WorldWideScience

Sample records for monthly cloud product

  1. Cloud water chemistry and the production of sulfates in clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegg, D. A.; Hobbs, P. V.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the pH and ionic content of water collected in clouds over western Washington and the Los Angeles Basin. Evidence for sulfate production in some of the clouds is presented. Not all of the sulfur in the cloud water was in the form of sulfate. However, the measurements indicate that the production of sulfate in clouds is of considerable significance in the atmosphere. Comparison of field measurements with model results show reasonable agreement and suggest that the production of sulfate in cloud water is a consequence of more than one conversion mechanism.

  2. ASTER cloud coverage reassessment using MODIS cloud mask products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonooka, Hideyuki; Omagari, Kunjuro; Yamamoto, Hirokazu; Tachikawa, Tetsushi; Fujita, Masaru; Paitaer, Zaoreguli

    2010-10-01

    In the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) Project, two kinds of algorithms are used for cloud assessment in Level-1 processing. The first algorithm based on the LANDSAT-5 TM Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment (ACCA) algorithm is used for a part of daytime scenes observed with only VNIR bands and all nighttime scenes, and the second algorithm based on the LANDSAT-7 ETM+ ACCA algorithm is used for most of daytime scenes observed with all spectral bands. However, the first algorithm does not work well for lack of some spectral bands sensitive to cloud detection, and the two algorithms have been less accurate over snow/ice covered areas since April 2008 when the SWIR subsystem developed troubles. In addition, they perform less well for some combinations of surface type and sun elevation angle. We, therefore, have developed the ASTER cloud coverage reassessment system using MODIS cloud mask (MOD35) products, and have reassessed cloud coverage for all ASTER archived scenes (>1.7 million scenes). All of the new cloud coverage data are included in Image Management System (IMS) databases of the ASTER Ground Data System (GDS) and NASA's Land Process Data Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) and used for ASTER product search by users, and cloud mask images are distributed to users through Internet. Daily upcoming scenes (about 400 scenes per day) are reassessed and inserted into the IMS databases in 5 to 7 days after each scene observation date. Some validation studies for the new cloud coverage data and some mission-related analyses using those data are also demonstrated in the present paper.

  3. Oxide production program monthly report - December 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Evelyn A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Whitworth, Julia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lloyd, Jane Alexandria [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hampton, David Earl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Benavidez, Amelia A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-15

    A summary of the major activities, accomplishments, milestones, financial summary, project performance and issues facing the ARIES Oxide Production Program for the month of December 2014 is presented in this Executive Summary.

  4. SAGE III Meteor-3M L2 Monthly Cloud Presence Data (Native) V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A monthly data file coincident with solar event granules, that provides information about cloud presence during data capture of the granules (Suggested Usage: For...

  5. SAGE III Meteor-3M L2 Monthly Cloud Presence Data (HDF-EOS) V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A monthly data file coincident with solar event granules, that provides information about cloud presence during data capture of the granules (Suggested Usage: For...

  6. Operational generation of AVHRR-based cloud products for Europe and the Arctic at EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM-SAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kaspar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Satelite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring has implemented a new processing environment for AVHRR-based climate monitoring products. AVHRR measurements from NOAA-17, NOAA-18 and MetOp-A are utilized to generate daily and monthly means of several cloud parameters for Europe and the Inner Arctic: Cloud fraction, cloud types, cloud phase, cloud top height, cloud optical thickness and cloud liquid water path.

  7. Comparison of different cloud types from surface and satellite cloud classification products over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minyan; Zeng, Le; Wang, Shengjie; Gu, Junxia; Yang, Runzhi

    2016-04-01

    Different cloud types usually have different cloud dynamic process and micro-physical characteristics, and the relative cloud radiation forcing effects vary much. In recent years, the focus of cloud classification is the algorithm development, as well as the analysis on total cloud amount, high/middle/low cloud amount. While, research on the different cloud types (like cirrus, stratus, and cumulonimbus) is not enough. In this research, we use multi-resources cloud classification products including FY-2, Cloudsat and surface observation to obtain the temporal-spatial distribution characteristics and evolvement of different cloud types in different regions of China, analyze the quantitative difference of multi-source products and the reasons. According to the temporal and spatial scales of cloud, and temporal-spatial representation of cloud classification products based on CloudSat, etc, the scaling is necessary to explore in temporal-spatial matching/validation research. This research have important scientific significances on understanding the regional characteristics of different cloud types in China, improving the remote sensing retrieve algorithms on cloud classification, temporal-spatial matching/validation techniques of satellite data, and cloud vertical structure parameterized methods in numerical models.

  8. Comparison Between CCCM and CloudSat Radar-Lidar (RL) Cloud and Radiation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Seung-Hee; Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Sun-Mack, Sunny

    2015-01-01

    To enhance cloud properties, LaRC and CIRA developed each combination algorithm for obtained properties from passive, active and imager in A-satellite constellation. When comparing global cloud fraction each other, LaRC-produced CERES-CALIPSO-CloudSat-MODIS (CCCM) products larger low-level cloud fraction over tropic ocean, while CIRA-produced Radar-Lidar (RL) shows larger mid-level cloud fraction for high latitude region. The reason for different low-level cloud fraction is due to different filtering method of lidar-detected cloud layers. Meanwhile difference in mid-level clouds is occurred due to different priority of cloud boundaries from lidar and radar.

  9. The CERES Suite of the ISCCP-like Cloud and Flux Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M.; Doelling, D.; Nguyen, L. T.; Raju, R.; Fan, T. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project now has about 15 years accurately observed top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) flux record for climate monitoring and diagnostic studies. CERES provides the climate community the following parameters: coincident CERES observed TOA fluxes, computed profile and surface fluxes, as well as MODIS cloud and aerosol retrievals. As part of its suite of products, CERES has packaged its MODIS derived cloud properties in the ISCCP-D2 monthly format that can be compared against climate model diagnostics with ISCCP simulators. There are 4 CERES ISCCP-D2 like products: ISCCP-D2like-MODIS, ISCCP-D2like-geo, ISCCP-D2like-merge, and flux-by-cloud-type product. The flux product combines for the first time CERES measured TOA fluxes along with the associated MODIS cloud properties, which links radiative flux directly to a specific cloud type. This was achieved by dividing the measured flux for a footprint into clear-sky portion and two cloud layer parts of the 20-km CERES footprint. The fluxes from each cloud layer in a CERES footprint were estimated using MODIS radiances for both shortwave and longwave. The spatially distributed cloud properties within the footprint were retrieved from 2-km MODIS pixels. This presentation has three parts: algorithm, validation, and multi-year results.

  10. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Version 6 cloud products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Kahn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Version 6 cloud products of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU instrument suite are described. The cloud top temperature, pressure, and height and effective cloud fraction are now reported at the AIRS field of view (FOV resolution. Significant improvements in cloud height assignment over Version 5 are shown with pixel-scale comparisons to cloud vertical structure observed by the CloudSat 94 GHz radar and the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP. Cloud thermodynamic phase (ice, liquid, and unknown phase, ice cloud effective diameter (De, and ice cloud optical thickness (τ are derived using an optimal estimation methodology for AIRS FOVs, and global distributions for January 2007 are presented. The largest values of τ are found in the storm tracks and near convection in the Tropics, while De is largest on the equatorial side of the midlatitude storm tracks in both hemispheres, and lowest in tropical thin cirrus and the winter polar atmosphere. Over the Maritime Continent the diurnal cycle of τ is significantly larger than for the total cloud fraction, ice cloud frequency, and De, and is anchored to the island archipelago morphology. Important differences are described between northern and southern hemispheric midlatitude cyclones using storm center composites. The infrared-based cloud retrievals of AIRS provide unique, decadal-scale and global observations of clouds over the diurnal and annual cycles, and captures variability within the mesoscale and synoptic scales at all latitudes.

  11. Customized products and cloud service information system development research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Chien-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a cloud service customized product information system to enable businesses to provide customized product marketing on the Internet to meet consumer demand for customized products. The cloud service of the information system development strategic framework proposed in this study contains three elements: (1 e-commerce services, (2 promotion type modules, and (3 cloud services customized promotional products. In this study, a mining cloud information system to detect customer behavior is proposed. The association rules from relational database design are utilized to mine consumer behavior to generate cross-selling proposals for customer products and marketing for a retailing mall in Taiwan. The study is composed of several parts, as follows. A market segment and application of association rules in data exploration techniques (Association Rule Mining and sequence-like exploration (Sequential Pattern Mining, efficient analysis of customers, consumer behavior, identification of candidates for promotional products, and using cloud service delivery and evaluation of targets to evaluate candidates for promotional products for production. However, in addition to cloud service customized promotional products, the quantity of promotional products sales varies for different customers. We strive to achieve increased customer loyalty and profits through the use of active cloud service customized promotional products.

  12. Research on monthly flow uncertain reasoning model based on cloud theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In view of the mid and long term runoff forecasting containing many uncertain factors,this paper constructs a uncertain reasoning model (UR) based on the cloud theory to solve the problem of uncertain reasoning.Firstly,in the proposed model,a classification method,i.e.,attribute oriented induction maximum variance (MaxVar),is used to divide the runoff series into different intervals,which are softened and described by the cloud membership with expected value (Ex),entropy (En) and hyper-entropy (He),then an uncertain reasoning rule set is constructed by means of the runoff value generalization and applied to monthly flow for uncertain prediction.Next,a new modification formula is used to calculate He in runoff forecasting,and a confident level probability prediction interval is obtained by statistical method.Finally,this paper takes the monthly flow of Manwan station in China as an example and uses UR model,LSSVM model,and ARMA model to calculate the monthly flow,respectively.The results show that the UR model has the highest prediction accuracy compared to other models,and that it not only provides random output but also supports probability interval prediction.

  13. Cloud Type Classification (cldtype) Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Donna [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shi, Yan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lim, K-S [Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute; Riihimaki, Laura [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    The Cloud Type (cldtype) value-added product (VAP) provides an automated cloud type classification based on macrophysical quantities derived from vertically pointing lidar and radar. Up to 10 layers of clouds are classified into seven cloud types based on predetermined and site-specific thresholds of cloud top, base and thickness. Examples of thresholds for selected U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility sites are provided in Tables 1 and 2. Inputs for the cldtype VAP include lidar and radar cloud boundaries obtained from the Active Remotely Sensed Cloud Location (ARSCL) and Surface Meteorological Systems (MET) data. Rain rates from MET are used to determine when radar signal attenuation precludes accurate cloud detection. Temporal resolution and vertical resolution for cldtype are 1 minute and 30 m respectively and match the resolution of ARSCL. The cldtype classification is an initial step for further categorization of clouds. It was developed for use by the Shallow Cumulus VAP to identify potential periods of interest to the LASSO model and is intended to find clouds of interest for a variety of users.

  14. Toward Global Harmonization of Derived Cloud Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong L.; Baum, Bryan A.; Choi, Yong-Sang; Foster, Michael J.; Karlsson, Karl-Goeran; Heidinger, Andrew; Poulsen, Caroline; Pavolonis, Michael; Riedi, Jerome; Roebeling, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Formerly known as the Cloud Retrieval Evaluation Workshop (CREW; see the list of acronyms used in this paper below) group (Roebeling et al. 2013, 2015), the International Cloud Working Group (ICWG) was created and endorsed during the 42nd Meeting of CGMS. The CGMS-ICWG provides a forum for space agencies to seek coherent progress in science and applications and also to act as a bridge between space agencies and the cloud remote sensing and applications community. The ICWG plans to serve as a forum to exchange and enhance knowledge on state-of-the-art cloud parameter retrievals algorithms, to stimulate support for training in the use of cloud parameters, and to encourage space agencies and the cloud remote sensing community to share knowledge. The ICWG plans to prepare recommendations to guide the direction of future research-for example, on observing severe weather events or on process studies-and to influence relevant programs of the WMO, WCRP, GCOS, and the space agencies.

  15. Toward Global Harmonization of Derived Cloud Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong L.; Baum, Bryan A.; Choi, Yong-Sang; Foster, Michael J.; Karlsson, Karl-Goeran; Heidinger, Andrew; Poulsen, Caroline; Pavolonis, Michael; Riedi, Jerome; Roebeling, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Formerly known as the Cloud Retrieval Evaluation Workshop (CREW; see the list of acronyms used in this paper below) group (Roebeling et al. 2013, 2015), the International Cloud Working Group (ICWG) was created and endorsed during the 42nd Meeting of CGMS. The CGMS-ICWG provides a forum for space agencies to seek coherent progress in science and applications and also to act as a bridge between space agencies and the cloud remote sensing and applications community. The ICWG plans to serve as a forum to exchange and enhance knowledge on state-of-the-art cloud parameter retrievals algorithms, to stimulate support for training in the use of cloud parameters, and to encourage space agencies and the cloud remote sensing community to share knowledge. The ICWG plans to prepare recommendations to guide the direction of future research-for example, on observing severe weather events or on process studies-and to influence relevant programs of the WMO, WCRP, GCOS, and the space agencies.

  16. Chinese Auto's Production & Sales Dropped on a Month-on-month Basis in October%Chinese Auto's Production & Sales Dropped on a Month-on-month Basis in October

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Xuan

    2011-01-01

    In October, the production and sales of Chinese auto de- creased a little compared with that of last month, with most auto models worse than that of last month; the production and sale were over 15 million units from January to October, which dropped a little of the month-on-month growth compared with that of 9 months before. Details are as follows:

  17. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, April 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, F.K.

    1953-05-20

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of April 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  18. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, April 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, F.K.

    1954-05-21

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of April 1954. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  19. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, January 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, F.K.

    1954-02-25

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of January 1954. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes the accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  20. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, March 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, F.K.

    1953-04-22

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of March 1953. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  1. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, February 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, F.K.

    1954-03-23

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of February 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  2. Application of PIMS Software in Monthly Planning of Refinery Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the application of the PIMS software in formulating monthly refining production plan. Application of the PIMS software can help to solve a series of problems related with monthly plan of refining production such as optimized selection of crude and feedstocks, optimized selection of production scale and processing scheme, identification of bottlenecks and their mitigation,optimized selection of turnaround time and optimized selection of operating regime, which have increased the economic benefits of refining enterprises. With the further development and improvement of models the PIMS software will play an increasingly important role in formulating monthly plans of refining operations and production management at refineries. This article also explores the problems existing in refinery monthly planning, and has made recommendations on developing and improving models and reporting system, enhancement of basic data acquisition, model maintenance personnel and staff training.

  3. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, January 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-02-24

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Atomic Laboratories Products Operation, February, 1956. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  4. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report for June 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-07-28

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Atomic Products Operation, June, 1955. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  5. Cloud Condensation Nuclei Profile Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, S; Sivaraman, C; Ghan, S

    2012-10-08

    The cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration at cloud base is the most relevant measure of the aerosol that influences droplet formation in clouds. Since the CCN concentration depends on supersaturation, a more general measure of the CCN concentration is the CCN spectrum (values at multiple supersaturations). The CCN spectrum is now measured at the surface at several fixed ARM sites and by the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF), but is not measured at the cloud base. Rather than rely on expensive aircraft measurements for all studies of aerosol effects on clouds, a way to project CCN measurements at the surface to cloud base is needed. Remote sensing of aerosol extinction provides information about the vertical profile of the aerosol, but cannot be directly related to the CCN concentration because the aerosol extinction is strongly influenced by humidification, particularly near cloud base. Ghan and Collins (2004) and Ghan et al. (2006) propose a method to remove the influence of humidification from the extinction profiles and tie the “dry extinction” retrieval to the surface CCN concentration, thus estimating the CCN profile. This methodology has been implemented as the CCN Profile (CCNPROF) value-added product (VAP).

