WorldWideScience

Sample records for monthly energy consumption

  1. monthly energy consumption forecasting using wavelet analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    paper, a wavelet transform and radial basis function neural network based energy forecast model is developed to .... These prop- erties lead to quicker learning in comparison to ..... Machine Learning and Cybernetics,. IEEE Transactions, 8: ...

  2. Monthly Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-28

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief ``energy plugs`` (reviews of EIA publications) are included, as well.

  3. Monthly Energy Review, July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-07-27

    The Monthly Energy Review is prepared by the Energy Information Administration. Topics discussed include: Energy Overview, Energy Consumption, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Oil and Gas Resource Development, Coal, Electricity, Nuclear Energy, Energy Prices, International Energy. (VC)

  4. Monthly energy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  5. Monthly energy review, January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Major activities covered include production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  6. Monthly energy review, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-26

    This publication presents information for the month of August, 1993 on the following: Energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices, and international energy.

  7. Monthly energy review, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-26

    This publication presents information for the month of August, 1993 on the following: Energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices, and international energy.

  8. Monthly energy review, August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review for the month of August 1997, presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  9. Monthly energy review, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Monthly Energy Review provides information on production, distribution, consumption, prices, imports, and exports for the following US energy sources: petroleum; petroleum products; natural gas; coal; electricity; and nuclear energy. The section on international energy contains data for world crude oil production and consumption, petroleum stocks in OECD countries, and nuclear electricity gross generation.

  10. Monthly energy review, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  11. Monthly energy review, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 91 tabs.

  12. Monthly energy review, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  13. Monthly energy review, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 36 figs., 61 tabs.

  14. Monthly energy review, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  15. Monthly energy review, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  16. Monthly energy review, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  17. Monthly energy review, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 74 tabs.

  18. Monthly energy review, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 75 tabs.

  19. Monthly energy review, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs. 73 tabs.

  20. Monthly energy review, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review contains statistical data on the following: energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. In addition, an energy overview is provided, and, for the April issue, Energy use and carbon emissions; Some international comparisons.

  1. Monthly energy review, December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-22

    This document provides data on monthly energy use and fossil fuels. The following sections are included: Highlights: Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1985--1990; Highlights: assessment of energy use in multibuilding facilities; energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices; and international energy.

  2. Monthly energy review, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Activities covered include: U.S. production, consumption, trade, stock, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  3. Monthly energy review, August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  4. Monthly energy review: April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This monthly report presents an overview of energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. A section is also included on international energy. The feature paper which is included each month is entitled ``Energy equipment choices: Fuel costs and other determinants.`` 37 figs., 59 tabs.

  5. Monthly Energy Review, February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-26

    This monthly publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics, covering the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief descriptions (`energy plugs`) on two EIA publications are presented at the start.

  6. Monthly energy review, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-26

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities.

  7. Monthly energy review, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-24

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  8. Monthly energy review, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  9. Monthly energy review, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-25

    The Monthly Energy Review provides an overview of the production, distribution, and consumption of energy derived from petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. It also discusses oil and gas resource development, energy prices, and issues relevant to international energy markets.

  10. Monthly energy review, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  11. Monthly energy review, August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  12. Monthly energy review, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  13. Monthly energy review, October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Information is also provided for oil and gas resource development. International energy statistics are given for petroleum production, consumption, and stocks, and for nuclear electricity gross generation. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  14. Monthly energy review, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum,natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal metric conversion factors.

  15. Monthly energy review, July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document presents an overview of the recent monthly energy statistics from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Statistical data covers activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels , nuclear energy, and electricity. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  16. Monthly energy review, November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal and metric conversion factors are included.

  17. Monthly energy review, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy data. A brief summary of the monthly and historical comparison data is provided in Section 1 of the report. A highlight section of the report provides an assessment of summer 1997 motor gasoline price increases.

  18. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  19. Monthly energy review, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report presents an overview of monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal metric conversion factors are included.

  20. Monthly energy review, December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-21

    This publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. An energy preview of alternative fuel providers vehicle fleet surveys is included. The publication is intended for use by members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  1. Monthly energy review June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents data on energy consumption, fossil fuels imports, supply and disposition, energy prices, electricity, nuclear energy electricity production, and international energy production and consumption.

  2. Monthly energy review, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  3. Monthly energy review, July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 75 tabs.

  4. Monthly energy review, September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Information is also provided on international energy, including petroleum production, consumption, and stocks and nuclear electricity gross generation. This issues provides a brief industry overview and a detailed analysis of the spring 1996 gasoline price runup, crude oil supply issues, U.S. crude oil imports, petroleum stocks, futures markets, refining cash margin trends, and the financial performance of U.S. refining and marketing firms. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  5. Monthly Energy Review, February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Energy production during November 1997 totaled 5.6 quadrillion Btu, a 0.3-percent decrease from the level of production during November 1996. Natural gas production increased 2.8 percent, production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 1.7 percent, and coal production decreased 1.6 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 1.1 percent from the level of production during November 1996. Energy consumption during November 1997 totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 0.1 percent above the level of consumption during November 1996. Consumption of natural gas increased 1.5 percent, consumption of coal fell 0.3 percent, while consumption of petroleum products decreased 0.2 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 0.8 percent from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during November 1997 totaled 1.7 quadrillion Btu, 8.6 percent above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 6.3 percent, and net imports of natural gas were up 1.2 percent. Net exports of coal fell 17.8 percent from the level in November 1996.

  6. Monthly energy review, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Energy production during December 1997 totaled 5.9 quadrillion Btu, a 2.8 percent increase from the level of production during December 1996. Coal production increased 9.5 percent, natural gas production increased 3.9 percent, and production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 1.1 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.9 percent from the level of production during December 1996.

  7. Energy Consumption vs. Energy Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L. T.; Zhang, Tengyan; Schlup, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is necessary for any phenomenon to occur or any process to proceed. Nevertheless, energy is never consumed; instead, it is conserved. What is consumed is available energy, or exergy, accompanied by an increase in entropy. Obviously, the terminology, "energy consumption" is indeed a misnomer although it is ubiquitous in the…

  8. Energy-consumption modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A highly sophisticated and accurate approach is described to compute on an hourly or daily basis the energy consumption for space heating by individual buildings, urban sectors, and whole cities. The need for models and specifically weather-sensitive models, composite models, and space-heating models are discussed. Development of the Colorado State University Model, based on heat-transfer equations and on a heuristic, adaptive, self-organizing computation learning approach, is described. Results of modeling energy consumption by the city of Minneapolis and Cheyenne are given. Some data on energy consumption in individual buildings are included.

  9. Monthly energy review, May 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-24

    Energy production during Feb 95 totaled 5.4 quadrillion Btu (Q), 3.1% over Feb 94. Energy consumption totaled 7.4 Q, 0.7% below Feb 94. Net imports of energy totaled 1.3 Q, 5.6% below Feb 94. This publication is divided into energy overview, energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy.

  10. Energy and resource consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The present and projected energy requirements for the United States are discussed. The energy consumption and demand sectors are divided into the categories: residential and commercial, transportation, and industrial and electrical generation (utilities). All sectors except electrical generation use varying amounts of fossile fuel resources for non-energy purposes. The highest percentage of non-energy use by sector is industrial with 71.3 percent. The household and commercial sector uses 28.4 percent, and transportation about 0.3 percent. Graphs are developed to project fossil fuel demands for non-energy purposes and the perdentage of the total fossil fuel used for non-energy needs.

  11. Monthly energy review, February 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This is an overview of the February energy statistics by the Energy Information Administration. The contents of the report include an energy overview, US energy production, energy consumption, trade stocks and prices for petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  12. Monthly energy review, January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This is an overview of the January energy statistics by the Energy Information Administration. The contents of the report include an energy overview, US energy production, energy consumption, trade stocks and prices for petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. 47 figs., 71 tabs.

  13. Monthly energy review, August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    Two brief articles are presented: measuring dependence on imported oil; and preliminary estimates of household energy consumption and expenditures in 1993. Then statistical tables are presented: energy overview, energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. Appendices present thermal conversion factors, metric and other physical conversion factors, CO{sub 2} emission factors for coal, and listing of previous articles. A glossary is also included.

  14. Monthly energy review: September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Energy production during June 1996 totaled 5.6 quadrillion Btu, a 0.5% decrease from the level of production during June 1995. Energy consumption during June 1996 totaled 7.1 quadrillion Btu, 2.7% above the level of consumption during June 1995. Net imports of energy during June 1996 totaled 1.6 quadrillion Btu, 4.5% above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Statistics are presented on the following topics: energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. 37 figs., 59 tabs.

  15. Monthly energy review, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-25

    Energy production during February 1994 totaled 5.3 quadrillion Btu, a 2.2% increase over February 1993. Coal production increased 9%, natural gas rose 2.5%, and petroleum decreased 3.6%; all other forms of energy production combined were down 3%. Energy consumption during the same period totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 4.1% above February 1993. Natural gas consumption increased 5.8%, petroleum 5.2%, and coal 2.3%; consumption of all other energy forms combined decreased 0.7%. Net imports of energy totaled 1.4 quadrillion Btu, 16.9% above February 1993; petroleum net imports increased 10.1%, natural gas net imports were down 4.9%, and coal net exports fell 43.7%. This document is divided into: energy overview, energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, international energy, appendices (conversion factors, etc.), and glossary.

  16. Monthly energy review, October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-25

    This is the June report by the Energy Information Administration. The contents of the report include an energy overview, energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. Included are appendices containing thermal conversion factors, metric and other physical conversion factors, and carbon dioxide emission factors for coal.

  17. Monthly energy review, September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-25

    An ``energy snapshot`` article is included on housing characteristics in 1993 (survey of 7,111 households). The rest of the document is divided into: energy overview, energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, international energy, and appendices (conversion factors, CO2 emission factors from coal, index, glossary).

  18. Monthly energy review, December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Sections of this report include the following: Energy overview; Energy consumption; Petroleum; Natural gas; Oil and gas resource development; Coal; Electricity; Nuclear energy; Energy prices; and International energy. Appendices contain thermal conversion factors, metric and other physical conversion factors, carbon dioxide emission factors for coal, list of feature articles that have appeared since 1994, and a glossary.

  19. Monthly energy review, March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This is an overview of the March 1997 energy statistics by the Energy Information Administration. The Contents of the report include an update on the effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on electric utilities, an energy overview, US energy production, energy consumption, trade stocks and prices for petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. 37 figs., 60 tabs.

  20. Monthly energy review, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This is an overview of the May energy statistics by the Energy Information Administration. The contents of the report include an energy overview, US energy production, trade stocks and prices for petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. Energy production during February 1997 totaled 5.4 quadrillion Btu, a 1.9% decrease from the level of production during February 1996. Coal production increased 1.2%, natural gas production decreased 2.9%, and production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 2.1%. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.3% from the level of production during February 1996. Energy consumption during February 1997 totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 4.0% below the level of consumption during February 1996. Consumption of petroleum products decreased 4.4%, consumption of natural gas was down 3.5%, and consumption of coal fell 2.2%. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 6.7% from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during February 1997 totaled 1.5 quadrillion Btu, 14.1% above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 12.7% and net imports of natural gas were up 7.4%. Net exports of coal fell 12.1% from the level in February 1996. 37 figs., 75 tabs.

  1. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at 6-Month Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Questionnaires were administered at two time-points (spaced 6 months apart) to collect information relating to diet and lifestyle over the previous 6 months. Demographic and school data were acquired through the School Information Management System, and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression were administered at the second time-point only. Associations between breakfast and energy drink consumption and stress, anxiety, and depression were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from diet, demography, and lifestyle could be controlled for statistically. Cross-sectional analyses showed that breakfast omission was consistently associated with negative outcomes, and that this was largely observed for both those who frequently consumed energy drinks and those who did not. However, cross-lag analyses showed that neither breakfast omission or energy drink consumption, alone or in combination, was predictive of stress, anxiety, or depression at 6-month follow-up. This suggests that associations between breakfast and mental health may be bi-directional rather than breakfast being the causal factor. PMID:26903914

  2. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at Six-Month Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth eRichards

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Questionnaires were administered at two time-points (spaced six months apart to collect information relating to diet and lifestyle over the previous six months, demographic and school data were acquired through the School Information Management System, and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression were administered at the second time-point only. Associations between breakfast and energy drink consumption and stress, anxiety, and depression were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from diet, demography, and lifestyle could be controlled for statistically. Cross-sectional analyses showed that breakfast omission was consistently associated with negative outcomes, and that this was largely observed for both those who frequently consumed energy drinks and those who did not. However, cross-lag analyses showed that neither breakfast omission or energy drink consumption, alone or in combination, was predictive of stress, anxiety, or depression at six-month follow-up. This suggests that associations between breakfast and mental health may be bi-directional rather than breakfast being the causal factor.

  3. Monthly energy review, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-29

    US total energy consumption in July 1990 was 6.7 quadrillion Btu Petroleum products accounted for 42 percent of the energy consumed in July 1990, while coal accounted for 26 percent and natural gas accounted for 19 percent. Residential and commercial sector consumption was 2.3 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 2 percent from the July 1989 level. The sector accounted for 35 percent of July 1990 total consumption, about the same share as in July 1989. Industrial sector consumption was 2.4 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 2 percent from the July 1989 level. The industrial sector accounted for 36 percent of July 1990 total consumption, about the same share as in July 1989. Transportation sector consumption of energy was 1.9 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 1 percent from the July 1989 level. The sector consumed 29 percent of July 1990 total consumption, about the same share as in July 1989. Electric utility consumption of energy totaled 2.8 quadrillion Btu in July 1990, up 2 percent from the July 1989 level. Coal contributed 53 percent of the energy consumed by electric utilities in July 1990, while nuclear electric power contributed 21 percent; natural gas, 12 percent; hydroelectric power, 9 percent; petroleum, 5 percent; and wood, waste, geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy, about 1 percent.

  4. Monthly energy review, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-28

    This publication presents statistical data on the following topics: Energy Consumption; Petroleum; Natural Gas; Oil and Gas Resource Development; Coal; Electricity; Nuclear Energy; Energy Prices; and International Energy. Appendices are included on: Thermal Conversion Factors; Metric and Other Physical Conversion Factors; Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal. A Glossary is included.

  5. Monthly energy review, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This publication contains statistical information and data analysis of energy production and consumption within the major energy industries of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy and oil and gas resource development. Energy production during October 1993 totaled 5.5-quadrillion Btu, a 3.0 percent decrease from the level of production during October 1992. Coal production decreased 5.6 percent, petroleum production decreased 3.4 percent, and natural gas production increased 1.9 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.0 percent from the level of production during October 1992. Energy consumption during October 1993 totaled 6.7 quadrillion Btu, 0.9 percent above the level of consumption during October 1992. Natural gas consumption increased 6.5 percent, coal consumption rose 2.9 percent, and petroleum consumption was down 1.3 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 5.5 percent from the level of 1 year earlier.

  6. Monthly energy review, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This publication contains statistical information and data analysis of energy production and consumption within the major energy industries of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy and oil and gas resource development. Energy production during October 1993 totaled 5.5-quadrillion Btu, a 3.0 percent decrease from the level of production during October 1992. Coal production decreased 5.6 percent, petroleum production decreased 3.4 percent, and natural gas production increased 1.9 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.0 percent from the level of production during October 1992. Energy consumption during October 1993 totaled 6.7 quadrillion Btu, 0.9 percent above the level of consumption during October 1992. Natural gas consumption increased 6.5 percent, coal consumption rose 2.9 percent, and petroleum consumption was down 1.3 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 5.5 percent from the level of 1 year earlier.

  7. Energy consumption: Past, present, future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The energy consumption history of the United States and the changes which could occur in consumption characteristics in the next 50 years are presented. The various sources of energy are analyzed to show the limitations involved in development and utilization as a function of time available. Several scenarios were prepared to show the consumption and supply of energy under varying conditions.

  8. Monthly energy review, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-26

    Energy production during April 1994 totaled 5.5 quadrillion Btu, a 2.2-percent increase from the level of production during April 1993. Coal production increased 11.8 percent, petroleum production fell 4.0 percent, and natural gas production decreased 0.3 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 2.9 percent from the level of production during April 1993. Energy consumption during April 1994 totaled 6.7 quadrillion Btu, 1.4 percent above the level of consumption during April 1993. Petroleum consumption increased 3.9 percent, coal consumption rose 1.1 percent, and natural gas consumption decreased 1.5 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 0.4 percent from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during April 1994 totaled 1.5 quadrillion Btu, 8.7 percent above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 4.5 percent, and net imports of natural gas were up 18.5 percent. Net exports of coal fell 9.2 percent from the level in April 1993.

  9. Monthly energy review, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Energy production during March 1994 totaled 5.9 quadrillion Btu, a 3.7-percent increase from the level of production during March 1993. Coal production increased 15.7 percent, petroleum production fell 4.1 percent, and natural gas production decreased 1.1 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were up 0.5 percent from the level of production during March 1993. Energy consumption during March 1994 totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 1.3 percent below the level of consumption during March 1993. Natural gas consumption decreased 3.6 percent, petroleum consumption fell 1.6 percent, and coal consumption remained the same. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined increased 3.7 percent from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during March 1994 totaled 1.5 quadrillion Btu, 6.7 percent above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 3.2 percent, and net imports of natural gas were up 15.7 percent. Net exports of coal rose 2.1 percent from the level in March 1993.

  10. Monthly energy review, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-29

    Energy production during May 1994 totaled 5.6 quadrillion Btu, a 2.4-percent increase from the level of production during May 1993. Coal production increased 13.3 percent, natural gas production rose 1.7 percent, and petroleum production decreased 2.5 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 8.3 percent from the level of production during May 1993. Energy consumption during May 1994 totaled 6.6 quadrillion Btu, 3.6 percent above the level of consumption during May 1993. Natural gas consumption increased 8.7 percent, coal consumption rose 4.6 percent, and petroleum consumption was up 3.6 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 5.8 percent from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during May 1994 totaled 1.5 quadrillion Btu, 14.3 percent above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 8.4 percent, and net imports of natural gas were up 23.2 percent. Net exports of coal fell 16.8 percent from the level in May 1993.

  11. Monthly energy review, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Energy production during March 1994 totaled 5.9 quadrillion Btu, a 3.7-percent increase from the level of production during March 1993. Coal production increased 15.7 percent, petroleum production fell 4.1 percent, and natural gas production decreased 1.1 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were up 0.5 percent from the level of production during March 1993. Energy consumption during March 1994 totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 1.3 percent below the level of consumption during March 1993. Natural gas consumption decreased 3.6 percent, petroleum consumption fell 1.6 percent, and coal consumption remained the same. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined increased 3.7 percent from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during March 1994 totaled 1.5 quadrillion Btu, 6.7 percent above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 3.2 percent, and net imports of natural gas were up 15.7 percent. Net exports of coal rose 2.1 percent from the level in March 1993.

  12. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  13. Energy Beverage Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Thomas E; Delorey, Donald R

    2016-06-01

    Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption. A 44-item survey was used to assess energy beverage consumption patterns of 302 students enrolled in the Aviation Preflight Indoctrination Course at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated that 79% of participants (N = 239) reported consuming energy beverages within the last year. However, of those who reported consuming energy beverages within the last year, only 36% (N = 85) reported consuming energy beverages within the last 30 d. Additionally, 51% (N = 153) of participants reported no regular energy beverages consumption. The majority of participants consumed energy beverages for mental alertness (67%), mental endurance (37%), and physical endurance (12%). The most reported side effects among participants included increased mental alertness (67%), increased heart rate (53%), and restlessness (41%). Naval aviation candidates appear to use energy drinks as frequently as a college student population, but less frequently than expected for an active duty military population. The findings of this study indicate that naval aviation candidates rarely use energy beverages (less than once per month), but when consumed, they use it for fatigue management.

  14. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  15. Monitoring Energy Consumption of Smartphones

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Fangwei; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Xuhai; Ma, Chengchuan

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of new and innovative applications for mobile devices like smartphones, advances in battery technology have not kept pace with rapidly growing energy demands. Thus energy consumption has become a more and more important issue of mobile devices. To meet the requirements of saving energy, it is critical to monitor and analyze the energy consumption of applications on smartphones. For this purpose, we develop a smart energy monitoring system called SEMO for smartphones using Android operating system. It can profile mobile applications with battery usage information, which is vital for both developers and users.

  16. Interactive energy consumption visualization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lunga, D

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available , Sweden; 2008 [4] Widen J, Wckelgard E. A high-resolution stochastic model of domestic activity patterns and electricity demand. Appl Energy, Volume 87, Pages 18801892, 2010. [5] Gyberg P, Palm J. Influencing households energy behavior: how is this done... and Social Change, Linkoping University, 581 83 Linkoping, Sweden [9] Ramik Sadana and John Stasko, Designing and Implementing an In- teractive Scatterplot Visualization for a Tablet Computer, International Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces...

  17. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consumption began exceeding planetary supply in 1977 and by 2030, global energy demand, population, and gross domestic product are projected to greatly increase over 1977 levels. With the aim of finding sustainable energy solutions, we present a simple yet rigorous procedure for assessing and counterbalancing the relationship between energy demand, environmental impact, population, GDP, and energy efficiency. Our analyses indicated that infeasible increases in energy efficiency (over 100 %) would be required by 2030 to return to 1977 environmental impact levels and annual reductions (2 and 3 %) in energy demand resulted in physical, yet impractical requirements; hence, a combination of policy and technology approaches is needed to tackle this critical challenge. This work emphasizes the difficulty in moving toward energy sustainability and helps to frame possible solutions useful for policy and management. Based on projected energy consumption, environmental impact, human population, gross domestic product (GDP), and energy efficiency, for this study, we explore the increase in energy-use efficiency and the decrease in energy use intensity required to achieve sustainable environmental impact le

  18. Greenhouse energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric van Steenis

    2009-01-01

    Depending on location and luck, natural gas rates have gone from less that CAN$ 3.00 to more than CAN$ 20.00/gigajoule (Gj). Natural gas rates are currently around CAN$ 13.00/Gj, although industry "analysts" predict an increase. A gigajoule is equivalent to the energy released by the combustion of approximately 30 L (8 gal) of gasoline. It is also equivalent...

  19. ANALYSIS OF TROLLEYBUS ENERGY CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Siemionek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing energy-saving solutions in vehicle construction and operation has become a priority in the automotive sector. For this reason, zero-emission and low-noise trolleybuses have started to play a significant role in urban public transportation. The paper discusses the methodology and results of energy consumption analysis for trolleybus travel on a determined route. For a given section of the route, energy recovery under braking was calculated.

  20. Historical monthly energy review, 1973--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Historical Monthly Energy Review (HMER) presents monthly and annual data from 1973 through 1992 on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities. This edition of the HMER extends the original HMER in several ways: (1) Four additional years of monthly data, 1989--1992, have been added. (2) This report fully replaces the earlier one; each data cell that has been revised since the original HMER is marked with an ``R`` so that changes can be quickly noted. (3) Section 1 has been expanded to include Tables 1.7--1.13, which were not available in the first HMER. (4) Tables 3.9 on propane and Table 4.3 on natural gas trade, which have been added to the MER since the release of the first HMER, are included in this edition. In addition, Table 10.4 on nuclear electricity gross generation has been reorganized to align more closely with the current presentation in the MER.

  1. Electric energy consumption in the cotton textile processing stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palamutcu, S. [Textile Engineering Department, Pamukkale University, Engineering Faculty, 20070 Kinikli, Denizli (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    Electric energy is one of the primary energy sources consumpted in cotton textile processing. Current energy cost rate is reported about 8-10% in the total production cost of an ordinary textile product manufactured in Turkey. Significantly important share of this energy cost is electric energy. The aim of this paper was to investigate unit electric energy consumption of cotton textile processing stages using real-time measurements method. Actual and estimated Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) values for electric energy was calculated in the cotton textile processing stages of spinning, warping-sizing, weaving, wet processing and clothing manufacturing. Actual electric energy consumption data are gathered from monthly records of the involved plant managements. Estimated electric energy consumption data is gathered through on-site measurement. Actual and estimated electric energy consumption data and monthly production quantities of the corresponding months are used to facilitate specific electric energy consumption of the plants. It is found that actual electric energy consumption amount per unit textile product is higher than the estimated electric energy consumption amount per unit textile product of each involved textile processing stages. (author)

  2. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  3. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  4. State energy data report 1992: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This is a report of energy consumption by state for the years 1960 to 1992. The report contains summaries of energy consumption for the US and by state, consumption by source, comparisons to other energy use reports, consumption by energy use sector, and describes the estimation methodologies used in the preparation of the report. Some years are not listed specifically although they are included in the summary of data.

  5. Monthly energy review, September 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities.

  6. Monthly energy review, September 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-26

    This publication presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities. 36 figs., 57 tabs.

  7. Monthly energy review, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-25

    This report presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities. 36 figs., 57 tabs.

  8. Monthly energy review, September 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-21

    This report presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities.

  9. Monthly energy review, July 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-24

    Energy production during April 1995 totaled 5.5 quadrillion Btu, a 1.0-percent decrease from the level of production during April 1994. Coal production decreased 7.7 percent, natural gas increased 1.3 percent, and production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids increased 0.3 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were up 8.6 percent from the level of production during April 1994.

  10. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  11. Data mining, mining data : energy consumption modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessureault, S. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Most modern mining operations are accumulating large amounts of data on production and business processes. Data, however, provides value only if it can be translated into information that appropriate users can utilize. This paper emphasized that a new technological focus should emerge, notably how to concentrate data into information; analyze information sufficiently to become knowledge; and, act on that knowledge. Researchers at the Mining Information Systems and Operations Management (MISOM) laboratory at the University of Arizona have created a method to transform data into action. The data-to-action approach was exercised in the development of an energy consumption model (ECM), in partnership with a major US-based copper mining company, 2 software companies, and the MISOM laboratory. The approach begins by integrating several key data sources using data warehousing techniques, and increasing the existing level of integration and data cleaning. An online analytical processing (OLAP) cube was also created to investigate the data and identify a subset of several million records. Data mining algorithms were applied using the information that was isolated by the OLAP cube. The data mining results showed that traditional cost drivers of energy consumption are poor predictors. A comparison was made between traditional methods of predicting energy consumption and the prediction formed using data mining. Traditionally, in the mines for which data were available, monthly averages of tons and distance are used to predict diesel fuel consumption. However, this article showed that new information technology can be used to incorporate many more variables into the budgeting process, resulting in more accurate predictions. The ECM helped mine planners improve the prediction of energy use through more data integration, measure development, and workflow analysis. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  13. Analysis of Energy Consumption in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhou; Tong Lizhi; Sun Juan

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1. Present characteristics of Beijing's energy consumption 1.1 The slowing of the growth in total energy consumption In 2008, Beijing's total energy consumption reached 63.437 million tons of standard coal, an increase of 586.6 thousand tons compared with the previous year. The increasing range was 1%, dropping 5.45% compared with the previous year, as shown in Figure 1. Since 2005, the annual growth rate of the total energy consumption showed a decreasing trend each year. The city's GDP over the same period reached RMB 1.048803 trillion, increasing 9%. The energy consumption rate fell clearly. In 2008, the energy consumption rate was 0.61 tons of standard coal per 10 thousand yuan GDP, a decline of 7.4%. It continued the favorable condition of 2007's energy saving.

  14. State energy data report 1993: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  15. State Energy Data Report, 1991: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to the Government, policy makers, and the public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  16. Simulation Tool For Energy Consumption and Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Michael; Mynderup, Henrik; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    the energy consumption in smart homes. This paper presents a prototype simulation tool that allows graphical modeling of a home. Based on the modeled homes the user is able to simulate the energy consumptions and compare scenarios. The simulations are based on dynamic weather and energy price data as well...

  17. "Movable platform" - the idea and energy consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Czesław PYPNO; Margielewicz, Jerzy; Gąska, Damian

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the concept of moving sidewalks at railway stations (the movable platform) including the calculation of electricity consumption. Particular focus was placed on issue of energy profit and loss in two stages - through the loss (consumption) of energy by using a moving sidewalk at a railway station platform and the profit (reduced consumption) of energy, by the lack of having to start the train, that supports movable platform, from the initial speed of 0 km/h.

  18. Energy drinks consumption in male construction workers, Chonburi province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Khobjit, Pattama; Veerachai, Viroj; Sujirarat, Dusit

    2004-12-01

    This unmatched case-control study aimed to determine the relationship among caffeine drinks consumption known as "energy drinks consumption", drug dependence and related factors in male construction workers in Chonburi Province. It was conducted during December 15, 2001 and February 15, 2002. Data were collected using interview questionnaires. The logistic regression was used to control possible confounding factors. The subjects consisted of 186 cases who had consumed energy drinks for more than 3 months and 186 controls who had given up for more than 3 months. They were frequency/group matched by age group. There was statistically significant association among energy drinks consumption and overtime work, motivation from advertisements, positive attitude of energy drinks consumption, alcohol drinks, smoking and ex-taking Kratom behavior. Multivariate analyses revealed that only 5 factors were related to energy drinks consumption: marital status (OR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.14, 3.11), overtime work (OR = 2.84, 95%CI: 1.73, 4.64), motivation from advertisements (OR = 2.72, 95%CI: 1.67, 4.42), positive attitude of energy drinks consumption (OR = 4.06, 95%CI: 1.65, 10.01) and ex-taking Kratom behavior (OR = 2.77, 95%CI: 1.19, 6.44). As a result, construction workers should be provided with the knowledge of energy drinks consumption, the effect of drug dependence behavior, and the advantages of safe and healthy food that is cheap, readily available, and rich in nutrients.

  19. State energy data report 1994: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This document provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), operated by EIA. SEDS provides State energy consumption estimates to members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and provides the historical series needed for EIA`s energy models. Division is made for each energy type and end use sector. Nuclear electric power is included.

  20. State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs.

  1. Consumption of energy drinks among physical education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballistreri, Martha Carmen; Corradi-Webster, Clarissa Mendonça

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive and cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the pattern of energy drinks consumption in a sample of physical education students through a self-applied questionnaire (socio-demographic data and characterization of consumption). Variables associated with consumption: gender, marital status, attending gym classes, athletic swim practice, and study in the morning. Consumption pattern (n=137): 2.2% once in their lives, 9.5% at least once in the last 12 months, 38% at least once in the last month, 39.4% six times or more in the last month, 10.9% 20 times or more in the last month. Justification for consumption: 54% to improve the taste of alcoholic drinks, 27.7% to extend their evening leisure periods, 13.9% to improve sports performance, 9.5% for stimulation, 8.8% enjoy the taste, 6.6% for curiosity and 4.4% to study. Of those who consumed energy drinks, 87.6% mixed it with alcohol, and 25.9% of the students reported they consume more alcohol when it is mixed with energy drinks. the consumption of energy drinks is associated to sports and drinking alcohol.

  2. Energy Consumption in Cloud Computing Data Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchechukwu Awada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of cloud computing has attracted computing as a utility and enables penetrative applications from scientific, consumer and business domains. However, this implementation faces tremendous energy consumption, carbon dioxide emission and associated costs concerns. With energy consumption becoming key issue for the operation and maintenance of cloud datacenters, cloud computing providers are becoming profoundly concerned.  In this paper, we present formulations and solutions for Green Cloud Environments (GCE to minimize its environmental impact and energy consumption under new models by considering static and dynamic portions of cloud components. Our proposed methodology captures cloud computing data centers and presents a generic model for them. To implement this objective, an in-depth knowledge of energy consumption patterns in cloud environment is necessary. We investigate energy consumption patterns and show that by applying suitable optimization policies directed through our energy consumption models, it is possible to save 20% of energy consumption in cloud data centers. Our research results can be integrated into cloud computing systems to monitor energy consumption and support static and dynamic system level-optimization.

  3. Electricity's "Disappearing Act": Understanding Energy Consumption and Phantom Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, Bryan; Mahfouz, Tarek; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Energy exists in many forms and can be converted from one form to another. However, this conversion is not 100% efficient, and energy is lost in the form of heat during conversion. In addition, approximately 6% of the monthly consumption of the average American household's electricity is neither lost nor used by its residents. These losses are…

  4. Electricity's "Disappearing Act": Understanding Energy Consumption and Phantom Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, Bryan; Mahfouz, Tarek; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Energy exists in many forms and can be converted from one form to another. However, this conversion is not 100% efficient, and energy is lost in the form of heat during conversion. In addition, approximately 6% of the monthly consumption of the average American household's electricity is neither lost nor used by its residents. These losses are…

  5. Modeling and Optimization for Piercing Energy Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Dong; PAN Xiao-li; YUAN Yong; MAO Zhi-zhong; WANG Fu-li

    2009-01-01

    Energy consumption is an important quality index in the production of seamless tubes. The complex factors affecting energy consumption make it difficult to build its mechanism model, and optimization is also very difficult, if not impossible. The piercing process was divided into three parts based on the production process, and an energy consumption prediction model was proposed based on the step mean value staged multiway partial least square meth-od. On the basis of the batch process prediction model, a genetic algorithm was adopted to calculate the optimum mean value of each process parameter and the minimum piercing energy consumption. Simulation proves that the op-timization method based on the energy consumption prediction model can obtain the optimum process parameters ef-fectively and also provide reliable evidences for practical production.

  6. Calculations of energy consumption in ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreslins, Andris; Ramata, Anna [Riga Technical University (Latvia)], e-mail: kreslins@rbf.rtu.lv, email: Anna.Ramata@rtu.lv

    2011-07-01

    Energy cost is an important economic factor in the food industry production process. With the rising price of energy, a reduction in energy consumption would greatly impact production and the end product. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for optimizing energy consumption. A comparison between a traditional ventilation system and a mechanical system was carried out; the necessary enthalpy for heating the air supply and thermal energy consumption were calculated and compared for both systems during the heating season, from October to April, using climatological data for Latvia. Results showed that energy savings of 46% to 87% can be achieved by applying the methodology in the design of industrial buildings; in addition, a well-designed ventilation system increases the workers' productivity. This study presented a methodology which can optimize energy consumption in the food industry sector.

  7. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  8. Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-06

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large.

  9. Energy consumption projection of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    differing from each other on the basis of growth rates of economic indicators: total GDP, GDP-agriculture, GDP-trade, GDP-industry, and other variables including growth in private consumptions, population, transport vehicles numbers, prices of fossil fuels etc. Scenarios are: Business as Usual (BAU), Medium...

  10. Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yan; WANG Ling; YANG Xiao-zong; WEN Dong-xin

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be used to collect surrounding data by multi-hop. As sensor networks have the constrained and not rechargeable energy resource, energy efficiency is an important design issue for its topology. In this paper, the energy consumption issue under the different topology is studied. We derive the exact mathematical expression of energy consumption for the fiat and clustering scheme, respectively. Then the energy consumptions of different schemes are compared. By the comparison, multi-level clustering scheme is more energy efficient in large scale networks. Simulation results demonstrate that our analysis is correct from the view of prolonging the large-scale network lifetime and achieving more power reductions.

  11. Uncertainty analysis of energy consumption in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Trine Dyrstad

    1997-12-31

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study of an energy estimation model that can be used to examine the uncertainty of predicted energy consumption in a dwelling. The variation and uncertainty of input parameters due to the outdoor climate, the building construction and the inhabitants are studied as a basis for further energy evaluations. The occurring variations of energy consumption in nominal similar dwellings are also investigated due to verification of the simulated energy consumption. The main topics are (1) a study of expected variations and uncertainties in both input parameters used in energy consumption calculations and the energy consumption in the dwelling, (2) the development and evaluation of a simplified energy calculation model that considers uncertainties due to the input parameters, (3) an evaluation of the influence of the uncertain parameters on the total variation so that the most important parameters can be identified, and (4) the recommendation of a simplified procedure for treating uncertainties or possible deviations from average conditions. 90 refs., 182 figs., 73 tabs.

  12. Energy consumption for shortcuts to adiabaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrontegui, E.; Lizuain, I.; González-Resines, S.; Tobalina, A.; Ruschhaupt, A.; Kosloff, R.; Muga, J. G.

    2017-08-01

    Shortcuts to adiabaticity let a system reach the results of a slow adiabatic process in a shorter time. We propose to quantify the "energy cost" of the shortcut by the energy consumption of the system enlarged by including the control device. A mechanical model where the dynamics of the system and control device can be explicitly described illustrates that a broad range of possible values for the consumption is possible, including zero (above the adiabatic energy increment) when friction is negligible and the energy given away as negative power is stored and reused by perfect regenerative braking.

  13. Energy consumption for different greenhouses' structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đević Milan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper influence of greenhouses' structure was estimated for four different double plastic covered greenhouses in winter lettuce production. Plastic coverings are introduced as mean of making this kind of plant production more efficient. Also, as a mean of lowering energy consumption, the tunnel structures are proposed. Four different double plastic covered greenhouses were used for energy analysis. Two tunnel types, 9 x 58m and 8 x 25m covered with double PE folia, and two gutter connected plastic covered greenhouses. One greenhouse is 2 x 7 m wide and 39 m long and the other 20 x 6.4 m wide and 42 m long. Results have shown the lowest energy consumption for gutter connected greenhouses. Energy out/in ratio was also higher in gutter connected greenhouse. Highest energy consumption was obtained in tunnel greenhouse 8 x 25m.

  14. Flexible Energy Consumption in Smart House's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    2012-01-01

    the consumer have to use the energy when it is available. The main electrical energy consumer in a modern society is buildings and private homes. The amount of electrical energy used in this sector is about 70% of the total electricity consumption. Because of that buildings and private homes has to play...... an automatic and inteligente house control system that maximize the consumption exibility based on the energy users behavior with out aection the living comfort. This behavior is of course dierent from household to household, because of that it is nessasary include an adaptive behavior prediction system......The last couple of years more and more non-controllable energy sources, e.g. wind turbines, have been connected to the power grid. This has caused an inecient energy production and a huge variation in the energy prices. In the near future (10 to 15 years) the amount of non-controllable energy...

  15. The Comfortable Home and Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Valdorff

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates relations between notions of comfort and notions of home, aiming at a better understanding of residential comfort and the related energy consumption. Residential comfort is examined through a practice-theoretical lens and as something that appears in between the social...... concludes that the notion of home is central in understanding comfort and energy consumption in dwellings, as conceptions of comfort and home are intertwined but also carry different meanings. The different rooms of a house relate differently to the notions of home and comfort, which has implications...... for how energy is consumed within the home....

  16. ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND REAL GDP IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Naji Meidani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important production factors and one of the most urgent final products, energy has a special position in the growth and development of the country. This paper examines the causal relationship between Real GDP and energy consumption in various economic sectors including (household and commercial, industry, transportation and agriculture sectors for Iran during 1967–2010 using the time series technique known as the Toda-Yamamoto method. Moreover, an error correction model is also estimated so that the results of these two methods are compared. We found a strong unidirectional causality from energy consumption in industry sector to real gross domestic product. Energy consumption in industry sector can observably promote the development of economy.

  17. A review on buildings energy consumption information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lombard, Luis [Grupo de Termotecnia, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Ortiz, Jose; Pout, Christine [Sustainable Energy Centre, BRE, Watford (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    The rapidly growing world energy use has already raised concerns over supply difficulties, exhaustion of energy resources and heavy environmental impacts (ozone layer depletion, global warming, climate change, etc.). The global contribution from buildings towards energy consumption, both residential and commercial, has steadily increased reaching figures between 20% and 40% in developed countries, and has exceeded the other major sectors: industrial and transportation. Growth in population, increasing demand for building services and comfort levels, together with the rise in time spent inside buildings, assure the upward trend in energy demand will continue in the future. For this reason, energy efficiency in buildings is today a prime objective for energy policy at regional, national and international levels. Among building services, the growth in HVAC systems energy use is particularly significant (50% of building consumption and 20% of total consumption in the USA). This paper analyses available information concerning energy consumption in buildings, and particularly related to HVAC systems. Many questions arise: Is the necessary information available? Which are the main building types? What end uses should be considered in the breakdown? Comparisons between different countries are presented specially for commercial buildings. The case of offices is analysed in deeper detail. (author)

  18. Energy consumption, cultural background and payment structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beunder, Alexander; Groot, Loek

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce the ecological footprint of households and mitigate anthropogenic climate change, policy makers need to understand which incentives drive household energy consumption. Economists tend to rely solely on financial instruments, but these might have unintended consequences on energy c

  19. Analysis and Optimization of Building Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Jun Wei

    Energy is one of the most important resources required by modern human society. In 2010, energy expenditures represented 10% of global gross domestic product (GDP). By 2035, global energy consumption is expected to increase by more than 50% from current levels. The increased pace of global energy consumption leads to significant environmental and socioeconomic issues: (i) carbon emissions, from the burning of fossil fuels for energy, contribute to global warming, and (ii) increased energy expenditures lead to reduced standard of living. Efficient use of energy, through energy conservation measures, is an important step toward mitigating these effects. Residential and commercial buildings represent a prime target for energy conservation, comprising 21% of global energy consumption and 40% of the total energy consumption in the United States. This thesis describes techniques for the analysis and optimization of building energy consumption. The thesis focuses on building retrofits and building energy simulation as key areas in building energy optimization and analysis. The thesis first discusses and evaluates building-level renewable energy generation as a solution toward building energy optimization. The thesis next describes a novel heating system, called localized heating. Under localized heating, building occupants are heated individually by directed radiant heaters, resulting in a considerably reduced heated space and significant heating energy savings. To support localized heating, a minimally-intrusive indoor occupant positioning system is described. The thesis then discusses occupant-level sensing (OLS) as the next frontier in building energy optimization. OLS captures the exact environmental conditions faced by each building occupant, using sensors that are carried by all building occupants. The information provided by OLS enables fine-grained optimization for unprecedented levels of energy efficiency and occupant comfort. The thesis also describes a retrofit

  20. A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter-Aeby Tracy

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Energy drink consumption has continued to gain in popularity since the 1997 debut of Red Bull, the current leader in the energy drink market. Although energy drinks are targeted to young adult consumers, there has been little research regarding energy drink consumption patterns among college students in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine energy drink consumption patterns among college students, prevalence and frequency of energy drink use for six situations, namely for insufficient sleep, to increase energy (in general, while studying, driving long periods of time, drinking with alcohol while partying, and to treat a hangover, and prevalence of adverse side effects and energy drink use dose effects among college energy drink users. Methods Based on the responses from a 32 member college student focus group and a field test, a 19 item survey was used to assess energy drink consumption patterns of 496 randomly surveyed college students attending a state university in the Central Atlantic region of the United States. Results Fifty one percent of participants (n = 253 reported consuming greater than one energy drink each month in an average month for the current semester (defined as energy drink user. The majority of users consumed energy drinks for insufficient sleep (67%, to increase energy (65%, and to drink with alcohol while partying (54%. The majority of users consumed one energy drink to treat most situations although using three or more was a common practice to drink with alcohol while partying (49%. Weekly jolt and crash episodes were experienced by 29% of users, 22% reported ever having headaches, and 19% heart palpitations from consuming energy drinks. There was a significant dose effect only for jolt and crash episodes. Conclusion Using energy drinks is a popular practice among college students for a variety of situations. Although for the majority of situations assessed, users consumed one

  1. Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, R.J.; Gregg, Jay Sterling; Losey, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950–2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80...... reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined...... with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models....

