no meaning, no instrumentality, that depict nothing in the world? The biological and the cultural are reunited in this apparatus as a possibilit...... the results. The extended version of the Fly Printer containing the technological perception and DNNs is a collaboration between Laura Beloff and Malene Theres Klaus...

  12. Lifespan of a Ceratitis fruit fly increases with higher altitude

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Variation in lifespan may be linked to geographic factors. While latitudinal variation in lifespan has been studied for a number of species, altitude variation has received much less attention, particularly in insects. We measured the lifespan of different populations of the Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa along an altitudinal cline. For the different populations we first measured the residual longevity of wild flies by captive cohort approach and compared F1 generation from the same populatio...

  13. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  14. Predictors and Course of Medically Intractable Epilepsy in Young Children Presenting Before 36 Months of Age: A Retrospective, Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirrell, Elaine; Wong-Kisiel, Lily; Mandrekar, Jay; Nickels, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence and identify predictors of medical intractability in children presenting with epilepsy prior to 36 months of age, and to assess the impact of medical intractability on long-term mortality and intellectual function. Methods Children with newly-diagnosed epilepsy prior to 36 months between 1980–2009 while resident in Olmsted County, MN were identified. Medical records were reviewed to collect epilepsy specific variables and long-term outcome data. Medically intractable epilepsy was defined as either (1) seizures greater than every 6 months at final follow-up and failure of two or more antiepileptic drugs for lack of efficacy, or (2) having undergone epilepsy surgery after failure of two or more antiepileptic drugs. Key Findings One hundred and twenty seven children with new-onset epilepsy were identified and followed for a median of 78 months. Medically intractable seizures occurred in 35%, and significant predictors on multivariate analysis were age ≤12 months at diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] 6.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.00, 22.84, p=0.002), developmental delay at initial diagnosis of epilepsy (OR 20.03, 95% CI 3.49, 114.83, p=0.0008 ), neuroimaging abnormality (OR 6.48, 95% CI 1.96, 21.40, p=0.002) and focal slowing on initial EEG (OR 5.33, 95% CI 1.14, 24.88, p=0.03). Medical intractability occurred early in the course in most children, being seen in 61% by one year, and 93% by five years after initial diagnosis. Mortality was higher (20% vs 0%, p<0.001) and intellectual outcome poorer (p<0.001) if epilepsy was medically intractable. Significance One third of children presenting with epilepsy before 36 months will be medically intractable and significant predictors are identified. Medically intractable epilepsy is associated with increased mortality risk and significant intellectual disability. PMID:22738069

  15. Assessing Transmission of Salmonella to Bovine Peripheral Lymph Nodes upon Horn Fly Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafson, Pia Untalan; Brown, Tyson R; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H; Harvey, Roger B; Nisbet, David J; Loneragan, Guy H; Edrington, Thomas S

    2016-07-01

    populations, highlighting a role for biting flies as an important reservoir.

  16. Assessment of attractiveness of plants as roosting sites for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter ("roost"). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), Brazilian

  17. An Investigation of the Validity and Reliability of the Battelle Developmental Inventory with a Population of Children Younger than 30 Months with Identified Handicapping Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Mary; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study evaluated the Batelle Developmental Inventory (BDI) with 40 disabled children under 30 months of age. Subjects were also given the Bayley Scales and Vine Scales of Adaptive Behavior. Results indicated high concurrent validity, interrater reliability, and internal consistency for the BDI. (Author/DB)

  18. ANALYSIS OF FLYING BIKE

    OpenAIRE

    Momin Irfan Ali Nasir Husain *1, Shah mohd. Rafique rahmatullah *2, Naumanulhaq Barkatullah Shaikh *3, Khatib Mohd. Azimuddin Najimuddin *4, Ansari Mohammad Naasir Shamsudduha *5, Ansari Mohammad Parvez Abdul Qayyum*6, Momin Mohammad Rayyan Mohammad Shakeel*7, Ansari Peer Mohammed Munna *8, Prof. Mohd. Musharraf Aamir

    2016-01-01

    Flying Bike vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) type machine which also follows Newton’s third law. It is thought of as a conventional type of aircraft with special features added to enable it to rise vertically during take-off and to land from a vertical descent.  It flies with two propellers located at front and back side. These propellers are having hovering abilities. The vehicle is controlled by tilting the propellers by using lever mechanism. Rotation is carried out by diffe...

  19. ESAT and M-CHAT as screening instruments for autism spectrum disorders at 18 months in the general population: issues of overlap and association with clinical referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuker, Karin T; Schjølberg, Synnve; Lie, Kari Kveim; Swinkels, Sophie; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2014-11-01

    The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) and the Early Screening of Autistic Traits (ESAT) were designed to screen for autism spectrum disorders in very young children. The aim of this study was to explore proportions of children that screened positive on the ESAT or the M-CHAT and to investigate if screening positive on the ESAT and M-CHAT is associated with clinical referral by 18 months and other aspects of children's development, health, and behavior. In this study, the mothers of 12,948 18-month-old children returned a questionnaire consisting of items from the ESAT and M-CHAT, plus questions about clinical and developmental characteristics. The M-CHAT identified more screen-positive children than the ESAT, but the ESAT was associated with more clinical referrals and tended to identify more children with medical, language, and behavioral problems. A post hoc analysis of combining the two instruments found this to be more effective than the individual instruments alone in identifying children referred to clinical services at 18 months. Further analysis at the level of single items is warranted to improve these screening instruments.

  20. Kite-Flying Fun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s kite capital welcomes flying enthusiasts from across the world to its annual carnival Tens of thousands of kite enthusiast from all over the world gathered under the growing swarm of brightly colored kites. Some of the floating and billowing forms had been fashioned into

  1. Hydration of fly ash cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etsuo Sakai; Shigeyoshi Miyahara; Shigenari Ohsawa; Seung-Heun Lee; Masaki Daimon [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering

    2005-06-01

    It is necessary to establish the material design system for the utilization of large amounts of fly ash as blended cement instead of disposing of it as a waste. Cement blended with fly ash is also required as a countermeasure to reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} generation. In this study, the influences of the glass content and the basicity of glass phase on the hydration of fly ash cement were clarified and hydration over a long curing time was characterized. Two kinds of fly ash with different glass content, one with 38.2% and another with 76.6%, were used. The hydration ratio of fly ash was increased by increasing the glass content in fly ash in the specimens cured for 270 days. When the glass content of fly ash is low, the basicity of glass phase tends to decrease. Reactivity of fly ash is controlled by the basicity of the glass phase in fly ash during a period from 28 to 270 days. However, at an age of 360 days, the reaction ratios of fly ash show almost identical values with different glass contents. Fly ash also affected the hydration of cement clinker minerals in fly ash cement. While the hydration of alite was accelerated, that of belite was retarded at a late stage.

  2. Latent class analysis reveals five homogeneous behavioural and developmental profiles in a large Dutch population sample of infants aged 14-15 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moricke, E.; Lappenschaar, G.A.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Precursors of child psychiatric disorders are often present in infancy, but little is known about the prevalence and course of general psychopathology in population-based samples of children 0-3 years. We examined whether homogeneous behavioural and developmental profiles could be identified in chil

  3. Understanding the links between month of birth, body height, and longevity: why some studies reveal that shorter people live longer – further evidence of seasonal programming from the Polish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewski Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of agreement in the literature as to whether adult height depends on month of birth and whether height affects lifespan. Additionally, the relationship between stature and longevity involves conflicting findings and the results remain mixed due to several confounders, such as: year of birth, somatotype, relative body weight, genetic inheritance, diet, diseases, etc. Here, we hypothesize that the season of birth effect can also be involved in shaping the mysterious link between body height and longevity. To assess the links between month of birth, adult height, and longevity in the Polish population, data on 848,860 individuals, of whom 483,512 were men (57% and 365,348 were women (43%, born in the years 1896-1988 and died in the years 2004-2008, were collected from the ‘PESEL’ database and signalments in the censuses obtained from identity card offices throughout Poland. ANOVA and the LSD test were performed. A significant relationship between month of birth and lifespan was found. Individuals born in autumn and winter months lived significantly longer than those who were born in the middle of the year (May. The amplitudes of lifespan were 16 months in men and 14 months in women. As expected, subjects of both sexes born in autumn and winter months were significantly shorter than their peers born around the middle of the year. In conclusion, the results of the study not only corroborate the theory of seasonal programming of longevity and support the idea that some undetermined factors from early stages of ontogeny and associated with season of birth have long-term effects on phenotype in later life in terms of adult height and longevity, but also bear out the hypothesis that month of birth can be another important confounding factor with respect to the relationship between adult height and longevity.

  4. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of eating disorders amongst women in mid-life: a population-based study of diagnoses and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, Nadia; Martini, Maria G; Thomas, Jennifer J; Eddy, Kamryn T; Kothari, Radha; Russell, Ellie; Bulik, Cynthia M; Treasure, Janet

    2017-01-17

    Eating disorders (EDs) are common amongst women; however, no research has specifically investigated the lifetime/12-month prevalence of eating disorders amongst women in mid-life (i.e., fourth and fifth decade of life) and the relevant longitudinal risk factors. We aimed to investigate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of EDs and lifetime health service use and to identify childhood, parenting, and personality risk factors. This is a two-phase prevalence study, nested within an existing longitudinal community-based sample of women in mid-life. A total of 5658 women from the UK Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; enrolled 20 years earlier) participated. ED diagnoses were obtained using validated structured interviews. Weighted analyses were carried out accounting for the two-phase methodology to obtain prevalence figures and to carry out risk factor regression analyses. By mid-life, 15.3% (95% confidence intervals, 13.5-17.4%) of women had met criteria for a lifetime ED. The 12-month prevalence of EDs was 3.6%. Childhood sexual abuse was prospectively associated with all binge/purge type disorders and an external locus of control was associated with binge-eating disorder. Better maternal care was protective for bulimia nervosa. Childhood life events and interpersonal sensitivity were associated with all EDs. By mid-life a significant proportion of women will experience an ED, and few women accessed healthcare. Active EDs are common in mid-life, both due to new onset and chronic disorders. Increased awareness of the full spectrum of EDs in this stage of life and adequate service provision is important. This is the first study to investigate childhood and personality risk factors for full threshold and sub-threshold EDs and to identify common predictors for full and sub-threshold EDs. Further research should clarify the role of preventable risk factors on both full and sub-threshold EDs.

  5. Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: A birth cohort study (COCOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Ho Shin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OHD concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort. Methods: The levels of 25(OHD in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean newborns in the prospective COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases were examined. The primary outcome variable of interest was the prevalence of RTI at 6-month follow-up, as diagnosed by pediatricians and pediatric allergy and pulmonology specialists. RTI included acute nasopharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Results: The median concentration of 25(OHD in cord blood was 32.0 nmol/L (interquartile range, 21.4 to 53.2. One hundred and eighty neonates (34.3% showed 25(OHD concentrations less than 25.0 nmol/L, 292 (55.6% showed 25(OHD concentrations of 25.0&#8211;74.9 nmol/L, and 53 (10.1% showed concentrations of ?#247;5.0 nmol/L. Adjusting for the season of birth, multivitamin intake during pregnancy, and exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy, 25(OHD concentrations showed an inverse association with the risk of acquiring acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age (P for trend= 0.0004. Conclusion: The results show that 89.9% of healthy newborns in Korea are born with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (55.6% and 34.3%, respectively. Cord blood vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in healthy neonates is associated with an increased risk of acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age. More time spent outdoors and more intensified vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women may be needed to prevent the onset of acute nasopharyngitis in infants.

  6. Flying the Needles: Flight Deck Automation Erodes Fine-Motor Flying Skills Among Airline Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslbeck, Andreas; Hoermann, Hans-Juergen

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of practice and training on fine-motor flying skills during a manual instrument landing system (ILS) approach. There is an ongoing debate that manual flying skills of long-haul crews suffer from a lack of flight practice due to conducting only a few flights per month and the intensive use of automation. However, objective evidence is rare. One hundred twenty-six randomly selected airline pilots had to perform a manual flight scenario with a raw data precision approach. Pilots were assigned to four equal groups according to their level of practice and training by fleet (short-haul, long-haul) and rank (first officer, captain). Average ILS deviation scores differed significantly in relation to the group assignments. The strongest predictor variable was fleet, indicating degraded performance among long-haul pilots. Manual flying skills are subject to erosion due to a lack of practice on long-haul fleets: All results support the conclusion that recent flight practice is a significantly stronger predictor for fine-motor flying performance than the time period since flight school or even the total or type-specific flight experience. Long-haul crews have to be supported in a timely manner by adequate training tailored to address manual skills or by operational provisions like mixed-fleet flying or more frequent transitions between short-haul and long-haul operation. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  7. An annotated checklist of the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The family Tabanidae includes the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies and is considered a significant pest of livestock throughout the United States, including Florida. Tabanids can easily become a major pest of man, especially salt marsh species which are known to readily feed on humans and o...

  8. Evaluation of ULV applications against Old World sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) species in equatorial Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing populations of phlebotomine sand flies in areas prevalent for human leishmaniases is of ongoing importance to US military operations and civilian populations in endemic regions. Collateral reduction of sand flies or human cases of leishmaniases during pesticide campaigns against vectors of ...

  9. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, as mechanical vectors of pathogenic bacteria in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwong, T; Srivoramas, T; Sueabsamran, P; Sukontason, K; Sanford, M R; Sukontason, K L

    2014-06-01

    The Oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the house fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) are synanthropic flies which are adapted to live in close association with human habitations, thereby making them likely mechanical vectors of several pathogens to humans. There were two main aims of this study. The first aim was to determine the prevalence of these two fly species from five types of human habitations including: fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias and paddy fields, in the Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap districts of Ubon Ratchathani province of Northeast Thailand. Flies collection were conducted monthly from September 2010-October 2011 using a reconstructable funnel trap, containing 1 day-tainted beef offal as bait. A total of 7 750 flies (6 401 C. megacephala and 1 349 M.domestica) were collected. The second aim was to examine the potential of these flies to carry pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria were isolated from 994 individual flies collected using a sweep net (555 C. megacephala and 439 M. domestica). A total of 15 bacterial genera were isolated from the external surfaces, comprising ten genera of gram-negative bacteria and five gram-positive bacteria. The most common bacteria isolated from both species were coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by Streptococcus group D non-enterococci. Human pathogenic enteric bacteria isolated were Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus sp., and Enterococcus sp., of which S. typhi is the first report of isolation from these fly species. Other human pathogens included Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Not only were the number of C. megacephala positive for bacteria significantly higher than for M. domestica, but they were also carrying ~11-12 times greater bacterial load than M. domestica. These data suggest that both fly species should be considered potential

  10. Temporal distribution and behaviour of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus of the Kani Tribe settlements in the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P; Kumar, N Pradeep; Selvakumar, M; Edwin, B; Kumar, T Dilip

    2015-08-01

    The temporal distribution of sand flies in relation to environmental factors was studied in the Kani tribe settlements located on the southernmost part of the Western Ghats, Kerala, India, between June 2012 and May 2013. This area is known for occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases. Employing hand-held aspirator, light trap and sticky-trap collection methods, a total of 7874 sand fly specimens, comprising 19 species was collected. Sergentomyia baghdadis was predominant species, followed by Phlebotomus argentipes. Sand fly abundance was significantly higher indoors (χ(2)=9241.8; p=0.0001) than outdoors. Mean density of P. argentipes in human dwellings, cattle sheds and outdoors was 7.2±2.9, 27.33±21.1 and 0.64±0.2 females/per man-hour (MHR), respectively. No sand fly species other than P. argentipes was obtained from cattle sheds. Although, sand fly populations were prevalent throughout the year, their abundance fluctuated with seasonal changes. Multiple regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that the increase in precipitation and relative humidity contributed to a significant positive association with the increase in sand fly abundance, while the increase in temperature showed no association. Fully engorged female sand flies tested for blood meal source showed multiple host-blood feeding. Analysis of resting populations of sand flies collected from human shelters indicated that the populations were found maximum on interior walls at 6-8 and >8 ft height, including ceiling during summer (F=83.7, df=6, p=0.001) and at the lower half of the wall at 0 and 0-2 ft height, during monsoon season (F=41.4, df=6, p=0.001). In cooler months, no preference to any height level (F=1.67, df=6, p=0.2) was observed. Proportion of females sand flies with Sella's classification of abdominal stages, namely full-fed, half-gravid and gravid females did not vary significantly (t=1.98, p=0.13827) indoors, confirming their endophilic behaviour. Risk of CL

  11. Phlebotomine sand flies in Porteirinha, an area of American visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrade Barata

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A study of the phlebotomine sand fly fauna was carried out in an endemic area of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL in the municipality of Porteirinha, in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Captures were performed with CDC light traps in 7 districts, 5 days per month, during 2 consecutive years (January 2000 to December 2001. A total of 3240 sand flies were captured and identified. Sixteen species were found, among which 15 belonged to the genus Lutzomyia and one to the genus Brumptomyia. Lutzomyia longipalpis, a proven vector of AVL, was the predominant species (71.85% throughout the time period. The interference of climatic factors (temperature, humidity, and rainfall over the populational dynamics of the sand flies was determined. Statistical analysis of the data showed a significant correlation among the number of phlebotomine sand flies collected, rainfall, and humidity, whereas the effect of temperature was negligible, in that particular region. The amount of collected phlebotomine, the number of human cases, and the prevalence of canine AVL in the districts of Porteirinha are discussed.

  12. The Lasting Influences of Early Food-Related Variety Experience: A Longitudinal Study of Vegetable Acceptance from 5 Months to 6 Years in Two Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Maier-Nöth

    Full Text Available Children's vegetable consumption falls below current recommendations, highlighting the need to identify strategies that can successfully promote better acceptance of vegetables. Recently, experimental studies have reported promising interventions that increase acceptance of vegetables. The first, offering infants a high variety of vegetables at weaning, increased acceptance of new foods, including vegetables. The second, offering an initially disliked vegetable at 8 subsequent meals markedly increased acceptance for that vegetable. So far, these effects have been shown to persist for at least several weeks. We now present follow-up data at 15 months, 3 and 6 years obtained through questionnaire (15 mo, 3y and experimental (6y approaches. At 15 months, participants who had been breast-fed were reported as eating and liking more vegetables than those who had been formula-fed. The initially disliked vegetable that became accepted after repeated exposure was still liked and eaten by 79% of the children. At 3 years, the initially disliked vegetable was still liked and eaten by 73% of the children. At 6 years, observations in an experimental setting showed that children who had been breast-fed and children who had experienced high vegetable variety at the start of weaning ate more of new vegetables and liked them more. They were also more willing to taste vegetables than formula-fed children or the no or low variety groups. The initially disliked vegetable was still liked by 57% of children. This follow-up study suggests that experience with chemosensory variety in the context of breastfeeding or at the onset of complementary feeding can influence chemosensory preferences for vegetables into childhood.

  13. Flying Saucer? Aliens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    No, it's not a flying saucer, it is the domed top to a 70 foot long vacuum tank at the Lewis Research Center's Electric Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, Ohio. The three technicians shown here in protective clothing had just emerged from within the tank where they had been cleaning in the toxic mercury atmosphere, left after ion engine testing in the tank. Lewis has since been renamed the John H. Glenn Research Center.

  14. Maternal and infant affect at 4 months predicts performance and verbal IQ at 4 and 7 years in a diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Tenenbaum, Elena J; Messinger, Daniel S; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L; Tronick, Ed; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hammond, Jane; Lester, Barry M

    2016-10-23

    Using existing longitudinal data from 570 infants in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, we explored the predictive value of maternal and infant affect and maternal vocalizations during 2 minutes of face-to-face interactions at 4 months on IQ scores at 4.5 and 7 years. After controlling for demographic factors, maternal depression, and prenatal drug exposure, maternal positive affect and maternal positive vocalizations emerged as predictors of both verbal and performance IQ at 4.5 and 7 years. Although infant positive affect during the interaction with the mother was not predictive of these outcome measures, infant positive affect towards an examiner predicted verbal but not performance IQ at 4.5 years. These results suggest that maternal positive affect may index emotional engagement in interaction that facilitates both verbal and nonverbal cognitive development, while infant social positive affect is specifically related to the acquisition of verbal reasoning abilities. These findings are significant because they are based on a discrete snapshot of observable behavior in infancy (just 2 minutes of interaction), because they extend the range of maternal behaviors and characteristics known to support positive developmental outcomes, and because they are derived from high-risk infants where prevention efforts may be beneficial. Potential mechanisms for these associations are discussed, as are the clinical implications for identifying dyads most in need of targeted interventions.

  15. 多种群果蝇优化算法求解自动化仓库拣选作业调度问题%Multiple-Population Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm for Scheduling Problem of Order Picking Operation in Automatic Warehouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    习宁; 韩虎

    2014-01-01

    针对自动化仓库的拣选作业调度问题,提出了一种多种群果蝇优化算法。采用随机键编码方式,利用味道浓度判定值的大小次序来映射调度解。通过同时学习子种群的局部最优和全局最优个体,实现对果蝇个体的更新计算。为了避免陷入局部最优,采用了一种果蝇个体变异机制。计算结果显示,多种群果蝇优化算法在计算精度和收敛效率方面要好于基本果蝇优化算法,并且搜索过程能够有效跳出局部最优。%A multiple population fruit fly optimization algorithm is proposed for the scheduling problem of order picking operation in automatic warehouse.A coding method of random key is a-dopted,and the sequence of the smell concentration judgment value is mapped to the schedule so-lution.The fruit individuals are calculated and updated by simultaneously learning from both the local optimum of the offspring population and the whole optimum of overall populations in the it-eration.A mutation method is employed to jump away from the local optimum for the fruit indi-vidual.The computational results show that the multiple-population fruit fly optimization algo-rithm has better calculation precision and convergence efficiency than the basic fruit fly optimiza-tion algorithm,and it can effectively avoid falling into the local optimum.

  16. Fauna and relative frequency of synanthropic flies in the biggest Persian Gulf Island, Qeshm, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khoobdel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the diversity and relative abundance of medically important species of synanthropic flies and their seasonal activity on Qeshm Island in Persian Gulf, Iran. Methods: Flies collection was performed during March 2011 to February 2012 in all different areas of the island by using the common fly trap and plastic water bottle fly trap, reverse-cone model, containing tainted lamb or beef meat as bait. The captured flies were identified by using valid flies systematic keys, checklists and species description. The relative abundances and seasonal activity of flies were estimated by means of flies captured per trap in every month. Results: In this study a total number of 11 species of medically important flies in three families including Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae and Muscidae, were collected. The relative mean abundance of flies was estimated to be 6.3 ± 1.1 per trap. The most abundance was seen in rural areas in the south of Qeshm Island with 10.1 ± 1.5 per trap. In this island, medically impotent flies had two peaks of activity in early spring and early autumn, during April and October. Flies activity decreased in July and August due to the high increase of temperature and humidity of the weather. In February, the relative decrease in air temperature reduced the activity of the flies. Conclusions: Diversity and abundance of flies in spring and early autumn were higher than other seasons, especially in rural areas of Southern Qeshm Island. Insect control measures should be conducted during the peak of flies activity.

  17. Fauna and relative frequency of synanthropic flies in the biggest Persian Gulf Island, Qeshm, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Khoobdel; Kamran Akbarzadeh; Javad Rafinejad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the diversity and relative abundance of medically important species of synanthropic flies and their seasonal activity on Qeshm Island in Persian Gulf, Iran. Methods: Flies collection was performed during March 2011 to February 2012 in all different areas of the island by using the common fly trap and plastic water bottle fly trap, reverse-cone model, containing tainted lamb or beef meat as bait. The captured flies were identified by using valid flies systematic keys, checklists and species description. The relative abundances and seasonal activity of flies were estimated by means of flies captured per trap in every month. Results: In this study a total number of 11 species of medically important flies in three families including Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae and Muscidae, were collected. The relative mean abundance of flies was estimated to be 6.3 ± 1.1 per trap. The most abundance was seen in rural areas in the south of Qeshm Island with 10.1 ± 1.5 per trap. In this island, medically impotent flies had two peaks of activity in early spring and early autumn, during April and October. Flies activity decreased in July and August due to the high increase of temperature and humidity of the weather. In February, the relative decrease in air temperature reduced the activity of the flies. Conclusions: Diversity and abundance of flies in spring and early autumn were higher than other seasons, especially in rural areas of Southern Qeshm Island. Insect control measures should be conducted during the peak of flies activity.

  18. Do Permethrin-Treated Screens Repel Sand Flies from Entering Houses ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basimike, M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of permethrin-treated screens on sand flies entering treated houses were evaluated in Marigat area of Baringo District, Kenya. Screens treated with 0.50 g/m2 a. i. of permethrin 20 % E.C. were fitted inside houses and retreated every 6 months from January 1992 to December 1993. In the treated village, 40.62 % sand flies were caught inside while 67.34 % sand flies were collected outside houses. In the control village, 32.66 % sand flies were collected inside while 59.38 % sand flies were caught outside houses. The number of sand flies collected outside houses in the treated village was higher than those collected inside houses in the same village (X2 = 30.97, df = 11, P = 0.001. Twelve species of sand flies were collected in the area, of which nine species of the Sergentomyia and three species of the Phlebotomus genera. Phlebotomus martini and P. duboscqi, vecfors of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis respectively were collected inside houses in both treated and control villages. Permethrin-treated screens fitted inside houses were effective against sand flies as they reduced the number of flies entering houses. However, the treated screens did not seem to have any effect on sand fly species composition. Permethrin-treated screens are an important tool for controlling sand flies in the communities.

  19. Trypanosomes Infection in Field-Captured Tsetse Flies of the Subgenus: Nemorhina In Southern Guinea Savanna Zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E. Okoh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An investigation aimed at assessing the Trypanosomes infection in the Palpalis group was conducted between January and December of 2007 at Kamuku National Park, using Biconical and Nitse traps. Flies were trapped along riverine vegetation for two trapping days each month and were harvested daily. Out of 213 tsetse flies examined, 14 (6.6% were infected with trypanosome. Infection rate in G. tachinoides 9.4% (11 out of 117 were statistically (p<0.05 higher than G. Palpalis 3.1% (3 out of 96 flies examined. Also, infection rate were higher in males 5.2% (11 than females 1.4% (3. Infection due to Trypanosoma vivax 5.2% (11 dominated, followed by T. congolense 0.9% (2 then T. brucei 0.5% (1. The Mean Hunger Stages of 3.5 and 3.6 for G. tachinoides and G. palpalis respectively indicated a hungry population. Infections were highest in the month of May. The presence of Tsetse and Trypanosome infection in the park may pose public health risk.

  20. Dielectric properties of fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Raghavendra; R L Raibagkar; A B Kulkarni

    2002-02-01

    This paper reports the dielectric properties of fly ash. The dielectric measurements were performed as a function of frequency and temperature. The sample of fly ash shows almost similar behaviour in the frequency and temperature range studied. The large value of dielectric constant in the typical frequency range is because of orientation polarization and tight binding force between the ions or atoms in the fly ash. The sample of fly ash is of great scientific and technological interest because of its high value of dielectric constant (104).

  1. The Knee Clinical Assessment Study – CAS(K. A prospective study of knee pain and knee osteoarthritis in the general population: baseline recruitment and retention at 18 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Rachel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selective non-participation at baseline (due to non-response and non-consent and loss to follow-up are important concerns for longitudinal observational research. We investigated these matters in the context of baseline recruitment and retention at 18 months of participants for a prospective observational cohort study of knee pain and knee osteoarthritis in the general population. Methods Participants were recruited to the Knee Clinical Assessment Study – CAS(K – by a multi-stage process involving response to two postal questionnaires, consent to further contact and medical record review (optional, and attendance at a research clinic. Follow-up at 18-months was by postal questionnaire. The characteristics of responders/consenters were described for each stage in the recruitment process to identify patterns of selective non-participation and loss to follow-up. The external validity of findings from the clinic attenders was tested by comparing the distribution of WOMAC scores and the association between physical function and obesity with the same parameters measured directly in the target population as whole. Results 3106 adults aged 50 years and over reporting knee pain in the previous 12 months were identified from the first baseline questionnaire. Of these, 819 consented to further contact, responded to the second questionnaire, and attended the research clinics. 776 were successfully followed up at 18 months. There was evidence of selective non-participation during recruitment (aged 80 years and over, lower socioeconomic group, currently in employment, experiencing anxiety or depression, brief episode of knee pain within the previous year. This did not cause significant bias in either the distribution of WOMAC scores or the association between physical function and obesity. Conclusion Despite recruiting a minority of the target population to the research clinics and some evidence of selective non-participation, this

  2. Flying over decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeller, Judith; Issler, Mena; Imamoglu, Atac

    Levy flights haven been extensively used in the past three decades to describe non-Brownian motion of particles. In this presentation I give an overview on how Levy flights have been used across several disciplines, ranging from biology to finance to physics. In our publication we describe how a single electron spin 'flies' when captured in quantum dot using the central spin model. At last I motivate the use of Levy flights for the description of anomalous diffusion in modern experiments, concretely to describe the lifetimes of quasi-particles in Josephson junctions. Finished PhD at ETH in Spring 2015.

  3. Vision in flying insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelhaaf, Martin; Kern, Roland

    2002-12-01

    Vision guides flight behaviour in numerous insects. Despite their small brain, insects easily outperform current man-made autonomous vehicles in many respects. Examples are the virtuosic chasing manoeuvres male flies perform as part of their mating behaviour and the ability of bees to assess, on the basis of visual motion cues, the distance travelled in a novel environment. Analyses at both the behavioural and neuronal levels are beginning to unveil reasons for such extraordinary capabilities of insects. One recipe for their success is the adaptation of visual information processing to the specific requirements of the behavioural tasks and to the specific spatiotemporal properties of the natural input.

  4. Investigation of flies population composition and its insecticide resistance in Lianyungang%连云港地区蝇类种群构成及其抗性调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏春清; 周日辉; 赵兴; 崔凤云; 邱成娟; 张琦

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究并掌握连云港地区蝇类的构成、发生、发展规律以及抗性的发生情况.方法 采用诱蝇笼法进行蝇的调查研究,诱饵为醋与红糖的混合物;采用点滴法进行抗药性测试.结果 连云港地区蝇类隶属4科12属22种.每年4-11月均有蝇类发生,蝇密度基本呈双峰型,9月为最高,6、8月为次高,家蝇为优势种,占蝇类总体的57.7%.农贸市场蝇密度最高,其次为绿化带;家蝇对氯菊酯、氯氰菊酯、残杀威产生了高抗性.结论 连云港地区的蝇类每年4 -11月份均有活动,优势种为家蝇.其对氯菊酯、氯氰菊酯、残杀威均产生了高抗性,对敌敌畏也产生了中抗性.%Objective To study and understand the flies' proportion,regulation of occuring and resistance to common used insecticides in Lianyungang city. Methods Using the luring cage for investigating the flies with the mixed sugar and vinegar,examming the resistance with drop way for common used insecticides. Results The files in Lianyungang belonged to 22 species , 12 genus, 4 families. The flies occurred and were active between April to November annually with two peaks in a year. The highest peak occurred in September, and the second in June and August. 57. 7% of all flies were Musca domestica. The area of highest flies density was at farm product market,followed by trees and lawn. The Musca domestica had high resistance to permethrin, cypermethrin and propoxur. Conclusion The flies occur between April to November annually in Lianyungang district. The major species is Musca domestica with high resistance to permethrin, cypermethrin and propoxur.