  6. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2003-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  7. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2003-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  8. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  9. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2003-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  10. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds(SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Edition1B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  11. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  12. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2003-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  13. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Edition2A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  14. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Edition2A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  15. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds(SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Edition1B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  16. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Beta4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  17. Stellar dust production and composition in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Kemper, F

    2012-01-01

    The dust reservoir in the interstellar medium of a galaxy is constantly being replenished by dust formed in the stellar winds of evolved stars. Due to their vicinity, nearby irregular dwarf galaxies the Magellanic Clouds provide an opportunity to obtain a global picture of the dust production in galaxies. The Small and Large Magellanic Clouds have been mapped with the Spitzer Space Telescope from 3.6 to 160 {\\mu}m, and these wavelengths are especially suitable to study thermal dust emission. In addition, a large number of individual evolved stars have been targeted for 5-40 {\\mu}m spectroscopy, revealing the mineralogy of these sources. Here I present an overview on the work done on determining the total dust production rate in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, as well as a first attempt at revealing the global composition of the freshly produced stardust.

  18. Trends of six month nighttime ground-based cloud cover values over Manila Observatory (14.64N, 121.07E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacal, G. F. B.; Lagrosas, N.

    2016-12-01

    The ground reflects thermal radiation during nighttime. Clouds reflect this radiation to the ground and cause increase in ambient temperature. In this study, trends of nighttime cloud cover are analyzed using a commercial camera (Canon Powershot A2300) that is operated continuously to capture images of clouds at 5 minute interval. The camera is situated inside a rain-proof box with a glass oculus and is placed on the rooftop of the Manila Observatory building. To detect pixels with clouds, the pictures are converted from its native JPEG format to grayscale format. The pixels are then screened for clouds by looking at the values of pixels with and without clouds. In grayscale format, pixels with clouds have greater pixel values than pixels without clouds. Based on the observations, a threshold pixel value of 17 is employed to discern pixels with clouds from pixels without clouds. When moon is present in the image, the grayscale image, which is in 8-bit unsigned integer format, is converted into double format. The moon signals are modelled using a two dimensional Gaussian function and is subtracted from the converted image (Gacal et al, 2016). This effectively removes the moon signals but preserves the cloud signals. This method is applied to the data collected from the months of January, February, March, October, November and December 2015. In Manila, dry months are from November to April. Wet months are from May to October. The trends of nighttime cloud cover values over Manila Observatory are shown in the figure below. Frequency distribution of cloud cover values of the first and last three months of the year show that dry and wet months have higher and lower frequency of low cloud cover values, respectively. The trend also exhibits a decrease of cloud cover from October to December but increases back from January until March. This is exhibited in the decrease in the frequency of cloud cover values in the 20%-100% range from October to December. This can be

  19. Andean grasslands are as productive as tropical cloud forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveras Menor, I.; Girardin, C.; Doughty, C.E.; Cahuana, N.; Arenas, C.E.; Oliver, V.; Huaraca Huasco, W.; Malhi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We aim to assess net primary productivity (NPP) and carbon cycling in Andean tropical alpine grasslands (puna) and compare it with NPP of tropical montane cloud forests. We ask the following questions: (1) how do NPP and soil respiration of grasslands vary over the seasonal cycle? (2) how do burning

  20. ARSCL Cloud Statistics – A Value Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yan; Miller, Mark A.

    2003-07-31

    The active remotely-sensed clouds locations (ARSCL) value-added product (VAP) combines data from active remote sensors to produce an objective determination of cloud location, radar reflectivity, vertical velocity and Doppler spectral width. Information about the liquid water path in these clouds and the frequency of precipitation is available from the Microwave Water Radiometer (mwrlos) and the Surface Meteorological instruments (SMET or SMOS). To facilitate comparison of these fields with output from cloud resolving models and for other data analysis activities, a VAP has been created that performs statistical analysis of these data. Frequency distributions are computed and written in an output file in a manner that facilitates user flexibility. The structure enables users to quickly compute statistics for multiples of the half-hour and daily analysis periods that are the baseline for the statistical computations. Output for the 6-hour and daily periods is also provided in graphical format, which allows quick, cursory analysis of the statistical characteristics of the cloud data.

  1. Interacting bubble clouds and their sonochemical production

    CERN Document Server

    Stricker, Laura; Rivas, David Fernandez; Lohse, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    Acoustically driven air pockets trapped in artificial crevices on a sur- face can emit bubbles which organize in (interacting) bubble clusters. With increasing driving power Fernandez Rivas et al. [Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2010] observed three different behaviors: clusters close to the very pits out of which they had been created, clusters pointing toward each other, and merging clusters. The latter behavior is highly undesired for technological purposes as it is associated with a reduction of the radical production and an enhancement of the erosion of the reactor walls. The dependence on the control parameters such as the distance of the pits and the conditions for cluster-merging are examined. The underlying mechanism, governed by the secondary Bjerknes forces, turns out to be strongly influenced by the nonlinearity of the bubble oscillations and not directly by the number of nucleated bubbles. The Bjerknes forces are found to dampen the bubble oscillations, thus reducing the radical production. Therefore, th...

  2. Intercomparisons of marine boundary layer cloud properties from the ARM CAP-MBL campaign and two MODIS cloud products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Song, Hua; Ma, Po-Lun; Ghan, Steven J.; Platnick, Steven; Minnis, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    From April 2009 to December 2010, the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program carried out an observational field campaign on Graciosa Island, targeting the marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds over the Azores region. In this paper, we present an intercomparison of the MBL cloud properties, namely, cloud liquid water path (LWP), cloud optical thickness (COT), and cloud-droplet effective radius (CER), among retrievals from the ARM mobile facility and two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud products (Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)-MODIS and Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System-MODIS). A total of 63 daytime single-layer MBL cloud cases are selected for intercomparison. Comparison of collocated retrievals indicates that the two MODIS cloud products agree well on both COT and CER retrievals, with the correlation coefficient R > 0.95, despite their significant difference in spatial sampling. In both MODIS products, the CER retrievals based on the 2.1 µm band (CER2.1) are significantly larger than those based on the 3.7 µm band (CER3.7). The GSFC-MODIS cloud product is collocated and compared with ground-based ARM observations at several temporal-spatial scales. In general, the correlation increases with more precise collocation. For the 63 selected MBL cloud cases, the GSFC-MODIS LWP and COT retrievals agree reasonably well with the ground-based observations with no apparent bias and correlation coefficient R around 0.85 and 0.70, respectively. However, GSFC-MODIS CER3.7 and CER2.1 retrievals have a lower correlation (R 0.5) with the ground-based retrievals. For the 63 selected cases, they are on average larger than ground observations by about 1.5 µm and 3.0 µm, respectively. Taking into account that the MODIS CER retrievals are only sensitive to cloud top reduces the bias only by 0.5 µm.

  3. Production of complex bio-molecules in collapsing interstellar cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, Kinsuk; Chakrabarti, S. K.; Chakrabarti, S.; Das, Ankan

    We present step by step production of biologically important complex molecules in the interstellar medium. We considered grains of different size distributions. We then solve the Master equation for small grains and Rate equation for grains of larger size to obtain the abundance of molecular hydrogen on grains and their desorption to gaseous phase. We then studied the molecular hydrogen formation in a collapsing molecular cloud. Activation barrier energies for desorption of H and H2 and hopping rate for H are taken from recent experimental results. We found that the production of molecular hydrogen is very much dependent on the cloud temperature since molecular hydrogen formation on grains are very much temperature sensitive. For clouds with grain temperature more than 25 K it is difficult to produce significant amount molecular hydrogen during the life time of molecular cloud. In a collapsing cloud only in a small temperature range adequate formation of H2 is possible and in the rest of the collapsing phase molecular hydrogen formation is very small. We also use the Monte-Carlo simulation to form H2 on grains and compute recombination efficiency and its dependence on the number of grain sites. We then continue to compute the production rate of more complex molecules by including a large number (422) of chemical species in a reaction network, and using updated reaction rates. The cloud models have been chosen to be stationary as well as non-stationary. In the later cases we do hydrodynamic simulations and couple the result with chemical evolution. We constructed a model study the possibility of glycine formation in the interstellar medium keeping in mind that present debate of detection of glycine in molecular clouds. We choose two gas phase pathways to form glycine formation: first one is through ion molecule reactions between protonated amino-alcohols and formic acid and in a second process we consider reaction between protonated hydroxyl-amine and acetic acid to

  4. Product Safety, It's No Accident. A Consumer Product Safety Monthly Planning Guide for Community Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

    A consumer product safety monthly planning guide for community organizations is provided. The material is organized into suggested monthly topics with seasonal emphasis. Each section highlights selected information about how to identify potential hazards associated with categories of products. Each section also includes recommendaitons of ways to…

  5. User's guide: Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget narrow-field-of-view products. Scene radiance tape products, sorting into angular bins products, and maximum likelihood cloud estimation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, H. Lee; Hucek, Richard R.; Groveman, Brian; Frey, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The archived Earth radiation budget (ERB) products produced from the Nimbus-7 ERB narrow field-of-view scanner are described. The principal products are broadband outgoing longwave radiation (4.5 to 50 microns), reflected solar radiation (0.2 to 4.8 microns), and the net radiation. Daily and monthly averages are presented on a fixed global equal area (500 sq km), grid for the period May 1979 to May 1980. Two independent algorithms are used to estimate the outgoing fluxes from the observed radiances. The algorithms are described and the results compared. The products are divided into three subsets: the Scene Radiance Tapes (SRT) contain the calibrated radiances; the Sorting into Angular Bins (SAB) tape contains the SAB produced shortwave, longwave, and net radiation products; and the Maximum Likelihood Cloud Estimation (MLCE) tapes contain the MLCE products. The tape formats are described in detail.

  6. Using in situ airborne measurements to evaluate three cloud phase products derived from CALIPSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesana, G.; Chepfer, H.; Winker, D.; Getzewich, B.; Cai, X.; Jourdan, O.; Mioche, G.; Okamoto, H.; Hagihara, Y.; Noel, V.; Reverdy, M.

    2016-05-01

    We compare the cloud detection and cloud phase determination of three independent climatologies based on Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) to airborne in situ measurements. Our analysis of the cloud detection shows that the differences between the satellite and in situ measurements mainly arise from three factors. First, averaging CALIPSO Level l data along track before cloud detection increases the estimate of high- and low-level cloud fractions. Second, the vertical averaging of Level 1 data before cloud detection tends to artificially increase the cloud vertical extent. Third, the differences in classification of fully attenuated pixels among the CALIPSO climatologies lead to differences in the low-level Arctic cloud fractions. In another section, we compare the cloudy pixels detected by colocated in situ and satellite observations to study the cloud phase determination. At midlatitudes, retrievals of homogeneous high ice clouds by CALIPSO data sets are very robust (more than 94.6% of agreement with in situ). In the Arctic, where the cloud phase vertical variability is larger within a 480 m pixel, all climatologies show disagreements with the in situ measurements and CALIPSO-General Circulation Models-Oriented Cloud Product (GOCCP) report significant undefined-phase clouds, which likely correspond to mixed-phase clouds. In all CALIPSO products, the phase determination is dominated by the cloud top phase. Finally, we use global statistics to demonstrate that main differences between the CALIPSO cloud phase products stem from the cloud detection (horizontal averaging, fully attenuated pixels) rather than the cloud phase determination procedures.

  7. Real Time Volcanic Cloud Products and Predictions for Aviation Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Habib, Shahid; da Silva, Arlindo; Hughes, Eric; Yang, Kai; Brentzel, Kelvin; Seftor, Colin; Li, Jason Y.; Schneider, David; Guffanti, Marianne; Hoffman, Robert L.; Myers, Tim; Tamminen, Johanna; Hassinen, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can inject significant amounts of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and volcanic ash into the atmosphere, posing a substantial risk to aviation safety. Ingesting near-real time and Direct Readout satellite volcanic cloud data is vital for improving reliability of volcanic ash forecasts and mitigating the effects of volcanic eruptions on aviation and the economy. NASA volcanic products from the Ozone Monitoring Insrument (OMI) aboard the Aura satellite have been incorporated into Decision Support Systems of many operational agencies. With the Aura mission approaching its 10th anniversary, there is an urgent need to replace OMI data with those from the next generation operational NASA/NOAA Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) satellite. The data provided from these instruments are being incorporated into forecasting models to provide quantitative ash forecasts for air traffic management. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the volcanic near-real time and Direct Readout data products from the new Ozone Monitoring and Profiling Suite (OMPS) ultraviolet sensor onboard SNPP for monitoring and forecasting volcanic clouds. The transition of NASA data production to our operational partners is outlined. Satellite observations are used to constrain volcanic cloud simulations and improve estimates of eruption parameters, resulting in more accurate forecasts. This is demonstrated for the 2012 eruption of Copahue. Volcanic eruptions are modeled using the Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) and the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol and Radiation Transport (GOCART) model. A hindcast of the disruptive eruption from Iceland's Eyjafjallajokull is used to estimate aviation re-routing costs using Metron Aviation's ATM Tools.

  8. Monitoring the NOAA Operational VIIRS RSB and DNB Calibration Stability Using Monthly and Semi-Monthly Deep Convective Clouds Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS/Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP satellite provide sensor data records for the retrievals of many environment data records. It is critical to monitor the VIIRS long-term calibration stability to ensure quality EDR retrieval. This study investigates the radiometric calibration stability of the NOAA operational SNPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands (RSB and Day-Night-Band (DNB using Deep Convective Clouds (DCC. Monthly and semi-monthly DCC time series for 10 moderate resolution bands (M-bands, M1–M5 and M7–M11, March 2013–September 2015, DNB (March 2013–September 2015, low gain stage, and three imagery resolution bands (I-bands, I1–I3, January 2014–September 2015 were developed and analyzed for long-term radiometric calibration stability monitoring. Monthly DCC time series show that M5 and M7 are generally stable, with a stability of 0.4%. DNB has also been stable since May 2013, after its relative response function update, with a stability of 0.5%. The stabilities of M1–M4 are 0.6%–0.8%. Large fluctuations in M1–M4 DCC reflectance were observed since early 2014, correlated with F-factor (calibration coefficients trend changes during the same period. The stabilities of M8-M11 are from 1.0% to 3.1%, comparable to the natural DCC variability at the shortwave infrared spectrum. DCC mean band ratio time series show that the calibration stabilities of I1–I3 follow closely with M5, M7, and M10. Relative calibration changes were observed in M1/M4 and M5/M7 DCC mean band ratio time series. The DCC time series are generally consistent with results from the VIIRS validation sites and VIIRS/MODIS (the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer simultaneous nadir overpass time series. Semi-monthly DCC time series for RSB M-bands and DNB were compared with monthly DCC time series. The results indicate that semi-monthly DCC

  9. Comparison of the MODIS Multilayer Cloud Detection and Thermodynamic Phase Products with CALIPSO and CloudSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Wind, Gala; Holz, Robert E.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Nagle, Fred W.