  2. The effect of energy performance regulations on energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerra-Santin, O.; Itard, L.

    2012-01-01

    Governments have developed energy performance regulations in order to lower energy consumption in the housing stock. Most of these regulations are based on the thermal quality of the buildings. In the Netherlands, the energy efficiency for new buildings is expressed as the EPC (energy performance co

  3. The effect of energy performance regulations on energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerra-Santin, O.; Itard, L.

    2012-01-01

    Governments have developed energy performance regulations in order to lower energy consumption in the housing stock. Most of these regulations are based on the thermal quality of the buildings. In the Netherlands, the energy efficiency for new buildings is expressed as the EPC (energy performance co

  4. The effect of energy performance regulations on energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerra-Santin, O.; Itard, L.

    2012-01-01

    Governments have developed energy performance regulations in order to lower energy consumption in the housing stock. Most of these regulations are based on the thermal quality of the buildings. In the Netherlands, the energy efficiency for new buildings is expressed as the EPC (energy performance

  5. Computer simulated building energy consumption for verification of energy conservation measures in network facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plankey, B.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program called ECPVER (Energy Consumption Program - Verification) was developed to simulate all energy loads for any number of buildings. The program computes simulated daily, monthly, and yearly energy consumption which can be compared with actual meter readings for the same time period. Such comparison can lead to validation of the model under a variety of conditions, which allows it to be used to predict future energy saving due to energy conservation measures. Predicted energy saving can then be compared with actual saving to verify the effectiveness of those energy conservation changes. This verification procedure is planned to be an important advancement in the Deep Space Network Energy Project, which seeks to reduce energy cost and consumption at all DSN Deep Space Stations.

  6. Energy Consumption of Fast Ferries in Danish Domestic Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Steen; Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of energy consumption in connection with selected passenger transport trip chains. In particular the publication aims to evaluate the energy consumption of fast ferries in Denmark.......Analysis of energy consumption in connection with selected passenger transport trip chains. In particular the publication aims to evaluate the energy consumption of fast ferries in Denmark....

  7. Scheduling home-appliances to optimize energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana

    In order to optimize the energy consumption, energy demand peaks should be avoided, and energy consumption should be smoothly distributed over time. This can be achieved by setting a maximum energy consumption per user’s household. In other words, the overall consumption of the user’s appliances ...

  8. Energy Consumption of Fast Ferries in Danish Domestic Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Steen; Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of energy consumption in connection with selected passenger transport trip chains. In particular the publication aims to evaluate the energy consumption of fast ferries in Denmark.......Analysis of energy consumption in connection with selected passenger transport trip chains. In particular the publication aims to evaluate the energy consumption of fast ferries in Denmark....

  9. Scheduling home-appliances to optimize energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana

    In order to optimize the energy consumption, energy demand peaks should be avoided, and energy consumption should be smoothly distributed over time. This can be achieved by setting a maximum energy consumption per user’s household. In other words, the overall consumption of the user’s appliances...

  10. A Meta Model for Domestic Energy Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.,J SREEKANTH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of energy consumption particularly in micro level is of vital importance in terms of energy planning and also implementation of any Clean Development Mechanism (CDM activities that has become the order of the world today. It may be difficult to model household energy consumption using conventional methods such as time series forecasting due to many influencing factors. This paper presents a step wise regression model for forecasting domestic energy consumption based on micro level household survey data collected from Kerala, a state in southern part of India. The analysis of the data reveals significant influence of socio-economic, demographic, geographic, and family attributes upon total household energy requirements. While a wide variation in the pattern of energy requirements across the domestic sector belonging to different expenditure classes, per capita income level can be identified as the most important explanatory variable influencing variation in energy requirements. The models developed also demonstrates the influence of per capita land area, residential area among the higher income group while average age and literacy forms significant variables among the lower income group.

  11. Computer Profile of School Facilities Energy Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, Felix E.

    This document outlines a computerized management tool designed to enable building managers to identify energy consumption as related to types and uses of school facilities for the purpose of evaluating and managing the operation, maintenance, modification, and planning of new facilities. Specifically, it is expected that the statistics generated…

  12. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consump...

  13. Energy consumption in static muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerhuis, CL; Hof, AL; van der Heide, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Energy consumption during static contraction of the human triceps surae muscles was studied in 11 healthy subjects. The subjects had to stand intermittently on the left and then right foot at different frequencies (for periods of 15 s, 10 s or 5 s), first on the whole foot and then on the forefoot.

  14. Energy consumption in static muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerhuis, CL; Hof, AL; van der Heide, F.M.

    Energy consumption during static contraction of the human triceps surae muscles was studied in 11 healthy subjects. The subjects had to stand intermittently on the left and then right foot at different frequencies (for periods of 15 s, 10 s or 5 s), first on the whole foot and then on the forefoot.

  15. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consump...

  16. Energy consumption in the pipeline industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-12-31

    Estimates are developed of the energy consumption and energy intensity (EI) of five categories of U.S. pipeline industries: natural gas, crude oil, petroleum products, coal slurry, and water. For comparability with other transportation modes, it is desirable to calculate EI in Btu/Ton-Mile, and this is done, although the necessary unit conversions introduce additional uncertainties. Since water and sewer lines operate by lift and gravity, a comparable EI is not definable.

  17. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  18. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  19. Dwelling Buildings’ Energy Certification by Total Energy Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Belindževa-Korkla, O; Krēsliņš, A; Borodiņecs, A

    2005-01-01

    One of the requirements of the Directive 2002/91/EC on the energy performance of buildings is introduction in the EU member countries of energy certification of buildings. It has to be implemented starting from 2006. In Latvia the energy certification scheme for dwelling buildings was developed in RTU in 2000 and successfully implemented in Ogre in 2002-2004. The existing buildings’ energy certification scheme takes into account only energy consumption of space heating and hot water supply. I...

  20. Is the Consumption of Energy Drinks Associated With Academic Achievement Among College Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Sara E; Pasch, Keryn E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-08-01

    Despite widely reported side effects, use of energy drinks has increased among college students, who report that they consume energy drinks to help them complete schoolwork. However, little is known about the association between energy drink use and academic performance. We explored the relationship between energy drink consumption and current academic grade point average (GPA) among first-year undergraduate students. Participants included 844 first-year undergraduates (58.1 % female; 50.7 % White). Students reported their health behaviors via an online survey. We measured energy drink consumption with two measures: past month consumption by number of drinks usually consumed in 1 month and number consumed during the last occasion of consumption. We used multiple linear regression modeling with energy drink consumption and current GPA, controlling for gender, race, weekend and weekday sleep duration, perceived stress, perceived stress management, media use, and past month alcohol use. We found that past month energy drink consumption quantity by frequency (p consumption (p = 0.01) remained significantly associated with a lower GPA when controlling for alcohol use. While students report using energy drinks for school-related reasons, our findings suggest that greater energy drink consumption is associated with a lower GPA, even after controlling for potential confounding variables. Longitudinal research is needed that addresses whether GPA declines after continued use of energy drinks or if students struggling academically turn to energy drinks to manage their schoolwork.

  1. Simulation Tool For Energy Consumption and Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Michael; Mynderup, Henrik; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    In order to promote adoption of smart grid with the general public it is necessary to be able to visualize the benefits of a smart home. Software tools that model the effects can help significantly with this. However, only little work has been done in the area of simulating and visualizing...... the energy consumption in smart homes. This paper presents a prototype simulation tool that allows graphical modeling of a home. Based on the modeled homes the user is able to simulate the energy consumptions and compare scenarios. The simulations are based on dynamic weather and energy price data as well...... as a controller unit of the user’s choice. The results of the simulations can be compared using a dynamic reporting window that allows the user to create custom charts of the data. The application has been designed such that it can easily be extended with additional controller units, price and weather data...

  2. Dairy consumption and cardiometabolic health: outcomes of a 12-month crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crichton Georgina E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of research suggests that regular consumption of dairy foods may counteract obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome. However, human intervention trials are lacking. We aimed to determine the cardiometabolic health effects of increasing the consumption of reduced fat dairy foods in adults with habitually low dairy intakes in the absence of energy restriction. Methods An intervention trial was undertaken in 61 overweight or obese adults who were randomly assigned to a high dairy diet (HD, 4 serves of reduced fat dairy/day or a low dairy control diet (LD, ≤1 serve/day for 6 months then crossed over to the alternate diet for a further 6 months. A range of anthropometric and cardiometabolic parameters including body composition, metabolic rate, blood lipids, blood pressure and arterial compliance were assessed at the end of each diet phase. Results Total energy intake was 1120 kJ/day higher during the HD phase, resulting in slight weight gain during this period. However, there were no significant differences between HD and LD in absolute measures of waist circumference, body weight, fat mass or any other cardiometabolic parameter. Conclusion Recommended intakes of reduced fat dairy products may be incorporated into the diet of overweight adults without adversely affecting markers of cardiometabolic health. Trial Registration The trial was registered with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12608000538347 on 24th October, 2008.

  3. Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2012-09-04

    Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods are described. According to one aspect, an electrical energy consumption control apparatus includes processing circuitry configured to receive a signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by a plurality of loads at a site, to compare the signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by the plurality of loads at the site with a desired substantially sinusoidal waveform of current of electrical energy which is received at the site from an electrical power system, and to use the comparison to control an amount of the electrical energy which is consumed by at least one of the loads of the site.

  4. An analysis of residential energy consumption in a temperate climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Y.Y.; Vincent, W.

    1987-06-01

    Electrical energy consumption data have been recorded for several hundred submetered residential structures in Middle Tennessee. All houses were constructed with a common energy package.'' Specifically, daily cooling usage data have been collected for 130 houses for the 1985 and 1986 cooling seasons, and monthly heating usage data for 186 houses have been recorded by occupant participation over a seven-year period. Cooling data have been analyzed using an SPSSx multiple regression analysis and results are compared to several cooling models. Heating, base, and total energy usage are also analyzed and regression correlation coefficients are determined as a function of several house parameters.

  5. Energy-drink consumption in college students and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attila, Sema; Çakir, Banu

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the frequency of energy-drink consumption and associated factors in a group of college students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Hacettepe University (Ankara, Turkey) and included 439 students pursuing a career in medicine, sports, and arts. Only fourth-year students were approached. Data were collected using a self-administered standard questionnaire. In bivariate analyses, frequency of energy-drink consumption was higher in students of arts and sports and in those who did not have breakfast on a regular basis, ever smoked cigarettes, drank alcoholic beverages, and regularly engaged in sports compared with their counterparts. Many students who had "ever" tried an energy drink did so the first time because they wondered about its taste. Of regular users of energy drinks, reasons for using such drinks varied across the three selected groups of students and included obtaining getting energy, staying awake, boosting performance while doing sports, or mixing with alcoholic beverages. About 40% of all current users of energy drinks reported that they mixed those with alcoholic beverages. In multivariate analyses, statistically significant predictors of energy-drink consumption were faculty type, presence of any health insurance, use of alcoholic beverages, and monthly income, controlling for gender. Most students could not correctly define the ingredients of energy drinks or their potential hazardous health effects, and they could not distinguish energy and sports drinks when they were requested to select them from a list of commercial names of various drinks. Consumption of energy drinks, despite the variation in the reason for choosing such drinks, is quite common in college students. Awareness of university students of the ingredients and potential health hazards of energy drinks, in particular in mixing with alcoholic beverages, should be increased. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Assessing the Energy Consumption of Smartphone Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abousaleh, Mustafa M.

    Mobile devices are increasingly becoming essential in people's lives. The advancement in technology and mobility factor are allowing users to utilize mobile devices for communication, entertainment, financial planning, fitness tracking, etc. As a result, mobile applications are also becoming important factors contributing to user utility. However, battery capacity is the limiting factor impacting the quality of user experience. Hence, it is imperative to understand how much energy impact do mobile apps have on the system relative to other device activities. This thesis presents a systematic studying of the energy impact of mobile apps features. Time-series electrical current measurements are collected from 4 different modern smartphones. Statistical analysis methodologies are used to calculate the energy impact of each app feature by identifying and extracting mobile app-feature events from the overall current signal. In addition, the app overhead energy costs are also computed. Total energy consumption equations for each component is developed and an overall total energy consumption equation is presented. Minutes Lost (ML) of normal phone operations due to the energy consumption of the mobile app functionality is computed for cases where the mobile app is simulated to run on the various devices for 30 minutes. Tutela Technologies Inc. mobile app, NAT, is used for this study. NAT has two main features: QoS and Throughput. The impact of the QoS feature is indistinguishable, i.e. ML is zero, relative to other phone activities. The ML with only the TP feature enabled is on average 2.1 minutes. Enabling the GPS increases the ML on average to 11.5 minutes. Displaying the app GUI interface in addition to running the app features and enabling the GPS results in an average ML of 12.4 minutes. Amongst the various mobile app features and components studied, the GPS consumes the highest amount of energy. It is estimated that the GPS increases the ML by about 448%.

  7. Chinese kangs and building energy consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YuGuo; ZHUANG Zhi; LIU JiaPing

    2009-01-01

    Chinese kangs are an integrated system for cooking, sleeping and heating in rural Northern China with more than 2000 years history. In 2004 there were 67 million Chinese kangs used by 44 million rural families or 174 million people. Chinese kangs store surplus heat from stove during cooking and releases it later for both home heating and localized bed heating. Such a widely used heating system has been rarely studied. Understanding kangs is important for developing new effective home heating systems for better energy efficiency and improving indoor air quality in Northern China. In this paper,we review and present some preliminary results from our field measurement and mathematical modeling, and discuss the development of Chinese kangs as related to future energy consumption in rural homes, and building energy consumption in China in general. We suggest that transition and new technologies for rural home heating in Northern China, i.e. the future of Chinese kangs, should be considered as the top priority in managing future building energy consumption in China.

  8. Urban transport energy consumption: Belgrade case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the global population now lives in towns and cities. At the same time, transport has become the highest single energy-consuming human activity. Hence, one of the major topics today is the reduction of urban transport demand and of energy consumption in cities. In this article we focused on the whole package of instruments that can reduce energy consumption and transport demand in Belgrade, a city that is currently at a major crossroad. Belgrade can prevent a dramatic increase in energy consumption and CO2 emissions (and mitigate the negative local environmental effects of traffic congestion, traffic accidents and air pollution, only if it: 1 implements a more decisive strategy to limit private vehicles use while its level of car passenger km (PKT is still relatively low; 2 does not try to solve its transport problems only by trying to build urban road infrastructure (bridges and ring roads; and 3 if it continues to provide priority movement for buses (a dominant form of public transport, while 4 at the same time developing urban rail systems (metro or LRT with exclusive tracks, immune to the traffic congestion on urban streets. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  9. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems. The assessed options included conventional centralized services and four alternative options following the principles of source-separation and water fit-for-purpose. The comparative life cycle assessment identified that centralized drinking water supply coupled with blackwater energy recovery and on-site greywater treatment and reuse was the most energyand carbon-efficient water service system evaluated, while the conventional (drinking water and sewerage) centralized system ranked as the most energy- and carbon-intensive system. The electricity generated from blackwater and food residuals co-digestion was estimated to offset at least 40% of life cycle energy consumption for water/waste services. The dry composting toilet option demonstrated the lowest life cycle eutrophication potential. The nutrients in wastewater effluent are the dominating contributors for the eutrophication potential for the assessed system configurations. Among the parameters for which variability

  10. Energy consumption in residential building: The effect of appliances and human behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, K. A.; Hariri, Azian; Leman, A. M.; Yusof, M. Z. M.; Najib, M. N. M.

    2017-04-01

    Electricity is the predominant energy source used in these buildings. Therefore, energy management in residential buildings requires serious attention to ensure the energy consumption in residential building have been managed properly. Currently, the unstable of fuel price give the big impact to electricity price. Due to the issue, consumers require to use electricity more wisely. Using energy efficiently is one of the solution to reduce energy consumption. This paper aims to propose an initiative strategy for energy management system based on an analysis of energy consumption in residential building. The level of energy consumption among the occupants was found by obtaining electricity bills and distributing a questionnaire. A case study was carried out in selected areas in the Southern Zone of Peninsular Malaysia. The results of the study show that energy consumption was significant increased by month and the EEES as one of energy management system was suggested.

  11. Energy consumption and income. A semiparametric panel data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen-Van, Phu [BETA, CNRS and Universite de Strasbourg, 61 avenue de la Foret Noire, F-67085 Strasbourg (France)

    2010-05-15

    This paper proposes a semiparametric analysis for the study of the relationship between energy consumption per capita and income per capita for an international panel dataset. It shows little evidence for the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve for energy consumption. Energy consumption increases with income for a majority of countries and then stabilizes for very high income countries. Neither changes in energy structure nor macroeconomic cycle/technological change have significant effect on energy consumption. (author)

  12. Using LEDs to reduce energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eweni, Chukwuebuka E.

    The most popularly used light bulb in homes is the incandescent. It is also the least energy efficient. The filament in the bulb is so thin that it causes resistance in the electricity, which in turn causes the electricity's energy to form heat. This causes the incandescent to waste a lot of energy forming heat rather than forming the light. It uses 15 lumens per watt of input power. A recorded MATLAB demonstration showcased LED versatility and how it can be used by an Arduino UNO board. The objective of this thesis is to showcase how LEDs can reduce energy consumption through the use of an Arduino UNO board and MATLAB and to discuss the applications of LED. LED will be the future of lighting homes and will eventually completely incandescent bulbs when companies begin to make the necessary improvements to the LED.

  13. Determinants of household energy consumption in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekholm, Tommi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); TKK Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Krey, Volker; Pachauri, Shonali; Riahi, Keywan [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    2010-10-15

    Improving access to affordable modern energy is critical to improving living standards in the developing world. Rural households in India, in particular, are almost entirely reliant on traditional biomass for their basic cooking energy needs. This has adverse effects on their health and productivity, and also causes environmental degradation. This study presents a new generic modelling approach, with a focus on cooking fuel choices, and explores response strategies for energy poverty eradication in India. The modelling approach analyzes the determinants of fuel consumption choices for heterogeneous household groups, incorporating the effect of income distributions and traditionally more intangible factors such as preferences and private discount rates. The methodology is used to develop alternate future scenarios that explore how different policy mechanisms such as fuel subsidies and micro-financing can enhance the diffusion of modern, more efficient, energy sources in India. (author)

  14. Global energy consumption for direct water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Hejazi, M. I.; Kim, S. H.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Miralles, D. G.; Teuling, R.; He, Y.; Niyogi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Despite significant efforts to quantify the mutual inter-dependence of the water and energy sectors, global energy for water (EFW) remains poorly understood, resulting in biases in energy accounting that directly affect water and energy management and policy. We firstly evaluate the global energy consumption for direct water use from 1973 to 2012 with sectoral, regional and process-level details. Over the 40-year period, we detected multiple shifts in EFW by county and region. For example, we find that India, the Middle East and China have surpassed the United States as the three largest consumers of EFW since 2003, mostly because of rapid growth in groundwater-based irrigation, desalination, and industrial and municipal water use, respectively. Globally, EFW accounts for 1-3% of total primary energy consumption in 2010, of which 52% is surface water, 36% is groundwater, and 12% is non-fresh water. The sectoral allocation of EFW includes municipal (45%), industrial (29%), and agricultural use (26%), and process-level contributions are from source/conveyance (41%), water purification (19%), water distribution (13%) and wastewater treatment (22%). Our evaluation suggests that the EFW may increase in importance in the future due to growth in population and income, and depletion of surface and shallow aquifer water resources in water-scarce regions. We are incorporating this element into an integrated assessment model (IAM) and linking it back to energy balance within that IAM. By doing this, we will then explore the impacts of EFW on the global energy market (e.g., changes in the share of groundwater use and desalination), and the uncertainty of future EFW under different shared social pathway (SSP) and representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios, and consequences on the emission of greenhouse gases as well. We expect these EFW induced impacts will be considerable, and will then have significant implications for adaptive management and policy making.

  15. Electricity Demand and Energy Consumption Management System

    CERN Document Server

    Sarmiento, Juan Ojeda

    2008-01-01

    This project describes the electricity demand and energy consumption management system and its application to the Smelter Plant of Southern Peru. It is composted of an hourly demand-forecasting module and of a simulation component for a plant electrical system. The first module was done using dynamic neural networks, with backpropagation training algorithm; it is used to predict the electric power demanded every hour, with an error percentage below of 1%. This information allows management the peak demand before this happen, distributing the raise of electric load to other hours or improving those equipments that increase the demand. The simulation module is based in advanced estimation techniques, such as: parametric estimation, neural network modeling, statistic regression and previously developed models, which simulates the electric behavior of the smelter plant. These modules allow the proper planning because it allows knowing the behavior of the hourly demand and the consumption patterns of the plant, in...

  16. Energy consumption projection of Nepal: An econometric approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Østergaard, Poul A.; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    In energy dependent economies, energy consumption is often linked with the growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Energy intensity, defined herewith, as the ratio of the total primary energy consumption (TPE) to the GDP, is a useful concept for understanding the relation between energy demand...... and economic development. The scope of this article is to assess the future primary energy consumption of Nepal, and the projection is carried out along with the formulation of simple linear logarithmic energy consumption models. This initiates with a hypothesis that energy consumption is dependent...... with the national macro-economic parameters. To test the hypothesis, nexus between energy consumption and possible determinant variables are examined. Status of energy consumption between the period of 1996 and 2009, and for the same period, growth of economic parameters are assessed. Three scenarios are developed...

  17. Motivating sustainable energy consumption in the home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, H.A.; Greenberg, S. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Computer Science

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed social motivations related to household energy conservation. The aim of the study was to explore how technology can be designed and used in the home to encourage sustainable energy use. The basic techniques used to motivate sustainable energy action included behaviour change techniques; information techniques; positive motivational techniques; and coercive motivational techniques. The psychological theories used in the study included cognitive dissonance as a means of reminding people of the inconsistency of their attitudes towards energy and their behaviour, and utility theory as a means of determining personal motivations for energy conservation. The study showed that people are more motivated to act when presented with personalized information and monetary losses as opposed to monetary gain. Social value orientation and self-reflection motivations were also considered. The study showed that pro-social orientation can be used in the form of ambient displays located in public areas of the home. Self-reflection can be encouraged by allowing family members to annotate visualizations containing a history of their energy consumption data. Results of the study will be used to design actual feedback visualizations of energy use. 18 refs.

  18. Design of low-energy building and energy consumption analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鸣; 陈滨; 范悦; 朱佳音; 索健

    2009-01-01

    In China,a new "Design standard for energy efficiency of residential buildings (for cold region)" was introduced in 2006. In this new standard,more high level insulation of the building envelope is required,yearly energy requirement for heating must be less than 55 kWh/(m2·a)(regarded as a low-energy house). The new attempt was carried out in the process of architecture design with an evaluation on energy consumption of the building. The design plan was brought forward and compared. PHPP software from German was applied to calculate energy consumption of the passive residential building. The optimum design planning was discussed and model of passive house suited to China’s national conditions were attempted. The compactness,solar air collector and the window-wall ratio have essential influence on the energy consumption of buildings. The annual heat demands for the buildings with the window-wall ratio 0.35 and 0.50 are 48 kWh/(m2·a) and 46 kWh/(m2·a),respectively. The yearly auxiliary heat of building with the wall-mounted solar air collectors and the window-wall ratio 0.35 is just 4.8 kWh/(m2·a).

  19. Relationships between energy consumption and climate change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANHuaisui; YUANShunquan; SUNJiulin; LIZehui

    2004-01-01

    Energy consumption has an inevitable connection with economic level and climate. Based on selected data covering annual total energy consumption and its composition and that of all kinds of energy in 1953-1999, the annual residential energy consumption and the coal and electricity consumption in 1980-1999 in China, the acreage of crops under cultivation suffered from drought and flood annually and gross domestic product (GDP) in 1953-1999 in the whole country, and mean daily temperature data from 29 provincial meteorological stations in the whole country from 1970 to 1999, this paper divides energy consumption into socio-economic energy consumption and climatic energy consumption in the way of multinomial. Itchanges between the climate energy consumption andalso goes further into the relations and their changes between the climate energy consumptionenergy consumption and the economic level inand climate factor and between the socio-economic energy between the climate energy level in China with the method of statistical analysis. At present, there are obvious transitions in the changing relationships of the energy consumption to economy and climate, which comprises the transition of economic system from resource-intensive industry to technology-intensive industry and the transition of climatic driving factors of the energy consumption from driven by the disasters of drought and flood to driven by temperature.

  20. Energy Consumption Analysis Based on Energy Efficiency Approach: A Case of Suburban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman K.A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient data about electricity consumption over large periods of time was accumulated and analysed in order to develop appropriate electricity-saving measures. An important first step was to analyse and identify electrical appliances that had energy saving potential. Different behavioural consumption profiles were analysed using information from two sources: 1 technical data about electricity consumption (electricity bill and 2 data about household electrical appliance usage and consumer awareness obtained from a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire consisted of four sections of questions which concerned residents’ backgrounds, residential information, consumers’ awareness about energy efficiency (EE and the energy usage of each house. The results showed that the electricity consumption profile of an individual household could be most related to the EE approach. It indicated that consumers’ behaviour (awareness and practice resulted in one of the important factors related to high electricity consumption. Another important conclusion of our questionnaire-based analysis was that the implementation of the EE approach could help the consumer to reduce their monthly energy consumption.

  1. Understanding change and continuity in residential energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    of material consumer goods in practice theory. Case studies on household energy consumption are used as an empirical basis for these discussions. Looking at household energy consumption through the theoretical lens of practice theory necessitates discussion on whether energy consumption should be viewed......Practice theory has recently emerged within consumer studies as a promising approach that shifts focus from the individual consumer towards the collective aspects of consumption and from spectacular and conspicuous dimensions of consumption towards routine and mundane aspects of consumption...

  2. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in nine developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolde-Rufael, Yemane [135 Carnwath Road, London SW6 3HR (United Kingdom); Menyah, Kojo [London Metropolitan Business School, London Metropolitan University, 84 Moorgate, London EC2M 6SQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    This article attempts to test the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and real GDP for nine developed countries for the period 1971-2005 by including capital and labour as additional variables. Using a modified version of the Granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995), we found a unidirectional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland; the opposite uni-directional causality running from economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in Canada and Sweden; and a bi-directional causality running between economic growth and nuclear energy consumption in France, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. In Spain, the United Kingdom and the USA, increases in nuclear energy consumption caused increases in economic growth implying that conservation measures taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may negatively affect economic growth. In France, Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland increases in nuclear energy consumption caused decreases in economic growth, suggesting that energy conservation measure taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may help to mitigate the adverse effects of nuclear energy consumption on economic growth. In Canada and Sweden energy conservation measures affecting nuclear energy consumption may not harm economic growth. (author)

  3. Energy drink consumption and marketing in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Nicholas; van Walbeek, Corné; Maboshe, Mashekwa; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Hofman, Karen

    2017-05-17

    Energy drinks are a fast-growing class of beverage containing high levels of caffeine and sugar. Advertising and marketing have been key to their growth in South Africa. This paper documents trends in energy drink consumption and energy drink advertising, and examines the relationship between exposure to energy drink advertising and consumption. Logistic regressions were estimated of categories of energy drink consumption on individual characteristics, as well as exposure to energy drink advertising. Exposure to advertising is measured by reported viewing of channels high in energy drink advertising. Energy drink consumption in South Africa is higher among younger, wealthier males. Spending on energy drink advertising is mostly focused on television. Targeted channels include youth, sports and general interest channels. Viewers of channels targeted by energy drink advertisers have higher odds of any and moderate levels of energy drinks consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Improved immunization strategy to reduce energy consumption on nodes traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiazheng; Zhao, Dongyan; Long, Keping; Zheng, Yongrong

    2017-04-01

    The increasing requirement of transmission network sizes would result in huge energy consumption with communication traffic. Green communication technologies are expected to help in reducing energy consumption impact to environment. Therefore, it is important to design energy-efficient strategy that can decrease energy consumption. This paper proposes to use the acquaintance and improved targeted immunization strategies from complex systems to resolve energy consumption issues and uses traffic as measure standard to obtain a stable threshold. The simulation results show that the improved control strategy is better and more effective to save as much energy as possible.

  5. Energy consumption and economic growth. A causality analysis for Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsani, Stela Z. [The University of Reading, Department of Economics, Henley Business School, PO Box 218, Reading, RG6 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth for Greece for the period 1960-2006 through the application of a later development in the methodology of time series proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). At aggregated levels of energy consumption empirical findings suggest the presence of a uni-directional causal relationship running from total energy consumption to real GDP. At disaggregated levels empirical evidence suggests that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between industrial and residential energy consumption to real GDP but this is not the case for the transport energy consumption with causal relationship being identified in neither direction. The importance of these findings lies on their policy implications and their adoption on structural policies affecting energy consumption in Greece suggesting that in order to address energy import dependence and environmental concerns without hindering economic growth emphasis should be put on the demand side and energy efficiency improvements. (author)

  6. Energy consumption and economic growth: A causality analysis for Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsani, Stela Z., E-mail: s.cani@reading.ac.u [University of Reading, Department of Economics, Henley Business School, PO Box 218, Reading, RG6 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth for Greece for the period 1960-2006 through the application of a later development in the methodology of time series proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). At aggregated levels of energy consumption empirical findings suggest the presence of a uni-directional causal relationship running from total energy consumption to real GDP. At disaggregated levels empirical evidence suggests that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between industrial and residential energy consumption to real GDP but this is not the case for the transport energy consumption with causal relationship being identified in neither direction. The importance of these findings lies on their policy implications and their adoption on structural policies affecting energy consumption in Greece suggesting that in order to address energy import dependence and environmental concerns without hindering economic growth emphasis should be put on the demand side and energy efficiency improvements.

  7. Low energy consumption spintronics using multiferroic heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trassin, Morgan

    2016-01-27

    We review the recent progress in the field of multiferroic magnetoelectric heterostructures. The lack of single phase multiferroic candidates exhibiting simultaneously strong and coupled magnetic and ferroelectric orders led to an increased effort into the development of artificial multiferroic heterostructures in which these orders are combined by assembling different materials. The magnetoelectric coupling emerging from the created interface between the ferroelectric and ferromagnetic layers can result in electrically tunable magnetic transition temperature, magnetic anisotropy or magnetization reversal. The full potential of low energy consumption magnetic based devices for spintronics lies in our understanding of the magnetoelectric coupling at the scale of the ferroic domains. Although the thin film synthesis progresses resulted into the complete control of ferroic domain ordering using epitaxial strain, the local observation of magnetoelectric coupling remains challenging. The ability to imprint ferroelectric domains into ferromagnets and to manipulate those solely using electric fields suggests new technological advances for spintronics such as magnetoelectric memories or memristors.

  8. Revising China's energy consumption and carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    China is the world's largest carbon emitter and takes the lion's share of new increased emission since 2000, China's carbon emissions and mitigation efforts have received global attentions (Liu et al., Nature 500, 143-145)1. Yet China's emission estimates have been approved to be greatly uncertain (Guan et al., Nature Climate Change 2, 672-675)2. Accurate estimation becomes even crucial as China has recently pledged to reach a carbon emission peak by 2030, but no quantitative target has been given, nor is it even possible to assess without a reasonable baseline. Here we produced new estimates of Chinese carbon emissions for 1950-2012 based on a new investigation in energy consumption activities and emission factors using extensively surveyed and experimental data from 4243 mines and 602 coal samples. We reported that the total energy consumption is 10% higher than the nationally published value. The investigated emission factors used in China are significantly (40%) different from the IPCC default values which were used in drawing up several previous emission inventories. The final calculated total carbon emissions from China are 10% different than the amount reported by international data sets. The new estimate provides a revision of 4% of global emissions, which could have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing of climate change mitigation. 1 Liu, Z. et al. A low-carbon road map for China. Nature 500, 143-145 (2013). 2 Guan, D., Liu, Z., Geng, Y., Lindner, S. & Hubacek, K. The gigatonne gap in China's carbon dioxide inventories. Nature Climate Change, 672-675 (2012).

  9. 10 CFR 431.134 - Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. 431.134 Section 431.134 Energy... of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. (a) Scope. This... consumption, but instead calculate the energy use rate (kWh/100 lbs Ice) by dividing the energy consumed...

  10. Energy consumption in the production of cellulose and paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubelka, V.

    1979-01-01

    The specific consumption of energy in the cellulose and paper industry of Czechoslovakia is 20% higher than in Austria and the Federal Republic of Germany. For the last 20 years, the specific consumption of fuel decreased by 29% in the Austrian cellulose and paper industry, while the consumption of electricity increased by 16%. The possibility for decreasing the specific consumption of energy in Czechoslovakia by burning by-products, heat recovery, equipment modernization, etc. are examined.

  11. Uncertainty of Energy Consumption Assessment of Domestic Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Heiselberg, Per; Simonsen, A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the influence of energy reduction initiatives, to determine the expected annual cost, to calculate life cycle cost, emission impact, etc. it is crucial to be able to assess the energy consumption reasonably accurate. The present work undertakes a theoretical and empirical study...... of the uncertainty of energy consumption assessment of domestic buildings. The calculated energy consumption of a number of almost identical domestic buildings in Denmark is compared with the measured energy consumption. Furthermore, the uncertainty is determined by means of stochastic modelling based on input...

  12. Monitor energy consumption - Reduce costs; Energieverbrauch ueberwachen - Kosten senken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolliger, R.

    2008-07-01

    This article takes a look at energy consumption in residential, industrial and commercial buildings and how energy consumption metering can help reduce energy consumption. The proprietary system briefly described uses the KNX bus system to transfer data. Visualisation of the data collected is briefly described. Peak-load management and ways of adapting user behaviour are discussed. Trends towards higher levels of consumption - particularly in emerging markets - are discussed. Energy needs, carbon dioxide emissions, investments and potentials for making savings are discussed. Possibilities of increasing energy efficiency in the residential, industrial and commercial sectors are examined.

  13. Energy consumption of personal computer workstations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Chvala, W.D. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The explosive growth of the information age has had a profound effect on the appearance of today`s office. Although the telephone still remains an important part of the information exchange and processing system within an office, other electronic devices are now considered required equipment within this environment. This office automation equipment includes facsimile machines, photocopiers, personal computers, printers, modems, and other peripherals. A recent estimate of the installed base indicated that 42 million personal computers and 7.3 million printers are in place, consuming 18.2 billion kWh/yr-and this installed base is growing (Luhn 1992). From a productivity standpoint, it can be argued that this equipment greatly improves the efficiency of those working in the office. But of primary concern to energy system designers, building managers, and electric utilities is the fact that this equipment requires electric energy. Although the impact of each incremental piece of equipment is small, installation of thousands of devices per building has resulted in office automation equipment becoming the major contributor to electric consumption and demand growth in commercial buildings. Personal computers and associated equipment are the dominant part of office automation equipment. In some cases, this electric demand growth has caused office buildings electric and cooling systems to overload.

  14. EVALUATION OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN DAIRY WWTP BIELMLEK BIELSK PODLASKI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Dąbrowski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Apart from highly efficient treatment of dairy wastewater, a low energy consumption is required in order to lower its costs. During the research period, parameters of raw and treated sewage were tested (BOD, COD, Ntotal, Ptotal. Also, the energy consumption from selected processes as well as the total consumption were measured. It was observed that about 40,5% of energy was used for aeration in SBR chambers, 14,6% for dissolved air flotation and the rest for processes connected with mechanical treatment and sewage sludge treatment. First, all the sources of energy consumption and their power were analysed. Indicators of energy consumption and removed load were calculated. The conducted research will be continued in order to optimize energy consumption while retaining high efficiency of treatment. A mathematical model will be prepared after data collecting. It can be universally applied in different WWTPs, not only dairy ones.

  15. uFLIP: Understanding the Energy Consumption of Flash Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørling, Matias; Bonnet, Philippe; Bouganim, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the energy consumption of flash devices is important for two reasons. First, energy is emerging as a key metric for data management systems. It is thus important to understand how we can reason about the energy consumption of flash devices beyond their approximate aggregate...... consumption (low power consumption in idle mode, average Watt consumption from the data sheets). Second, when measured at a sufficiently fine granularity, the energy consumption of a given device might complement the performance characteristics derived from its response time profile. Indeed, background work...... which is not directly observable with a response time profile appears clearly when energy is used as a metric. In this paper, we discuss the results from the {uFLIP} benchmark applied to four different {SSD} devices using both response time and energy as metric....

  16. uFLIP: Understanding the Energy Consumption of Flash Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørling, Matias; Bonnet, Philippe; Bouganim, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the energy consumption of flash devices is important for two reasons. First, energy is emerging as a key metric for data management systems. It is thus important to understand how we can reason about the energy consumption of flash devices beyond their approximate aggregate...... consumption (low power consumption in idle mode, average Watt consumption from the data sheets). Second, when measured at a sufficiently fine granularity, the energy consumption of a given device might complement the performance characteristics derived from its response time profile. Indeed, background work...... which is not directly observable with a response time profile appears clearly when energy is used as a metric. In this paper, we discuss the results from the {uFLIP} benchmark applied to four different {SSD} devices using both response time and energy as metric....

  17. Efficiency in energy production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Ryan Mayer

    This dissertation deals with economic efficiency in the energy industry and consists of three parts. The first examines how joint experience between pairs of firms working together in oil and gas drilling improves productivity. Part two asks whether oil producers time their drilling optimally by taking real options effects into consideration. Finally, I investigate the efficiency with which energy is consumed, asking whether extending Daylight Saving Time (DST) reduces electricity use. The chapter "Learning by Drilling: Inter-Firm Learning and Relationship Persistence in the Texas Oilpatch" examines how oil production companies and the drilling rigs they hire improve drilling productivity by learning through joint experience. I find that the joint productivity of a lead firm and its drilling contractor is enhanced significantly as they accumulate experience working together. Moreover, this result is robust to other relationship specificities and standard firm-specific learning-by-doing effects. The second chapter, "Drill Now or Drill Later: The Effect of Expected Volatility on Investment," investigates the extent to which firms' drilling behavior accords with a key prescription of real options theory: irreversible investments such as drilling should be deferred when the expected volatility of the investments' payoffs increases. I combine detailed data on oil drilling with expectations of future oil price volatility that I derive from the NYMEX futures options market. Conditioning on expected price levels, I find that oil production companies significantly reduce the number of wells they drill when expected price volatility is high. I conclude with "Daylight Time and Energy: Evidence from an Australian Experiment," co-authored with Hendrik Wolff. This chapter assesses DST's impact on electricity demand using a quasi-experiment in which parts of Australia extended DST in 2000 to facilitate the Sydney Olympics. We show that the extension did not reduce overall

  18. Quantification model for energy consumption in edification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercader, Mª P.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research conducted in this paper focuses on the generation of a model for the quantification of energy consumption in building. This is to be done through one of the most relevant environmental impact indicators associated with weight per m2 of construction, as well as the energy consumption resulting from the manufacturing process of materials used in building construction. The practical application of the proposed model on different buildings typologies in Seville, will provide information regarding the building materials, the subsystems and the most relevant construction elements. Hence, we will be able to observe the impact the built surface has on the environment. The results obtained aim to reference the scientific community, providing quantitative data comparable to other types of buildings and geographical areas. Furthermore, it may also allow the analysis and the characterization of feasible solutions to reduce the environmental impact generated by the different materials, subsystems and construction elements commonly used in the different building types defined in this study.

    La investigación realizada en el presente trabajo plantea la generación de un modelo de cuantificación del consumo energético en edificación, a través de uno de los indicadores de impacto ambiental más relevantes asociados al peso por m2 de construcción, el consumo energético derivado del proceso de fabricación de los materiales de construcción empleados en edificación. La aplicación práctica del modelo propuesto sobre diferentes tipologías edificatorias en Sevilla aportará información respecto a los materiales de construcción, subsistemas y elementos constructivos más impactantes, permitiendo visualizar la influencia que presenta la superficie construida en cuanto al impacto ambiental generado. Los resultados obtenidos pretenden servir de referencia a la comunidad científica, aportando datos num

  19. Energy consumption in commercial buildings: A comparison with BEPS budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Metered energy consumption data were collected on existing commercial buildings to help establish the proposed building energy performance standards (BEPS). The search has identified 84 buildings whose metered energy consumption is equal to or less than that proposed for their BEPS budgets and another 7 buildings whose metered consumption is less than 20 percent above their BEPS budgets. The methodology used to identify the buildings and to collect their metered energy consumption data are described. The data are analyzed and summarized and conclusions are drawn.

  20. Clinical Symptoms and Adverse Effects Associated With Energy Drink Consumption in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Dalia; Reed-Schrader, Essie; Olympia, Robert P; Brady, Jodi; Rivera, Ruby; Serra, Theresa; Weber, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption by adolescents, to identify associated clinical symptoms and adverse effects, and to gain an understanding to the motivation behind its consumption. A prospective, questionnaire-based study was conducted at 2 emergency departments from June 2011 to June 2013. The questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. Stratification was performed on the basis of frequency of consumption: frequent consumption (at least once a month) and infrequent consumption (less frequent than once a month). Data analysis was performed on 612 completed questionnaires. Two hundred two responders (33%) were considered frequent energy drink consumers. Frequent consumers were more likely to be involved in high-risk behaviors and more likely to consume other caffeinated drinks. In the previous 6 months, frequent energy drink consumers were more likely to report headache (76%), anger (47%), and increased urination (24%) and were more likely to require medical evaluation for headache (41%) and difficulty breathing (22%). Frequent energy drink consumers were more likely to believe that energy drinks "help me do better in school" (12%), "help me do better in sports" (35%), "are just for fun" (46%), "help me stay up at night" (67%), and "make me concentrate/focus better" (34%). Clarifying common misconceptions associated with energy drink consumption, especially in high-risk adolescents and frequent energy drink consumers, may decrease the frequency of symptoms experienced by adolescents, such as headache and difficulty breathing, requiring medical evaluation.