  5. Choice of optimal biocide combination to control flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Kavran; Marija F Zgomba; Aleksandra M Ignjatovic-Ćupina; Sanja D Lazić; Dušan V Petrić

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Flies – by feeding on decaying matter, human waste and food – have been implicated in the spread of numerous animal and human diseases. Excessive fly populations are generally associated with livestock units and domestic waste due to decaying organic matter. A large number of flies cause extreme disturbance in the behavior of the host, resulting in skin irritation, lesions, wounds, and secondary infections are likely to appear. Objective. The aim of this study was to evalu...

  6. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  7. Physics of flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.quote>

  8. Refractive Index of Fly Rhabdomeres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, D.G.

    1974-01-01

    The refractive index reported previously for the rhabdomeres of flies (1.349) has been corrected for waveguide effects. The presented correction method has yielded n1 = 1.365 ± 0.006. It is argued that an acceptable estimate for the refractive index of the inhomogeneous surroundings of fly

  9. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of chlamydia testing and treatment: Systematic review and retrospective cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Bethan; Turner, Katy M E; Leung, Stella; Yu, B Nancy; Frølund, Maria; Benfield, Thomas; Blanchard, James; Westh, Henrik; Ward, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months in settings with widespread chlamydia control (testing and treatment) and compare this to the estimated PEF of untreated chlamydia. We used two large retrospective population-based cohorts of women of reproductive age from settings with widespread chlamydia control to calculate the PEF of treated chlamydia on PID at 12-months. We undertook a systematic review to identify further studies that reported the risk of PID in women who were tested for chlamydia (infected and uninfected). We used the same method to calculate the PEF in eligible studies then compared all estimates of PEF. The systematic review identified a single study, a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening (POPI-RCT). In the presence of testing and treatment <10% of PID at 12-months was attributable to treated (baseline) chlamydia infections (Manitoba: 8.86%(95%CI 7.15-10.75); Denmark: 3.84%(3.26-4.45); screened-arm POPI-RCT: 0.99%(0.00-29.06)). In the absence of active chlamydia treatment 26.44%(11.57-46.32) of PID at 12-months was attributable to untreated (baseline) chlamydia infections (deferred-arm POPI-RCT). The PEFs suggest that eradicating baseline chlamydia infections could prevent 484 cases of PID at 12-months per 100,000 women in the untreated setting and 13-184 cases of PID per 100,000 tested women in the presence of testing and treatment. Testing and treating chlamydia reduced the PEF of chlamydia on PID by 65% compared to the untreated setting. But in the presence of testing and treatment over 90% of PID could not be attributed to a baseline chlamydia infection. More information is needed about the aetiology of PID to develop effective strategies for improving the reproductive health of women.

  10. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of chlamydia testing and treatment: Systematic review and retrospective cohort analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katy M. E.; Leung, Stella; Yu, B. Nancy; Frølund, Maria; Benfield, Thomas; Blanchard, James; Westh, Henrik; Ward, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Background The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months in settings with widespread chlamydia control (testing and treatment) and compare this to the estimated PEF of untreated chlamydia. Methods We used two large retrospective population-based cohorts of women of reproductive age from settings with widespread chlamydia control to calculate the PEF of treated chlamydia on PID at 12-months. We undertook a systematic review to identify further studies that reported the risk of PID in women who were tested for chlamydia (infected and uninfected). We used the same method to calculate the PEF in eligible studies then compared all estimates of PEF. Results The systematic review identified a single study, a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening (POPI-RCT). In the presence of testing and treatment cases of PID at 12-months per 100,000 women in the untreated setting and 13–184 cases of PID per 100,000 tested women in the presence of testing and treatment. Conclusion Testing and treating chlamydia reduced the PEF of chlamydia on PID by 65% compared to the untreated setting. But in the presence of testing and treatment over 90% of PID could not be attributed to a baseline chlamydia infection. More information is needed about the aetiology of PID to develop effective strategies for improving the reproductive health of women. PMID:28199392

  11. Monitoring Resistance to Spinosad in the Melon Fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae in Hawaii and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinosad is a natural insecticide with desirable qualities, and it is widely used as an alternative to organophosphates for control of pests such as the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett. To monitor the potential for development of resistance, information about the current levels of tolerance to spinosad in melon fly populations were established in this study. Spinosad tolerance bioassays were conducted using both topical applications and feeding methods on flies from field populations with extensive exposure to spinosad as well as from collections with little or no prior exposure. Increased levels of resistance were observed in flies from the field populations. Also, higher dosages were generally required to achieve specific levels of mortality using topical applications compared to the feeding method, but these levels were all lower than those used for many organophosphate-based food lures. Our information is important for maintaining effective programs for melon fly management using spinosad.

  12. Evaluation of ULV applications against Old World sand fly species in equatorial Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing populations of phlebotomine sand flies in areas prevalent for leishmaniases is of ongoing importance to U.S. military operations. Collateral reduction of sand flies or human cases of leishmaniases during pesticide campaigns against vectors of malaria indicate that residuals like DDT can be ...

  13. Control of Phlebotomine Sand Flies in Iran: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis has long been known as a significant public health challenge in many parts of Iran. Phlebotomus pa­patasi and P. sergenti are the vectors of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leish­maniasis respectively, and 5 species of sand flies including P. kandelakii, P. neglectus, P. perfiliewi, P. keshishiani and P. alexandri are considered as probable vectors of Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. A literature search was per­formed of the relevant multiple databases from 1966 to 2013 to include studies on sand flies, vector control, leish­maniasis, Phlebotomus. Sand fly control in Iran began in 1966 by Iranian researchers, and long-term evaluation of its effects was completed in the study areas of the country. Herein, a review of vector control strategies in Iran to com­bat leishmaniasis including indoor residual spraying, application of chemicals in rodent burrows, impregnation of bed nets and curtains with insecticides, the use of insect repellents, impregnation of dog collars and the susceptibility of sand fly vectors to various insecticides has been summarized thus far. The investigation of the behavioral patterns of the adults of different sand fly species, introduction of biological insecticide agents, the use of insecticidal plants and other novel strategies for the control of sand fly populations have received much attention in the areas of studies, hence should be recommended and improved since they provide optimistic results.

  14. New records of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bruce Alexander

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available The plebotomine sand fly fauna of Ecuador was surveyed in two 3-month collecting trips made in 1988 and 1990. A total of 12 provinces were visited, including three (Bolivar, Loja and Morona Santiago from wich no previous records to phlebotomines existed. Forty-six species were collected, 13 of wich, together with 1 subspecies and 1 genus (Warileya represented new records for the country. This survey increases the known number of species in Ecuador to 60. The distribuition of Ecuadorian sand flies is discussed in the light of these new findings.

  15. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a New Attractant for the Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Tryoni (Froggatt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderhurst, Matthew S; Park, Soo J; Buller, Caitlyn N; Jamie, Ian M; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Jang, Eric B; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-02-01

    Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Q-fly), is a major pest of horticultural crops in eastern Australia. Lures that attract male Q-fly are important for detection of incursions and outbreaks, monitoring of populations, and control by mass trapping and male annihilation. Cuelure, an analog of naturally occurring raspberry ketone, is the standard Q-fly lure, but it has limited efficacy compared with lures that are available for some other fruit flies such as methyl eugenol for B. dorsalis. Melolure is a more recently developed raspberry ketone analog that has shown better attraction than cuelure in some field studies but not in others. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroacetate (RKTA), has been developed as a potential improvement on cuelure and melolure. RKTA placed on laboratory cages containing 2-week-old Q-flies elicited strong behavioral responses from males. Quantification of Q-fly responses in these cages, using digital images to estimate numbers of flies aggregated near different lures, showed RKTA attracted and arrested significantly more flies than did cuelure or melolure. RKTA shows good potential as a new lure for improved surveillance and control of Q-fly.

  16. Laboratory evaluation of the efficacy of fluorescent biomarkers for sugar-feeding sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascari, T M; Foil, L D

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of four fluorescent dyes (rhodamine B, uranine O, auramine O, and erythrosin B) and two nonfluorescent dyes (carmoisine and indigotine) incorporated into sugar baits as biomarkers for phlebotomine sand flies. Each dye could be detected in sand flies fed baits with dye for 24 h when examined using bright field microscopy, although there was considerable variability in the marking produced; all sand flies that had ingested rhodamine B-treated sucrose solution were marked clearly. Sand flies that had ingested sucrose solution containing rhodamine B or uranine O at concentrations as low as 10 mg/L were consistently detected under fluorescence microscopy. None of the treatments in this study reduced the longevity of sand flies. All sand flies fed sucrose solution containing rhodamine B or uranine O were marked for at least 14 d, whereas only 20% of sand flies were marked 3 d after feeding on a carmoisine-treated solution. When rhodamine B and uranine O were combined in a single sucrose solution or when the dyes were fed sequentially to sand flies, both dyes could be detected in sand flies using fluorescence microscopy. We propose that rhodamine B- or uranine O-treated sucrose baits could be used in ecological studies or to identify portions of the adult sand fly population that could be targeted with insecticide-treated sugar baits.

  17. Roll Control in Fruit Flies

    CERN Document Server

    Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2014-01-01

    Due to aerodynamic instabilities, stabilizing flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here we investigate how flies control body roll angle, their most susceptible degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly, apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air, and film the corrective maneuver. Flies correct perturbations of up to $100^{\\circ}$ within $30\\pm7\\mathrm{ms}$ by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear PI controller. The response latency is $\\sim5\\mathrm{ms}$, making the roll correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom.

  18. Are flying-foxes coming to town? Urbanisation of the spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Tait

    Full Text Available Urbanisation of wildlife populations is a process with significant conservation and management implications. While urban areas can provide habitat for wildlife, some urbanised species eventually come into conflict with humans. Understanding the process and drivers of wildlife urbanisation is fundamental to developing effective management responses to this phenomenon. In Australia, flying-foxes (Pteropodidae are a common feature of urban environments, sometimes roosting in groups of tens of thousands of individuals. Flying-foxes appear to be becoming increasingly urbanised and are coming into increased contact and conflict with humans. Flying-fox management is now a highly contentious issue. In this study we used monitoring data collected over a 15 year period (1998-2012 to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of association of spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus roost sites (camps with urban areas. We asked whether spectacled flying-foxes are becoming more urbanised and test the hypothesis that such changes are associated with anthropogenic changes to landscape structure. Our results indicate that spectacled flying-foxes were more likely to roost near humans than might be expected by chance, that over the period of the study the proportion of the flying-foxes in urban-associated camps increased, as did the number of urban camps. Increased urbanisation of spectacled flying-foxes was not related to changes in landscape structure or to the encroachment of urban areas on camps. Overall, camps tended to be found in areas that were more fragmented, closer to human habitation and with more urban land cover than the surrounding landscape. This suggests that urbanisation is a behavioural response rather than driven by habitat loss.

  19. Monthly Meteorological Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly forms that do not fit into any regular submission. Tabulation sheets and generic monthly forms designed to capture miscellaneous monthly observations.

  20. House and Stable Fly Seasonal Abundance, Larval Development Substrates, and Natural Parasitism on Small Equine Farms in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machtinger, E T; Leppla, N C; Hogsette, J A

    2016-08-01

    House flies, Musca domestica Linnaeus, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), are common pests on horse farms. The successful use of pupal parasitoids for management of these pests requires knowledge of seasonal fluctuations and biology of the flies as well as natural parasitism levels. However, these dynamics have not been investigated on small equine farms. A 1-year field study began in July 2010, in north central Florida, to determine adult fly population levels and breeding areas on four small equine farms. Weekly surveillance showed that pest flies were present year-round, though there were differences in adult population levels among farms and seasons. Fly development was not confirmed on two of the four small farms, suggesting that subtle differences in husbandry may adversely affect the development of immature flies. In six substrates previously identified as the most common among the farms, stable fly puparia were found overwhelmingly in hay mixed with equine manure and house fly puparia were found in fresh pine shavings mixed with equine manure. Natural parasitism was minimal as expected, but greatest numbers of natural parasitoids collected were of the genus Spalangia. Differences in adult and immature fly numbers recovered emphasizes the need for farm owners to confirm on-site fly development prior to purchase and release of biological control agents. Additionally, due to the low natural parasitism levels and domination of parasitism by Spalangia cameroni, augmentative releases using this species may be the most effective.

  1. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  2. Quantitative proteomics on the fly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The development of multicellular organisms is characterized by complex processes that progressively transform essentially a single cell into a creature with complicated structures and highly specialized functions. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster provides an excellent model system to investigat

  3. Discovery, development, and evaluation of a horn fly-isolated (Diptera: Muscidae) Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordyciptaceae) strain from Florida, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The horn fly is an important cattle pest and traditionally has been managed using insecticides; however, many horn fly populations are insecticide-resistant in the United States. Use of alternative control techniques has been limited because of the challenges of managing a fly pest on pastured cattl...

  4. Subtropical Fruit Fly Invasions into Temperate Fruit Fly Territory in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...

  5. Flying in Two Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Manu

    2011-01-01

    Diversity and specialization of behavior in insects is unmatched. Insects hop, walk, run, jump, row, swim, glide and fly to propel themselves in a variety of environments. We have uncovered an unusual mode of propulsion of aerodynamic flight in two dimensions in Waterlilly Beetles \\emph{(Galerucella)}. The adult beetles, often found in water lilly ponds, propel themselves strictly in a two-dimensional plane on the surface of water via flapping wing flight. Here we analyze the aerodynamics of this peculiar flight mode with respect to forces exerted on the organism during flight. The complexity of 2-D flight is captured by accounting for additional forces beyond gravitational, thrust, lift and drag, exerted on the insect body in 3D flight. Understanding this constrained propulsion mode requires accounting for viscous drag, surface tension, buoyancy force, and capillary-wave drag. Moreover, dramatic differences exist in the magnitude of the resultant forces in 2D vs. 3D flight. Here, in this fluid dynamics video...

  6. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  7. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  8. Occurrence of blow fly species (Diptera: calliphoridae) in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunchu, Nophawan; Sukontason, Kom; Sanit, Sangob; Chidburee, Polprecha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2012-12-01

    Based on the current forensic importance of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), their biological aspects have been studied increasingly worldwide. The blow fly fauna in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand was studied from May 2009 to April 2010 in the residential, agricultural, mountainous and forested areas of Muang, Wat Bot, Nakhon Thai and Wang Thong districts, respectively, in order to know the occurrence of blow flies in this province. Collections were carried out monthly using commercial funnel fly traps and sweeping methods, with 1-day tainted pork viscera as bait. Identification of adult blow flies exhibited 14 634 specimens, comprising of 5 subfamilies, 14 genera and 36 species. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) and Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart, 1843) were the most and second most abundant species trapped, respectively. These two species of carrion flies prevailed in all the types of land investigated. We calculated and compared the diversity indices, species evenness and richness, and similarity coefficients of the blow fly species in various areas. The data from this study may be used to identify the potential of forensicallyimportant fly species within Phitsanulok Province and fulfill the information on blow fly fauna in Thailand.

  9. Dinâmica populacional e incidência de moscas-das-frutas e parasitoides em cultivares de pessegueiros (Prunus Persica L. Batsch no município de presidente prudente-sp Population dynamic and occurrence of fruit flies and their parasitoids in peach cultivars (Prunus persica L. Batsch in presidente prudente municipality, sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Nalesso Marangoni Montes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos avaliar a dinâmica populacional e registrar a diversidade de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea em cultivares de pessegueiro Tropical, Talismã, Aurora 2, Aurora 1, Dourado 2 e Doçura 2, enxertadas sobre os porta-enxertos 'Okinawa' e Umê, em Presidente Prudente-SP. Foram realizadas as correlações da dinâmica populacional com a temperatura e a precipitação, e também a infestação com as características químicas dos frutos, Sólidos Solúveis e Acidez Titulável. No período de julho de 2004 a dezembro de 2006, a dinâmica populacional de moscas-das-frutas foi obtida através de coletas semanais de moscas-das-frutas em armadilhas McPhail, e a incidência foi determinada através da coleta de 30 frutos/planta/cultivar. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Ceratitis capitata foi predominante nas cultivares de pessegueiros estudadas. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre população de moscas-das-frutas e as variáveis de temperatura e precipitação, e sólidos solúveis e ácidez titulável. Entre as cultivares de pêssego, Aurora 2 apresentou maior infestação por C. capitata, da ordem de 22 e 23% nos anos 2004 e 2006, respectivamente. Também foi registrada a incidência de Neosilba spp. em frutos de pêssego. Doryctobracon areolatus (Braconidae, Tetrastichus giffardianus (Eulophidae e Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Pteromalidae foram recuperados de pupários de Tephritidae.The objectives of this research were evaluate the population dynamic and diversity of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea on peach cultivars Tropical, Talisma, Aurora 2, Aurora 1, Dourado 2 and Doçura 2, under the rootstocks 'Okinawa' and Umê, in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil. The dynamic population of fruit flies was correlated with temperature and precipitation. The fruit fly infestation was correlated with chemical characteristics of fruits

  10. Analysis of Different Population of Necrophagous Fly Species from China by PCR-SSCP%应用PCR-SSCP分析我国不同地区常见嗜尸蝇类的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑学礼; 胡佳林

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify the various necrophagous fly species using PCR-SSCP and to analyze the genetic differences of the ITS2 regions. Methods Five carrion fly species,including Musca domestica,Lucilia sericata, Chrysomya megacephala, Helicophagella melanura and Boettcherisca peregrina, were collected from different cities and regions in China. Their rDNA-ITS2 gene was analyzed using PCR-SSCP. Results The electrophoretic mobility rate of ssDNA of rDNA-ITS2 gene of these five species were all different.This observation indicated the genetic polymorphism of the ITS-2. Conclusion This study revealed the genetic diversity and genotype of necrophagous flies collected from different geographic regions.%目的 探讨应用PCR-SSCP分析我国不同地区常见嗜尸蝇类,揭示其亲源关系及基因差异.方法 采集了中国部分城市,即广州、深圳、阳江、南京、长春、宜昌、北京、武汉、成都等地的常见嗜尸蝇类:家蝇(Muscdomestica),丝光绿蝇(Lucilia sericata),大头金蝇(Chrysomya megacephcda),黑尾麻蝇(Helicophagella melanura),棕尾麻蝇(Boettcherisca peregrina)等.用PCR.SSCP分析我国不同嗜尸蝇类的rDNA-ITS2基因片段.结果 PCR-SSCP分析结果显示,Chrysomya megacephata,Aldrichina grahami(巨尾阿丽蝇),Helicophagella melanura,Muscdomestica,Boettcherisca peregrina rDNA-ITS2基因的单链DNA(ssDNA)迁移率均有明显差异,我国不同地区常见嗜尸蝇种类rDNA-ITS2基因单链DNA迁移图型呈现多态性.结论 我国不同地区常见嗜尸蝇种类的rDNA-ITS2基因存在种内、种间及地理的基因多态性.

  11. Seasonal occurrence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in southern Syria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohammed Mansour; Fater Mohamad

    2016-01-01

      Population fluctuations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), [Ceratitis capitata], were investigated between 1999 and 2001 at several locations representing fruit production areas in the southern part of Syria...

  12. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto) in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Lee; Edson, Daniel; McLaughlin, Amanda; Mayer, David; Kopp, Steven; Meers, Joanne; Field, Hume

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto) captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia. PMID:25938493

  13. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto in Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee McMichael

    Full Text Available This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia.

  14. Impact of habitat fragmentation on tsetse populations and trypanosomosis risk in Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweempwa, Cornelius; Marcotty, Tanguy; De Pus, Claudia; Penzhorn, Barend Louis; Dicko, Ahmadou Hamady; Bouyer, Jérémy; De Deken, Reginald

    2015-08-04

    Fragmentation of tsetse habitat in eastern Zambia is largely due to encroachments by subsistence farmers into new areas in search of new agricultural land. The impact of habitat fragmentation on tsetse populations is not clearly understood. This study was aimed at establishing the impact of habitat fragmentation on physiological and demographic parameters of tsetse flies in order to enhance the understanding of the relationship between fragmentation and African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) risk. A longitudinal study was conducted to establish the age structure, abundance, proportion of females and trypanosome infection rate of Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae) in areas of varying degrees of habitat fragmentation in Eastern Zambia. Black screen fly rounds were used to sample tsetse populations monthly for 1 year. Logistic regression was used to analyse age, proportion of females and infection rate data. Flies got significantly older as fragmentation increased (p fragmented site (Lusandwa) to 74.2% (CI 56.8-86.3) at the highly fragmented site (Chisulo). In the most fragmented area (Kasamanda), tsetse flies had almost disappeared. In the highly fragmented area a significantly higher trypanosome infection rate in tsetse (P fragmentation was observed. Consequently a comparatively high trypanosomosis incidence rate in livestock was observed there despite lower tsetse density (p fragmentation reduced. The proportion increased from 0.135 (CI 0.10-0.18) to 0.285 (CI 0.26-0.31) at the highly and least fragmented sites, respectively. Habitat fragmentation creates conditions to which tsetse populations respond physiologically and demographically thereby affecting tsetse-trypanosome interactions and hence influencing trypanosomosis risk. Temperature rise due to fragmentation coupled with dominance of old flies in populations increases infection rate in tsetse and hence creates high risk of trypanosomosis in fragmented areas. Possibilities of how

  15. The South African fruit fly action plan: area-wide suppression and exotic species surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Brian N., E-mail: barnesb@arc.agric.z [ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Institute for Fruit, Vine and Wine, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Venter, Jan-Hendrik, E-mail: janhendrikv@nda.agric.z [Directorate Plant Health, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2006-07-01

    Two species of tephritid fruit flies of economic importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata [Wiedemann]) and Natal fruit fly (C. rosa Karsch) cause economic losses in the South African deciduous fruit industry of approximately US$3 million per annum. A third species, marula fruit fly, C. cosyra (Walker), causes damage to citrus and sub-tropical fruits in the north-eastern part of the country. In 1999 a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme against Medfly was initiated over 10,000 ha of table grapes with a goal of cost-effective, ecologically compatible suppression of Medfly. The SIT programme was extended to two other fruit production areas in 2004. Although results in all three SIT areas have been mixed, populations of wild Medflies, as well as associated pesticide usage and control costs, have been reduced since the start of sterile fly releases. Reasons for the partial degree of success and the relatively slow expansion of Medfly SIT to other areas include economic, operational and cultural factors, as well as certain fruit production practices. Before fruit fly-free areas can be created, deficiencies in the ability to mass-rear Natal fruit fly need to be overcome so that an SIT programme against this species can be initiated. Any fruit fly suppression or eradication campaign will be severely compromised by any introductions into South Africa of exotic fruit fly species. The risk of such introductions is increasing as trade with and travel to the country increases. A Plant Health Early Warning Systems Division has been initiated to formulate fruit fly detection and action plans. Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae [Coquillett]), Asian fruit fly (B. invadens Drew, Tsurutu and White) and peach fruit fly (B. zonata [Saunders]), which are all well established in parts of Africa and/or Indian Ocean islands, have been identified as presenting the highest risk for entering and becoming established in South Africa. An exotic fruit fly surveillance

  16. Genetic approaches for studying myiasis-causing flies: molecular markers and mitochondrial genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria Lima; Lessinger, Ana Cláudia

    2006-01-01

    "Myiasis-causing flies" is a generic term that includes species from numerous dipteran families, mainly Calliphoridae and Oestridae, of which blowflies, screwworm flies and botflies are among the most important. This group of flies is characterized by the ability of their larvae to develop in animal flesh. When the host is a live vertebrate, such parasitism by dipterous larvae is known as primary myiasis. Myiasis-causing flies can be classified as saprophagous (free-living species), facultative or obligate parasites. Many of these flies are of great medical and veterinary importance in Brazil because of their role as key livestock insect-pests and vectors of pathogens, in addition to being considered important legal evidence in forensic entomology. The characterization of myiasis-causing flies using molecular markers to study mtDNA (by RFLP) and nuclear DNA (by RAPD and microsatellite) has been used to identify the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for specific patterns of genetic variability. These approaches have been successfully used to analyze the population structures of the New World screwworm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax and the botfly Dermatobia hominis. In this review, various aspects of the organization, evolution and potential applications of the mitochondrial genome of myiasis-causing flies in Brazil, and the analysis of nuclear markers in genetic studies of populations, are discussed.

  17. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, R.; Mukherjee, A. [University of Calcutta, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Botany

    2009-03-15

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals - sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significantconcentration-dependent increases in DNA damage in whole blood cells, lymphocytes, and in Nicotiana plants. The comet parameters show increases in tail DNA percentage (%), tail length (mu m), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

  18. Synanthropic flies of Asir Province, southwest of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Kenawy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of synanthropic flies was carried out in 11 slaughter houses in 8 localities representing different altitudes in Asir. Flies were sampled twice a month from December 2008 to November 2009 by Final Flight Fly Traps. A total of 11,737 flies consisting of 19 species, belonging to 7 families were collected, of which those of family Muscidae predominated (94.88% followed by Calliphoridae (3.12%, Sarcophagidae (1.22% and Fanniidae (0.55%. The other 5 families (Piophilidae, Oestridae, Phoridae, Ulidiidae and Lonchaeidae totally represented 0.79%. Of the identified species, Musca domestica was predominant (94.26% followed by Lucilia sericata (1.51%, Sarcophaga carnaria (1.01%, Chrysomya albiceps (0.67%, Fannia canicularis (0.55%, Chrysomya marginalis (0.54%, Muscina stabulans (0.52%, Calliphora vicina (0.39%, Wohlfahrtia nuba (0.14%, Megaselia scalaris (0.08%, Lonchaea sp. (0.06, Bercaea cruentata (0.05, Ophyra sp. and Oestrus ovis (0.04% each, Atherigona sp., Piophila casie and Physiphora demandala (0.03% each and Parasarcophaga ruficornis (0.01. Flies altogether were more common (16 spp., 84.21% and abundant (36.45 fly/trap in highlands than in the other altitude levels. The highlands were found with the maximum Simpson (1-D=0.18 and Shannon (H=0.49, P<0.001 diversity indices. Likewise, the highest density of M. domestica was in the highlands (P<0.05. Regression analysis confirmed that house fly density was directly related to the altitude level (P<0.05. In all altitude levels, housefly was active during the whole year with higher activities during months of low and moderate temperatures (spring, autumn and winter seasons. Analysis revealed that fly density had inverse relation with temperature.

  19. Fiber optics that fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Michael J.; Thelen, Donald C., Jr.

    1996-11-01

    The need for autonomous systems to work under unanticipated conditions requires the use of smart sensors. High resolution systems develop tremendous computational loads. Inspiration from animal vision systems can guide us in developing preprocessing approaches implementable in real time with high resolution and deduced computational load. Given a high quality optical path and a 2D array of photodetectors, the resolution of a digital image is determined by the density of photodetectors sampling the image. In order to reconstruct an image, resolution is limited by the distance between adjacent detectors. However, animal eyes resolve images 10-100 times better than either the acceptance angle of a single photodetector or the center-to-center distance between neighboring photodetectors. A new model of the fly's visual system emulates this improved performance, offering a different approach to subpixel resolution. That an animal without a cortex is capable of this performance suggests that high level computation is not involved. The model takes advantage of a photoreceptor cell's internal structure for capturing light. This organelle is a waveguide. Neurocircuitry exploits the waveguide's optical nonlinearities, namely in the shoulder region of its gaussian sensitivity-profile, to extract high resolution information from the visual scene. The receptive fields of optically disparate inputs overlap in space. Photoreceptor input is continuous rather than discretely sampled. The output of the integrating module is a signal proportional to the position of the target within the detector array. For tracking a point source, resolution is 10 times better than the detector spacing. For locating absolute position and orientation of an edge, the model performs similarly. Analog processing is used throughout. Each element is an independent processor of local luminance. Information processing is in real time with continuous update. This processing principle will be reproduced in an

  20. Fly-in/Fly-out: Implications for Community Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Storey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available “Fly-in/fly-out” is a form of work organization that has become the standard model for new mining, petroleum and other types of resource development in remote areas. In many places this “no town” model has replaced that of the “new town.” The work system has both beneficial and adverse implications for the sustainability of both existing communities near new resource developments and for the more distant communities from which workers are drawn. This paper explores these outcomes drawing upon examples from North America and Australia.

  1. Escherichia coli fliAZY operon.

    OpenAIRE

    Mytelka, D S; Chamberlin, M J

    1996-01-01

    We have cloned the Escherichia coli fliAZY operon, which contains the fliA gene (the alternative sigma factor sigma F) and two novel genes, fliZ and fliY. Transcriptional mapping of this operon shows two start sites, one of which is preceded by a canonical E sigma F-dependent consensus and is dependent on sigma F for expression in vivo and in vitro. We have overexpressed and purified sigma F and demonstrated that it can direct core polymerase to E sigma F-dependent promoters. FliZ and FliY ar...

  2. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  3. Proposing Chinese Pharmacists Month

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dear Pharmacists: Today I would like to share with you about the American Pharmacists Month which is celebrated in October every year.This month-long observance is promoted by American Pharmacist Association.

  4. Dermatobia, the neotropical warble fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, E

    1988-09-01

    The neotropical warble fly, Dermatobia hominis (Fig. 1), has plagued neotropical America since preColombian times, and has become an economically important pest causing substantial losses to the meat, milk and leather industries from northern Mexico down to northern Argentina. Its life cycle (Box 1) is astonishingly complex, requiring another insect as a phoretic carrier of its eggs to the skin of its mammal hosts. Here Eugenio Sancho discusses factors that contribute to the current economic and public health importance of this myiasis-causing fly.

  5. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  6. A genomic perspective to assessing quality of mass-reared SIT flies used in Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) eradication in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calla, Bernarda; Hall, Brian; Hou, Shaobin; Geib, Scott M

    2014-02-05

    Temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutants of the tephritid C. capitata are used extensively in control programs involving sterile insect technique in California. These flies are artificially reared and treated with ionizing radiation to render males sterile for further release en masse into the field to compete with wild males and disrupt establishment of invasive populations. Recent research suggests establishment of C. capitata in California, despite the fact that over 250 million sterile flies are released weekly as part of the state's preventative program. In this project, genome-level quality assessment was performed, measured as expression differences between the Vienna-7 tsl mutants used in SIT programs and wild flies. RNA-seq was performed to provide a genome-wide map of the messenger RNA populations in C. capitata, and to investigate significant expression changes in Vienna-7 mass reared flies. Flies from the Vienna-7 colony showed a markedly reduced abundance of transcripts related to visual and chemical responses, including light stimuli, neural development and signaling pathways when compared to wild flies. In addition, genes associated with muscle development and locomotion were shown to be reduced. This suggests that the Vienna-7 line may be less competitive in mating and host plant finding where these stimuli are utilized. Irradiated flies showed several transcripts representing stress associated with irradiation. There are significant changes at the transcriptome level that likely alter the competitiveness of mass reared flies and provide justification for pursuing methods for strain improvement, increasing competitiveness of mass-reared flies, or exploring alternative SIT approaches to increase the efficiency of eradication programs.