    2008-01-01

    CALIPSO and CloudSat, launched in June 2006, provide global active remote sensing measurements of clouds and aerosols that can be used for validation of a variety of passive imager retrievals derived from instruments flying on the Aqua spacecraft and other A-Train platforms. The most recent processing effort for the MODIS Atmosphere Team, referred to as the "Collection 5" stream, includes a research-level multilayer cloud detection algorithm that uses both thermodynamic phase information derived from a combination of solar and thermal emission bands to discriminate layers of different phases, as well as true layer separation discrimination using a moderately absorbing water vapor band. The multilayer detection algorithm is designed to provide a means of assessing the applicability of 1D cloud models used in the MODIS cloud optical and microphysical product retrieval, which are generated at a 1 h resolution. Using pixel-level collocations of MODIS Aqua, CALIOP, and CloudSat radar measurements, we investigate the global performance of the thermodynamic phase and multilayer cloud detection algorithms.

  10. Development of EarthCARE/MSI ice and water cloud properties products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, S.; Nagao, T. M.; Ishida, H.; Letu, H.; Hashimoto, M.; Nakajima, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Clouds and aerosols are the major uncertainty in the understanding of the Earth's climate system. An improvement of understanding and better modeling of the relationship of clouds, aerosols and radiation are therefore prominent part in climate research and weather prediction. It is important to obtain the global data of clouds and aerosols occurrence, structure and physical properties that are derived from measurements of solar and thermal radiation. EarthCARE (Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer) is one of the future earth observation mission of ESA and JAXA. The satellite will carry four instruments for observation of clouds and aerosols; Atmospheric Lidar (ATLID), Cloud Profiling Rader (CPR), Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI), and Broad-Band Radiometer (BBR). This mission aims at understanding of the role that clouds and aerosols play in reflecting incident solar radiation back into space and trapping infrared radiation emitted from Earth's surface. These observations are needed to improve the precision of climate variability prediction. MSI provides across-track information on cloud with channels in the visible, near infrared, shortwave and thermal infrared. Water cloud optical properties are derived in using EarthCARE/MSI standard product based on CLAUDIA [Ishida and Nakajima, 2009] and CAPCOM [Nakajima and Nakajima, 1995; Kawamoto et al., 2001]. Research product based on MWP method [M. Hashimoto, 2015. PhD Thesis] is advanced to obtain the ice cloud optical properties. In this presentation, development of the products and retrieved cloud properties will be introduced.

  11. OMMYDCLD: a New A-train Cloud Product that Co-locates OMI and MODIS Cloud and Radiance Parameters onto the OMI Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Brad; Joiner, Joanna; Vasilkov, Alexander; Veefkind, Pepijn; Platnick, Steven; Wind, Galina

    2014-01-01

    Clouds cover approximately 60% of the earth's surface. When obscuring the satellite's field of view (FOV), clouds complicate the retrieval of ozone, trace gases and aerosols from data collected by earth observing satellites. Cloud properties associated with optical thickness, cloud pressure, water phase, drop size distribution (DSD), cloud fraction, vertical and areal extent can also change significantly over short spatio-temporal scales. The radiative transfer models used to retrieve column estimates of atmospheric constituents typically do not account for all these properties and their variations. The OMI science team is preparing to release a new data product, OMMYDCLD, which combines the cloud information from sensors on board two earth observing satellites in the NASA A-Train: Aura/OMI and Aqua/MODIS. OMMYDCLD co-locates high resolution cloud and radiance information from MODIS onto the much larger OMI pixel and combines it with parameters derived from the two other OMI cloud products: OMCLDRR and OMCLDO2. The product includes histograms for MODIS scientific data sets (SDS) provided at 1 km resolution. The statistics of key data fields - such as effective particle radius, cloud optical thickness and cloud water path - are further separated into liquid and ice categories using the optical and IR phase information. OMMYDCLD offers users of OMI data cloud information that will be useful for carrying out OMI calibration work, multi-year studies of cloud vertical structure and in the identification and classification of multi-layer clouds.

  12. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report for February 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-02-21

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, February, 1956. Metallurgy, reactors fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, employee relations are discussed.

  13. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report for March 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-04-20

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, March, 1956. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology; financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, employee relations, pile technology, safety and radiological sciences are discussed.

  14. SOA FROM ISOPRENE OXIDATION PRODUCTS: MODEL SIMULATION OF CLOUD CHEMISTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent laboratory evidence supports the hypothesis that secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is formed in the atmosphere through aqueous-phase reactions in clouds. The results of batch photochemical reactions of glyoxal, methylglyoxal and hydrogen peroxide are presented. These labor...

  15. Near-Cloud Aerosol Properties from the 1 Km Resolution MODIS Ocean Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnai, Tamas; Marshak, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This study examines aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds by analyzing high-resolution atmospheric correction parameters provided in the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) ocean color product. The study analyzes data from a 2 week long period of September in 10 years, covering a large area in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. The results indicate that on the one hand, the Quality Assessment (QA) flags of the ocean color product successfully eliminate cloud-related uncertainties in ocean parameters such as chlorophyll content, but on the other hand, using the flags introduces a sampling bias in atmospheric products such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent. Therefore, researchers need to select QA flags by balancing the risks of increased retrieval uncertainties and sampling biases. Using an optimal set of QA flags, the results reveal substantial increases in optical thickness near clouds-on average the increase is 50% for the roughly half of pixels within 5 km from clouds and is accompanied by a roughly matching increase in particle size. Theoretical simulations show that the 50% increase in 550nm AOT changes instantaneous direct aerosol radiative forcing by up to 8W/m2 and that the radiative impact is significantly larger if observed near-cloud changes are attributed to aerosol particles as opposed to undetected cloud particles. These results underline that accounting for near-cloud areas and understanding the causes of near-cloud particle changes are critical for accurate calculations of direct aerosol radiative forcing.

  16. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, July 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1953-08-20

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for July 1953. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summaries work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  17. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, November 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-12-30

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for November 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  18. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, August 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1954-09-17

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for August 1954. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department report plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities, and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  19. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report for September 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1954-10-25

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for September 1954. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summaries work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  20. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, May 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1953-06-19

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for May 1953. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summaries work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  1. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, June 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1953-07-22

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for June 1953. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summaries work the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  2. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, October 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1953-11-20

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for October 1953. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summaries work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services. Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Service departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  3. Hanford Atomic Products Operation, monthly report, July 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-08-23

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for July, 1956. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  4. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, August 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-09-28

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for August 1956. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Sciences, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  5. Hanford Atomic Products for Operation monthly report, February 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-03-18

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for February 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  6. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, May 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-06-23

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for May 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  7. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, August 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-09-27

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for August 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Sciences, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  8. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, April 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-05-21

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for April 1956. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summaries work for the technical, design and project sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the financial department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Service departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  9. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, January 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-02-21

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for January 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  10. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, March 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1954-04-23

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for March 1954. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summaries work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Service departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  11. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, June 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1954-07-26

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for June 1954. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summaries work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  12. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, December 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-01-25

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for December 1954. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  13. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report for December 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-01-30

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for December 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  14. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, October 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-11-30

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer works for October, 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  15. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, March 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-04-20

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for March 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  16. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report for May 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-06-21

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for May, 1956. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  17. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, May 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1954-06-22

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for May 1954. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summaries work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Science, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  18. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, September 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-10-27

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for September 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  19. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, July 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-08-26

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for July 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  20. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report for April 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-05-23

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for April 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  1. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, October 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1954-11-24

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for October 1954. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  2. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, August 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1953-09-18

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for August, 1953. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  3. Monthly report Hanford Atomic Products Operation, July 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1954-08-20

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for July 1954. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services Departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  4. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, December 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1954-01-22

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for December 1953. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summaries work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  5. ARM Cloud Radar Simulator Package for Global Climate Models Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuying [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    It has been challenging to directly compare U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ground-based cloud radar measurements with climate model output because of limitations or features of the observing processes and the spatial gap between model and the single-point measurements. To facilitate the use of ARM radar data in numerical models, an ARM cloud radar simulator was developed to converts model data into pseudo-ARM cloud radar observations that mimic the instrument view of a narrow atmospheric column (as compared to a large global climate model [GCM] grid-cell), thus allowing meaningful comparison between model output and ARM cloud observations. The ARM cloud radar simulator value-added product (VAP) was developed based on the CloudSat simulator contained in the community satellite simulator package, the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observation Simulator Package (COSP) (Bodas-Salcedo et al., 2011), which has been widely used in climate model evaluation with satellite data (Klein et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2010). The essential part of the CloudSat simulator is the QuickBeam radar simulator that is used to produce CloudSat-like radar reflectivity, but is capable of simulating reflectivity for other radars (Marchand et al., 2009; Haynes et al., 2007). Adapting QuickBeam to the ARM cloud radar simulator within COSP required two primary changes: one was to set the frequency to 35 GHz for the ARM Ka-band cloud radar, as opposed to 94 GHz used for the CloudSat W-band radar, and the second was to invert the view from the ground to space so as to attenuate the beam correctly. In addition, the ARM cloud radar simulator uses a finer vertical resolution (100 m compared to 500 m for CloudSat) to resolve the more detailed structure of clouds captured by the ARM radars. The ARM simulator has been developed following the COSP workflow (Figure 1) and using the capabilities available in COSP

  6. MISR Level 3 Cloud Motion Vector yearly Product in netCDF format V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This file contains the MISR Level 3 Cloud Motion Vector yearly Product in netCDF format (Suggested Usage: This file contains one year of MISR Level 2 TC_STEREO...

  7. The Microbase Value-Added Product: A Baseline Retrieval of Cloud Microphysical Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, M; Johnson, K; Jensen, M

    2011-05-31

    This report describes the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility baseline cloud microphysical properties (MICROBASE) value-added product (VAP). MICROBASE uses a combination of millimeter-wavelength cloud radar, microwave radiometer, and radiosonde observations to estimate the vertical profiles of the primary microphysical parameters of clouds including the liquid/ice water content and liquid/ice cloud particle effective radius. MICROBASE is a baseline algorithm designed to apply to most conditions and locations using a single set of parameterizations and a simple determination of water phase based on temperature. This document provides the user of this product with guidelines to assist in determining the accuracy of the product under certain conditions. Quality control flags are designed to identify outliers and indicate instances where the retrieval assumptions may not be met. The overall methodology is described in this report through a detailed description of the input variables, algorithms, and output products.

  8. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2: first 18 months of science data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldering, Annmarie; O'Dell, Chris W.; Wennberg, Paul O.; Crisp, David; Gunson, Michael R.; Viatte, Camille; Avis, Charles; Braverman, Amy; Castano, Rebecca; Chang, Albert; Chapsky, Lars; Cheng, Cecilia; Connor, Brian; Dang, Lan; Doran, Gary; Fisher, Brendan; Frankenberg, Christian; Fu, Dejian; Granat, Robert; Hobbs, Jonathan; Lee, Richard A. M.; Mandrake, Lukas; McDuffie, James; Miller, Charles E.; Myers, Vicky; Natraj, Vijay; O'Brien, Denis; Osterman, Gregory B.; Oyafuso, Fabiano; Payne, Vivienne H.; Pollock, Harold R.; Polonsky, Igor; Roehl, Coleen M.; Rosenberg, Robert; Schwandner, Florian; Smyth, Mike; Tang, Vivian; Taylor, Thomas E.; To, Cathy; Wunch, Debra; Yoshimizu, Jan

    2017-02-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) is the first National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) satellite designed to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with the accuracy, resolution, and coverage needed to quantify CO2 fluxes (sources and sinks) on regional scales. OCO-2 was successfully launched on 2 July 2014 and has gathered more than 2 years of observations. The v7/v7r operational data products from September 2014 to January 2016 are discussed here. On monthly timescales, 7 to 12 % of these measurements are sufficiently cloud and aerosol free to yield estimates of the column-averaged atmospheric CO2 dry air mole fraction, XCO2, that pass all quality tests. During the first year of operations, the observing strategy, instrument calibration, and retrieval algorithm were optimized to improve both the data yield and the accuracy of the products. With these changes, global maps of XCO2 derived from the OCO-2 data are revealing some of the most robust features of the atmospheric carbon cycle. This includes XCO2 enhancements co-located with intense fossil fuel emissions in eastern US and eastern China, which are most obvious between October and December, when the north-south XCO2 gradient is small. Enhanced XCO2 coincident with biomass burning in the Amazon, central Africa, and Indonesia is also evident in this season. In May and June, when the north-south XCO2 gradient is largest, these sources are less apparent in global maps. During this part of the year, OCO-2 maps show a more than 10 ppm reduction in XCO2 across the Northern Hemisphere, as photosynthesis by the land biosphere rapidly absorbs CO2. As the carbon cycle science community continues to analyze these OCO-2 data, information on regional-scale sources (emitters) and sinks (absorbers) which impart XCO2 changes on the order of 1 ppm, as well as far more subtle features, will emerge from this high-resolution global dataset.