  1. Dairy consumption and cardiometabolic health: outcomes of a 12-month crossover trial

    OpenAIRE

    Crichton Georgina E; C Howe Peter R; Buckley Jonathan D; Coates Alison M; Murphy Karen J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A growing body of research suggests that regular consumption of dairy foods may counteract obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome. However, human intervention trials are lacking. We aimed to determine the cardiometabolic health effects of increasing the consumption of reduced fat dairy foods in adults with habitually low dairy intakes in the absence of energy restriction. Methods An intervention trial was undertaken in 61 overweight or obese adults who were...

  2. Habit formation and consumption of energy for heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we ask if consumption of energy for space heating by households is habit forming. A model of intertemporal consumption allocation allowing for habit-forming preferences is estimated on a register-based panel data set with high quality information about consumption of natural gas...

  3. Energy Consumption and Energy Efficiency Trends in the EU-28 (2000-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    BERTOLDI PAOLO; LOPEZ LORENTE JAVIER; LABANCA NICOLA

    2016-01-01

    This report aims at showing the present status of energy consumption in the EU-28, in the four main energy consuming sectors: residential, tertiary, transport and industry. During the last years, there have been efforts by the European Union to cut down on energy consumption and improve energy efficiency. From 2000 to 2014, there have been various initiatives that aim at reducing final energy consumption. Therefore, the report demonstrates the energy consumption progress from 2000 to 2014 in ...

  4. Fundamental principles of energy consumption for gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lifang; Yuan, Zhanjiang; Yu, Jianshe; Zhou, Tianshou

    2015-12-01

    How energy is consumed in gene expression is largely unknown mainly due to complexity of non-equilibrium mechanisms affecting expression levels. Here, by analyzing a representative gene model that considers complexity of gene expression, we show that negative feedback increases energy consumption but positive feedback has an opposite effect; promoter leakage always reduces energy consumption; generating more bursts needs to consume more energy; and the speed of promoter switching is at the cost of energy consumption. We also find that the relationship between energy consumption and expression noise is multi-mode, depending on both the type of feedback and the speed of promoter switching. Altogether, these results constitute fundamental principles of energy consumption for gene expression, which lay a foundation for designing biologically reasonable gene modules. In addition, we discuss possible biological implications of these principles by combining experimental facts.

  5. Widening the scope? How intermediary actors can shape energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maneschi, Davide

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with energy consumption in the residential sector and with the implementation of measures to reduce it. While most research dealing with energy consumption has targeted factors and drivers at the individual user level, more recent works have highlighted collective aspects...... of (energy) consumption, both to explain the resilience of consumption patterns and to identify leverage points for the reduction of energy use. One understudied aspect of this discussion is the way “intermediary” actors – those actors who are neither policy makers, nor users, nor energy providers...... – influence energy consumption. This paper presents a review of the literature on intermediaries, providing an overview of their roles and contextualizing their functions in energy efficiency improvements. The review shows how the concept of intermediaries has been used in research dealing with innovation...

  6. Analysis of Final Energy Consumption Patterns in 10 Arab Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hinti, I.; Al-Ghandoor, A.

    2009-08-01

    This study presents an analysis of the energy consumption patterns in 10 Arab countries: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria. Commonalities and variations between these countries are discussed and explained through key economic and energy indicators, and the relationship between the overall final energy consumption per capita and the GDP per capita is examined. The distribution of the final energy consumption across different sectors is also analysed, and the patterns of consumption in the industrial, transportation, and residential sectors are discussed with focus on the types of energy consumed, and the main drivers of this consumption. The findings and the conclusions of this study are believed to be beneficial to the national energy policy planners in identifying possible strengths, weaknesses, and areas of emphasis and improvement in their strategic energy plans.

  7. Efficient Energy Consumption Scheduling: Towards Effective Load Leveling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Different agents in the smart grid infrastructure (e.g., households, buildings, communities consume energy with their own appliances, which may have adjustable usage schedules over a day, a month, a season or even a year. One of the major objectives of the smart grid is to flatten the demand load of numerous agents (viz. consumers, such that the peak load can be avoided and power supply can feed the demand load at anytime on the grid. To this end, we propose two Energy Consumption Scheduling (ECS problems for the appliances held by different agents at the demand side to effectively facilitate load leveling. Specifically, we mathematically model the ECS problems as Mixed-Integer Programming (MIP problems using the data collected from different agents (e.g., their appliances’ energy consumption in every time slot and the total number of required in-use time slots, specific preferences of the in-use time slots for their appliances. Furthermore, we propose a novel algorithm to efficiently and effectively solve the ECS problems with large-scale inputs (which are NP-hard. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach is significantly more efficient than standard benchmarks, such as CPLEX, while guaranteeing near-optimal outputs.

  8. Intelligent Cooperative MAC Protocol for Balancing Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.; Liu, K.; Huang, B.; Liu, F.

    To extend the lifetime of wireless sensor networks, we proposed an intelligent balanced energy consumption cooperative MAC protocol (IBEC-CMAC) based on the multi-node cooperative transmission model. The protocol has priority to access high-quality channels for reducing energy consumption of each transmission. It can also balance the energy consumption among cooperative nodes by using high residual energy nodes instead of excessively consuming some node's energy. Simulation results show that IBEC-CMAC can obtain longer network lifetime and higher energy utilization than direct transmission.

  9. Application of GLBP Algorithm in the Prediction of Building Energy Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinghao Lv

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using BP neural network in past to predict the energy consumption of the building resulted in some shortcomings. Aiming at these shortages, a new algorithm which combined genetic algorithm with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LM algorithm was proposed. The proposed algorithm was used to improve the neural network and predict the energy consumption of buildings. First, genetic algorithm was used to optimize the weight and threshold of Artificial Neural Network (ANN. Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was adopted to optimize the neural network training. Then the predicting model was set up in terms of the main effecting factors of the energy consumption. Furthermore, a public building power consumption data for one month is collected by establishing a monitoring platform to train and test the model. Eventually, the simulation result proved that the proposed model was qualified to predict short-term energy consumption accurately and efficiently.

  10. Energy Consumption by Rural Households in Northern Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lin; ZHOU Jin; ZHANG Guo-qiang

    2009-01-01

    TKs study was conducted to investigate the household energy consumption in rural districts in northern Hunan and to help explore the sustainable and ecological energy policy.Questionnaires were used to ac-quire the details of energy consumption,and the electricity equivalent calculation was used in the energy statis-tics in four villages.The energy consumption in these four villages is influenced by the economic condition,geo-graphic position and landform and the local custom.The traditional biomass energy and coal briquette are the primary energy source for cooking and heating,but they are used in a very low efficiency and result in poorIAQ.For sustainability,further measures should be taken to optimize the energy consumption with the efficient use of biomass energy,coal and electricity.

  11. Energy consumption in the Danish fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of certain fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals...... that there are great differences in fuel consumption between fisheries targeting groundfish or shellfish and those targeting pelagic fish or industrial fish. Here, I show that fuel consumption per kilogram of caught fish varies considerably as a function of fishing gear and vessel size, even considering the same......) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of certain fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals that there are great differences in fuel consumption between...

  12. Uncertainty of Energy Consumption Assessment of Domestic Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Heiselberg, Per; Simonsen, A.;

    2009-01-01

    of the uncertainty of energy consumption assessment of domestic buildings. The calculated energy consumption of a number of almost identical domestic buildings in Denmark is compared with the measured energy consumption. Furthermore, the uncertainty is determined by means of stochastic modelling based on input......In order to assess the influence of energy reduction initiatives, to determine the expected annual cost, to calculate life cycle cost, emission impact, etc. it is crucial to be able to assess the energy consumption reasonably accurate. The present work undertakes a theoretical and empirical study...... to correspond reasonably well; however, it is also found that significant differences may occur between calculated and measured energy consumption due to the spread and due to the fact that the result can only be determined with a certain probability. It is found that occupants' behaviour is the major...

  13. Quantification of Uncertainty in Predicting Building Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Frier, Christian; Heiselberg, Per;

    2012-01-01

    for the dynamic thermal behaviour of buildings. However, for air flow and energy consumption it is found to be much more significant due to less “damping”. Probabilistic methods establish a new approach to the prediction of building energy consumption, enabling designers to include stochastic parameters like......Traditional building energy consumption calculation methods are characterised by rough approaches providing approximate figures with high and unknown levels of uncertainty. Lack of reliable energy resources and increasing concerns about climate change call for improved predictive tools. A new...... approach for the prediction of building energy consumption is presented. The approach quantifies the uncertainty of building energy consumption by means of stochastic differential equations. The approach is applied to a general heat balance for an arbitrary number of loads and zones in a building...

  14. A Case of Acute Psychosis Following Energy Drink Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgülü, Yasemin; Taşdelen, Öznur; Sönmez, Mehmet Bülent; Köse Çinar, Rugül

    2014-03-01

    Interest in energy drinks is increasing every day. Energy drink consumption is increasing proportionally. Users often utilize these drinks in order to enjoy, have fun and to increase performance and attention. However, consumption of the energy drinks sometimes may also cause adverse physical and psychological consequences. Unwanted physical results are in the more foreground, noticeable and visible but the data about psychological problems caused by energy drinks is accumulated over the years in the literature. In this case report, we describe the case of a young man with no psychiatric history who was hospitalized for psychotic symptoms following excessive consumption of energy drinks.

  15. The world energy consumption in 2001. Statistical yearbook ENERDATA 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Statistical data on the world energy consumption are given to illustrate the following situation in 2001: the deceleration of the world economic growth and the high prices of oil slowed down the progression of the energy consumption: 0,7 % in 2001; stagnation of the gas and oil consumption and strong progression for coal and electricity in 2001; the deceleration for gas marks a strong inflection compared to the past trends. (A.L.B.)

  16. Sports/energy drinks consumption among young athletes in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sports/energy drinks consumption among young athletes in Kano, Nigeria. ... Athletes who had 'ever' tried a sport drink were significantly higher (p<0.05) than ... health effects, and that they could distinguish between sport and energy drinks.

  17. Danish Sector Guide for Calculation of the Actual Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    , the innovation network for sustainable construction, InnoBYG started work on a Danish sector guide for the calculation of actual energy consumption in relation to upgrading of buildings. The focus was to make a common guide for energy calculations that can be used by consultants performing calculations...... consumption compared with the estimated energy demand by calculation. The paper concludes that the result of an energy calculation should not be given as a single figure but rather as a spread between the best and worst case for the assumed conditions. Finally, a brief update on current actions is given...... related to the sector guide for calculation of actual energy consumption. Keywords – Energy calculations, actual energy consumption, energy perfomance...

  18. Low-energy-consumption hybrid lasers for silicon photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Ran, Qijiang; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Physics and characteristics of a hybrid vertical-cavity laser that can be an on-chip Si light source with high speed and low energy consumption are discussed.......Physics and characteristics of a hybrid vertical-cavity laser that can be an on-chip Si light source with high speed and low energy consumption are discussed....

  19. Online Anomaly Energy Consumption Detection Using Lambda Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Iftikhar, Nadeem; Nielsen, Per Sieverts;

    2016-01-01

    With the widely use of smart meters in the energy sector, anomaly detection becomes a crucial mean to study the unusual consumption behaviors of customers, and to discover unexpected events of using energy promptly. Detecting consumption anomalies is, essentially, a real-time big data analytics p...

  20. A Case of Acute Psychosis Following Energy Drink Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    G?RG?L?, Yasemin; TA?DELEN, ?znur; S?NMEZ, Mehmet B?lent; K?SE ?INAR, Rug?l

    2014-01-01

    Interest in energy drinks is increasing every day. Energy drink consumption is increasing proportionally. Users often utilize these drinks in order to enjoy, have fun and to increase performance and attention. However, consumption of the energy drinks sometimes may also cause adverse physical and psychological consequences. Unwanted physical results are in the more foreground, noticeable and visible but the data about psychological problems caused by energy drinks is accumulated over the year...

  1. Energy consumption in the Danish fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2004-01-01

    that there are great differences in fuel consumption between fisheries targeting groundfish or shellfish and those targeting pelagic fish or industrial fish. Here, I show that fuel consumption per kilogram of caught fish varies considerably as a function of fishing gear and vessel size, even considering the same...... fisheries targeting groundfish or shellfish and those targeting pelagic fish or industrial fish. Here, I show that fuel consumption per kilogram of caught fish varies considerably as a function of fishing gear and vessel size, even considering the same target species. I argue that these differences need......Previous studies based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of certain fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals...

  2. A panel study of nuclear energy consumption and economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas [Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, Piraeus, ATTIKI 18534 (Greece); Payne, James E. [Interim Dean and Professor of Economics, College of Arts and Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4100 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    This study examines the relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth for sixteen countries within a multivariate panel framework over the period 1980-2005. Pedroni's (1999, 2004) heterogeneous panel cointegration test reveals there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, nuclear energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficients positive and statistically significant. The results of the panel vector error correction model finds bidirectional causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in the short-run while unidirectional causality from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in the long-run. Thus, the results provide support for the feedback hypothesis associated with the relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth. (author)

  3. Energy consumption in the Danish fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals...... that there are great differences in the fuel consumption between fisheries targeting ground or shellfish and those targeting pelagic or industrial fish....

  4. Survey on Consumption Behaviour of Energy Drink Among University Students: Example of Afyon Kocatepe University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Şen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate the consumption behaviour and consumption awareness of energy drink among university students. Data were collected from 750 students in Afyon Kocatepe University by questionnaire which is improved by writers of this article. Tests were done with SPSS end of the research. Chi-square tests were done in %95 confidence interval to determine the relation of consumption and awareness of energy drink among the university students with gender, age range, school which is graduated, monthly expense, smoking and use of alcohol, the most consumed beverage types, and degree of licence. According to search results, it was found that energy drink consumption behaviour did not change with regard to the different age. On the other hand, male college graduates compared to other types of high school, it was determined that 701 TL per month and over spenders in relation to the lower income groups consumed more energy drinks . In addition, it was found that the groups that use alcohol, smokers, coffee drinkers and undergraduate students were consumed much more energy drinks than the others. When the answers measured the energy drink consumption behaviour of the students participated in the survey were considered, it was concluded that the awareness of the energy drink consumption was not high enough.

  5. Energy consumption and economic growth revisited in African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggoh, Jude C.; Bangake, Chrysost; Rault, Christophe [Orleans Univ. (France). LEO

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide new empirical evidence on the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 21 African countries over the period from 1970 to 2006, using recently developed panel cointegration and causality tests. The countries are divided into two groups: net energy importers and net energy exporters. It is found that there exists a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption, real GDP, prices, labor and capital for each group of countries as well as for the whole set of countries. This result is robust to possible cross-country dependence and still holds when allowing for multiple endogenous structural breaks, which can differ among countries. Furthermore, we find that decreasing energy consumption decreases growth and vice versa, and that increasing energy consumption increases growth, and vice versa, and that this applies for both energy exporters and importers. Finally, there is a marked difference in the cointegration relationship when country groups are considered. (orig.)

  6. Energy consumption, income, and carbon emissions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soytas, Ugur [Department of Business Administration, Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey 06531 (Turkey); Sari, Ramazan [Department of Economics, Abant Izzet Baysal University Bolu, Turkey 14280 (Turkey); Ewing, Bradley T. [Rawls College of Business Texas Tech University Lubbock, TX 79409-2101 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    This paper investigates the effect of energy consumption and output on carbon emissions in the United States. Earlier research focused on testing the existence and/or shape of an environmental Kuznets curve without taking energy consumption into account. We investigate the Granger causality relationship between income, energy consumption, and carbon emissions, including labor and gross fixed capital formation in the model. We find that income does not Granger cause carbon emissions in the US in the long run, but energy use does. Hence, income growth by itself may not become a solution to environmental problems. (author)

  7. Optimal energy consumption analysis of natural gas pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There are many compressor stations along long-distance natural gas pipelines. Natural gas can be transported using different boot programs and import pressures, combined with temperature control parameters. Moreover, different transport methods have correspondingly different energy consumptions. At present, the operating parameters of many pipelines are determined empirically by dispatchers, resulting in high energy consumption. This practice does not abide by energy reduction policies. Therefore, based on a full understanding of the actual needs of pipeline companies, we introduce production unit consumption indicators to establish an objective function for achieving the goal of lowering energy consumption. By using a dynamic programming method for solving the model and preparing calculation software, we can ensure that the solution process is quick and efficient. Using established optimization methods, we analyzed the energy savings for the XQ gas pipeline. By optimizing the boot program, the import station pressure, and the temperature parameters, we achieved the optimal energy consumption. By comparison with the measured energy consumption, the pipeline now has the potential to reduce energy consumption by 11 to 16 percent.

  8. Simulation of energy consumption for quadruped walking vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jingtao; Gao, Feng; Xu, Guoyan

    2006-11-01

    Simulation of energy consumption for walking vehicle is one of the basic way to preliminarily estimate the energy that will be consumed before constructing the real vehicle, providing basis for the design of vehicle to minish energy consumption. One of the most influential factors of the accuracy dynamic simulation is the appropriate contact model between leg and ground. In this paper, we adopt virtual prototyping technique to develop the dynamic modeling of a quadruped walking vehicle considering contact force between legs and ground during walking, finish simulation of dynamics and obtain dynamics characteristics, investigate the effects of different contact condition and the energy consumption. The purpose is to analyze the relationship between energy consumption and relevant influence factors, and the energy efficiency during walking is discussed with different walking velocity, strokes, duty factors and different contact material. Moreover contact force is obtained from simulations. Commercial ADAMS package is used.

  9. Practical versus theoretical domestic energy consumption for space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audenaert, A., E-mail: amaryllis.audenaert@artesis.be [Department of Applied Engineering: Construction, Artesis University College of Antwerp, Paardenmarkt 92, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Department of Environment, Technology and Technology Management, University of Antwerp, Prinsstraat 13, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Briffaerts, K. [Unit Transition Energy and Environment, VITO NV, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Engels, L. [Department of Applied Engineering: Construction, Artesis University College of Antwerp, Paardenmarkt 92, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2011-09-15

    Methods to calculate the theoretical energy consumption consider several things: the number of degree days per year that need to be compensated by heating, the characteristics of the dwelling, the number of occupants and the characteristics of the installation for space heating and sanitary hot water. However, these methods do not take into account consumer behaviour, which may affect the actual consumption. The theoretical calculation methods are based on assumptions and use a number of standardized parameters. The difference between the actual and the theoretical energy consumption, and the impact of the residents' behaviour on energy consumption, is analysed by means of a literature study and a practical research. An energy advice procedure (EAP) audit is executed in five dwellings, as well as a survey regarding the energy related behaviour of the households. The theoretically calculated consumption is compared with the billed actual energy consumption of the families. The results show some problems with the current procedure and give some options to improve it. Some research needs are identified to gain more insights in the influence of different behavioural factors on the actual energy use for heating. - Highlights: > The energy advice procedure (EAP) calculates the energy use for heating in dwellings. > Calculations are compared with the real energy use for 5 dwellings. > A survey on the occupants' behaviour is used to interpret the observed differences. > Default values used in the EAP can be very different from the observed behaviour.

  10. Energy consumption in the Danish fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals that th...... that there are great differences in the fuel consumption between fisheries targeting ground or shellfish and those targeting pelagic or industrial fish.......Previous studies based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals...

  11. Analysis of energy consumption nodes wireless sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Павел Викторович Галкин

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issue of energy consumption and energy efficiency of the nodes of wireless sensor networks (WSN. It is revealed that the main factor influencing the increase in the probability of a malfunction of sensor networks is the limited resources of the power node. The methodology of calculation of energy consumption of nodes and the lifetime of the elements of their power.

  12. Energy consumption analysis for the Mars deep space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, N. V.

    1982-01-01

    Results for the energy consumption analysis at the Mars deep space station are presented. It is shown that the major energy consumers are the 64-Meter antenna building and the operations support building. Verification of the antenna's energy consumption is highly dependent on an accurate knowlege of the tracking operations. The importance of a regular maintenance schedule for the watt hour meters installed at the station is indicated.

  13. Factors affecting wood energy consumption by U.S. households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...

  14. Energy-Consumption Factors of Air-Stream Moulding Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Smyksy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an outline of the key questions connected with the essential problems of energy-consumption of air-stream mouldingmachines has been presented. Research results and calculations of requisite parameters appraisable of energy-consumption of air-streammoulding machines have been supplemented also by the data analysis of offer of the moulding machines manufacturers. The attention onconstructional and technological factors which are favourable for the diminution of energy-consuming of the moulding process has beenpaid.

  15. [Relationships between settlement morphology transition and residents commuting energy consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Xiao, Rong-Bo; Sun, Xiang

    2013-07-01

    Settlement morphology transition is triggered by rapid urbanization and urban expansion, but its relationships with residents commuting energy consumption remains ambiguous. It is of significance to understand the controlling mechanisms of sustainable public management policies on the energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the process of urban settlement morphology transition. Taking the Xiamen City of East China as a case, and by using the integrated land use and transportation modeling system TRANUS, a scenario analysis was made to study the effects of urban settlement morphology transition on the urban spatial distribution of population, jobs, and land use, and on the residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gasses emission under different scenarios. The results showed that under the Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the energy consumption of the residents at the morning peak travel time was 54.35 tce, and the CO2 emission was 119.12 t. As compared with those under BAU scenario, both the energy consumption and the CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology (TSM) scenario increased by 12%, and, with the implementation of the appropriate policies such as land use, transportation, and economy, the energy consumption and CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology with Policies (TSMP) scenario reduced by 7%, indicating that urban public management policies could effectively control the growth of residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the period of urban settlement morphology transition.

  16. Energy consumption and economic growth revisited in African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggoh, Jude C., E-mail: comlanvi-jude.eggoh@univ-orleans.fr [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Bangake, Chrysost [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Universite d' Artois and Laboratoire EQUIPPE, Lille 1, FSES, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Rault, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Toulouse Business School (France)

    2011-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide new empirical evidence on the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 21 African countries over the period from 1970 to 2006, using recently developed panel cointegration and causality tests. The countries are divided into two groups: net energy importers and net energy exporters. It is found that there exists a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption, real GDP, prices, labor and capital for each group of countries as well as for the whole set of countries. This result is robust to possible cross-country dependence and still holds when allowing for multiple endogenous structural breaks, which can differ among countries. Furthermore, we find that decreasing energy consumption decreases growth and vice versa, and that increasing energy consumption increases growth, and vice versa, and that this applies for both energy exporters and importers. Finally, there is a marked difference in the cointegration relationship when country groups are considered. - Highlights: > We assess the energy consumption and economic growth nexus in 21 African countries. > There exists a long-run relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. > This result is robust to cross-country dependence and for structural breaks. > Our findings finally support the feedback hypothesis of bidirectional causality.

  17. Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: Evidence from COMESA Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Chali, Nondo; Mulugeta, Kahsai

    2009-01-01

    This study applies panel data techniques to investigate the long-run relationship between energy consumption and GDP for a panel of 19 African countries (COMESA) based on annual data for the period 1980-2005. In the first step, we examine the degree of integration between GDP and energy consumption by employing three panel unit root tests and find that the variables are integrated of order one. In the second step, we investigate the long-run relationship between energy consumption and GDP. Re...

  18. Monitoring and optimization of energy consumption of base transceiver stations

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnuolo, Antonio; Vetromile, Carmela; Formosi, Roberto; Lubritto, Carmine

    2015-01-01

    The growth and development of the mobile phone network has led to an increased demand for energy by the telecommunications sector, with a noticeable impact on the environment. Monitoring of energy consumption is a great tool for understanding how to better manage this consumption and find the best strategy to adopt in order to maximize reduction of unnecessary usage of electricity. This paper reports on a monitoring campaign performed on six Base Transceiver Stations (BSs) located central Italy, with different technology, typology and technical characteristics. The study focuses on monitoring energy consumption and environmental parameters (temperature, noise, and global radiation), linking energy consumption with the load of telephone traffic and with the air conditioning functions used to cool the transmission equipment. Moreover, using experimental data collected, it is shown, with a Monte Carlo simulation based on power saving features, how the BS monitored could save energy.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF AN APARTMENT POSITIONING ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela PRADA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of the highly topical subject of global warming and energy conservation. The article contains parametric studies of energy consumption and CO² emissions for an apartment located in a block of flats, depending on its location. It was studied the energy consumption of an apartment having different cardinal orientations in the same building and of an apartment with the same position inside the building but located in different climatic zones. The case studies show the difference between the energy consumption of an apartment depending on its position, thus resulting in a few general directions for their heat insulation, so that the specific energy consumption of the apartment is below 100 kWh/m² year.

  20. Economic energy distribution and consumption in a microgrid Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    Energy management of a small scale electrical microgrid is investigated. The microgrid comprises residential houses with local renewable generation, consumption and storage units. The microgrid has the possibility of connection to the electricity grid as well to compensate energy decit of local...... power producers. The nal objective is to full the microgrid's energy demands mainly from the local electricity producers. The other objective is to manage power consumption such that the consumption cost is minimum for individual households. In this study, a hierarchical controller composed of three...... levels is proposed. Each layer from bottom to top focus on individual energy consuming units, individual buildings, and the microgrid respectively. At the middle layer, a model predictive controller is formulated to schedule the building's energy consumption using potential load exibilities. The top...

  1. Reduced energy consumption for melting in foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov-Hansen, S.

    2007-09-15

    By improving the gating technology in traditional gating systems it is possible to reduce the amount of metal to be re-melted, and hence reduce the energy consumption for melting in foundries. Traditional gating systems are known for a straight tapered down runner a well base and 90 deg. bends in the runner system. In the streamlined gating systems there are no sharp changes in direction and a large effort is done to confine and control the flow of the molten metal during mould filling. Experiments in real production lines have proven that using streamlined gating systems improves yield by decreasing the poured weight compared to traditional layouts. In a layout for casting of valve housings in a vertically parted mould the weight of the gating system was reduced by 1,1kg which is a 20% weight reduction for the gating system. In a layout for horizontally parted moulds the weight of the gating system has been reduced by 3,7kg which is a weight reduction of 60% for the gating system. The experiments casting valve housings in ductile iron also proved that it is possible to lower the pouring temperature from 1400 deg. C to 1300 deg. C without the risk of cold runs. Glass plate fronted moulds have been used to study the flow of melt during mould filling. These experiments have also been used for studying the flow pattern when ceramic filters are used. The thorough study of the use of filters revealed that the metal passing through the filter is divided into a number of small jets. This proves that filters do not have the claimed positive effect on the flow of metal. The volumes necessary on either side of the filter is not filled till a backpressure is build up and results in formation of pressure shocks when backfilled. These pressure shocks result in more turbulence inside the casting than the same gating system with no filter. Not using filters can mean a reduction in poured weight of 0,6kg. To examine if the experiments using glass plate fronted moulds give

  2. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design... FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.508 Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 508.1The...

  3. Energy consumption in the food supply system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Historically, productivity gains have been possible by the application of energy intensive technologies. In the future, new technologies and practices based on energy from renewable resources are central for the development of our food supply system and they will contribute in two different ways....... As the energy sector increasingly bases energy supply on renewable sources, the energy requirements of the food sector will automatically substitute renewable energy for non-renewable energy in all stages of food supply. In principle, the food sector does not need to change if renewable energy is sufficient...... and available as the energy carriers that we are used to today. We may think of this as passive adaptation. A passive adaptation strategy may support a development towards the image ‘high input – high output’. The food sector, however, may also actively adapt to a future without fossil fuels and change...

  4. Modelling energy consumption in a manufacturing plant using productivity KPIs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallachoir, Brian O.; Cahill, Caiman (Sustainable Energy Research Group, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. College Cork (Ireland))

    2009-07-01

    Energy efficiency initiatives in industrial plants are often focused on getting energy-consuming utilities and devices to operate more efficiently, or on conserving energy. While such device-oriented energy efficiency measures can achieve considerable savings, greater energy efficiency improvement may be achieved by improving the overall productivity and quality of manufacturing processes. The paper highlights the observed relationship between productivity and energy efficiency using aggregated data on unit consumption and production index data for Irish industry. Past studies have developed simple top-down models of final energy consumption in manufacturing plants using energy consumption and production output figures, but these models do not help identify opportunities for energy savings that could achieved through increased productivity. This paper proposes an improved and innovative method of modelling plant final energy demand that introduces standard productivity Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) into the model. The model demonstrates the relationship between energy consumption and productivity, and uses standard productivity metrics to identify the areas of manufacturing activity that offer the most potential for improved energy efficiency. The model provides a means of comparing the effect of device-oriented energy efficiency measures with the potential for improved energy efficiency through increased productivity.

  5. Feedback as a means of decreasing residential energy consumption. Report PU/CES 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, C; Darley, J M

    1976-08-01

    When residential units are analyzed in human factor terms, it is apparent that the consumption level feedback (typically a bill, calculated once a month, over all appliances) is inadequate to give the resident useful information about his energy consuming actions. The present study tested the hypothesis that providing immediate feedback to homeowners concerning their daily rate of electric usage would be effective in reducing electric consumption. In the studied homes, central air-conditioning is the largest single source of electric power consumption during the summer. Accordingly, it was possible to predict the household's expected electric consumption in terms of the average daily outdoor temperature. Predicted electric consumption was derived from a previous month's modeling period during which a regression line was fitted to predict consumption from average daily temperature, for each home. Feedback was expressed as a percentage of actual consumption over predicted consumption. Feedback was displayed to homeowners four times a week for approximately one month. The results confirmed the prediction. Before feedback began, the feedback and control groups were consuming electricity at approximately equal rates. During the feedback period, the feedback group used 10.5 percent less electricity. The effectiveness of the feedback procedure was explained in terms of its cueing, motivational, and commitment functions.

  6. Survey of rural household energy-consumption in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xh; Fend Zm [Nanjing Agricultural Univ., JS (China)

    1996-07-01

    Based on comprehensive energy surveys of 3240 households in six different regions, we present the level and structure of rural household energy consumption. There are large differences among regions which depend on locality and available fuels. Energy consumption per household accounts for 700-1200 kgce (we use 7000 kcal/kgce), 40-60% of which is used for cooking; 60-90% of total household energy consumption is in the form of biomass. The average energy-conversion efficiency using biomass fuels is in the range 10-20%. Where the strain of traditional patterns of biomass use on the resource base became too severe, the balance between local agricultural and hillside ecosystems has unraveled and caused accelerating destruction of limited land resources. Higher income households need more commercial energy, especially in the form of electricity. Rural household energy will continue to depend mainly on biomass. (UK)

  7. Water consumption in the energy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl; Drews, Martin; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    Energy, water, and food systems are closely interlinked in the Energy-Water-Food Nexus. Water is of paramount importance for the energy sector. Fossil fuels require water for extraction, trans-port and processing. Thermal power plants require water for cooling, whether they use nuclear, fossil......-users. The waste water is often returned to the environment after energy requiring waste water management....... or biofuels. Hydropower is based on water in rivers or reservoirs. Feedstock production for biofuels may depend on water for irrigation. On the other hand, energy is necessary for pumping of ground- and surface water, for water treatment as well as for transport and distribution of water to end...

  8. World distribution of commercial energy consumption. [Period 1950-1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacmart, M.C.; Arditi, M.; Arditi, I.

    1979-09-01

    Inequality in the world distribution of income has been widely studied. A related problem is the worldwide maldistribution of per capita energy consumption. This article examines trends in the international distribution of energy use over the period 1950 to 1975. Lorenz curves are used to show that during this 25-year period inequalities in energy consumption have decreaed slowly. Most of this redistribution has however occurred among countries in the top 30% of energy consumers. Of the remaining countries only China has significantly increased its per capita consumption. If China is excluded, 60% of the world's population accounts for only 10% of total world consumption. This imbalance has remained unaltered since 1950.

  9. Energy Drink Consumption Practices of Young People in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam M. Nassaif

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Energy drink consumption is a popular socialization activity among adolescents of Bahrain. The potential health risks necessitates the need for novel health promotion strategies and advocacy efforts for healthy hydration practices.

  10. Investigating energy consumption of coastal vacation rental homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Sam

    In 2007, vacation rental properties in the United States accounted for more than 22% of the domestic lodging market. These properties are a unique segment of the lodging industry due to their residential design and commercial use. Coastal vacation rental properties represent the largest supply, demand and value of the nation's vacation rental supply. In the case of North Carolina's Outer Banks, tourism is the area's largest source of income, with vacation real estate agencies being the largest accommodation provider. This study uses a multiple regression analysis to investigate the energy consumption of 30 vacation rental homes on Hatteras Island. Hatteras Island's abundant supply of vacation rental homes provided a diverse sample to study energy consumption with a wide range of houses regarding size, age, and location. Since very little research has been conducted on the energy consumption of vacation rental homes, this study aims to contribute detailed information regarding the energy consumption of unique accommodation sector.

  11. Psychological strategies to reduce energy consumption: project summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, L J; Seligman, C; Darley, J M

    1979-06-30

    This report reviews the research conducted in connection with a project to apply psychological theory and procedures to the problems of encouraging residential energy conservation. A major part of the project involved surveys of residents' energy-related attitudes. The best (and only consistent) attitudinal predictor of residents' actual energy consumption was their attitude about thermal comfort. A number of other attitudes that could conceivably have been related to consumption, such as attitudes about the reality of the crisis, were not found to be related to consumption. Another major focus of the project was on the effectiveness of feedback (that is, giving residents information about their energy use) as an aid to residents' conservation efforts. A series of experiments demonstrated that frequent, credible energy-consumption feedback, coupled with encouragement to adopt a reasonable but difficult energy-conservation goal, could facilitate conservation. However, these studies also demonstrated that residents could not be given just any kind of information about their energy use as feedback and that even proper feedback would not lead to conservation in all households. Conditions that are crucial for the success of feedback as a conservation aid are discussed. Other studies conducted by the project looked at the effect on energy consumption of (1) a device to reduce air-conditioning waste by signalling when it is cool outside, (2) an automatic multi-setback thermostat, and (3) utility companies' average payment plans. A survey of residents' knowledge of their energy use also was conducted. 23 references.

  12. Minimizing energy consumption of accelerators and storage ring facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, M. Q.; Gerke, H.; Loew, G. A.; Lundy, R. A.; Schnell, W.

    1980-01-01

    The discussion of energy usage falls naturally into three parts. The first is a review of what the problem is, the second is a description of steps that can be taken to conserve energy at existing facilities, and the third is a review of the implications of energy consumption on future facilities.

  13. On-site energy consumption at softwood sawmills in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Total on-site energy requirements for wood product manufacturing are generally not well understood or publicly available, particularly at subregional scales, such as the state level. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in Montana to develop a profile of all on-site energy consumption. Energy use is delineated by fuel type on a production basis...

  14. Moisture buffering phenomenon and its impact on building energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mingjie; Qin, Menghao; Rode, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    buffering on building energy consumption in different climate conditions is assessed by using numerical simulations. The results show that the potential energy saving rate could be up to 25–30% when using proper hygroscopic materials in the test building in temperate climates and semi-arid climates. Finally......, the relationship between MBV and potential energy saving rate is also discussed....

  15. Occupants Influence on the Energy Consumption of Danish Domestic Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Kanstrup, Anne Marie

    This report is one of the results from the project “Occupants influence on the energy consumption of Danish domestic buildings – Phase 1”, which is partly funded by EUDP (Journalnr.: 64009-0248, Programområde: Energieffektivisering) The report provides state-of-the-art reviews within the various...... disciplines represented in the project by the project members, which all represent areas that relate to the title on occupants influence on the energy consumption....

  16. Analysis of energy consumption in single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Mortensen, Stig Bousgaard; Bacher, Peder

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with estimation of the thermal characteristics of single family houses based on measurements of energy consumption and climate. The thermal characteristics includes the response of the building to changes in temperature (UA-value), solar radiation (gA-value), and wind (w...... to estimate the dynamic effects averages with a sample period around 4 hours are required. Also, it is beneficial to use measurements of the total energy consumption (heat and electricity). However, in most cases it results in adequate estimates if only the heat consumption is used as the response variable...

  17. Analysis of energy consumption in single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Mortensen, Stig Bousgaard; Bacher, Peder

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with estimation of the thermal characteristics of single family houses based on measurements of energy consumption and climate. The thermal characteristics includes the response of the building to changes in temperature (UA-value), solar radiation (gA-value), and wind (w...... to estimate the dynamic effects averages with a sample period around 4 hours are required. Also, it is beneficial to use measurements of the total energy consumption (heat and electricity). However, in most cases it results in adequate estimates if only the heat consumption is used as the response variable...

  18. Specific energy consumption in microwave drying of garlic cloves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.P. [Department of Processing and Food Engineering, College of Technology and Agricultural Engineering, Udaipur 313 001, Rajasthan (India); Prasad, Suresh [Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2006-09-15

    The convective and microwave-convective drying of garlic cloves was carried out in a laboratory scale microwave dryer, which was developed for this purpose. The specific energy consumption involved in the two drying processes was estimated from the energy supplied to the various components of the dryer during the drying period. The specific energy consumption was computed by dividing the total energy supplied by amount of water removed during the drying process. The specific energy consumption in convective drying of garlic cloves at 70{sup o}C temperature and 1.0m/s air velocity was estimated as 85.45MJ/kg of water evaporated. The increase in air velocity increased the energy consumption. The specific energy consumption at 40W of microwave power output, 70{sup o}C air temperature and 1.0m/s air velocity was 26.32MJ/kg of water removed, resulting in about a 70% energy saving as compared to convective drying processes. The drying time increased with increase in air velocity in microwave-convective drying process; a trend reverse to what was observed in convective drying process of garlic cloves. (author)

  19. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alexandra Goldbohm

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight.

  20. Energy-Filtered Tunnel Transistor: A New Device Concept Toward Extremely-Low Energy Consumption Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    New Device Concept Toward Extremely-Low Energy Consumption Electronics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER N00014-12-1-0492 5c. PROGRAM... energy consumption transistors. We have experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, that a quantum well energy level can filter out energetic...Concept Toward Extremely-Low Energy Consumption Electronics (Grant No: N00014-12-1-0492) PI: Seong Jin Koh Department of Materials Science and

  1. Stress of urban energy consumption on air environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang YAN; Li LI; Bin CHEN

    2009-01-01

    With rapid urbanization and heavy industria-lization as well as the rapid increase of cars in China, the effect of energy consumption on urban air environment is increasingly becoming serious, and has become a hot topic for both scholars and decision-makers. This paper explores the effect mechanism and regulation of urban energy consumption on the air environment, and summarizes the framework of the stress effect relationship and the evolutionary process. In accordance with the effect relationship of the internal factors between the two, analytic approaches studying the stress effect of urban energy consumption on air environment are proposed, including the analysis of air environment effects caused by urban energy consumption structure change, and the analysis of air environment effects caused by urban energy economic efficiency change, as well as a decomposition analysis of air pollutant emission caused by urban energy consumption. Applying the above-mentioned approaches into a case study on Beijing City, this paper analyzes the effect relationship among urban energy consumption structure improvement, energy economic efficiency increase and air quality change since the period when Beijing City officially proposed to bid for the 2008 Olympic Games in 1998. In addition, it further analyzes the effect and contribution of urban industrial activity level, industrial economic structure, industrial energy intensity, and industrial energy structure as well as emission coefficients on the change in industrial SO2 emission, which can provide valuable information to the government for making comPrehensive environmental policies, with the use of the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. It is shown that under the precondition that the industrial economy maintain a continuous and rapid increase, improvements in energy intensity and a decline in emission coefficients are the main means for reducing Beijing's industrial SO2 emissions.

  2. Energy consumption in the food chain - Comparing alternative options in food production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh, CE; Kramer, KJ

    Energy consumption in the various stages of the food chain, provides a reasonable indicator for the environmental impact in the production of food. This paper provides specific information on the energy requirement for the main alternatives in each production stage, which should allow the

  3. Energy consumption in the food chain - Comparing alternative options in food production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh, CE; Kramer, KJ

    2000-01-01

    Energy consumption in the various stages of the food chain, provides a reasonable indicator for the environmental impact in the production of food. This paper provides specific information on the energy requirement for the main alternatives in each production stage, which should allow the identifica

  4. Predictive Model of Energy Consumption in Beer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiecheng Pu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The predictive model of energy consumption is presented based on subtractive clustering and Adaptive-Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System (for short ANFIS in the beer production. Using the subtractive clustering on the historical data of energy consumption, the limit of artificial experience is conquered while confirming the number of fuzzy rules. The parameters of the fuzzy inference system are acquired by the structure of adaptive network and hybrid on-line learning algorithm. The method can predict and guide the energy consumption of the factual production process. The reducing consumption scheme is provided based on the actual situation of the enterprise. Finally, using concrete examples verified the feasibility of this method comparing with the Radial Basis Functions (for short RBF neural network predictive model.

  5. Structural Evolution of Household Energy Consumption: A China Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy production and consumption is one of the issues for the sustainable development strategy in China. As China’s economic development paradigm shifts, household energy consumption (HEC has become a focus of achieving national goals of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction. The information entropy model and LMDI model were employed in this study in order to analyse the structural evolution of HEC, as well as its associated critical factors. The results indicate that the information entropy of HEC increased gradually, and coal will be reduced by clean energies, such as natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas. The information entropy tends to stabilize and converge due to rapid urbanization. Therefore, from the perspective of environmental protection and natural resource conservation, the structure of household energy consumption will be optimized. This study revealed that residents’ income level is one of the most critical factors for the increase of energy consumption, while the energy intensity is the only driving force for the reduction of HEC. The accumulated contribution of these two factors to the HEC is 240.53% and −161.75%, respectively. It is imperative to improve the energy efficiency in the residential sector. Recommendations are provided to improve the energy efficiency-related technologies, as well as the standards for the sustainable energy strategy.