  7. The stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) (Diptera: Muscidae) recorded from the Faroes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Bloch, Dorete

    2005-01-01

    The stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) was recorded from the Faroe Islands in 2002 for the first time in five byres at Velbastaður in the vicinity of Tórshavn. The stable fly breeds in dead and decomposing plant material e.g. dung mixed with straw. If the temperature is higher than 18 ºC the species...... can reproduce all the year in the byres. Both sexes are blood feeding and attack vertebrates with preference for cattle and other ungulates. By high fly population the biting activity can result in reduction of milk and bodyweight in the livestock. S. calcitrans was probably introduced into the Faroes...... in imported cattle feed. Since the first reports on flies biting man were received in 2002, the species was probably recently introduced. In the Velbastaður area the species is widespread and probably mainly dispersed by exchange of cattle or forage. To reduce the fly problem it is important to maintain...

  8. The Effects of Oral Application of Cyromazine and Triflumuron on House-Fly Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vazirianzadeh

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Accumulations of large quantities of wastes (manure, used litter, dead birds which are excellent medium for fly-larvae over poultry houses provide breeding places for different groups of fly pests, with house-flies being the dominant species. This project is a comparative lab study. In this research project the larvicidal effects of cyromazine and triflumuron were studied as two Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs to reduce the fly population using oral application. Both IGRs had a signifi-cant effect on larval mortality compared with their controls among the concentrations (P< 0.01, Fisher's LSD with Bonf-feroni correction including a dose-dependent relationship. Comparisons among LC50 and LC90 values, using fiducial limits, showed that cyromazine was significantly more toxic to the larvae of the two strains than triflumuron. It is concluded that cyromazine should be used in a larvicidal programme to control house-fly rather than triflumuron.

  9. The Effects of Oral Application of Cyromazine and Triflumuron on House-Fly Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vazirianzadeh

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulations of large quantities of wastes (manure, used litter, dead birds which are excellent medium for fly-larvae over poultry houses provide breeding places for different groups of fly pests, with house-flies being the dominant species. This project is a comparative lab study. In this research project the larvicidal effects of cyromazine and triflumuron were studied as two Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs to reduce the fly population using oral application. Both IGRs had a signifi-cant effect on larval mortality compared with their controls among the concentrations (P< 0.01, Fisher's LSD with Bonf-feroni correction including a dose-dependent relationship. Comparisons among LC50 and LC90 values, using fiducial limits, showed that cyromazine was significantly more toxic to the larvae of the two strains than triflumuron. It is concluded that cyromazine should be used in a larvicidal programme to control house-fly rather than triflumuron.

  10. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 ... courtesy of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough ...

  11. Seasonal Dynamics of Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species Proven Vectors of Mediterranean Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania infantum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Alten

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent geographical expansion of phlebotomine vectors of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean subregion has been attributed to ongoing climate changes. At these latitudes, the activity of sand flies is typically seasonal; because seasonal phenomena are also sensitive to general variations in climate, current phenological data sets can provide a baseline for continuing investigations on sand fly population dynamics that may impact on future scenarios of leishmaniasis transmission. With this aim, in 2011-2013 a consortium of partners from eight Mediterranean countries carried out entomological investigations in sites where L. infantum transmission was recently reported.A common protocol for sand fly collection included monthly captures by CDC light traps, complemented by sticky traps in most of the sites. Collections were replicated for more than one season in order to reduce the effects of local weather events. In each site, the trapping effort was left unchanged throughout the survey to legitimate inter-seasonal comparisons. Data from 99,000 collected specimens were analyzed, resulting in the description of seasonal dynamics of 56,000 sand flies belonging to L. infantum vector species throughout a wide geographical area, namely P. perniciosus (Portugal, Spain and Italy, P. ariasi (France, P. neglectus (Greece, P. tobbi (Cyprus and Turkey, P. balcanicus and P. kandelakii (Georgia. Time of sand fly appearance/disappearance in collections differed between sites, and seasonal densities showed variations in each site. Significant correlations were found between latitude/mean annual temperature of sites and i the first month of sand fly appearance, that ranged from early April to the first half of June; ii the type of density trend, varying from a single peak in July/August to multiple peaks increasing in magnitude from May through September. A 3-modal trend, recorded for P. tobbi in Cyprus, represents a novel finding for a L. infantum vector

  12. Seasonal Dynamics of Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species Proven Vectors of Mediterranean Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania infantum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alten, Bulent; Maia, Carla; Afonso, Maria Odete; Campino, Lenea; Jiménez, Maribel; González, Estela; Molina, Ricardo; Bañuls, Anne Laure; Prudhomme, Jorian; Vergnes, Baptiste; Toty, Celine; Cassan, Cécile; Rahola, Nil; Thierry, Magali; Sereno, Denis; Bongiorno, Gioia; Bianchi, Riccardo; Khoury, Cristina; Tsirigotakis, Nikolaos; Dokianakis, Emmanouil; Antoniou, Maria; Christodoulou, Vasiliki; Mazeris, Apostolos; Karakus, Mehmet; Ozbel, Yusuf; Arserim, Suha K.; Erisoz Kasap, Ozge; Gunay, Filiz; Oguz, Gizem; Kaynas, Sinan; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Tskhvaradze, Lamzira; Gramiccia, Marina; Volf, Petr; Gradoni, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background The recent geographical expansion of phlebotomine vectors of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean subregion has been attributed to ongoing climate changes. At these latitudes, the activity of sand flies is typically seasonal; because seasonal phenomena are also sensitive to general variations in climate, current phenological data sets can provide a baseline for continuing investigations on sand fly population dynamics that may impact on future scenarios of leishmaniasis transmission. With this aim, in 2011–2013 a consortium of partners from eight Mediterranean countries carried out entomological investigations in sites where L. infantum transmission was recently reported. Methods/Principal Findings A common protocol for sand fly collection included monthly captures by CDC light traps, complemented by sticky traps in most of the sites. Collections were replicated for more than one season in order to reduce the effects of local weather events. In each site, the trapping effort was left unchanged throughout the survey to legitimate inter-seasonal comparisons. Data from 99,000 collected specimens were analyzed, resulting in the description of seasonal dynamics of 56,000 sand flies belonging to L. infantum vector species throughout a wide geographical area, namely P. perniciosus (Portugal, Spain and Italy), P. ariasi (France), P. neglectus (Greece), P. tobbi (Cyprus and Turkey), P. balcanicus and P. kandelakii (Georgia). Time of sand fly appearance/disappearance in collections differed between sites, and seasonal densities showed variations in each site. Significant correlations were found between latitude/mean annual temperature of sites and i) the first month of sand fly appearance, that ranged from early April to the first half of June; ii) the type of density trend, varying from a single peak in July/August to multiple peaks increasing in magnitude from May through September. A 3-modal trend, recorded for P. tobbi in Cyprus, represents a novel

  13. The effect of irradiation and mass rearing on the anti-predator behaviour of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D; Aguilar-Argüello, S; Montoya, P; Díaz-Fleischer, F

    2014-04-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are major pests worldwide. The sterile insect technique, where millions of flies are reared, sterilized by irradiation and then released, is one of the most successful and ecologically friendly methods of controlling populations of these pests. The mating behaviour of irradiated and non-irradiated flies has been compared in earlier studies, but there has been little attention paid to the anti-predator behaviour of mass-reared flies, especially with respect to wild flies. Tephritid flies perform a supination display to their jumping spider predators in order to deter attacks. In this study, we evaluated the possibility of using this display to determine the anti-predator capabilities of mass-reared irradiated, non-irradiated flies, and wild flies. We used an arena setup and observed bouts between jumping spiders (Phidippus audax Hentz) and male Mexican fruit flies (Anastrepha ludens Loew). We show that although all flies performed a supination display to their predator, wild flies were more likely to perform a display and were significantly more successful in avoiding attack than mass-reared flies. We suggest that this interaction can be used to develop a rapid realistic method of quality control in evaluating anti-predator abilities of mass-reared fruit flies.

  14. The Spider and the Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinger, Keith E.; Viglione, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The Spider and the Fly puzzle, originally attributed to the great puzzler Henry Ernest Dudeney, and now over 100 years old, asks for the shortest path between two points on a particular square prism. We explore a generalization, find that the original solution only holds in certain cases, and suggest how this discovery might be used in the…

  15. Electrodialytic treatment of fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    Heavy metals are removed from the fly ashes by an electrodialytic treatment with the aim of up-grading the ashes for reuse in stead of disposal in landfill.A great potential for upgrading of bio- and waste incineration ashes by electrodialytic treatment exists. In the future, the applicability...

  16. DURABILITY OF HARDENED FLY ASH PASTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical properties and durability ( mainly frost-resistance and carbonation resistance ) of fly ash-CaO-CaSO4 .2H2O hardened paste are studied. The relationship among durability of harden ed fly ash paste, the quantity and distribution of hydrates and the initial p aste texture of hardened fly ash paste is presented.

  17. Louse flies on birds of Baja California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, J L; Rodríguez-Estrella, R; Blanco, G

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (Mexico). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  18. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter...

  19. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extrageni...

  20. Effect of socioeconomic disadvantage, remoteness and Indigenous status on hospital usage for Western Australian preterm infants under 12 months of age: a population-based data linkage study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Natalie A; Peter, Sue; McAuley, Kimberley E; McAullay, Daniel R; Marriott, Rhonda; Edmond, Karen M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our primary objective was to determine the incidence of hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous and non-Indigenous preterm infants aged postdischarge from birth admission to 11 months in Western Australia. Secondary objectives were to assess incidence in the poorest infants from remote areas and to determine the primary causes of hospital usage in preterm infants. Design Prospective population-based linked data set. Setting and participants All preterm babies born in Western Australia during 2010 and 2011. Main outcome measures All-cause hospitalisations and emergency department presentations. Results There were 6.9% (4211/61 254) preterm infants, 13.1% (433/3311) Indigenous preterm infants and 6.5% (3778/57 943) non-Indigenous preterm infants born in Western Australia. Indigenous preterm infants had a higher incidence of hospital admission (adjusted incident rate ratio (aIRR) 1.24, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.42) and emergency department presentation (aIRR 1.71, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.02) compared with non-Indigenous preterm infants. The most disadvantaged preterm infants (7.8/1000 person days) had a greater incidence of emergency presentation compared with the most advantaged infants (3.1/1000 person days) (aIRR 1.61, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.00). The most remote preterm infants (7.8/1000 person days) had a greater incidence of emergency presentation compared with the least remote preterm infants (3.0/1000 person days; aIRR 1.82, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.22). Conclusions In Western Australia, preterm infants have high hospital usage in their first year of life. Infants living in disadvantaged areas, remote area infants and Indigenous infants are at increased risk. Our data highlight the need for improved postdischarge care for preterm infants. PMID:28100563

  1. A role for flies (Diptera) in the transmission of Campylobacter to broilers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royden, A; Wedley, A; Merga, J Y; Rushton, S; Hald, B; Humphrey, T; Williams, N J

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease worldwide, with raw and undercooked poultry meat and products the primary source of infection. Colonization of broiler chicken flocks with Campylobacter has proved difficult to prevent, even with high levels of biosecurity. Dipteran flies are proven carriers of Campylobacter and their ingress into broiler houses may contribute to its transmission to broiler chickens. However, this has not been investigated in the UK. Campylobacter was cultured from 2195 flies collected from four UK broiler farms. Of flies cultured individually, 0·22% [2/902, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0-0·53] were positive by culture for Campylobacter spp. Additionally, 1293 flies were grouped by family and cultured in 127 batches: 4/127 (3·15%, 95% CI 0·11-6·19) from three broiler farms were positive for Campylobacter. Multilocus sequence typing of isolates demonstrated that the flies were carrying broiler-associated sequence types, responsible for human enteric illness. Malaise traps were used to survey the dipteran species diversity on study farms and also revealed up to 612 flies present around broiler-house ventilation inlets over a 2-h period. Therefore, despite the low prevalence of Campylobacter cultured from flies, the risk of transmission by this route may be high, particularly during summer when fly populations are greatest.

  2. Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae) and the phenology of its native host plant, Yellow Chapote (Rutaceae) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    In northeastern Mexico, the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), breeds on its native host, yellow chapote, Casimiroa greggii (Wats.), which typically produces fruit in the spring. Peak populations of the fly occur in late spring or early summer when adults emerge from the generation of lar...

  3. Salivary gland hypertrophy virus of house flies in Denmark: Prevalence, host range, and comparison with a Florida isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica) infected with Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) were found in fly populations collected from 12 out of 18 Danish livestock farms that were surveyed in 2007 and 2008. Infection rates ranged from 0.5% to 5% and averaged 1.2% overall. None of the ...

  4. Acetylcholinesterase of the Sand Fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli): cDNA Sequence, Baculovirus Expression and Biochemical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millions of people and domestic animals around the world are affected by leishmaniasis, a disease caused by various species of flagellated protozoans in the genus Leishmania that are transmitted by several sand fly species. Insecticides are widely used for sand fly population control to try to reduc...

  5. Recombinant acetylcholinesterase 1 of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli): expression, biochemical properties, and insensitivity to organophosphate inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlebotomine sand flies are small hematophagous vectors of human and zoonotic leishmaniases present throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. These flies present serious problems for military operations and resident populations in the Middle East and other areas where they are endemic....

  6. 汶川大地震3个月后灾区特殊人群的营养状况%The nutrition status of special population living in the areas affected by Wenchuan Earthquake after 3 months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽云; 于冬梅; 黄建; 赵显峰; 李建文; 杜文雯; 于文涛; 苏畅; 荫士安

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the nutritional status of infants,preschool and primary school students, pregnant and lactating women in Wenchuan earthquake disaster area after 3 months. Methods In August 2008,the nutritional and health status information of special population were collected and evaluated using the questionnaires, anthropometric and hemoglobin concentration measurements from four settlements of villages and towns in Mao and Mianzhu Country of Sichuan and Kang Country and Wudu District in Gansu provinces. A total of 236 infants aged below 36 months,48 preschool children, 368 primary students,32 pregnant women and 72 lactating women were investigated. Principal investigator indexes included the low body weight, growth retardation, anemia prevalence, two-week prevalence of diarrhea and respiratory disease, food intake and nutrition-related diseases, the percentage of patients morbidity of 36 months infants, preschool and primary school students; the prevalence of anemia, the prevalence of nutritionrelated diseases of pregnant and lactating women. Results The stunting prevalence was 14. 6% (34/236) and the anemia prevalence was up to 40. 1% (61/236) among infants younger than 36 months. Besides,the percentages of infants and young children suffered from the respiratory-infected disease and diarrhea within recent two weeks were 40. 4% (95/236) and 30. 2% (71/236) respectively. The percentage of low body weight of preschool children was 14. 6% (7/48) and the growth retardation and anemia prevalence was 14. 6% (7/48) and 39.6% (19/48) ,respectively. Among primary students,6. 3% (23/368) showed growth retardation and 12. 2% (45/368) were anemia. The prevalence of anemia status of pregnant women and lactating mothers were 53.9% (17/32) and 24.4% (18/72) respectively. The main food composition of 45. 8% (33/72) lactating women were grain and vegetables,29 (40. 3 % ) ,32 (44. 4% ) ,28 ( 38.9% )and 53 (73.6%) lactating women did not have animal originated

  7. Choice of optimal biocide combination to control flies (Diptera: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Kavran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Flies – by feeding on decaying matter, human waste and food – have been implicated in the spread of numerous animal and human diseases. Excessive fly populations are generally associated with livestock units and domestic waste due to decaying organic matter. A large number of flies cause extreme disturbance in the behavior of the host, resulting in skin irritation, lesions, wounds, and secondary infections are likely to appear. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined applications of larvicide (cyromazine and adulticides (acetamiprid in formulation with pheromone and thiamethoxam on the suppression of fly populations. Materials and methods. The study was conducted on a pig farm. The piglet farms are one of the most favorable places for fly breeding. Three units were used for biocide applications and a fourth unit as the control where biocides were not applied. The monitoring of pre- and post-treatment of adult fly populations was carried out by glued cardboards. The cards were hung on metal rods above piglet’s cage. This monitoring method served as a parameter for the estimation of biological effectiveness. Results. The highest degree of fly control (88.4% mortality 8 days after treatment was achieved when a combination of cyromazine and thiamethoxam was used. A biocide based on sex pheromone (Z-9-tricosene + acetamiprid was the most effective on flies 3 days after biocide application, with a mortality rate of 69.1 %. Thiamethoxam achieved the highest reduction of flies 6 days after treatment, with 78.19% obtained mortality. Conclusion. Biological efficacy of the applied biocides in combination ciromazine + thiamethoxam and thiamethoxam alone was justified.

  8. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO43–125 or FliO1–95 was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO43–125, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO43–125-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners. PMID:20941389

  9. FliO regulation of FliP in the formation of the Salmonella enterica flagellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive S Barker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO₄₃-₁₂₅ or FliO₁-₉₅ was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO₄₃-₁₂₅, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO₄₃-₁₂₅-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners.

  10. DISTRIBUTION OF PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES (DIPTERA:PSYCHODIDAE) IN LIMESTONE CAVES, KHAO PATHAWI, UTHAI THANI PROVINCE, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polseela, R; Vitta, A; Apiwathnasorn, C

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the species composition and density of the sand flies found inside four limestone caves at Khao Pathawi, Thap Than District, Uthai Thani Province. Sand flies were collected using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps from October 2012 to September 2013. The sand flies were captured between 06:00 PM - 06:00 AM. A total of 11,817 sand flies were collected with a male:female ratio of 1.0:1.2 (5,325:6,492). The specimens were identified as eight species belonging to three genera Phlebotomus, Sergentomyia, Chinius, and comprised of S. anodontis, P. argentipes, P. stantoni, S. barraudi, S. silvatica, S. gemmea, S. indica, and C. barbazani. Sergentomyia anodontis (55.0%) was the predominant species followed by P. argentipes (33.6%) and others. Five species of sand fly were found throughout the year in this area: P. argentipes, P. stantoni, S. anodontis, S. barraudi and S. gemmea. The highest average density of sand flies was found in Ratree cave (35.0 sand flies per trap per night) and lowest in Bandai cave (29.0 sand flies per trap per night). The population of sand fly fluctuated from the highest peak in December (28.5%) to the lowest peak in May (2.3%). The distribution of sand fly species in attraction areas is important for the control program of infection risk of leishmaniasis.

  11. Aerodynamics of the Smallest Flying Insects

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Laura A; Hedrick, Ty; Robinson, Alice; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Lowe, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    We present fluid dynamics videos of the flight of some of the smallest insects including the jewel wasp, \\textit{Ampulex compressa}, and thrips, \\textit{Thysanoptera} spp. The fruit fly, \\textit{Drosophila melanogaster}, is large in comparison to these insects. While the fruit fly flies at $Re \\approx 120$, the jewel wasp flies at $Re \\approx 60$, and thrips flies at $Re \\approx 10$. Differences in the general structures of the wakes generated by each species are observed. The differences in the wakes correspond to changes in the ratio of lift forces (vertical component) to drag forces (horizontal component) generated.

  12. Evidence of endemic Hendra virus infection in flying-foxes (Pteropus conspicillatus--implications for disease risk management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Breed

    Full Text Available This study investigated the seroepidemiology of Hendra virus in a spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus population in northern Australia, near the location of an equine and associated human Hendra virus infection in late 2004. The pattern of infection in the population was investigated using a serial cross-sectional serological study over a 25-month period, with blood sampled from 521 individuals over six sampling sessions. Antibody titres to the virus were determined by virus neutralisation test. In contrast to the expected episodic infection pattern, we observed that seroprevalence gradually increased over the two years suggesting infection was endemic in the population over the study period. Our results suggested age, pregnancy and lactation were significant risk factors for a detectable neutralizing antibody response. Antibody titres were significantly higher in females than males, with the highest titres occurring in pregnant animals. Temporal variation in antibody titres suggests that herd immunity to the virus may wax and wane on a seasonal basis. These findings support an endemic infection pattern of henipaviruses in bat populations suggesting their infection dynamics may differ significantly from the acute, self limiting episodic pattern observed with related viruses (e.g. measles virus, phocine distemper virus, rinderpest virus hence requiring a much smaller critical host population size to sustain the virus. These findings help inform predictive modelling of henipavirus infection in bat populations, and indicate that the life cycle of the reservoir species should be taken into account when developing risk management strategies for henipaviruses.

  13. Binocular interactions underlying the classic optomotor responses of flying flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Duistermars

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to imposed course deviations, the fast optomotor reactions of animals reduce motion blur and facilitate the maintenance of stable body posture. In flies, the monocular front-to-back (progressive and back-to-front (regressive visual motion components generated by horizontal rotation are selectively encoded, respectively, by homo and heterolateral motion sensitive circuits in the third optic ganglion, the lobula plate. To investigate the strength of such inter-ocular interactions and their role in compensatory sensory-motor transformations, we utilize a virtual reality flight simulator to record optomotor reactions by tethered flying flies in response to imposed binocular and monocular visual rotation. With stimulus parameters generating large contrast insensitive optomotor responses to binocular rotation, we find that responses to monocular progressive motion are larger than those to panoramic rotation but contrast sensitive. Conversely, responses to monocular regressive motion are slower than those to rotation and peak at the lowest tested contrast. Together our results suggest that contrast insensitive optomotor responses to binocular rotation result from the dynamic interplay of contralateral inhibitory as well as excitatory circuit interactions and serve to maintain a stable optomotor equilibrium across a range of visual contrasts.

  14. Hispanic Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    Hispanic heritage month is from September 15 to October 15. One problem that arises when grouping people into categories such as Hispanic or Latino is stereotyping, stereotypes can be promoted or used in this Hispanic month to promote a greater understanding of Latino cultures.

  15. Progress report, 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests...... of the multimirror cutting head have been started....

  16. Progress report, 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests...... of the multimirror cutting head have been started....

  17. Progress report, 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  18. Progress report, 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  19. Virological control during the first 6-18 months after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy as a predictor for outcome in HIV-infected patients: a Danish, population-based, 6-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Nicolai; Kronborg, Gitte; Gerstoft, Jan;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our objective was to examine whether virological control during the first 6-18 months after HAART initiation is a predictor for viral suppression, CD4+ cell count increase, and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients 18-90 months after initiation of highly...

  20. Cycad neurotoxins, consumption of flying foxes, and ALS-PDC disease in Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Paul Alan; Sacks, Oliver W

    2002-03-26

    The Chamorro people of Guam have been afflicted with a complex of neurodegenerative diseases (now known as ALS-PDC) with similarities to ALS, AD, and PD at a far higher rate than other populations throughout the world. Chamorro consumption of flying foxes may have generated sufficiently high cumulative doses of plant neurotoxins to result in ALS-PDC neuropathologies, since the flying foxes forage on neurotoxic cycad seeds.

  1. Control of the olive fruit fly using genetics-enhanced sterile insect technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ant Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major arthropod pest of commercial olive production, causing extensive damage to olive crops worldwide. Current control techniques rely on spraying of chemical insecticides. The sterile insect technique (SIT presents an alternative, environmentally friendly and species-specific method of population control. Although SIT has been very successful against other tephritid pests, previous SIT trials on olive fly have produced disappointing results. Key problems included altered diurnal mating rhythms of the laboratory-reared insects, resulting in asynchronous mating activity between the wild and released sterile populations, and low competitiveness of the radiation-sterilised mass-reared flies. Consequently, the production of competitive, male-only release cohorts is considered an essential prerequisite for successful olive fly SIT. Results We developed a set of conditional female-lethal strains of olive fly (named Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal; RIDL®, providing highly penetrant female-specific lethality, dominant fluorescent marking, and genetic sterility. We found that males of the lead strain, OX3097D-Bol, 1 are strongly sexually competitive with wild olive flies, 2 display synchronous mating activity with wild females, and 3 induce appropriate refractoriness to wild female re-mating. Furthermore, we showed, through a large proof-of-principle experiment, that weekly releases of OX3097D-Bol males into stable populations of caged wild-type olive fly could cause rapid population collapse and eventual eradication. Conclusions The observed mating characteristics strongly suggest that an approach based on the release of OX3097D-Bol males will overcome the key difficulties encountered in previous olive fly SIT attempts. Although field confirmation is required, the proof-of-principle suppression and elimination of caged wild-type olive fly populations through OX3097D

  2. Geopolymer Mortar with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry accounts for about 7% of all CO2 emissions caused by humans. Therefore, it is necessary to find another material in order to support sustainable material. An alternative way is replacing cement material with alternative material as fly ash. Fly ash as binder need to be added alkaline activator in the form of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 or potassium silicate (K2SiO3 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH or potassium hydroxide (KOH. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of activator liquid concentration on geopolymer mortar properties and to know the value of compressive strength. Molarity variation of NaOH are 8, 12, 14, and 16 M with ratio of Na2SiO3/NaOH = 1.0. Ratio of sand/fly ash = 2.75 and ratio of activator/fly ash = 0.8. The cube-shaped specimen 50 × 50 × 50 mm is cured by steam curing with a temperature of 60°C for 48 hours. The experimental result of fresh mortar reported that the molarity of NaOH affect the slump flow and setting time, higher of NaOH produces the smaller value of slump and the faster time of setting. The experimental of density results reported that the increase of specific gravity when the molarity of NaOH increased. The experimental results of the compressive strength are showed that the maximum compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 14 M is 10.06 MPa and the lowest compressive strength produced by geopolymer mortar 8 M is 3.95 MPa. Testing the compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 16 M produces compressive strength lower than 14 M geopolymer mortar is 9.16 MPa.

  3. "Fly me to the moon"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's first lunar probe Chang'e-I, named after a mythical Chinese goddess who, according to legend, made her home on the moon, blasted off on 24 October from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in the southwestern province of Sichuan. In addition to making the dream cherished by Chinese people to fly to the moon come true, it is the first step into China's ambitious threestage moon mission, marking a new milestone in the country's space exploration history.

  4. Notes on flying and dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B C

    1983-07-01

    Focused on selected details in the lives and creative works of Samuel Johnson, Edgar Allan Poe, and Houdini, this paper explores a seeming antinomy between claustrophobic annihilation and aviation. At first glance the latter appears as an antidote to the threat of entrapment and death. On a deeper level the distinction fades as the impression arises that in the examples cited, flying may represent an unconscious expression of a wish for death and ultimate reunion.

  5. Evaluation of Methyl Eugenol and Cue-Lure Traps with Solid Lure and Insecticide Dispensers for Fruit Fly Monitoring and Male Annihilation in the Hawaii Area-Wide Pest Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) traps with solid lure dispensers were deployed in areas with low and high populations of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett), respectively. In low density areas, standard Jackson traps or Hawaii fruit fly A...

  6. PRISMA—A formation flying project in implementation phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Staffan; Veldman, Sytze; Bodin, Per

    2009-11-01

    The PRISMA project for autonomous formation flying and rendezvous has passed its critical design review in February-March 2007. The project comprises two satellites which are an in-orbit testbed for Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) algorithms and sensors for advanced formation flying and rendezvous. Several experiments involving GNC algorithms, sensors and thrusters will be performed during a 10 month mission with launch planned for the second half of 2009. The project is run by the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) in close cooperation with the German Aerospace Center (DLR), the French Space Agency (CNES) and the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Additionally, the project also will demonstrate flight worthiness of two novel motor technologies: one that uses environmentally clean and non-hazardous propellant, and one that consists of a microthruster system based on MEMS technology. The project will demonstrate autonomous formation flying and rendezvous based on several sensors—GPS, RF-based and vision based—with different objectives and in different combinations. The GPS-based onboard navigation system, contributed by DLR, offers relative orbit information in real-time in decimetre range. The RF-based navigation instrument intended for DARWIN, under CNES development, will be tested for the first time on PRISMA, both for instrument performance, but also in closed loop as main sensor for formation flying. Several rendezvous and proximity manoeuvre experiments will be demonstrated using only vision based sensor information coming from the modified star camera provided by DTU. Semi-autonomous operations ranging from 200 km to 1 m separation between the satellites will be demonstrated. With the project now in the verification phase particular attention is given to the specific formation flying and rendezvous functionality on instrument, GNC-software and system level.

  7. Caspar-like gene depletion reduces Leishmania infection in sand fly host Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telleria, Erich L; Sant'Anna, Maurício R V; Ortigão-Farias, João R; Pitaluga, André N; Dillon, Viv M; Bates, Paul A; Traub-Csekö, Yara M; Dillon, Rod J

    2012-04-13

    Female phlebotomine sand flies Lutzomyia longipalpis naturally harbor populations of the medically important Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) parasite in the gut, but the extent to which the parasite interacts with the immune system of the insect vector is unknown. To investigate the sand fly immune response and its interaction with the Leishmania parasite, we identified a homologue for caspar, a negative regulator of immune deficiency signaling pathway. We found that feeding antibiotics to adult female L. longipalpis resulted in an up-regulation of caspar expression relative to controls. caspar was differentially expressed when females were fed on gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species. caspar expression was significantly down-regulated in females between 3 and 6 days after a blood feed containing Leishmania mexicana amastigotes. RNA interference was used to deplete caspar expression in female L. longipalpis, which were subsequently fed with Leishmania in a blood meal. Sand fly gut populations of both L. mexicana and L. infantum were significantly reduced in caspar-depleted females. The prevalence of L. infantum infection in the females fell from 85 to 45%. Our results provide the first insight into the operation of immune homeostasis in phlebotomine sand flies during the growth of bacterial and Leishmania populations in the digestive tract. We have demonstrated that the activation of the sand fly immune system, via depletion of a single gene, can lead to the abortion of Leishmania development and the disruption of transmission by the phlebotomine sand fly.

  8. Caspar-like Gene Depletion Reduces Leishmania Infection in Sand Fly Host Lutzomyia longipalpis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telleria, Erich L.; Sant'Anna, Maurício R. V.; Ortigão-Farias, João R.; Pitaluga, André N.; Dillon, Viv M.; Bates, Paul A.; Traub-Csekö, Yara M.; Dillon, Rod J.