  9. Vaping on Instagram: cloud chasing, hand checks and product placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kar-Hai; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Cruz, Tess Boley; Unger, Jennifer B

    2016-09-01

    This study documented images posted on Instagram of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarette) and vaping (activity associated with e-cigarette use). Although e-cigarettes have been studied on Twitter, few studies have focused on Instagram, despite having 500 million users. Instagram's emphasis on images warranted investigation of e-cigarettes, as past tobacco industry strategies demonstrated that images could be used to mislead in advertisements, or normalise tobacco-related behaviours. Findings should prove informative to tobacco control policies in the future. 3 months of publicly available data were collected from Instagram, including images and associated metadata (n=2208). Themes of images were classified as (1) activity, for example, a person blowing vapour; (2) product, for example, a personal photo of an e-cigarette device; (3) advertisement; (4) text, for example, 'meme' or image containing mostly text and (5) other. User endorsement (likes) of each type of image was recorded. Caption text was analysed to explore different trends in vaping and e-cigarette-related text. Analyses found that advertisement-themed images were most common (29%), followed by product (28%), and activity (18%). Likes were more likely to accompany activity and product-themed images compared with advertisement or text-themed images (p<0.01). Vaping-related text greatly outnumbered e-cigarette-related text in the image captions. Instagram affords its users the ability to post images of e-cigarette-related behaviours and gives advertisers the opportunity to display their product. Future research should incorporate novel data streams to improve public health surveillance, survey development and educational campaigns. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Cloud detection algorithm comparison and validation for operational Landsat data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foga, Steven Curtis; Scaramuzza, Pat; Guo, Song; Zhu, Zhe; Dilley, Ronald; Beckmann, Tim; Schmidt, Gail L.; Dwyer, John L.; Hughes, MJ; Laue, Brady

    2017-01-01

    Clouds are a pervasive and unavoidable issue in satellite-borne optical imagery. Accurate, well-documented, and automated cloud detection algorithms are necessary to effectively leverage large collections of remotely sensed data. The Landsat project is uniquely suited for comparative validation of cloud assessment algorithms because the modular architecture of the Landsat ground system allows for quick evaluation of new code, and because Landsat has the most comprehensive manual truth masks of any current satellite data archive. Currently, the Landsat Level-1 Product Generation System (LPGS) uses separate algorithms for determining clouds, cirrus clouds, and snow and/or ice probability on a per-pixel basis. With more bands onboard the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI)/Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) satellite, and a greater number of cloud masking algorithms, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is replacing the current cloud masking workflow with a more robust algorithm that is capable of working across multiple Landsat sensors with minimal modification. Because of the inherent error from stray light and intermittent data availability of TIRS, these algorithms need to operate both with and without thermal data. In this study, we created a workflow to evaluate cloud and cloud shadow masking algorithms using cloud validation masks manually derived from both Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM +) and Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS data. We created a new validation dataset consisting of 96 Landsat 8 scenes, representing different biomes and proportions of cloud cover. We evaluated algorithm performance by overall accuracy, omission error, and commission error for both cloud and cloud shadow. We found that CFMask, C code based on the Function of Mask (Fmask) algorithm, and its confidence bands have the best overall accuracy among the many algorithms tested using our validation data. The Artificial Thermal-Automated Cloud Cover Algorithm (AT-ACCA) is the most accurate

  11. Near-cloud aerosol properties from the 1 km resolution MODIS ocean product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várnai, Tamás.; Marshak, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    This study examines aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds by analyzing high-resolution atmospheric correction parameters provided in the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) ocean color product. The study analyzes data from a 2 week long period of September in 10 years, covering a large area in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. The results indicate that on the one hand, the Quality Assessment (QA) flags of the ocean color product successfully eliminate cloud-related uncertainties in ocean parameters such as chlorophyll content, but on the other hand, using the flags introduces a sampling bias in atmospheric products such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent. Therefore, researchers need to select QA flags by balancing the risks of increased retrieval uncertainties and sampling biases. Using an optimal set of QA flags, the results reveal substantial increases in optical thickness near clouds—on average the increase is 50% for the roughly half of pixels within 5 km from clouds and is accompanied by a roughly matching increase in particle size. Theoretical simulations show that the 50% increase in 550 nm AOT changes instantaneous direct aerosol radiative forcing by up to 8 W/m2 and that the radiative impact is significantly larger if observed near-cloud changes are attributed to aerosol particles as opposed to undetected cloud particles. These results underline that accounting for near-cloud areas and understanding the causes of near-cloud particle changes are critical for accurate calculations of direct aerosol radiative forcing.

  12. PATMOS-x Cloud Climate Record Trend Sensitivity to Reanalysis Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Foster

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuous satellite-derived cloud records now extend over three decades, and are increasingly used for climate applications. Certain applications, such as trend detection, require a clear understanding of uncertainty as it relates to establishing statistical significance. The use of reanalysis products as sources of ancillary data could be construed as one such source of uncertainty, as there has been discussion regarding the suitability of reanalysis products for trend detection. Here we use three reanalysis products: Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR, Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA and European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF ERA-Interim (ERA-I as sources of ancillary data for the Pathfinder Atmospheres Extended/Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (PATMOS-x/AVHRR Satellite Cloud Climate Data Record (CDR, and perform inter-comparisons to determine how sensitive the climatology is to choice of ancillary data source. We find differences among reanalysis fields required for PATMOS-x processing, which translate to small but not insignificant differences in retrievals of cloud fraction, cloud top height and cloud optical depth. The retrieval variability due to choice of reanalysis product is on the order of one third the size of the retrieval uncertainty, making it a potentially significant factor in trend detection. Cloud fraction trends were impacted the most by choice of reanalysis while cloud optical depth trends were impacted the least. Metrics used to determine the skill of the reanalysis products for use as ancillary data found no clear best choice for use in PATMOS-x. We conclude use of reanalysis products as ancillary data in the PATMOS-x/AVHRR Cloud CDR do not preclude its use for trend detection, but for that application uncertainty in reanalysis fields should be better represented in the PATMOS-x retrieval uncertainty.

  13. An assessment of cloud top thermodynamic phase products obtained from A-Train passive and active sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The A-Train observations provide an unprecedented opportunity for the production of high quality dataset describing cloud properties. We illustrate in this study the use of one year of coincident POLDER (Polarization and Directionality of the Earth Reflectance, MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization observations to establish a reference dataset for the description of cloud top thermodynamic phase at global scale. We present the results of an extensive comparison between POLDER and MODIS cloud top phase products and discuss those in view of cloud vertical structure and optical properties derived simultaneously from collocated CALIOP active measurements. These results allow to identify and quantify potential biases present in the 3 considered dataset. Among those, we discuss the impacts of observation geometry, thin cirrus in multilayered and single layered cloud systems, supercooled liquid droplets, aerosols, fractional cloud cover and snow/ice or bright surfaces on global statistics of cloud phase derived from POLDER and MODIS passive measurements. Based on these analysis we define criteria for the selection of high confidence cloud phase retrievals which in turn can serve for the establishment of a reference cloud phase product. This high confidence joint product derived from POLDER/PARASOL and MODIS/Aqua can be used in the future as a benchmark for the evaluation of other cloud climatologies, for the assessment of cloud phase representation in models and the development of better cloud phase parametrization in the general circulation models (GCMs.

  14. Impact of office productivity cloud computing on energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel R; Tang, Yinshan

    2013-05-07

    Cloud computing is usually regarded as being energy efficient and thus emitting less greenhouse gases (GHG) than traditional forms of computing. When the energy consumption of Microsoft's cloud computing Office 365 (O365) and traditional Office 2010 (O2010) software suites were tested and modeled, some cloud services were found to consume more energy than the traditional form. The developed model in this research took into consideration the energy consumption at the three main stages of data transmission; data center, network, and end user device. Comparable products from each suite were selected and activities were defined for each product to represent a different computing type. Microsoft provided highly confidential data for the data center stage, while the networking and user device stages were measured directly. A new measurement and software apportionment approach was defined and utilized allowing the power consumption of cloud services to be directly measured for the user device stage. Results indicated that cloud computing is more energy efficient for Excel and Outlook which consumed less energy and emitted less GHG than the standalone counterpart. The power consumption of the cloud based Outlook (8%) and Excel (17%) was lower than their traditional counterparts. However, the power consumption of the cloud version of Word was 17% higher than its traditional equivalent. A third mixed access method was also measured for Word which emitted 5% more GHG than the traditional version. It is evident that cloud computing may not provide a unified way forward to reduce energy consumption and GHG. Direct conversion from the standalone package into the cloud provision platform can now consider energy and GHG emissions at the software development and cloud service design stage using the methods described in this research.

  15. monthly probabilities for acquiring remote sensed data of indonesia with cloud cover less than 10 , 20 and 30 percent

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. Gastellu- Etcregorry

    2013-01-01

    The Indonesian spatiotemporal cloud cover distribution was quantified with the aid of GMS, Landsat and SPOT data. Iterative interactive factorial analyses grouped pixels with similar profiles into 18 classes for all land areas. For each class, statistics of Landsat and SPOT images, grouped by class, were used to verify, calibrate and improve class profiles. This led to quantified temporal profiles of probability of acquiring remotely sensed data with 10 , 20 and 30 percent cloud cover, for an...

  16. Numerical study for production of space charge within the stratiform cloud

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Srivastava; S N Tripathi

    2010-10-01

    One dimensional numerical model has been developed to predict the production of space charge and variations in other electrical parameters within the low level stratiform type of cloud having very weak vertical motion.Non-linear coupled differential equations which govern ion concentrations,charged and neutral droplet concentrations and electric field were used.Symmetry has been observed in all the electrical parameters within the cloud.The magnitude of average positive ion concentrations was observed to be high as compared to the negative ion concentrations,which is due to low scavenging rate of positive ions than the negative ions,highly attributed to their mobilities.The rate of scavenging of ions affects the concentration of charged droplets,which eventually influence the electric field and thus the space charge density within the cloud.Maximum electric field (max) was observed at middle of the cloud whereas minimum was observed at both the edges of the cloud.Minimum electric field (min) was found to be equal and constant (∼27Vm−1)for any drop concentration.Net positive and negative space charges were observed at the top and bottom of the cloud,respectively.The simulated results show some discrepancies to the natural condition, which are due to simulations made under some basic assumptions and limitations and that will be incorporated in the future studies for natural cloud condition.

  17. Molecules and dust production in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    van Loon, Jacco Th; Oliveira, Joana M; Matsuura, Mikako; McDonald, Iain; Sloan, Gregory C; Wood, Peter R; Zijlstra, Albert A

    2008-01-01

    We present ESO/VLT spectra in the 2.9-4.1 micron range for a large sample of infrared stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), mainly carbon stars, massive oxygen-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars, and red supergiants. Strong emission from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) is detected in the spectrum of the post-AGB object MSX SMC 29. Water ice is detected in at least one Young Stellar Object, IRAS 01042-7215, for the first time in the SMC. The strength and shapes of the molecular bands detected in the evolved stars are compared with similar data for stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Absorption from acetylene in carbon stars is found to be equally strong in the SMC as in the LMC, but the LMC stars show stronger dust emission in their infrared colours and veiling of the molecular bands. This suggests that a critical link exists in the formation of dust from the molecular atmosphere in carbon stars which scales with the initial metallicity. Nucleation seeds based on a secondary element s...

  18. Numerical Simulation of Effects of Cloud Top Temperatures and Generating Cells on Secondary Ice Production in Stratiform Clouds with a Detailed Microphysical Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines a one-dimensional,heightdependent bin model with detailed microphysical processes in which ice splinters are produced by a riming process.The model is then applied to simulate the shift of particle size distribution effected by the secondary ice production process within clouds with different generating cells and cloud top temperatures.The result of model simulations reveals the general effects of cloud updrafts on increasing ice particle concentration by extending the residence time of ice particles in clouds and providing sufficiently large supercooled water droplets.The rimesplintering mechanism is more effective in clouds with lower ice seeding rates than those with higher rates.Evolutions of hydrometeor size distribution triggered by the rime-splintering mechanism indicate that the interaction between large ice particles and supercooled water drops adds a "second maximum" to the primary ice spectra.

  19. An investigation of sulfate production in clouds using a flow-through chemical reactor model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, M. S.; Carmichael, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    A flow-through chemical reactor model is developed to describe the mass transfer and chemical processes that atmospheric gases undergo in clouds. The model includes the simultaneous absorption of SO2, NH3, O3, NO(x), HNO3, CO2 and H2O2, the accompanying dissociation and oxidation reactions in cloud water, considers electrical neutrality, and includes qualitative parameterization of cloud microphysics. The model is used to assess the importance of the oxidation reactions H2O2-S(IV), O3-S(IV), and S(IV)-Mn(2+) catalysis, and the effects of cloud parameters such as drop size, rain intensity, liquid water content, and updraft velocity. Both precipitating and nonprecipitating clouds are studied. Model results predict sulfate production rates varying from 3 percent/hr to 230 percent/hr. The actual rate is highly dependent on the chemical composition of the uptake air and the physical conditions of the cloud. Model results also show that both the H2O2 and the O3 oxidation reactions can be significant.

  20. Cloud Retrieval Intercomparisons Between SEVIRI, MODIS and VIIRS with CHIMAERA PGE06 Data Collection 6 Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Galina; Riedi, Jerome; Platnick, Steven; Heidinger, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The Cross-platform HIgh resolution Multi-instrument AtmosphEric Retrieval Algorithms (CHIMAERA) system allows us to perform MODIS-like cloud top, optical and microphysical properties retrievals on any sensor that possesses a minimum set of common spectral channels. The CHIMAERA system uses a shared-core architecture that takes retrieval method out of the equation when intercomparisons are made. Here we show an example of such retrieval and a comparison of simultaneous retrievals done using SEVIRI, MODIS and VIIRS sensors. All sensor retrievals are performed using CLAVR-x (or CLAVR-x based) cloud top properties algorithm. SEVIRI uses the SAF_NWC cloud mask. MODIS and VIIRS use the IFF-based cloud mask that is a shared algorithm between MODIS and VIIRS. The MODIS and VIIRS retrievals are performed using a VIIRS branch of CHIMAERA that limits available MODIS channel set. Even though in that mode certain MODIS products such as multilayer cloud map are not available, the cloud retrieval remains fully equivalent to operational Data Collection 6.

  1. Lidar Observations of Arctic Aerosols and Clouds in the Free Troposphere for More than Fifteen Months over Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, T.; Shiraishi, K.; Iwasaki, S.; Shiobara, M.; Takano, T.

    2015-12-01

    The information on spatial distributions and microphysical properties of aerosols and clouds is crucial for the studies on their direct and indirect impacts on Arctic climate. Observations of tropospheric aerosols and clouds by Mie/depolarization lidar have been made for more than a year at Ny-Ålesund (79◌N, 12◌E) since March 2014 by using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser and its wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm. The backscattering coefficients at these two wavelengths, and depolarization ratio at 532nm of aerosols and clouds are obtained by the lidar observations. Figures show the results of aerosols for more than a year. Fig. 1 shows the mean backscattering coefficient of aerosols (BSC) at 532 nm, and Fig. 2 shows mean particle depolarization ratio of aerosols (PDR) at 532 nm in 1 km intervals (0.4 km for the lowest height interval) to 5 km in altitude since March 2014 to May 2015. There is a maximum in backscattering coefficient at spring as indicated by previous studies on Arctic aerosols. In addition, there is another maximum at autumn in depolarization ratio and in color ratio, or the ratio of BSC at 1064 nm to BSC at 532 nm.

  2. Cloud Activation Potentials for Atmospheric α-Pinene and β-Caryophyllene Ozonolysis Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray Bé, Ariana; Upshur, Mary Alice; Liu, Pengfei; Martin, Scot T; Geiger, Franz M; Thomson, Regan J

    2017-07-26

    The formation of atmospheric cloud droplets due to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles is important for quantifying the Earth's radiative balance under future, possibly warmer, climates, yet is only poorly understood. While cloud activation may be parametrized using the surface tension depression that coincides with surfactant partitioning to the gas-droplet interface, the extent to which cloud activation is influenced by both the chemical structure and reactivity of the individual molecules comprising this surfactant pool is largely unknown. We report herein considerable differences in the surface tension depression of aqueous pendant droplets that contain synthetically prepared ozonolysis products derived from α-pinene and β-caryophyllene, the most abundant of the monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, respectively, that are emitted over the planet's vast forest ecosystems. Oxidation products derived from β-caryophyllene were found to exhibit significantly higher surface activity than those prepared from α-pinene, with the critical supersaturation required for cloud droplet activation reduced by 50% for β-caryophyllene aldehyde at 1 mM. These considerable reductions in the critical supersaturation were found to coincide with free energies of adsorption that exceed ∼25 kJ/mol, or just one hydrogen bond equivalent, depending on the ammonium sulfate and oxidation product concentration in the solution. Additional experiments showed that aldehyde-containing oxidation products exist in equilibrium with hydrated forms in aqueous solution, which may modulate their bulk solubility and surface activity. Equilibration time scales on the order of 10(-5) to 10(-4) s calculated for micrometer-sized aerosol particles indicate instantaneous surface tension depression in the activation processes leading to cloud formation in the atmosphere. Our findings highlight the underlying importance of molecular structure and reactivity when considering cloud condensation activity in

  3. Development and Evaluation of a Cloud-Gap-Filled MODIS Daily Snow-Cover Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Foster, James L.; Kumar, Sujay V.