  6. The energy consumption of control systems; Het energiegebruik van regelinstallaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gulik, A.R.; De Wildt, M.G. [Grontmij Nederland, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    Control systems for e.g. indoor climate and illumination are essential in modern building services, and useful for comfort or energy conservation. Energy conservation is of course an important aim, but what is the energy consumption of the control systems? Is the consumption higher than the savings? This question was subject of a comprehensive study, with measurements and simulation calculations. It can be concluded that the energy consumption of control installation for spaces is substantial [Dutch] Regelinstallaties voor bijvoorbeeld klimaatregeling, verlichtingsregeling en domotica zijn niet meer weg te denken uit de moderne installatietechniek, of ze nu dienen voor comfort, gemak of energiebesparing. Maar hoeveel energie gebruiken deze installaties eigenlijk? Voor ontwerpers blijkt dit helemaal geen issue te zijn terwijl adviseurs, installateurs en zelfs fabrikanten zeggen hiervan geen idee te hebben. Door metingen en het gebruik van berekeningsmodellen is vastgesteld wat het energiegebruik van regelinstallaties op jaarbasis is. Dit blijkt substantieel te zijn, maar er zijn mogelijkheden om het gebruik te reduceren.

  7. Tweeting : Smart meters raise awareness of energy consumption in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-11-15

    The University of Mississippi (UM) will monitor, analyze and report on energy consumption in its campus buildings in real-time using SmartSynch Smart Meters. The technology uses smart meter data to help identify a detailed pattern of electricity usage with the objective of finding methods to alter behaviour to reduce electricity usage and carbon emissions. SmartSynch installed 16 Smart Meters on campus with additional deployments being planned. The technology will enable the university to monitor energy consumption, track building power performance over time, compare building energy usage, and review the impact of the weather on energy use while reducing its carbon footprint. Additionally, UM will use Facebook, Twitter and an RSS feed to provide regular public updates on its buildings' energy consumption based on SmartSynch Smart Meter data. Each building will have its own profile on the social networking sites. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  8. Carbon dioxide emissions, output, and energy consumption categories in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Fethi

    2017-06-01

    This study examines the relation between CO2 emissions, income, non-renewable, and renewable energy consumption in Algeria during the period extending from 1980 to 2011. Our work gives particular attention to the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) with break point method outcome demonstrates the positive effect of non-renewable type of energy on CO2 emissions consumption. On the contrary, the results reveal an insignificant effect of renewable energy on environment improvement. Moreover, the results accept the existence of EKC hypothesis but the highest gross domestic product value in logarithm scale of our data is inferior to the estimated turning point. Consequently, policy-makers in Algeria should expand the ratio of renewable energy and should decrease the quota of non-renewable energy consumption.

  9. Mobile Location Sharing: An Energy Consumption Study

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara Alonso, Ekhiotz Jon; Prihodko, Mihails; Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin

    2013-01-01

    The use of a mobile device's battery for frequent transmissions of position data in a location sharing application can be more expensive than the location retrieval itself. This is in part due to energy-agnostic application development and in part dependent on choice of protocols. This paper studies the lightweight Message Queuing Telemetry Transport protocol (MQTT) as an application layer protocol on top of the third generation cellular communication. The energy efficiency and amount of data...

  10. Production, consumption and research on solar energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz-Casado, Elias; Lascurain-Sánchez, Maria Luisa; Serrano-Lopez, Antonio Eleazar

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of scientific publications on solar energy was conducted to determine whether public interest in the subject is mirrored by more intense research in the area. To this end, the research published by Spain and Germany, the two EU countries with the highest installed photovoltaic capacit...... intense. The main conclusion is the divergence in Germany and Spain between solar energy demand/output growth, being exponential, and the growth of research papers on the subject, which is linear...

  11. Twelve months of voluntary heavy alcohol consumption in male rhesus macaques suppresses intracortical bone remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddini, Gino W; Grant, Kathleen A; Woodall, Andrew; Stull, Cara; Maddalozzo, Gianni F; Zhang, Bo; Turner, Russell T; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2015-02-01

    Chronic heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for cortical bone fractures in males. The increase in fracture risk may be due, in part, to reduced bone quality. Intracortical (osteonal) bone remodeling is the principle mechanism for maintaining cortical bone quality. However, it is not clear how alcohol abuse impacts intracortical bone remodeling. This study investigated the effects of long-duration heavy alcohol consumption on intracortical bone remodeling in a non-human primate model. Following a 4-month induction period, male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta, n=21) were allowed to voluntarily self-administer water or alcohol (4% ethanol w/v) for 22h/d, 7 d/wk for 12months. Control monkeys (n=13) received water and an isocaloric maltose-dextrin solution. Tetracycline hydrochloride was administered orally 17 and 3days prior to sacrifice for determination of active mineralization sites. Animals in the alcohol group consumed 2.7±0.2g alcohol/kg/d (mean±SE) during the 12months of self-administration, resulting in a mean daily blood alcohol concentration of 77±9mg/dl from samples taken at 7h after the start of a daily session. However, blood alcohol concentration varied widely from day to day, with peak levels exceeding 250mg/dl, modeling a binge-drinking pattern of alcohol consumption. The skeletal response to alcohol was determined by densitometry, microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry. Significant differences in tibial bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and cortical bone architecture (cross-sectional volume, cortical volume, marrow volume, cortical thickness, and polar moment of inertia) in the tibial diaphysis were not detected with treatment. However, cortical porosity was lower (1.8±0.5 % versus 0.6±0.1 %, p=0.021) and labeled osteon density was lower (0.41±0.2/mm(2)versus 0.04±0.01/mm(2), premodeling. In concordance, plasma CTx was lower (2.5±0.3ng/ml versus 1.7±0.1ng/ml, p=0.028) in the alcohol group. These results suggest that

  12. Energy consumptions per sector; Les consommations d'energie par secteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document presents the energy consumption data of France per energy type and sector of use in the form of tables and graphics for the last decade and sometimes before: 1 - residential and tertiary sector: energy consumption per energy source, energy consumption per use (coal, heavy and domestic fuels, natural gas, LPG (butane, propane), electricity), comparison of the share of each energy source between 1973 and 2003, 20 years of space heating data in main dwellings (1982-2002), district heating networks from 1987 to 1997; 2 - transportation sector: fuel consumption of individual cars in France (1990-2003, 1990-2002, 1990-2001, 1987-1999), some indicators about the energy consumption in transports in France (2000-2001); 3 - industry sector: consumption of fuel substitutes in the cement industry in 2001, importance and limitations. (J.S.)

  13. Estimating Energy Consumption of Transport Modes in China Using DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin Lin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of transport requirements in China will incur increasing transport energy demands and associated environmental pressures. In this paper, we employ a generalized data envelopment analysis (DEA to evaluate the relative energy efficiency of rail, road, aviation and water transport from 1971 to 2011 by considering the energy input and passenger-kilometers (PKM and freight ton-kilometers (TKM outputs. The results show that the optimal energy efficiencies observed in 2011 are for rail and water transport, with the opposite observed for the energy efficiencies of aviation and road transport. In addition, we extend the DEA model to estimate future transport energy consumption in China. If each transport mode in 2020 is optimized throughout the observed period, the national transport energy consumption in 2020 will reach 497,701 kilotons coal equivalent (ktce, whereas the annual growth rate from 2011 to 2020 will be 5.7%. Assuming that efficiency improvements occur in this period, the estimated national transport energy consumption in 2020 will be 443,126 ktce, whereas the annual growth rate from 2011 to 2020 will be 4.4%, which is still higher than that of the national total energy consumption (3.8%.

  14. Mapping water consumption for energy production around the Pacific Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent; Moreland, Barbie

    2016-09-01

    World energy demand is projected to increase by more than a third by 2035 and with it the use of water to extract and process fuels and generate electricity. Management of this energy-water nexus requires a clear understanding of the inter-related demands of these resources as well as their regional distribution. Toward this need the fresh water consumed for energy production was mapped for almost 12 000 watersheds distributed across the 21-economies comprising the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Fresh water consumption was estimated for ten different sectors including thermoelectric and hydroelectric power; energy extraction including coal, oil, natural gas, uranium and unconventional oil/gas; energy processing including oil and biofuels; and biofuel feedstock irrigation. These measures of water consumption were put in context by drawing comparison with published measures of water risk. In total 791 watersheds (32%) of the 2511 watersheds where energy related water consumption occurred were also characterized by high to extreme water risk, these watersheds were designated as being at energy-water risk. For six economies watersheds at energy-water risk represented half or more of all basins where energy related water consumption occurred, while four additional economies exceeded 30%.

  15. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Iran, 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Bekri, Mahmoud

    2017-04-01

    Climate change and global warming as the key human societies' threats are essentially associated with energy consumption and CO2 emissions. A system dynamic model was developed in this study to model the energy consumption and CO2 emission trends for Iran over 2000-2025. Energy policy factors are considered in analyzing the impact of different energy consumption factors on environmental quality. The simulation results show that the total energy consumption is predicted to reach 2150 by 2025, while that value in 2010 is 1910, which increased by 4.3% yearly. Accordingly, the total CO2 emissions in 2025 will reach 985million tonnes, which shows about 5% increase yearly. Furthermore, we constructed policy scenarios based on energy intensity reduction. The analysis show that CO2 emissions will decrease by 12.14% in 2025 compared to 2010 in the scenario of 5% energy intensity reduction, and 17.8% in the 10% energy intensity reduction scenario. The results obtained in this study provide substantial awareness regarding Irans future energy and CO2 emission outlines.

  16. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carri...

  17. Generalized Scaling of Urban Heat Island Effect and Its Applications for Energy Consumption and Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-W. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous work from this laboratory, it has been found that the urban heat island intensity (UHI can be scaled with the urban length scale and the wind speed, through the time-dependent energy balance. The heating of the urban surfaces during the daytime sets the initial temperature, and this overheating is dissipated during the night-time through mean convection motion over the urban surface. This may appear to be in contrast to the classical work by Oke (1973. However, in this work, we show that if the population density is used in converting the population data into urbanized area, then a good agreement with the current theory is found. An additional parameter is the “urban flow parameter,” which depends on the urban building characteristics and affects the horizontal convection of heat due to wind. This scaling can be used to estimate the UHI intensity in any cities and therefore predict the required energy consumption during summer months. In addition, all urbanized surfaces are expected to exhibit this scaling, so that increase in the surface temperature in large energy-consumption or energy-producing facilities (e.g., solar electric or thermal power plants can be estimated.

  18. Circadian rhythm of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuck, Marlene; Levandovski, Rosa; Harb, Ana; Quiles, Caroline; Hidalgo, Maria Paz

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of continuous and intermittent methods of enteral nutrition (EN) administration on circadian rhythm. Thirty-four individuals, aged between 52 and 80 years, were fed through a nasoenteric tube. Fifteen individuals received a continuous infusion for 24 hours/d, and 19 received an intermittent infusion in comparable quantities, every 4 hours from 8:00 to 20:00. In each patient, 4 indirect calorimetric measurements were carried out over 24 hours (A: 7:30, B: 10:30, C: 14:30, and D: 21:30) for 3 days. Energy expenditure and oxygen consumption were significantly higher in the intermittent group than in the continuous group (1782 ± 862 vs 1478 ± 817 kcal/24 hours, P = .05; 257 125 vs 212 117 ml/min, P = .048, respectively). The intermittent group had higher levels of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption at all the measured time points compared with the continuous group. energy expenditure and oxygen consumption in both groups were significantly different throughout the day for 3 days. There is circadian rhythm variation of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption with continuous and intermittent infusion for EN. This suggests that only one indirect daily calorimetric measurement is not able to show the patient's true needs. Energy expenditure is higher at night with both food administration methods. Moreover, energy expenditure and oxygen consumption are higher with the intermittent administration method at all times.

  19. Exploring the energy consumption of lightweight blockciphers in FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    . Concentrating on applications that require a number of parallel encryptions, we instantiate several designs on the target FPGA and we analyze how the energy consumption varies in each algorithm when changing the amount of unrolled rounds. Our results, obtained on the Xc6slx45t device of the Spartan6 family......, demonstrate that Present is the most energy efficient algorithm and that the relation between the energy consumption and the number of unrolled rounds measured on FPGA is similar to the one measured on dedicated hardware....

  20. Widening the scope? How intermediary actors can shape energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maneschi, Davide

    2013-01-01

    , socio-technical systems, governance in the water sector and, although limitedly, in the explanation of aspects related to consumption and energy use. Building on the framework given by the review, the paper presents a case study to provide a real-life example of how intermediaries can favor the more...... – influence energy consumption. This paper presents a review of the literature on intermediaries, providing an overview of their roles and contextualizing their functions in energy efficiency improvements. The review shows how the concept of intermediaries has been used in research dealing with innovation...

  1. Consumption Behavior Analytics-Aided Energy Forecasting and Dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, Rui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jiang, Huaiguang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Kaiqing [University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; Zhang, Jun Jason [University of Denver

    2017-08-17

    For decades, electricity customers have been treated as mere recipients of electricity in vertically integrated power systems. However, as customers have widely adopted distributed energy resources and other forms of customer participation in active dispatch (such as demand response) have taken shape, the value of mining knowledge from customer behavior patterns and using it for power system operation is increasing. Further, the variability of renewable energy resources has been considered a liability to the grid. However, electricity consumption has shown the same level of variability and uncertainty, and this is sometimes overlooked. This article investigates data analytics and forecasting methods to identify correlations between electricity consumption behavior and distributed photovoltaic (PV) output. The forecasting results feed into a predictive energy management system that optimizes energy consumption in the near future to balance customer demand and power system needs.

  2. Methods for Reducing the Energy Consumption of Mobile Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    , increasing also their overall energy consumption. However, traffic analysis shows that during a 24 hour period, the volume of carried traffic varies continuously, with the network operating anywhere close to its full capacity for very short periods of time. The problem is that during hours of low network......Up until recently, very little consideration has been given towards reducing the energy consumption of the networks supporting mobile communication. This has now become an important issue since with the predicted boost in traffic, network operators are required to upgrade and extend their networks...... traffic the energy consumption remains high. This article proposes two major solutions for mitigating this problem. In the first case, an energy saving between 14% and 36% is observed by allowing the network to dynamically optimize its available capacity based on the traffic being carried. In the second...

  3. Energy Consumption Information Services for Smart Home Inhabitants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanzer, Michael; Fensel, Anna

    We investigate services giving users an adequate insight on his or her energy consumption habits in order to optimize it in the long run. The explored energy awareness services are addressed to inhabitants of smart homes, equipped with smart meters, advanced communication facilities, sensors and actuators. To analyze the potential of such services, a game at a social network Facebook has been designed and implemented, and the information about players' responses and interactions within the game environment has been collected and analyzed. The players have had their virtual home energy usage visualized in different ways, and had to optimize the energy consumption basing on their own perceptions of the consumption information. Evaluations reveal, in particular, that users are specifically responsive to information shown as a real-time graph and as costs in Euro, and are able to produce and share with each other policies for managing their smart home environments.

  4. Electrode contact configuration and energy consumption in spinal cord stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de Cecile C.; Hilgerink, Marjolein P.; Buschman, Hendrik P.J.; Holsheimer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that in spinal cord stimulation, in contrast to an increase of the number of anodes which reduces energy consumption per pulse, an increase of the number of cathodes raises the energy per pulse. Methods: Patients with an Itrel 3 pulse generator and a Pisces Quad qu

  5. Changing organizational energy consumption behaviour through comparative feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siero, F.W.; Bakker, A.B.; Dekker, G.B; van den Burg, T.C

    1996-01-01

    The differential effects of two forms of feedback on energy consumption behaviour were examined in two units of a metallurgical company. In one unit, employees received information about energy conservation, had to set goals and received feedback on their own conservation behaviour. The same procedu

  6. A realistic dynamic blower energy consumption model for wastewater applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerlinck, Y; De Keyser, W; Urchegui, G; Nopens, I

    2016-10-01

    At wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) aeration is the largest energy consumer. This high energy consumption requires an accurate assessment in view of plant optimization. Despite the ever increasing detail in process models, models for energy production still lack detail to enable a global optimization of WWTPs. A new dynamic model for a more accurate prediction of aeration energy costs in activated sludge systems, equipped with submerged air distributing diffusers (producing coarse or fine bubbles) connected via piping to blowers, has been developed and demonstrated. This paper addresses the model structure, its calibration and application to the WWTP of Mekolalde (Spain). The new model proved to give an accurate prediction of the real energy consumption by the blowers and captures the trends better than the constant average power consumption models currently being used. This enhanced prediction of energy peak demand, which dominates the price setting of energy, illustrates that the dynamic model is preferably used in multi-criteria optimization exercises for minimizing the energy consumption.

  7. Energy balance of forage consumption by phyllophagous insects: optimization model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Tarasova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The model of optimal food consumption by phytophagous insects proposed, in which the metabolic costs are presented in the form of two components – the cost of food utilization and costs for proper metabolism of the individuals. Two measures were introduced – the «price» of food conversion and the «price» of biomass synthesis of individuals to assess the effectiveness of food consumption by caterpillars. The proposed approach to the description of food consumption by insects provides the exact solutions of the equation of energy balance of food consumption and determining the effectiveness of consumption and the risk of death of the individual. Experiments on larvae’s feeding in laboratory conditions were carried out to verify the model. Caterpillars of Aporia crataegi L. (Lepidoptera, Pieridae were the research subjects. Supply­demand balance, calculated value of the environmental price of consumption and efficiency of food consumption for each individual were determined from experimental data. It was found that the fertility of the female does not depend on the weight of food consumed by it, but is linearly dependent on the food consumption efficiency index. The greater the efficiency of food consumption by an individual, the higher its fertility. The data obtained in the course of experiments on the feeding caterpillars Aporia crataegi were compared with the data presented in the works of other authors and counted in the proposed model of consumption. Calculations allowed estimation of the critical value of food conversion price below which the energy balance is negative and the existence of an individual is not possible.

  8. Energy consumption maps for quaternary distillation sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Castro, F.I.; Ramírez-Vallejo, N.E.; Segovia-Hernandez, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    of the solutions space. For the separation of ternary mixtures, Tedder and Rudd (1978) presented a composition map for which thermally coupled systems allowed energy savings. However, the scenario is different for quaternary mixtures, since no similar information is available. Therefore, in this work, energy...... be generated for the separation of multicomponent mixtures. This fact is an advantage, since a wide portfolio of alternatives can be used to separate a specific mixture; however, this is also a disadvantage since a lot of alternatives must be explored in order to find the optimal one. The optimal configuration......, for a given mixture, depends on the nature of the mixture, usually quantified for ternary mixtures through the ease of separation index (ESI), and also on the feed composition. As can be noticed, the size of the design and optimization problem increases when these variables are considered in the generation...

  9. Beverage consumption among U.S. children aged 0–24 months: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data on beverage consumption patterns in early life are limited. The aim of this study was to describe beverage consumption by sociodemographic characteristics, along with water intake and sources of water among U.S. children aged 0–24 months. Data from 2740 children in the 2005–2012 NHANES were ana...

  10. Commercial-sector energy-consumption data-base-development project. Volume III. Analysis of energy consumption in office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    Results are presented of an effort to develop comprehensive and reliable energy consumption data for office buildings. A survey was conducted of readily available energy consumption data and the literature that describes the factors which drive energy use in such buildings was analyzed. Information on heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems was assembled. A number of building energy use simulation programs were reviewed to determine their suitability for estimating energy consumption by function and the effects of tradeoffs in building design and operating parameters on building energy use. Simulations using the AXCESS program were conducted. The 1975 data base of the Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA) was obtained and analyzed. Data describing energy use on a regional and national basis were developed, and regression equations based on these were obtained. The ability of these equations to predict average energy use was then confirmed by applying them to four office buildings not in the BOMA data base. A number of proposals for the further improvement of the equations were developed, including additional data collection. Specifically, the survey of actual and simulated data on a regional basis is reported in Section 2. HVAC systems are discussed in Sections 3 and 4. BOMA obtains annual data on about 1000 buildings covering such items as location, floor area, height, age, average occupancy rate, average number of employees, types of tenants, type of air conditioning, and energy consumption by fuel and the description and analyses of the BOMA data are presented in Sections 5 and 6.

  11. URBAN FEATURES AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT LOCAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in discovering the human effects on the environment and energy consumption in recent decades. It is estimated that the share of energy consumed in transportation and housing systems are around 20 and 30 percent of total energy consumption respectively. Furthermore, the residential greenhouse emissions depend on urban form and structure. This paper explores the effects of urban features on residential energy consumption at neighborhood level using data collected through household questionnaire (n=140. Two residential districts in metropolitan Shiraz, south of Iran, were selected as case study areas. Different features of two areas were compared including building density, typology, housing location, parcel size, floor area and construction materials. Ordinary linear regression was used to discover the impact of explanatory variables on energy consumption. It was found that some physical variables such as parcel size, setback and number of floors played significant roles in explaining the variances exist in energy use level. The results can be used by governmental agencies to modify land use policies and subdivision rules in hope of saving energy and achieving a sustainable community.

  12. Upgrading existing evaporators to reduce energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This manual is intended to assist the evaporator engineer who will be performing the technical and economic analyses to determine the most suitable evaporator upgrading technique for his particular plant. Information is included on potentials for upgrading evaporators; correctable operating factors; heat recovery and other improvements in energy use with minor capital investments; upgrading through major capital investments; guidelines for formulating an upgrading program; and new technologies encompassing advanced designs, use of solar and low-grade heat sources, and heat transfer enhancement. A 36 item bibliography is included. (LCL)

  13. Energy consumption analysis for a single screw extruder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jing; Harkin-Jones, Eileen; Price, Mark; Karnachi, Nayeem [Queen' s Univ., Belfast (United Kingdom). School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Li, Kang [Queen' s Univ., Belfast (United Kingdom). School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Fei, Minrui [Shanghai Univ. (China). School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation

    2013-07-01

    Polymer extrusion is regarded as an energy intensive production process, the real-time monitoring of both thermal energy and motor drive energy consumption becomes necessary for the development of energy efficient management system. The use of power meter is a simple and easy way to achieve this, however the cost sometimes can be high. Mathematical models based on the process settings provide an affordable alternative, but the resultant models cannot be easily extended to other extruders with different geometry. In this paper, simple and accurate energy real-time monitoring methods are developed for the analysis of energy consumption of the thermal heating and motor drive respectively. This is achieved by looking inside the controller, and use the control variables to calculate the power consumption. The developed methods are then adopted to study the effects of operating settings on the energy efficiency. These include the barrel heating temperature, water cooling temperature, and screw speed. The experimental results on Killion KTS-100 extruder show that the barrel heating temperature has a negative effect on energy efficiency, while the water cooling setting affects the energy efficiency positively but insignificantly. Undoubtedly, screw speed has the most significant effect on energy efficiency.

  14. Energy consumption by gender in some European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raety, R.; Carlsson-Kanyama, A. [Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    Household total energy use has been estimated in numerous studies in recent decades and differences have mainly been explained by levels of income/expenditure. Studies of gender consumption patterns show that men eat more meat than women and drive longer distances, potentially leading to higher total energy use by men. In this study we calculated the total energy use for male and female consumption patterns in four European countries (Germany, Norway, Greece and Sweden) by studying single households. Significant differences in total energy use were found in two countries, Greece and Sweden. The largest differences found between men and women were for travel and eating out, alcohol and tobacco, where men used much more energy than women. We suggest that these findings are policy relevant for the EU, which aims to mainstream gender issues into all activities and to lower its total energy use. (author)

  15. Understanding energy consumption of sensor enabled applications on mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crk, Igor; Albinali, Fahd; Gniady, Chris; Hartman, John

    2009-01-01

    Recent research in ubiquitous and mobile computing uses mobile phones and wearable accelerometers to monitor individuals' physical activities for personalized and proactive health care. The goal of this project is to measure and reduce the energy demand placed on mobile phones that monitor individuals' physical activities for extended periods of time with limited access to battery recharging and mobile phone reception. Many issues must be addressed before mobile phones become a viable platform for remote health monitoring, including: security, reliability, privacy, and, most importantly, energy. Mobile phones are battery-operated, making energy a critical resource that must be carefully managed to ensure the longest running time before the battery is depleted. In a sense, all other issues are secondary, since the mobile phone will simply not function without energy. In this project, we therefore focus on understanding the energy consumption of a mobile phone that runs MIT wockets, physical activity monitoring applications, and consider ways to reduce its energy consumption.

  16. Estimating the Energy Consumption of Emerging Random Access Memory Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a model for estimating the energy consumption of different types ofrandom access memory(RAM) technologies, likely to be commercially available by2017, has been developed. The goal for this model has been to evaluate whichof the memory technologies that will be the most energy efficient in 2017. Thiswas done by building the model on the required energies to read or write a bit forthe different technologies. The memory technologies that have been modelled are:Dynamic RAM (DRAM), S...

  17. Specific energy consumption values for various refrigerated food cold stores

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, JA; Foster, AM; Huet, JM; Reinholdt, L.; Fikiin, K; Zilio, C; Houska, M; Landfeld, A; Bond, C.; Scheurs, M; Van Sambeeck, TWM

    2013-01-01

    Two benchmarking surveys were created to collect data on the performance of chilled, frozen and mixed (chilled and frozen stores operated from a single refrigeration system) food cold stores with the aim of identifying the major factors influencing energy consumption. The volume of the cold store was found to have the greatest relationship with energy use with none of the other factors collected having any significant impact on energy use. For chilled cold stores, 93% of the variation in ener...

  18. Trends in Residential Energy Consumption in Saudi Arabia with Particular Reference to the Eastern Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farajallah Alrashed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Residential buildings are vital in the energy scenario of Saudi Arabia as they account for 52% of the total electricity consumption. The Eastern Province, due to its harsh weather conditions, is one of the most challenging areas in Saudi Arabia in terms of residential energy consumption. The province is vital also because of its large land area, accounting for almost one third of the entire country. This article investigates some of the important factors related to the residential energy consumption i.e. weather conditions, types of dwellings, building envelops, air-conditioning (A/C systems and domestic appliances especially cooking ovens. The work is based upon an analysis of the actual monthly electricity consumption for 115 dwellings in Dhahran for the year 2012. The investigated buildings include 62 apartments, 28 villas, and 25 traditional houses. The annual average electricity consumption for the surveyed dwellings was found to be 176.5 kWh/m2, a value higher than international energy-efficiency benchmarks. It is found that the use of mini-split A/C systems, thermal insulation and double-glazed windows can help reduce the electricity consumption by over 30%.

  19. A New System to Estimate and Reduce Electrical Energy Consumption of Domestic Hot Water in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gutierrez-Escolar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption rose about 28% over the 2001 to 2011 period in the Spanish residential sector. In this environment, domestic hot water (DHW represents the second highest energy demand. There are several methodologies to estimate DHW consumption, but each methodology uses different inputs and some of them are based on obsolete data. DHW energy consumption estimation is a key tool to plan modifications that could enhance this consumption and we decided to update the methodologies. We studied DHW consumption with data from 10 apartments in the same building during 18 months. As a result of the study, we updated one chosen methodology, adapting it to the current situation. One of the challenges to improve efficiency of DHW use is that most of people are not aware of how it is consumed in their homes. To help this information to reach consumers, we developed a website to allow users to estimate the final electrical energy needed for DHW. The site uses three estimation methodologies and chooses the best fit based on information given by the users. Finally, the application provides users with recommendations and tips to reduce their DHW consumption while still maintaining the desired comfort level.

  20. Primary energy consumption in Germany 2001; Primaerenergieverbrauch in Deutschland 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-03-01

    According to preliminary calculations, the consumption of primary energy in Germany increased sharply in 2001 over the level the year before, i.e. 2000. It grew by 1.6% from approx. 487.2 million TCE to approx. 494.8 million TCE. This extra consumption corresponds to 7.6 million TCE. This upward development is due primarily to the much colder weather compared to 2000, as the weakness of the economy generated almost no impulses which could have increased the consumption of energy. The Federal Republic of Germany continues to be a country largely dependent on energy imports. The domestic energy generation in 2001 amounted to approx. 122.6 million TCE, which corresponds to some 25% of the overall consumption. The dependence on imports of approx. 372.2 million TCE amounted to approx. 75%. Oil, with a share of 38.4%, continues to be the main source of primary energy, followed by natural gas with 21.5%, hard coal with 13.1%, nuclear power with 12.9%, lignite with 11.2%, and the other energy sources (water and wind power, refuse) with approx. 2.8%. The energy prices, which had continuously been at a high level in the first six months of 2001, dropped below the level of the previous year in the second half of the year. The generation and consumption of electricity rose by 0.5% in 2001. Gross electricity generation of approx. 570.0 billion kWh exceeded the figure of the year before, i.e. 563.0 billion kWh, by some 7 billion kWh. Nuclear power still holds first place in electricity generation; its 171.3 billion kWh in 2001 mark the highest generation output in Germany so far, followed by lignite and hard coal. Electricity generation in wind power plants experienced a particularly steep percentage growth by approx. 20% to 11.0 billion kWh, which makes it the second most important source of renewable energy after hydroelectric power with 25.8 billion kWh. (orig.) [German] Der Primaerenergieverbrauch in Deutschland ist nach ersten Berechnungen im Jahre 2001 gegenueber dem

  1. Energy consumption of buildings depends on the daylight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowska Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce energy consumption in heated buildings and thus fossil fuels, there is a need for proper modernization of existing buildings and new construction with reduced energy demand. The size and the insulation of windows have a decisive influence on the amount of heat loss. The study looks into the impact of decreased power consumption through optimal use of sunlight through the selection of the size of windows, type of windows, and adjusting the light intensity using an automatic control of lighting according to the amount of sunlight reaching the room. The research related to the differences between the six types of windows in relations to the energy consumption of the building.

  2. Data Acquisition and Transmission System for Building Energy Consumption Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Building energy consumption monitoring and management system have been developed widely in China in order to gain the real-time data of energy consumption in buildings for analyzing it in the next state work. This paper describes a low-cost and small-sized collector based on the STM32 microcontroller, which can be placed in a building easily to implement the work of data acquisition, storage, and transmission. The collector gathers the electricity, water, heat, and energy consumption data through the RS485 field bus and stores the data into an SD card with mass storage, finally, using Internet to finish the communication and transmission to data server through TCP protocol. The collector has been used in application for two years, and the results show that the system is reliable and stable.

  3. Energy consumption and energy saving potentials in piglet production; Energieverbrauch und energetische Einsparpotenziale in der Ferkelerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiber, Josef; Neser, Stefan [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (LFL), Freising (DE). Inst. fuer Landtechnik und Tierhaltung (ILT)

    2010-07-01

    For agricultural farms, a considerable share of variable costs is due to the energy consumption for agricultural production processes. In particular, piglet production and nursery have a high thermal and electric energy demand. For the planning and the redevelopment of pig housing systems, a good knowledge of the energy demand of different consumers is of great importance. With this knowledge, it is possible to derive measures for improving energy efficiency and reducing energy consumption. (orig.)

  4. China's Export Expansion, Export Structure and Energy Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Yisheng; Ning Xuemin

    2011-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up, China's export trade has maintained a rapid growth; meanwhile, China's energy consumption has been increasing sharply. "High export and high energy consumption" has become the feature of China's trade and economic development. In this paper, based on the input-output analysis approach, the authors have conducted an empirical study on the export trade and energy consumption of 21 trade industrial sectors. The results show that, China is a big net exporter of embodied energy. Assuming that the export growth rate of embodied energy maintains to be about 23.6%, the average annual growth rate of the past 32 years, and based on the input-output data of 2005, by 2030 China's net export of embodied energy would be over eight times more than the aggregate energy production, which is obviously infeasible. As a country of very low per capita en- ergy, China must change its export pattern, encourage or restrain the export of different industrial sectors according to their energy consumption intensity, and promote structural change of energy- efficient exported products, so as to achieve the sustainable development. Accordingly, the authors put forward some suggestions.

  5. Energy consumption, pollutant emissions and economic growth in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menyah, Kojo [London Metropolitan Business School, London Metropolitan University (United Kingdom); Wolde-Rufael, Yemane [Independent Researcher (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    This paper examines the long-run and the causal relationship between economic growth, pollutant emissions and energy consumption for South Africa for the period 1965-2006 in a multivariate framework which includes labour and capital as additional variables. Using the bound test approach to cointegration, we found a short-run as well as a long-run relationship among the variables with a positive and a statistically significant relationship between pollutant emissions and economic growth. Further, applying a modified version of the Granger causality test we also found a unidirectional causality running from pollutant emissions to economic growth; from energy consumption to economic growth and from energy consumption to CO{sub 2} emissions all without a feedback. The econometric evidence suggests that South Africa has to sacrifice economic growth or reduce its energy consumption per unit of output or both in order to reduce pollutant emissions. In the long-run however, it is possible to meet the energy needs of the country and at the same time reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by developing energy alternatives to coal, the main source of CO{sub 2} emissions. However, the econometric results upon which the policy suggestions are made should be interpreted with care, as they may not be sufficiently robust enough to categorically warrant the choice of an unpalatable policy option by South Africa. (author)

  6. Solow meets Leontief. Economic growth and energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbex, Marcelo; Perobelli, Fernando S. [Department of Economics, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    This paper proposes a methodology that integrates a growth model with an input-output model to analyze the impacts of economic growth on the consumption of energy. The integration between the models is carried out by calibrating the growth module, which incorporates energetic inputs (renewable and nonrenewable) in the production function, and implementing shocks by the supply side (capital, labor, renewable and nonrenewable energy) in the input-output model. This allows us to verify the pattern of energy consumption for each sector in the input-output matrix. We apply this methodology to study the energy consumption of eleven economic sectors in Brazil, using data from the Brazilian National Accounts and Input-Output Matrix (IBGE) and the National Energy Report (BEN). We conduct experiments involving changes in technological progress growth rate, extraction and regeneration rates of both renewable and nonrenewable resources and population growth to analyze the impact of changes in the parameters of the model on the sectoral output growth rate and, consequently, on the consumption of energy in each economic sector. (author)

  7. A simple forecasting model for industrial electric energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shehri, Abdallah [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Electrical Engineering Dept., Dhaharan (Saudi Arabia)

    2000-07-01

    A single-equation model is developed and employed for forecasting industrial electric energy consumption in the Saudi Consolidated Electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO-East) of Saudi Arabia. SCECO-East's industrial loads are composed mainly of oil-related and petrochemical industries. Even though industrial loads are generally characterised by their steadiness, the harsh weather conditions of the Eastern Province cause great variations in the industrial electric energy consumption at SCECO-East. The developed model reflects these variations. MATLAB is used to solve the model. (Author)

  8. Energy production and consumption in the Yemen Arab Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saqqaf, A.

    The energy sector reflects the major changes in the socio-economic structure and massive private and government investments that have given North Yemen a 6% real growth rate since 1970. The author surveys the energy sector over the past decade, and uses an earlier energy balance to forecast to the end of this decade. The survey, which focuses on consumption and supply, considers various potential sources of energy, including renewable forms and discusses new developments in oil exploration and refining capacity. The most significant development is not the dramatic rise in energy consumption, but in the discovery and exploitation of oil which allowed the Yemen Arab Republic to join the league of oil-producing nations. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  9. Questionnaire survey, Indoor climate measurements and Energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2012-01-01

    to be designed and constructed with a heating demand corresponding to the Danish low-energy standard referred to as "low-energy class 1" in a new settlement called Stenløse Syd. This means that the energy consumption is to be 50% lower than the requirement in BR08 (Danish Building Regulations 2008). 66 flats....... This report presents part of the results of an evaluation of the project that was performed in the settlement. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire survey of occupant experiences and satisfaction in 35 single-family houses, measurements of energy consumption in 22 selected single-family houses and 58......The municipality of Egedal decided in 2006 to make use of the possibility in the Danish Planning Law for a municipality to tighten the energy requirements in the local plan for a new settlement to be erected in the municipality. During the years 2007-2011 a total of 442 dwellings were...

  10. Analysis of federal incentives used to stimulate energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R.J.; Cone, B.W.; Emery, J.C.; Huelshoff, M.; Lenerz, D.E.; Marcus, A.; Morris, F.A.; Sheppard, W.J.; Sommers, P.

    1981-08-01

    The purpose of the analysis is to identify and quantify Federal incentives that have increased the consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity. The introductory chapter is intended as a device for presenting the policy questions about the incentives that can be used to stimulate desired levels of energy development. In the theoretical chapter federal incentives were identified for the consumption of energy as Federal government actions whose major intent or result is to stimulate energy consumption. The stimulus comes through changing values of variables included in energy demand functions, thereby inducing energy consumers to move along the function in the direction of greater quantity of energy demanded, or through inducing a shift of the function to a position where more energy will be demanded at a given price. The demand variables fall into one of six categories: price of the energy form, price of complements, price of substitutes, preferences, income, and technology. The government can provide such incentives using six different policy instruments: taxation, disbursements, requirements, nontraditional services, traditional services, and market activity. The four major energy forms were examined. Six energy-consuming sectors were examined: residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, transportation, and public. Two types of analyses of incentive actions are presented in this volume. The generic chapter focused on actions taken in 1978 across all energy forms. The subsequent chapters traced the patterns of incentive actions, energy form by energy form, from the beginning of the 20th century, to the present. The summary chapter includes the results of the previous chapters presented by energy form, incentive type, and user group. Finally, the implications of these results for solar policy are presented in the last chapter. (MCW)

  11. Cash and in-kind transfers in poor rural communities in Mexico increase household fruit, vegetable, and micronutrient consumption but also lead to excess energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Jef L; Gadsden, Paola; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; de Cossío, Teresa González

    2010-03-01

    Conditional transfer programs are increasingly popular, but the impact on household nutrient consumption has not been studied. We evaluated the impact of the Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), a cash and in-kind transfer program, on the energy and nutrient consumption of poor rural households in Mexico. The program has been shown to reduce poverty. Beneficiary households received either a food basket (including micronutrient-fortified milk) or cash. A random sample of 206 rural communities in Southern Mexico was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: a monthly food basket with or without health and nutrition education, a cash transfer with a cost to the government equivalent to the food basket (14 USD/mo) with education, or control. The impact after 14 mo of exposure was estimated in a panel of 5823 households using a double difference regression model with household fixed effects. PAL was associated with increases (P consumption of total energy (5-9%), energy from fruits and vegetables (24-28%), and energy from animal source foods (24-39%). It also affected iron, zinc, and vitamin A and C consumption (P consumption of energy and all nutrients was greater in the food basket group (P energy-deficient should be carefully redesigned to ensure that pulling poor families out of poverty leads to improved micronutrient intake but not to increased energy consumption.

  12. Legitimacy of concerns about caffeine and energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesensten, Nancy J

    2014-10-01

    Whether caffeine and energy drink consumption presents a critical emerging health problem is not currently known. Available evidence suggests that energy drink consumption represents a change in the ways in which individuals in the United States consume caffeine but that the amount of caffeine consumed daily has not appreciably increased. In the present review, the question of whether Americans are sleep deprived (a potential reason for using caffeine) is briefly explored. Reported rates of daily caffeine consumption (based on beverage formulation) and data obtained from both civilian and military populations in the United States are examined, the efficacy of ingredients other than caffeine in energy drinks is discussed, and the safety and side effects of caffeine are addressed, including whether evidence supports the contention that excessive caffeine/energy drink consumption induces risky behavior. The available evidence suggests that the main legitimate concern regarding caffeine and energy drink use is the potential negative impact on sleep but that, otherwise, there is no cause for concern regarding caffeine use in the general population. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Energy consumption of bioclimatic buildings in Argentina during the period 2001-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippin, C. [CONICET - Av. Spinetto 785, Santa Rosa, 6300 (La Pampa) (Argentina); Larsen, S. Flores [INENCO - Non Conventional Energies Research Institute, National University of Salta, CONICET (Argentina); Canori, M. [National University of La Pampa (Argentina)

    2010-05-15

    The energy performance of two bioclimatic buildings located in Santa Rosa city, a temperate semi-arid agricultural region of central Argentina, is analysed. The bioclimatic design included direct solar gain, thermal inertia, natural ventilation, thermal insulation, external shading, building orientation, and dwelling grouping. Each double-story building is aligned on an East-West axis and it has a compact shape with 350 m{sup 2} of useful floor area (58 m{sup 2}/apartment). The solar collection area is around 18% of the apartment's useful area on the ground floor and 14% on the upper floor. This paper describes the energy performance of the buildings during the period 2001-2008. The analysis includes: (a) the energy consumption (natural gas and electricity) during 2001-2007 (natural gas: annually, bimonthly; electricity: monthly); (b) the natural gas consumption and the thermal behaviour during the winters of year 2001 (between July 27 and August 3) and 2008 (between August 8 and 13); (c) the daily natural gas consumption and the thermal behaviour during 2001 and 2008 winters; (d) the comparison between the energy consumption for heating in bioclimatic and conventional buildings. The authors concluded that the results confirm the large potential of solar buildings design to reach significant levels of energy saving. The comparison of solar and conventional buildings in terms of natural gas consumption demonstrates the magnitude of such potential. (author)

  14. Home energy information measuring and managing energy consumption in residential buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David

    2014-01-01

    The book contains the data required to measure and manage energy consumption in residential buildings. This book describes energy information in detail so that any homeowner can measure energy use on a continuing basis, make decisions regarding how to conserve energy, implement improvements, then monitor the results of those improvements. In the past, it has been difficult to collect residential energy consumption data in real-time. This book helps overcome that challenge by teaching readers how to use self-installed data collection devices that monitor consumption of circuits or appliances, a

  15. Energy Conservation Behaviour Toolkit. Incentive Meachnisms for Effective Decrease of Energy Consumption at the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Kalz, M., Börner, D., & Specht, M. (2012, 18 September). Energy Conservation Behaviour Toolkit. Incentive Mechanisms for Effective Decrease of Energy Consumption at the Workplace. Presentation at the 'Tussenbijeenkomst SURFnet Innovatieregeling Duurzaamheid & ICT', Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  16. Energy Consumption and Analysis on Energy Saving Measures at SINOPEC's Large Refineries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuang Jian; Hou Kaifeng; Yan Chun; Li Zhiqiang

    2007-01-01

    This article sums up the energy consumption of process units and the overall energy consumption of 10 Mt/a class refineries constructed or revamped in recent years.The energy saving measures adopted in design of these refineries are analyzed and discussed.Finally,this article also makes comments and puts forward recommendations on the objectives for energy conservation at refineries jn the future.