    2012-01-01

    Female phlebotomine sand flies Lutzomyia longipalpis naturally harbor populations of the medically important Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) parasite in the gut, but the extent to which the parasite interacts with the immune system of the insect vector is unknown. To investigate the sand fly immune response and its interaction with the Leishmania parasite, we identified a homologue for caspar, a negative regulator of immune deficiency signaling pathway. We found that feeding antibiotics to adult female L. longipalpis resulted in an up-regulation of caspar expression relative to controls. caspar was differentially expressed when females were fed on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial species. caspar expression was significantly down-regulated in females between 3 and 6 days after a blood feed containing Leishmania mexicana amastigotes. RNA interference was used to deplete caspar expression in female L. longipalpis, which were subsequently fed with Leishmania in a blood meal. Sand fly gut populations of both L. mexicana and L. infantum were significantly reduced in caspar-depleted females. The prevalence of L. infantum infection in the females fell from 85 to 45%. Our results provide the first insight into the operation of immune homeostasis in phlebotomine sand flies during the growth of bacterial and Leishmania populations in the digestive tract. We have demonstrated that the activation of the sand fly immune system, via depletion of a single gene, can lead to the abortion of Leishmania development and the disruption of transmission by the phlebotomine sand fly. PMID:22375009

  9. TARP Monthly Housing Scorecard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Treasury and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) jointly produce a Monthly Housing Scorecard on the health of the nation’s housing market. The...

  10. Lightship Monthly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily Weather Observations (Monthly Form 1001) from lightship stations in the United States. Please see the 'Surface Weather Observations (1001)' library for more...

  11. Oceanographic Monthly Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Monthly Summary contains sea surface temperature (SST) analyses on both regional and ocean basin scales for the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans....

  12. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  13. Effects of southern flying squirrels Glaucomys volans on red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin S. Laves; Susan C. Loeb

    1999-01-01

    Anecdotal data gathered from many populations suggest that southern flying squirrel (SFS, Glaucomys volans) use of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker's (RCW, Picoides borealis) nest and roost cavities may negatively affect RCW populations. The authors conducted a controlled experiment to determine the effects of SFS’s on...

  14. Laboratory evaluation of insecticide-treated sugar baits for control of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascari, T M; Foil, L D

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of boric acid, imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin incorporated into sugar baits as oral toxicants for adult phlebotomine sand flies. Variable toxicity of insecticide-sugar bait solutions to adult male and female sand flies was demonstrated, based on male female median lethal concentration values of 0.10-0.08, 6.13-9.53, and 9.03-18.11 mg/liter of imidacloprid, ivermectin, and abamectin, respectively. Complete control of sand flies could not be achieved with as high as 40 g/liter of boric acid in sugar bait solution; concentrations >40 g/liter were found repellent to the sand flies. Uranine O (a fluorescent tracer dye that can be used to measure the ingestion of sugar baits by sand flies) did not interact negatively with imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin when it was combined with the insecticides in a sugar bait. Also, incorporation of imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin into sugar baits did not reduce the effect whether adult male and female sand flies fed on these sugar baits. We propose that imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin could be used to control adult sand fly populations with targeted use of insecticide-treated sugar baits.

  15. Ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by flying squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan N Murrant

    Full Text Available Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus and southern (G. volans flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology.

  16. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  17. Spatial and temporal distributions of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae), vectors of leishmaniasis, in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ameneh; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Ghezelbash, Zahra

    2014-04-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major vector-borne disease and health problem in Iran. Studies on sand flies, as the vectors of the disease, began in the Northern and Western parts of the country in 1930 and have been continued up to now. Concerning many published information in the field of sand flies, providing a digital database for the country will help the public health authorities to make more correct and prompt decisions for planning leishmaniasis control programs as well as modeling and forecasting of transmission potential across the country. All published data on phlebotomine sand flies of Iran were collected. A database was then designed in Excel format, including all available information regarding sand flies. The valid data were transferred to ArcGIS9.3 to prepare the first spatial database of sand flies of Iran. The IrSandflybase includes 131 papers, 2 abstracts and 71 PhD/MSc theses, reporting studies conducted during 1930-2012. This database contains different available data covering all aspects of ecology and biology of 50 sand fly species in two genera of Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia in the country. The temporal activity of sand flies is reported 9 months in warm regions of the southern part, while it may reduce to 7-8 months in central plateau or 4-5 months in cold areas of the northwest. Occasional studies reported rare species from the borderlines of Iran. It seems that changing the climate due to global warming may affect the spatial distribution of different species and expand it into the country, the issue that can be followed by an updated database.

  18. Revised irradiation doses to control melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a generic dose for tephritid fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Armstrong, John W

    2004-08-01

    Currently approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), melon fly; Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Mediterranean fruit fly; and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, infesting fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii to the continental United States are 210, 225, and 250 Gy, respectively. Irradiation studies were initiated to determine whether these doses could be reduced to lower treatment costs, minimize any adverse effects on quality, and support a proposed generic irradiation dose of 150 Gy for fruit flies. Dose-response tests were conducted with late third instars of wild and laboratory strains of the three fruit fly species, both in diet and in fruit. After x-ray irradiation treatment, data were taken on adult emergence, and adult female fecundity and fertility. Melon fly was the most tolerant of the three species to irradiation, and oriental fruit fly was more tolerant than Mediterranean fruit fly. Laboratory and wild strains of each species were equally tolerant of irradiation, and larvae were more tolerant when irradiated in fruit compared with artificial diet. An irradiation dose of 150 Gy applied to 93,666 melon fly late third instars in papayas resulted in no survival to the adult stage, indicating that this dose is sufficient to provide quarantine security. Irradiation doses of 100 and 125 Gy applied to 31,920 Mediterranean fruit fly and 55,743 oriental fruit fly late third instars, respectively, also resulted in no survival to the adult stage. Results support a proposed generic irradiation quarantine treatment dose of 150 Gy for all tephritid fruit flies.

  19. Monitoring and Varietal Screening Cucurbit Fruit Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae on Cucumber in Bhaktapur and Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranju Maharjan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of cucurbit fruit fly by using four different types of traps was conducted in Sipadole VDC of Bhaktapur district during 2012 to observe the population dynamics. Three different types of fruit flies were recorded, in which the number of B. cucurbitae dominated to other species. Only B. cucurbitae damaged the cucumber, which was trapped 92.68%, 87.05%, 90.61%, and 69.38% in cue-lure, banana pulp bait, sticky traps and fly catcher, respectively. The highest number of fruit flies (167.5 male fruit flies/3traps was recorded in cue-lure trap during the first week of September, which coincided with 85.45% RH and 21.67°C and 25.04°C minimum and maximum temperature, respectively. Positive relation of temperature, relative humidity and fruit fly catches was observed. Thus, cue-lure was the most effective traps for monitoring of fruit fly population. In varietal screening, among the six different varieties of cucumber, i.e. Kathmandu local, Kusle, Kamini, Malini, Kasinda and Mahyco Green Long, they were highly significant difference in yield. Kamini gave the highest marketable fruit 26.66 mt/ha yield and the lowest by Kusle (5.05 mt/ha. All the varieties were affected by cucurbit fruit fly. The highest number of unmarketable fruit set was observed in Kamini (22.29 fruits/plant.

  20. Flying qualities criteria and flight control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D. T.

    1981-01-01

    Despite the application of sophisticated design methodology, newly introduced aircraft continue to suffer from basic flying qualities deficiencies. Two recent meetings, the DOD/NASA Workshop on Highly Augmented Aircraft Criteria and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center/Air Force Flight Test Center/AIAA Pilot Induced Oscillation Workshop, addressed this problem. An overview of these meetings is provided from the point of view of the relationship between flying qualities criteria and flight control system design. Among the items discussed are flying qualities criteria development, the role of simulation, and communication between flying qualities specialists and control system designers.

  1. SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LEISHMANIASIS IN AQUIDAUANA MUNICIPALITY, PANTANAL OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL , BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    de FIGUEIREDO, Helen Rezende; SANTOS, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; CASARIL, Aline Etelvina; INFRAN, Jucelei Oliveira de Moura; RIBEIRO, Leticia Moraes; FERNANDES, Carlos Eurico dos Santos; de OLIVEIRA, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The Aquidauana municipality is considered an endemic area of leishmaniasis and an important tourist site in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The aim of this study was to investigate the sand fly fauna in the city of Aquidauana. Captures were carried out twice a month, from April 2012 to March 2014 with automatic light traps and active aspiration, in the peridomicile and domicile of six residences. A total of 9,338 specimens were collected, 3,179 and 6,159 using light traps and active aspiration, respectively. The fauna consisted of: Brumptomyia brumpti, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Ev. evandroi, Ev. lenti, Ev. orcyi, Ev. sallesi, Ev. termitophila, Ev. walkeri, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Psathyromyia bigeniculata. The most abundant species captured was Lutzomyia longipalpis, present in all the ecotopes, predominantly in peridomicile areas, and mainly males. Leishmania DNA was not detected in the insects. It was observed the abundance of the sand fly fauna in the region, as well as the high frequency of Lu. longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum. The results of this study show the need to increase the monitoring and more effective control measures. It is noteworthy that the studied region presents several activities related to tourism and recreation, increasing the risk of transmission of leishmaniasis to this particular human population. PMID:27982353

  2. Characteristics of spanish fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Luxán, M. P.

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the characterization of fly ashes produced by Spanish thermoelectric power plants, according to sampling taken in 1981 and 1982. The study takes in the following characteristics: physical characteristics (size distribution of particles, ...; chemical ones (chemical analysis...; and mineralogical ones (application of instrumental techniques of X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption spectroscopy. From a general point of view, it can be said that the samples of Spanish fly ashes are similar to those produced in other countries. The results obtained are a contribution to the knowledge of Spanish fly ashes and form part of the antecedents of investigations carried out in subsequent years.

    Este trabajo tiene por objeto la caracterización de las cenizas volantes producidas en las Centrales Termoeléctricas españolas, según un muestreo realizado entre 1981 y 1982. El estudio comprende las siguientes características: físicas (distribución del tamaño de partículas,...; químicas (análisis químico, …; y mineralógicas (aplicación de las técnicas instrumentales de difracción de rayos X y espectroscopía de absorción infrarroja. Desde un punto de vista general, se puede afirmar que las muestras de ceniza volante estudiadas son semejantes a las producidas en otros países. Los resultados obtenidos son una aportación al conocimiento de las cenizas volantes españolas y forman parte de los antecedentes de las investigaciones llevadas a cabo en años posteriores.

  3. Study of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis areas in the central-western state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Bruno Warlley Leandro; Saraiva, Lara; Neto, Rafael Gonçalves Teixeira; Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy Serra e; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Belo, Vinícius Silva; Silva, Eduardo Sérgio da; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2013-03-01

    The transmission of Leishmania involves several species of sand flies that are closely associated with various parasites and reservoirs, with differing transmission cycles in Brazil. A study on the phlebotomine species composition has been conducted in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which has intense occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases. In order to study the sand flies populations and their seasonality, CDC light traps (HP model) were distributed in 15 houses which presented at least one case of CL or VL and in five urban parks (green areas). Collections were carried out three nights monthly from September 2010 to August 2011. A total of 1064 phlebotomine specimens were collected belonging to two genera and seventeen species: Brumptomyia brumpti, Lutzomyia bacula, Lutzomyia cortelezzii, Lutzomyia lenti, Lutzomyia sallesi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia intermedia, Lutzomyia neivai, Lutzomyia whitmani, Lutzomyia christenseni, Lutzomyia monticola, Lutzomyia pessoai, Lutzomyia aragaoi, Lutzomyia brasiliensis, Lutzomyia lutziana, and Lutzomyia sordellii. L. longipalpis, the main vector of Leishmania infantum in Brazil, was the most frequent species, accounting for 76.9% of the total, followed by L. lenti with 8.3%, this species is not a proven vector. Green and urban areas had different sand flies species composition, whereas the high abundance of L. longipalpis in urban areas and the presence of various vector species in both green and urban areas were also observed. Our data point out to the requirement of control measures against phlebotomine sand flies in the municipality of Divinópolis and adoption of strategies aiming entomological surveillance.

  4. Monthly energy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  5. Photos of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Congratulations to Adele Rimoldi, ATLAS physicist from Pavia, who ran her first marathon in New York last month. Adele completed the 42.2 km in a time of 4:49:19. She sure makes it look easy!!! The ATLAS pixel service quarter panel in SR1

  6. Monthly Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-28

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief ``energy plugs`` (reviews of EIA publications) are included, as well.

  7. Investigation of the bacterial communities associated with females of Lutzomyia sand fly species from South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio R V Sant'Anna

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of Leishmania that are acquired by the female sand fly during blood feeding on an infected mammal. Leishmania parasites develop exclusively in the gut lumen during their residence in the insect before transmission to a suitable host during the next blood feed. Female phlebotomine sand flies are blood feeding insects but their life style of visiting plants as well as animals, and the propensity for larvae to feed on detritus including animal faeces means that the insect host and parasite are exposed to a range of microorganisms. Thus, the sand fly microbiota may interact with the developing Leishmania population in the gut. The aim of the study was to investigate and identify the bacterial diversity associated with wild adult female Lutzomyia sand flies from different geographical locations in the New World. The bacterial phylotypes recovered from 16S rRNA gene clone libraries obtained from wild caught adult female Lutzomyia sand flies were estimated from direct band sequencing after denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of bacterial 16 rRNA gene fragments. These results confirm that the Lutzomyia sand flies contain a limited array of bacterial phylotypes across several divisions. Several potential plant-related bacterial sequences were detected including Erwinia sp. and putative Ralstonia sp. from two sand fly species sampled from 3 geographically separated regions in Brazil. Identification of putative human pathogens also demonstrated the potential for sand flies to act as vectors of bacterial pathogens of medical importance in addition to their role in Leishmania transmission.

  8. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  9. Your Child's Development: 9 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Baby's Growth: 9 Months Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 9 Months Your Child's Checkup: 9 Months Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Sleep and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Contact ...

  10. Self hardening property of Botswana fly ash | Sahu | Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self hardening property of Botswana fly ash. ... In the present investigation, an effort has been made to study the self hardening property of Botswana fly ash by ... This will encourage the use of fly ash economically as a construction material.

  11. Technical note: Vetiver can grow on coal fly ash without DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Anita

    2011-02-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to open lands or ash ponds located near power plants and this has lain to waste thousands of hectares all over the world. Wind and leaching are often the causes of off-site contamination from fly ash dumpsites. Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) grown on fly ash for three months showed massive, mesh-like growth of roots which could have a phytostabilizing effect. The plant achieved this without any damage to its nuclear DNA as shown by comet assay done on the root nuclei, which implies the long-term survival of the plant on the remediation site. Also, when Vetiver is used for phytoremediation of coal fly ash, its shoots can be safely grazed by animals as very little of heavy metals in fly ash were found to be translocated to the shoots. These features make planting of Vetiver a practical and environmentally compatible method for restoration of fly ash dumpsites. Lack of DNA damage in Vetiver has been compared to that in a sensitive plant i.e. Allium cepa. Our results suggested that apart from traditional end-points viz. growth parameters like root length, shoot length and dry weight, comet assay could also be included in a battery of tests for initial, rapid and effective selection of plants for restoration and phytoremediation of polluted sites.

  12. Seasonal distribution of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Tham Phra Phothisat temple, Saraburi province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polseela, R; Apiwathnasorn, C; Samung, Y

    2011-08-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies have long been incriminated as vectors of leishmaniasis in various parts of both the Old and New World. Prompted by recent indigenous cases of leishmaniasis in Thailand, a bionomic study of sand flies was undertaken in Tham Phra Phothisat temple, Saraburi province. In this study, sand flies were collected using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, to clarify the activity patterns and species composition of the sand flies. Traps were laid from August 2005 to July 2006. The insects were collected monthly between 1800-0600 hours. A total of 8,131 sand flies were collected with a female:male ratio of 1.9:1. Sixteen species were identified, of which 5 belonged to the genus Phlebotomus, 9 to Sergentomyia and 1 to Chinius. Species comprised the abundant species (Sergentomyia silvatica 35.6%, Sergentomyia barraudi 18.1%, Sergentomyia anodontis, 17.1%, Sergentomyia iyengari 11.9%, and Sergentomyia gemmea 11.2%); the less common species (sand fly prevalence, with the highest peak in July. Soil samples collected were characterized by alkaline (pH 7.6).

  13. 75 FR 39017 - Pilot Corporation, Propeller Corp., and Flying J Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... European Equity V Limited and three stockholders managed by CVC European Equity Tandem Fund Limited. B... company with operations throughout the United States and Canada. Flying J Inc. owns and operates, among... period no longer than six months, assistance for, and employment and salary information regarding...

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  16. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  17. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  18. A fly larva (Syrphidae: Ocyptamus that preys on adult flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onanchi Ureña

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Predatory syrphid larvae feed on relatively immobile prey, but here we report the first case (as far as we are aware of obligatory predation on very mobile prey. Larvae of an undescribed species of Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae were found in whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae aggregations on the undersides of citrus leaves. However, instead of preying on the whitefly nymphs (as would be expected, the larvae preyed on adult flies (Diptera that were attracted to the honeydew. In the laboratory, larvae captured significantly more flies on whitefly infested leaves than on washed leaves, and generally abandoned leaves that lacked whiteflies. Most cases of successful prey capture involved flies that probed the anterior part of the larva’s body with its proboscis (as if it were honeydew. The syrphid larva lashed out at the fly and entangled it in sticky oral secretion. The prey did not recover when they were removed from the larva, suggesting that this new predatory species also employs venom to subdue its prey. Although the larvae consumed some honeydew, they were unable to complete their development on this diet. Two parasitoids were reared from Ocyptamus puparia, Proaspicera sp. (Hymenoptera: Figitidae and Paracarotomus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, both of which are endoparasitic koinobionts. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1157-1163. Epub 2010 December 01.Las larvas depredadoras de Syrphidae se alimentan de presas relativamente inmóviles, pero aquí reportamos el primer caso (hasta ahora conocido de la depredación obligatoria en presas muy móviles. Se encontraron las larvas de una especie no descrita de Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae juntas con ninfas de mosca blanca (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en el envés de las hojas de cítricos. Sin embargo, en vez de alimentarse de las ninfas de mosca blanca (como debería esperarse, las larvas se alimentaron de moscas adultas (Diptera que fueron atraídas a las excreciones azucaradas de la mosca blanca. En el

  19. Requirements for satisfactory flying qualities of airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilruth, R R

    1943-01-01

    Report discusses the results of an analysis of available data to determine what measured characteristics are significant in defining satisfactory flying qualities, what characteristics are reasonable to require of an airplane, and what influence the various design features have on the observed flying qualities.

  20. MODAL CONTROL OF PILOTLESS FLYING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Antanevich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem on synthesis of lateral movement control algorithms in a pilotless flying machine which is made on the basis of a modal control method providing a required root arrangement of a characteristic closed control system polynom. Results of the modeling at stabilization of a lateral pilotless flying machine co-ordinate are presented in the paper.

  1. Flying Probe Tester: Architecture, Principle and Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu,Xu; Fang,Kangling; Chen,Guoqing

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the flying probe tester, which is a testing device for PCB. The architecture and principle of flying probe tester are firstly introduced. Then the implementation of hardware and software is illuminated briefly. Finally, the optimizing method for the probe's moving path is researched based on the traveling salesman problem.

  2. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the

  3. Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)

  4. Catch Composition of Tsetse Flies (Glossina: Glossinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Okoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A study to determine the composition of tsetse flies species was conducted between January and December, 2007 in Kamuku National Park, Nigeria, using Biconical and Nitse traps. Tsetse flies were trapped along gallery forest in five streams for two trapping days and were collected daily. Approach: All tsetse flies caught were identified to species level, sexed, separated into teneral and non-teneral, hunger staged and Mean Hunger Stage computed. Fly density were calculated, the age structure examined using wing fray techniques for males and ovarian technique for females; the reproductive status of female flies were assessed. Two species of tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis palpalis robineau-desvoidy and Glossina tachinoides Westwood were caught in total of five hundred and two (502 flies. Out of these, 309(61.6% Glossina tachinoides and 193(38.4% G. palpalis were caught. Male catches (309, 61.6% were significantly (P Results: The estimated mean age for males was 11 days and females were 8 days. The insemination rate of 93.8% generally was high, G. tachinoides recorded 95.5% more than G. palpalis of 91.6%. Whereas parity rate (25.8% was low; G. palpalis was 37.4% while G. tachinoides parity rate is 17.2%. Conclusion: The study shows that two species of tsetse flies abound in the park although at low densities their presence may bear semblance to Trypanosomiasis and its impact to ecotourism.

  5. Physicochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Cou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential.

  6. Physiochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Dou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential. (author)

  7. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the Royal Ne

  8. Construction procedures using self hardening fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, S. I.; Parker, D. G.

    1980-07-01

    Fly ash produced in Arkansas from burning Wyoming low sulfur coal is self-hardening and can be effective as a soil stabilizing agent for clays and sands. The strength of soil-self hardening fly ash develops rapidly when compacted immediately after mixing. Seven day unconfined compressive strengths up to 1800 psi were obtained from 20% fly ash and 80% sand mixtures. A time delay between mixing the fly ash with the soil and compaction of the mixture reduced the strength. With two hours delay, over a third of the strength was lost and with four hours delay, the loss was over half. Gypsum and some commercial concrete retarders were effective in reducing the detrimental effect of delayed compaction. Adequate mixing of the soil and fly ash and rapid compaction of the mixtures were found to be important parameters in field construction of stabilized bases.

  9. On the removal of hexavalent chromium from a Class F fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, F E; Rezaee, M; Honaker, R Q; Hower, J C

    2016-05-01

    Coarse and fine samples of a Class F fly ash obtained from commercial combustion of Illinois bituminous coal have been exposed to two long-term leaching tests designed to simulate conditions in waste impoundments. ICP-AES analysis indicated that the coarse and fine fly ash samples contained 135 and 171mg/kg Cr, respectively. Measurements by XAFS spectroscopy showed that the ash samples originally contained 5 and 8% of the chromium, respectively, in the hexavalent oxidation state, Cr(VI). After exposure to water for more than four months, the percentage of chromium as Cr(VI) in the fly-ash decreased significantly for the coarse and fine fly-ash in both tests. Combining the XAFS data with ICP-AES data on the concentration of chromium in the leachates indicated that, after the nineteen-week-long, more aggressive, kinetic test on the coarse fly ash, approximately 60% of the Cr(VI) had been leached, 20% had been reduced to Cr(III) and retained in the ash, and 20% remained as Cr(VI) in the ash. In contrast, during the six-month-long baseline test, very little Cr was actually leached from either the coarse or the fine fly-ash (ash was retained in the ash in that form, while the remainder, 34% and 80%, respectively, was reduced and retained in the ash as Cr(III). The results are interpreted as indicating that Cr(VI) present in Class F fly-ash can be reduced to Cr(III) when in contact with water and that such chemical reduction can compete with physical removal of Cr(VI) from the ash by aqueous leaching.

  10. TrackFly: virtual reality for a behavioral system analysis in free-flying fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Steven N; Rohrseitz, Nicola; Straw, Andrew D; Dickinson, Michael H

    2008-06-15

    Modern neuroscience and the interest in biomimetic control design demand increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can be applied in freely moving animals under realistic behavioral conditions. To explore sensorimotor flight control mechanisms in free-flying fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), we equipped a wind tunnel with a Virtual Reality (VR) display system based on standard digital hardware and a 3D path tracking system. We demonstrate the experimental power of this approach by example of a 'one-parameter open loop' testing paradigm. It provided (1) a straightforward measure of transient responses in presence of open loop visual stimulation; (2) high data throughput and standardized measurement conditions from process automation; and (3) simplified data analysis due to well-defined testing conditions. Being based on standard hardware and software techniques, our methods provide an affordable, easy to replicate and general solution for a broad range of behavioral applications in freely moving animals. Particular relevance for advanced behavioral research tools originates from the need to perform detailed behavioral analyses in genetically modified organisms and animal models for disease research.

  11. Predicting fruit fly's sensing rate with insect flight simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song Chang; Z. Jane Wang

    2014-01-01

    .... Interpreting our findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time and sensory motor reflexes, we conjecture that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing beat...

  12. Biomass fly ash in concrete: SEM, EDX and ESEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Larry Baxter; Fernando Fonseca [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    This document summarizes microscopy study of concrete prepared from cement and fly ash (25% fly ash and 75% cement by weight), which covers coal fly ash and biomass fly ash. All the fly ash concrete has the statistical equal strength from one day to one year after mix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) analysis show that both coal and biomass fly ash particles undergo significant changes of morphology and chemical compositions in concrete due to pozzolanic reaction, although biomass fly ash differs substantially from coal fly ash in its fuel resources. 8 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  14. Effects of GF-120 fruit fly bait concentrations on attraction, feeding, mortality, and control of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Chapman, Peter S

    2005-10-01

    Effects of different concentrations of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait on attraction and feeding responses, mortality, and control of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, were determined. In the laboratory, flies that had been exposed to sugar and yeast extract and then deprived of all food for 16-20 h were attracted to 40.0% GF-120, but not to 0.6 and 4.8% GF-120 (vol:vol). Nonstarved flies were not attracted to any concentration. Flies in the field were not attracted to 55.6% GF-120 on cherry leaves, and few flies fed on the bait. In the laboratory, males fed for shorter durations on and ingested lower amounts of 0.6% than 4.8 or 40.0% GF-120, but females fed equally on all concentrations. Spinosad in GF-120 was highly toxic to flies. Lethal concentrations50 (LC50 values) of spinosad for starved flies at 1-4 d were 1.5-0.7 ppm. When gravid flies were exposed to cherries treated with 0.6, 4.8, and 40.0% GF-120, mortality was greater at each higher concentration, but none prevented oviposition. Field spray tests comparing 0.6, 4.8, and 40.0% GF-120 in 225 ml of spray per cherry tree resulted in 79-94% lower larval infestations than in controls, but no differences were seen among the concentrations. Evidence from this study indicates that fresh 40.0% GF-120 was attractive in the laboratory but that flies were not attracted to fresh GF-120 from far distances within trees, suggesting that suppression of populations is caused in large part by flies finding the bait through normal movement over large areas.

  15. Habitat analysis of North American sand flies near veterans returning from leishmania-endemic war zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keep Lisa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly 1300 cases of leishmaniasis have been identified in American military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. The symptoms of this disease can range from a mild, self-limiting cutaneous infection to a deadly visceral infection and are not prevented by chemoprophylaxis or immunization. Effective treatments, however, are available. The disease-causing parasite is spread through the bite of the female sand fly. Although the disease occurs in both the Old World and the New World, the parasite species differ between the hemispheres. The large number of cases in military veterans has caused some concern that Old World, temperate-adapted parasite species could be introduced into the native sand fly populations of American military facilities where veterans of the current conflicts return following their deployments. This paper reports part of a larger study to analyze the risk of such an accidental importation. Four potential habitats on two large Army facilities in the Southeast United States were surveyed to determine relative sand fly density. The National Land Cover Map was used to provide sand fly density prediction maps by habitat. Results Sand fly density was significantly higher in deciduous forest and even higher at the interface between forest and open grassland. The evergreen forest and agricultural fields supported very low densities. On Fort Campbell, KY, the percentage of land covered by suitable habitat was very high. A sand fly density prediction map identified large tracts of land where infected individuals would be at higher risk of exposure to sand fly bites, resulting in an increased risk of introducing the parasite to a native insect population. On Fort Bragg, NC, however, commercial farming of long leaf pine reduced the percentage of the land covered in vegetation suitable for the support of sand flies. The risk of introducing an exotic Leishmania spp. on Fort Bragg, therefore, is considered to be

  16. Avrocar: a real flying saucer

    CERN Document Server

    Fedrigo, Desire Francine G; Gobato, Alekssander

    2015-01-01

    One of the most unusual military aircraft programs V / STOL was the Avro VZ-9 "Avrocar". Designed to be a real flying saucer, the Avrocar was one of the few V / STOL to be developed in complete secrecy. Despite significant changes in the design, during flight tests, the Avrocar was unable to achieve its objectives, and the program was eventually canceled after an expenditure of 10 million US dollars between 1954 and 1961. But the concept of a lift fan, driven by a turbojet engine is not dead, and lives today as a key component of Lockheed X-35 Joint Strike Fighter contender. Was held in a data research and information related to Avrocar project carried out during the Second World War, which was directly linked to advances in aircraft that were built after it, and correlate them with the turbo fan engines used today.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  18. Trapping tsetse flies on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveissière C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Riverine tsetse flies such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in West Africa. Despite intimate links between tsetse and water, to our knowledge there has never been any attempt to design trapping devices that would catch tsetse on water. In mangrove (Guinea one challenging issue is the tide, because height above the ground for a trap is a key factor affecting tsetse catches. The trap was mounted on the remains of an old wooden dugout, and attached with rope to nearby branches, thereby allowing it to rise and fall with the tide. Catches showed a very high density of 93.9 flies/”water-trap”/day, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than all the catches from other habitats where the classical trap had been used. In savannah, on the Comoe river of South Burkina Faso, the biconical trap was mounted on a small wooden raft anchored to a stone, and catches were compared with the classical biconical trap put on the shores. G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides densities were not significantly different from those from the classical biconical one. The adaptations described here have allowed to efficiently catch tsetse on the water, which to our knowledge is reported here for the first time. This represents a great progress and opens new opportunities to undertake studies on the vectors of trypanosomoses in mangrove areas of Guinea, which are currently the areas showing the highest prevalences of sleeping sickness in West Africa. It also has huge potential for tsetse control using insecticide impregnated traps in savannah areas where traps become less efficient in rainy season. The Guinean National control programme has already expressed its willingness to use such modified traps in its control campaigns in Guinea, as has the national PATTEC programme in Burkina Faso during rainy season.

  19. Description of a new phlebotomine species (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) and new records of sand flies from the State of Acre, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; Freitas, Rui Alves; De Oliveira, Arley Faria José; Ogawa, Guilherme Maerschner; De Araújo, Edicarlos André Cavalcante; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2013-01-25

    Groundbreaking studies of phlebotomine sand fly populations in Assis Brasil, State of Acre, Brazil, resulted in the collection of 13 new records of phlebotomine sand flies and one previously undescribed species. Lutzomyia naiffi sp. nov. is described here. The new species is similar to Lutzomyia columbiana (Ristorcelli & Van Ty) in measurements and other morphological characters.

  20. A survey of bacterial diversity from successive life stages of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) by using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae represent a sustainable method for reducing animal and plant wastes. Larvae reduce dry matter, bacteria, offensive odor, and house fly populations. The prepupae can be self-harvested and used as feedstuff for livestock and poultry. While som...

  1. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    likelihood to be able to perform unrestricted duty. Author affiliations: Preventive Medicine Res- idency, Uniformed Services University of the Health...symptoms, health care visits, and absenteeism among Iraq War veterans. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164(1):150–153. 20. Stein M, McAllister TW. Exploring the...demonstrated the increasing use and acceptance of these approaches in the gen- eral and military populations.6–8 For exam - ple, results of a 2012 survey

  2. Effects of anthropogenic disturbance and climate on patterns of bat fly parasitism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Pilosof

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions, including anthropogenic disturbance, can significantly alter host and parasite communities. Yet, our current knowledge is based mainly on endoparasites, while ectoparasites remain little studied. We studied the indirect effects of anthropogenic disturbance (human population density and climate (temperature, precipitation and elevation on abundance of highly host-specific bat flies in four Neotropical bat species across 43 localities in Venezuela. We formulated a set of 11 a priori hypotheses that included a combination of the two effectors and host species. Statistically, each of these hypotheses was represented by a zero-inflated negative binomial mixture model, allowing us to control for excess zeros in the data. The best model was selected using Akaike's information criteria. Fly abundance was affected by anthropogenic disturbance in Artibeus planirostris, Carollia perspicillata and Pteronotus parnellii, but not Desmodus rotundus. Climate affected fly abundance in all bat species, suggesting mediation of these effects via the host or by direct effects on flies. We conclude that human disturbance may play a role in shaping bat-bat fly interactions. Different processes could determine fly abundance in the different bat species.