    2010-01-01

    The utility of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover products is limited by cloud cover which causes gaps in the daily snow-cover map products. We describe a cloud-gap-filled (CGF) daily snowcover map using a simple algorithm to track cloud persistence, to account for the uncertainty created by the age of the snow observation. Developed from the 0.050 resolution climate-modeling grid daily snow-cover product, MOD10C1, each grid cell of the CGF map provides a cloud-persistence count (CPC) that tells whether the current or a prior day was used to make the snow decision. Percentage of grid cells "observable" is shown to increase dramatically when prior days are considered. The effectiveness of the CGF product is evaluated by conducting a suite of data assimilation experiments using the community Noah land surface model in the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework. The Noah model forecasts of snow conditions, such as snow-water equivalent (SWE), are updated based on the observations of snow cover which are obtained either from the MOD1 OC1 standard product or the new CGF product. The assimilation integrations using the CGF maps provide domain averaged bias improvement of -11 %, whereas such improvement using the standard MOD1 OC1 maps is -3%. These improvements suggest that the Noah model underestimates SWE and snow depth fields, and that the assimilation integrations contribute to correcting this systematic error. We conclude that the gap-filling strategy is an effective approach for increasing cloud-free observations of snow cover.

  4. CREATING PRODUCT MODELS FROM POINT CLOUD OF CIVIL STRUCTURES BASED ON GEOMETRIC SIMILARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hidaka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The existing civil structures must be maintained in order to ensure their expected lifelong serviceability. Careful rehabilitation and maintenance planning plays a significant role in that effort. Recently, construction information modelling (CIM techniques, such as product models, are increasingly being used to facilitate structure maintenance. Using this methodology, laser scanning systems can provide point cloud data that are used to produce highly accurate and dense representations of civil structures. However, while numerous methods for creating a single surface exist, part decomposition is required in order to create product models consisting of more than one part. This research aims at the development of a surface reconstruction system that utilizes point cloud data efficiently in order to create complete product models. The research proposes using the application of local shape matching to the input point clouds in order to define a set of representative parts. These representative parts are then polygonized and copied to locations where the same types of parts exist. The results of our experiments show that the proposed method can efficiently create product models using input point cloud data.

  5. New methods for reducing cloud obscuration based on combination products of MODIS and AMSR2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Muyi; Pan, Yaozhong; Zhu, Xiufang; Yin, Heyang

    2016-04-01

    As one of the main sources for water availability in semi-arid mountain regions, snow melt provides runoff and water supply for the downstream population and is of great importance for both human and environmental systems. For this reason, snow data such as snow cover (SCA) and snow depth (SD) is especially important. Snow cover has been mapped using many remote sensors in the visible, near-infrared, thermal, and microwave wavelengths. Since 1966, optical remote sensors such as AVHRR, Landsat and MODIS have obtained critically important data for observing the earth's snow cover. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) employed by Terra and Aqua satellites provides spatially snow covered data with 500 m and daily temporal resolution. However the utility of the MODIS snow-cover products is limited by cloud cover which causes gaps in the daily snow-cover map products. In this paper, we developed a new method in order to reduce cloud obscuration. This method includes four parts: A) Combining various MODIS Terra and Aqua products; B) Temporal and spatial filtering; C) Zonal snowline approach and D) Combining the product deriving from the above three parts and the AMSR2 passive microwave snow depth product (with a spatial resolution of 10 km). In part D, the consistency of two different data (optical remote sensing data with spatial resolution of 500 m and passive microwave remote sensing data with a spatial resolution of 10 km) was evaluated. This study was carried out for Qinghai Province located in northwestern part of China during 1st, October, 2013 to 31st, March, 2015. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed methodology, 14 MODIS snow cover product tiles (with cloud coverage less than 10%) were selected as possible "ground truth" data and cloud mask was generated for each tile randomly. The results show successful performances arising from the methods applied, which resulted in all cloud coverage being removed. The overall accuracy of

  6. vPresent: A cloud based 3D virtual presentation environment for interactive product customization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoming; Guo, Fei; He, Yifeng; Guan, Ling

    2013-09-01

    In modern society, many companies offer product customization services to their customers. There are two major issues in providing customized products. First, product manufacturers need to effectively present their products to the customers who may be located in any geographical area. Second, customers need to be able to provide their feedbacks on the product in real-time. However, the traditional presentation approaches cannot effectively convey sufficient information for the product or efficiently adjust product design according to customers' real-time feedbacks. In order to address these issues, we propose vPresent , a cloud based 3D virtual presentation environment, in this paper. In vPresent, the product expert can show the 3D virtual product to the remote customers and dynamically customize the product based on customers' feedbacks, while customers can provide their opinions in real time when they are viewing a vivid 3D visualization of the product. Since the proposed vPresent is a cloud based system, the customers are able to access the customized virtual products from anywhere at any time, via desktop, laptop, or even smart phone. The proposed vPresent is expected to effectively deliver 3D visual information to customers and provide an interactive design platform for the development of customized products.

  7. MODIS Cloud Microphysics Product (MOD_PR06OD) Data Collection 6 Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Gala; Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The MODIS Cloud Optical and Microphysical Product (MOD_PR060D) for Data Collection 6 has entered full scale production. Aqua reprocessing is almost completed and Terra reprocessing will begin shortly. Unlike previous collections, the CHIMAERA code base allows for simultaneous processing for multiple sensors and the operational CHIMAERA 6.0.76 stream is also available for VIIRS and SEVIRI sensors and for our E-MAS airborne platform.

  8. Analysis of Water and Energy Budgets and Trends Using the NLDAS Monthly Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, B.; Rui, H.; Mocko, D. M.; Teng, W. L.; Lei, G.

    2012-12-01

    The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS, http://ldas.gsfc.nasa.gov/nldas/) data set, with high spatial and temporal resolutions (0.125° x 0.125°, hourly and monthly), long temporal coverage (Jan. 1979 - present), and various water- and energy-related variables (precipitation, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, radiation, latent heat, and runoff, etc.), is an excellent data source for supporting water and energy cycle studies. NLDAS hourly data, accessible from NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC; Hydrology Data Holdings Portal http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/hydrology/data-holdings), have been broadly used by various user communities in modeling, research, and applications, such as drought and flood monitoring, watershed and water quality management, and case studies for extreme events. NLDAS data sets consist of a Forcing data set for land surface models, comprising a synthesis of best available near-surface observations and reanalyses, and separate land surface model output data sets of NLDAS models driven by the Forcing. To further facilitate analysis of water and energy budgets and trends, NLDAS monthly data products have been recently released by NASA GES DISC. The NLDAS monthly data were generated from NLDAS hourly data, as monthly accumulation for precipitation and monthly average for other variables. NLDAS monthly climatology data set will further be generated based on the monthly data and become accessible also from the Hydrology Data Holdings Portal. This presentation describes the major characteristics of the NLDAS data set. Some preliminary analysis results of water and energy budgets and trends from the NLDAS monthly data are shown and discussed. The NLDAS hourly, monthly, and monthly climatology terrestrial hydrological data could play an important role in characterizing the spatial and temporal variability of water and energy cycles and, thereby, improve our understanding of land

  9. AIRS Water Vapor and Cloud Products Validate and Explain Recent Negative Global and Tropical OLR Trends Observed by CERES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares spatial and temporal anomalies and trends of OLR as observed by CERES and computed based on AIRS retrieved surface and atmospheric geophysical parameters over the time period September 2002 February 2010. This time period is marked by a substantial decreasing OLR trend on the order of -0.1 W/m2/yr averaged over the globe. There are very large spatial variations of these trends however, with local values ranging from -2.6 W/m2/yr to +3.0 W/m2/yr in the tropics. The spatial patterns of the AIRS and CERES trends are in essentially perfect agreement with each other, as are the anomaly time series averaged over different spatial regions. This essentially perfect agreement of OLR anomalies and trends derived from observations by two different instruments, in totally independent and different manners, implies that both sets of results must be highly accurate. The agreement of anomalies and trends of OLR as observed by CERES and computed from AIRS derived products also indirectly validates the anomalies and trends of the AIRS derived products as well. We used the anomalies and trends of AIRS derived water vapor and cloud products to explain why global OLR has had a large negative trend over the time period September 2002 through February 2010. Tropical OLR began to decrease significantly at the onset of a strong La Nina in mid-2007. AIRS products show that cloudiness and mid-tropospheric water vapor began to increase in the region 5degN - 20degS latitude extending eastward from 150degW - 30 E longitude at that time, with a corresponding very large drop in OLR in this region. Late 2009 is characterized by a strong El-Nino, with a corresponding change in sign of observed anomalies of mid-tropospheric water vapor, cloud cover, and OLR in this region, as we] l as that of OLR anomalies in the tropics and globally. Monthly mean anomalies of OLR, water vapor and cloud cover over this region are all shown to be highly correlated in time with those of an El Nino

  10. Vowel Production in 7- to 12-Month-Old Infants with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Rebecca; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Rothpletz, Ann; Sedey, Allison

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine vowel production in 7- to 12-month-old infants with hearing loss. Fifty-four infants were divided into three groups according to degree of hearing loss (mild-to-moderate, moderately severe-to-severe, profound), and their vocalizations were phonetically transcribed from 30-minute videotaped samples. These…

  11. Brain Dynamics of Word Familiarization in 20-Month-Olds: Effects of Productive Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Hansen, Hanna Friis; Svangstu, Janne Mari; Smith, Lars; Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Moen, Inger; Lindgren, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the brain mechanisms involved during young children's receptive familiarization with new words, and whether the dynamics of these mechanisms are related to the child's productive vocabulary size. To this end, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 20-month-old children in a pseudoword repetition task.…

  12. RESEARCH ON THE MEAT PRODUCTION DIFFERENCES DETERMINED BY THE BIRTH MONTH OF THE FATTENED STEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper was to assess the effect of the birth month on some meat production characters such as live weight at the age of 180 days, live weight at the age of 365 days and daily gain during the fattening period in progeny testing for bulls' breeding value estimation in order to correct the biases determined by this environmental factor. In this purpose, the following linear mathematical model was used: xij=m . ai . eij, where xij - the live record of the "j" steer in the month "i" (i=1,2,....12, m- geometrical average of the meat production characters taken into account, ai- the multiplicative effect of the birth month "i" and eij – the residual multiplicative effect. A number of 1,705 half-brothers belonging to 105 Friesian bulls from Romania was included in this progeny testing. In order to eliminate the biases âi, adequate multiplicative adjusting factors were calculated as 1/âi.. The conclusion was that the effects of birth month on the meat production in terms of live weight at the age of 180 days, live weight at the age of 365 days and daily gain during the fattening period should not be ignored, on the contrary, they should be eliminated by correcting the real data using corresponding adjusting factors. Therefore, adjusting factors are justifed to be used in order to improve the accuracy of the bulls' breeding value estimation for meat production.

  13. Vowel Production in 7- to 12-Month-Old Infants with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Rebecca; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Rothpletz, Ann; Sedey, Allison

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine vowel production in 7- to 12-month-old infants with hearing loss. Fifty-four infants were divided into three groups according to degree of hearing loss (mild-to-moderate, moderately severe-to-severe, profound), and their vocalizations were phonetically transcribed from 30-minute videotaped samples. These…

  14. Cloud obstruction and snow cover in Alpine areas from MODIS products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Ronco, P.; De Michele, C.

    2014-11-01

    Snow cover maps provide information of great practical interest for hydrologic purposes: when combined with point values of snow water equivalent (SWE), they enable estimation of the regional snow resource. In this context, Earth observation satellites are an interesting tool for evaluating large scale snow distribution and extension. MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on board Terra and Aqua satellites) daily Snow Covered Area product has been widely tested and proved to be appropriate for hydrologic applications. However, within a daily map the presence of cloud cover can hide the ground, thus obstructing snow detection. Here, we consider MODIS binary products for daily snow mapping over the Po River basin. Ten years (2003-2012) of MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 snow maps have been analysed and processed with the support of a 500 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM). We first investigate the issue of cloud obstruction, highlighting its dependence on altitude and season. Snow maps seem to suffer the influence of overcast conditions mainly in mountain and during the melting period. Thus, cloud cover highly influences those areas where snow detection is regarded with more interest. In spring, the average percentages of area lying beneath clouds are in the order of 70%, for altitudes over 1000 m a.s.l. Then, starting from previous studies, we propose a cloud removal procedure and we apply it to a wide area, characterized by high geomorphological heterogeneity such as the Po River basin. In conceiving the new procedure, our first target was to preserve the daily temporal resolution of the product. Regional snow and land lines were estimated for detecting snow cover dependence on elevation. In cases when there was not enough information on the same day within the cloud-free areas, we used temporal filters with the aim of reproducing the micro-cycles which characterize the transition altitudes, where snow does not stand continually over the entire winter

  15. Extraction of convective cloud parameters from Doppler Weather Radar MAX(Z) product using Image Processing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, M. S.; Puli, Anil; Anuradha, B.

    2016-07-01

    In the present work continuous extraction of convective cloud optical information and reflectivity (MAX(Z) in dBZ) using online retrieval technique for time series data production from Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) located at Indian Meteorological Department, Chennai has been developed in MATLAB. Reflectivity measurements for different locations within the DWR range of 250 Km radii of circular disc area can be retrieved using this technique. It gives both time series reflectivity of point location and also Range Time Intensity (RTI) maps of reflectivity for the corresponding location. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) developed for the cloud reflectivity is user friendly; it also provides the convective cloud optical information such as cloud base height (CBH), cloud top height (CTH) and cloud optical depth (COD). This technique is also applicable for retrieving other DWR products such as Plan Position Indicator (Z, in dBZ), Plan Position Indicator (Z, in dBZ)-Close Range, Volume Velocity Processing (V, in knots), Plan Position Indicator (V, in m/s), Surface Rainfall Intensity (SRI, mm/hr), Precipitation Accumulation (PAC) 24 hrs at 0300UTC. Keywords: Reflectivity, cloud top height, cloud base, cloud optical depth

  16. Laser Remote Sensing from ISS: CATS Cloud and Aerosol Level 2 Data Products (Heritage Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodier Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the recent launch of the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS we have the opportunity to acquire a continuous record of space based lidar measurements spanning from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO era to the start of the EarthCARE mission. Utilizing existing well-validated science algorithms from the CALIPSO mission, we will ingest the CATS data stream and deliver high-quality lidar data sets to the user community at the earliest possible opportunity. In this paper we present an overview of procedures necessary to generate CALIPSO-like lidar level 2 data products from the CATS level 1 data products.

  17. Heterogeneous access and processing of EO-Data on a Cloud based Infrastructure delivering operational Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggemann, F.; Appel, F.; Bach, H.; de la Mar, J.; Schirpke, B.; Dutting, K.; Rucker, G.; Leimbach, D.