  17. Consumption of energy drinks among lebanese youth: a pilot study on the prevalence and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-09-01

    The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged between 13 and 30 years in private and public schools and universities in Lebanon over 5 months. A self-administered questionnaire was used inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, consumption patterns, attitudes and beliefs about energy drinks. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Data was analyzed using SPSS 17. We studied 1500 students (mean age: 18.92 ± 1.85; 51.3% were males). The overall prevalence of energy drinks consumption was 63.6% (60.5% were males), among which 50.5% used alcoholic energy drinks. Respondents indicated that most consumed energy drinks were "Red Bull" and "Boom Boom" (70.9% and 51.5% respectively). In total, 64.5% of participants believed the effect of these drinks in energizing the body, and 72.7% believed that they can stimulate intellectual capacities. In addition, 29.6% of consumers experienced at least one adverse effect, where tachycardia was reported in 21.1% of cases. On the other hand, desired effects felt after consumption were mostly pleasure (33.8%). Males had a 3-time more risk of consuming such drinks compared to females (OR: 0.381, P energy drinks consumption and regions outside Beirut (OR: 1.401, P: 0.006; 95% CI: 1.103-1.781), medical field of work (OR: 0.376, P: 0.010; 95% CI: 0.179-0.790) and higher personal income (OR: 1.317, P energy drinks consumption among youth. The current results highlight the importance of education to prevent the consumption of energy drinks in excessive quantities and modifying some wrong perceptions regarding the benefits

  18. Energy drink consumption and impact on caffeine risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Barbara M; Campbell, Donald M; Cressey, Peter; Egan, Ursula; Horn, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    The impact of caffeine from energy drinks occurs against a background exposure from naturally occurring caffeine (coffee, tea, cocoa and foods containing these ingredients) and caffeinated beverages (kola-type soft drinks). Background caffeine exposure, excluding energy drinks, was assessed for six New Zealand population groups aged 15 years and over (n = 4503) by combining concentration data for 53 caffeine-containing foods with consumption information from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (ANS). Caffeine exposure for those who consumed energy drinks (n = 138) was similarly assessed, with inclusion of energy drinks. Forty-seven energy drink products were identified on the New Zealand market in 2010. Product volumes ranged from 30 to 600 ml per unit, resulting in exposures of 10-300 mg caffeine per retail unit consumed. A small percentage, 3.1%, of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, with most energy drink consumers (110/138) drinking one serving per 24 h. The maximum number of energy drinks consumed per 24 h was 14 (total caffeine of 390 mg). A high degree of brand loyalty was evident. Since only a minor proportion of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, a greater number of New Zealanders exceeded a potentially adverse effect level (AEL) of 3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for caffeine from caffeine-containing foods than from energy drinks. Energy drink consumption is not a risk at a population level because of the low prevalence of consumption. At an individual level, however, teenagers, adults (20-64 years) and females (16-44 years) were more likely to exceed the AEL by consuming energy drinks in combination with caffeine-containing foods.

  19. A Low Power Consumption Algorithm for Efficient Energy Consumption in ZigBee Motes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquerizo-Hdez, Daniel; Muñoz, Pablo; R-Moreno, María D; F Barrero, David

    2017-09-22

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are becoming increasingly popular since they can gather information from different locations without wires. This advantage is exploited in applications such as robotic systems, telecare, domotic or smart cities, among others. To gain independence from the electricity grid, WSNs devices are equipped with batteries, therefore their operational time is determined by the time that the batteries can power on the device. As a consequence, engineers must consider low energy consumption as a critical objective to design WSNs. Several approaches can be taken to make efficient use of energy in WSNs, for instance low-duty-cycling sensor networks (LDC-WSN). Based on the LDC-WSNs, we present LOKA, a LOw power Konsumption Algorithm to minimize WSNs energy consumption using different power modes in a sensor mote. The contribution of the work is a novel algorithm called LOKA that implements two duty-cycling mechanisms using the end-device of the ZigBee protocol (of the Application Support Sublayer) and an external microcontroller (Cortex M0+) in order to minimize the energy consumption of a delay tolerant networking. Experiments show that using LOKA, the energy required by the sensor device is reduced to half with respect to the same sensor device without using LOKA.

  20. Basic tables of the energy consumption 1985. Basistabellen energiegebruik 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiemersma, D.N.; Rouw, M.

    1991-01-01

    Reliable and useful tables of one basic year are necessary to maintain and to actualize the energy scenarios of the Energy Study Centre of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation. Spring 1989 such basic tables were composed for the Dutch energy consumption in 1985. A basic structure has been designed to classify energy demand data. Three main sectors are distinguished: the built environment, the production system, and the transportation sector. Within each sector several subsectors can be distinguished. The energy sources considered are: coal, oil, natural gas, electric power, hot water and steam, and different gases. The energy is used for space heating, processes and electric power. In the appendix account is given of the sources of the data. The tables presented are deducted from the Dutch Energy Economy (NEH) tables and supplemented by several other sources. 25 refs., 15 tabs.

  1. Energy consumption and economic growth on the focus on nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Filiz [Sakarya Univ., Sakarya (Turkey). Dept. of Financial Econometric; Pektas, Ali Osman [Bahcesehir Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Ozkan, Omer [Istanbul Medeniyet Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2017-01-15

    Since the quest for global and personal prosperity, the drive to eradicate poverty and the motivation to ensure sustainability for the world are collectively dependent on a supply of safe, emissions-free power there are many studies in literature focuses on the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption. This study tries to enlarge the dimensions of these researches by using a large dataset. The second aim of this study is to focus on Nuclear energy consumption. According to the empirical results of the study, Energy consumption is found as co-integrated with the GDP in all 55 countries. There exist bidirectional causality between nuclear, renewable energy consumption and the GDP. Additionally, the unidirectional causality extends from economic growth to hydroelectric, petroleum, coal and total energy consumption.

  2. ENERGY CONSUMPTION FORECASTING METHODOLOGY OF A SET OF OBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    KHUDAYAROV MUZAFFAR BURHANOVICH; KHABIBULINA ALBINA TALGATOVNA; KARIMKULOV HOJIAKBAR KHOLMURADOVICH

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the methodology and questions the use of different types of models for forecasting of energy consumption a set of objects. To improve the forecasting results is carried out procedure to select the best model for each object together.

  3. A Resource Utilization Score for Software Energy Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagroep, E.A.; van der Werf, J.M.E.M.; Broekman, Jordy; Blom, Leen; van Vliet, Rob; Brinkkemper, S.

    Software as the true consumer of power and its potential contribution to reach sustainability goals is increasingly being acknowledged. Studies so far have presented successful results and methods to address the energy consumption of the software, indicating that different stakeholders striving for

  4. Developing an Analytical Framework for Argumentation on Energy Consumption Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Mehl, Cathy E.; Lan, Deborah H.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to develop a framework for analyzing the argumentation practice of high school students and high school graduates. We developed the framework in a specific context--how energy consumption activities such as changing diet, converting forests into farmlands, and choosing transportation modes affect the carbon cycle. The…

  5. Evaluation of energy consumption in different drying methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motevali, Ali; Minaei, Saeid; Khoshtagaza, Mohammad Hadi [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Agricultural Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran 14115-111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate energy consumption in various drying systems including hot-air convection, use of microwave pretreatment with convection dryer, microwave drying, vacuum drying and infrared drying. Tests were conducted using pomegranate arils under various experimental conditions as follows. In convection dryer at six temperature levels (45, 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70 C) and three air velocity levels (0.5, 1 and 1.5 m/s) at three pretreatments of control, 100 W microwave pretreatment for 20 min and 200 W microwave pretreatment for 10 min. Experiments in the microwave dryer were done at three power levels of 100, 200 and 300 W and in vacuum dryer at five temperature levels (50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 C) under 250 kPa pressure. For infrared drying, there were four air velocity levels (0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 m/s) and three illumination levels (0.22, 0.31 and 0.49 W/cm{sup 2}). Experimental results showed that minimum and maximum energy consumption in pomegranate drying were associated with microwave and vacuum dryers, respectively. The use of microwave pretreatment in drying pomegranate arils in hot air dryer decreased drying time and energy consumption in comparison with pure convection drying. In infrared drying, it was found that drying time increased with air velocity which resulted in increased energy consumption. (author)

  6. Actual energy consumption in dwellings. The effect of energy performance regulations and occupant behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra Santin, O.

    2010-10-19

    Residential buildings have continuously improved in energy efficiency, partly as a consequence of the introduction of energy regulations in many countries. Although better thermal properties and systems efficiency have lowered energy consumption for space heating in recent decades, substantial differences in energy consumption in similar dwellings are still being observed. These differences in consumption are thought to be caused by differences in occupancy patterns, by quality of construction and by rebound effects. This research addresses the effect of energy performance regulations and occupant behavior on energy consumption for space and water heating in dwellings built after the introduction of the energy performance regulations in the Netherlands. The results of this research show that improving the energy efficiency of buildings alone is not enough to decrease that energy consumption. The large differences found in the use of dwellings indicate that, especially in energy efficient houses, occupant behavior provides an opportunity for further reductions in the energy consumption for space heating which could boost the efforts to conserve energy worldwide.

  7. Energy consumption model over parallel programs implemented on multicore architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Isidro-Ramirez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In High Performance Computing, energy consump-tion is becoming an important aspect to consider. Due to the high costs that represent energy production in all countries it holds an important role and it seek to find ways to save energy. It is reflected in some efforts to reduce the energy requirements of hardware components and applications. Some options have been appearing in order to scale down energy use and, con-sequently, scale up energy efficiency. One of these strategies is the multithread programming paradigm, whose purpose is to produce parallel programs able to use the full amount of computing resources available in a microprocessor. That energy saving strategy focuses on efficient use of multicore processors that are found in various computing devices, like mobile devices. Actually, as a growing trend, multicore processors are found as part of various specific purpose computers since 2003, from High Performance Computing servers to mobile devices. However, it is not clear how multiprogramming affects energy efficiency. This paper presents an analysis of different types of multicore-based architectures used in computing, and then a valid model is presented. Based on Amdahl’s Law, a model that considers different scenarios of energy use in multicore architectures it is proposed. Some interesting results were found from experiments with the developed algorithm, that it was execute of a parallel and sequential way. A lower limit of energy consumption was found in a type of multicore architecture and this behavior was observed experimentally.

  8. 10 CFR 430.23 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy and water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption. 430.23 Section 430.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM... per-cycle energy consumption for the standard cycle in kilowatt-hours per cycle, determined according... cycles per year, (ii) half the sum of the average per-cycle energy consumption for the standard cycle and...

  9. Building and occupant characteristics as determinants of residential energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Nieves, A.L.

    1981-10-01

    The major goals of the research are to gain insight into the probable effects of building energy performance standards on energy consumption; to obtain observations of actual residential energy consumption that could affirm or disaffirm comsumption estimates of the DOE 2.0A simulation model; and to investigate home owner's conservation investments and home purchase decisions. The first chapter covers the investigation of determinants of household energy consumption. The presentation begins with the underlying economic theory and its implications, and continues with a description of the data collection procedures, the formulation of variables, and then of data analysis and findings. In the second chapter the assumptions and limitations of the energy use projections generated by the DOE 2.0A model are discussed. Actual electricity data for the houses are then compared with results of the simulation. The third chapter contains information regarding households' willingness to make energy conserving investments and their ranking of various conservation features. In the final chapter conclusions and recommendations are presented with an emphasis on the policy implications of this study. (MCW)

  10. Modeling and optimization of energy consumption in multipurpose batch plants - 2006 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szijjarto, A.

    2006-12-15

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the work done in 2006 on the development of a model that is able to make prognoses concerning the energy consumption of chemical batch processes and thus enable these to be optimised. In the year under review, reliable models and software modelling tools were developed. The tools are based on commercially available simulation software. The authors note that the bottom-up model presented in the previous reports is powerful and robust enough to treat a significant amount of the process data in reasonable time. The model was tested for the modelling of energy consumption in the case-study plant during a period of two months. Up to 30 batches of 9 different products were produced in this period. The resolution of the model is discussed, which is very useful for identification of the process steps with the highest energy consumption. Energy-saving potential is noted. Based on these results, one product was chosen which is to be investigated in the final stage of the project in order to optimise the energy consumption of the case-study plant. The authors note that the methodology and software tools developed can be later applied for other products or chemical batch plants.

  11. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents.

  12. Efficiency of Energy Consumption as a Base for Sustainable Energy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Anicetas Ignotas; Viktorija Stasytytė

    2016-01-01

    Lithuania, as many other EU countries, encounters key challenges in three energy sector fields: energy independence, energy sector competitiveness and sustainable energy sector development. Such situation is determined by historical and political conditions, as well as by limited internal energy resources. In such context an importance of energy consumption efficiency pursuing country energy sector sustainability is highlighted. By implementing the long-term goals and tasks a country may seek...

  13. The influence of biomass energy consumption on CO2 emissions: a wavelet coherence approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Faik; Öztürk, İlhan; Koçak, Emrah; Bulut, Ümit; Pamuk, Yalçın; Muğaloğlu, Erhan; Bağlıtaş, Hayriye H

    2016-10-01

    In terms of today, one may argue, throughout observations from energy literature papers, that (i) one of the main contributors of the global warming is carbon dioxide emissions, (ii) the fossil fuel energy usage greatly contributes to the carbon dioxide emissions, and (iii) the simulations from energy models attract the attention of policy makers to renewable energy as alternative energy source to mitigate the carbon dioxide emissions. Although there appears to be intensive renewable energy works in the related literature regarding renewables' efficiency/impact on environmental quality, a researcher might still need to follow further studies to review the significance of renewables in the environment since (i) the existing seminal papers employ time series models and/or panel data models or some other statistical observation to detect the role of renewables in the environment and (ii) existing papers consider mostly aggregated renewable energy source rather than examining the major component(s) of aggregated renewables. This paper attempted to examine clearly the impact of biomass on carbon dioxide emissions in detail through time series and frequency analyses. Hence, the paper follows wavelet coherence analyses. The data covers the US monthly observations ranging from 1984:1 to 2015 for the variables of total energy carbon dioxide emissions, biomass energy consumption, coal consumption, petroleum consumption, and natural gas consumption. The paper thus, throughout wavelet coherence and wavelet partial coherence analyses, observes frequency properties as well as time series properties of relevant variables to reveal the possible significant influence of biomass usage on the emissions in the USA in both the short-term and the long-term cycles. The paper also reveals, finally, that the biomass consumption mitigates CO2 emissions in the long run cycles after the year 2005 in the USA.

  14. Estimating the energy consumption impact of casual carpooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minett, P. [Trip Convergence Ltd, Epsom, Auckland (New Zealand); Pearce, J. [Trip Convergence Ltd, Remuera, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2011-07-01

    Some of the transportation energy consumed during peak commuter periods is wasted through slow running in congested traffic. Strategies to increase average vehicle occupancy (and reduce vehicle counts and congestion) could be expected to be at the forefront of energy conservation policies. Casual carpooling (also called 'slugging') is a system of carpooling without trip-by-trip pre-arrangement. It operates in three US cities, and has been suggested in New Zealand as a strategy for managing transportation challenges when oil prices rise. The objective of the paper is to find out if casual carpooling reduces energy consumption, and if so, how much. Energy consumption by single occupant vehicles; casual carpool vehicles; and a mix of buses and single occupant vehicles; are estimated and compared, and the impact on the rest of the traffic is calculated. The paper estimates that casual carpooling in San Francisco is conserving in the order of 1.7 to 3.5 million liters of gasoline per year, or 200-400 liters for each participant, much of which comes from the impact on the rest of the traffic. The paper concludes by calling for applied research to discover how to catalyze casual carpooling in other cities as a means of reducing transportation energy consumption. (authors)

  15. Estimating the Energy Consumption Impact of Casual Carpooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Minett

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the transportation energy consumed during peak commuter periods is wasted through slow running in congested traffic. Strategies to increase average vehicle occupancy (and reduce vehicle counts and congestion could be expected to be at the forefront of energy conservation policies. Casual carpooling (also called “slugging” is a system of carpooling without trip-by-trip pre-arrangement. It operates in three US cities, and has been suggested in New Zealand as a strategy for managing transportation challenges when oil prices rise. The objective of the paper is to find out if casual carpooling reduces energy consumption, and if so, how much. Energy consumption by single occupant vehicles; casual carpool vehicles; and a mix of buses and single occupant vehicles; are estimated and compared, and the impact on the rest of the traffic is calculated. The paper estimates that casual carpooling in San Francisco is conserving in the order of 1.7 to 3.5 million liters of gasoline per year, or 200-400 liters for each participant, much of which comes from the impact on the rest of the traffic. The paper concludes by calling for applied research to discover how to catalyze casual carpooling in other cities as a means of reducing transportation energy consumption.

  16. Transport energy consumption achievement based on indicator analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian

    2017-06-01

    In order to evaluate the transport sustainability level for regions, the concept of achievement efficiency in transport energy consumption is initially suggested in this paper. The research object is not only for the energy consumption by transport operation but also the whole life of the transport procedure, which is the thought of life cycle assessment. And then, on the quantitative analysis to calculate the transport energy achievement efficiency of the regions, the indicators that can represent the achievement of transport energy consumption are convincingly found out by indicator theory. Next, concentration is focused on the transport related indicators and proper indicators are picked up from the candidate indicators, which were the affecting factors to this issue. After that, using the selected indicators, we introduce the method of data envelopment analysis to do quantitative analysis, which helps to get the achievement efficiency of transport energy among cities all over the world. The analysis result shows the efficient regions and the inefficient regions respectively. Furthermore, the detailed efficiency value of each region is also laid out clearly. For the improvement, the inadequate output or input variables of the inefficient regions were listed compared with the efficient regions so that corresponding transport policy implications can be resulted for the inefficient regions to reach high level sustainability.

  17. A survey of energy drink and alcohol mixed with energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnezi, Racheli; Bergman, Lisa Carroll; Grinvald-Fogel, Haya; Cohen, Herman Avner

    2015-01-01

    Energy drink consumption among youth is increasing despite recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics to eliminate consumption by youth. This study provides information on consumption of energy drinks and alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in a sample of Israeli youth and how consumer knowledge about the risks affects consumption rates. The study was conducted in three Tel Aviv public schools, with a total enrollment of 1,253 students in grades 8 through 12. Among them, 802 students completed a 49-item questionnaire about energy drink and AmED consumption, for a 64 % response rate Non-responders included 451 students who were absent or refused to participate. All students in the same school were administered the questionnaire on the same day. Energy drinks are popular among youth (84.2 % have ever drunk). More tenth through twelfth grade students consumed energy drinks than eighth and ninth grade students. Students who began drinking in elementary school (36.8 %) are at elevated risk for current energy drink (P consumption (OR 1.925; 95 %CI 1.18-3.14). The association between current AmED consumption and drinking ED at a young age is important. Boys and those who start drinking early have a greater risk of both ED and AmED consumption. The characteristics of early drinkers can help increase awareness of potential at-risk youth, such as junior and senior high school students with less educated or single parents. Risks posed by early use on later energy drink and AmED consumption are concerning. We suggest that parents should limit accessibility. Increased knowledge about acceptable and actual amounts of caffeine in a single product might decrease consumption.

  18. Oxygen Consumption Rate and Energy Expenditure in Mice: Indirect Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ran; Tong, Qingchun

    2017-01-01

    Global obesity epidemic demands more effective therapeutic treatments and better understanding of obesity pathophysiology. Since obesity results from energy imbalance, accurate quantification of energy intake and energy expenditure (EE) becomes an essential prerequisite to phenotype the cause for obesity development. Indirect calorimetry has long been used as one of the most established methods in EE quantification by detecting changes in levels of O2 consumption and CO2 production. In this article, we describe procedures and important considerations for an effective measurement using indirect calorimetry.

  19. Towards Flexibility Detection in Device-Level Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Bijay; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Thiesson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The increasing drive towards green energy has boosted the installation of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Increasing the share of RES in the power grid requires demand management by flexibility in the consumption. In this paper, we perform a state-of-the-art analysis on the flexibility...... regularities and patterns and the correlation between operating different devices. Subsequently, we show the existence of detectable time and energy flexibility in device operations. Finally, we provide various results providing a foundation for load- and flexibility-detection and -prediction at the device...

  20. Critical sustainability and energy consumption in urban transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrialized countries are exploiting the world energy resources very quickly (although they do not have enough of their own energy reserves. On the other hand, population of the Third world simply exploded during the last few decades. Hence, the real problem may occur if the Third world metropolises follow the example of the auto-dependent, low density suburban development of American cities. The effects will be disastrous: 14 times more energy consumption and 9 times higher emissions of CO2 (in the sphere of urban transportation.

  1. Towards Flexibility Detection in Device-Level Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Bijay; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Thiesson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The increasing drive towards green energy has boosted the installation of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Increasing the share of RES in the power grid requires demand management by flexibility in the consumption. In this paper, we perform a state-of-the-art analysis on the flexibility...... regularities and patterns and the correlation between operating different devices. Subsequently, we show the existence of detectable time and energy flexibility in device operations. Finally, we provide various results providing a foundation for load- and flexibility-detection and -prediction at the device...

  2. REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION (POTATO EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byshоv N. V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in many countries around the world, much attention is paid to the issues of ensuring of rational use of energy resources, due to a number of objective factors, chief among which are: the lack of own energy resources to meet domestic energy needs; the sharp increase in the cost of production and the production of energy resources; further growth in energy needs; the presence of large potential opportunities to reduce unproductive losses of fuel and energy. In the world, the challenge now is to ensure a gradual but steady transfer of the economy on energy saving way of development. To achieve the goal of reducing energy costs we might use two ways: firstly, the widespread introduction of energy saving technologies, and secondly, the reduction of material production, improving its quality and service. In agriculture, the improvement of the technological process can be carried out using new tillage methods, improving the organization of production and tools. Further development of mechanization in agriculture will contribute to further growth of electrification in the agricultural sector, which will significantly reduce the use of the most expensive and limited energy resources. The article offers a technique of the estimation of the efficiency of consumption of energy in agricultural production. In order to compare the efficiency of machines in the cultivation and harvesting of potatoes, there was conducted an energy assessment of the operations of modern technology. As variables, there were investigated different operation modes of the machine: working speed and working width, depth of stroke of the working bodies. In the process of evaluating energy operations, modern technology to prepare the soil for planting potatoes was determined humidity, mechanical composition and soil type. As a main factor in the analysis of technological methods, we have taken the overall specific energy consumption and specific energy consumption for

  3. An analysis of residential energy consumption in a temperate climate. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Y.Y.; Vincent, W.

    1987-06-01

    Electrical energy consumption data have been recorded for several hundred submetered residential structures in Middle Tennessee. All houses were constructed with a common ``energy package.`` Specifically, daily cooling usage data have been collected for 130 houses for the 1985 and 1986 cooling seasons, and monthly heating usage data for 186 houses have been recorded by occupant participation over a seven-year period. Cooling data have been analyzed using an SPSSx multiple regression analysis and results are compared to several cooling models. Heating, base, and total energy usage are also analyzed and regression correlation coefficients are determined as a function of several house parameters.

  4. An analysis of residential energy consumption in a temperate climate. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Y.Y.; Vincent, W.

    1987-06-01

    Electrical energy consumption data have been recorded for several hundred submetered residential structures in Middle Tennessee. All houses were constructed with a common ``energy package.`` Specifically, daily cooling usage data have been collected for 130 houses for the 1985 and 1986 cooling seasons, and monthly heating usage data for 186 houses have been recorded by occupant participation over a seven-year period. Cooling data have been analyzed using an SPSSx multiple regression analysis and results are compared to several cooling models. Heating, base, and total energy usage are also analyzed and regression correlation coefficients are determined as a function of several house parameters.

  5. Limiting biomass consumption for heating in 100% renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems while buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply even in 100% renewable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on how the heating sector can reduce its consumption of biomass, thus leaving biomass...... for other sectors, but while still enabling a 100% renewable energy system. The analyses of heating technologies shows that district heating (DH) systems are important in limiting the dependence on biomass and create cost effective solutions. DH systems are especially important in renewable energy systems...... with large amounts of fluctuating sources as it enables fuel efficient and low cost energy systems with thermal heat storages. DH increases the efficiency with the use of combined heat and power production (CHP), while reducing the biomass demand by enabling the use of other renewable resources such as large...

  6. Danish Sector Guide for Calculation of the Actual Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    , the innovation network for sustainable construction, InnoBYG started work on a Danish sector guide for the calculation of actual energy consumption in relation to upgrading of buildings. The focus was to make a common guide for energy calculations that can be used by consultants performing calculations......Energy calculations have for a long time been a controversial topic as building owners do not necessarily achieve the promised energy savings after a building upgrade, but is this due to incorrect calculations or rather the evidence of misunderstandings in the communication? In Denmark...... of the energy calculation for building owners and developers. This paper describes the process that leads to the sector guide and briefly explains the content in both the technical guide and the communication paper. Finally the paper discusses some of the known dilemmas related to the measured energy...

  7. Energy Consumption in Rural China: Analysis of Rural Living Energy in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Yifang, Liu; Wei, Zhu

    2017-08-01

    Under the pressure of climate change and international carbon reduction targets, long-neglected rural energy consumption needs to be given high priority. China’s rural energy consumption structure is in the transition from non-commercial to commercial sources, and rural energy has become a key determinant to slow down the carbon emission growth. This paper systematically calibrates the current situation of rural energy consumption in Beijing by using the survey data of 1866 households in 13 districts and counties in Beijing based on the trend of energy supply and demand change in China. To this end, the paper combines rural policy measures to assess the pressure on coal-burning and clean energy supply trends, puts forward the rural energy structure adjustment path, with a view to promoting the use of clean energy in rural areas and reduce the environmental consequences of coal-burning.

  8. Standby energy consumption in Ukraine. Making a case for households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martsynkevych, Vladlena

    2008-07-01

    The current research is the first study of standby energy consumption in households in Ukraine. It provides insights to the scope of the problem and the opportunities to improve the situation. Standby power refers to power consumed by appliances when they are not performing their primary function and are switched ''off''. Measurements of 50 households were performed. Standby power was measured and a questionnaire was used to find out the behavioural patterns. The combined standby power use is about 23.4 W per household, resulting in national 1.3 TW h per year and 0.8% of the national electricity consumption respectively. The CO2 emissions from standby account for 0.1% of the emissions in Ukraine per year. Different scenarios show the possibilities to reduce standby consumption and CO2 emissions from 10% to 70% under different conditions. The main determinant of household electricity consumption is the number of appliances it has. Levels of standby power use are lower in Ukraine than in developed countries. However, the tendencies are such that the penetration level is growing, and, particularly, of new appliances with standby modes. It is pointed out that there is a need for national standards enforcement, raise of public awareness and price incentives for the reduction of standby power consumption. (orig.)

  9. Benchmarking of energy consumption of continuous galvanizing lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, B.; Chavan, R.

    2005-11-01

    A case study revealed that more than 13,500 MMBtu of energy is wasted annually when a single galvanizing line is off-production for hardware replacement for duration of a few hours every 2 weeks. This energy if utilized for production will yield about 13,000 tons of Galvanized Sheet Steel annually from a single galvanizing line. Thus for the 57 [1] hot dip galvanizing lines in US this figure results in a production loss of 741,000 tons/year. An attempt has been made to develop a spreadsheet that will take into account all the major energy consuming equipment in a typical hot dip continuous line. It maintains a track of the current production and energy consumption. It can simulate a scenario where either the number of shutdowns or the hours per shutdown will be reduced as a consequence of better material developed by the researchers. Different charts pertaining to energy consumed by different equipment group, total cost of energy spent on natural gas and electricity, MMBtu/Ton, Tons/Year and Production time before shutdowns assists the engineers decide the best operating stretch to suite their production rate and optimize energy consumption to some extent. Validation data gathered from the three well established galvanizing lines powers this spreadsheet to forecast annual increase in production and thus helps judge the performance of the new hardware.

  10. Sustainable energy consumption and production - a global view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernes, H.

    1995-12-31

    The paper gives a global view of sustainable energy consumption and production both in developed and developing countries. There is a need of replacing fossil fuel sources with renewable energy at a speed parallel to the depletion of the oil and gas sources. According to the author, the actual growth in developing countries` use of oil, coal and other sources of energy has almost tripled since 1970. Future population growth alone will spur a further 70% jump in energy use in 30 years, even if per capita consumption remains at current levels. For the OECD countries, energy use rose one fifth as much as economic growth between 1973 and 1989. Countries like China and India, and other developing countries, have huge coal reserves and energy needs. Policy makers have to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels, energy technologies and stricter environmental standards. Life cycle analyses can contribute to the development of overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies. According to the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions must be reduced by more than 60% in order to stabilize the CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere. 8 refs.

  11. Inequality across countries in energy intensities: an analysis of the role of energy transformation and final energy consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Duro Moreno, Juan Antonio; Padilla, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the role of the energy transformation index and of final energy consumption per GDP unit in the disparities in energy intensity across countries. In that vein, we use a Theil decomposition approach to analyze global primary energy intensity inequality as well as inequality across different regions of the world and inequality within these regions. The paper first demonstrates the pre-eminence of divergence in final energy consumption per GDP unit in explaining global primar...

  12. Predicting the Specific Energy Consumption of Reverse Osmosis Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlynn S. Stillwell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Desalination is often considered an approach for mitigating water stress. Despite the abundance of saline water worldwide, additional energy consumption and increased costs present barriers to widespread deployment of desalination as a municipal water supply. Specific energy consumption (SEC is a common measure of the energy use in desalination processes, and depends on many operational and water quality factors. We completed multiple linear regression and relative importance statistical analyses of factors affecting SEC using both small-scale meta-data and municipal-scale empirical data to predict the energy consumption of desalination. Statistically significant results show water quality and initial year of operations to be significant and important factors in estimating SEC, explaining over 80% of the variation in SEC. More recent initial year of operations, lower salinity raw water, and higher salinity product water accurately predict lower values of SEC. Economic analysis revealed a weak statistical relationship between SEC and cost of water production. Analysis of associated greenhouse gas (GHG emissions revealed important considerations of both electricity source and SEC in estimating the GHG-related sustainability of desalination. Results of our statistical analyses can aid decision-makers by predicting the SEC of desalination to a reasonable degree of accuracy with limited data.

  13. Cardiovascular complications from consumption of high energy drinks: recent evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysant, S G; Chrysant, G S

    2015-02-01

    The energy drinks (ED) are caffeinated beverages that are popular among teenagers and young adults. They are aggressively marketed as providing alertness, energy and sex prowess. The EDs in addition to caffeine contain several plant stimulants and simple sugars, which increase their caloric content. The caffeine concentration in these drinks is high and their overconsumption could lead to insomnia, agitation, tremors and cardiovascular complications including sudden death. Alcohol is often mixed with EDs (AMEDs) in the wrong perception that the caffeine in the EDs will prevent the drowsiness and sleepiness from alcohol and allow the person to consume more alcohol. This false perception, could lead to alcohol intoxication and the taking of risky decisions, like driving under the influence of alcohol and the risk of serious physical harm to themselves and others. To prevent the problem of consumption of EDs and AMEDs, the caring physician could help by advising the parents and his young patients about the serious health risks from the consumption of these drinks. In order to grasp the extend of the problem of ED and AMED consumption, we did a Medline search of the English language literature from January 2010 to December 2013, using the terms EDs and alcohol-mixed EDs. All the findings from the recent studies regarding the cardiovascular complications from the consumption of EDs and AMEDs together with collateral literature will be discussed in this review.

  14. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie

    2011-07-01

    The SEAD initiative aims to transform the global market by increasing the penetration of highly efficient equipment and appliances. SEAD is a government initiative whose activities and projects engage the private sector to realize the large global energy savings potential from improved appliance and equipment efficiency. SEAD seeks to enable high-level global action by informing the Clean Energy Ministerial dialogue as one of the initiatives in the Global Energy Efficiency Challenge. In keeping with its goal of achieving global energy savings through efficiency, SEAD was approved as a task within the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC) in January 2010. SEAD partners work together in voluntary activities to: (1) ?raise the efficiency ceiling? by pulling super-efficient appliances and equipment into the market through cooperation on measures like incentives, procurement, awards, and research and development (R&D) investments; (2) ?raise the efficiency floor? by working together to bolster national or regional policies like minimum efficiency standards; and (3) ?strengthen the efficiency foundations? of programs by coordinating technical work to support these activities. Although not all SEAD partners may decide to participate in every SEAD activity, SEAD partners have agreed to engage actively in their particular areas of interest through commitment of financing, staff, consultant experts, and other resources. In addition, all SEAD partners are committed to share information, e.g., on implementation schedules for and the technical detail of minimum efficiency standards and other efficiency programs. Information collected and created through SEAD activities will be shared among all SEAD partners and, to the extent appropriate, with the global public.As of April 2011, the governments participating in SEAD are: Australia, Brazil, Canada, the European Commission, France, Germany, India, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Sweden

  15. Energy drink consumption and increased risk for alcohol dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Griffiths, Roland R.; O'Grady, Kevin E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Methods Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from one large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was measured with DSM-IV criteria. Results After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%wt of students were classified as “low-frequency” energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%wt as “high-frequency” users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both non-users (AOR=2.40, 95% CI=1.27-4.56, p=.007) and low-frequency users (AOR=1.86, 95% CI=1.10, 3.14, p=.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from non-users on their risk for alcohol dependence. Conclusions Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. PMID:21073486

  16. Energy consumption quota management of Wanda commercial buildings in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, D. B.; Xiao, H.; Wang, X.; Liu, J. J.; Wang, X.; Jin, X. Q.; Wang, J.; Xie, X. K.

    2016-08-01

    There is limited research of commercial buildings’ energy use data conducted based on practical analysis in China nowadays. Some energy consumption quota tools like Energy Star in U.S or VDI 3807 in Germany have limitation in China's building sector. This study introduces an innovative methodology of applying energy use quota model and empirical management to commercial buildings, which was in accordance of more than one hundred opened shopping centers of a real estate group in China. On the basis of statistical benchmarking, a new concept of “Modified coefficient”, which considers weather, occupancy, business layout, operation schedule and HVAC efficiency, is originally introduced in this paper. Our study shows that the average energy use quota increases from north to south. The average energy use quota of sample buildings is 159 kWh/(m2.a) of severe cold climate zone, 179 kWh/(m2.a) of cold zone, 188 kWh/(m2.a) of hot summer and cold winter zone, and 200 kWh/(m2.a) of hot summer and warm winter zone. The energy use quota model has been validated in the property management for year 2016, providing a new method of commercial building energy management to the industry. As a key result, there is 180 million energy saving potential based on energy quota management in 2016, equals to 6.2% saving rate of actual energy use in 2015.

  17. Building environment assessment and energy consumption estimation using smart phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangli; Zhang, Li; Jia, Yingqi; Wang, Zihan; Jin, Xin; Zhao, Xuefeng

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an APP for building indoor environment evaluation and energy consumption estimation based on Android platform is proposed and established. While using the APP, the smart phone built-in sensors are called for real-time monitoring of the building environmental information such as temperature, humidity and noise, etc. the built-in algorithm is developed to calculate the heat and power consumption, and questionnaires, grading and other methods are used to feed back to the space heating system. In addition, with the application of the technology of big data and cloud technology, the data collected by users will be uploaded to the cloud. After the statistics of the uploaded data, regional difference can be obtained, thus providing a more accurate basis for macro-control and research of energy, thermal comfort, greenhouse effect.

  18. Various multistage ensembles for prediction of heating energy consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radisa Jovanovic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Feedforward neural network models are created for prediction of daily heating energy consumption of a NTNU university campus Gloshaugen using actual measured data for training and testing. Improvement of prediction accuracy is proposed by using neural network ensemble. Previously trained feed-forward neural networks are first separated into clusters, using k-means algorithm, and then the best network of each cluster is chosen as member of an ensemble. Two conventional averaging methods for obtaining ensemble output are applied; simple and weighted. In order to achieve better prediction results, multistage ensemble is investigated. As second level, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system with various clustering and membership functions are used to aggregate the selected ensemble members. Feedforward neural network in second stage is also analyzed. It is shown that using ensemble of neural networks can predict heating energy consumption with better accuracy than the best trained single neural network, while the best results are achieved with multistage ensemble.

  19. Energy consumption in air-conditioning; Improvement and Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoub Yousef Ahmad Alotaibi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anew technique to reduce latent heat to improve energy consumption in air-conditioning is by using Desiccant . The aim of dehumidification process is to remove the water vapor from the processed air to liquid desiccants. Dehumidification is considered as a key feature of HVAC systems for thermal comfort. Chemical dehumidification is remove the water vapour from the air by transferring it towards a desiccant material (adsorption or absorption. Results illustrate that the application of liquid desiccant in air conditioning can improve indoor air quality, reduce energy consumption and bring environmentally friendly products, also. Lewis number increased rapidly with the increase of solution concentration Therefore liquid desiccant air conditioning systems are drawing more and more attention in recent years.

  20. Green smartphone GPUs: Optimizing energy consumption using GPUFreq scaling governors

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Enas M.

    2015-10-19

    Modern smartphones are limited by their short battery life. The advancement of the graphical performance is considered as one of the main reasons behind the massive battery drainage in smartphones. In this paper we present a novel implementation of the GPUFreq Scaling Governors, a Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) model implemented in the Android Linux kernel for dynamically scaling smartphone Graphical Processing Units (GPUs). The GPUFreq governors offer users multiple variations and alternatives in controlling the power consumption and performance of their GPUs. We implemented and evaluated our model on a smartphone GPU and measured the energy performance using an external power monitor. The results show that the energy consumption of smartphone GPUs can be significantly reduced with a minor effect on the GPU performance.

  1. A Unified Monitoring Framework for Energy Consumption and Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin Clouet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Providing experimenters with deep insight about the effects of their experiments is a central feature of testbeds. In this paper, we describe Kwapi, a framework designed in the context of the Grid'5000 testbed, that unifies measurements for both energy consumption and network traffic. Because all measurements are taken at the infrastructure level (using sensors in power and network equipment, using this framework has no dependencies on the experiments themselves. Initially designed for OpenStack infrastructures, the Kwapi framework allows monitoring and reporting of energy consumption of distributed platforms. In this article, we present the extension of Kwapi to network monitoring, and outline how we overcame several challenges: scaling to a testbed the size of Grid'5000 while still providing high-frequency measurements; providing long-term loss-less storage of measurements; handling operational issues when deploying such a tool on a real infrastructure.

  2. FDI, Economic Growth, Energy Consumption & Environmental Nexus in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip SARKER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the relationship among economic growth, energy consumption, CO2 emission, FDI and natural gas usage in Bangladesh through co-integration and Vector Error Correction model (VECM over the period 1978 to 2010. Using ADP unit root tests it is found that all the four variables are integrated in first difference. The Johansen co-integration tests indicate that there is existence of long-run relationship among the variables. The VECM long run causality model indicates that there is a long run causality running from energy consumption and natural gas usage by industrial sector to GDP as well as from CO2 emission to FDI. Likewise in the short run a causal relationships have also been found among the variables. Moreover our model is found be error free based on several statistical test. Our results provide important policy suggestions regarding our foreign direct investment, environmental issues and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh.

  3. Alcohol mixed with energy drinks are robustly associated with patterns of problematic alcohol consumption among young adult college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, Daniel J; Jeffers, Amy J; Green, Brooke A; Benotsch, Eric G

    2015-02-01

    Young adults are a population at great risk for problematic health behaviors. Alcohol mixed with energy drink (AmED) consumption is a relatively popular health risk behavior among young adults. AmED consumption continues to illustrate negative outcomes in the research literature, having been linked with other substance use, high-risk sexual behavior, and sexual victimization. Limited research to date has examined associations between AmED consumption and patterns of alcohol dependence. Undergraduate college students (n=757) filled out an online survey which assessed their drinking habits in the past week and month, including their consumption of AmED beverages, personality characteristics, substance use, and problematic alcohol consumption via the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). A minority of participants reported AmED consumption in both the past month (11.6%) and past week (9.7%). Compared to their alcohol-only drinking counterparts, AmED consumers scored significantly higher on measures of impulsivity, and lower on anxiety sensitivity when compared to their alcohol-only drinking counterparts. In multivariate analyses, AmED consumption was robustly associated with patterns of alcohol dependence (AUDIT score≥8) among young adult college students, while controlling for energy drink use, alcohol use, personality factors, substance use, and demographic variables. AmED consumption in the past month is robustly associated with problematic alcohol consumption. The present study describes harmful outcomes associated with AmED consumption, and extends the literature on the combined effects of alcohol and energy drinks on young adult risk behaviors. Further research needs to address causal mechanisms for the AmED and problematic alcohol consumption relation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Long Term Energy Consumption Forecasting Using Genetic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    KARABULUT, Korhan; Alkan, Ahmet; YILMAZ, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    Managing electrical energy supply is a complex task. The most important part of electric utility resource planning is forecasting of the future load demand in the regional or national service area. This is usually achieved by constructing models on relative information, such as climate and previous load demand data. In this paper, a genetic programming approach is proposed to forecast long term electrical power consumption in the area covered by a utility situated in the southeast of Turkey. ...

  5. A Survey of Energy Drink Consumption Patterns Among College Students at a Mostly Hispanic University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas-Bou, Ernesto; De León-Arbucias, Jeidiel; Matos-Vergara, Nikol; Álvarez-Bagnarol, Yocasta; Ortega-Guzmán, Jesús; Narváez-Pérez, Karla; Cruz-Bermúdez, Nelson D; Díaz-Ríos, Manuel

    2016-12-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine energy drink (ED) consumption patterns among Hispanic college students. We measured the prevalence and frequency of ED consumption according to gender, degree programs, and specific university-related and social situations. In addition, we assessed the frequency of consumption of EDs mixed with alcoholic beverages. Methods: A total of 508 college students from the University of Puerto Rico, the largest Hispanic institution of higher education statewide, completed an online questionnaire. Results: Twenty-one percent of participants reported consuming EDs with the majority consuming EDs either occasionally (every 2-3 months) or at least once or twice a month. Men were found to be more likely to consume EDs than women. Undergraduate students were found less likely to consume EDs than graduate students. Most students consumed EDs while studying and during social activities. More than one-third of participants that consume EDs admitted mixing them with an alcoholic beverage. Graduate students were found to consume EDs mixed with alcohol more often. Conclusions: The majority of students consumed EDs occasionally and while studying. Most side effects reported after consuming EDs were similar to previous findings. The higher consumption of EDs and of EDs mixed with alcohol by students in graduate programs could be explained by a higher and more complex study load requiring longer periods of wakefulness and concentration. Future studies looking at the consumption patterns of EDs in more competitive graduate programs such as medical and/or dentistry school should be considered.