  3. Spatial Distribution of Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Qom Province, Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghafipour, Abedin; Vatandoost, Hassan; Zahraei-Ramazani, Ali Reza; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Rassi, Yavar; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand fly bites. ZCL is a major health problem in Iran, where basic knowledge gaps about sand fly species diversity persist in some ZCL-endemic areas. This paper describes the richness and spatial distribution of sand fly species, collected with sticky traps, in Qom province, a ZCL-endemic area in central Iran, where sand fly fauna has been poorly studied. Collected species were mapped on urban and rural digital maps based on a scale of 1/50,000. All analyses were undertaken with rural- and urban-level precision, i.e., rural and urban levels were our basic units of analysis. After identifying the sand flies, high-risk foci were determined. For spatial analysis of vector species population, the entomological sampling sites were geo-referenced using GPS. Arc GIS 9.3 software was used to determine the foci with leishmaniasis vector species. Following the analyses, two genera (Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia) and 14 species were identified. Based on the mapping and sand fly dispersion analysis, the rural districts were categorized into three groups-infection reported, without infection, and no report. Based on Geographical Information System analyses, Kahak and Markazi districts were identified as high-risk foci with leishmaniasis vector species. These findings can act as a help guide to direct active control measures to the identified high-risk foci and, eventually, lead to reduction in incidence of the disease.

  4. Assessing Insecticide Susceptibility of Laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, David S; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G; Black, William C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-09-01

    Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose-response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management.

  5. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  6. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2012-05-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  7. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  8. Sand Flies and Their Control Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Hüseyin; Özbel, Yusuf

    2017-06-01

    The main aim of managing arthropod vectors that carry the disease agents is interrupting the infection cycle. Therefore, the management of the disease implies that all precautions related to all elements (i.e., human, arthropod vector, and reservoir) in the infection cycle need to be taken. There are important points that need to be considered while dealing with sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), which in many regions worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas, are vectors of diseases such as leishmaniasis and sand fly fever and are the arthropods of the infection cycle. Because the larval control of the sand flies is very difficult and almost impossible, the management is mainly conducted for the adults. The most effective strategy for reducing both sand fly fever and leishmaniasis is managing sand flies, particularly in areas where humans are located. In this review, the morphology, biology, and taxonomy of sand flies; the integrated fighting and management methods such as insecticide-impregnated bed nets and use of curtains, zooprophylaxis, indoor and outdoor residual applications, larvicides, repellents, and insecticide-impregnated dog collars; and data regarding many issues such as insecticide resistance in sand flies have been emphasized on in the review.

  9. Fly ash-reinforced thermoplastic starch composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, X.F.; Yu, J.G.; Wang, N. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). School of Science

    2007-01-02

    As a by-product from the combustion of pulverized coal, fly ash was, respectively, used as the reinforcement for formamide and urea-plasticized thermoplastic starch (FUPTPS) and glycerol-plasticized thermoplastic starch (GPTPS). The introduction of fly ash improved tensile stress from 4.56 MPa to 7.78 MPa and Youngs modulus increased trebly from 26.8 MPa to 84.6 MPa for fly ash-reinforced FUPTPS (A-FUPTPS), while tensile stress increased from 4.55 MPa to 12.86 MPa and Youngs modulus increased six times from 76.4 MPa to 545 MPa for fly ash-reinforced GPTPS (A-GPTPS). X-ray diffractograms illustrated that fly ash destroyed the formation of starch ordered crystal structure, so both A-GPTPS and FUPTPS could resist the starch re-crystallization (retrogradation). Also fly ash improved water resistance of TPS. As shown by rheology, during the thermoplastic processing, the extruder screw speed effectively adjusted the flow behavior of A-FUPTPS, while the increasing of the processing temperature effectively ameliorated the flow behavior of A-GPTPS. However, superfluous ash contents (e.g., 20 wt%) worsened processing fluidity and resulted in the congregation of fly ash in FUPTPS matrix (tested by SEM) rather than in GPTPS matrix. This congregation decreased the mechanical properties and water resistance of the materials.

  10. Bioaccumulation of nutrient elements from fly ash-amended soil in Jatropha curcas L.: a biofuel crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Doongar R; Ghosh, Arup

    2013-08-01

    Fly ash (FA) from coal-burning industries may be a potential inorganic soil amendment; the insight of its nutrient release and supply to soil may enhance their agricultural use. The study was conducted to assess the ability of fly ash (a coal fired thermal plant waste) to reduce soil fertility depletion and to study bioaccumulation of mineral nutrients in Jatropha curcas grown on soils amended with fly ash. Fly ash was amended to field soil at six rates (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 70 % w/w) on which J. curcas was grown. After 8 months of growth, the height of jatropha plants was significantly increased at 5 and 10 % FA-amended soil, whereas, biomass significantly increased at 5, 10, and 20 % FA-amended soil compared to control soil (0 % FA). Leaf nutrients uptake, followed by stems and roots uptake were highly affected by fly ash amendment to soil. Most of nutrients accumulation were increased up to 20 % fly ash and decreased thereafter. The results of available nutrient analysis of soil revealed that availability of nitrogen, potassium, sulfur, copper, iron, mangnese, and zinc declined significantly at higher levels of fly ash amendments, whereas, availability of phosphorus increased at these levels. However, pH, organic carbon, and available boron were not influenced significantly by fly ash amendment to soil. Microbial biomass C, N, and ratio of microbial-C to organic C were significantly reduced at 20 % fly ash and higher amounts. This study revealed that J. curcas plants could gainfully utilize the nutrients available in fly ash by subsequently amending soil.

  11. Sex Chromosome Meiotic Drive in Stalk-Eyed Flies

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Meiotically driven sex chromosomes can quickly spread to fixation and cause population extinction unless balanced by selection or suppressed by genetic modifiers. We report results of genetic analyses that demonstrate that extreme female-biased sex ratios in two sister species of stalk-eyed flies, Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni and C. whitei, are due to a meiotic drive element on the X chromosome (X(d)). Relatively high frequencies of X(d) in C. dalmanni and C. whitei (13-17% and 29%, respectively) ca...

  12. Commissioners' Monthly Case Activity Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission — Total cases pending at the beginning of the month, total cases added to the docket during the month, total cases disposed of during the month, and total cases...

  13. Rosetta performs ESA's closest-ever Earth fly-by

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    The passage through the Earth-Moon system allowed ground controllers to test Rosetta's 'asteroid fly-by mode' (AFM) using the Moon as a 'fake' asteroid, rehearsing the fly-bys of asteroids Steins and Lutetia due in 2008 and 2010 respectively. The AFM test started at 23:01 GMT and ran for nine minutes during which the two onboard navigation cameras successfully tracked the Moon, allowing Rosetta's attitude to be automatically adjusted. Before and after closest approach, the navigation cameras also acquired a series of images of the Moon and Earth; these data will be downloaded early today for ground processing and are expected to be available by 8 March. In addition, other onboard instruments were switched on, including ALICE (ultraviolet imaging spectrometer), VIRTIS (visible and infrared mapping spectrometer) and MIRO (microwave instrument for the Rosetta orbiter), for calibration and general testing using the Earth and Moon as targets. The fly-by manoeuvre swung the three-tonne spacecraft around our planet and out towards Mars, where it will make a fly-by on 26 February 2007. Rosetta will return to Earth again in a series of four planet fly-bys (three times with Earth, once with Mars) before reaching Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, when it will enter orbit and deliver a lander, Philae, onto the surface. The fly-bys are necessary to accelerate the spacecraft so as to eventually match the velocity of the target comet. They are a fuel-saving way to boost speed using planetary gravity. Yesterday's fly-by came one year and two days after launch and highlights the valuable opportunities for instrument calibration and data gathering available during the mission's multi-year voyage. In just three months, on 4 July, Rosetta will be in a good position to observe and gather data during NASA's spectacular Deep Impact event, when the Deep Impact probe will hurl a 380 kg projectile into Comet Tempel 1, revealing data on the comet's internal structure. Certain of

  14. Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. C. Venema

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide trend was added.

    Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii the error in linear trend estimates and (iii traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve

  15. Marijuana effects on simulated flying ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowsky, D S; Meacham, M P; Blaine, J D; Schoor, M; Bozzetti, L P

    1976-04-01

    The authors studied the effects of marijuana intoxication on the ability of 10 certified airplane pilots to operate a flight simulator. They used a randomized double-blind crossover design to compare the effect of active versus placebo marijuana. They found that all 10 pilots showed a significant decrease in measurements of flying performance 30 minutes after smoking active marijuana. For a group of 6 pilots tested sequentially for 6 hours, a nonsignificant decrease in flying performance continued for 2 hours after smoking the active drug. The authors conclude that the effects of marijuana on flying performance may represent a sensitive indicator of the drug's psychomotor effects.

  16. Antigenic Detection of Human Strain of Influenza Virus A (H3N2) in Swine Populations at Three Locations in Nigeria and Ghana during the Dry Early Months of 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, O A; Olugasa, B O; Emikpe, B O

    2016-03-01

    Since the first detection of human H3N2 influenza virus in Taiwanese pigs in 1970, infection of pigs with wholly human viruses has been known to occur in other parts of the world. These viruses, referred to as human-like H3N2 viruses, have been known to cause clinical and subclinical infections of swine populations. Due to the paucity and complete unavailability of information on transmission of influenza viruses from other species, especially humans, to swine in Nigeria and Ghana, respectively, this study was designed to investigate the presence and prevalence of a human strain of influenza A (H3N2) in swine populations at three locations in two cities within these two West African countries in January and February, 2014. Using stratified random technique, nasal swab specimens were collected from seventy-five (75) pigs at two locations in Ibadan, Nigeria and from fifty (50) pigs in Kumasi, Ghana. These specimens were tested directly by a sensitive Quantitative Solid Phase Antigen-detection Sandwich ELISA using anti-A/Brisbane/10/2007 haemagglutinin monoclonal antibody. Influenza virus A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2) was detected among pigs at the three study locations, with an aggregate prevalence of 4.0% for the two locations in Ibadan, Nigeria and also 4.0% for Kumasi, Ghana. Transmission of influenza viruses from other species to swine portends serious sinister prospects for genetic reassortment and evolvement of novel viruses. We therefore recommend that further studies should be carried out to investigate the presence of other circulating human and avian influenza viruses in swine populations in West Africa and also determine the extent of genetic reassortment of strains circulating among these pigs. This would provide an early warning system for detection of novel influenza viruses, which could have pandemic potentials.

  17. Flying Through Dust From Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    How can we tell what an asteroid is made of? Until now, weve relied on remote spectral observations, though NASAs recently launched OSIRIS-REx mission may soon change this by landing on an asteroid and returning with a sample.But what if we could learn more about the asteroids near Earth without needing to land on each one? It turns out that we can by flying through their dust.The aerogel dust collector of the Stardust mission. [NASA/JPL/Caltech]Ejected CluesWhen an airless body is impacted by the meteoroids prevalent throughout our solar system, ejecta from the body are flung into the space around it. In the case of small objects like asteroids, their gravitational pull is so weak that most of the ejected material escapes, forming a surrounding cloud of dust.By flying a spacecraft through this cloud, we could perform chemical analysis of the dust, thereby determining the asteroids composition. We could even capture some of the dust during a flyby (for example, by using an aerogel collector like in the Stardust mission) and bring it back home to analyze.So whats the best place to fly a dust-analyzing or -collecting spacecraft? To answer this, we need to know what the typical distribution of dust is around a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) a problem that scientists Jamey Szalay (Southwest Research Institute) and Mihly Hornyi (University of Colorado Boulder) address in a recent study.The colors show the density distribution for dust grains larger than 0.3 m around a body with a 10-km radius. The distribution is asymmetric, with higher densities on the apex side, shown here in the +y direction. [Szalay Hornyi 2016]Moon as a LaboratoryTo determine typical dust distributions around NEAs, Szalay and Hornyi first look at the distribution of dust around our own Moon, caused by the same barrage of meteorites wed expect to impact NEAs. The Moons dust cloud was measured in situ in 2013 and 2014 by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) on board the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment

  18. A Modified Trap for Adult Sampling of Medically Important Flies (Insecta: Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Akbarzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bait-trapping appears to be a generally useful method of studying fly populations. The aim of this study was to construct a new adult flytrap by some modifications in former versions and to evaluate its applicability in a subtropical zone in southern Iran.Methods: The traps were constructed with modification by adding some equipment to a polyethylene container (18× 20× 33 cm with lid. The fresh sheep meat was used as bait. Totally 27 adult modified traps were made and tested for their efficacies to attract adult flies. The experiment was carried out in a range of different topographic areas of Fars Province during June 2010.Results: The traps were able to attract various groups of adult flies belonging to families of: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, and Faniidae. The species of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Diptera: Sarcophagidae and Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae include the majority of the flies collected by this sheep-meat baited trap.Conclusion: This adult flytrap can be recommended for routine field sampling to study diversity and population dynamics of flies where conducting of daily collection is difficult.

  19. Acetylcholinesterase of the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli): cDNA sequence, baculovirus expression, and biochemical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Temeyer, Kevin B; Brake, Danett K; Tuckow, Alexander P; Li, Andrew Y.; Pérez deLeón, Adalberto A

    2013-01-01

    Background Millions of people and domestic animals around the world are affected by leishmaniasis, a disease caused by various species of flagellated protozoans in the genus Leishmania that are transmitted by several sand fly species. Insecticides are widely used for sand fly population control to try to reduce or interrupt Leishmania transmission. Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major is vectored mainly by Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) in Asia and Africa. Organophosphates comp...

  20. Optimal strategies for controlling riverine tsetse flies using targets: a modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn A Vale

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies occur in much of sub-Saharan Africa where they transmit the trypanosomes that cause the diseases of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock. One of the most economical and effective methods of tsetse control is the use of insecticide-treated screens, called targets, that simulate hosts. Targets have been ~1 m2, but recently it was shown that those tsetse that occupy riverine situations, and which are the main vectors of sleeping sickness, respond well to targets only ~0.06 m2. The cheapness of these tiny targets suggests the need to reconsider what intensity and duration of target deployments comprise the most cost-effective strategy in various riverine habitats.A deterministic model, written in Excel spreadsheets and managed by Visual Basic for Applications, simulated the births, deaths and movement of tsetse confined to a strip of riverine vegetation composed of segments of habitat in which the tsetse population was either self-sustaining, or not sustainable unless supplemented by immigrants. Results suggested that in many situations the use of tiny targets at high density for just a few months per year would be the most cost-effective strategy for rapidly reducing tsetse densities by the ~90% expected to have a great impact on the incidence of sleeping sickness. Local elimination of tsetse becomes feasible when targets are deployed in isolated situations, or where the only invasion occurs from populations that are not self-sustaining.Seasonal use of tiny targets deserves field trials. The ability to recognise habitat that contains tsetse populations which are not self-sustaining could improve the planning of all methods of tsetse control, against any species, in riverine, savannah or forest situations. Criteria to assist such recognition are suggested.

  1. Snowballing and flying under the radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2013-01-01

    management and venture development paths. More specifically, flying under radar in terms of operating under lower institutional requirements, and slowly accumulating resources (snowballing) are major leveraging strategies. We integrate our results into a hypothesized framework for resource management in East...

  2. Tsetse fly microbiota: form and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen eWang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are the primary vectors of African trypanosomes, which cause Human and Animal African trypanosomiasis in 36 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. These flies have also established symbiotic associations with bacterial and viral microorganisms. Laboratory-reared tsetse flies harbor up to four vertically transmitted organisms - obligate Wigglesworthia, commensal Sodalis, parasitic Wolbachia and Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus (SGHV. Field-captured tsetse can harbor these symbionts as well as environmentally acquired commensal bacteria. This microbial community influences several aspects of tsetse’s physiology, including nutrition, fecundity and vector competence. This review provides a detailed description of tsetse’s microbiome, and describes the physiology underlying host-microbe, and microbe-microbe, interactions that occur in this fly.

  3. Species composition and activity patterns of sand flies (Psycodidae: Phlebotomine) in four tehsils of Dir Districts, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Naheed; Khan, Khurshaid; Wahid, Sobia; Khan, Nazma Habib; Shah, Safeer Ullah

    2016-04-01

    The present study reports sand flies species composition, fauna diversity and seasonal variations from four tehsils of Dir Districts, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Collection was made using sticky traps, flit method and aspiration where highest number of sand flies was captured through sticky traps. Digitalized sand flies distribution maps were produced using geographic information system ArcGIS. A total of 7292 specimens were captured between January to December 2014, comprised of 11 Sergentomyia and 9 Phlebotomus. Phlebotomus salengensis was the most abundant species followed by Phlebotomus sergenti. Overall, male to female ratio observed was 3:1 and species diversity varied among the studied tehsils. Highest abundance was recorded in July and August, whereas the flies disappeared in the colder months (November-April) of the year. Information about insect vector behaviour in natural setting is required to understand the status of disease caused by them. This study is a thorough account of biodiversity of sand flies in the region and provides a useful insight in to identifying potential breeding preferences of sand flies and recognition of active and potential vector species in the Dir districts. Further large scale studies are needed to determine the behaviour, infection rate, and the natural reservoir hosts of sand fly vectors in the region.

  4. Seasonal occurrence of phlebotominae sand flies (Phlebotominae: Diptera) and it's correlation with Kala-Azar in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N S; Singh, Doris Phillips

    2009-05-01

    In this investigation, the species composition of sand flies, and their seasonality, nocturnal activity, sex ratio, and resting site, for implementation of future control measures, were surveyed in eastern (Gonda and Basti) Uttar Pradesh, India. Adult sand flies (2,893) were collected from internal and external sites by sticky and light traps. The sand flies were captured using light traps hung at different heights in trees and in peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary areas of a forest during both dry and rainy months. The traps were kept out between sunset and sunrise of the following day. In the extradomiciliary environment, the traps were installed at 1, 3 and 5 m above the ground. In this investigation, a total of 5 species were obtained: Phlebotomus papatasi, P. sergenti, Sergentomyia sintoni, S. punjabensis and S. dentata. The number of sand flies peaked in September and declined by December. The maximum and minimum numbers were found at 8:00 PM and 5:00 to 6:00 AM, respectively. The female to male ratio of the phlebotominae sand flies varied from a high in October to a low in June. The number of sand flies in the external regions was significantly more (p sand flies. Using the results of this investigation, health workers in this area may be better able to control and prevent leishmaniasis.

  5. Dynamic Optimization Algorithm for Flying Trajectory of a Free-flying Space Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new method of dynamic optimization for the flying trajectory of a free-flying space robot based on its flying motion characteristics is presented. The continuous flying trajectory is broken into a number of segment and the control efforts and the duration of the segment are chosen as the optimization parameters. The objective function is made by using the weighted sum of the fuel used and the time spent, and the constraint equations are selected. Finally, the internal point punishment function method is adopted in the optimization program, and the results of computer simulation are given.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  7. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  8. COSMIC monthly progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of May 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Nine articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) WFI - Windowing System for Test and Simulation; (2) HZETRN - A Free Space Radiation Transport and Shielding Program; (3) COMGEN-BEM - Composite Model Generation-Boundary Element Method; (4) IDDS - Interactive Data Display System; (5) CET93/PC - Chemical Equilibrium with Transport Properties, 1993; (6) SDVIC - Sub-pixel Digital Video Image Correlation; (7) TRASYS - Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (HP9000 Series 700/800 Version without NASADIG); (8) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (VAX VMS Version); and (9) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version). Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  9. Global Assessment of Seasonal Potential Distribution of Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyniszewska, Anna M.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt) and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species. PMID:25375649

  10. Leishmaniasis in Central Morocco: Seasonal Fluctuations of Phlebotomine Sand Fly in Aichoun Locality, from Sefrou Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Zahra Talbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniases (CL are endemic in Morocco. They are common in the human population in different localities such as Aichoun in Sefrou province, Morocco. This study was carried out in Aichoun locality from April to October 2012 in order to study the spatiotemporal trends of the main Leishmania phlebotomine vectors in this focus. Overall, 1171 sand flies, belonging to four species, were collected by sticky traps. Phlebotomus sergenti was the predominant species (78.4% followed by Ph. perniciosus (10.5%, Ph. papatasi (7.94%, and Ph. longicuspis (3.16%. Sandflies were active during 6 months (May–October. Ph. sergenti, Ph. perniciosus, and Ph. papatasi displayed a bimodal distribution with a first peak in July and a second peak in September, while Ph. longicuspis showed a monophasic trend with a peak in August. The high abundance and the lengthy period of activity of Ph. sergenti and Ph. perniciosus, vectors of L. tropica and L. infantum, respectively, are a cause for concern as they indicate the high potential risk of Leishmania transmission in the studied areas.

  11. Global assessment of seasonal potential distribution of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Szyniszewska

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species.

  12. Global assessment of seasonal potential distribution of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyniszewska, Anna M; Tatem, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt) and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species.

  13. Effect of Fly Ash on the Electrical Conductivity of Concretes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The fly ash occasionally has high content of iron oxide and carbon that are good electrical conducting components. This paper investigates the effect of the fly ash used as mineral admixtures on the electrical conductivity of concretes. The electrical properties of concretes using 3 kinds of fly ash with different iron oxide contents have been studied. Experimental results show that at the same fly ash dosage the resistivity of concrete using fly ash with high content of iron oxide is slightly lower than that with low content of iron oxide. However, the concrete resistivity after 14d increases as fly ash dosage increases regardless of iron oxide content in fly ash.

  14. Metabolic rate and hypoxia tolerance are affected by group interactions and sex in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster): new data and a literature survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggren, Warren; Souder, BriAnna M; Ho, Dao H

    2017-02-15

    Population density and associated behavioral adjustments are potentially important in regulating physiological performance in many animals. In r-selected species like the fruit fly (Drosophila), where population density rapidly shifts in unpredictable and unstable environments, density-dependent physiological adjustments may aid survival of individuals living in a social environment. Yet, how population density (and associated social behaviors) affects physiological functions like metabolism is poorly understood in insects. Additionally, insects often show marked sexual dimorphism (larger females). Thus, in this study on D. melanogaster, we characterized the effects of fly density and sex on both mass-specific routine oxygen consumption (V̇O2) and hypoxia tolerance (PCrit). Females had significantly lower routine V̇O2 (∼4 μl O2·mg(-1)·h(-1)) than males (∼6 μl O2·mg(-1)·h(-1)) at an average fly density of 28 flies·respirometer chamber(-1) However, V̇O2 was inversely related to fly density in males, with V̇O2 ranging from 4 to 11 μl O2·mg(-1)·h(-1) at a density of 10 and 40 flies·chamber(-1), respectively (r(2)=0.58, Pflies showed a similar but less pronounced effect, with a V̇O2 of 4 and 7 μl O2·mg(-1)·h(-1) at a density of 10 and 40 flies·chamber(-1), respectively (r(2)=0.43, P0.5) flies, with higher fly densities having lower PCrits An extensive survey of the literature on metabolism in fruit flies indicates that not all studies control for, or even report on, fly density and gender, both of which may affect metabolic measurements.

  15. Oral treatment of rodents with fipronil for feed-through and systemic control of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascari, T M; Stout, R W; Foil, L D

    2013-01-01

    The sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli is the vector of Leishmania major (Yakimoff & Schokhor), which is maintained in populations of burrowing rodents. The purpose of this study was to conduct a laboratory study to determine the efficacy of oral treatment of rodents with fipronil for control of sand flies that feed on rodent feces as larvae or on rodent blood as adults. We determined through larval bioassays that fipronil was eliminated in feces of orally-treated hamsters at a level that was significantly toxic to sand fly larvae for 21 d after the hamsters had been withdrawn from a fipronil-treated diet. Through bloodfeeding bioassays, we also found that fipronil was present in the peripheral blood of hamsters at a concentration that was significantly toxic to bloodfeeding adult female sand flies for 49 d after the hamsters had been withdrawn from their treated diet. The results of this study suggest that fipronil acts as well as or better than feed-through or systemic insecticides that previously have been measured against sand flies, and is particularly promising because this single compound acts against both larvae and bloodfeeding adults. An area-wide approach using rodent baits containing a fipronil could suppress vector populations that originate in the vicinity of rodent reservoirs, and could be used to eliminate the most epidemiologically important part of the vector population: female sand flies that take bloodmeals on rodent reservoirs.

  16. Relativistic Tennis Using Flying Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirozhkov, A. S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Ma, J.; Fukuda, Y.; Chen, L.-M.; Daito, I.; Ogura, K.; Homma, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Kotaki, H.; Sagisaka, A.; Mori, M.; Koga, J. K.; Kawachi, T.; Daido, H.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kimura, T.; Kato, Y.; Tajima, T.

    2008-06-01

    Upon reflection from a relativistic mirror, the electromagnetic pulse frequency is upshifted and the duration is shortened by the factor proportional to the relativistic gamma-factor squared due to the double Doppler effect. We present the results of the proof-of-principle experiment for frequency upshifting of the laser pulse reflected from the relativistic "flying mirror", which is a wake wave near the breaking threshold created by a strong driver pulse propagating in underdense plasma. Experimentally, the wake wave is created by a 2 TW, 76 fs Ti:S laser pulse from the JLITE-X laser system in helium plasma with the electron density of ≈4-6×1019 cm-3. The reflected signal is observed with a grazing-incidence spectrograph in 24 shots. The wavelength of the reflected radiation ranges from 7 to 14 nm, the corresponding frequency upshifting factors are ˜55-115, and the gamma-factors are y = 4-6. The reflected signal contains at least 3×107 photons/sr. This effect can be used to generate coherent high-frequency ultrashort pulses that inherit temporal shape and polarization from the original (low-frequency) ones. Apart from this, the reflected radiation contains important information about the wake wave itself, e.g. location, size, phase velocity, etc.

  17. Biomass fly ash in concrete: Mixture proportioning and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Amber Miller; Emilio Llamazos; Fernando Fonseca; Larry Baxter [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    ASTM C 618 prohibits use of biomass fly ashes in concrete. This document compares the properties of biomass fly ashes from cofired (herbaceous with coal), pure wood combustion and blended (pure wood fly ash blended with coal fly ash) to those of coal fly ash in concrete. The results illustrate that with 25% replacement (wt%) of cement by fly ash, the compressive strength (one day to one year) and the flexure strength (at 56th day curing) of cofired and blended biomass fly ash concrete is statistically equal to that of two coal fly ash concrete in this investigation (at 95% confidence interval). This implies that biomass fly ash with co-firing concentration within the concentration interest to commercial coal-biomass co-firing operations at power plants and blended biomass fly ash within a certain blending ratio should be considered in concrete. 37 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. My Friendship with the Flying Tigers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang; Yingshan

    2015-01-01

    "I believe I owe a debt to the Chinese people...It’s so huge there’s no way I can pay it back."This is what Flying Tigers pilot Glen Beneda said to his family time and again.I have been working in the CPAFFC for over 10 years now,and my feelings for the Flying Tigers have deepened over time.I had heard of its

  19. Settling characteristics of some Indian fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Sastry, B.S. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharapur (India). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The paper examines the aspects of the solid liquid separation (settling characteristics) of some of the fly ash obtained from coal-fired power plants in India. The application of a coagulating or flocculating agent (polymer) to improve the two properties as indicated is a typical industrial practice. The sources for this study comprise of fly ash, pond ash, and bottom ash and the settling characteristics are studied in conjunction with the flocculating agent polyacrylamide. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. As and Se interactions with fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Díaz-Somoano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic and selenium are toxic elements present incoal in trace concentrations that may be emitted tothe environment during coal conversion processes.However, it is possible to retain volatile arsenic andselenium compounds in the fly ashes originated bythe process, the proportions retained depending onthe characteristics of the ashes and processconditions. This work is focused on the capture ofthese elements in fly ashes in simulated coalcombustion and gasification atmospheres inlaboratory scale reactors.

  1. Wolbachia in Anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscrato, Virginia E; Braz, Antônio S K; P Perondini, André L; Selivon, Denise; Marino, Celso L

    2009-09-01

    Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are widespread among arthropods and cause a variety of reproductive abnormalities, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, thelytokous parthenogenesis, male-killing, and host feminization. In this study, we used three sets of Wolbachia-specific primers (16S rDNA, ftsZ, and wsp) in conjunction with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and sequencing to study the infection of fruit flies (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) by Wolbachia. The flies were collected at several localities in Brazil and at Guayaquil, Ecuador. All of the fruit flies studied were infected with Wolbachia supergroup A, in agreement with the high prevalence of this group in South America. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the wsp gene was the most sensitive gene for studying the relationships among Wolbachia strains. The Wolbachia sequences detected in these fruit flies were similar to those such as wMel reported for other fruit flies. These results show that the infection of Anastrepha fruit flies by Wolbachia is much more widespread than previously thought.

  2. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... from Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit is... quarantine regulations to remove trapping requirements for Mediterranean fruit fly for Hass avocados...

  3. Heavy metal leaching from coal fly ash amended container substrates during Syngonium production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiansheng; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Yuncong

    2008-02-01

    Coal fly ash has been proposed to be an alternative to lime amendment and a nutrient source of container substrates for ornamental plant production. A great concern over this proposed beneficial use, however, is the potential contamination of surface and ground water by heavy metals. In this study, three fly ashes collected from Florida, Michigan, and North Carolina and a commercial dolomite were amended in a basal substrate. The formulated substrates were used to produce Syngonium podophyllum Schott 'Berry Allusion' in 15-cm diameter containers in a shaded greenhouse. Leachates from the containers were collected during the entire six months of plant production and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. There were no detectable As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in the leachates; Cd and Mo were only detected in few leachate samples. The metals constantly detected were Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The total amounts of Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn leached during the six-month production period were 95, 210, 44, and 337 microg per container, indicating that such amounts in leachates may contribute little to contamination of surface and ground water. In addition, plant growth indices and fresh and dry weights of S. podophyllum 'Berry Allusion' produced from fly ash and dolomite-amended substrates were comparable except for the plants produced from the substrate amended with fly ash collected from Michigan which had reduced growth indices and fresh and dry weights. Thus, selected fly ashes can be alternatives to commercial dolomites as amendments to container substrates for ornamental plant production. The use of fly ashes as container substrate amendments should represent a new market for the beneficial use of this coal combustion byproduct.