    2015-04-01

    To address the challenges of effective data handling faced by Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) a cloud-based infrastructure for accessing and processing of Earth Observation(EO)-data has been developed within the project APPS4GMES(www.apps4gmes.de). To gain homogenous multi mission data access an Input Data Portal (IDP) been implemented on this infrastructure. The IDP consists of an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) conformant catalogue, a consolidation module for format conversion and an OGC-conformant ordering framework. Metadata of various EO-sources and with different standards is harvested and transferred to an OGC conformant Earth Observation Product standard and inserted into the catalogue by a Metadata Harvester. The IDP can be accessed for search and ordering of the harvested datasets by the services implemented on the cloud infrastructure. Different land-surface services have been realised by the project partners, using the implemented IDP and cloud infrastructure. Results of these are customer ready products, as well as pre-products (e.g. atmospheric corrected EO data), serving as a basis for other services. Within the IDP an automated access to ESA's Sentinel-1 Scientific Data Hub has been implemented. Searching and downloading of the SAR data can be performed in an automated way. With the implementation of the Sentinel-1 Toolbox and own software, for processing of the datasets for further use, for example for Vista's snow monitoring, delivering input for the flood forecast services, can also be performed in an automated way. For performance tests of the cloud environment a sophisticated model based atmospheric correction and pre-classification service has been implemented. Tests conducted an automated synchronised processing of one entire Landsat 8 (LS-8) coverage for Germany and performance comparisons to standard desktop systems. Results of these tests, showing a performance improvement by the factor of six, proved the high flexibility and

  18. Laser Remote Sensing from ISS: the CATS-CALIPSO Cloud and Aerosol Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, S. D.; Palm, S. P.; Jensen, M. H.; Yorks, J. E.; McGill, M. J.; Vaughan, M.; Trepte, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a dual-beam, multi-wavelength (1064, 532 and 355 nm), polarization sensitive (1064 and 532 nm) lidar developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for deployment to the International Space Station (ISS) in late 2014. CATS will be mounted on the Japanese Experiment Module's Exposed Facility and will provide near-continuous, altitude-resolved measurements of clouds and aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere. The ISS orbit path provides a unique opportunity to capture the full diurnal cycle of cloud and aerosol development and transport, allowing for studies that are not possible with the lidar aboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission, which flies in the sun-synchronous A-Train orbit. One of the primary objectives of CATS is to continue the CALIPSO data record to provide continuity of aerosol and cloud lidar observations during the transition from CALIPSO to EarthCARE. To accomplish this, the CATS project at GSFC and the CALIPSO project at NASA's Langley Research Center are closely collaborating to develop and deliver a full suite of CALIPSO-like level 2 data products generated from the newly acquired CATS level 1B data. Now in its eighth year of on-orbit operations, the CALIPSO project has developed a robust set of mature and well-validated science algorithms to retrieve the spatial and optical properties of clouds and aerosols from multi-wavelength lidar backscatter signal. By leveraging both new and existing NASA technical resources, this joint effort by the CATS-CALIPSO team will enable rapid delivery of high-quality lidar data sets to the user community at the earliest possible opportunity. In this work we outline the development of the CALIPSO- CATS level 2 software and data products and describe the modifications made to the input CATS data stream and the CALIPSO processing algorithms in order to successfully interface two disparate data processing

  19. The influence of cloud droplet heterogeneity on sulfate production mechanisms constrained by isotopic measurements of sulfate aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, B.; Allman, D. J.; Amos, H. M.; Fairlie, T. D.; Dachs, J.; Hegg, D.; Sletten, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    Observations and modeling studies have shown that heterogeneity in fog and cloud drop size and chemical composition can significantly impact in-cloud sulfate production rates due to the strong pH dependence of the ozone oxidation pathway. Averaging cloud water pH tends to underestimate the fraction of S(IV) that is SO32- leading to underestimates of in-cloud sulfate production rates. Large scale models typically do not account for this heterogeneity due to the large computational expense associated with this calculation, and instead employ bulk calculations or assumptions of cloud water pH. Modeling studies have consistently shown that calculated sulfate production rates using bulk cloud pH treatments tend to underestimate in-cloud sulfate production rates compared to more explicit treatment of cloud drop heterogeneity by underestimating the ozone oxidation pathway. Here, we utilize a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and observations of the oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate aerosol collected during a ship cruise in the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean to quantify sulfate formation pathways in the marine boundary layer. The oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate aerosol is particularly sensitive to the importance of the ozone oxidation pathway due to its large isotopic signature. We employ a model parameterization by Yuen et al. (1996) that accounts for the impact of alkaline, coarse-mode sea salt aerosols on in-cloud sulfate production rates. As sulfate formation in cloud droplets formed on alkaline coarse-mode sea salt aerosols is thought to be dominated by the ozone oxidation pathway, observations of the oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate aerosol provide a robust test of this parameterization. Including the Yuen et al. (1996) parameterization of cloud droplet heterogeneity improves the model's agreement with the observed sulfate oxygen isotopes. Accounting for the impact of cloud droplet heterogeneity on in-cloud sulfate production rates

  20. Effect of Parity and Calving Month on Milk Production and Quality of Greek Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios A. Bampidis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Forty lactating Greek buffalo cows were used in an experiment to determine effects of parity and calf birth month onproductivity and milk composition. Buffalo cows gave birth on months June and August 2009, and were kept undersemi closed system of management. From June to November, during the day the buffalo cows were allowed to grazeon the surroundings from 10:00 h and flocked back at 16:00 h. In the experiment, which started on week 6postpartum and lasted 24 weeks, buffalo cows were fed alfalfa hay, corn silage, wheat straw and concentrate, andwere allocated, relative to parity, into treatments GBP1 (21 buffalo cows with parity 1, 2, and 3 and GBP2 (19buffalo cows with parity 4, 5, and 6, and, relative to calf birth month, into treatments GBB1 (20 buffalo cows withJune as calf birth month and GBB2 (20 buffalo cows with August as calf birth month. Productivity and milkcomposition were not affected (P>0.05 by calf birth month. During the experiment, there were differences(P<0.001 between GBP1 and GBP2 treatments in average milk yield (4.1 vs. 5.3 kg/day, fat yield (0.33 vs. 0.41kg/day, protein yield (0.19 vs. 0.24 kg/day, lactose yield (0.21 vs. 0.27 kg/day and ash yield (0.033 vs. 0.044kg/day. In contrast, milk fat (80.8 g/kg, protein (45.9 g/kg, lactose (51.2 g/kg and ash (8.2 g/kg contents, as wellas somatic cell counts (82.9 ×1000/ml and colony forming units (44.9 ×1000/ml, were not affected (P>0.05 byparity. Milk production and quality of Greek buffalo is generally satisfactory, and may be economically beneficialfor local breeders.

  1. Belle monte-carlo production on the Amazon EC2 cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevior, Martin; Fifield, Tom; Katayama, Nobuhiko

    2010-04-01

    The Belle II experiment which aims to increase the Luminosity of the KEKB collider by a factor of 50 will search for physics beyond the Standard Model through precision measurements and the investigation of rare processes in Flavour physics. The expected data rate is comparable to a current era LHC experiment with commensurate computing needs. Incorporating commercial cloud computing, such as that provided by the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) into the Belle II computing model may provide a lower Total Cost of Ownership for the Belle II computing solution. To investigate this possibility, we have created a system to conduct the complete Belle Monte Carlo simulation chain on EC2 to benchmark the cost and performance of the service. This paper will describe how this was achieved in addition to the drawbacks and costs of large-scale Monte Carlo production on EC2.

  2. Laser Remote Sensing From ISS: CATS Cloud and Aerosol Level 2 Data Products (Heritage Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, Sharon; Vaughan, Mark; Palm, Steve; Jensen, Mike; Yorks, John; McGill, Matt; Trepte, Chip; Murray, Tim; Lee, Kam-Pui

    2015-01-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) instrument was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and deployed to the International Space Station (ISS) on 10 January 2015. CATS is mounted on the Japanese Experiment Module's Exposed Facility (JEM_EF) and will provide near-continuous, altitude-resolved measurements of clouds and aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere. The CATS ISS orbit path provides a unique opportunity to capture the full diurnal cycle of cloud and aerosol development and transport, allowing for studies that are not possible with the lidar aboard the CALIPSO platform, which flies in the sun-synchronous A-Train orbit." " One of the primary science objectives of CATS is to continue the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud profile data record to provide continuity of lidar climate observations during the transition from CALIPSO to EarthCARE. To accomplish this, the CATS project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the CALIPSO project at NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) are closely collaborating to develop and deliver a full suite of CALIPSO-like level 2 data products that will be produced using the newly acquired CATS level 1B data whenever CATS is operating in science modes 1. The CALIPSO mission is now well into its ninth year of on-orbit operations, and has developed a robust set of mature and well-validated science algorithms to retrieve the spatial and optical properties of clouds and aerosols from multi-wavelength lidar backscatter signals. By leveraging both new and existing NASA technical resources, this joint effort by the CATS and CALIPSO teams will deliver validated lidar data sets to the user community at the earliest possible opportunity. The science community will have access to two sets of CATS Level 2 data products. The "Operational" data products will be produced by the GSFC CATS team utilizing the new instrument capabilities (e.g., multiple FOVs and 1064 nm depolarization), while the "Heritage" data products created

  3. Covariability in the Monthly Mean Convective and Radiative Diurnal Cycles in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Jason B.; Taylor, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    The diurnal cycle of convective clouds greatly influences the radiative energy balance in convectively active regions of Earth, through both direct presence, and the production of anvil and stratiform clouds. Previous studies show that the frequency and properties of convective clouds can vary on monthly timescales as a result of variability in the monthly mean atmospheric state. Furthermore, the radiative budget in convectively active regions also varies by up to 7 Wm-2 in convectively active regions. These facts suggest that convective clouds connect atmospheric state variability and radiation variability beyond clear sky effects alone. Previous research has identified monthly covariability between the diurnal cycle of CERES-observed top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes and multiple atmospheric state variables from reanalysis over the Amazon region. ASVs that enhance (reduce) deep convection, such as CAPE (LTS), tend to shift the daily OLR and cloud albedo maxima earlier (later) in the day by 2-3 hr. We first test the analysis method using multiple reanalysis products for both the dry and wet seasons to further investigate the robustness of the preliminary results. We then use CloudSat data as an independent cloud observing system to further evaluate the relationships of cloud properties to variability in radiation and atmospheric states. While CERES can decompose OLR variability into clear sky and cloud effects, it cannot determine what variability in cloud properties lead to variability in the radiative cloud effects. Cloud frequency, cloud top height, and cloud microphysics all contribute to the cloud radiative effect, all of which are observable by CloudSat. In addition, CloudSat can also observe the presence and variability of deep convective cores responsible for the production of anvil clouds. We use these capabilities to determine the covariability of convective cloud properties and the radiative diurnal cycle.

  4. RESEARCH ON THE MILK PRODUCTION DIFFERENCES DETERMINED BY THE CALVING MONTH OF THE DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to assess the effect of the calving month on milk production and to correct the biases determined by this environmental factor in order to increase the precision in the breeding value estimation and assure a better evaluation of candidate cows as mothers of sires and bulls used in the artificial insemination to improve genetic gain in the dairy herds. A specific mathematical model, xij=m . ai . eij, where xij – the milk record of the daughter „j” in the month „i” (i=1,2,....12, m – a constant factor, ai –multiplicative effect of the month „i”, eij – the residual multiplicative effect, was used to process the data regarding milk yield and fat yield by month of calving collected from 4,100 Friesian dairy cows under milk testing. In order to eliminate the biases âi, adequate multiplicative adjusting factors were calculated as 1/âi.. The conclusion was that the calvings carried out in the fall-winter months recorded a milk yield by 3.5 % higher in January, by 5.4 % in September, by 6.3 % in December and by 10.5 % in November. The cows with early spring calving have been distadvantaged by 0.4 % in February, by 1.8 % in August up to 7.9 % in May. Therefore, correction factors are imposed to be used in order to increase precision in milk production estimation and finnaly to assure an accurate breeding value for dairy cows and bulls.

  5. Slow Growth of China's Auto Production and Marketing in the First Four Months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Ning

    2011-01-01

    According to the statistics from China Association of Auto Manufacturers (CAAM),in the first four months of this year,our auto production and marketing grew slowly,while auto import and export grew rapidly.From January to April,the production and marketing of autos were respectively 6,431,100 units and 6,533,900 units,with year-on-year growth of 5.09% and 5.95%,and year-on-year decrease of 58.71% and 54.56% for the growth rate.In April,the production and marketing of autos were respectively 1,535,300 units and 1,552,000 units.It was the first negative growth for China since the financial crisis that our auto industry returned to growth.The overall situation is not optimistic.

  6. A new ice cloud parameterization for infrared radiative transfer simulation of cloudy radiances: Evaluation and optimization with IIR observations and ice cloud profile retrieval products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidot, Jérôme; Baran, Anthony J.; Brunel, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    A new ice cloud optical property database in the thermal infrared has been parameterized for the RTTOV radiative transfer model. The Self-Consistent Scattering Model (SCSM) database is based on an ensemble model of ice crystals and a parameterization of the particle size distribution. This convolution can predict the radiative properties of cirrus without the need of a priori information on the ice particle shape and an estimate of the ice crystal effective dimension. The ice cloud optical properties are estimated through linear parameterizations of ambient temperature and ice water content. We evaluate the new parameterization against existing parameterizations used in RTTOV. We compare infrared observations from Imaging Infrared Radiometer, on board CALIPSO, against RTTOV simulations of the observations. The simulations are performed using two different products of ice cloud profiles, retrieved from the synergy between space-based radar and lidar observations. These are the 2C-ICE and DARDAR products. We optimized the parameterization by testing different SCSM databases, derived from different shapes of the particle size distribution, and weighting the volume extinction coefficient of the ensemble model. By selecting a large global data set of ice cloud profiles of visible optical depths between 0.03 and 4, we found that the simulations, based on the optimized SCSM database parameterization, reproduces the observations with a mean bias of only 0.43 K and a standard deviation of 6.85 K. The optimized SCSM database parameterization can also be applied to any other radiative transfer model.

  7. Two Methods for Retrieving UV Index for All Cloud Conditions from Sky Imager Products or Total SW Radiation Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badosa, Jordi; Calbo, J.; McKenzie, R. L.; Liley, Ben; Gonzalez, J. A.; Forgan, B. W.; Long, Charles N.

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, we assess the cloud effects on UV Index (UVI) and total solar radiation (TR) as a function of cloud cover estimations and sunny conditions (from sky imaging products) as well as of solar zenith angle (SZA). These analyses are undertaken for a southern-hemisphere mid-latitude site where a 10-years dataset is available. It is confirmed that clouds reduce TR more than UV, in particular for obscured Sun conditions, low cloud fraction (< 60%) and large SZA (> 60º). Similarly, clouds enhance TR more than UV, mainly for visible Sun conditions, large cloud fraction and large SZA. Two methods to estimate UVI are developed: 1) from sky imaging cloud cover and sunny conditions, and 2) from TR measurements. Both methods may be used in practical operational applications, although Method 2 shows overall the best performance, since TR allows accounting for cloud optical properties. The mean absolute differences of Method 2 estimations with respect to measured values are 0.17 UVI units (for 1-minute data) and 0.79 Standard Erythemal Dose (SED) units (for daily integrations). Method 1 shows less accurate results but it is still suitable to estimate UVI: mean absolute differences are 0.37 UVI units and 1.6 SED.