  6. Dynamic simulation of energy consumption in mixed traffic flow considering highway toll station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Zeng, Jun-Wei; Shao, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Neng

    2015-01-01

    An improved model of energy consumption including toll station is presented in this paper. Using the model, we study the influences of mixed ratio, the idling energy consumption of vehicle, vehicle peak velocity, dwell time and random deceleration probability on energy consumption of Electronic Toll Collection or Manual Toll Collection mixed traffic flow on single lane under periodic condition. Simulating results indicate that the above five parameters are all increasing functions of total energy consumption, in which the idling energy consumption represents the major amounts with the increase of mixed ratio and occupancy rate. Thus, the existence of toll station has significant effect on the energy consumption of mixed traffic flow.

  7. Energy consumptions in existing buildings; Les consommations d'energie des batiments existants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuss, St. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Industries de Strasbourg, 78 - Saint-Remy-Les-Chevreuse (France)]|[Costic, 78 - Sainte Remy les Chevreuses (France)

    2002-05-01

    This document presents a sectoral analysis of the energy consumptions in existing French buildings: 1) - residential sector: social buildings, private dwellings; 2) - tertiary sector: office buildings, hotels, commercial buildings, school buildings, hospitals; 3) - industry; 4) - general status. (J.S.)

  8. Impact of CBR Traffic on Energy Consumption in MANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbur Mr., Shridhar; Ahammed, G. F. Ali, Dr.; Banu, Rashma, Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANETs) are power constrained since nodes are operated with limited battery supply. If a battery of the node drains, its ability to forward the traffic gets affected results in reduced network lifetime. There has been considerable progress in the battery technology, but not in par with the semiconductor technology. There are various techniques adopt different approach to achieve energy efficiency. The proposed approach uses a cost metric for path selection, which is a function of residual battery and current traffic load at a node. The simulation has been carried out using QualNet simulator. The performance is based on average energy consumption for varying CBR applications.

  9. Forecast errors in IEA-countries' energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Every year Policy of IEA Countries includes a forecast of the energy consumption in the member countries. Forecasts concerning the years 1985,1990 and 1995 can now be compared to actual values. The second oil crisis resulted in big positive forecast errors. The oil price drop in 1986 did not have...... the small value is often the sum of large positive and negative errors. Almost no significant correlation is found between forecast errors in the 3 years. Correspondingly, no significant correlation coefficient is found between forecasts errors in the 3 main energy sectors. Therefore, a relatively small...

  10. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Van der Meer, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Hoekstra, A.Y., Van der Meer, T.H., 2007. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers. In: proceedings ‘First World Water Sustainability-Renewable Energy Congress and Exhibition’. 25-28 November 2007, Maastricht, the

  11. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Van der Meer, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Hoekstra, A.Y., Van der Meer, T.H., 2007. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers. In: proceedings ‘First World Water Sustainability-Renewable Energy Congress and Exhibition’. 25-28 November 2007, Maastricht, the

  12. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldbohm, R.A.; Rubingh, C.M.; Lanting, C.L.; Joosten, K.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diarie

  13. Food consumption and nutrient intake by children aged 10 to 48 months attending day care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Goldbohm; Rubingh, C.M. (Carina M.); C.I. Lanting (Caren); K.F.M. Joosten (Koen)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and record

  14. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldbohm, R.A.; Rubingh, C.M.; Lanting, C.L.; Joosten, K.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in

  15. Global Inequality in Energy Consumption from 1980 to 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, Scott; Yakovenko, Victor M

    2013-01-01

    We study the global probability distribution of energy consumption per capita around the world using data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) for 1980-2010. We find that the Lorenz curves have moved up during this time period, and the Gini coefficient G has decreased from 0.66 in 1980 to 0.55 in 2010, indicating a decrease in inequality. The global probability distribution of energy consumption per capita in 2010 is close to the exponential distribution with G=0.5. We attribute this result to the globalization of the world economy, which mixes the world and brings it closer to the state of maximal entropy. We argue that global energy production is a limited resource that is partitioned among the world population. The most probable partition is the one that maximizes entropy, thus resulting in the exponential distribution function. A consequence of the latter is the law of 1/3: the top 1/3 of the world population consumes 2/3 of produced energy. We also find similar results for the global pro...

  16. Global Inequality in Energy Consumption from 1980 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Lawrence

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the global probability distribution of energy consumption per capita around the world using data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA for 1980–2010. We find that the Lorenz curves have moved up during this time period, and the Gini coefficient, G, has decreased from 0.66 in 1980 to 0.55 in 2010, indicating a decrease in inequality. The global probability distribution of energy consumption per capita in 2010 is close to the exponential distribution withG = 0:5. We attribute this result to the globalization of the world economy, which mixes the world and brings it closer to the state of maximal entropy. We argue that global energy production is a limited resource that is partitioned among the world population. The most probable partition is the one that maximizes entropy, thus resulting in the exponential distribution function. A consequence of the latter is the law of 1/3: the top 1/3 of the world population consumes 2/3 of produced energy. We also find similar results for the global probability distribution of CO2 emissions per capita.

  17. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    This dissertation analyzes the energy consumption behavior of residential adopters of solar photovoltaic systems (solar-PV). Based on large data sets from the San Diego region that have been assembled or otherwise acquired by the author, the dissertation quantifies changes in energy consumption after solar-PV installation and determines whether certain household characteristics are correlated with such changes. In doing so, it seeks to answer two related questions: First, "Do residential solar adopters increase or decrease their electricity consumption after they install a solar-PV system?" Assuming that certain categories of residential adopters increase and others decrease, the second question is "Which residential adopters increase and which decrease their consumption and why?" The database that was used to conduct this analysis includes information about 5,243 residential systems in San Diego Gas & Electric's (SDG&E) service territory installed between January 2007 and December 2010. San Diego is a national leader in the installation of small-scale solar-electric systems, with over 12,000 systems in the region installed as of January 2012, or around 14% of the total number installed in California. The author performed detailed characterization of a significant subset of the solar installations in the San Diego region. Assembled data included technical and economic characteristics of the systems themselves; the solar companies that sold and installed them; individual customer electric utility billing data; metered PV production data for a subgroup of these solar systems; and data about the properties where the systems are located. Primarily, the author was able to conduct an electricity consumption analysis at the individual household level for 2,410 PV systems installed in SDG&E service territory between January 2007 and December 2010. This analysis was designed to detect changes in electricity consumption from the pre-solar to the post-installation period. To

  18. Three essays in energy consumption: Time series analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hee Bai

    1997-10-01

    Firstly, this dissertation investigates that which demand specification is an appropriate model for long-run energy demand between the conventional demand specification and the limited demand specification. In order to determine the components of a stable long-run demand for different sectors of the energy industry, I perform cointegration tests by using the Johansen test procedure. First, I test the conventional demand specification including prices and income as components. Second, I test a limited demand specification only income as a component. The reason for performing these tests is that we can determine that which demand specification is a good long-run predictor of energy consumption between the two demand specifications by using the cointegration tests. Secondly, for the purpose of planning and forecasting energy demand in case of cointegrated system, long-run elasticities are of particular interest. To retrieve the optimal level of energy demand in case of price shock, we need long-run elasticities rather than short-run elasticities. The energy demand study provides valuable information to the energy policy makers who are concerned about the long-run impact of taxes and tariffs. A long-run price elasticity is a primary barometer of the substitution effect between energy and non-energy inputs and long-run income elasticity is an important factor since we can measure the energy demand growing slowly or fast than in the past depending on the magnitude of long-run elasticity. The one other problem in estimating the total energy demand is that there exists an aggregation bias stemming from the process of summation in four different energy types for the total aggregation prices and total aggregation energy consumption. In order to measure the aggregation bias between the Btu aggregation method and the Divisia Index method, i.e., which methodology has less aggregation bias in the long-run, I compare the two estimation results with calculated results estimated on

  19. Integrated Urban System and Energy Consumption Model: Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a segment of research conducted within the project PON 04a2_E Smart Energy Master for the energetic government of the territory conducted by the Department of Civil, Architectural and Environment Engineering, University of Naples "Federico II".  In particular, this article is part of the study carried out for the definition of the comprehension/interpretation model that correlates buildings, city’s activities and users’ behaviour in order to promote energy savings. In detail, this segment of the research wants to define the residential variables to be used in the model. For this purpose a knowledge framework at international level has been defined, to estimate the energy requirements of residential buildings and the identification of a set of parameters, whose variation has a significant influence on the energy consumption of residential buildings.

  20. Junk Food Consumption and Effects on Growth Status among Children Aged 6-24 Months in Mashhad, Northeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Junk food, due to the lack of vitamins, minerals and trace amounts of energy and protein, there is the risk that the child's stomach filled and by reducing her/his appetite, reduce the chance of nutritious foods. So it is necessary to determine the relationship between using of junk food with growth rate in children. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 mothers and their babies , who were referring to 10 selected Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 months children. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling and valid and reliable   questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic statistics and using SPSS version 16. Results In growth chart, 86.7 percent of children showed appropriate growth, 10.3 percent had delayed growth and 3 percent had horizontal growth curve. In 11.3 percent of families, the junk food has been used for children regularly, 44.7 percent did not believe in these snacks and 44 percent of mothers sometimes used this junk food for their children. Results showed the statistical correlation between junk food consumption and  growth status of children was significant, so children whom haven’t had junk food, have grown more favorable than the other kids (P

  1. Study on Relationship of Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang-wei, Li; Xun-gang, Zheng

    Energy is one of the most basic materials of the national economy, which plays an important role in national productin and life. The relationship between energy consumption and economic growth has been a fascinating question since energy crisis in 70s of last century. This paper analyzes the relationship between energy consumption and economic development based on the VAR model using temporal series of China from 1990 to 2009, then uses impulse response function and variance decomposition to portray the correlations between economic growth and energy consumption. The result shows that there exists a unidirectional causality from energy consumption to gross domestic product and energy consumption can observably promote the development of economy.

  2. Controlled cooling of an electronic system for reduced energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2016-08-09

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided. The control includes automatically determining at least one adjusted control setting for at least one adjustable cooling component of a cooling system cooling the electronic system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on power being consumed by the cooling system and temperature of a heat sink to which heat extracted by the cooling system is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on one or more experimentally obtained models relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the one or more adjustable cooling components of the cooling system.

  3. Household direct energy consumption and CO2 emissions in European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meirmans, Koen

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Household direct energy consumption is often regarded as a given and determined using a top-down approach. Furthermore, research regarding household energy consumption tends to focus on western countries. This research uses a bottom-up approach t

  4. Energy consumption renewable energy development and environmental impact in Algeria - Trend for 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahnoune, F.; Imessad, K.; Bouakaz, D. M.

    2017-02-01

    The study provides a detailed analysis of the energy production and consumption in Algeria and the associated CO2 emissions. Algeria is an important energy producer (oil and natural gas). The production is currently around 155 MToe. The total primary energy consumption amounted to about 58 MToe equivalent to 1.46 Toe/capita. The energy demand is still increasing, an average annual growth rate of more than 6% per year during the last decade. The growth rate for electricity production was almost twice that of the total energy consumption. In 2015, the installed capacity of the electricity generation plants reached 17.6 GW. Electricity consumption was 64.6 TWh and is expected to reach at least 75 TWh in 2020 and 130 TWh in 2030. The already high electricity demand will double by 2030. In the structure of final energy consumption, the transport sector ranks first (36%), natural gas consumption ranks second (28.5%), followed by electricity production (27.7%). By activity, the energy sector is the main source of CO2 emissions, about ¾ of the total and this sector has the most important potential for mitigation measures. CO2 emissions from this energy sector amounted to 112.2 MT CO2 as follows: 33% transport, 31% electricity production and 26% from natural gas combustion for residential use. The integration of renewable sources in the energy mix represents for Algeria a major challenge. In 2015, Algeria adopted an ambitious program for development of renewable energy. The target is to achieve 22 GW capacity of electricity from renewable by 2030 to reach a rate of 27 % of national electricity generation through renewable sources. By implementing this program, CO2 emissions of power generation will be reduced by more than 18% in 2030.

  5. Analysis on energy consumption index system of thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J. B.; Zhang, N.; Li, H. F.

    2017-05-01

    Currently, the increasingly tense situation in the context of resources, energy conservation is a realistic choice to ease the energy constraint contradictions, reduce energy consumption thermal power plants has become an inevitable development direction. And combined with computer network technology to build thermal power “small index” to monitor and optimize the management system, the power plant is the application of information technology and to meet the power requirements of the product market competition. This paper, first described the research status of thermal power saving theory, then attempted to establish the small index system and build “small index” monitoring and optimization management system in thermal power plant. Finally elaborated key issues in the field of small thermal power plant technical and economic indicators to be further studied and resolved.

  6. Chemical process simulation for minimizing energy consumption in pulp mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Marcelo; Oliveira, Katia Dionisio de; Costa, George Alberto Avelar [Department of Chemical Engineering/School of Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte/MG (Brazil); Passos, Maria Laura [Collaborator Researcher, Drying Center, Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Sao Carlos (UFSCar) (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    Chemical process simulation has proven to be an effective tool for performing a systematic and global analysis of energy systems to identify routes for maximizing the process efficiency concerning to the heat recovery. This paper shows an application of computer simulations in a Brazilian pulp mill, using two strategies for minimizing the mill energy consumption. In the first one, the overall heat transfer coefficient has been predicted for each body of the multiple effect evaporators by using continuous on-line data from the industrial plant in the black liquor recover unit. By monitoring oscillations of this heat transfer coefficient, the suitable time for washing the evaporator heat transfer surfaces can be well determined, reducing the energy loss during black liquor evaporation. In the second strategy, the liquor combustion has been simulated as function of the black liquor solids concentration to analyze its effect on the recovery boiler efficiency improvement. (author)

  7. Energy and water consumption of Pacific Northwest irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.D.; Wensink, R.B.; Wolfe, J.W.; Shearer, M.N.

    1977-09-01

    Irrigation in the Pacific Northwest is an energy-intensive process which represents a major part of the total energy used in farm level food production. Since 1950, several major developments have precipitated pronounced increases in irrigation energy requirements. For example, the invention of efficient high-lift pumps, labor-saving equipment, new uses for irrigation sprinklers, and profitable cropping patterns have substantially escalated irrigation energy consumption in the Pacific Northwest in the past 25 years. Until recently, energy prices have remained relatively low and constant. The next 25 years will continue to experience advanced irrigation technologies. In addition to technological development, however, the cost of energy and water will certainly rise while their availabilities become increasingly constrained. The depletion of ground water in several parts of the United States could also potentially increase the irrigation burden of the Pacific Northwest. Lastly, parts of the Pacific Northwest water supply are directly convertible to energy via hydroelectric generation. This study proposes to make realistic projections relative to present and future interactions of the above components.

  8. Investigation of some pretreatments on energy and specific energy consumption drying of black mulberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adabi Esmaeili Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive consumption of energy in drying industry makes it a matter of challenge regarding economical aspects and limited recourses. Several methods for drying including hot air convection, vacuum, infrared and hot air convection-infrared technologies were applied in order to estimate the consumed energy during the drying of mulberry fruit. Moreover, microwave heating, chemical (ethyl oleate and potassium, mechanical (ultrasonic and blanching (hot water pretreatments were compared. According to the Results, maximum energy consumption was recorded when no pretreatment was performed. Microwave heating in the hot air convection-infrared dryer resulted in the lowest consumption of energy. Total energy requirement decreased with the temperature in the convection dryer res. Conversely, energy increased with air velocity. The vacuum dryer consumed the highest amount of energy which was measured to be 46.95 kWh while the lowest energy was recorded with using infrared-convective dryers. Also Experimental results showed that minimum and maximum specific energy consumption in the drying of black mulberry were associated with microwave pretreatment in IR-hot air dryer and control treatment in vacuum dryer, respectively. The minimum color change (ΔE for drying of black mulberry was found in microwave pretreated samples dried with the vacuum dryer, yet maximum ΔE was observed in hot air dryer when no pretreatment was applied.

  9. CAUSALITY AND DYNAMICS OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND OUTPUT: EVIDENCE FROM NON-OECD ASIAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    RUHUL A. SALIM; Shuddhasattwa Rafiq; A. F. M. KAMRUL HASSAN

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the short-run and long-run causal relationship between energy consumption and output in six non-OECD Asian developing countries. Standard time series econometrics is used for this purpose. Based on cointegration and vector error correction modeling, the empirical result shows a bi-directional causality between energy consumption and income in Malaysia, while a unidirectional causality from output to energy consumption in China and Thailand and energy consumption to outpu...

  10. Energy consumption during Refractance Window evaporation of selected berry juices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nindo, C.I.; Tang, J. [Washington State University, Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Powers, J.R. [Washington State University, Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition; Bolland, K. [MCD Technologies, Tacoma, WA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The Refractance Window evaporator represents a novel concept in the design of evaporation systems for small food processing plants. In this system thermal energy from circulating hot water is transmitted through a plastic sheet to evaporate water from a liquid product flowing concurrently on the top surface of the plastic. The objectives of this study were to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of this evaporator, determine its energy consumption, and capacity at different tilt angles and product flow rates. The system performance was evaluated with tap water, raspberry juice, and blueberry juice and puree as feed. With a direct steam injection heating method, the steam economy ranged from 0.64 to 0.84, while the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) was 666 W m{sup -2} {sup o}C{sup -1}. Under this condition, the highest evaporation capacity was 27.1 kg h{sup -1} m{sup -2} for blueberry juice and 31.8 kg h{sup -1} m{sup -2} for blueberry puree. The energy consumption was 2492-2719 kJ kg{sup -1} of water evaporated. Installation of a shell and tube heat exchanger with better temperature control minimized incidences of boiling and frequent discharge of condensate. The steam economy, highest evaporation rate and overall heat transfer coefficient increased to 0.99, 36.0 kg h{sup -1} m{sup -2} and 733 W m{sup -2} {sup o}C{sup -1}, respectively. [Author].

  11. Computational capacity and energy consumption of complex resistive switch networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Bürger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistive switches are a class of emerging nanoelectronics devices that exhibit a wide variety of switching characteristics closely resembling behaviors of biological synapses. Assembled into random networks, such resistive switches produce emerging behaviors far more complex than that of individual devices. This was previously demonstrated in simulations that exploit information processing within these random networks to solve tasks that require nonlinear computation as well as memory. Physical assemblies of such networks manifest complex spatial structures and basic processing capabilities often related to biologically-inspired computing. We model and simulate random resistive switch networks and analyze their computational capacities. We provide a detailed discussion of the relevant design parameters and establish the link to the physical assemblies by relating the modeling parameters to physical parameters. More globally connected networks and an increased network switching activity are means to increase the computational capacity linearly at the expense of exponentially growing energy consumption. We discuss a new modular approach that exhibits higher computational capacities, and energy consumption growing linearly with the number of networks used. The results show how to optimize the trade-o between computational capacity and energy e ciency and are relevant for the design and fabrication of novel computing architectures that harness random assemblies of emerging nanodevices.

  12. Drivers behind energy consumption by rural households in Shanxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Wik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is widely used by households for cooking and heating in rural China. Along with rapid economic growth over the last three decades, increasing rural households tend to use less biomass and more commercial energy such as coal and electricity. In this paper, we analyzed the key drivers behind energy consumption and switching by rural households based on survey data of energy consumption by rural households in ten villages of Shanxi province in China. Our econometric results show that income growth can induce less use of biomass and more use of coal and modern fuels. However, no evidence shows that even wealthy households has abandoned biomass use in Shanxi, mainly due to the “free” access to land and agricultural resources in these villages. Previous wealth of a household represented by house value can lead to more time spent on biomass collection. Access to land resources has positive effects on biomass use and collection. Other key variables include education, household size, the number of elderly members, and coal price. We also find huge differences between villages, indicating the importance of access to agricultural resources and markets.

  13. Energy Drink and Coffee Consumption and Psychopathology Symptoms Among Early Adolescents: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, Naomi R

    2016-06-01

    Background: Little is known about possible links between energy drink use and psychopathology among youth. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between energy drink consumption and psychopathology among early adolescents. In addition, associations between psychopathology and coffee consumption were examined to assess whether findings were specific to energy drinks or also applied to another commonly used caffeinated beverage. Methods: One hundred forty-four youth who participated in the Camden Youth Development Study (72 males; mean age 11.9 at wave 1; 65% Hispanic, 30% African American) were assessed using self-report measures of frequency of energy drink and coffee consumption and depression, anxiety, conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, and teacher reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Youth (92%) were reassessed 16 months later. Results: Concurrently, energy drink and coffee consumption were associated with similar psychopathology symptoms; when the other beverage was adjusted for, energy drinks remained associated with CD and coffee remained associated with panic anxiety. Initial energy drink consumption predicted increasing ADHD and CD over time, though the association with CD dropped to a trend level of significance when coffee was adjusted for. Initial levels of hyperactive ADHD predicted increasing coffee consumption over time; this association remained when energy drinks were controlled. Social anxiety was associated with less increase in energy drink consumption over time, controlling for coffee. Conclusion: Energy drink and coffee consumption among early adolescents are concurrently associated with similar psychopathology symptoms. Longitudinally, the associations between these beverages and psychopathology differ, indicating that these substances have differing implications for development over time.

  14. 75 FR 66008 - Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Parts 433 and 435 RIN 1904-AB96 Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal... proposed rulemaking (NOPR) regarding the fossil fuel- generated energy consumption ] requirements for new... regarding the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption requirements for new Federal buildings and...

  15. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND... § 305.5 Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

  16. On-site energy consumption and selected emissions at softwood sawmills in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Presently there is a lack of information describing US southwestern energy consumption and emissions generated from the sawmilling industry. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in the states of Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico to develop a profile of on-site energy consumption and selected emissions for the industry. Energy consumption is...

  17. Climate impacts on extreme energy consumption of different types of buildings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingcai Li

    Full Text Available Exploring changes of building energy consumption and its relationships with climate can provide basis for energy-saving and carbon emission reduction. Heating and cooling energy consumption of different types of buildings during 1981-2010 in Tianjin city, was simulated by using TRNSYS software. Daily or hourly extreme energy consumption was determined by percentile methods, and the climate impact on extreme energy consumption was analyzed. The results showed that days of extreme heating consumption showed apparent decrease during the recent 30 years for residential and large venue buildings, whereas days of extreme cooling consumption increased in large venue building. No significant variations were found for the days of extreme energy consumption for commercial building, although a decreasing trend in extreme heating energy consumption. Daily extreme energy consumption for large venue building had no relationship with climate parameters, whereas extreme energy consumption for commercial and residential buildings was related to various climate parameters. Further multiple regression analysis suggested heating energy consumption for commercial building was affected by maximum temperature, dry bulb temperature, solar radiation and minimum temperature, which together can explain 71.5 % of the variation of the daily extreme heating energy consumption. The daily extreme cooling energy consumption for commercial building was only related to the wet bulb temperature (R2= 0.382. The daily extreme heating energy consumption for residential building was affected by 4 climate parameters, but the dry bulb temperature had the main impact. The impacts of climate on hourly extreme heating energy consumption has a 1-3 hour delay in all three types of buildings, but no delay was found in the impacts of climate on hourly extreme cooling energy consumption for the selected buildings.

  18. Climate impacts on extreme energy consumption of different types of buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingcai; Shi, Jun; Guo, Jun; Cao, Jingfu; Niu, Jide; Xiong, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Exploring changes of building energy consumption and its relationships with climate can provide basis for energy-saving and carbon emission reduction. Heating and cooling energy consumption of different types of buildings during 1981-2010 in Tianjin city, was simulated by using TRNSYS software. Daily or hourly extreme energy consumption was determined by percentile methods, and the climate impact on extreme energy consumption was analyzed. The results showed that days of extreme heating consumption showed apparent decrease during the recent 30 years for residential and large venue buildings, whereas days of extreme cooling consumption increased in large venue building. No significant variations were found for the days of extreme energy consumption for commercial building, although a decreasing trend in extreme heating energy consumption. Daily extreme energy consumption for large venue building had no relationship with climate parameters, whereas extreme energy consumption for commercial and residential buildings was related to various climate parameters. Further multiple regression analysis suggested heating energy consumption for commercial building was affected by maximum temperature, dry bulb temperature, solar radiation and minimum temperature, which together can explain 71.5 % of the variation of the daily extreme heating energy consumption. The daily extreme cooling energy consumption for commercial building was only related to the wet bulb temperature (R2= 0.382). The daily extreme heating energy consumption for residential building was affected by 4 climate parameters, but the dry bulb temperature had the main impact. The impacts of climate on hourly extreme heating energy consumption has a 1-3 hour delay in all three types of buildings, but no delay was found in the impacts of climate on hourly extreme cooling energy consumption for the selected buildings.

  19. Forecast errors in IEA-countries' energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Every year Policy of IEA Countries includes a forecast of the energy consumption in the member countries. Forecasts concerning the years 1985,1990 and 1995 can now be compared to actual values. The second oil crisis resulted in big positive forecast errors. The oil price drop in 1986 did not have...... a similar opposite effect. A correction for economic growth reduces forecast errors during the second oil crisis but not elsewhere. Industry has a relatively big positive error while transportation has a negative forecast error. Even when the forecast error is small, the results are not so "nice" because...

  20. Wavelet modulation: An alternative modulation with low energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafii, Marwa; Palicot, Jacques; Gribonval, Rémi

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents wavelet modulation, based on the discrete wavelet transform, as an alternative modulation with low energy consumption. The transmitted signal has low envelope variations, which induces a good efficiency for the power amplifier. Wavelet modulation is analyzed and compared for different wavelet families with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) in terms of peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), power spectral density (PSD) properties, and the impact of the power amplifier on the spectral regrowth. The performance in terms of bit error rate and complexity of implementation are also evaluated, and several trade-offs are characterized. xml:lang="fr"

  1. Applying Smart Grid Technology For Reducing Electric Energy Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Roy

    2010-09-15

    In recent years the term 'Smart Grid' has become a widely used buzz word with respect to the operation of Electric Power Systems. One analysis has suggested that a Smart Grid could potentially reduce annual energy consumption in the USA by 56 to 203 billion kWh in 2030, corresponding to a 1.2 to 4.3% reduction in projected retail electricity sales in 2030. This paper discusses some of the smart grid technologies pertaining to the operation of electric power distribution networks.

  2. Analyses on Energy Saving Potential Based on Large-scale Public Buildings Energy Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuping Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To analyze large-scale public buildings’ energy-saving potential is one of the methods to realize scientific energy control management and service. This method aims at a typical public building’s powerconsumed system. Through analyzing and comparing the consumption data, it succeeds in analyzing the use efficiency of building power, consumption level and economic effects of the energy utilization. More over, this method has a quantity analysis on the power-consumed unit’s building usage, so that it is able to find the unit’s energy-saving potential. Its bases of all analyses are building energy balance and analyzing theory of energy cost, analyzing theory of engineering economy and environment and rational distribution theory of energy utilization system.

  3. Energy Consumption, Trade and GDP: A Case Study of South Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Majeed, Muhammad Tariq

    2013-01-01

    Using panel co-integration approach over the period 1980-2009 for South Asian economies, this study investigates the dynamic linkages between energy consumption, trade and GDP. The results show that, in the short run, feedback relationship holds between energy consumption and GDP and between energy consumption and exports. In the long run, the feedback relation holds between energy and GDP while unidirectional causality holds from export to energy. Thus, feedback hypothesis between energy and...

  4. Analysis of Energy Consumption and Energy Conservation Measures for RFCCU at Shengli Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Xu Zhenling

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces a string of energy conservation measures adopted over the past several years by the RFCC unit at Shengli Petrochemical Complex, including the optimization of feedstock properties, the adoption of high-efficiency atomizing nozzles, the revamp of CO boiler, the atomization by means of dry gas, the post-burning of flue gas as well as the application of frequency converting machines and pumps, resulting in ideal effects. The energy consumption of the RFCC unit was gradually decreased to 2984.25 MJ/t from the original level of 3716.99 MJ/t. After comparing basic energy consumption values with actual consumption values, the authors have set forward measures for further energy conservation, such as the recovery of low-temperature excess heat contained in oil/gas streams exiting from the fractionation tower top, addition of the fourth cyclone, delivery of hot oil slurry, and heat tracing with hot water.

  5. Comfort, Indoor Air Quality, and Energy Consumption in Low Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, P.; Roth, K.; Tiefenbeck, V.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the results of an in-depth evaluation of energy consumption and thermal comfort for two potential net zero-energy homes (NZEHs) in Massachusetts, as well as an indoor air quality (IAQ) evaluation performed in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  6. Comfort, Indoor Air Quality, and Energy Consumption in Low Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englemann, P. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Roth, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tiefenbeck, V. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the results of an in-depth evaluation of energy consumption and thermal comfort for two potential net zero-energy homes (NZEHs) in Massachusetts, as well as an indoor air quality (IAQ) evaluation performed in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  7. Predictive models of energy consumption in multi-family housing in College Station, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hikmat Hummad

    Patterns of energy consumption in apartment buildings are different than those in single-family houses. Apartment buildings have different physical characteristics, and their inhabitants have different demographic attributes. This study develops models that predict energy usage in apartment buildings in College Station. This is accomplished by analyzing and identifying the predictive variables that affect energy usage, studying the consumption patterns, and creating formulas based on combinations of these variables. According to the hypotheses and the specific research context, a cross-sectional design strategy is adopted. This choice implies analyses across variations within a sample of fourplex apartments in College Station. The data available for analysis include the monthly billing data along with the physical characteristics of the building, climate data for College Station, and occupant demographic characteristics. A simple random sampling procedure is adopted. The sample size of 176 apartments is drawn from the population in such a way that every possible sample has the same chance of being selected. Statistical methods used to interpret the data include univariate analysis (mean, standard deviation, range, and distribution of data), correlation analysis, regression analysis, and ANOVA (analyses of variance). The results show there are significant differences in cooling efficiency and actual energy consumption among different building types, but there are no significant differences in heating consumption. There are no significant differences in actual energy consumption between student and non-student groups or among ethnic groups. The findings indicate that there are significant differences in actual energy consumption among marital status groups and educational level groups. The multiple regression procedures show there is a significant relationship between normalized annual consumption and the combined variables of floor area, marital status, dead band

  8. Psychological and social predictors of changes in fruit and vegetable consumption over 12 months following behavioral and nutrition education counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Perkins-Porras, Linda; Rink, Elisabeth; Hilton, Sean; Cappuccio, Francesco P

    2004-11-01

    This study assessed psychological and social factors predicting 12-month changes in fruit and vegetable consumption achieved by 271 men and women from a low-income population randomized to brief behavioral and nutrition education counseling. Greater increases in fruit and vegetable intake were achieved in the behavioral than in the nutrition education condition (1.49 vs. 0.87 portions per day, p=.021). Increases were predicted by baseline social support for dietary change but not by baseline psychological measures. However, short-term (8-week) changes in dietary self-efficacy, encouragement, anticipated regret, perceived benefits, and knowledge of recommended intake predicted 12-month changes in fruit and vegetable consumption independently of gender, age, ethnicity, income, and baseline intake. These factors accounted for 51% of the superiority of behavioral counseling over nutrition education.

  9. Analytical Treatment of Forecasts of Electric Energy Consumption in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balodis, M.; Gavars, V.; Andersons, J.

    2014-06-01

    In the paper, the changes in electric energy consumption are analyzed as associated with structural changes in the Latvian economy of postsocialistic period. To the analysis, a particular approach is applied, which consists in comparison of the basic and specific electricity consumption indices in West-, Central-, and East-European states for the time span of 1990-2010, with differences and tendencies of changes revealed. Tendencies of the type are determined for the electric energy consumption in Latvia, and recommendations are given for the use of such indices in the relevant forecasts. Rakstā apskatītas elektroenerģijas patēriņa izmaiņas, kas saistītas ar Latvijas postsociālisma perioda ekonomikas strukturālām izmaiņām. Rakstā dota Latvijas galveno elektroenerģijas patēriņa indikatoru analīze, lietojot īpašu pieeju - Rietumeiropas, Centrāleiropas un Austrumeiropas valstu indikatoru salīdzinājumu. Analizēts periods no 1990. gada līdz 2010. gadam. Salīdzināti Eiropas valstu grupu īpatnējie elektroenerģijas patēriņa indikatori un noskaidrotas to atšķirības un izmaiņu tendences. Noteiktas elektroenerģijas patēriņa izmaiņu tendences Latvijā. Dotas rekomendācijas par šo indikatoru izmantošanu elektroenerģijas patēriņa prognozēšanā. 07.05.2014.

  10. The measurement of energy consumption by exercise bikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwo, Ching-Song; Chien, Chao-Chun; Jeng, Lung-Yue

    2006-11-01

    This paper is intended as an investigation is that to measure the amount of energy consumption can be consumed by riding bikes and also could recycle the consuming energy during exercising. Exercisers ride the bicycle inputting the driving force through a compressor of refrigeration system, which can circulate the refrigerant in the system and calculate the calorific capacity from the spread of the condenser. In addition, we can make up chiller water in the evaporator. Experiments were performed to prove the hypotheses. Therefore, this experiment has designed the sports goods which reach the purpose of doing exercise, measuring accurately the consuming calorific capacity and having the function of making chiller water. After exercising, you can drink the water producing during exercise and apply on the system of air conditioner, which attains two objectives.

  11. Baseline projections of transportation energy consumption by mode: 1981 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, M; Bunch, J; Vyas, A; Kaplan, M; Knorr, R; Mendiratta, V; Saricks, C

    1982-04-01

    A comprehensive set of activity and energy-demand projections for each of the major transportation modes and submodes is presented. Projections are developed for a business-as-usual scenario, which provides a benchmark for assessing the effects of potential conservation strategies. This baseline scenario assumes a continuation of present trends, including fuel-efficiency improvements likely to result from current efforts of vehicle manufacturers. Because of anticipated changes in fuel efficiency, fuel price, modal shifts, and a lower-than-historic rate of economic growth, projected growth rates in transportation activity and energy consumption depart from historic patterns. The text discusses the factors responsible for this departure, documents the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the modal projections, and compares the projections with other efforts.

  12. Energy efficiency in a water supply system: Energy consumption and CO2 emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. RAMOS

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents important fundaments associated to the water/energy consumption and enhances the importance of renewable energy sources. A model of multi-criterion optimization for energy efficiency based on water and environment management policy, the preservation of the water resources, the control of water pressure and energy consumption, through a hybrid energy solution is developed and applied to a water supply system. The methodology developed includes three solutions: (i water turbine installation in pipes where there is a need to control the pressure by pressure reducing valves, (ii the optimization of pumping operations according to the electricity tariff and the water demand and (iii the addition of a renewable energy source, a wind turbine, to supply energy to the pump-station and to sell the remaining to the national grid. The use of an integrated solution (water/energy shows to be a valuable input to benefit from available hydro energy in WSS to produce clean power and the use of wind source allows reducing the energy consumption in pump-stations, which is still mostly based on fossil fuels with high levels of CO2 emissions.

  13. Optimal Buildings’ Energy Consumption Calculus through a Distributed Experiment Execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Fonseca i Casas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculus of building energy consumption is a demanding task because multiple factors must be considered during experimentation. Additionally, the definition of the model and the experiments is complex because the problem is multidisciplinary. When we face complex models and experiments that require a considerable amount of computational resources, the application of solutions is imperative to reduce the amount of time needed to define the model and the experiments and to obtain the answers. In this paper, we first address the definition and the implementation of an environmental model that describes the behavior of a building from a sustainability point of view and enables the use of several simulations and calculus engines in a cosimulation scenario. Second, we define a distributed experimental framework that enables us to obtain results in an accurate amount of time. This methodology has been applied to the energy consumption calculation, but it can also be applied to other modeling problems that usually require a considerable amount of resources by reducing the amount of time needed to perform modeling, implementation, verification, and experimentation.

  14. Possible technical solutions to reduce energy consumption in audio products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, K.; Andersen, M.A.E.

    1999-07-01

    In common audio products nearly all the supplied power is dissipated as heat. The major consumers are with almost no exception the power supply and the audio amplifier. This paper is divided in two parts, concentrating on typical efficiency measures for the concepts of today and the possibly technical solutions, by which the overall efficiency can be considerably improved in the future. Traditional power supplies are made using a transformer operating on the mains frequency followed by a linear regulator. These are bulky and the efficiency is only around 40%. Using high frequency switch mode power supplies the size of the power supply can be reduced and the efficiency can be increased to 80-90%. Construction of optimal amplifiers in regard to total energy consumption over life time, can only be accomplished by considering both the general volume control distribution, and the general spectral amplitude distribution of audio signals. The traditional efficiency measure specified at the maximum efficiency level says only very little about the real energy consumption of the audio amplifier. As an example, the theoretical efficiency for at traditional class B amplifier is 78%. Using a new efficiency measure defined on the basis of the approximate volume control distribution, an 50W amplifier example shows an overall efficiency of only 1%. In the paper possible solutions and guidelines to increase the real amplifier efficiency are given. (au)

  15. An Analysis of Current Energy Consumption in China’s Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia; ZHANG; Zongshou; CAI; Lihong; CHEN; Dezheng; ZHANG; Zhe; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    Energy consumption is one of the important symbols of modern agriculture,and it is also an important input in modern agricultural production. The study on the agricultural energy consumption not only has a positive significance to agricultural energy saving,emission reduction and ecological environment protection,but also can greatly reduce the cost of agricultural production and improve the economic benefit of farmers. Through the analysis of the national statistical data about energy consumption for agriculture production from 2005 to 2012 year,the results show that the amount of energy consumption for agricultural production in China has increased year by year since 2005. Because of the continued growth of the total energy consumption in China,the proportion of energy consumption for agricultural production to the total energy consumption of China has declined slightly since 2005. At present,the energy consumption structure for agricultural production in China is diesel fuel,coal,electric power,gasoline,and indirect energy consumption. With the rapid development of the agricultural technology in recent years,the total agricultural output value in China has increased greatly,the direct and indirect agricultural energy consumption per unit of agricultural output value in China has decreased year by year,and the efficiency of energy consumption for agricultural production has increased consequently.

  16. CREATING THE STANDARD FOR SPECIFIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfa Firdaus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no standard for the Specific Energy Consumption (SEC in the palm oil industry. SEC is a value that can be used as an indicator to measure the optimization level in the use of energy. Indonesia as one of the largest palm oil producing countries requires a standard for energy intensity in the palm oil industry. SEC in palm oil mill is defined in the amount of energy per unit of production (kWh/kg. The classifying method that has been used in this study is K-means cluster analysis with the measurement samples in 14 palm oil mills for 12 months of period. This study has suggested the SEC standard for Indonesian palm oil industry and it is expected to be SEC reference for other studies in the palm oil industry.

  17. Consumption of energy drinks among Québec college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard-Masson, Marianne; Loslier, Julie; Paquin, Pierre; Bertrand, Karine

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of energy drinks (ED) raises concerns because of adverse health effects possibly linked with high levels of caffeine and sugar intake. The study looks at the scope of ED consumption as well as some of the associated characteristics. Thirty-six public colleges in the Canadian province of Québec agreed to participate in a descriptive cross-sectional study (n = 36). In February 2013, participating colleges invited their students to answer an online questionnaire on consumption of ED, alcoholic ED (AED), and ED in combination with other psychotropic drugs. A descriptive and correlational analysis was carried out. Logistic regressions explored associations between ED consumption and associated characteristics. Of the students who successfully completed the questionnaire and participated in the study (n = 10,283), a low proportion consumed ED (9.1%; n = 935) and/or AED (1.1%; n = 109) at least once a week in the previous month. Although low in proportion, a number of participants reported having used ED with other stimulant psychoactive substances (n = 247) and ≥3 ED/day (n = 193) or ≥3 AED/occasion (n = 167), which can pose a risk for serious adverse effects. Weekly ED consumption was associated with consumption of ≥20 cups of coffee/week, smoking, excessive use of alcohol and past use of cannabis, glues or solvents and amphetamines. A majority of respondents are not heavy users of ED, AED, or ED with drugs. Yet, the profiles of ED consumption potentially harmful to health that characterize some participants indicate that the potential health consequences of such behaviour are of concern.

  18. Energy-drink consumption and its relationship with substance use and sensation seeking among 10th grade students in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren, Cuneyt; Evren, Bilge

    2015-06-01

    Aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of energy-drink (ED) consumption among 10th grade students in Istanbul/Turkey. Cross-sectional online self-report survey conducted in 45 schools from the 15 districts in Istanbul. The questionnaire included sections about demographic data, self-destructive behavior and use of substances including tobacco, alcohol and drugs. Also Psychological Screening Test for Adolescents (PSTA) was used. The analyses were conducted based on the 4957 subjects. Rate of those reported a ED consumption once within last year was 62.0% (n=3072), whereas rate of those reported ED consumption at least once in a month was 31.1%. There were consistent, statistically significant associations between genders, lifetime substance use (tobacco, alcohol and drug use), measures of sensation seeking, psychological problems (depression, anxiety, anger, impulsivity) and self-destructive behavior (self-harming behavior and suicidal thoughts) with ED consumption. In logistic regression models male gender, sensation seeking, life-time tobacco, alcohol and drug use predicted all frequencies of ED consumption. In addition to these predictors, anger and self-harming behavior also predicted ED consumption at least once in a month. There were no interactions between the associations of lifetime tobacco, alcohol and drug use with ED consumption. The findings suggest that the ED consumption of male students is related with three clusters of substances (tobacco, alcohol and drug) through sensation seeking and these relationships do not interact with each other.

  19. Questionnaire survey, Indoor climate measurements and Energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2012-01-01

    to be designed and constructed with a heating demand corresponding to the Danish low-energy standard referred to as "low-energy class 1" in a new settlement called Stenløse Syd. This means that the energy consumption is to be 50% lower than the requirement in BR08 (Danish Building Regulations 2008). 66 flats...... preparation. The dense low-rise houing are to be heated by a district heating network. All dwellings were to be equipped with a mechanical ventilation system with heat recovery and an electronic system for energy monitoring and control of the heating systems. The first houses were occupied in 2008...... were to be designed and constructed with a yearly heating demand of 15 kWh/m². Furthermore, the Concerto community include a kindergarten and an activity centre for elderly people. All the single family houses were to be heated by a heat pump supported by a 3 m² thermal solar system for hot water...