  4. Heavy metal leaching from coal fly ash amended container substrates during Syngonium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Q.S.; Chen, J.J.; Li, Y.C. [University of Florida, Apopka, FL (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Coal fly ash has been proposed to be an alternative to lime amendment and a nutrient source of container substrates for ornamental plant production. A great concern over this proposed beneficial use, however, is the potential contamination of surface and ground water by heavy metals. In this study, three fly ashes collected from Florida, Michigan, and North Carolina and a commercial dolomite were amended in a basal substrate. The formulated substrates were used to produce Syngonium podophyllum Schott 'Berry Allusion' in 15-cm diameter containers in a shaded greenhouse. Leachates from the containers were collected during the entire six months of plant production and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. There were no detectable As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in the leachates; Cd and Mo were only detected in few leachate samples. The metals constantly detected were Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The total amounts of Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn leached during the six-month production period were 95, 210, 44, and 337 {mu} g per container, indicating that such amounts in leachates may contribute little to contamination of surface and ground water. In addition, plant growth indices and fresh and dry weights of S. podophyllum 'Berry Allusion' produced from fly ash and dolomite-amended substrates were comparable except for the plants produced from the substrate amended with fly ash collected from Michigan which had reduced growth indices and fresh and dry weights. Thus, selected fly ashes can be alternatives to commercial dolomites as amendments to container substrates for ornamental plant production. The use of fly ashes as container substrate amendments should represent a new market for the beneficial use of this coal combustion byproduct.

  5. Intrinsic Membrane Targeting of the Flagellar Export ATPase FliI: Interaction with Acidic Phospholipids and FliH

    OpenAIRE

    Auvray, Frédéric; Ozin, Amanda J.; Claret, Laurent; Hughes, Colin

    2002-01-01

    The specialised ATPase FliI is central to export of flagellar axial protein subunits during flagellum assembly. We establish the normal cellular location of FliI and its regulatory accessory protein FliH in motile Salmonella typhimurium, and ascertain the regions involved in FliH2/FliI heterotrimerisation. Both FliI and FliH localised to the cytoplasmic membrane in the presence and in the absence of proteins making up the flagellar export machinery and basal body. Membrane association was tig...

  6. Evaluating the Effects of the Kingston Fly Ash Release on Fish Reproduction: Spring 2009 - 2010 Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Adams, Marshall [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits from the spill extended 4 miles upstream of the facility to Emory River mile 6 and downstream to Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}8.5 miles downstream of the confluence of the Emory River with the Clinch River, and {approx}4 miles downstream of the confluence of the Clinch River with the Tennessee River). A byproduct of coal combustion, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be harmful to biological systems. The ecological effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to come from elevated levels of certain metals in the ash, particularly selenium, on fish reproduction and fish early life stages (Lemly 1993; Besser and others 1996). The ovaries of adult female fish in a lake contaminated by coal ash were reported to have an increased frequency of atretic oocytes (dead or damaged immature eggs) and reductions in the overall numbers of developing oocytes (Sorensen 1988) associated with elevated body burdens of selenium. Larval fish exposed to selenium through maternal transfer of contaminants to developing eggs in either contaminated bodies of water (Lemly 1999) or in experimental laboratory exposures (Woock and others 1987, Jezierska and others 2009) have significantly increased incidences of developmental abnormalities. Contact of fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash in water and sediments may also pose an additional risk to the early life stages of exposed fish populations through direct uptake of metals and other ash constituents (Jezierska and others 2009). The establishment and maintenance of fish populations is intimately associated

  7. Insecticide resistance in the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi from Khartoum State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mo'awia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phlebotomus papatasi the vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is the most widely spread sand fly in Sudan. No data has previously been collected on insecticide susceptibility and/or resistance of this vector, and a first study to establish a baseline data is reported here. Methods Sand flies were collected from Surogia village, (Khartoum State, Rahad Game Reserve (eastern Sudan and White Nile area (Central Sudan using light traps. Sand flies were reared in the Tropical Medicine Research Institute laboratory. The insecticide susceptibility status of first progeny (F1 of P. papatasi of each population was tested using WHO insecticide kits. Also, P. papatasi specimens from Surogia village and Rahad Game Reserve were assayed for activities of enzyme systems involved in insecticide resistance (acetylcholinesterase (AChE, non-specific carboxylesterases (EST, glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs and cytochrome p450 monooxygenases (Cyt p450. Results Populations of P. papatasi from White Nile and Rahad Game Reserve were sensitive to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, permethrin, malathion, and propoxur. However, the P. papatasi population from Surogia village was sensitive to DDT and permethrin but highly resistant to malathion and propoxur. Furthermore, P. papatasi of Surogia village had significantly higher insecticide detoxification enzyme activity than of those of Rahad Game Reserve. The sand fly population in Surogia displayed high AChE activity and only three specimens had elevated levels for EST and GST. Conclusions The study provided evidence for malathion and propoxur resistance in the sand fly population of Surogia village, which probably resulted from anti-malarial control activities carried out in the area during the past 50 years.

  8. The use of entomopathogenic fungi in the control of tsetse flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniania, Nguya K; Ekesi, Sunday

    2013-03-01

    Tsetse flies harbor a number of pathogens in nature; but their potential as biological control agents has not been fully exploited, especially due to the difficulty of their application in the field. Since entomopathogenic fungi infect their target organisms through the cuticle, it has been possible to develop a device that deliver and autodisseminate inoculum among tsetse in the field, resulting in population reduction, comparable to mass-trapping technology. However, the success of this technology depends on the effective horizontal transmission of the inoculum between insects. We present an overview of the prospects of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of tsetse flies and highlight the challenges.

  9. Modified Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm for Analysis of Large Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattaset Mhudtongon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper deals with the optimization of a large antenna array for maximum directivity using a modified fruit fly optimization algorithm (MFOA with random search of two groups of swarm and adaptive fruit fly swarm population size. The MFOA is utilized to determine three nonlinear mathematical test functions, analysis of the optimal number of elements and optimal element spacing of the large antenna array, and analysis of nonuniform amplitude of antenna array. The numerical results demonstrate that the MFOA is effective in solving all test function and electromagnetic problems. The advantages of the proposed algorithm are ease of implementation, large search range, less processing time, and reduced memory requirement.

  10. Prevalence, population dynamics and host preferences of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock in Marathwada region of Maharashtra State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study is a part of a research project on integrated pest management of livestock pests with reference to Culicoides spp. Study of prevalence, population dynamics and host preferences are the important benchmarks essential for chalking out the strategies of integrated pest management of Culicoides, thus the study was aimed. Materials and Methods: Light trap collections of Culicoides midges and other tiny flies from animal shed from seventeen centers representing entire Maharashtra state were conducted. Similarly, year round collections from host sheds were envisaged to work out host preferences and population dynamics of Culicoides spp. locally prevalent. Multiple regression analysis was employed to define the environmental predictors responsible for ups and downs during different seasons occurring in the geographic region of the present study. Results: Study revealed the prevalence of Culicoides spp., Phlebotomus spp. and Simulium spp. Simultaneous study undertaken by the aid of hand net, collections of fly species from Marathwada region of Maharashtra state yielded additionally, Tabanus spp., Pangonia spp., mosquitoes and other cyclorrhaphan flies. Some of the species are vectors of livestock diseases hence map of the distribution of these pest species is for to reckon risk areas. Population dynamics study on Culicoides spp. in Marathwada region indicated that, (a Culicoides population were persistent throughout the year; (b Two peaks of population, one in the monsoon (August-September and another minor peak occurred during post monsoon/beginning of winter (November of the year. Drastic reduction in the population occurred during the month of May, which is the hottest month in the year. Culicoides collections from the sheds of different host species indicated the preferences for feeding in the ascending order of preference as cattle, sheep, buffaloes and then goats. Conclusion: Prevalence of Culicoides schultzei, Culicoides

  11. Fly Me to the Moon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    One of the most prominent talking points last month was the high-profile launch on October 24 of China’s first moon orbiter.Named Chang ’e-1,the satellite is expected to fulfill a number of scientific objectives,ranging from

  12. Size increment of jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas mature females in Peruvian waters, 1989-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, Juan; Tafur, Ricardo; Taipe, Anatolio; Villegas, Piero; Keyl, Friedeman; Dominguez, Noel; Salazar, Martín

    2008-10-01

    Changes in population structure of the jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas in Peruvian waters were studied based on size-at-maturity from 1989 to 2004. From 1989 to 1999, mature squid belonging to the medium-sized group prevailed, but from 2001 on, mature squids were larger. This change is not related to the changes in sea surface temperature and we hypothesized that it was caused by the population increase of mesopelagic fishes as prey.

  13. Direct regulation of BCL-2 by FLI-1 is involved in the survival of FLI-1-transformed erythroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Lesault, Isabelle; Tran Quang, Christine; Frampton, Jon; Ghysdael, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    Rearrangement of the FLI-1 locus with ensuing overexpression of FLI-1 is an early event in Friend murine leukemia virus-induced disease. When overexpressed in primary erythroblasts, FLI-1 blocks erythropoeitin (Epo)-induced terminal differentiation and inhibits apoptosis normally induced in response to Epo withdrawal. We show here that the survival-inducing property of FLI-1 is associated with increased transcription of BCL-2. We further show that FLI-1 binds BCL-2 promoter sequences in trans...

  14. True polyandry and pseudopolyandry: why does a monandrous fly remate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David N; Doff, Rowan J; Price, Tom A R

    2013-07-25

    The rate of female remating can have important impacts on a species, from affecting conflict and cooperation within families, to population viability and gene flow. However, determining the level of polyandry in a species can be difficult, with information on the mating system of many species being based on a single experiment, or completely absent. Here we investigate the mating system of the fruit fly Drosophila subobscura. Reports from England, Spain and Canada suggest D. subobscura is entirely monandrous, with no females remating. However, work in Greece suggests that 23% of females remate. We examine the willingness of female D. subobscura to remate in the laboratory in a range of conditions, using flies from both Greece and England. We make a distinction between pseudopolyandry, where a female remates after an ineffective first mating that is incapable of fertilising her eggs, and true polyandry, where a female remates even though she has received suitable sperm from a previous mating. We find a low rate of true polyandry by females (4%), with no difference between populations. The rate of true polyandry is affected by temperature, but not starvation. Pseudopolyandry is three times as common as true polyandry, and most females showing pseudopolyandry mated at their first opportunity after their first failed mating. However, despite the lack of differences in polyandry between the populations, we do find differences in the way males respond to exposure to other males prior to mating. In line with previous work, English flies responded to one or more rivals by increasing their copulation duration, a response previously thought to be driven by sperm competition. Greek males only show increased copulation duration when exposed to four or more rival males. This suggests that the response to rivals in D. subobscura is not related to sperm competition, because sperm competition is rare, and there is no correlation of response to rivals and mating system across the

  15. Expression of defensin paralogs across house fly life history: insights into fly-microbe interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies have a life-long association with microbe-rich environments. Larvae directly ingest bacteria in decaying substrates utilizing them for nutritional purposes. Adult house flies ephemerally associate with microbes, ingesting them either by direct feeding or indirectly during grooming. The h...

  16. Oral and Topical Toxicity of Fipronil to Melon Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop basic oral and topical toxicity data for Fipronil in Solulys protein bait to wild melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). RESULTS: For the oral study, both females and males were ...

  17. Efficacy of cyantraniliprole fly bait against housefly (Musca domestica L.) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q F; Li, X; Hunag, J B; Zhang, D M; Yuan, J Z

    2015-09-01

    Novel and effective baits are needed to manage pest housefly populations and avoid the development of insecticide resistance. In this study, we bioassayed the efficacy of Zyrox®, a novel fly bait containing a novel 0.5 % cyantraniliprole insecticide, to kill adult houseflies under laboratory conditions. We found that Zyrox® killed a significantly greater proportion of flies than the current competing fly bait, QuickBayt®, after a 24-h exposure. The cumulative mortalities of houseflies were up to 96.36 % and 92.57 % for Zyrox® and 78.88 % and 68.76 % for QuickBayt® in no-choice and choice tests, respectively. Our results suggested that there was negligible behavioral resistance to both fly baits but revealed that Zyrox® appeared to work slower than QuickBayt® (at a 3-h exposure, proportionally fewer flies were killed by Zyrox® than by QuickBayt®). Importantly, we found that the efficacy of Zyrox® did not diminish with the age of the bait (up to 90 days old). In actual knockdown time (KDT) feeding bioassay, the results showed that Zyrox® knocked down flies significantly slower (11.97 min for females; 12.30 min for males) than QuickBayt® (1.89 min for females; 2.24 min for males). These results reveal the high efficacy of Zyrox® bait to kill adult flies and suggest that it is a promising slow-action bait for management of houseflies.

  18. Characteristics of latrines in central Tanzania and their relation to fly catches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Irish

    Full Text Available The disposal of human excreta in latrines is an important step in reducing the transmission of diarrhoeal diseases. However, in latrines, flies can access the latrine contents and serve as a mechanical transmitter of diarrhoeal pathogens. Furthermore, the latrine contents can be used as a breeding site for flies, which may further contribute to disease transmission. Latrines do not all produce flies, and there are some which produce only a few, while others can produce thousands. In order to understand the role of the latrine in determining this productivity, a pilot study was conducted, in which fifty latrines were observed in and around Ifakara, Tanzania. The characteristics of the latrine superstructure, use of the latrine, and chemical characteristics of pit latrine contents were compared to the numbers of flies collected in an exit trap placed over the drop hole in the latrine. Absence of a roof was found to have a significant positive association (t=3.17, p=0.003 with the total number of flies collected, and temporary superstructures, particularly as opposed to brick superstructures (z=4.26, p<0.001, and increased total solids in pit latrines (z=2.57, p=0.01 were significantly associated with increased numbers of blowflies leaving the latrine. The number of larvae per gram was significantly associated with the village from which samples were taken, with the largest difference between two villages outside Ifakara (z=2.12, p=0.03. The effect of latrine superstructure (roof, walls on fly production may indicate that improvements in latrine construction could result in decreases in fly populations in areas where they transmit diarrhoeal pathogens.

  19. Evolution of insecticide resistance in non-target black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mónica Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Black flies, a non-target species of the insecticides used in fruit production, represent a severe medical and veterinary problem. Large increases in the level of resistance to the pyrethroids fenvalerate (more than 355-fold and deltamethrin (162-fold and a small increase in resistance to the organophosphate azinphos methyl (2-fold were observed between 1996-2008 in black fly larvae under insecticide pressure. Eventually, no change or a slight variation in insecticide resistance was followed by a subsequent increase in resistance. The evolution of pesticide resistance in a field population is a complex and stepwise process that is influenced by several factors, the most significant of which is the insecticide selection pressure, such as the dose and frequency of application. The variation in insecticide susceptibility within a black fly population in the productive area may be related to changes in fruit-pest control. The frequency of individuals with esterase activities higher than the maximum value determined in the susceptible population increased consistently over the sampling period. However, the insecticide resistance was not attributed to glutathione S-transferase activity. In conclusion, esterase activity in black flies from the productive area is one mechanism underlying the high levels of resistance to pyrethroids, which have been recently used infrequently. These enzymes may be reselected by currently used pesticides and enhance the resistance to these insecticides.

  20. PROBA-3: Precise formation flying demonstration mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, J. S.; Agenjo, A.; Carrascosa, C.; de Negueruela, C.; Mestreau-Garreau, A.; Cropp, A.; Santovincenzo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Formation Flying (FF) has generated a strong interest in many space applications, most of them involving a significant complexity for building for example on-board large "virtual structures or distributed observatories". The implementation of these complex formation flying missions with critical dependency on this new, advanced and critical formation technology requires a thorough verification of the system behaviour in order to provide enough guarantees for the target mission success. A significant number of conceptual or preliminary designs, analyses, simulations, and HW on-ground testing have been performed during the last years, but still the limitations of the ground verification determine that enough confidence of the behaviour of the formation flying mission will only be possible by demonstration in flight of the concept and the associated technologies. PROBA-3 is the mission under development at ESA for in-flight formation flying demonstration, dedicated to obtain that confidence and the necessary flight maturity level in the formation flying technologies for those future target missions. PROBA-3 will demonstrate technologies such as formation metrology sensors (from very coarse to highest accuracy), formation control and GNC, system operability, safety, etc. During the last years, PROBA-3 has evolved from the initial CDF study at ESA, to two parallel phase A studies, followed by a change in the industrial configuration for the Bridging step between A and B phases. Currently the SRR consolidation has been completed, and the project is in the middle of the phase B. After the phase A study SENER and GMV were responsible for the Formation Flying System, within a mission core team completed by OHB-Sweden, QinetiQ Space and CASA Espacio. In this paper an overview of the PROBA-3 mission is provided, with a more detailed description of the formation flying preliminary design and results.

  1. Potential risk of viral transmission from flying foxes to domestic animals and humans on the southern coast of West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Chaerul; Arifin, Eko Muhammad Zainal; Takemae, Hitoshi; Hengjan, Yupadee; Iida, Keisuke; Sudarnika, Etih; Zahid, Abdul; Soejoedono, Retno Damayanti; Susetya, Heru; Sumiarto, Bambang; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Agungpriyono, Srihadi; Hondo, Eiichi

    2017-09-29

    Flying foxes have been considered to be involved in the transmission of serious infectious diseases to humans. Using questionnaires, we aimed to determine the direct and/or indirect contacts of flying foxes in an Indonesian nature conservation area with domestic animals and humans living in the surrounding area. We surveyed 150 residents of 10 villages in West Java. Villages were classified into 3 groups: inside and/or within 1 km from the outer border of the conservation area and 1-5 km or 5-10 km away from the reserve's outer border. Data were collected by direct interview using a structured questionnaire consisting of the respondent characteristics (age, sex and occupation); histories of contacts between flying foxes and humans, dogs and other domestic animals; and knowledge about infectious diseases, mainly rabies, in flying foxes. We found that flying foxes from the nature conservation area often enter residential areas at night to look for food, especially during the fruit season. In these residential areas, flying foxes had direct contacts with humans and a few contacts with domestic animals, especially dogs. People who encounter flying foxes seldom used personal protective equipment, such as leather gloves, goggles and caps. The residents living around the conservation area mostly had poor knowledge about flying foxes and disease transmission. This situation shows that the population in this region is at a quite high risk for contracting infectious diseases from flying foxes.

  2. Chilling and Host Plant/Site-Associated Eclosion Times of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a Host-Specific Parasitoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Hood, Glen R; Forbes, Andrew A; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2015-08-01

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an endemic herbivore of bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ∼100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of adult R. indifferens from sweet and bitter cherry differ according to the phenology of their respective host plants and if eclosion times of the host-specific parasitoid Diachasma muliebre (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking bitter and sweet cherry flies differ according to the eclosion phenology of their fly hosts. Fly pupae from sweet and bitter cherry fruit were collected from sympatric and allopatric sites in Washington state, and chilled at 5°C. Because timing of eclosion in R. indifferens depends on chill duration, eclosion time in wasps could also vary with chill duration. To account for this, fly pupae were chilled for 1, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, or 8 mo. Both flies and wasps eclosed earlier with longer chill durations. Eclosion times of sweet and bitter cherry flies from a sympatric site in central Washington did not differ. However, at allopatric sites in northwestern and central Washington, bitter cherry flies eclosed later than sweet and bitter cherry flies at the sympatric site. Correspondingly, D. muliebre parasitizing a more isolated bitter cherry fly population eclosed later than D. muliebre parasitizing earlier-emerging sweet and bitter cherry fly populations. These results provide evidence for D. muliebre rapidly responding to changes in host plant shifts by R. indifferens.

  3. China's first family planning publicity month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, G

    1983-05-01

    China conducted its 1st nationwide Family Planning Publicity Month in 1983, from New Year's Day to Spring Festival (February 13). The campaign emphasized the rural areas and focused on explaining why family planning is a state policy. The most noticeable achievements of this campaign were that every household became familiar with the fact that family planning is a basic state policy. The majority of the population take this policy seriously, realizing that strict control of population growth is both a good and imperative policy. More than 1,830,000 propaganda columns and photo exhibitions were displayed, 5,900,000 radio and television programs broadcast, 2,010,000 theatrical performances, movie and slide showings presented, and 97,000,000 copies of materials published for public dissemination. The activities were varied and interesting, vivid and lively, and purposeful and persuasive. 1 of the most effective methods of publicizing population control has been the presentation of comparative statistics. This aspect of the campaign was a specific and lively form of education in population theory and practice. The presentation of statistics that show the relationship among population, land use, grain produce, and income enabled the population to reason out why population growth needs to match economic and social development. Another important accomplishment of the publicity month was that a large number of couples of reproductive age became convinced of the need to use contraception. According to the incomplete statistics, 8,860,000 people had surgical operations for birth control. The universal promotion of ligations by either partner of a reproductive couple who already had given birth to a 2nd child was an important development of family planning technique promoted simultaneously with the promotion of IUDs. The increase in the number of people doing family planning work was another achievement of the publicity month. More than 15,240,000 publicity personnel and 760

  4. Electronic Services Monthly MI Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This electronic services monthly MI report contains monthly MI data for most public facing online online applications such as iClaim, electronic access, Mobile wage...

  5. Effects of soil application of fly ash on the fusarial wilt on tomato cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M.R.; Singh, W.N. [Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India). Dept. of Plant Protection, Rafi Ahmad Kidwai Institute of Agricultural Science

    2001-07-01

    A study was carried out in microplots to evaluate the effect of fly ash on the plant growth and yield of tomato cultivars, Pusa Ruby, Pusa Early Dwarf and New Uday, and on wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Fly ash was applied to soil by broadcast or in rows at the rate of 1, 2, 3 and 4 kg ash m{sup -2} in place of inorganic fertilizers. In control plots, NPK (about 40 : 20 : 20 kg acre{sup -1}) and compost were added in place of fly ash. Ash application greatly increased the soil contents of P, K, B, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, carbonates, bicarbonates and sulphates. Plants grown in the ash-treated plots, especially at 3 or 4 kg dose, showed luxuriant growth and greener foliage, and plant growth and yield of the three cultivars were significantly increased in comparison with the plants grown in plots without fly ash. The wilt fungus, F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersiciat the inoculum level of 2 g plant{sup -1} caused significant suppression of growth and yield in all three cultivars. Application of fly ash, however, checked the suppressive effect of the fungus, leading to a significant increase in the considered variables compared with the inoculated control. Soil population of the fungus gradually decreased with an increase in ash dose. Row application was found to be relatively more effective in enhancing the yield of tomato cultivars and suppressing the wilt disease.

  6. Evolutionary history of Indian Ocean nycteribiid bat flies mirroring the ecology of their hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Tortosa

    Full Text Available Bats and their parasites are increasingly investigated for their role in maintenance and transmission of potentially emerging pathogens. The islands of the western Indian Ocean hold nearly 50 bat species, mostly endemic and taxonomically well studied. However, investigation of associated viral, bacterial, and external parasites has lagged behind. In the case of their ectoparasites, more detailed information should provide insights into the evolutionary history of their hosts, as well as pathogen cycles in these wild animals. Here we investigate species of Nycteribiidae, a family of obligate hematophagous wingless flies parasitizing bats. Using morphological and molecular approaches, we describe fly species diversity sampled on Madagascar and the Comoros for two cave-roosting bat genera with contrasting ecologies: Miniopterus and Rousettus. Within the sampling area, 11 endemic species of insect-feeding Miniopterus occur, two of which are common to Madagascar and Comoros, while fruit-consuming Rousettus are represented by one species endemic to each of these zones. Morphological and molecular characterization of flies reveals that nycteribiids associated with Miniopterus bats comprise three species largely shared by most host species. Flies of M. griveaudi, one of the two bats found on Madagascar and certain islands in the Comoros, belong to the same taxon, which accords with continued over-water population exchange of this bat species and the lack of inter-island genetic structuring. Flies parasitizing Rousettus belong to two distinct species, each associated with a single host species, again in accordance with the distribution of each endemic bat species.

  7. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Flávio R M; Ricalde, Marcelo P

    2012-12-21

    The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus) was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA) to evaluate the parasitoid's potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.

  8. Reproductive maturity of cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in managed and natural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luís A F; Gut, Larry J; Isaacs, Rufus; Alston, Diane G

    2009-08-01

    We studied the timing of reproductive maturity of cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew), a key pest of sweet and tart cherries in the eastern United States. To determine when cherry fruit fly females become reproductively mature in managed and natural habitats, we deployed traps in sweet and tart cherry orchards and nearby stands of the ancestral host tree, black cherry. Flies were removed from the traps and females were dissected to determine the presence of fully developed eggs. We found that capture of reproductively mature female flies occurred earlier in orchards that are not sprayed with insecticides than in sprayed orchards or in black cherry tree sites. In addition, the gap between the flights of immature and mature females in unmanaged sweet or tart cherry orchards was shorter than in managed orchards or black cherry tree sites. We also determined fruit color, size, and skin hardness to characterize the progression of fruit maturity. We found that fruit became mature earlier in sweet and tart cherry orchards than in black cherry tree sites. This study indicates that the timing of female reproductive maturity is plastic and varies among cherry fruit fly populations present in distinct habitats. Variation in the timing of reproductive maturity is related to the fruit maturity period of distinct host plant species and to orchard management.

  9. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio R. M. Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA to evaluate the parasitoid’s potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.

  10. Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Iran and their Role on Leishmania Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mr

    2012-01-01

    Sand fly research has a long history in Iran beginning with the work of Adler, Theodor and Lourie in 1930 and followed by Mesghali's foundational taxonomic work on sand flies in 1943. Since then, research has been continued unabated throughout the country and official publications report the existence of at least 44 species of sand flies (26 of the genus Phlebotomus and 18 of genus Sergentomyia) in Iran. So far, seven Phlebotomus species and one Sergentomyia species have been collected and described by Iranian researchers for the first time. Natural promastigote infections have been repeatedly found in 13 species of sand flies and modern molecular techniques are used routinely to characterize Leishmania parasite isolates from endemic areas of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Because of anthropogenic environmental modifications or human population movements, data on phlebotomine sand flies should be regularly updated and verified at least every five years by fieldwork and taxonomy in foci of leishmaniasis, to incriminate vector species of relevance to the ecology of transmission and to support development and implementation of control programs.

  11. Analysis of olive fly invasion in California based on microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygouridis, N E; Augustinos, A A; Zalom, F G; Mathiopoulos, K D

    2009-04-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the main pest of the olive fruit and its expansion is exclusively restricted to the cultivation zone of the olive tree. Even though olive production has a century-old history in California, the olive fly was first detected in the Los Angeles area in 1998. Within 5 years of the first observation, the insect was reported from all olive cultivation areas of the state. Field-collected flies from five locations in California and another from Israel were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite polymorphisms in 10 microsatellite loci. These results were integrated with those of a previous study of olive fly populations around the European part of the Mediterranean basin. The analysis pointed to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of the observed invasion. Moreover, samples from California were quite different from Mediterranean samples implying the participation of phenomena such as genetic drift during the invasion and expansion of the olive fly in California.

  12. Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae in Iran and their Role on Leishmania Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Yaghoobi-Ershadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand fly research has a long history in Iran beginning with the work of Adler, Theodor and Lourie in 1930 and followed by Mesghali’s foundational taxonomic work on sand flies in 1943. Since then, research has continued unabated throughout the country and official publications report the existence of at least 44 species of sand flies (26 of the genus Phlebotomus and 18 of genus Sergentomyia in Iran. So far, seven Phlebotomus species and one Sergentomyia species have been collected and described by Iranian researchers for the first time. Natural promastigote infection have been repeatedly found in 13 species of sand flies and modern molecular techniques are used routinely to characterize Leishmania parasite isolates from endemic areas of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Because of anthropogenic environmental modifications or human population movements, data on phlebotomine sand flies should be regularly updated and verified at least every five years by fieldwork and taxonomy in foci of leishmaniasis, to incriminate vector species of relevance to the ecology of transmission and to support development and implementation of control programs

  13. Characteristics of MSWI fly ash during vitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Shu-lei; WANG Qi; WANG Qun-hui; MA Hong-zhi

    2009-01-01

    The vitrification characteristics of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash were investigated. Effects of temperature on the binding efficiency of heavy metals, the change of chemical compositions and the weight loss of fly ash in the range of 800 - 1350 ℃ were studied. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of the United States was used to analyze the leaching characteristics of heavy metals in fly ash and molten slag. Results indicate that chemical compositions, the weight loss of fly ash and the binding efficiency of heavy metals in fly ash have a tremendous change in the range of 1150 - 1260 ℃. The percentage of CaO, SiO2and AI203 increases with the increasing temperature, whereas it is contrary for SO3 , K2O, Na20 and CI; especially when the temperature is 1260 ℃, the percentage of these four elements decreases sharply from 43.72%to 0. 71%. The weight loss occurs obviously in the range of 1150 - 1260 ℃. Heavy metals of Pb and Cd are almost vaporized above 1000 ℃. Cr is not volatile and its binding efficiency can reach 100% below 1000 ℃. Resuits of TCLP indicate that the heavy metal content of molten slag is beyond stipulated limit values.

  14. Investigation of gliding flight by flying fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungmin; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2006-11-01

    The most successful flight capability of fish is observed in the flying fish. Furthermore, despite the difference between two medium (air and water), the flying fish is well evolved to have an excellent gliding performance as well as fast swimming capability. In this study, flying fish's morphological adaptation to gliding flight is experimentally investigated using dry-mounted darkedged-wing flying fish, Cypselurus Hiraii. Specifically, we examine the effects of the pectoral and pelvic fins on the aerodynamic performance considering (i) both pectoral and pelvic fins, (ii) pectoral fins only, and (iii) body only with both fins folded. Varying the attack angle, we measure the lift, drag and pitching moment at the free-stream velocity of 12m/s for each case. Case (i) has higher lift-to-drag ratio (i.e. longer gliding distance) and more enhanced longitudinal static stability than case (ii). However, the lift coefficient is smaller for case (i) than for case (ii), indicating that the pelvic fins are not so beneficial for wing loading. The gliding performance of flying fish is compared with those of other fliers and is found to be similar to those of insects such as the butterfly and fruitfly.

  15. Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months Print A A A What's in ... months of life are a period of rapid growth. Your baby will gain about 1 to 1½ ...

  16. Monthly energy review, August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review for the month of August 1997, presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  17. Stability of adult emergence and activity/rest rhythms in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster under semi-natural condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha N Kannan

    Full Text Available Here we report the results of a study aimed at examining stability of adult emergence and activity/rest rhythms under semi-natural conditions (henceforth SN, in four large outbred fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster populations, selected for emergence in a narrow window of time under laboratory (henceforth LAB light/dark (LD cycles. When assessed under LAB, selected flies display enhanced stability in terms of higher amplitude, synchrony and accuracy in emergence and activity rhythms compared to controls. The present study was conducted to assess whether such differences in stability between selected and control populations, persist under SN where several gradually changing time-cues are present in their strongest form. The study revealed that under SN, emergence waveform of selected flies was modified, with even more enhanced peak and narrower gate-width compared to those observed in the LAB and compared to control populations in SN. Furthermore, flies from selected populations continued to exhibit enhanced synchrony and accuracy in their emergence and activity rhythms under SN compared to controls. Further analysis of zeitgeber effects revealed that enhanced stability in the rhythmicity of selected flies under SN was primarily due to increased sensitivity to light because emergence and activity rhythms of selected flies were as stable as controls under temperature cycles. These results thus suggest that stability of circadian rhythms in fruit flies D. melanogaster, which evolved as a consequence of selection for emergence in a narrow window of time under weak zeitgeber condition of LAB, persists robustly in the face of day-to-day variations in cycling environmental factors of nature.