  8. Production of L-phenylacetylcarbinol by microbial transformation in polyethylene glycol-induced cloud point system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenzhi; Wang, Zhilong; Li, Wei; Zhuang, Baohua; Qi, Hanshi

    2008-02-01

    Microbial transformation of benzaldehyde into L: -phenylacetylcarbinol by whole cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been carried out in a novel polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced cloud point system. The system is composed of 80 g PEG 20,000, 75 ml Triton X-100, 20 g peptone, 10 g yeast extract, 25 g glucose, 1 g MgSO(4).7H(2)O, 0.05 g CaCl(2).2H(2)O, 35 g Na(2)HPO(4).12H(2)O, and 10.7 g citric acid per liter of tap water. The microbial transformation is conducted at 0.6 ml of acetaldehyde (35% volume content), 0.9 ml of benzaldehyde, and 7 g of wet cell per 100 ml of the PEG-induced cloud point system. Under the conditions, a relatively longer-term bioactivity of whole cell microorganism in the PEG-induced cloud point system has been achieved. A fed-batch microbial transformation process with a discrete addition of glucose and substrate gets a high final product concentration of about 8 g/l.

  9. Data cleaning methodology for monthly water-to-oil and water-to-gas production ratios in continuous resource assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Brian A.; Haines, Seth S.; Gianoutsos, Nicholas J.

    2017-01-19

    Petroleum production data are usually stored in a format that makes it easy to determine the year and month production started, if there are any breaks, and when production ends. However, in some cases, you may want to compare production runs where the start of production for all wells starts at month one regardless of the year the wells started producing. This report describes the JAVA program the U.S. Geological Survey developed to examine water-to-oil and water-to-gas ratios in the form of month 1, month 2, and so on with the objective of estimating quantities of water and proppant used in low-permeability petroleum production. The text covers the data used by the program, the challenges with production data, the program logic for checking the quality of the production data, and the program logic for checking the completeness of the data.

  10. EuroMInd-D: A Density Estimate of Monthly Gross Domestic Product for the Euro Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Marczak, Martyna; Mazzi, Gianluigi

    EuroMInd-D is a density estimate of monthly gross domestic product (GDP) constructed according to a bottom–up approach, pooling the density estimates of eleven GDP components, by output and expenditure type. The components density estimates are obtained from a medium-size dynamic factor model...... parameters, and conditional simulation filters for simulating from the predictive distribution of GDP. Both algorithms process sequentially the data as they become available in real time. The GDP density estimates for the output and expenditure approach are combined using alternative weighting schemes...

  11. Aerosol-Phase Production of Nitrogen-Containing Oligomers After Uptake of Methylglyoxal and Cloud Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Haan, D. O.; Riva, M.; Surratt, J. D.; Cazaunau, M.; Doussin, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Minimal organic aerosol forms when aerosol particles are exposed to gas-phase methylglyoxal, but condensed phase laboratory studies of aerosol chemistry have suggested that methylglyoxal is a significant source of oligomerized aerosol material. In this study, various types of seed particles were exposed to gaseous methylglyoxal and then cloud-processed in the CESAM chamber. The gas phase was continuously probed by high-resolution PTR-MS during the experiments, and the particle phase WSOC was chemically characterized by high-resolution UPLC/ESI-DAD-QTOFMS. Uptake of methylglyoxal to dry particles caused optical rather than size changes, along with the release of imine products to the gas phase. High RH and cloud processing released some particle-bound methylglyoxal back to the gas phase but triggered an uptake of imine products. Analysis of the particle phase identified N-containing aldol condensation products derived from methylglyoxal, imine (produced from methylglyoxal and amine reactions), acetaldehyde (produced by methylglyoxal photolysis) and hydroxyacetone (produced by methylglyoxal disproportionation) monomers.

  12. Woody biomass production lags stem-girth increase by over one month in coniferous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Henri E; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Frank, David; Fonti, Patrick; Mäkinen, Harri; Prislan, Peter; Rossi, Sergio; Del Castillo, Edurne Martinez; Campelo, Filipe; Vavrčík, Hanuš; Camarero, Jesus Julio; Bryukhanova, Marina V; Jyske, Tuula; Gričar, Jožica; Gryc, Vladimír; De Luis, Martin; Vieira, Joana; Čufar, Katarina; Kirdyanov, Alexander V; Oberhuber, Walter; Treml, Vaclav; Huang, Jian-Guo; Li, Xiaoxia; Swidrak, Irene; Deslauriers, Annie; Liang, Eryuan; Nöjd, Pekka; Gruber, Andreas; Nabais, Cristina; Morin, Hubert; Krause, Cornelia; King, Gregory; Fournier, Meriem

    2015-10-26

    Wood is the main terrestrial biotic reservoir for long-term carbon sequestration(1), and its formation in trees consumes around 15% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions each year(2). However, the seasonal dynamics of woody biomass production cannot be quantified from eddy covariance or satellite observations. As such, our understanding of this key carbon cycle component, and its sensitivity to climate, remains limited. Here, we present high-resolution cellular based measurements of wood formation dynamics in three coniferous forest sites in northeastern France, performed over a period of 3 years. We show that stem woody biomass production lags behind stem-girth increase by over 1 month. We also analyse more general phenological observations of xylem tissue formation in Northern Hemisphere forests and find similar time lags in boreal, temperate, subalpine and Mediterranean forests. These time lags question the extension of the equivalence between stem size increase and woody biomass production to intra-annual time scales(3, 4, 5, 6). They also suggest that these two growth processes exhibit differential sensitivities to local environmental conditions. Indeed, in the well-watered French sites the seasonal dynamics of stem-girth increase matched the photoperiod cycle, whereas those of woody biomass production closely followed the seasonal course of temperature. We suggest that forecasted changes in the annual cycle of climatic factors(7) may shift the phase timing of stem size increase and woody biomass production in the future.

  13. Investigation on the monthly variation of cirrus optical properties over the Indian subcontinent using cloud-aerosol lidar and infrared pathfinder satellite observation (Calipso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaman, Reji K.; Satyanarayana, Malladi; Jayeshlal, G. S.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Krishnakumar, V.

    2016-05-01

    Cirrus clouds have been identified as one of the atmospheric component which influence the radiative processes in the atmosphere and plays a key role in the Earth Radiation Budget. CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) is a joint NASA-CNES satellite mission designed to provide insight in understanding of the role of aerosols and clouds in the climate system. This paper reports the study on the variation of cirrus cloud optical properties of over the Indian sub - continent for a period of two years from January 2009 to December 2010, using cloud-aerosol lidar and infrared pathfinder satellite observations (Calipso). Indian Ocean and Indian continent is one of the regions where cirrus occurrence is maximum particularly during the monsoon periods. It is found that during the south-west monsoon periods there is a large cirrus cloud distribution over the southern Indian land masses. Also it is observed that the north-east monsoon periods had optical thick clouds hugging the coast line. The summer had large cloud formation in the Arabian Sea. It is also found that the land masses near to the sea had large cirrus presence. These cirrus clouds were of high altitude and optical depth. The dependence of cirrus cloud properties on cirrus cloud mid-cloud temperature and geometrical thickness are generally similar to the results derived from the ground-based lidar. However, the difference in macrophysical parameter variability shows the limits of space-borne-lidar and dissimilarities in regional climate variability and the nature and source of cloud nuclei in different geographical regions.

  14. Cloud parameters from zenith transmittances measured by sky radiometer at surface: Method development and satellite product validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Pradeep; Hayasaka, Tadahiro; Iwabuchi, Hironobu; Takamura, Tamio; Irie, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Takashi Y.; Letu, Husi; Kai, Qin

    2017-04-01

    Clouds are known to have profound impacts on atmospheric radiation and water budget, climate change, atmosphere-surface interaction, and so on. Cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective radius (Re) are two fundamental cloud parameters required to study clouds from climatological and hydrological point of view. Large spatial-temporal coverages of those cloud parameters from space observation have proved to be very useful for cloud research; however, validation of space-based products is still a challenging task due to lack of reliable data. Ground-based remote sensing instruments, such as sky radiometers distributed around the world through international observation networks of SKYNET (http://atmos2.cr.chiba-u.jp/skynet/) and AERONET (https://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) have a great potential to produce ground-truth cloud parameters at different parts of the globe to validate satellite products. Focusing to the sky radiometers of SKYNET and AERONET, a few cloud retrieval methods exists, but those methods have some difficulties to address the problem when cloud is optically thin. It is because the observed transmittances at two wavelengths can be originated from more than one set of COD and Re, and the choice of the most plausible set is difficult. At the same time, calibration issue, especially for the wavelength of near infrared (NIR) region, which is important to retrieve Re, is also a difficult task at present. As a result, instruments need to be calibrated at a high mountain or calibration terms need to be transferred from a standard instrument. Taking those points on account, we developed a new retrieval method emphasizing to overcome above-mentioned difficulties. We used observed transmittances of multiple wavelengths to overcome the first problem. We further proposed a method to obtain calibration constant of NIR wavelength channel using observation data. Our cloud retrieval method is found to produce relatively accurate COD and Re when validated them using

  15. Screening of cloud microorganisms isolated at the Puy de Dôme (France) station for the production of biosurfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Pascal; Canet, Isabelle; Sancelme, Martine; Wirgot, Nolwenn; Deguillaume, Laurent; Delort, Anne-Marie

    2016-09-01

    A total of 480 microorganisms collected from 39 clouds sampled at the Puy de Dôme station (alt. 1465 m; 45°46'19'' N, 2°57'52'' E; Massif Central, France) were isolated and identified. This unique collection was screened for biosurfactant (surfactants of microbial origin) production by measuring the surface tension (σ) of the crude extracts, comprising the supernatants of the pure cultures, using the pendant drop technique. The results showed that 41 % of the tested strains were active producers (σ biosurfactant producers (σ biosurfactant production (45biosurfactants. We observed some correlations between the chemical composition of cloud water and the presence of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, suggesting the "biogeography" of this production. Moreover, the potential impact of the production of biosurfactants by cloud microorganisms on atmospheric processes is discussed.

  16. A Study of Global Cirrus Cloud Morphology with AIRS Cloud-clear Radiances (CCRs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong L.; Gong, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Version 6 (V6) AIRS cloud-clear radiances (CCR) are used to derive cloud-induced radiance (Tcir=Tb-CCR) at the infrared frequencies of weighting functions peaked in the middle troposphere. The significantly improved V 6 CCR product allows a more accurate estimation of the expected clear-sky radiance as if clouds are absent. In the case where strong cloud scattering is present, the CCR becomes unreliable, which is reflected by its estimated uncertainty, and interpolation is employed to replace this CCR value. We find that Tcir derived from this CCR method are much better than other methods and detect more clouds in the upper and lower troposphere as well as in the polar regions where cloud detection is particularly challenging. The cloud morphology derived from the V6 test month, as well as some artifacts, will be shown.

  17. Production of Salt Nuclei for Cloud Brightening using Taylor Cone Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, G.; Donald, D. K.; Foster, J. D.; Galbraith, L.; Johnston, D.; Meyer, J.; Neukermans, A. P.; Ormond, R. D.; Rush, J.; Vaught, J.; Wang, Q.

    2011-12-01

    Implementation of the Latham-Salter geoengineering scheme for cloud brightening would require the production of vast quantities of salt nuclei (CCN). It is estimated that salt cubes at least 32 nm on an edge would convert into cloud droplets at 0.5% atmospheric supersaturation. Liquid Taylor cones formed at the end of capillaries (or holes) under high electric fields (1 V/nm) produce jets that can yield nearly mono-disperse droplets under the right conditions. The conductivity of seawater (4 S/m) is such that, at the appropriate flow rate, crystals formed on evaporation of the droplets are of the right size, and prove to be fairly monodisperse. A SEM image of crystals so-produced is shown below. Droplet evaporation and crystal formation is found to be almost instantaneous (10-5 sec), and conversion to cloud droplets in the lab occurs at the expected supersaturation value. Each Taylor cone jet is estimated to produce on the order of 109 droplets/sec (plus an equal number of satellite drops 2-3x smaller). Hence roughly 108 cone jets would be needed to produce a single L-S sprayer (1017 CCN/sec). It is proposed that jets could be obtained from arrays of laser-drilled holes in Kapton, the surface of which has been treated to make it super-hydrophobic. Assuming the same density as has been achieved in micro-machined cone jet arrays (104/cm2), the sprayer would need to be 1 m2 in area. To eliminate corona discharge, optimum operating conditions require holes smaller than 15 μm in diameter and a slight over-pressure, which also helps guide the flow out of each of the larger diameter apertures in the down-stream extraction electrode.

  18. The Operational MODIS Cloud Optical and Microphysical Property Product: Overview of the Collection 6 Algorithm and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Wind, Galina; Amarasinghe, Nandana; Marchant, Benjamin; Arnold, G. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Operational Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of cloud optical and microphysical properties (part of the archived products MOD06 and MYD06, for MODIS Terra and Aqua, respectively) are currently being reprocessed along with other MODIS Atmosphere Team products. The latest "Collection 6" processing stream, which is expected to begin production by summer 2012, includes updates to the previous cloud retrieval algorithm along with new capabilities. The 1 km retrievals, based on well-known solar reflectance techniques, include cloud optical thickness, effective particle radius, and water path, as well as thermodynamic phase derived from a combination of solar and infrared tests. Being both global and of high spatial resolution requires an algorithm that is computationally efficient and can perform over all surface types. Collection 6 additions and enhancements include: (i) absolute effective particle radius retrievals derived separately from the 1.6 and 3.7 !-lm bands (instead of differences relative to the standard 2.1 !-lm retrieval), (ii) comprehensive look-up tables for cloud reflectance and emissivity (no asymptotic theory) with a wind-speed interpolated Cox-Munk BRDF for ocean surfaces, (iii) retrievals for both liquid water and ice phases for each pixel, and a subsequent determination of the phase based, in part, on effective radius retrieval outcomes for the two phases, (iv) new ice cloud radiative models using roughened particles with a specified habit, (v) updated spatially-complete global spectral surface albedo maps derived from MODIS Collection 5, (vi) enhanced pixel-level uncertainty calculations incorporating additional radiative error sources including the MODIS L1 B uncertainty index for assessing band and scene-dependent radiometric uncertainties, (v) and use of a new 1 km cloud top pressure/temperature algorithm (also part of MOD06) for atmospheric corrections and low cloud non-unity emissivity temperature adjustments.

  19. Buoyant production and consumption of turbulence kinetic energy in cloud-topped mixed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that studies of the entraining planetary boundary layer (PBL) have generally emphasized the role of buoyancy fluxes in driving entrainment. The buoyancy flux is proportional to the rate of conversion of the potential energy of the mean flow into the kinetic energy of the turbulence. It is not unusual for conversion to proceed in both directions simultaneously. This occurs, for instance, in both clear and cloudy convective mixed layers which are capped by inversions. A partitioning of the net conversion into positive parts, generating turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), and negative parts (TKE-consuming), would make it possible to include the positive part in the gross production rate, and closure would be achieved. Three different approaches to partitioning have been proposed. The present investigation is concerned with a comparison of the three partitioning theories. Particular attention is given to the cloud-topped mixed layer because in this case the differences between two partitioning approaches are most apparent.