  20. Energy consumption and GDP in Tunisia: Cointegration and causality analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belloumi, Mounir [Institute of High Commercial Studies of Sousse, University of Sousse. B.P. 40 Street Ceiture, Sahloul III, 4054 Sousse (Tunisia)], E-mail: mounir.balloumi@gmail.com

    2009-07-15

    In this paper, the Johansen cointegration technique is used to examine the causal relationship between per capita energy consumption (PCEC) and per capita gross domestic product (PCGDP) for Tunisia during the 1971-2004 period. In order to test for Granger causality in the presence of cointegration among the variables, a vector error correction model (VECM) is used instead of a vector autoregressive (VAR) model. Our estimation results indicate that the PCGDP and PCEC for Tunisia are related by one cointegrating vector and that there is a long-run bi-directional causal relationship between the two series and a short-run unidirectional causality from energy to gross domestic product (GDP). The source of causation in the long-run is found to be the error-correction terms in both directions. Hence, an important policy implication resulting from this analysis is that energy can be considered as a limiting factor to GDP growth in Tunisia. Conclusions for Tunisia may also be relevant for a number of countries that have to go through a similar development path of increasing pressure on already scarce energy resources.

  1. Energy consumption and GDP in Tunisia Cointegration and causality analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belloumi, Mounir [Institute of High Commercial Studies of Sousse, University of Sousse. B.P. 40 Street Ceiture, Sahloul III, 4054 Sousse (Tunisia)

    2009-07-15

    In this paper, the Johansen cointegration technique is used to examine the causal relationship between per capita energy consumption (PCEC) and per capita gross domestic product (PCGDP) for Tunisia during the 1971-2004 period. In order to test for Granger causality in the presence of cointegration among the variables, a vector error correction model (VECM) is used instead of a vector autoregressive (VAR) model. Our estimation results indicate that the PCGDP and PCEC for Tunisia are related by one cointegrating vector and that there is a long-run bi-directional causal relationship between the two series and a short-run unidirectional causality from energy to gross domestic product (GDP). The source of causation in the long-run is found to be the error-correction terms in both directions. Hence, an important policy implication resulting from this analysis is that energy can be considered as a limiting factor to GDP growth in Tunisia. Conclusions for Tunisia may also be relevant for a number of countries that have to go through a similar development path of increasing pressure on already scarce energy resources. (author)

  2. Energy audit in small wastewater treatment plants: methodology, energy consumption indicators, and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, P; Vaccari, M; Vitali, F

    2015-01-01

    Energy audits in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) reveal large differences in the energy consumption in the various stages, depending also on the indicators used in the audits. This work is aimed at formulating a suitable methodology to perform audits in WWTPs and identifying the most suitable key energy consumption indicators for comparison among different plants and benchmarking. Hydraulic-based stages, stages based on chemical oxygen demand, sludge-based stages and building stages were distinguished in WWTPs and analysed with different energy indicators. Detailed energy audits were carried out on five small WWTPs treating less than 10,000 population equivalent and using continuous data for 2 years. The plants have in common a low designed capacity utilization (52% on average) and equipment oversizing which leads to waste of energy in the absence of controls and inverters (a common situation in small plants). The study confirms that there are several opportunities for reducing energy consumption in small WWTPs: in addition to the pumping of influent wastewater and aeration, small plants demonstrate low energy efficiency in recirculation of settled sludge and in aerobic stabilization. Denitrification above 75% is ensured through intermittent aeration and without recirculation of mixed liquor. Automation in place of manual controls is mandatory in illumination and electrical heating.

  3. Analysis and forecast of residential building energy consumption in Chongqing on carbon emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李沁; 刘猛; 钱发

    2009-01-01

    Carbon emissions mainly result from energy consumption. Carbon emissions inevitably will increase to some extent with economic expansion and rising energy consumption. We introduce a gray theory of quantitative analysis of the energy consumption of residential buildings in Chongqing,China,on the impact of carbon emission factors. Three impacts are analyzed,namely per capita residential housing area,domestic water consumption and the rate of air conditioner ownership per 100 urban households. The gray prediction model established using the Chongqing carbon emission-residential building energy consumption forecast model is sufficiently accurate to achieve a measure of feasibility and applicability.

  4. Reduced energy consumption by using streamlined gating systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seren Skov-Hansen; Niels Skat Tiedje

    2008-01-01

    In foundries a lot of effort is done to minimize energy consumption in the production to reduce costs and hence increase the competitiveness. At the same time the foundries must live up to the increased demands for high quality castings.Traditional gating systems are known for a straight tapered down runner, a well base and 90° bends in the runner system. Previous work has shown that the traditional way of designing gating systems creates high inconsistency in flow patterns during filling. In the streamlined gating systems there are no sharp changes in direction and a large effort is done to confine and control the flow of the molten metal during mould filling. The main objective in the work presented here is to use the principles of the streamlined gating systems to reduce the weight of the gating system relative to the traditional layouts. By reducing the weight of gating system and thereby improving yield, the amount of molten iron needed is also reduced, hence reducing the energy consumption for melting.Experiments in real production lines have proven that it is possible to achieve a reduction in the poured weight by using the streamlined gating systems. In a layout for casting of three valve housings in a vertically parted mould the weight of the gating system was reduced by 1.1 kg changing from the traditional layouts to the streamlined gating systems. This weight reduction corresponds in this case to a 20% weight reduction for the gating system. Using streamlined gating systems with fan gates to give a beneficial heat distribution in the castings may be an efficient tool to eliminate the need for heat treatment. In the experiments the change in gating system from the traditional layout to the streamlined layout removed the need for heat treatment. This obviously means a huge energy saving in the foundry. The energy consumption for heat treatment of iron has been found to be 0.489 kWh/kg. The valve housing in the experiments weighs 3 kg so when the need for

  5. An Application of Non-Linear Autoregressive Neural Networks to Predict Energy Consumption in Public Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gonzaga Baca Ruiz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of energy consumption prediction using neural networks over a set of public buildings. Since energy consumption in the public sector comprises a substantial share of overall consumption, the prediction of such consumption represents a decisive issue in the achievement of energy savings. In our experiments, we use the data provided by an energy consumption monitoring system in a compound of faculties and research centers at the University of Granada, and provide a methodology to predict future energy consumption using nonlinear autoregressive (NAR and the nonlinear autoregressive neural network with exogenous inputs (NARX, respectively. Results reveal that NAR and NARX neural networks are both suitable for performing energy consumption prediction, but also that exogenous data may help to improve the accuracy of predictions.

  6. A local energy consumption prediction-based clustering protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiguo; Feng, Li; Jia, Lili; Gu, Xin; Yu, Dongxiao

    2014-12-03

    Clustering is a fundamental and effective technique for utilizing sensor nodes' energy and extending the network lifetime for wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a novel clustering protocol, LECP-CP (local energy consumption prediction-based clustering protocol), the core of which includes a novel cluster head election algorithm and an inter-cluster communication routing tree construction algorithm, both based on the predicted local energy consumption ratio of nodes. We also provide a more accurate and realistic cluster radius to minimize the energy consumption of the entire network. The global energy consumption can be optimized by the optimization of the local energy consumption, and the energy consumption among nodes can be balanced well. Simulation results validate our theoretical analysis and show that LECP-CP has high efficiency of energy utilization, good scalability and significant improvement in the network lifetime.

  7. Energy efficiency in a water supply system:Energy consumption and CO2 emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helena M.RAMOS; Filipe VIEIRA; Didia I.C.COVAS

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents important fundamentals associated with water and energy efficiency and highlights the importance of using renewable energy sources.A model of multi-criteria optimization for energy efficiency based on water and environmental management policies,including the preservation of water resources and the control of water pressure and energy consumption through a hybrid energy solution,was developed and applied to a water supply system.The methodology developed includes three solutions:(1)the use of a water turbine in pipe systems where pressures are higher than necessary and pressure-reducing valves are installed,(2)the optimization of pumping operation according to the electricity tariff and water demand,and(3)the use of other renewable energy sources,including a wind turbine,to supply energy to the pumping station,with the remaining energy being sold to the national electric grid.The use of an integrated solution(water and energy)proves to be a valuable input for creating benefits from available hydro energy in the water supply system in order to produce clean power,and the use of a wind source allows for the reduction of energy consumption in pumping stations,as well as of the CO2 emission to the atmosphere.

  8. Beverage Consumption among U.S. Children Aged 0–24 Months: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A.; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.; Nicklas, Theresa A.

    2017-01-01

    Data on beverage consumption patterns in early life are limited. The aim of this study was to describe beverage consumption by sociodemographic characteristics, along with water intake and sources of water among U.S. children aged 0–24 months. Data from 2740 children in the 2005–2012 NHANES were analysed. Food intake was determined via one 24-h dietary recall. Beverages were categorised according to What We Eat In America groups. Poverty–Income ratio was used to define household income. During infancy (0–5.9 months and 6–11.9 months) infant formulas were the most commonly consumed beverage, 74.1% and 78.6% of children consuming, respectively. Comparatively fewer children, 41.6% and 24.3%, consumed breast milk. In toddlers (12–24 months), the most commonly consumed beverages were plain milk (83.6% of children consuming), water (68.6%), 100% fruit juice (51.8%) and sweetened beverages (31.2%). Non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American children were more likely to consume sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juice and infant formula than Non-Hispanic white children. Children from lower income households were more likely to consume sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice and less likely to consume breast milk than children from higher income households. Total water intake increased with age and the contribution of water from food and beverage sources was ~20% and ~80% for all children, respectively. Disparities in beverage consumption by race/ethnicity and income level are apparent in early life. PMID:28335374

  9. Beverage Consumption among U.S. Children Aged 0–24 Months: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carley A. Grimes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Data on beverage consumption patterns in early life are limited. The aim of this study was to describe beverage consumption by sociodemographic characteristics, along with water intake and sources of water among U.S. children aged 0–24 months. Data from 2740 children in the 2005–2012 NHANES were analysed. Food intake was determined via one 24-h dietary recall. Beverages were categorised according to What We Eat In America groups. Poverty–Income ratio was used to define household income. During infancy (0–5.9 months and 6–11.9 months infant formulas were the most commonly consumed beverage, 74.1% and 78.6% of children consuming, respectively. Comparatively fewer children, 41.6% and 24.3%, consumed breast milk. In toddlers (12–24 months, the most commonly consumed beverages were plain milk (83.6% of children consuming, water (68.6%, 100% fruit juice (51.8% and sweetened beverages (31.2%. Non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American children were more likely to consume sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juice and infant formula than Non-Hispanic white children. Children from lower income households were more likely to consume sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice and less likely to consume breast milk than children from higher income households. Total water intake increased with age and the contribution of water from food and beverage sources was ~20% and ~80% for all children, respectively. Disparities in beverage consumption by race/ethnicity and income level are apparent in early life.

  10. The challenge to UK energy policy: An ageing population perspective on energy saving measures and consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, Neveen, E-mail: n.hamza@ncl.ac.u [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Gilroy, Rose [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    With a focus on the residential sector, this paper explores the likelihood of the UK government meeting its energy targets. The paper contends that energy policy needs to take into account the interplay of four major factors: an ageing population of increasing diversity; a cultural inclination for older housing much of which is thermally inefficient; levels of fuel poverty; and the inexorable rise of consumer spending on leisure related services and goods. Decisions made by older households (both the poorer and the better off) may be critical to the success of energy policy. Among the better off the changing expectations of the baby boomers, with their predilection for consumption and travel, may have particular impact. The paper concludes that much of the reduction in carbon footprint made by older people's choices in heating and insulation may be offset, not only by increasing domestic thermal comfort, but also potentially by increasing consumables in the home and other consumer lifestyle choices. What could be achieved at best, may be a shift in energy mix. - Research highlights: {yields} An aging society in the UK will not lead to reduction in energy consumption. {yields} Physical ability, housing condition, cultural habits and energy poverty undermine policy. {yields} Rise of home entertainment and consumerism 'Afluenza' increase energy consumption.

  11. Low-Energy Astrophysics: Stimulating the Reduction of Energy Consumption in the Next Decade

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, P J; Rykoff, E S; Shen, K J; Steinfadt, J D R; Fregeau, J; Chary, R-R; Sheth, K; Weiner, B; Henisey, K B; Quetin, E L; Antonucci, R; Kaplan, D; Jonsson, P; Auger, M W; Cardamone, C; Tao, T; Holz, D E; Bradac, M; Metcalfe, T S; McHugh, S; Elvis, M; Brewer, B J; Urrutia, T; Guo, F; Hovest, W; Nakajima, R; For, B -Q; Erb, D; Paneque, D

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we address the consumption of energy by astronomers while performing their professional duties. Although we find that astronomy uses a negligible fraction of the US energy budget, the rate at which energy is consumed by an average astronomer is similar to that of a typical high-flying businessperson. We review some of the ways in which astronomers are already acting to reduce their energy consumption. In the coming decades, all citizens will have to reduce their energy consumption to conserve fossil fuel reserves and to help avert a potentially catastrophic change in the Earth's climate. The challenges are the same for astronomers as they are for everyone: decreasing the distances we travel and investing in energy-efficient infrastructure. The high profile of astronomy in the media, and the great public interest in our field, can play a role in promoting energy-awareness to the wider population. Our specific recommendations are therefore to 1) reduce travel when possible, through efficient meeti...

  12. End use energy consumption data base: transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J.N.; Rose, A.B.; Greene, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The transportation fuel and energy use estimates developed a Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the End Use Energy Consumption Data Base are documented. The total data base contains estimates of energy use in the United States broken down into many categories within all sectors of the economy: agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing, commerce, the household, electric utilities, and transportation. The transportation data provided by ORNL generally cover each of the 10 years from 1967 through 1976 (occasionally 1977 and 1978), with omissions in some models. The estimtes are broken down by mode of transport, fuel, region and State, sector of the economy providing transportation, and by the use to which it is put, and, in the case of automobile and bus travel, by the income of the traveler. Fuel types include natural gas, motor and aviation gasoline, residual and diesel oil, liuqefied propane, liquefied butane, and naphtha- and kerosene-type jet engine fuels. Electricity use is also estimated. The mode, fuel, sector, and use categories themselves subsume one, two, or three levels of subcategories, resulting in a very detailed categorization and definitive accounting.

  13. The causality between energy consumption and economic growth in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdal, Guelistan; Esenguen, Kemal [Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60240 Tokat (Turkey); Erdal, Hilmi [Department of Technical Programs, Tokat Vocational School, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60240 Tokat (Turkey)

    2008-10-15

    This paper applies the causality test to examine the causal relationship between primary energy consumption (EC) and real Gross National Product (GNP) for Turkey during 1970-2006. We employ unit root tests, the augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and the Philips-Perron (PP), Johansen cointegration test, and Pair-wise Granger causality test to examine relation between EC and GNP. Our empirical results indicate that the two series are found to be non-stationary. However, first differences of these series lead to stationarity. Further, the results indicate that EC and GNP are cointegrated and there is bidirectional causality running from EC to GNP and vice versa. This means that an increase in EC directly affects economic growth and that economic growth also stimulates further EC. This bidirectional causality relationship between EC and GNP determined for Turkey at 1970-2006 period is in accordance with the ones in literature reported for similar countries. Consequently, we conclude that energy is a limiting factor to economic growth in Turkey and, hence, shocks to energy supply will have a negative impact on economic growth. (author)

  14. 76 FR 63527 - National Energy Action Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Throughout our history, America's energy resources have laid the foundation for our Nation's economic... investments in clean energy in our Nation's history, which are giving rise to cutting-edge technologies... development of our domestic energy resources. To help save consumers money at the pump and on their...

  15. Forecasting Electrical Energy Consumption of Equipment Maintenance Using Neural Network and Particle Swarm Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Xunlin Jiang; Haifeng Ling; Jun Yan; Bo Li; Zhao Li

    2013-01-01

    Accurate forecasting of electrical energy consumption of equipment maintenance plays an important role in maintenance decision making and helps greatly in sustainable energy use. The paper presents an approach for forecasting electrical energy consumption of equipment maintenance based on artificial neural network (ANN) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). A multilayer forward ANN is used for modeling relationships between the input variables and the expected electrical energy consumption, ...

  16. THE EFFECT OF VENTILATION AND ECONOMIZER ON ENERGY CONSUMPTIONS FOR AIR SOURCEHEAT PUMPS IN SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Al Raees

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the applications of CO2-based demand-controlled ventilation DCV strategy integrated with the economizer for air source heat pumps in schools, investigates their impact on the annual heating, cooling and total energy consumption, also determines the potential savings achieved in different USA locations. The study includes detailed energy analysis on an existing middle school through whole building simulation energy software. The simulation model is first calibrated and checked for accuracy using actual monthly utility data. This model is then used for savings calculations resulted from a combination of air-side economizer and CO2-based DCV and with various occupancy profiles and locations. The results show that a significant saving could be obtained as compared to the actual operating strategy implemented in the existing system and this saving depends mainly on the actual occupancy profile and building locations.

  17. Energy consumption program: A computer model simulating energy loads in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, F. W.; Lansing, F. L.; Chai, V. W.; Higgins, S.

    1978-01-01

    The JPL energy consumption computer program developed as a useful tool in the on-going building modification studies in the DSN energy conservation project is described. The program simulates building heating and cooling loads and computes thermal and electric energy consumption and cost. The accuracy of computations are not sacrificed, however, since the results lie within + or - 10 percent margin compared to those read from energy meters. The program is carefully structured to reduce both user's time and running cost by asking minimum information from the user and reducing many internal time-consuming computational loops. Many unique features were added to handle two-level electronics control rooms not found in any other program.

  18. Energy consumption program: A computer model simulating energy loads in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, F. W.; Lansing, F. L.; Chai, V. W.; Higgins, S.

    1978-01-01

    The JPL energy consumption computer program developed as a useful tool in the on-going building modification studies in the DSN energy conservation project is described. The program simulates building heating and cooling loads and computes thermal and electric energy consumption and cost. The accuracy of computations are not sacrificed, however, since the results lie within + or - 10 percent margin compared to those read from energy meters. The program is carefully structured to reduce both user's time and running cost by asking minimum information from the user and reducing many internal time-consuming computational loops. Many unique features were added to handle two-level electronics control rooms not found in any other program.

  19. Thermal indoor environment and energy consumption in a plus-energy house: cooling season measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    . The house was cooled by a floor cooling system and was ventilated with a mechanical ventilation system. Different operative temperature set-points and different ventilation rates were tested. Operative temperature at a representative location inside the occupied zone was used as an indicator of the thermal...... the floor cooling system) and increasing the ventilation rate provided a better thermal indoor environment but with increased energy consumption. The thermal indoor environment and energy performance of the house can be improved with decreased glazing area, increased thermal mass, installation of solar......The present study is concerned with the thermal indoor environment and HVAC system energy consumption of a detached, one-story, single family, plus-energy house during a cooling season. The house was located in Denmark and it has been used as a full-scale experimental facility for one year...

  20. Structural Decomposition Analysis of China’s Industrial Energy Consumption Based on Input-Output Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X. Y.; Zhou, J. Q.; Wang, Z.; Deng, L. C.; Hong, S.

    2017-05-01

    China is now at a stage of accelerated industrialization and urbanization, with energy-intensive industries contributing a large proportion of economic growth. In this study, we examined industrial energy consumption by decomposition analysis to describe the driving factors of energy consumption in China. Based on input-output (I-O) tables from the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) website and China’s energy use data from 1995 to 2011, we studied the sectorial changes of energy efficiency during the examined period. The results showed that all industries increased their energy efficiency. Energy consumption was decomposed into three factors by the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. The increase in production output was the leading factor that drives up China’s energy consumption. World Trade Organization accession and financial crises had great impact on the energy consumption. Based on these results, a series of energy policy suggestions for decision-makers has been proposed.

  1. 10 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dishwashers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption... Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dishwashers The... completion. 4.2Machine electrical energy consumption. Measure the machine electrical energy consumption, M...

  2. DISAGGREGATE ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY: A COINTEGRATION AND CAUSALITY ANALYSIS FOR THE TURKISH ECONOMY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Tansel Tugcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the long and the short-run relationships between disaggregate energy consumption (i.e. alternative and nuclear, fossil and renewable and total factor productivity growth in the Turkish economy for the period 1970-2011. To this end, ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration and the Dolado and Lütkepohl’s Granger causality analyses were employed. Results showed that disaggregate energy consumption is cointegrated to total factor productivity growth and there exists bi-directional causal relationships among the variables in consideration. Besides, findings revealed that the share of renewable energy consumption in total energy consumption is the only energy type which positively affects total factor productivity growth in the Turkish economy. This result implies that an improvement in the share of renewable energy consumption in total energy consumption is crucial for economic efficiency.

  3. [Energy consumption and GDP growth in Beijing: cointegration and causality analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cao-Cao; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Chun-Lan; Wang, Hai-Hua; Li, Zheng

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, the Johansen cointegration technique and the vector error correction model (VECM) were used to examine the causal relationship between energy consumption (LEC) and gross domestic product (LGDP) for Beijing during the period of 1980 to 2008. Results indicated that LEC and LGDP for Beijing were related by one cointegrating vector and there was a long-run unidirectional causal relationship from GDP to energy consumption. The long-term and short-term elasticity from economy to energy consumption were 0.44 and 0.12 separately. Statistic analysis showed that from 1980 to 2008 every 1% growth in GDP annually would drive energy consumption increasing rate by 0.4% correspondently. And the effect imposed from economy to energy consumption was lagging. It showed that energy consumption was not a strong exogenous variable as to economy. The finding has significant implications from the point of view of energy conservation, emission reduction and economic development.

  4. Energy Efficient Smartphones: Minimizing the Energy Consumption of Smartphone GPUs using DVFS Governors

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Enas M.

    2013-05-15

    Modern smartphones are being designed with increasing processing power, memory capacity, network communication, and graphics performance. Although all of these features are enriching and expanding the experience of a smartphone user, they are significantly adding an overhead on the limited energy of the battery. This thesis aims at enhancing the energy efficiency of modern smartphones and increasing their battery life by minimizing the energy consumption of smartphones Graphical Processing Unit (GPU). Smartphone operating systems are becoming fully hardware-accelerated, which implies relying on the GPU power for rendering all application graphics. In addition, the GPUs installed in smartphones are becoming more and more powerful by the day. This raises an energy consumption concern. We present a novel implementation of GPU Scaling Governors, a Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) scheme implemented in the Android kernel to dynamically scale the GPU. The scheme includes four main governors: Performance, Powersave, Ondmand, and Conservative. Unlike previous studies which looked into the power efficiency of mobile GPUs only through simulation and power estimations, we have implemented our approach on a real modern smartphone GPU, and acquired actual energy measurements using an external power monitor. Our results show that the energy consumption of smartphones can be reduced up to 15% using the Conservative governor in 2D rendering mode, and up to 9% in 3D rendering mode, with minimal effect on the performance.

  5. Energy drinks: what is all the hype? The dangers of energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Mandy

    2012-02-01

    To describe the adverse effects associated with energy drink consumption among adolescents and young adults. Review of literature utilizing Medscape, the Internet, MD Consult, and CINAHL. The following search terms were used: Energy drinks, caffeine, guarana, taurine, ginseng, sugar, and caffeine toxicity. Search was limited to English language sources from 2005 to 2010. The popularity of energy drinks and the rapid growth of their excessive consumption among adolescents and young adults have brought about great concern in regards to overall health and well-being. Caffeine, which is readily available to minors, is the most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world and imposes a potentially harmful influence on health, academic performance, and personal adjustments. Teens and young adults account for nearly $2.3 billion of energy drink sales. Adolescents and young adults are often unaware that various products, such as energy drinks, herbal medications, and various other medications that promote alertness, contain caffeine. When these products are taken together, caffeine toxicity and severe adverse effects can occur. Practitioners need to be aware of the consequences of energy drink consumption and be prepared to provide appropriate patient education. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  6. Car taxes and energy consumption. Impact on energy consumption from tax reductions on passenger cars; Bilafgifter og energiforbrug. Energimaessige effekter af afgiftslempelser for personbiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedebye, H.; Engelund, P.; Gravesen, R.; Vestergaard, L. (Tetraplan A/S (DK))

    2008-03-15

    The report describes results from the project 'Impact on energy consumption from tax reductions on specific types of passenger cars. The aim of the project is to evaluate the possibilities for reducing energy consumption, and hereby the CO2 emissions, for transport through differentiated purchase tax on passenger cars. Two schemes have been studied, which respectively favour energy efficient cars and passenger cars converted into vans. The study includes interviews, a questionnaire and analyses of register data. (BA)

  7. Industrial relocation and energy consumption: Evidence from China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Xiaoli, E-mail: email99zxl@vip.sina.co [School of Economics and Business, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Erb Institute for Global Sustainable Enterprise, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Yin Haitao, E-mail: htyin@sjtu.edu.c [Antai College of Economics and Management, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200052 (China); Erb Institute for Global Sustainable Enterprise, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    With economic development and the change of industrial structure, industrial relocation is an inevitable trend. In the process of industrial relocation, environmental externality and social cost could occur due to market failure and government failure. Little attention has been paid to this issue. In this paper, we address it with a theoretical analysis and an empirical investigation on the relationship between China's industrial relocation in the early 1990s and energy consumption which is the primary source of CO{sub 2} emission, an environmental externality that causes increasing concerns. The macro-policy analysis suggests that there would be a positive link between China's industrial relocation in the early 1990s and energy saving (and environmental externalities reduction). Using fixed-effect regression model and simulation method, we provide an empirical support to this argument. In order to further reduce environmental externalities and social cost in the process of industrial relocation, we provide policy suggestions as follows: First, strengthen the evaluation of environmental benefits/costs; Second, pay more attention to the coordinated social-economic development; Third, avoid long-lived investment in high-carbon infrastructure in areas with industries moved in; Fourth, address employment issue in the areas with industries moved out. - Research highlights: {yields} Little attention has been paid to the linkage between industrial relocation and environmental externality. {yields} Our macro-policy analysis suggests that there would be a positive link between China's industrial relocation in the early 1990s and energy saving (and environmental externalities reduction). {yields} Using fixed-effect regression model and simulation method, we find a positive link between China's industrial relocation in the early 1990s and energy saving. {yields} Policy suggestions to further reduce environmental externalities and social cost in the process

  8. Energy consumption and economic growth. New insights into the cointegration relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belke, Ansgar; Dreger, Christian; Haan, Frauke de

    2010-07-01

    This paper examines the long-run relationship between energy consumption and real GDP, including energy prices, for 25 OECD countries from 1981 to 2007. The distinction between common factors and idiosyncratic components using principal component analysis allows to distinguish between developments on an international and a national level as drivers of the long-run relationship. Indeed, cointegration between the common components of the underlying variables indicates that international developments dominate the long-run relationship between energy consumption and real GDP. Furthermore, the results suggest that energy consumption is price-inelastic. Causality tests indicate the presence of a bi-directional causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. (orig.)

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM A STRUCTURAL BREAK ANALYSIS FOR TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Dumrul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the aim was to investigate empirically the role of energy consumption in economic growth for the Turkish economy. The data used include annual energy consumption and economic growth series from 1960 to 2008. We used aggregate as well as various disaggregate data on energy consumption, including, oil, electricity, coal and renewable energy. Our contribution is that we take a structural breaks modeling approach in this paper. In the literature, the Kejriwal cointegration test has not been applied to date. The main conclusion of the study was that Turkey’s energy consumption and economic growth has a positive relationship varying quantity with structural breaks.

  10. EVALUATION OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Dąbrowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption during waste water treatment is a very important factor affecting food industry plants. Apart from highly efficient treatment of dairy and meat sewage, a low energy consumption is required in order to lower its costs. During the research period parameters of raw and treated sewage were tested (BOD, COD, N-total, P-total. Also, the energy consumption from selected processes as well as total consumption were measured. Indicators of energy consumption per m3 and removed load were calculated. It was found that biological treatment and aeration played the main role in energy consumption in both objects. It was respectively 40 and 47% for Bielmlek and JBB plants. The second biggest energy consuming stage of treatment in both objects was sludge processing. Energy required to process excessive sludge equaled 30% of the total energy usage in both plants. Energy consumption factors related to hydraulic flow gave results in the range from 2,05 to 3,3 kWhm-3 and from 2,72 to 3,23 kWhm-3 for Bielmlek and JBB plants respectively. The research will be continued in order to optimize energy consumption while retaining high efficiency treatment in food industry WWTPs. Finally a mathematical model will be prepared for optimizing energy consumption in food industry WWTPs.

  11. Analysis of Factors Contributing to Changes in Energy Consumption in Tangshan City between 2007 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialing Zou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the correlations between energy consumption and the factors that control usage in the city of Tangshan. To do this, we first analyze the current status of Tangshan’s economic development and energy consumption, and then applied the logarithmic mean Divisia index to identify the factors affecting the changes in energy consumption of all sectors. The findings are summarized as follows: (1 secondary industry accounts for an extremely high percentage of industry in Tangshan city, much higher than the national average; from 2007 to 2012, the proportion of secondary industry increased in Tangshan city; (2 Tangshan’s energy consumption in 2013 was nearly twice that in 2005. Coal and coke coal consumption was responsible for 96.2% of total energy consumption in 2005 and 95.1% in 2013; (3 Tangshan’s energy intensity decreased from 3.00 tce/thousand Yuan in 2005 to 1.85 tce/thousand Yuan in 2013. However, the energy intensity of Tangshan was far more than the average for China, and the decline in Tangshan’s energy intensity was much slower than the average for China; (4 The technical effect plays a dominant role in decreasing energy consumption in most sectors, and the scale effect is the most important contributor to increasing energy consumption in all sectors. Input structural and final use structural effects play different roles in energy consumption in different sectors.

  12. Germany: primary energy consumption in 2002; Primaerenergieverbrauch in Deutschland 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-03-01

    The consumption of primary energy in Germany in 2002 has declined clearly compared to the level in the year before. It amounted to 487.8 million TCE, which is 1.9% less than the 498.5 million TCE of 2001. The development is mainly due to the economic slump and to the milder weather, with higher ambient temperatures, than in 2001. On the basis of 0.2% overall economic growth, the energy productivity of the economy improved by 0.8%. It was clearly lower than over the average of the period 1991 to 2001, where it had been 1.4%. Unlike the consumption of primary energy, gross electricity consumption increased slightly along with the gross domestic product, reaching approx. 582,0 billion kWh, which is approx. 1 billion kWh above the approx. 581.0 billion kWh of 2001. While 2001 still showed an export balance of approx. 1.3 billion kWh, 2002 shows an import balance of 0.7 billion kWh. After a clear drop in the second half of 2001, oil prices picked up in 2002, especially as a result of the threat of a war in Iraq. The world market price of (Brent) crude oil was approx. 55% higher in December 2002 than it had been in late 2001; the shift in the Euro-Dollar exchange rate in favor of the Euro reduced this impact on import prices to a level of approx. +33%. Unlike oil, the import prices of natural gas were lower than those in 2001 throughout the past year. Also the prices of imported coal dropped significantly. Electricity prices continued to rise sharply, partly also as a consequence of energy policy measures. (orig.) [German] Der Primaerenergieverbrauch in Deutschland ist im Jahre 2002 gegenueber dem Vorjahr deutlich gesunken. Er lag mit 488,5 Mio. t SKE um 1,9% niedriger als 2001 mit 497,8 Mio. t. SKE. Diese Entwicklung ist im Wesentlichen auf die schwache Konjunktur und auf die gegenueber 2001 mildere Witterung mit hoeheren Umgebungstemperaturen zurueckzufuehren. Die Energieproduktivitaet der Volkswirtschaft hat sich bei einem gesamtwirtschaftlichen Wachstum von 0,2% im

  13. 78 FR 61813 - National Energy Action Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ... families and our businesses' bottom lines, and it reflects our economy's outsized demand for oil. To... made by recommitting to increasing our energy security, strengthening our economy, combatting climate..., save money for consumers, and use our resources to create good American jobs. A clean energy...

  14. The analysis of energy consumption of a commercial building in Tianjin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Jing [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)], E-mail: zhaojing@tju.edu.cn; Zhu Neng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wu Yong [Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100835 (China)

    2009-06-15

    According to statistics and field investigation, the energy consumption situation and reality of commercial building is described in this paper. As the first step of large-scale public building energy efficiency supervision system encouraged by central government of China, the energy consumption of several typical commercial buildings and public buildings was analyzed in detail. The main contents of investigation are as follows: basic information of building, operational record of energy consumption equipment, energy consumption of indoor equipments, energy-efficiency assessment of energy consumption systems and equipments, investigation of behavior energy saving, etc. On this basis further analysis and diagnosis including indoor thermal and humid environment, operation state of air-conditioning water system, operation state of air-conditioning duct system and operation management of air-conditioning system were implemented. The results show that the most energy consumption of buildings in this city is commercial buildings, which can reach to about 240 W/m{sup 2} per year. Further analysis tells that air conditioning systems play the major role of building energy consumption, and building energy saving has great potential in this city. In this paper, the ways of diagnosis work for building energy consumption are also described and discussed. Reasonable test, diagnosis and analysis are meaningful for building energy efficiency retrofit and management.

  15. The analysis of energy consumption of a commercial building in Tianjin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jing; Zhu, Neng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wu, Yong [Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100835 (China)

    2009-06-15

    According to statistics and field investigation, the energy consumption situation and reality of commercial building is described in this paper. As the first step of large-scale public building energy efficiency supervision system encouraged by central government of China, the energy consumption of several typical commercial buildings and public buildings was analyzed in detail. The main contents of investigation are as follows: basic information of building, operational record of energy consumption equipment, energy consumption of indoor equipments, energy-efficiency assessment of energy consumption systems and equipments, investigation of behavior energy saving, etc. On this basis further analysis and diagnosis including indoor thermal and humid environment, operation state of air-conditioning water system, operation state of air-conditioning duct system and operation management of air-conditioning system were implemented. The results show that the most energy consumption of buildings in this city is commercial buildings, which can reach to about 240 W/m{sup 2} per year. Further analysis tells that air conditioning systems play the major role of building energy consumption, and building energy saving has great potential in this city. In this paper, the ways of diagnosis work for building energy consumption are also described and discussed. Reasonable test, diagnosis and analysis are meaningful for building energy efficiency retrofit and management. (author)

  16. Energy consumption and conservation, evaluation; Consommation et economies d'energie, un tour d'horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C

    2006-04-15

    The energy consumption is increasing of more than 1% each year. It is necessary to slow down this growth and much better to inverse it. Observing the main consumption posts, energy saving is possible at short dated for the residential sector and medium and long dated for the transports and the industry. Anyway the individual behaviors are essential. The author presents the situation for each posts, providing data on the energy consumption and saving and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  17. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  18. Indoor environmental quality and energy consumption relation in offices: case study of two offices in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashrafian, Touraj; Moazzen Ferdos, Nazanin [Islamic Azad University Tabriz branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: t.ashrafian@gmail.com, email: moazzen_arch@yahoo.com; Haghlesan, Masoud [Islamic Azad University, Ilkhichi Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: mhaghlesan@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays, most people spend more than 90% of their time indoors, therefore the quality of the indoor environment has a significant impact on human health. However, improving indoor environment quality (IEQ) requires a higher energy consumption through increasing lighting, heating and cooling. The aim of this study is to determine an appropriate level of IEQ with the least energy consumption possible. The relation between energy consumption and IEQ in 2 offices in Iran has been studied through the use of questionnaires and simulations. It was found that IEQ has a great impact on workers' productivity and that diminishing the energy consumption does not necessarily translate into economic benefits. In addition it was found that lighting and heating are the main sources of energy consumption and that noise and light are what most influence worker productivity. This study highlighted the relation between energy consumption and IEQ and pointed out the most important factors.

  19. Planning national oil consumption: applying the 'soft landing' guideline of energy consumption structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yinghong; Wang, Daofu; Li, Chencheng; Su, Jin

    2010-09-15

    The world energy is enough, but the world supply and demand of oil has reached the tight balance. So, as more and more emerging economic entities and export states plan respective energy consumption or production sporadically, the conflict between nationalism and globalization will challenge to the long term energy stability. The solution will be substituting and utilizing energy in proper order. For this purpose, 'world energy ecological environment' and 'yielding point in energy competition' should be used. Specifically, by the order, China's natural gas industry should be utilized and accelerated to ensure the stable economic development of China.

  20. Food Consumption Patterns among U.S. Children from Birth to 23 Months of Age, 2009–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather C. Hamner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Early dietary patterns can have long-term health consequences. This study describes food consumption patterns among US children ≤23 months. We used one 24 h dietary recall from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2014 to estimate the percentage of children ≤23 months who consumed selected food/beverage categories on any given day by age and race/Hispanic origin. Among 0 to 5 month olds, 42.9% (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 37.0%, 49.1% consumed breast milk, with non-Hispanic blacks less likely (21.2%, 95% CI: 13.2%, 32.2% compared with non-Hispanic whites (49.0%, 95% CI: 39.0%, 59.1% (p < 0.001. The percentage of children consuming vegetables was 57.4%, 48.2%, and 45.1% for ages 6 to 11, 12 to 18 and 19 to 23 months, respectively (p < 0.01 for trend. The percentage of children consuming sugar-sweetened beverages was 6.6%, 31.8% and 38.3% for ages 6 to 11, 12 to 18 and 19 to 23 months, respectively (p < 0.01 for trend. Among children aged ≥6 months, lower percentages of non-Hispanic black and Hispanic children consumed vegetables, and higher percentages consumed sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% juice compared with non-Hispanic white children, although differences were not always statistically significant. Compared with children in the second year of life, a higher percentage of children 6 to 11 months of age consumed vegetables and a lower percentage consumed 100% juice, sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks, or sweets; with differences by race/Hispanic origin. These data may be relevant to the upcoming 2020–2025 federal dietary guidelines.

  1. Energy consumption and economic growth in New Zealand. Results of trivariate and multivariate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartleet, Matthew; Gounder, Rukmani [Department of Economics and Finance, Massey University, Palmerston North (New Zealand)

    2010-07-15

    This study examines the energy consumption-growth nexus in New Zealand. Causal linkages between energy and macroeconomic variables are investigated using trivariate demand-side and multivariate production models. Long run and short run relationships are estimated for the period 1960-2004. The estimated results of demand model reveal a long run relationship between energy consumption, real GDP and energy prices. The short run results indicate that real GDP Granger-causes energy consumption without feedback, consistent with the proposition that energy demand is a derived demand. Energy prices are found to be significant for energy consumption outcomes. Production model results indicate a long run relationship between real GDP, energy consumption and employment. The Granger-causality is found from real GDP to energy consumption, providing additional evidence to support the neoclassical proposition that energy consumption in New Zealand is fundamentally driven by economic activities. Inclusion of capital in the multivariate production model shows short run causality from capital to energy consumption. Also, changes in real GDP and employment have significant predictive power for changes in real capital. (author)

  2. Energy consumption and economic growth in New Zealand: Results of trivariate and multivariate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartleet, Matthew [Department of Economics and Finance, Massey University, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Gounder, Rukmani, E-mail: R.Gounder@massey.ac.n [Department of Economics and Finance, Massey University, Palmerston North (New Zealand)

    2010-07-15

    This study examines the energy consumption-growth nexus in New Zealand. Causal linkages between energy and macroeconomic variables are investigated using trivariate demand-side and multivariate production models. Long run and short run relationships are estimated for the period 1960-2004. The estimated results of demand model reveal a long run relationship between energy consumption, real GDP and energy prices. The short run results indicate that real GDP Granger-causes energy consumption without feedback, consistent with the proposition that energy demand is a derived demand. Energy prices are found to be significant for energy consumption outcomes. Production model results indicate a long run relationship between real GDP, energy consumption and employment. The Granger-causality is found from real GDP to energy consumption, providing additional evidence to support the neoclassical proposition that energy consumption in New Zealand is fundamentally driven by economic activities. Inclusion of capital in the multivariate production model shows short run causality from capital to energy consumption. Also, changes in real GDP and employment have significant predictive power for changes in real capital.

  3. Energy consumption and GDP in Turkey : Is there a co-integration relationship?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montfort, van K.; Lise, W.

    2007-01-01

    Energy consumption and GDP are expected to grow by 5.9% and 7% annually until 2025 in Turkey. This paper tries to unfold the linkage between energy consumption and GDP by undertaking a co-integration analysis for Turkey with annual data over the period 1970-2003. The analysis shows that energy

  4. Energy consumption and GDP in Turkey : Is there a co-integration relationship?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montfort, van K.; Lise, W.

    2007-01-01

    Energy consumption and GDP are expected to grow by 5.9% and 7% annually until 2025 in Turkey. This paper tries to unfold the linkage between energy consumption and GDP by undertaking a co-integration analysis for Turkey with annual data over the period 1970-2003. The analysis shows that energy consu

  5. Energy consumption of electric systems compared with fuel-fired systems. Advantage of energy measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betray, A.; Delabby, P.; Mannoni, P.; Sola, J.

    1981-06-01

    Growth of the applications of electricity for heating purposes is often impeded by habits and preconceived ideas. However, in spite of a rather poor efficiency at the generating stage (Carnot's principle) electric processes are economic and save both raw materials and prime energy. The initial handicap of a low efficiency of electricity generating plants is offset by the efficiencies achievable in actual practice with electrically operated equipment. The comparative analysis of electric and fuel-fired equipment calls for complex measurements (energy and raw material consumptions...). Though expensive these measurements are instrumental in saving energy and may in the medium-range lead to a new plant design.

  6. Comparison of Real World Energy Consumption to Models and Department of Energy Test Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Kar, Rahul [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Foley, Kevin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the real-world energy performance of appliances and equipment as it compared with models and test procedures. The study looked to determine whether the U.S. Department of Energy and industry test procedures actually replicate real world conditions, whether performance degrades over time, and whether installation patterns and procedures differ from the ideal procedures. The study first identified and prioritized appliances to be evaluated. Then, the study determined whether real world energy consumption differed substantially from predictions and also assessed whether performance degrades over time. Finally, the study recommended test procedure modifications and areas for future research.