  18. Economic impact of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on dairy and beef cattle production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David B; Moon, Roger D; Mark, Darrell R

    2012-01-01

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are among the most damaging arthropod pests of cattle worldwide. The last estimate of their economic impact on United States cattle production was published 20 yr ago and placed losses at $608 million. Subsequently, several studies of effects of stable flies on beef cattle weight gain and feed efficiency have been published, and stable flies have become increasingly recognized as pests of cattle on pasture and range. We analyzed published studies and developed yield-loss functions to relate stable fly infestation levels to cattle productivity, and then estimated the economic impact of stable flies on cattle production in the United States. Four industry sectors were considered: dairy, cow-calf, pastured stockers, and feeder cattle. In studies reporting stable fly infestation levels of individual herds, median annual per animal production losses were estimated to be 139 kg of milk for dairy cows, and 6, 26, and 9 kg body weight for preweanling calves, pastured stockers, and feeder cattle, respectively. The 200,000 stable flies emerging from an average sized winter hay feeding site reduce annual milk production of 50 dairy cows by an estimated 890 kg and weight gain of 50 preweanling calves, stockers, or feeder cattle by 58, 680, or 84 kg. In 2009 dollars, the value of these losses would be $254, $132, $1,279, or $154, respectively. Using cattle inventories and average prices for 2005-2009, and median monthly infestation levels, national losses are estimated to be $360 million for dairy cattle, $358 million for cow-calf herds, $1,268 million for pastured cattle, and $226 million for cattle on feed, for a total impact to U.S. cattle industries of $2,211 million per year. Excluded from these estimates are effects of stable flies on feed conversion efficiency, animal breeding success, and effects of infested cattle on pasture and water quality. Additional research on the effects of stable flies on high-production dairy cows and

  19. Metabolic rate and hypoxia tolerance are affected by group interactions and sex in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster: new data and a literature survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Burggren

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Population density and associated behavioral adjustments are potentially important in regulating physiological performance in many animals. In r-selected species like the fruit fly (Drosophila, where population density rapidly shifts in unpredictable and unstable environments, density-dependent physiological adjustments may aid survival of individuals living in a social environment. Yet, how population density (and associated social behaviors affects physiological functions like metabolism is poorly understood in insects. Additionally, insects often show marked sexual dimorphism (larger females. Thus, in this study on D. melanogaster, we characterized the effects of fly density and sex on both mass-specific routine oxygen consumption (V̇O2 and hypoxia tolerance (PCrit. Females had significantly lower routine V̇O2 (∼4 µl O2 mg−1 h−1 than males (∼6 µl O2 mg−1 h−1 at an average fly density of 28 flies·respirometer chamber−1. However, V̇O2 was inversely related to fly density in males, with V̇O2 ranging from 4 to 11 µl O2 mg−1 h−1 at a density of 10 and 40 flies·chamber−1, respectively (r2=0.58, P0.5 flies, with higher fly densities having a lower PCrit. An extensive survey of the literature on metabolism in fruit flies indicates that not all studies control for, or even report on, fly density and gender, both of which may affect metabolic measurements.

  20. Changes of the frequency of resistant individuals in populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae ), with resistant individual flow%桔小实蝇抗性个体流动对抗性个体频率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金涛; 曾玲; 陆永跃; 林玉英; 梁广文

    2011-01-01

    为了解害虫个体的迁移对害虫群体抗药性发展的影响,本研究利用实验室内建立的桔小实蝇Bactrocera dorsalis对敌百虫和高效氯氰菊酯两种抗性品系以及相对敏感品系,设计5%~25%个体的迁移比例,研究桔小实蝇抗、感个体流动对原始种群抗性个体频率的影响.结果表明:桔小实蝇抗性个体迁入敏感种群,使得敏感种群抗性个体频率增加,在抗性个体迁移率为25%时,影响敏感种群敌百虫和高效氯氰菊酯抗性个体频率的变化值分别为20.04%和41.75%;同样随着敏感个体迁入比例的增加,抗性种群中抗性个体频率降低程度越大,在敏感个体迁移率为25%时,抗性种群敌百虫和高效氯氰菊酯抗性个体频率的变化值分别为56.20%和25.88%.利用抗性个体频率变化值与相应迁移率的比值来表示迁移的相对效率,在抗性个体迁移率为5%时,影响敏感种群抗性个体频率变化的相对效率最高;在敏感个体迁移率分别为5%和10%时,影响敌百虫抗性种群和高效氯氰菊酯抗性种群抗性个体频率变化的相对效率最高.以抗、感个体迁移引起的抗性个体频率变化值进行趋势拟合,发现抗敌百虫与抗高效氯氰菊酯桔小实蝇品系不同迁移比例下的抗性个体频率变化趋势分别符合密度模型(density model)和房屋模型(housing model),相关系数分别是0.9696和0.9647.研究结果表明通过合理地设计抗、感迁移比例能有效地延缓桔小实蝇抗性水平的上升,达到抗性治理的目的.%To investigate the effecis of immigration of individuals on evolution of insecticide resistance, l 'frequencies of resistant individuals of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, to trichlorphon and βcypermethrin were measured with different immigration rates of resistant or sensitive individuals in this study. The results showed that when resistant adults were immigrated into the susceptible population, the

  1. Climatic factors and population density of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) in an urban endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in midwest Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Everton Falcão; dos Santos Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Araújo e Silva, Elaine; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2013-12-01

    The life cycle of vectors and the reservoirs that participate in the chain of infectious diseases have a strong relationship with the environmental dynamics of the ecosystems in which they live. Oscillations in population abundance and seasonality of insects can be explained by factors inherent in each region and time period. Therefore, knowledge of the relationship and influence of environmental factors on the population of Lutzomyia longipalpis is necessary because of the high incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil. This study evaluates the influence of abiotic variables on the population density and seasonal behavior of L. longipalpis in an urban endemic area of VL in Brazil. The sand fly captures were performed every two months between November, 2009 and November, 2010 in the peridomicile of 13 randomly selected residences. We captured 1,367 specimens of L. longipalpis, and the ratio of male/female flies was 2.86:1. The comparison of the total male specimens in the two seasons showed a statistical difference in the wet season, but there was no significant difference when considering the total females. With respect to climatic variables, a significant negative association was observed only with wind speed. During periods of high wind speeds, the population density of this vector decreased. The presence of L. longipalpis was found in all months of the study with bimodal behavior and population peaks during the wet season.

  2. FlyBase: improvements to the bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marygold, Steven J; Leyland, Paul C; Seal, Ruth L; Goodman, Joshua L; Thurmond, Jim; Strelets, Victor B; Wilson, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    An accurate, comprehensive, non-redundant and up-to-date bibliography is a crucial component of any Model Organism Database (MOD). Principally, the bibliography provides a set of references that are specific to the field served by the MOD. Moreover, it serves as a backbone to which all curated biological data can be attributed. Here, we describe the organization and main features of the bibliography in FlyBase (flybase.org), the MOD for Drosophila melanogaster. We present an overview of the current content of the bibliography, the pipeline for identifying and adding new references, the presentation of data within Reference Reports and effective methods for searching and retrieving bibliographic data. We highlight recent improvements in these areas and describe the advantages of using the FlyBase bibliography over alternative literature resources. Although this article is focused on bibliographic data, many of the features and tools described are applicable to browsing and querying other datasets in FlyBase.

  3. Attracting the attention of a fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Preeti; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2011-04-26

    Organisms with complex visual systems rarely respond to just the sum of all visual stimuli impinging on their eyes. Often, they restrict their responses to stimuli in a temporarily selected region of the visual field (selective visual attention). Here, we investigate visual attention in the fly Drosophila during tethered flight at a torque meter. Flies can actively shift their attention; however, their attention can be guided to a certain location by external cues. Using visual cues, we can direct the attention of the fly to one or the other of the two visual half-fields. The cue can precede the test stimulus by several seconds and may also be spatially separated from the test by at least 20° and yet attract attention. This kind of external guidance of attention is found only in the lower visual field.

  4. Pigments of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stintzing, Florian; Schliemann, Willibald

    2007-01-01

    The complex pigment pattern of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) cap skins has been studied by LC-DAD and mass spectrometry. Among the betaxanthins the corresponding derivatives of serine, threonine, ethanolamine, alanine, Dopa, phenylalanine and tryptophan are reported for the first time to contribute to the pigment pattern of fly agarics. Betalamic acid, the chromophoric precursor of betaxanthins and betacyanins, muscaflavin and seco-dopas were also detected. Furthermore, the red-purple muscapurpurin and the red muscarubrin were tentatively assigned while further six betacyanin-like components could not be structurally allocated. Stability studies indicated a high susceptibility of pigment extracts to degradation which led to rapid colour loss thus rendering a complete characterization of betacyanin-like compounds impossible at present. Taking into account these difficulties the presented results may be a starting point for a comprehensive characterization of the pigment composition of fly agarics.

  5. Research on Partner-fly Infrared Decoys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Yang; LI Yan-jun; WANG Qi

    2006-01-01

    With the rapid development of new generation of infrared-guided missiles, it is very difficult for the traditional point-source infrared decoys to confront them. Therefore it is important to research the jamming mechanism and tactical application of infrared decoys. Through the research on rocket-propelled infrared decoys, a movement model and a radiation pattern of partner-fly infrared decoy are established based on the jamming mechanism of infrared centroid effect, the aerodynamics principle as well as the aeronautical dynamics principle. A dynamic simulation seeking superiority is conducted for its firing range and direction, a tactical application method of partner-fly infrared decoy against infrared-guided missile is explored, and the technical conditions of partner-fly infrared decoys are determined.

  6. Discriminating fever behavior in house flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Anderson

    Full Text Available Fever has generally been shown to benefit infected hosts. However, fever temperatures also carry costs. While endotherms are able to limit fever costs physiologically, the means by which behavioral thermoregulators constrain these costs are less understood. Here we investigated the behavioral fever response of house flies (Musca domestica L. challenged with different doses of the fungal entomopathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Infected flies invoked a behavioral fever selecting the hottest temperature early in the day and then moving to cooler temperatures as the day progressed. In addition, flies infected with a higher dose of fungus exhibited more intense fever responses. These variable patterns of fever are consistent with the observation that higher fever temperatures had greater impact on fungal growth. The results demonstrate the capacity of insects to modulate the degree and duration of the fever response depending on the severity of the pathogen challenge and in so doing, balance the costs and benefits of fever.

  7. Seasonality of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Leishmania DNA detection in vector species in an area with endemic visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lara; Leite, Camila Gonçalves; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; Carvalho, Luiz Otávio Alves de; Pereira, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; Rugani, Jerônimo Marteleto Nunes; Rego, Felipe Dutra; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Andrade, José Dilermando

    2017-04-01

    Leishmaniases are a serious health problem in southeast Brazil, including the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), Minas Gerais state (MG), where there are high rates of incidence and mortality due to visceral leishmaniases. BH is divided into nine sanitary districts (SD) of which one, the Venda Nova SD, was selected for this study because it has high rates of positivity for canine leishmaniasis and high incidence of human leishmaniasis. This study aimed to survey the sand fly fauna in Venda Nova SD from August 2011 to July 2013 and perform a descriptive analysis of the vector population. The sampling was carried out using automatic HP light traps at all covered areas of the Venda Nova SD, in a total of eighteen light traps. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A simple environmental description was done for it area and Kernel estimation was used to infer vector density for each study site. A total of 2,427 sand fly specimens belonging to eight species and five genera were collected of which 95.3% were Lutzomyia longipalpis. The seasonal variation curve was delineated by this species. Lu. longipalpis was the most abundant at all collection points and in all months of the study, and exhibited a natural infection rate of 1.01% for Leishmania infantum and 1.77% for Leishmania braziliensis. The results show the presence and adaptation of Lu. longipalpis to the anthropic environment of BH and reinforces its role as the main vector of L. infantum in the region.

  8. Seasonality of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Leishmania DNA detection in vector species in an area with endemic visceral leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lara; Leite, Camila Gonçalves; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; de Carvalho, Luiz Otávio Alves; Pereira, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; Rugani, Jerônimo Marteleto Nunes; Rego, Felipe Dutra; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Andrade, José Dilermando

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leishmaniases are a serious health problem in southeast Brazil, including the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), Minas Gerais state (MG), where there are high rates of incidence and mortality due to visceral leishmaniases. BH is divided into nine sanitary districts (SD) of which one, the Venda Nova SD, was selected for this study because it has high rates of positivity for canine leishmaniasis and high incidence of human leishmaniasis. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to survey the sand fly fauna in Venda Nova SD from August 2011 to July 2013 and perform a descriptive analysis of the vector population. METHODS The sampling was carried out using automatic HP light traps at all covered areas of the Venda Nova SD, in a total of eighteen light traps. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A simple environmental description was done for it area and Kernel estimation was used to infer vector density for each study site. FINDINGS A total of 2,427 sand fly specimens belonging to eight species and five genera were collected of which 95.3% were Lutzomyia longipalpis. The seasonal variation curve was delineated by this species. Lu. longipalpis was the most abundant at all collection points and in all months of the study, and exhibited a natural infection rate of 1.01% for Leishmania infantum and 1.77% for Leishmania braziliensis. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The results show the presence and adaptation of Lu. longipalpis to the anthropic environment of BH and reinforces its role as the main vector of L. infantum in the region. PMID:28327794

  9. Actogram analysis of free-flying migratory birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckman, Johan; Andersson, Arne; Pedersen, Lykke

    2017-01-01

    The use of accelerometers has become an important part of biologging techniques for large-sized birds with accelerometer data providing information about flight mode, wing-beat pattern, behaviour and energy expenditure. Such data show that birds using much energy-saving soaring/gliding flight like...... frigatebirds and swifts can stay airborne without landing for several months. Successful accelerometer studies have recently been conducted also for free-flying small songbirds during their entire annual cycle. Here we review the principles and possibilities for accelerometer studies in bird migration. We use...... of the life cycle. Accelerometer recording of the annual activity patterns of individual birds will open up a new dimension in bird migration research....

  10. Changeing of fly ash leachability after grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, J.; Szabo, R.; Racz, A.; Banhidi, O.; Mucsi, G.

    2016-04-01

    Effect of grinding on the reactivity of fly ash used for geopolymer production was tested. Extraction technique using different alkaline and acidic solutions were used for detect the change of the solubility of elements due to the physical and mechano-chemical transformation of minerals in function of grinding time. Both the extraction with alkaline and acidic solution have detected improvement in solubility in function of grinding time. The enhancement in alkaline solution was approx. 100% in case of Si and Al. The acidic medium able to dissolve the fly ash higher manner than the alkaline, therefore the effect of grinding was found less pronounced.

  11. How mosquitoes fly in the rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Andrew; Shankles, Peter; Madhavan, Nihar; Hu, David

    2011-11-01

    Mosquitoes thrive during rainfall and high humidity. If raindrops are 50 times heavier than mosquitoes, how do mosquitoes fly in the rain? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we measure the impact force between a falling drop and a free-flying mosquito. High-speed videography of mosquitoes and custom-built mimics reveals a mosquito's low inertia renders it impervious to falling drops. Drops do not splash on mosquitoes, but simply push past them allowing a mosquito to continue on its flight path undeterred. We rationalize the force imparted using scaling relations based on the time of rebound between a falling drop and a free body of significantly less mass.

  12. Physical cleaning of high carbon fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Killmeyer, Richard P. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, P.O. Box 10940, Cochran Mills Roads, 15236 Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes; Andresen, John M. [The Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, 405 Academic Activities Building, 16802-2308 University Park, PA (United States); Ciocco, Michael V.; Zandhuis, Paul H. [Parson Project Services Inc, National Energy Technology Laboratory, P.O. Box 618, 15129 Library, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2002-04-20

    An industrial fly ash sample was cleaned by three different processes, which were triboelectrostatic separation, ultrasonic column agglomeration, and column flotation. The unburned carbon concentrates were collected at purities ranging up to 62% at recoveries of 62%. In addition, optical microscopy studies were conducted on the final carbon concentrates to determine the carbon forms (inertinite, isotropic coke and anisotropic coke) collected from these various physical-cleaning processes. The effects of the various cleaning processes on the production of different carbon forms from high carbon fly ashes will be discussed.

  13. A FLYING WIRE SYSTEM IN THE AGS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUANG,H.; BUXTON,W.; MAHLER,G.; MARUSIC,A.; ROSER,T.; SMITH,G.; SYPHERS,M.; WILLIAMS,N.; WITKOVER,R.

    1999-03-29

    As the AGS prepares to serve as the injector for RHIC, monitoring and control of the beam transverse emittance become a major and important topic. Before the installation of the flying wire system, the emittance was measured with ionization profile monitors in the AGS, which require correction for space charge effects. It is desirable to have a second means of measuring profile that is less depend on intensity. A flying wire system has been installed in the AGS recently to perform this task. This paper discusses the hardware and software setup and the capabilities of the system.

  14. Fruit flies and intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Bolduc, François V.; Tully, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Mental retardation—known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability—is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been use...

  15. Experimental Population Genetics in the Introductory Genetics Laboratory Using "Drosophila" as a Model Organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald; Kennon, Tillman

    2009-01-01

    Hypotheses of population genetics are derived and tested by students in the introductory genetics laboratory classroom as they explore the effects of biotic variables (physical traits of fruit flies) and abiotic variables (island size and distance) on fruit fly populations. In addition to this hypothesis-driven experiment, the development of…

  16. Experimental Population Genetics in the Introductory Genetics Laboratory Using "Drosophila" as a Model Organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald; Kennon, Tillman

    2009-01-01

    Hypotheses of population genetics are derived and tested by students in the introductory genetics laboratory classroom as they explore the effects of biotic variables (physical traits of fruit flies) and abiotic variables (island size and distance) on fruit fly populations. In addition to this hypothesis-driven experiment, the development of…

  17. FliZ is a global regulatory protein affecting the expression of flagellar and virulence genes in individual Xenorhabdus nematophila bacterial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Jubelin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity in the expression of various bacterial genes has been shown to result in the presence of individuals with different phenotypes within clonal bacterial populations. The genes specifying motility and flagellar functions are coordinately regulated and form a complex regulon, the flagellar regulon. Complex interplay has recently been demonstrated in the regulation of flagellar and virulence gene expression in many bacterial pathogens. We show here that FliZ, a DNA-binding protein, plays a key role in the insect pathogen, Xenorhabdus nematophila, affecting not only hemolysin production and virulence in insects, but efficient swimming motility. RNA-Seq analysis identified FliZ as a global regulatory protein controlling the expression of 278 Xenorhabdus genes either directly or indirectly. FliZ is required for the efficient expression of all flagellar genes, probably through its positive feedback loop, which controls expression of the flhDC operon, the master regulator of the flagellar circuit. FliZ also up- or downregulates the expression of numerous genes encoding non-flagellar proteins potentially involved in key steps of the Xenorhabdus lifecycle. Single-cell analysis revealed the bimodal expression of six identified markers of the FliZ regulon during exponential growth of the bacterial population. In addition, a combination of fluorescence-activated cell sorting and RT-qPCR quantification showed that this bimodality generated a mixed population of cells either expressing ("ON state" or not expressing ("OFF state" FliZ-dependent genes. Moreover, studies of a bacterial population exposed to a graded series of FliZ concentrations showed that FliZ functioned as a rheostat, controlling the rate of transition between the "OFF" and "ON" states in individuals. FliZ thus plays a key role in cell fate decisions, by transiently creating individuals with different potentials for motility and host interactions.

  18. Is Multifactorial Sex Determination in the House Fly, Musca domestica (L.), Stable Over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Richard P; Davey, Taira; Son, Jae Hak; Gerry, Alec C; Shono, Toshio; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2016-01-01

    Sex determination pathways evolve rapidly, usually because of turnover of master regulatory genes at the top of the developmental pathway. Polygenic sex determination is expected to be a transient state between ancestral and derived conditions. However, polygenic sex determination has been observed in numerous animal species, including the house fly, Musca domestica House fly males carry a male-determining factor (M) that can be located on any chromosome, and an individual male may have multiple M factors. Females lack M and/or have a dominant allele of the Md-tra gene (Md-tra (D) ) that acts as a female-determining locus even in the presence of multiple copies of M. We found the frequency and linkage of M in house flies collected in Chino, CA (USA) was relatively unchanged between 1982 and 2014. The frequency of females with Md-tra (D) in the 2014 collection was 33.6% (n = 140). Analysis of these results, plus previously published data, revealed a strong correlation between the frequencies of Md-tra (D) and multiple M males, and we find that these populations are expected to have balanced sex ratios. We also find that fitness values that allow for the invasion and maintenance of multiple sex determining loci suggest that sexually antagonistic selection could be responsible for maintaining polygenic sex determination in house fly populations. The stability over time and equilibrium frequencies within populations suggest the house fly polygenic sex determination system is not in transition, and provide guidance for future investigations on the factors responsible for the polymorphism.

  19. Self-healing of mechanically-loaded self consolidating concretes with high volumes of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa Sahmaran; Suleyman B. Keskin; Gozde Ozerkan; Ismail O. Yaman [University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep (Turkey). Department of Civil Engineering

    2008-11-15

    This article discusses the effects of self-healing on self consolidating concretes incorporating high volumes of fly ash (HVFA-SCC) when subjected to continuous water exposure. For this purpose, self consolidating concretes with fly ash replacement ratios of 0%, 35%, and 55% were prepared having a constant water-cementitious material ratio of 0.35. A uniaxial compression load was applied to generate microcracks in concrete where cylindrical specimens were pre-loaded up to 70% and 90% of the ultimate compressive load determined at 28 days. Later, the extent of damage was determined as percentage of loss in mechanical properties and percentage of increase in permeation properties. After pre-loading, concrete specimens were stored in water for a month and the mechanical and permeation properties are monitored at every two weeks. It was observed that HVFA-SCC mixtures initially lost 27% of their strength when pre-loaded up to 90% of their ultimate strength, and after 30 days of water curing that reduction was only 7%, indicating a substantial healing. On the other hand, for SCC specimens without fly ash that were pre-loaded to the same level, the loss in strength was initially 19%, and after a month of moist curing it was only 13%. Similar observations were also made on the permeation properties with greater effects. As the HVFA-SCCs studied have an important amount of unhydrated fly ash available in their microstructure, these observations are attributed to the self-healing of the pre-existing cracks, mainly by hydration of anhydrous fly ash particles on the crack surfaces.

  20. Inorganic contaminants attenuation in acid mine drainage by fly ash and fly ash-ordinary Portland cement (OPC) blends : column experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitari, W.M. [Venda Univ., Thohoyandou (South Africa). Dept. of Ecology and Resources Management, School of Environmental Studies; Petrik, L.F.; Etchebers, O. [Western Cape Univ., Bellville (South Africa). Environmental and Nanosciences Group, Dept. of Chemistry; Key, D.L. [Western Cape Univ., Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry; Okujeni, C. [Western Cape Univ., Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2010-07-01

    The infiltration of acid mine drainage (AMD) material into mine voids is one of the environmental impacts of underground coal mining. In this study, the mitigation of AMD in a mine void was simulated in laboratory conditions. Various mixtures of fly ash, solid residues, and Portland cement were added to packed columns over a 6-month period. The fly ash additions generated near-neutral to alkaline pH levels, which in turn induced precipitation, co-precipitation, and adsorption contaminant attenuation mechanisms. A modelling study demonstrated that the precipitation of ferrihydrite, Al-hydroxides, Al-oxyhydroxysulphates, gypsum, ettringite, manganite, and rhodochrosite lowered contaminant levels. Results of the study indicated that the pH regime and acidity level of the AMD strongly influenced both the leaching of the toxic trace elements as well as the attenuation of the AMD. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Eco-friendly fly ash utilization: potential for land application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, A.; Thapliyal, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India)

    2009-07-01

    The increase in demand for power in domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors has increased the pressure on coal combustion and aggravated the problem of fly ash generation/disposal. Consequently the research targeting effective utilization of fly ash has also gained momentum. Fly ash has proved to be an economical substitute for expensive adsorbents as well as a suitable raw material for brick manufacturing, zeolite synthesis, etc. Fly ash is a reservoir of essential minerals but is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. By amending fly ash with soil and/or various organic materials (sewage sludge, bioprocess materials) as well as microbial inoculants like mycorrhizae, enhanced plant growth can be realized. Based on the sound results of large scale studies, fly ash utilization has grown into prominent discipline supported by various internationally renowned organizations. This paper reviews attempts directed toward various utilization of fly ash, with an emphasis on land application of organic/microbial inoculants amended fly ash.

  2. An acetone extract of Clausena anisata may be a potential control agent for flies encountered in cutaneous myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian Mukandiwa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clausena anisata is a medicinal plant used traditionally to treat myiasis and as an insect repellent by various communities. We have previously demonstrated the effects of C. anisata extracts on blowfly feeding and development in our laboratory. The impact of C. anisata leaf extracts on populations of different fly species on farms in Mpumalanga, South Africa was investigated in this study under field conditions. Flies were exposed to liver baits treated with acetone leaf extracts of C. anisata (150 mg/mL. Fly numbers and composition on two farms, with and without C. anisata treated liver, were compared during a period of 12 weeks when fly populations were expected to be high. Observations were made on fly behaviour and development, adult sizes and numbers. The flies exposed to liver treated with the leaf extract of C. anisata had a decreased rate of development, prolonged larval period, smaller body sizes and more sluggish behaviour compared to those subjected to the control treatment. No significant differences were, however, found between the numbers and sizes of flies on the treated and on the control farm, which was most likely due to the limited nature of the baiting programme we followed. The effects of C. anisata extracts on blowfly behaviour and development observed in previous laboratory studies were confirmed in this field evaluation. Although the extracts did not have a significant effect on the overall population size in this experiment, we believe that the C. anisata leaf extract could be useful in integrated pest management based on its effect on larval development. In addition, species such as Lucilia cuprina and Chrysomya marginalis seemed to have been repelled by the C. anisata treated liver; as a result, further work should explore this aspect and how it can be used for the protection of animals.

  3. Effect of coal combustion fly ash use in concrete on the mass transport release of constituents of potential concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrabrants, Andrew C; Kosson, David S; DeLapp, Rossane; van der Sloot, Hans A

    2014-05-01

    Concerns about the environmental safety of coal combustion fly ash use as a supplemental cementitious material have necessitated comprehensive evaluation of the potential for leaching concrete materials containing fly ash used as a cement replacement. Using concrete formulations representative of US residential and commercial applications, test monoliths were made without fly ash replacement (i.e., controls) and with 20% or 45% of the portland cement fraction replaced by fly ash from four coal combustion sources. In addition, microconcrete materials were created with 45% fly ash replacement based on the commercial concrete formulation but with no coarse aggregate and an increased fine aggregate fraction to maintain aggregate-paste interfacial area. All materials were cured for 3 months prior to mass transport-based leach testing of constituents of potential concern (i.e., Sb, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Mo, Pb, Se, Tl and V) according to EPA Method 1315. The cumulative release results were consistent with previously tested samples of concretes and mortars from international sources. Of the 11 constituents tested, only Sb, Ba, B, Cr and V were measured in quantifiable amounts. Microconcretes without coarse aggregate were determined to be conservative surrogates for concrete in leaching assessment since cumulative release from microconcretes were only slightly greater than the associated concrete materials. Relative to control materials without fly ash, concretes and microconcretes with fly ash replacement of cement had increased 28-d and 63-d cumulative release for a limited number 10 comparison cases: 2 cases for Sb, 7 cases for Ba and 1 case for Cr. The overall results suggest minimal leaching impact from fly ash use as a replacement for up to 45% of the cement fraction in typical US concrete formulations; however, scenario-specific assessment based on this leaching evaluation should be used to determine if potential environmental impacts exist.

  4. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  5. Natural gas monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured articles for this month are: Opportunities with fuel cells, and revisions to monthly natural gas data.

  6. Monthly energy review, January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Major activities covered include production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  7. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR) replaces the Cost Distribution Report (CDR). The MPCR provides summary information about Veterans Affairs operational costs,...

  9. Lixiviation of fly ash. Uitloging van vliegas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, L.

    1988-01-01

    The lixiviation of a number of elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, V, As, Sb and Hg) from different fly ash products (fired and cement bounded products) is investigated. A theoretical description of diffusion from a fly ash product is given as well as a standard test to determine the lixiviation rate. Lixiviation can be interpreted as a diffusion process. Diffusion of an element X from a fly ash product can be described with the following parameters: the effective diffusion coefficient, the fraction that is available for lixiviation and the tortuosity of the product. The physical meaning of the determined tortuosity is not clear. The behavior of tracers in the product is compared with the behavior of the corresponding element. Often this behavior deviates, sometimes even considerably. From a comparison of fly ash products it appears that cement bounded products are better able to combine with arsenicum and antimony than fired products. None of the investigated products caused concentrations of micro-elements way above the stated norm. Improvement as for lixiviation behavior of the products seems to be possible, in particular for bricks. 8 refs., 17 tabs., 26 figs.

  10. Have tsetse flies disappeared from Brazzaville town?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bitsindou

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: From 1980 to 1985, the zoological park of Brazzaville was the only tsetse resting site located in downtown which supplied others temporary sites. The last trapping survey carried out in this area in 1987 showed that there were no more tsetse flies. Knowing that areas free of tsetse used to be reinvaded many years later, we have carried out an entomological survey in the area with the aim to verify what has happened more than twenty years later; given that suitable environmental conditions for Glossina are still available. Methods: Sixteen pyramidal traps were set out at the edge of the forest, along paths and around animal’s cages and were examined twice a day, at 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. during four days. Results: No tsetse fly was captured. Using the formula previously described; the probability of capturing a tsetse fly is 0.002. Conclusion: The zoological park seems close to be free of tsetse flies. Long-lasting surveys within the town and around are required before stating a complete disappearance of tsetse in the town.

  11. Formation flying; an interview with Tobias Gutleb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutleb, T.; Perenboom, T.