  7. Energy Consumption and Indoor Climate Measurements in New Low-Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Ove; Andersen, Karen Holmegaard; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    by the Municipality of Egedal/Denmark, for the CONCERTO community. This means that the energy consumption is 50% below the energy requirements set by the Danish Building Regulation of 2008 (reference). 65 apartments and about 50 single-family houses were constructed. Due to the financial crisis, about 240 new...... project used the requirements to low-energy buildings as a driving force for the technological development of 6 different key building components/technologies: windows, slab and foundation insulation systems, bio-mass gasification, local district heating distribution networks, ventilation heat recovery...

  8. The energy consumption-GDP nexus: Panel data evidence from 88 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Dipendra

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses panel data from 88 countries to examine the relationship between per capita GDP and per capita energy consumption. The results show that per capita GDP and per capita energy consumption are cointegrated. Also, there is a two-way short-run, long-run and strong causality between the growth of GDP and growth of energy consumption. These results are in contrast to almost all other existing studies.

  9. Does Energy Consumption Volatility Affect Real GDP Volatility? An Empirical Analysis for the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rashid; Ozge Kandemir Kocaaslan

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the relation between energy consumption volatility and unpredictable variations in real gross domestic product (GDP) in the UK. Estimating the Markov switching ARCH model we find a significant regime switching in the behavior of both energy consumption and GDP volatility. The results from the Markov regime-switching model show that the variability of energy consumption has a significant role to play in determining the behavior of GDP volatilities. Moreover, the...

  10. Predicting alcohol consumption during the month before and after beginning college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stout Robert L

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to determine predictors of drinking the month before and after beginning college, as well as changes in drinking between these two periods among adjudicated students. We conducted these analyses to inform individual and university-wide approaches to addressing underage drinking, particularly among the heaviest drinkers. Methods The sample consisted of 143 students entering college, adjudicated during their first semester, and interviewed during the same semester. The sample consisted of 43% women. Drinking data were collected through the Time-Line Follow-Back interview. Results The average number of drinking days (DD during the first month of college was 7.0 (SD = 4.7, the average number of drinks per drinking day (DDD was 7.4 (SD = 3.4, and the average volume of standard drink units consumed during this month was 56.3 (SD = 51.2. Students had volunteered for a two-year college facilitation study, and had been invited to participate after receiving a citation for violating university alcohol policies. Analyses consisted of nine backward elimination regression analyses with nine variables entered as predictors (one was a control variable. Age of first intoxication was related to every dependent measure. Men had a higher August DDD, September DDD, and September volume than women. Roommate drinking level was associated with September DDD and September volume. Out-of-state students had a lower August volume than in-state students. High school rank was inversely related to September drinking days. SAT score, declared major status, and fraternity/sorority status were not related to drinking according to these multivariate analyses. Conclusions Results suggest that approaches to underage drinking for adjudicated students may need to be tailored according to age of first intoxication. Results also suggest the drinking level of the heaviest drinking roommate may moderate individual level interventions. Further, interventions

  11. Energy balance of chosen crops and their potential to saturate energy consumption in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Hrčková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to assess and compare energy inputs and outputs of various crop managements in 2011–2012. Two main crops on arable land and three permanent grasslands were investigated. Silage maize (Zea mays L. and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were grown on lowland, whilst two semi-natural grasslands and grassland infested by tufted hair-grass (Deschampsia caespitose (L. P. Beauv were located in mountainous regions of Slovakia. In these crops and grasslands the dry matter yield was measured and subsequently the supplementary energy, energy gain and unifying energy value – tonne of oil equivalent (TOE – were calculated. Silage maize with 233.37 GJ*ha-1 has provided the highest energy gain. In the group of grasslands, grassland infested by tufted hair-grass has offered the highest energy gain (59.77 GJ*ha-1. And this grassland had the lowest requirement on the supplementary energy (3.66 GJ*ha-1, contrary to silage maize with highest one (12.37 GJ*ha-1. The total energy potential of the crop biomasses was confronted with energy consumption in Slovakia. Winter wheat has the biggest energy potential, but it could cover only 19.6% and 11.3% total consumption of electricity or natural gas, respectively. Large area of permanent grasslands and their spatial location make them an important energy reservoir for bioenergy production. But, it is not possible to replace all consumed fossil fuels by bioenergy from these tested renewable energy sources.

  12. Correlates of University Students' Soft and Energy Drink Consumption According to Gender and Residency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students' soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency...

  13. New Building Principles In Consequence Of Legislative Demands For Reduced Energy Consumption In Danish Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Rasmus Zederkof; Brohus, Henrik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2006-01-01

    The increasing restrictions in coming building codes regarding energy consumption in housing generate a need to rethink the building design as well as the building process. This paper discusses the need to change/challenge the way structures are conceived in order to accommodate new legislative...... demands regarding energy consumption. More often than not sustainable aspects like the need for reduced energy consumption are implemented late in the design process. This paper investigates the affect of incorporating aspects like solar heat gain and energy consumption in the initial concept...

  14. Oil prices, nuclear energy consumption, and economic growth: New evidence using a heterogeneous panel analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chien-Chiang, E-mail: cclee@cm.nsysu.edu.t [Department of Finance, National Sun Yat-sen University Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Yi-Bin [Department of Finance, National Sun Yat-sen University Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-04-15

    This paper applies panel data analysis to examine the short-run dynamics and long-run equilibrium relationships among nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, oil consumption, and economic growth for developed countries covering the period 1971-2006. The panel cointegration results show that in the long run, oil prices have a positive impact on nuclear energy consumption, suggesting the existence of the substitution relationship between nuclear energy and oil. The long-run elasticity of nuclear energy with respect to real income is approximately 0.89, and real income has a greater impact on nuclear energy than do oil prices in the long run. Furthermore, the panel causality results find evidence of unidirectional causality running from oil prices and economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in the long run, while there is no causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in the short run. - Research highlights: {yields} We examine the relationship among nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, oil consumption, and economic growth for developed countries. {yields} The existence of the substitution relationship between nuclear energy and oil. {yields} Real income has a greater impact on nuclear energy than do oil prices in the long run. {yields} An unidirectional causality running from oil prices and economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in the long run.

  15. Comparison of Electric Vehicle’s Energy Consumption Factors for Different Road Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjian Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy-optimal route planning for electric vehicle (EV is highly required for the wide-spread use of EV, which is hindered by limited battery capacity and relative short cruising range. Obtaining the cost for each link (i.e., link energy consumption in road networks plays a key role in energy-optimal route planning process. The link energy consumption depends mainly on energy consumption factor, which is related to not only vehicle speed but also road type. This study aims to analyze the difference of EV’s energy consumption factors for different road types. According to the floating car data (FCD collected from the road network in Beijing, the vehicle specific power (VSP distributions under different average travel speeds for different road types are analyzed firstly, and then the EV’s energy consumption rates under different VSP-Bins are calculated. By using VSP as an intermediate variable, EV’s energy consumption factor models for different road types are established and the difference of EV’s energy consumption factors is analyzed. The results show that road type-based energy consumption factor should be used in EV’s energy-optimal route planning process.

  16. Energy Consumption of ADU/VDU in China and Measures for Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiZhiguo

    2003-01-01

    The present status of energy consumption ofADU (Atmospheric Distillation Unit)/VDU (VacuumDistillation Unit) in China is discussed, the major problems, such as low end temperature of heat exchange,low heater efficiency, high fuel consumption, and large consumption of water, electricity and steam areanalyzed, and measures for improvement are proposed.

  17. Interpreting the dynamic nexus between energy consumption and economic growth: Empirical evidence from Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuejun, E-mail: zyjmis@126.co [School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology (BIT), 5 South Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China) and Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Research on the nexus between energy consumption and economic growth is a fundamental topic for energy policy making and low-carbon economic development. Russia proves the third largest energy consumption country in the world in recent years, while little research has shed light upon its energy consumption issue till now, especially its energy-growth nexus. Therefore, this paper empirically investigates the dynamic nexus of the two variables in Russia based on the state space model. The results indicate that, first of all, Russia's energy consumption is cointegrated with its economic growth in a time-varying way though they do not have static or average cointegration relationship. Hence it is unsuitable to merely portrait the nexus in an average manner. Second, ever since the year of 2000, Russia's energy efficiency has achieved much more promotion compared with that in previous decades, mainly due to the industrial structure adjustment and technology progress. Third, among BRIC countries, the consistency of Russia's energy consumption and economic growth appears the worst, which suggests the complexity of energy-growth nexus in Russia. Finally, there exists bi-directional causality between Russia's energy consumption and economic growth, though their quantitative proportional relation does not have solid foundation according to the cointegration theory. - Research highlights: {yields}This study investigates the dynamic nexus of energy consumption and economic growth in Russia. {yields} Russia's energy consumption is cointegrated with its economic growth in a time-varying way though they do not have static or average cointegration relationship. {yields} Ever since 2000, Russia's energy efficiency has achieved much more promotion compared with that in previous decades. {yields} Among BRIC countries, the consistency of Russia's energy consumption and economic growth appears the worst. {yields} There exists bi-directional causality

  18. Comparison and Evolution of Energy Consumption in Moroccan Agro-food Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Badaoui, Meryem; Touzani, Abdellatif

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this article is to establish a comparison between the Moroccan energy consumption and the BREF the reference document on best available techniques in the food industries, then an evolution of this consumption by 2030 in order to better understand it and to define strategies to reduce energy bill. According to a survey conducted among 5000 Moroccan companies, we were able to compare the energy consumption of the agro-food industries including sugar industry, dairy industry, cereal industry; fatty substances industry and fishing industry with that of the BREF. Also an evolution of Moroccan consumption was established by 2030 using the linear regression method, and then calculated a non-negligible average annual growth rate (AAGR). The results show that the Moroccan energy consumption is adequate to that of the BREF, and an energy consumption constantly increasing by registering a non-negligible AAGR.

  19. DEA Efficiency of Energy Consumption in China’s Manufacturing Sectors with Environmental Regulation Policy Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Because overall energy consumption intensity in China’s manufacturing industry is extremely high, the study of energy efficiency in that industry, with an analysis of the policy impacts of energy intensity reduction and other key factors, will no doubt improve energy utilization in the industry and stimulate sustainable development within it. This paper uses 2004–2014 panel data of 28 manufacturing industries and a piecewise linear utility function to construct a data envelopment analysis (DEA model of energy consumption with environmental regulations constraints. We also examine the DEA evaluation of energy efficiency in manufacturing industries. We integrate environmental regulations as qualitative variables into the energy consumption evaluation model to research the coupling effects on energy consumption intensity of energy consumption structure, opening up, environmental regulations, technological progress, and competition within industries. The research shows that energy efficiency policy intensity is not the major effect on the development of low or moderate energy-consumption industries, whereas low-energy-efficiency policy is very favorable for the development of high energy-consumption industries.

  20. Environmental knowledge and attitudes and behaviours towards energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paço, Arminda; Lavrador, Tânia

    2017-07-15

    Numerous investigations have arisen in order to study and characterise environmentally friendly consumer profiles, with some authors applying the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and behaviour to this end. The present research approach, based upon the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), seeks to verify the existence of relationships between knowledge and attitudes and between knowledge and environmental behaviour. In this instance, data collection involved a questionnaire aimed at assessing the overall environmental knowledge of respondents as well as their attitudes and behaviours regarding energy issues (savings, consumption, interest, use). The results pointed to the lack of relationship between knowledge and attitudes, and between knowledge and behaviour whilst the relationship between attitudes and behaviour proved to be only weak. The results also found that males, older students and those studying Engineering and the Social and Human Sciences are those reporting higher levels of environmental knowledge. However, when it comes to attitudes and behaviours, females seem to display more awareness around these issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 75 FR 62305 - National Energy Awareness Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ..., and our environment. Over the last year and a half, we have taken unprecedented action to build a.... As a Nation of scientists and engineers, farmers and entrepreneurs, we must continue to invest in...-leading industries, and find lasting solutions to our energy challenges. If we seize this moment, we...

  2. Milking systems and milking robots. Insight in energy consumption; Melksystemen en melkrobots. Inzicht in energiegebruik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wientjes, H.; Rougoor, C. [DLV Rundvee Advies, Uden (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    Insight is given in the energy consumption during milking and how much energy can be saved. The goal is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, produce renewable energy and the minimization of energy consumption in the dairy industry [Dutch] Inzicht wordt gegeven in het energieverbruik bij de melkwinning en de vraag welke energiebesparing hierbij nog haalbaar is. Het doel is vermindering van de uitstoot van broeikasgassen, productie van duurzame energie en de minimalisatie van het energieverbruik in de melkveehouderij.

  3. Consumption of Energy Drinks Among Lebanese Youth: A Pilot Study on the Prevalence and Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar,; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab ,Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Background: The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. Objectives: This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. Patients and Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged...

  4. Consumption of Energy Drinks Among Lebanese Youth: A Pilot Study on the Prevalence and Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar,; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Background: The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. Objectives: This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. Patients and Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged...

  5. Causality between Energy Consumption and GDP: Evidence from 30 OECD and 78 Non-OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jaruwan Chontanawat; Hunt, Lester C.; Richard Pierse

    2006-01-01

    Energy arguably plays a vital role in economic development. Hence many studies have attempted to test for causality between energy and economic growth; however, no consensus has emerged. This paper, therefore, tests for causality between energy and GDP using a consistent data set and methodology for 30 OECD and 78 non-OECD countries. Causality from aggregate energy consumption to GDP and GDP to energy consumption is found to be more prevalent in the developed OECD countries compared to the de...

  6. Nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, and economic growth: Evidence from highly industrialized countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chien-Chiang, E-mail: cclee@cm.nsysu.edu.tw; Chiu, Yi-Bin

    2011-03-15

    This study utilizes the Johansen cointegration technique, the Granger non-causality test of Toda and Yamamoto (1995), the generalized impulse response function, and the generalized forecast error variance decomposition to examine the dynamic interrelationship among nuclear energy consumption, real oil price, oil consumption, and real income in six highly industrialized countries for the period 1965-2008. Our empirical results indicate that the relationships between nuclear energy consumption and oil are as substitutes in the U.S. and Canada, while they are complementary in France, Japan, and the U.K. Second, the long-run income elasticity of nuclear energy is larger than one, indicating that nuclear energy is a luxury good. Third, the results of the Granger causality test find evidence of unidirectional causality running from real income to nuclear energy consumption in Japan. A bidirectional relationship appears in Canada, Germany and the U.K., while no causality exists in France and the U.S. We also find evidence of causality running from real oil price to nuclear energy consumption, except for the U.S., and causality running from oil consumption to nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Japan, and the U.K., suggesting that changes in price and consumption of oil influence nuclear energy consumption. Finally, the results observe transitory initial impacts of innovations in real income and oil consumption on nuclear energy consumption. In the long run the impact of real oil price is relatively larger compared with that of real income on nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Germany, Japan, and the U.S.

  7. [Energy Consumption Comparison and Energy Saving Approaches for Different Wastewater Treatment Processes in a Large-scale Reclaimed Water Plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Li, Ya-ming; Wei, Yuan-song; Lü, Jian; Yu, Da-wei; Liu, Ji-bao; Fan, Yao-bo

    2015-06-01

    Energy consumption is the main performance indicator of reclaimed water plant (RWP) operation. Methods of specific energy consumption analysis, unit energy consumption analysis and redundancy analysis were applied to investigate the composition and spatio-temporal distribution of energy consumption in Qinghe RWP with inverted A2/O, A2/O and A2/O-MBR processes. And the A2/ O-MBR process was mainly analyzed to identify the main nodes and causes for high energy consumption, approaches for energy saving were explored, and the energy consumption before and after upgrading for energy saving was compared. The results showed that aeration was the key factor affecting energy consumption in both conventional and A2/O-MBR processes, accounting for 42.97% and 50.65% of total energy consumption, respectively. A pulsating aeration allowed an increasing membrane flux and remarkably reduced the energy consumption of the A2/O-MBR process while still meeting the effluent standard, e.g., the membrane flux was increased by 20%, and the energy consumptions per kiloton wastewater and kilogram COD(removed) were decreased by 42.39% to 0.53 kW-h-kg-3 and by 54.74% to 1.29 kW x h x kg(-1), respectively. The decrease of backflow ratio in the A2/O-MBR process within a certain range would not deteriorate the effluent quality due to its insignificant correlation with the effluent quality, and therefore may be considered as one of the ways for further energy saving.

  8. CO{sub 2} emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China: A panel data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.S.; Zhou, D.Q. [College of Economics and Management, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Research Centre for Soft Energy Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Zhou, P., E-mail: cemzp@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Economics and Management, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Research Centre for Soft Energy Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Q.W. [Research Centre for Soft Energy Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); School of Business, Soochow University, 50 Donghuan Road, Suzhou 215021 (China)

    2011-09-15

    This paper examines the causal relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and real economic output using panel cointegration and panel vector error correction modeling techniques based on the panel data for 28 provinces in China over the period 1995-2007. Our empirical results show that CO{sub 2} emissions, energy consumption and economic growth have appeared to be cointegrated. Moreover, there exists bidirectional causality between CO{sub 2} emissions and energy consumption, and also between energy consumption and economic growth. It has also been found that energy consumption and economic growth are the long-run causes for CO{sub 2} emissions and CO{sub 2} emissions and economic growth are the long-run causes for energy consumption. The results indicate that China's CO{sub 2} emissions will not decrease in a long period of time and reducing CO{sub 2} emissions may handicap China's economic growth to some degree. Some policy implications of the empirical results have finally been proposed. - Highlights: > We conduct a panel data analysis of the energy-CO{sub 2}-economy nexus in China. > CO{sub 2} emissions, energy use and economic growth appear to be cointegrated. > There exists bidirectional causality between energy consumption and economic growth. > Energy consumption and economic growth are the long-run causes for CO{sub 2} emissions.

  9. Analysis of electric energy consumption of automatic milking systems in different configurations and operative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcante, Aldo; Tangorra, Francesco M; Oberti, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) have been a revolutionary innovation in dairy cow farming. Currently, more than 10,000 dairy cow farms worldwide use AMS to milk their cows. Electric consumption is one of the most relevant and uncontrollable operational cost of AMS, ranging between 35 and 40% of their total annual operational costs. The aim of the present study was to measure and analyze the electric energy consumption of 4 AMS with different configurations: single box, central unit featuring a central vacuum system for 1 cow unit and for 2 cow units. The electrical consumption (daily consumption, daily consumption per cow milked, consumption per milking, and consumption per 100L of milk) of each AMS (milking unit + air compressor) was measured using 2 energy analyzers. The measurement period lasted 24h with a sampling frequency of 0.2Hz. The daily total energy consumption (milking unit + air compressor) ranged between 45.4 and 81.3 kWh; the consumption per cow milked ranged between 0.59 and 0.99 kWh; the consumption per milking ranged between 0.21 and 0.33 kWh; and the consumption per 100L of milk ranged between 1.80 to 2.44 kWh according to the different configurations and operational contexts considered. Results showed that AMS electric consumption was mainly conditioned by farm management rather than machine characteristics/architectures. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN CUTTING PROCESS OF COMPONENT BILLET SURFACE ON ANALYSIS BASIS FOR ENERGY-CONSUMPTION INDICES OF TECHNOLOGICAL EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Adamenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains investigation results and proposes a method for calculation of optimum cutting rate. The method takes into account energy-consumption indices of technological equipment that permits to improve technological energy efficiency of cutting process.

  11. Analysis of energy consumption in lowland rice-based cropping system of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Chee Wan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient energy is needed in the right form and at the right time for adequate crop production. One way to optimize energy consumption in agriculture is to determine the efficiency of methods and techniques used. With the current increase in world population, energy consumption needs effective planning. That is, the input elements need to be identified in order to prescribe the most efficient methods for controlling them. This study was undertaken in order to determine the direct and indirect energy consumption of field operations in a lowland rice production system of Malaysia. Field time, fuel and other energy requirements were measured for the tillage, planting, fertilizing, spraying and harvesting operations performed. Energy analysis carried out revealed the highest average operational energy consumption was for tillage (1747.33 MJ ha-1 which accounted for about 48.6% of the total operational energy consumption (3595.87 MJ ha-1, followed by harvesting (1171.44 MJ ha-1, 32.6% and planting (562.91 MJ ha-1, 15.7%. Fertilizing and pesticide spraying did not make any significant contributions to the operational energy consumption. Based on energy sources, fuel was the main consumer of direct energy with 2717.82 MJha-1 (22.2%, and fertilizer recording the highest indirect energy consumption of 7721.03 MJha-1 (63.2%. Human labour, pesticides, seeds and indirect energy for machinery use had marginal importance, contributing only 0.2%, 0.6%, 6.8% and 6.9%, respectively to the total energy consumption (12225.97 MJha-1. Average grain yield was 6470.8 kg ha-1, representing energy output of 108321.75 MJha-1, that is, 96095.78 MJ net energy gain or 8.86 MJ output per MJ input. Energy input per kilogram grain yield was 1.89 MJkg-1. The results of the study indicate energy gain in the lowland rice production system of Malaysia.

  12. Spatial Configuration of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emissions of Shanghai, and Our Policy Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kexi Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research constructs a 1 km × 1 km Shanghai energy consumption and carbon emission spatial grid through a bottom-up approach. First, we locate all energy consumption locations in Shanghai via GIS. Second, we calculate energy consumption and associated CO2 emissions by energy type, by usage type, and by facilities. Finally, we use a spatial grid to represent the energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The grid shows CO2 emissions in Shanghai are highly spatially correlated with energy types and volumes of consumption. This research also finds out that high energy consumption and carbon emission locations in Shanghai display significant spatial aggregation. In 7209 spatial energy consumption cells, the top 10 grids of emissions account for 52.8% of total CO2 emissions in Shanghai; the top 20 grids account for 64.5% and the top 50 grids account for 76.5%. The most critical point emission sources are coal-fired power plants and iron and steel plants. The most important line emission sources are the Yan’an Road and Inner Ring viaducts. The area emission sources that account for the most future-projected growth are commercial and residential natural gas. After this spatial analysis, this paper makes policy suggestions and solutions to conserve energy consumption and mitigate carbon emissions in Shanghai.

  13. DOES ENERGY CONSUMPTION VOLATILITY AFFECT REAL GDP VOLATILITY? AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relation between energy consumption volatility and unpredictable variations in real gross domestic product (GDP in the UK. Estimating the Markov switching ARCH model we find a significant regime switching in the behavior of both energy consumption and GDP volatility. The results from the Markov regime-switching model show that the variability of energy consumption has a significant role to play in determining the behavior of GDP volatilities. Moreover, the results suggest that the impacts of unpredictable variations in energy consumption on GDP volatility are asymmetric, depending on the intensity of volatility. In particular, we find that while there is no significant contemporaneous relationship between energy consumption volatility and GDP volatility in the first (low-volatility regime, GDP volatility is significantly positively related to the volatility of energy utilization in the second (high-volatility regime.

  14. Impact of intersection type and a vehicular fleet's hybridization level on energy consumption and emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Boubaker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle's energy consumption and emissions are two major constraints in sustainable development. Both of them have proportionally raised in recent decades with the exponential growth of world traffic demands. The reduction of road traffic-generated energy consumption and emissions have thus become unprecedentedly challenging and worth examining. This paper investigates energy consumption and environmental problems present at roundabout and signalized intersection to analyze the impact of the hybridization level's fleet and intersection type on vehicle consumption and pollution. Instantaneous fuel consumption and emission models coupled with simulation of urban mobility (SUMO are in this study. The authors started with modeling energy consumption. Then, an emission model emissions from traffic (EMIT was implemented to quantify vehicle emissions of CO2, CO and NOx. These models help investigate the influence of intersection type on energy consumption and environmental conditions. The authors implemented a signalized intersection and roundabout using SUMO. The input data are collected from the roundabout of Sousse (Tunisia using video data collection. Since there is a lack of econometric models that emulate hybridized stream behavior near intersections, two energy consumption models for the roundabout and crossroad are developed using traffic flow and hybridization level as the input variables. Compared to crossroads, a roundabout can obtain more environmental improvements and substantial reductions in energy consumption and road traffic emissions.

  15. Prevalence and Side Effects of Energy Drink Consumption among Medical Students at Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif A. Bawazeer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks are freely available at markets and shops on the university campus without regulation or proper education regarding its side effects. The caffeine amount within energy drinks is high and could become an addictive substance or cause intoxication. Therefore, this study aims to assess the prevalence of energy drink consumption and its reported side effects among medical students. Methods:A total number of 257 medical students from Umm Al-Qura University completed a questionnaire about energy drinks that was administrated electronically from September through November, 2012. Results:Out of the 257 participants, 27.2% (n=70 reported consuming at least one energy drink per month, with 61.5% (n=48 being males. Males consume significantly more energy drinks than females (p=0.0001. The students consumed energy drinks to get energy in general (32.8% and while studying for exams or finishing a project (31.4%. Other reasons given include, lack of sleep (12.8%, just to be like friends (11.4%, or driving (8.5%. Heart palpitations are the most common side effect in our sample (20%, followed by insomnia (10%, headache and tremors (5.7%, nausea and vomiting (4.2% and nervousness (2.8%. Conclusion: Energy drinks consumption is common practice among medical students and the main reason cited for consumption is the need for energy during general activities. Approximately one-third of the consumers manifested some side effect after consumption. We recommend the need to create public awareness about energy drinks. Further studies are recommended to assess the educational level of students consuming energy drinks, about the dangerous side effects.

  16. Research on Energy Consumption Feature of Universities in Shanghai%上海市主要高校用能特性分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩磊; 王婷婷; 吴利瑞; 刘东; 胡强

    2012-01-01

    本文对上海市十七所高校的能耗数据进行统计分析,发现上海市高校单位建筑面积平均耗电量较高,远高于全国高校的平均水平;单位建筑面积耗电量前三位的建筑类型依次是:科研实验室、综合楼、图书馆。通过分析三类建筑的能耗结构和逐月耗电量,找出各自的主要分项耗电量以及能耗集中的月份,从而提出合理的节能措施,指导上海市高校节能工作。%This paper shows a statistical analysis of energy consumption in 17 universities in Shanghai,finding that the average energy consumption of unit area in Shanghai is more than that in universities of China.The top three building types of unit area energy consumption are research laboratories,integrated buildings and libraries.Through an analysis of energy consumption structure and monthly electricity consumption in three types of building,identifying the main factors of electricity consumption and the consumption centralized months,then put up reasonable energy saving measures and give guidance of energy conservation for universities in Shanghai.

  17. The frequency domain causality analysis between energy consumption and income in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviral Kumar Tiwari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated Granger-causality in the frequency domain between primary energy consumption/electricity consumption and GDP for the US by employing approach of Lemmens et al. (2008 and covering the period of January, 1973 to December, 2008. We found that causal and reverse causal relations between primary energy consumption and GDP and electricity consumption and GDP vary across frequencies. Our unique contribution in the existing literature lies in decomposing the causality on the basis of time horizons and demonstrating bidirectional the short-run, the medium-run and the long-run causality between GDP and primary energy consumption/electricity consumption and thus providing evidence for the feedback hypothesis. These results have important implications for the US for planning of the short, the medium and the long run energy and economic growth related policies.

  18. Energy Conservation Behaviour Toolkit. Incentive Mechanisms for effective decrease of energy consumption at the workplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, D.; Kalz, M.; Ternier, S.; Specht, M. [Centre for Learning Sciences and Technologies CELSTEC, Open Universiteit, Heerlen (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    The work in this project is based on a previous project (Energy Awareness Displays - Making the Invisible Visible) in which several measurement and visualization approaches have been developed to make employees more aware about energy consumption and pro-environmental behavior at the workplace. While awareness is a first important step for the decrease of energy consumption and environmental learning it is not sufficient as a means for sustainable behavior change. For this reason we have explored in the follow-up project approaches how pro-environmental behavior at the workplace can be encouraged, rewarded and sustained. For this purpose we have implemented several technological solutions and we have piloted these in form of an energy conservation game called Mindergie at the main campus of the Open University in Heerlen, Netherlands. The project is in line with an earlier identified research gap in terms of energy conservation at the workplace and uses state-of-the-art technologies for mobile gaming and rewarding of non-formal learning activities.

  19. Survey on Consumption Behaviour of Energy Drink Among University Students: Example of Afyon Kocatepe University

    OpenAIRE

    Levent Şen; Hurşit Ertuğrul Dere; İlknur Koçak Şen

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the consumption behaviour and consumption awareness of energy drink among university students. Data were collected from 750 students in Afyon Kocatepe University by questionnaire which is improved by writers of this article. Tests were done with SPSS end of the research. Chi-square tests were done in %95 confidence interval to determine the relation of consumption and awareness of energy drink among the university students with gender, age ra...

  20. Energy consumption and indoor climate in a residential building before and after comprehensive energy retrofitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen; Christen Mørck, Ove;

    2016-01-01

    Denmark is participating in IEA EBC Annex 56 “Cost Effective Energy and Carbon Emissions Optimization in Building Renovation”. This paper presents results from the housing complex Traneparken that was chosen as a Danish case for the project. It has undergone a comprehensive energy retrofit...... including new facades, new windows, additional insulation, mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and a photovoltaic installation on the roof. The measured energy consumption for heating and domestic hot water before and after renovation was 139.1 kWh/m2/year and 95.6 kWh/m2/year respectively......, and thereby the project has demonstrated that the renovation resulted in significant energy savings. Furthermore, a questionnaire survey was carried out focusing on the tenants’ overall satisfaction with the retrofitting process and the results of the retrofitting, including e.g. perceived indoor climate...

  1. Consumption dynamics of primary-energy sources: The century of alternative energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Matias, Joao Carlos de; Devezas, Tessaleno Campos [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, P-6201-001 Covilha (Portugal)

    2007-07-15

    The present article characterizes economically and socially the two past centuries, focusing the consumption development of several primary-energy sources, linking it with this century's reality. The main objective is to demonstrate the relationship between the substitution process of primary-energy sources and the socio-economic development. Our analysis focuses on four technological transformations that have already occurred, emphasizing some aspects of present technological transformations. Thus, the role of primary-energy sources in the development of each long economic wave is analysed, as well as its geopolitical, commercial and social importance. Finally, bearing in mind the past dynamics associated with long structural waves, and making use of technological forecasting tools (Logistic Substitution and Delphi Technique), a future perspective is presented in which the substitution process points toward alternative-energy sources. (author)

  2. Consumption dynamics of the primary energy sources. The Century of the alternative energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matias, Joao Carlos de Oliveira; Devezas, Tessaleno Campos [Dept. of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    The present article characterizes the two past centuries economically and socially, focusing on the development of the several energy sources' consumption and linking it with this century's reality. The central aim is to demonstrate the relation between substitution of primary energy sources and socio-economic development. Our analysis focuses four technological transformations already occurred in the past, emphasising some aspects of the present technological transformation. Thus, the role of primary energy sources on the development of each long wave is emphasized as well as their geopolitical, commercial and social importance. Finally, and keeping in mind this past dynamics associated with long structural waves, and making use of technological forecasting tools (Logistic Substitution and Delphi Technique), it is presented a future perspective in which the substitution process points towards alternative energy sources.

  3. A look at commercial buildings in 1995: Characteristics, energy consumption, and energy expenditures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The commercial sector consists of business establishments and other organizations that provide services. The sector includes service businesses, such as retail and wholesale stores, hotels and motels, restaurants, and hospitals, as well as a wide range of facilities that would not be considered commercial in a traditional economic sense, such as public schools, correctional institutions, and religious and fraternal organizations. Nearly all energy use in the commercial sector takes place in, or is associated with, the buildings that house these commercial activities. Analysis of the structures, activities, and equipment associated with different types of buildings is the clearest way to evaluate commercial sector energy use. The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is a national-level sample survey of commercial buildings and their energy suppliers conducted quadrennially (previously triennially) by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The target population for the 1995 CBECS consisted of all commercial buildings in the US with more than 1,000 square feet of floorspace. Decision makers, businesses, and other organizations that are concerned with the use of energy--building owners and managers, regulators, legislative bodies and executive agencies at all levels of government, utilities and other energy suppliers--are confronted with a buildings sector that is complex. Data on major characteristics (e.g., type of building, size, year constructed, location) collected from the buildings, along with the amount and types of energy the buildings consume, help answer fundamental questions about the use of energy in commercial buildings.

  4. A model for the estimation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions from rail transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    2003-01-01

    A model is presented for the calculation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions from rail transport. It is based on the estimation of energy consumption from a matirx describing the distribution of speeds and accelerations for operation. It is shown that calculations can be performed...

  5. Unit GDP Energy Consumption in 2006:Moving from Increase to Decline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On July 12, Xie Fuzhan, Commissioner of National Bureau of Statistics of China attended the press conference held by State Council Information Office, and delivered the report on China's national unit GDP energy consumption in 2006, presenting with major indicators of unit GDP energy consumption both at national and regional levels in the year 2006.

  6. A US-China Interview Study: Biology Students' Argumentation and Explanation about Energy Consumption Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Hokayem, Hayat; Wang, Sasha; Wei, Xin

    2016-01-01

    As China and the United States become the top two carbon emitters in the world, it is crucial for citizens in both countries to construct a sophisticated understanding of energy consumption issues. This interview study examines how U.S. and Chinese students compare in explaining and arguing about two critical energy consumption issues: burning…

  7. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of different compositing systems; Energieverbrauch und Treibhausgasemissionen verschiedener Kompostierungssysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Christian [Bauhaus-Univ. Weimar, Professur Abfallwirtschaft, Arbeitsgruppe Forschung (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    The energy consumption and total emission of climate relevant gases for different processes of bio-waste and green waste composting were determined by data collection with the help of questionnaires and literature studies. Individual processes of different areas of energy consumption were attached as there were large deviations between the different procedures (between 111 MJ/Mg compost and 638 MJ/Mg compost). Altogether 5 groups were formed. Differences were made between consumption of electrical energy and power fuels. These two values as well as the total energy consumption are different in the different groups. Only the consumption of fuel is similar for all the processes in an area. The large deviations in the energy consumption, which is also found in literature, are the results on the consumption of electrical energy. This on the other hand is used mainly for ventilation techniques. As the difference in energy consumption between the groups 3 and 5 cannot be conclusively explained it is easy to assume that a large amount of energy can be saved through site-planning with focus on optimum ventilation routing. Taking the greenhouse effect into consideration, all the procedures lie in a similar range as the energetic advantages of open windrow composting can be eliminated as the ventilated procedures cause higher greenhouse gas emissions. (orig.)

  8. The potential for quantitative sociological research on residential energy consumption in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Rhiger

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I begin with a description of how a sociological perspective can be employed to understand energy consumption while taking into account that energy consumption is embedded in everyday social practices. Next, I describe how newly available data enhances the potential of quantitative...

  9. Understanding Teenagers' Personal Contexts to Design Technology That Supports Learning about Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramides, Katerina; Craft, Brock; Luckin, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Energy sustainability is prevalent in political and popular rhetoric and yet energy consumption is rising. Teenagers are an important category of future energy consumers, but little is known of their conceptions about energy and energy saving. We report on empirical research with two groups of teenagers. This is part of ongoing work to design…

  10. Understanding Teenagers' Personal Contexts to Design Technology That Supports Learning about Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramides, Katerina; Craft, Brock; Luckin, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Energy sustainability is prevalent in political and popular rhetoric and yet energy consumption is rising. Teenagers are an important category of future energy consumers, but little is known of their conceptions about energy and energy saving. We report on empirical research with two groups of teenagers. This is part of ongoing work to design…

  11. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The...

  12. Analysis of variables that influence electric energy consumption in commercial buildings in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, M.M.Q. [Technical Drawing Department, Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Energy Planning Program, Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute for Research and Graduate Studies in Engineering - COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); La Rovere, E.L. [Energy Planning Program, Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute for Research and Graduate Studies in Engineering - COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Goncalves, A.C.M. [Program for Graduate Studies in Architecture, School of Architecture and Urbanism, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    Air conditioning systems in commercial buildings in Brazil are responsible for about 70% share of their energy consumption. According to BEN 2009 (The Brazilian Energy Balance), energy consumption in the residential, commercial and public sectors, where most buildings are found, represents 9.3% of the final energy consumption in Brazil. This paper aims to examine design factors that could contribute to greater reductions of electric energy consumption in commercial buildings, with emphasis on air conditioning. Simulations were carried out using shades and different types of glass, walls, flooring and roofing. The VisualDOE 2.61 was used as a simulation tool for calculating energy consumption of the analyzed building. This paper shows that the energy performance of the building is considerably influenced by the facade protection and shows, through tables, the impact that decisions related to the top-level and facades have on the energy consumption of the building. The authors concluded that the results confirm the importance of taking energy use into account in the very first design stages of the project, since appropriate choices of types of glass, external shading and envelope materials have a significant impact on energy consumption. (author)

  13. Input-output modeling for urban energy consumption in Beijing: dynamics and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lixiao; Hu, Qiuhong; Zhang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Input-output analysis has been proven to be a powerful instrument for estimating embodied (direct plus indirect) energy usage through economic sectors. Using 9 economic input-output tables of years 1987, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007, this paper analyzes energy flows for the entire city of Beijing and its 30 economic sectors, respectively. Results show that the embodied energy consumption of Beijing increased from 38.85 million tonnes of coal equivalent (Mtce) to 206.2 Mtce over the past twenty years of rapid urbanization; the share of indirect energy consumption in total energy consumption increased from 48% to 76%, suggesting the transition of Beijing from a production-based and manufacturing-dominated economy to a consumption-based and service-dominated economy. Real estate development has shown to be a major driving factor of the growth in indirect energy consumption. The boom and bust of construction activities have been strongly correlated with the increase and decrease of system-side indirect energy consumption. Traditional heavy industries remain the most energy-intensive sectors in the economy. However, the transportation and service sectors have contributed most to the rapid increase in overall energy consumption. The analyses in this paper demonstrate that a system-wide approach such as that based on input-output model can be a useful tool for robust energy policy making.

  14. Input-output modeling for urban energy consumption in Beijing: dynamics and comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Zhang

    Full Text Available Input-output analysis has been proven to be a powerful instrument for estimating embodied (direct plus indirect energy usage through economic sectors. Using 9 economic input-output tables of years 1987, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007, this paper analyzes energy flows for the entire city of Beijing and its 30 economic sectors, respectively. Results show that the embodied energy consumption of Beijing increased from 38.85 million tonnes of coal equivalent (Mtce to 206.2 Mtce over the past twenty years of rapid urbanization; the share of indirect energy consumption in total energy consumption increased from 48% to 76%, suggesting the transition of Beijing from a production-based and manufacturing-dominated economy to a consumption-based and service-dominated economy. Real estate development has shown to be a major driving factor of the growth in indirect energy consumption. The boom and bust of construction activities have been strongly correlated with the increase and decrease of system-side indirect energy consumption. Traditional heavy industries remain the most energy-intensive sectors in the economy. However, the transportation and service sectors have contributed most to the rapid increase in overall energy consumption. The analyses in this paper demonstrate that a system-wide approach such as that based on input-output model can be a useful tool for robust energy policy making.

  15. Field Study on the Energy Consumption of School Buildings in Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    Thewes, Andreas; Maas, Stefan; Scholzen, Frank; Waldmann, Danièle; Zürbes, Arno

    2014-01-01

    Buildings account for 40 % of total energy consumption and 35 % of the total CO2 emitted in the EU. In consequence, there is an enormous energy saving potential and the European Union requires from all EU member states to save energy in this sector. Hence, reducing the energy consumption of buildings represents an essential component of environmental protection efforts. Furthermore, the new European directive 2010/31/EU requires that the member states tighten national standards and draw up na...

  16. Energy consumption and air emissions from domestic transport; Energiforbruk og utslipp til luft fra innenlandsk transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toutain, Jun Elin Wiik; Taarneby, Gaute; Selvig, Eivind

    2008-07-01

    Energy for transport purposes account for a growing proportion of our total energy consumption. The increased transport of both people and goods is a consequence of prosperity development in Norway. We travel more, both privately and at work, and good purchasing power means that more goods must be transported from production site to the users' site. In 2006 the energy used to transport was more than a quarter of the total Norwegian energy consumption. (AG)

  17. An Electrical Energy Consumption Monitoring and Forecasting System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J. L. Rojas-Renteria; T. D. Espinoza-Huerta; F. S. Tovar-Pacheco; J. L. Gonzalez-Perez; R. Lozano-Dorantes

    2016-01-01

    Electricity consumption is currently an issue of great interest for power companies that need an as much as accurate profile for controlling the installed systems but also for designing future expansions and alterations...

  18. Energy consumption of mobile communication systems; Energieverbrauch der mobilen Kommunikation - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliano, A.; Hufschmid, M.

    2008-02-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on a research project that was concerned with the energy consumption of the infrastructure necessary to provide mobile communication services. The measurement and analysis of the energy consumption of the infrastructure was an essential part of this research project. Furthermore, future scenarios and their impact on energy consumption are discussed. The results of the research work are presented and the correlation between power requirements and the data traffic encountered at GSM and UMTS base stations is analysed. Furthermore, measurements that were conducted to determine the power consumption of different network elements are discussed. Finally, alternatives for further action and recommendations for improvements in the energy consumption of such installations are formulated.

  19. Energy consumption and economic growth revisited. Structural breaks and cross-section dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobnik, Frauke

    2011-07-01

    This paper examines the causal relationship between real GDP and energy consumption for 23 OECD countries from 1971 to 2009. Using recently developed panel econometric techniques the present paper takes into account structural breaks and cross-section dependence when analysing the energy consumption-growth nexus. The empirical results of this study indicate that there exists a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP and energy consumption, and the impact of real GDP on energy consumption is larger than vice versa. Furthermore, the empirical evidence of a dynamic panel error-correction model reveals a bidirectional causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption in both the short and long run. (orig.)

  20. The emissions, energy consumption, and growth nexus. Evidence from the commonwealth of independent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas [Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, Piraeus, ATTIKI 18534 (Greece); Payne, James E. [Interim Dean, College of Arts and Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4100 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    This study examines the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and real output within a panel vector error correction model for eleven countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States over the period 1992-2004. In the long-run, energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on carbon dioxide emissions while real output follows an inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. The short-run dynamics indicate unidirectional causality from energy consumption and real output, respectively, to carbon dioxide emissions along with bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real output. In the long-run there appears to be bidirectional causality between energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. (author)