    2011-01-01

    One of last year's Desig Synthesis Exercise (DSE) groups dived into the concept of fuel saving by letting aircraft flying in formation. They took their project even a step further and applied for the National Aviation Prize, a contest which encourages innovation in aerospace applications. The prize

  12. Refractive index of the fly rhabdomere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, D.G.M.; Hoenders, B.J.; Huiser, A.M.J.; Toorn, P. van

    1982-01-01

    The refractive index and the diameter of the fly rhabdomere were determined by comparing the experimental results derived from interference microscopy with the results of a theoretical study on the scattering of plane waves by a homogeneous, isotropic cylindrical dielectric rod. It was found that

  13. Multicopter Design Challenge: Design, Fly, and Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Kevin G.; Busby, Joe R.; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of the nation's attention has turned to the sky as new technologies open the door for new opportunities with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are powered aerial vehicles that do not carry an operator, use aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, and can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely. As people become accustomed to…

  14. A Coincidental Sound Track for "Time Flies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    Sound tracks serve a valuable purpose in film and video by helping tell a story, create a mood, and signal coming events. Holst's "Mars" from "The Planets" yields a coincidental soundtrack to Eric Rohmann's Caldecott-winning book, "Time Flies." This pairing provides opportunities for upper elementary and…

  15. Decision-making capacity of flies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) can make appropriate choices among alternative flight options based on the relative salience of competing visual cues, according to a recent study by a team under the leadership of GUO Aike from the CAS Institute of Neuroscience.

  16. Formation flying; an interview with Tobias Gutleb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutleb, T.; Perenboom, T.

    2011-01-01

    One of last year's Desig Synthesis Exercise (DSE) groups dived into the concept of fuel saving by letting aircraft flying in formation. They took their project even a step further and applied for the National Aviation Prize, a contest which encourages innovation in aerospace applications. The prize

  17. Volunteer Flying Organizations: Law Enforcements Untapped Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    volunteers took on many of the following duties to help enable CAP functions: clerical work , aircraft maintenance , refueling operations, first aid...Highway Patrol, Monterey County Aero Squadron, Lane County Sheriff’s Office, Civil Air Patrol, volunteer flying organizations, law enforcement...5 3. Civil Air Patrol’s Use in Law Enforcement .................................7 D. POTENTIAL EXPLANATIONS AND HYPOTHESES

  18. FLY ASH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO POWDERED ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Also, fly ash has been found to be an efficient adsorbent for water treatment in the removal of ... properties for the removal of metal ions and organics; the residual sludge produced is used in ... investigate the reuse of the adsorbent for better economy of the process. ..... Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria to complete this article.

  19. The fruit flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen species of Tephritidae are newly recorded from Ontario, and alternative format keys are provided to the 31 genera and 72 species of fruit fly now known from, or likely to occur, in the province. Standard dichotomous keys to genera, and simplified field keys to genera and species are provide...

  20. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues r...

  1. Unidentified Flying Objects, A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kay, Comp.

    This bibliography, intended for the general reader, provides selective coverage of the unidentified flying object (UFO) literature that has appeared since 1969. The coverage is limited to English language works, but does include translations and materials published abroad. Other bibliographies are listed, as are books, congressional and other…

  2. Calcium homeostasis in fly photoreceptor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberwinkler, J

    2002-01-01

    In fly photoreceptor cells, two processes dominate the Ca2+ homeostasis: light-induced Ca2+ influx through members of the TRP family of ion channels, and Ca2+ extrusion by Na+/Ca2+ exchange.Ca2+ release from intracellular stores is quantitatively insignificant. Both, the light-activated channels and

  3. "Lord of the Flies". [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on William Golding's novel "Lord of the Flies," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that, on a literal level, the novel deals with what happens to a group of boys stranded on an island; and that on a symbolic level, it investigates what happens to civilized people when the structures of civilization…

  4. On Optical Crosstalk between Fly Rhabdomeres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaard, W.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    In a fly retinula light may be transferred among the rhabdomeres. It is estimated that the light from a point source imaged on the axis of a rhabdomere may eventually be transferred completely to a neighbouring rhabdomere. However, the effect on the sensitivity of this latter rhabdomere will remain

  5. Measurement on Camber Deformation of Wings of Free-flying Dragonflies and Beating-flying Dragonflies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deqiang Song; Lijiang Zeng

    2004-01-01

    The knowledge of wing orientation and deformation during flapping flight is necessary for a complete aerodynamic analysis, but to date those kinematic features have not been simultaneously quantified for free-flying insects. A projected comb-fringe (PCF) method has been developed for measuring spanwise camber changes on free-flying dragonflies and on beating-flying dragonflies through the course of a wingbeat, which bases on projecting a fringe pattern over the whole measurement area and then measuring the wing deformation from the distorted fringe pattern. Experimental results demonstrate substantial camber changes both along the wingspan and through the course of a wingbeat. The ratio of camber deformation to chord length for hind wing is up to 0.11 at 75% spanwise with a flapping angle of -0.66 degree for a free-flying dragonfly.

  6. Rehabilitation status three months after first-time myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær; Vestergaard, Mogens; Søndergaard, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    To describe the rehabilitation status three months after first-time myocardial infarction (MI) to identify focus areas for long-term cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in general practice. Design. Population-based cross-sectional study.......To describe the rehabilitation status three months after first-time myocardial infarction (MI) to identify focus areas for long-term cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in general practice. Design. Population-based cross-sectional study....

  7. Advanced control technology and airworthiness flying qualities requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    Flying quality requirements are specified in terms of the complete pilot-airframe-systems loop, the task, and the environment. Results from a study of flying qualities are reported. A review of the treatment of failure cases in various flying quality requirements is presented along with a description of the methods used and relevant lessons learned from recent Autoland certification programs.

  8. Spatiotemporal Aspects of Hendra Virus Infection in Pteropid Bats (Flying-Foxes) in Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Hume; Jordan, David; Edson, Daniel; Morris, Stephen; Melville, Debra; Parry-Jones, Kerryn; Broos, Alice; Divljan, Anja; McMichael, Lee; Davis, Rodney; Kung, Nina; Kirkland, Peter; Smith, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) causes highly lethal disease in horses and humans in the eastern Australian states of Queensland (QLD) and New South Wales (NSW), with multiple equine cases now reported on an annual basis. Infection and excretion dynamics in pteropid bats (flying-foxes), the recognised natural reservoir, are incompletely understood. We sought to identify key spatial and temporal factors associated with excretion in flying-foxes over a 2300 km latitudinal gradient from northern QLD to southern NSW which encompassed all known equine case locations. The aim was to strengthen knowledge of Hendra virus ecology in flying-foxes to improve spillover risk prediction and exposure risk mitigation strategies, and thus better protect horses and humans. Monthly pooled urine samples were collected from under roosting flying-foxes over a three-year period and screened for HeV RNA by quantitative RT-PCR. A generalised linear model was employed to investigate spatiotemporal associations with HeV detection in 13,968 samples from 27 roosts. There was a non-linear relationship between mean HeV excretion prevalence and five latitudinal regions, with excretion moderate in northern and central QLD, highest in southern QLD/northern NSW, moderate in central NSW, and negligible in southern NSW. Highest HeV positivity occurred where black or spectacled flying-foxes were present; nil or very low positivity rates occurred in exclusive grey-headed flying-fox roosts. Similarly, little red flying-foxes are evidently not a significant source of virus, as their periodic extreme increase in numbers at some roosts was not associated with any concurrent increase in HeV detection. There was a consistent, strong winter seasonality to excretion in the southern QLD/northern NSW and central NSW regions. This new information allows risk management strategies to be refined and targeted, mindful of the potential for spatial risk profiles to shift over time with changes in flying-fox species distribution

  9. Spatiotemporal Aspects of Hendra Virus Infection in Pteropid Bats (Flying-Foxes in Eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hume Field

    Full Text Available Hendra virus (HeV causes highly lethal disease in horses and humans in the eastern Australian states of Queensland (QLD and New South Wales (NSW, with multiple equine cases now reported on an annual basis. Infection and excretion dynamics in pteropid bats (flying-foxes, the recognised natural reservoir, are incompletely understood. We sought to identify key spatial and temporal factors associated with excretion in flying-foxes over a 2300 km latitudinal gradient from northern QLD to southern NSW which encompassed all known equine case locations. The aim was to strengthen knowledge of Hendra virus ecology in flying-foxes to improve spillover risk prediction and exposure risk mitigation strategies, and thus better protect horses and humans. Monthly pooled urine samples were collected from under roosting flying-foxes over a three-year period and screened for HeV RNA by quantitative RT-PCR. A generalised linear model was employed to investigate spatiotemporal associations with HeV detection in 13,968 samples from 27 roosts. There was a non-linear relationship between mean HeV excretion prevalence and five latitudinal regions, with excretion moderate in northern and central QLD, highest in southern QLD/northern NSW, moderate in central NSW, and negligible in southern NSW. Highest HeV positivity occurred where black or spectacled flying-foxes were present; nil or very low positivity rates occurred in exclusive grey-headed flying-fox roosts. Similarly, little red flying-foxes are evidently not a significant source of virus, as their periodic extreme increase in numbers at some roosts was not associated with any concurrent increase in HeV detection. There was a consistent, strong winter seasonality to excretion in the southern QLD/northern NSW and central NSW regions. This new information allows risk management strategies to be refined and targeted, mindful of the potential for spatial risk profiles to shift over time with changes in flying-fox species

  10. Flies remember the time of day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Nitin S; Wolf, Reinhard; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte; Heisenberg, Martin

    2015-06-15

    The circadian clock enables organisms to anticipate daily environmental cycles and drives corresponding changes in behavior [1, 2]. Such endogenous oscillators also enable animals to display time-specific memory [1, 3-5]. For instance, mice and honeybees associate the location of a stimulus (like food or mate) with a certain time of day (time-place learning) [6, 7]. However, the mechanism underlying time-related learning and memory is not known. In the present study, we investigate time-specific odor learning. We use a genetically tractable animal, the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Starved flies are trained in the morning and afternoon to associate distinct odors with sucrose reward. The training is repeated the next day, and their time-dependent odor preference is tested on the third day. Our results indicate that Drosophila can express appetitive memory at the relevant time of day if the two conditioning events are separated by more than 4 hr. Flies can form time-odor associations in constant darkness (DD) as well as in a daily light-dark (LD) cycle, but not when kept under constant light (LL) conditions. Circadian clock mutants, period(01) (per(01)) and clock(AR) (clk(AR)), learned to associate sucrose reward with a certain odor but were unable to form time-odor associations. Our findings show that flies can utilize temporal information as an additional cue in appetitive learning. Time-odor learning in flies depends on a per- and clk-dependent endogenous mechanism that is independent of environmental light cues.

  11. Coal fly ash effluent affects the distributions of Brachionus calyciflorus sibling species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gen; Xi, Yi-Long; Xue, Ying-Hao; Xiang, Xian-Ling; Wen, Xin-Li

    2015-02-01

    Fly ash, a coal combustion residue of thermal power plants and a source of multiple pollutants, has been recognized as an environmental hazard all over the world. Although it is known that fly ash effluent affects density, diversity and distribution of rotifers in drainage systems and receiving water bodies, the effect of fly ash effluent on the distributions of highly similar rotifer species remains unknown. In this study, the mtDNA COI genes of 90 individuals in Brachionus calyciflorus complex from Lake Hui (as a fly ash discharge water pond) and other two neighboring lakes (Lake Fengming and Lake Tingtang) were sequenced and analyzed, and the responses in selected life table demographic parameters (life expectancy at hatching, net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of population increase and proportion of sexual offspring) of different rotifer populations to fly ash effluent were investigated. Overall, 72 mtDNA haplotypes were defined, and were split into two clades by the phylogenetic trees. The divergence of COI gene sequences between the two clades ranged from 11.8% to17.8%, indicating the occurrence of two sibling species (sibling species I and sibling species II). Sibling species I distributed in all the three lakes, showing strong capabilities for dispersal and colonization, which were supported by its higher level of gene flow (2.60-4.04) between the populations from Lake Hui and each of the other two lakes, longer life expectancy at hatching (101.6-148.2 h), and higher net reproductive rate (4.4-16.4 offspring/female) and intrinsic rate of population increase (0.60-0.98/d) when cultured in aerated tap water and fly ash effluent. Sibling species II distributed in both Lake Tingtang and Lake Fengming, showing that its dispersal existed between the two lakes. Considering that the distance between Lake Hui and Lake Fengming is shorter than that between Lake Tingtang and Lake Fengming, sibling species II is able to disperse at least from Lake Fengming to Lake

  12. Monthly energy review, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  13. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  14. Monthly energy review: April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This monthly report presents an overview of energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. A section is also included on international energy. The feature paper which is included each month is entitled ``Energy equipment choices: Fuel costs and other determinants.`` 37 figs., 59 tabs.

  15. ULTRAPLATE 30 month management report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl

    2003-01-01

    In the period from month 24 to month 30 focus has been on the work-package 3 activities concerning optimisation of the newly developed ULTRAPLATE technology towards specific industrial applications. Three main application areas have been pursued: 1) High- speed plating of lead free solder contact...

  16. Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months Print A A A What's in ... your child's birth, the doctor has been recording growth in weight, length, and head size (circumference) during ...

  17. Monthly energy review, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 91 tabs.

  18. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  20. Monthly energy review, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  1. Monthly energy review, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 36 figs., 61 tabs.

  2. Monthly energy review, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  3. Monthly energy review, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  4. Monthly energy review, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  5. Monthly energy review, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 74 tabs.

  6. Natural gas monthly, December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  7. Left behind by Birth Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Ingeborg Foldøy

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing comprehensive administrative data from Norway I investigate long-term birth month effects. I demonstrate that the oldest children in class have a substantially higher GPA than their younger peers. The birth month differences are larger for low-SES children. Furthermore, I find that the youngest children in class are lagging significantly…

  8. Monthly Energy Review, February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-26

    This monthly publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics, covering the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief descriptions (`energy plugs`) on two EIA publications are presented at the start.

  9. Haida Months of the Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Robert

    Students are introduced to Haida vocabulary in this booklet which briefly describes the seasons and traditional seasonal activities of Southeastern Alaska Natives. The first section lists the months in English and Haida; e.g., January is "Taan Kungaay," or "Bear Hunting Month." The second section contains seasonal names in…

  10. Monthly energy review, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 75 tabs.

  11. Monthly energy review, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs. 73 tabs.

  12. Pollen recovered from the exoskeleton of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) in Gainesville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable flies are pestiferous blood feeding flies that attack animals and humans. Besides consuming blood, these flies will also visit flowers to take nectar meals. When feeding on nectar, flies become coated with pollen which can be used to identify flowers used by the flies. Recently, flies cove...

  13. Puncture resistance in 'Sharwil' avocado to oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A

    2009-06-01

    The physiological basis for host antibiosis or nonpreference to a quarantine pest is often not understood. Studies are needed on the mechanisms that impart resistance to better understand how resistance might fail. Experiments were conducted to examine the infestability of 'Sharwil' avocados by oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), after harvest and to quantify the effect of avocado skin hardness on resistance to infestation by oriental fruit fly. Infestation rate increased with decreasing fruit firmness, but fruit were generally poor hosts. Fruit with a patch of skin removed produced more flies than intact fruit, suggesting that skin puncture resistance was an important deterrent to oviposition. This study showed that fruit can be infested within 1 d after harvest, suggesting that fruit should be transferred to fruit fly-proof containers as they are harvested to minimize the risk of attack. Although risk of infestation is negatively correlated with fruit firmness, even some hard fruit may become infested. Therefore, fruit firmness cannot be used alone as an indicator to ensure fruit fly-free 'Sharwil' avocados. Measuring fruit firmness may be a useful component of a multiple component systems approach as an additional safeguard to reduce risk of infestation.

  14. Arsenic and copper stabilisation in a contaminated soil by coal fly ash and green waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Daniel C W; Yip, Alex C K; Olds, William E; Weber, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    In situ metal stabilisation by amendments has been demonstrated as an appealing low-cost remediation strategy for contaminated soil. This study investigated the short-term leaching behaviour and long-term stability of As and Cu in soil amended with coal fly ash and/or green waste compost. Locally abundant inorganic (limestone and bentonite) and carbonaceous (lignite) resources were also studied for comparison. Column leaching experiments revealed that coal fly ash outperformed limestone and bentonite amendments for As stabilisation. It also maintained the As stability under continuous leaching of acidic solution, which was potentially attributed to high-affinity adsorption, co-precipitation, and pozzolanic reaction of coal fly ash. However, Cu leaching in the column experiments could not be mitigated by any of these inorganic amendments, suggesting the need for co-addition of carbonaceous materials that provides strong chelation with oxygen-containing functional groups for Cu stabilisation. Green waste compost suppressed the Cu leaching more effectively than lignite due to the difference in chemical composition and dissolved organic matter. After 9-month soil incubation, coal fly ash was able to minimise the concentrations of As and Cu in the soil solution without the addition of carbonaceous materials. Nevertheless, leachability tests suggested that the provision of green waste compost and lignite augmented the simultaneous reduction of As and Cu leachability in a fairly aggressive leaching environment. These results highlight the importance of assessing stability and remobilisation of sequestered metals under varying environmental conditions for ensuring a plausible and enduring soil stabilisation.

  15. Richness and diversity of sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in an Atlantic rainforest reserve in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Israel Souza; Dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2010-12-01

    Our objective was to study and evaluate the richness and diversity of Phlebotominae fauna in the Duas Bocas Biological Reserve (DBBR) in the state of Espírito Santo, in southeastern Brazil. Sand fly collections were carried out during four consecutive nights each month between August 2007 and July 2008 at DBBR by using CDC automatic light traps and an illuminated Shannon trap. Specific richness (S) and Shannon diversity index (H) was calculated for each trap. We collected 18,868 sand flies belonging to 29 species and 13 genera. Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli was the most abundant species followed by Psychodopygus ayrozai, Ps. hirsutus, Psathyromyia pascalei, and Ps. matosi. We recorded Brumptomyia cardosoi, Br. troglodytes, and Ps. geniculatus for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo. We discuss the differences in diversity and richness of the sand flies in both traps and in relation to other Brazilian localities and biomes. We also discuss the possibility of wild transmission of Leishmania in the DBBR and the influence of the sand fly species in leishmaniasis transmission to the adjacent areas of the reserve.

  16. Fluctuating Asymmetry in Flies, What Does It Mean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athol J. McLachlan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The degree of departure from perfect symmetry in organisms, fluctuating asymmetry (FA, is seen in most populations of animals. It has particular impact on choice of mate which lies within the world of sexual selection. Here I consider a relatively little studied aspect of sexual selection, i.e. the effect of FA on contests between males for mates, based not on display ornament but rather on agility seen in the mating systems of many insects. The model organism considered is the ubiquitous chironomid midge. In these flies, mating takes place in the air, so symmetry in the length of wings bears directly on a male’s aerobatic ability on which successful mating depends. The role of parasites and predators in creating and responding to FA in the host/prey midge is considered.

  17. Self-mixing of fly larvae during feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkov, Olga; Johnson, Christopher; Zhang, Bryan; Hu, David

    2016-11-01

    How do we sustainably feed a growing world population? One solution of increasing interest is the use of black solider fly larvae, pea-sized grubs envisioned to transform hundreds of tons of food waste into a sustainable protein source. Although startups across the world are raising these larvae, a physical understanding of how they should be raised and fed remains missing. In this study, we present experiments measuring their feeding rate as a function of number of larvae. We show that larger groups of larvae have greater mixing which entrains hungry larvae around the food, increasing feeding rate. Feeding of larvae thus differs from feeding of cattle or other livestock which exhibit less self-mixing.

  18. Effect of four commercial fungal formulations on mortality and sporulation of house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several s...

  19. Phlebotomine sand fly survey in the focus of leishmaniasis in Madrid, Spain (2012-2014): seasonal dynamics, Leishmania infantum infection rates and blood meal preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Estela; Jiménez, Maribel; Hernández, Sonia; Martín-Martín, Inés; Molina, Ricardo

    2017-08-01

    An unusual increase of human leishmaniasis cases due to Leishmania infantum is occurring in an urban area of southwestern Madrid, Spain, since 2010. Entomological surveys have shown that Phlebotomus perniciosus is the only potential vector. Direct xenodiagnosis in hares (Lepus granatensis) and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) collected in the focus area proved that they can transmit parasites to colonized P. perniciosus. Isolates were characterized as L. infantum. The aim of the present work was to conduct a comprehensive study of sand flies in the outbreak area, with special emphasis on P. perniciosus. Entomological surveys were done from June to October 2012-2014 in 4 stations located close to the affected area. Twenty sticky traps (ST) and two CDC light traps (LT) were monthly placed during two consecutive days in every station. LT were replaced every morning. Sand fly infection rates were determined by dissecting females collected with LT. Molecular procedures applied to study blood meal preferences and to detect L. infantum were performed for a better understanding of the epidemiology of the outbreak. A total of 45,127 specimens belonging to 4 sand fly species were collected: P. perniciosus (75.34%), Sergentomyia minuta (24.65%), Phlebotomus sergenti (0.005%) and Phlebotomus papatasi (0.005%). No Phlebotomus ariasi were captured. From 3203 P. perniciosus female dissected, 117 were infected with flagellates (3.7%). Furthermore, 13.31% and 7.78% of blood-fed and unfed female sand flies, respectively, were found infected with L. infantum by PCR. The highest rates of infected P. perniciosus were detected at the end of the transmission periods. Regarding to blood meal preferences, hares and rabbits were preferred, although human, cat and dog blood were also found. This entomological study highlights the exceptional nature of the Leishmania outbreak occurring in southwestern Madrid, Spain. It is confirmed that P. perniciosus is the only vector in the affected area

  20. Biology and trapping of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in pineapple residues (Ananas comosus) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano, José-Arturo; Gilles, Jeremie; Bravo, Oscar; Vargas, Cristina; Gomez-Bonilla, Yannery; Bingham, Georgina V; Taylor, David B

    2015-01-01

    Pineapple production in Costa Rica increased nearly 300-fold during the last 30 yr, and >40,000 hectares of land are currently dedicated to this crop. At the end of the pineapple cropping cycle, plants are chopped and residues incorporated into the soil in preparation for replanting. Associated with increased pineapple production has been a large increase in stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), populations. Stable flies are attracted to, and oviposit in, the decomposing, chopped pineapple residues. In conjunction with chemical control of developing larvae, adult trapping is an important control strategy. In this study, four blue-black fabric traps, Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu, were compared with a white sticky trap currently used for stable fly control in Costa Rica. Overall, the white sticky trap caught the highest number of stable flies, followed by the Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu. Collections on the white sticky trap increased 16 d after residues were chopped; coinciding with the expected emergence of flies developing in the pineapple residues. During this same time period, collections in the blue-black fabric traps decreased. Sex ratio decreased from >7:1 (females:males) 3-7 d after chopping to 1:1 at 24-28 d. White sticky, Nzi and Vavoua traps collected similar numbers of colonizing flies 3-7 d after residues were chopped. However, white sticky traps collected more flies once emergence from the pineapple residues began. Although white sticky traps collected more flies than fabric traps, they remain labor intensive and environmentally unsound because of their disposable and nonbiodegradable nature.

  1. Spatial dynamics of two oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids, Fopius arisanus and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), in a Guava orchard in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Banks, John; Leblanc, Luc; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Peck, Steven

    2013-10-01

    We examined spatial patterns of both sexes of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and its two most abundant parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) in a commercial guava (Psidium guajava L.) orchard. Oriental fruit fly spatial patterns were initially random, but became highly aggregated with host fruit ripening and the subsequent colonization of, first, F. arisanus (egg-pupal parasitoid) and, second, D. longicaudata (larval-pupal parasitoid). There was a significant positive relationship between populations of oriental fruit fly and F. arisanus during each of the F. arisanus increases, a pattern not exhibited between oriental fruit fly and D. longicaudata. Generally, highest total numbers of males and females (oriental fruit fly, F. arisanus, and D. longicaudata) occurred on or about the same date. There was a significant positive correlation between male and female populations of all three species; we measured a lag of 2-4 wk between increases of female F. arisanus and conspecific males. There was a similar trend in one of the two years for the second most abundant species, D. longicaudata, but no sign of a time lag between the sexes for oriental fruit fly. Spatially, we found a significant positive relationship between numbers of F. arisanus in blocks and the average number in adjoining blocks. We did not find the same effect for oriental fruit fly and D. longicaudata, possibly a result of lower overall numbers of the latter two species or less movement of F. arisanus within the field.

  2. Future fly ash marketing; Flugaschevermarktung in der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauder, R.; Hugot, A. [Evonik Power Minerals GmbH, Dinslaken (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    It can be assumed that the fly ash production volumes will undergo a marked increase over the next few years. The conditions of fly ash production will improve as a result of modern and refurbished power plants, yielding a positive effect on the quality of fly ashes. Other vital parameters of future fly ash marketing are fly ash logistics and the infrastructure of power plants. Basically, economic utilisation of the increased production volumes is possible; however, new and long-term strategies are necessary. (orig.)

  3. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  5. Natural gas monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

  6. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. Efficacy and duration of three residual insecticides on cotton duck and vinyl tent surfaces for control of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Abdel Baset B; Hoel, David F; Tageldin, Reham A; Fawaz, Emaldeldin Y; Furman, Barry D; Hogsette, Jerome A; Bernier, Ulrich R

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity and duration of 3 residual insecticides against the Old World sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi, an important vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, on 2 types of tent material used by the US military in Afghanistan and the Middle East. Vinyl and cotton duck tent surfaces were treated at maximum labeled rates of lambda-cyhalothrin (Demand CS, Zeneca Inc, Wilmington, DE), bifenthrin (Talstar P Professional, FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA) and permethrin (Insect Repellent, Clothing Application, 40%), then subsequently stored in indoor, shaded spaces at room temperature (60%-70% relative humidity (RH), 22°C-25°C), and under sunlight and ambient air temperatures outdoors (20%-30% RH, 29°C-44°C). Insecticide susceptible colony flies (F110) obtained from the insectary of US Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt, were exposed to treated tent surfaces for 30-minute periods twice monthly for up to 5 months, then once monthly thereafter, using the World Health Organization cone assay. Lambda-cyhalothrin treated cotton duck tent material stored indoors killed P. papatasi for 8 months, while the complementary sun-exposed cotton duck material killed adult flies for 1 month before the efficacy dropped to less than 80%. Sand fly mortality on permethrin- and bifenthrin-treated cotton duck decreased below 80% after 2 weeks exposure to sunlight. Shade-stored permethrin and bifenthrin cotton duck material killed more than 80% of test flies through 5 months before mortality rates decreased substantially. Vinyl tent material provided limited control (less than 50% mortality) for less than 1 month with all treatment and storage regimes. Lambda-cyhalothrin-treated cotton duck tent material provided the longest control and produced the highest overall mortalities (100% for 8 months (shaded), more than 90% for 1 month (sunlight-exposed)) of both cotton duck and vinyl tents.

  8. Analysis list: FLI1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FLI1 Blood,Bone,Muscle + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.1.tsv http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedb...c.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Blood.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Bone.tsv,http://dbarchive....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Muscle.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Blood.gml,http:

  9. Experimental study on fly ash capture mercury in flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mercedes; DíAZ-SOMOANO; Patricia; ABAD-VALLE; M.Rosa; MARTíNEZ-TARAZONA

    2010-01-01

    Systematic experiments were conducted on a fixed-bed reactor to investigate the interaction between fly ash and mercury,the results implied that fly ash can capture mercury effectively.Among different fly ashes,the unburned carbon in the FA2 and FA3 fly ashes has the highest mercury capture capacity,up to 10.3 and 9.36 μg/g,respectively,which is close to that of commercial activated carbon.There is no obvious relationship between mercury content and carbon content or BET surface area of fly ash.Petrography classification standard was applied to distinguish fly ash carbon particles.Carbon content is not the only variable that controls mercury capture on fly ash,there are likely significant differences in the mercury capture capacities of the various carbon forms.Mercury capture capacity mainly depends on the content of anisotropy carbon particles with porous network structure.

  10. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliJ, and FliH, do not deliver flagellin, the major filament protein, from the cytosol to the export gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajó, Ráchel; Liliom, Károly; Muskotál, Adél; Klein, Agnes; Závodszky, Péter; Vonderviszt, Ferenc; Dobó, József

    2014-11-01

    Flagella, the locomotion organelles of bacteria, extend from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior. External flagellar proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and exported by the flagellar type III secretion system. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliH, and FliJ, have been implicated to carry late export substrates in complex with their cognate chaperones from the cytoplasm to the export gate. The importance of the soluble components in the delivery of the three minor late substrates FlgK, FlgL (hook-filament junction) and FliD (filament-cap) has been convincingly demonstrated, but their role in the transport of the major filament component flagellin (FliC) is still unclear. We have used continuous ATPase activity measurements and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies to characterize interactions between the soluble export components and flagellin or the FliC:FliS substrate-chaperone complex. As controls, interactions between soluble export component pairs were characterized providing Kd values. FliC or FliC:FliS did not influence the ATPase activity of FliI alone or in complex with FliH and/or FliJ suggesting lack of interaction in solution. Immobilized FliI, FliH, or FliJ did not interact with FliC or FliC:FliS detected by QCM. The lack of interaction in the fluid phase between FliC or FliC:FliS and the soluble export components, in particular with the ATPase FliI, suggests that cells use different mechanisms for the export of late minor substrates, and the major substrate, FliC. It seems that the abundantly produced flagellin does not require the assistance of the soluble export components to efficiently reach the export gate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Replicating Cardiovascular Condition-Birth Month Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Boland, Mary Regina; Miotto, Riccardo; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Dudley, Joel T.

    2016-01-01

    Independent replication is vital for study findings drawn from Electronic Health Records (EHR). This replication study evaluates the relationship between seasonal effects at birth and lifetime cardiovascular condition risk. We performed a Season-wide Association Study on 1,169,599 patients from Mount Sinai Hospital (MSH) to compute phenome-wide associations between birth month and CVD. We then evaluated if seasonal patterns found at MSH matched those reported at Columbia University Medical Center. Coronary arteriosclerosis, essential hypertension, angina, and pre-infarction syndrome passed phenome-wide significance and their seasonal patterns matched those previously reported. Atrial fibrillation, cardiomyopathy, and chronic myocardial ischemia had consistent patterns but were not phenome-wide significant. We confirm that CVD risk peaks for those born in the late winter/early spring among the evaluated patient populations. The replication findings bolster evidence for a seasonal birth month effect in CVD. Further study is required to identify the environmental and developmental mechanisms. PMID:27624541

  12. US Monthly Pilot Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly winds aloft summary forms summarizing Pilot Balloon observational data for the United States. Generally labeled as Form 1114, and then transitioning to Form...

  13. Monthly energy review, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-26

    This publication presents information for the month of August, 1993 on the following: Energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices, and international energy.

  14. Monthly Energy Review, July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-07-27

    The Monthly Energy Review is prepared by the Energy Information Administration. Topics discussed include: Energy Overview, Energy Consumption, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Oil and Gas Resource Development, Coal, Electricity, Nuclear Energy, Energy Prices, International Energy. (VC)

  15. Monthly energy review, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Activities covered include: U.S. production, consumption, trade, stock, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  16. Monthly energy review, August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  17. Monthly energy review, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-26

    This publication presents information for the month of August, 1993 on the following: Energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices, and international energy.

  18. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 15 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  19. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 6 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  20. Your Child's Development: 2 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 2 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...