  20. Sensitivity of the NEON Imaging Spectrometer Data Products to Cloud Conditions and Solar Illumination Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisso, N.

    2016-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network is a continental-scale ecological observatory funded by the NSF to collect and disseminate ecological data. NEON consists of standardized terrestrial, instrumental, and aquatic observation systems in addition to an airborne remote sensing component. The Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) group operates a payload of sensors including a waveform LiDAR, imaging spectrometer (NIS) and an RGB camera. To support the NEON project, three payloads are intended to annually acquire data over sites distributed throughout the United States in 20 individual eco-climatic regions during periods of vegetative peak greenness. The NIS is a push-broom visible to shortwave infrared (VSWIR) spectrometer (380 to 2500 nm) designed by NASA JPL for ecological applications. The NIS collects data at 5 nm spectral intervals with approximately 600 spatial pixels covering a 34-degree Field-of View. At the nominal operational flight altitude of 1000 m, the 1 mRad IFOV allows development of surface reflectance and higher-level data products at 1 m spatial resolution. Two of the primary operational constraints prohibiting accurate surface reflectance retrievals from the NIS, are 1) sufficiently clear cloud conditions and 2) sufficiently high solar zenith angles. To understand the limitations of the NIS and the quality of the derived data products under these constraints, a sensitivity analysis was undertaken which consisted of repeated NIS acquisitions with North-South and East-West flight lines over a consistent vegetated target area at Table Mountain, Colorado. Several flights were conducted as solar zenith angles varied from 20° to 70° and during clear and varying cloud conditions. During the acquisition, validation data in the form of field spectrometer measurements were acquired over two tarps of nominal 3% and 48% spectral reflectance, as well as of vegetation and gravel roadways within the target collection area. Results from the analysis showed

  1. A Novel Feature Cloud Visualization for Depiction of Product Features Extracted from Customer Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Ahmad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been an exponential growth of web content on the World Wide Web and online users contributing to majority of the unstructured data which also contain a good amount of information on many different subjects that may range from products, news, programmes and services. Many a times other users read these reviews and try to find the meaning of the sentences expressed by the reviewers. Since the number and the length of the reviews are so large that most the times the user will read a few reviews and would like to take an informed decision on the subject that is being talked about. Many different methods have been adopted by websites like numerical rating, star rating, percentage rating etc. However, these methods fail to give information on the explicit features of the product and their overall weight when taking the product in totality. In this paper, a framework has been presented which first calculates the weight of the features depending on the user satisfaction or dissatisfaction expressed on individual features and further a feature cloud visualization has been proposed which uses two level of specificity where the first level lists the extracted features and the second level shows the opinions on those features. A font generation function has been applied which calculates the font size depending on the importance of the features vis-a-vis with the opinion expressed on them.

  2. Global Precipitation Variations and Long-term Changes Derived from the GPCP Monthly Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert F.; Gu, Guojun; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Global and large regional rainfall variations and possible long-term changes are examined using the 25-year (1979-2004) monthly dataset from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). The emphasis is to discriminate among the variations due to ENSO, volcanic events and possible long-term changes. Although the global change of precipitation in the data set is near zero, the data set does indicate an upward trend (0.13 mm/day/25yr) and a downward trend (-0.06 mm/day/25yr) over tropical oceans and lands (25S-25N), respectively. This corresponds to a 4% increase (ocean) and 2% decrease (land) during this time period. Techniques are applied to attempt to eliminate variations due to ENSO and major volcanic eruptions. The impact of the two major volcanic eruptions over the past 25 years is estimated to be about a 5% reduction in tropical rainfall. The modified data set (with ENSO and volcano effect removed) retains the same approximate change slopes, but with reduced variance leading to significance tests with results in the 90-95% range. Inter-comparisons between the GPCP, SSWI (1988-2004), and TRMM (1998-2004) rainfall products are made to increase or decrease confidence in the changes seen in the GPCP analysis.

  3. Production of lightning NOx and its vertical distribution calculated from three-dimensional cloud-scale chemical transport model simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Ott, Lesley E.

    2010-02-18

    A three-dimensional (3-D) cloud-scale chemical transport model that includes a parameterized source of lightning NOx on the basis of observed flash rates has been used to simulate six midlatitude and subtropical thunderstorms observed during four field projects. Production per intracloud (PIC) and cloud-to-ground (PCG) flash is estimated by assuming various values of PIC and PCG for each storm and determining which production scenario yields NOx mixing ratios that compare most favorably with in-cloud aircraft observations. We obtain a mean PCG value of 500 moles NO (7 kg N) per flash. The results of this analysis also suggest that on average, PIC may be nearly equal to PCG, which is contrary to the common assumption that intracloud flashes are significantly less productive of NO than are cloud-to-ground flashes. This study also presents vertical profiles of the mass of lightning NOx after convection based on 3-D cloud-scale model simulations. The results suggest that following convection, a large percentage of lightning NOx remains in the middle and upper troposphere where it originated, while only a small percentage is found near the surface. The results of this work differ from profiles calculated from 2-D cloud-scale model simulations with a simpler lightning parameterization that were peaked near the surface and in the upper troposphere (referred to as a “C-shaped” profile). The new model results (a backward C-shaped profile) suggest that chemical transport models that assume a C-shaped vertical profile of lightning NOx mass may place too much mass near the surface and too little in the middle troposphere.

  4. Cloud Computing (1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Bai; Xu Liutong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Editor's Desk: Cloud computing is a topic of intense interest in the Internet field. Major IT giants have launched their own cloud computing products. This four-part lecture series will discuss cloud computing technology in the following aspects: The first part provides a brief description of the origin and characteristics of cloud computing from the users view of point; the other parts introduce typical applications of cloud computing, technically analyze the specific content within the cloud, its components, architecture and computational paradigm, compare cloud computing to other distributed computing technologies, and discuss its successful cases, commercial models, related technical and economic issues, and development trends.

  5. Cloud Computing (2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Bai; Xu Liutong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Editor's Desk: Cloud computing is a topic of intense interest in the Internet field. Major IT giants have launched their own cloud computing products. This four-part lecture series discusses cloud computing technology in the following aspects: The first part provided a brief description of the origin and characteristics of cloud computing from the users view of point; the other parts introduce typical applications of cloud computing, technically analyze the specific content within the cloud, its components, architecture and computational paradigm, compare cloud computing to other distributed computing technologies, and discuss its successful cases, commercial models, related technical and economic issues, and development trends.

  6. Automated Job Controller for Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Production Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, J. L.; Hillyer, T. N.

    2011-12-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is one of NASA's highest priority Earth Observing System (EOS) scientific instruments. The CERES science team will integrate data from the CERES Flight Model 5 (FM5) on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) in addition to the four CERES scanning instrument on Terra and Aqua. The CERES production system consists of over 75 Product Generation Executives (PGEs) maintained by twelve subsystem groups. The processing chain fuses CERES instrument observations with data from 19 other unique sources. The addition of FM5 to over 22 instrument years of data to be reprocessed from flight models 1-4 creates a need for an optimized production processing approach. This poster discusses a new approach, using JBoss and Perl to manage job scheduling and interdependencies between PGEs and external data sources. The new optimized approach uses JBoss to serve handler servlets which regulate PGE-level job interdependencies and job completion notifications. Additional servlets are used to regulate all job submissions from the handlers and to interact with the operator. Perl submission scripts are used to build Process Control Files and to interact directly with the operating system and cluster scheduler. The result is a reduced burden on the operator by algorithmically enforcing a set of rules that determine the optimal time to produce data products with the highest integrity. These rules are designed on a per PGE basis and periodically change. This design provides the means to dynamically update PGE rules at run time and increases the processing throughput by using an event driven controller. The immediate notification of a PGE's completion (an event) allows successor PGEs to launch at the proper time with minimal start up latency, thereby increasing computer system utilization.

  7. Evaluating the Acceptance of Cloud-Based Productivity Computer Solutions in Small and Medium Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing has emerged as a new paradigm for on-demand delivery and consumption of shared IT resources over the Internet. Research has predicted that small and medium organizations (SMEs) would be among the earliest adopters of cloud solutions; however, this projection has not materialized. This study set out to investigate if behavior…

  8. Evaluating the Acceptance of Cloud-Based Productivity Computer Solutions in Small and Medium Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing has emerged as a new paradigm for on-demand delivery and consumption of shared IT resources over the Internet. Research has predicted that small and medium organizations (SMEs) would be among the earliest adopters of cloud solutions; however, this projection has not materialized. This study set out to investigate if behavior…

  9. Cloud Optical Properties from the Multifilter Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSRCLDOD). An ARM Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D. D. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); McFarlane, S. A. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Riihimaki, L. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shi, Y. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lo, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Min, Q. [State University of New York, Albany; DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The microphysical properties of clouds play an important role in studies of global climate change. Observations from satellites and surface-based systems have been used to infer cloud optical depth and effective radius. Min and Harrison (1996) developed an inversion method to infer the optical depth of liquid water clouds from narrow band spectral Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) measurements (Harrison et al. 1994). Their retrieval also uses the total liquid water path (LWP) measured by a microwave radiometer (MWR) to obtain the effective radius of the warm cloud droplets. Their results were compared with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) retrieved values at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site (Min and Harrison 1996). Min et al. (2003) also validated the retrieved cloud optical properties against in situ observations, showing that the retrieved cloud effective radius agreed well with the in situ forward scattering spectrometer probe observations. The retrieved cloud optical properties from Min et al. (2003) were used also as inputs to an atmospheric shortwave model, and the computed fluxes were compared with surface pyranometer observations.

  10. A Clinical Study of the Effectiveness of Two Different 10% Carbamide Peroxide Bleaching Products: A 6-Month Followup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Grobler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two different 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching products just after treatment and after a 6-month follow-up period. Methods. Two 10% carbamide peroxide products (Opalescence PF and Nite White ACP were applied nightly for 14 days, according to the manufacturers' instructions. The color of teeth 11 and 21 of thirty-four subjects having A2 or darker teeth were measured with a spectrophotometer (L∗;a∗;b∗ before treatment, just after treatment (14 days and after 6 months. Results and Conclusions. Both products produced significant whitening of teeth with total color change (ΔEab∗ of approximately 5.20 units. There was a significant improvement in all 3 color coordinates (L*,a*, and b∗ for up to 6 months postbleaching (P<.05. Nite White showed a higher degree of relapse (27% than Opalescence (18% over the 6-month period. It is suggested that rebleaching after 6 months is not necessary.

  11. Differences at 17 months : Productive language patterns in infants at familial risk for dyslexia and typically developing infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Charlotte; Been, PH; Krikhaar, EM; Zwarts, F; Diepstra, HD; van Leeuwen, Theo H.

    Productive vocabulary composition is investigated in 17-month-old children who are participating in an ongoing longitudinal dyslexia research project in the Netherlands. The project is searching for early precursors for dyslexia and follows a group of children who are genetically at risk for

  12. NESDIS-Unique CrIS-ATMS Product System (NUCAPS) Cloud-Cleared Radiances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Cloud-Cleared Radiances (CCRs) from the NOAA-Unique CrIS-ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS). NUCAPS was developed by the NOAA/NESDIS Center for...

  13. Action Production Influences 12-Month-Old Infants' Attention to Others' Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Erin N.; Woodward, Amanda L.; Gredeback, Gustaf; von Hofsten, Claes; Turek, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Recent work implicates a link between action control systems and action understanding. In this study, we investigated the role of the motor system in the development of visual anticipation of others' actions. Twelve-month-olds engaged in behavioral and observation tasks. "Containment activity", infants' spontaneous engagement in producing…

  14. Production system and seasonal effects on textural properties of two-month ripened goat’s cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ronchietto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, there has been a revival in goat rearing and a resumption in the making of goat’s cheeses in the Province of Trento. Given this, and the local interest in maintaining the production and its traditions, a qualitative description of the goat’s cheeses is desirable. In this study, texture profile analysis, TPA, was used to examine the variability of the rheological properties, depending on production system and season, in raw milk semicooked paste goat’s cheese, ripened for two months, as the Trento Goat Cheese of Traditional Agrifood Products (D.M. n. 350, 1999.

  15. Cloud vertical distribution from radiosonde, remote sensing, and model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinqiang; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Hongbin; Yoo, Hyelim; Cribb, Maureen

    2014-08-01

    Knowledge of cloud vertical structure is important for meteorological and climate studies due to the impact of clouds on both the Earth's radiation budget and atmospheric adiabatic heating. Yet it is among the most difficult quantities to observe. In this study, we develop a long-term (10 years) radiosonde-based cloud profile product over the Southern Great Plains and along with ground-based and space-borne remote sensing products, use it to evaluate cloud layer distributions simulated by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction global forecast system (GFS) model. The primary objective of this study is to identify advantages and limitations associated with different cloud layer detection methods and model simulations. Cloud occurrence frequencies are evaluated on monthly, annual, and seasonal scales. Cloud vertical distributions from all datasets are bimodal with a lower peak located in the boundary layer and an upper peak located in the high troposphere. In general, radiosonde low-level cloud retrievals bear close resemblance to the ground-based remote sensing product in terms of their variability and gross spatial patterns. The ground-based remote sensing approach tends to underestimate high clouds relative to the radiosonde-based estimation and satellite products which tend to underestimate low clouds. As such, caution must be exercised to use any single product. Overall, the GFS model simulates less low-level and more high-level clouds than observations. In terms of total cloud cover, GFS model simulations agree fairly well with the ground-based remote sensing product. A large wet bias is revealed in GFS-simulated relative humidity fields at high levels in the atmosphere.

  16. Partial Collapse of Plinian Volcanic Jets and the Production of Multiply Layered Ash Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, J. T.; Jellinek, M.

    2014-12-01

    Powerful explosive volcanic eruptions inject ash high into the atmosphere, which spreads as an intrusion to form characteristic umbrella-shaped clouds. An enigmatic feature of a number of recent eruption clouds (e.g. Popocatepetl, 2012; Soufriere Hills, 2010; Mt. St. Helens, 1980 and Puyehue, 2011) is that they are constructed of multiple layers (Figure 1, left). How such layering emerges within an advancing gravity current of initially well-mixed ash is unclear. Potential major controls include the strength and structure of the atmospheric density stratification, the particle size distribution within the ash cloud and the entrainment of ambient atmosphere into the rising plume. Accordingly, we conduct analog experiments in which saltwater jets with mono- and bi-disperse suspensions of fine and coarse silica particles are injected into a saltwater tank with a linear density stratification. Whereas classical umbrella clouds are produced for strong jets (low source Richardson number, -Ri0) under all particle-loading conditions, multiply layered clouds emerge for weak jets (high -Ri0) and relatively concentrated bi-disperse and coarse mono-disperse suspensions. In particular, at high -Ri0 coarse particles inhibit entrainment and enhance the partial collapse of rising jets to form gravity currents that intermittently descend along the jet margin and spread at varying neutral buoyancy heights to form layers. For high concentrations of coarse sand gravity currents can reach the tank floor. Collapse and compaction of this material to form a deposit expels buoyant interstitial fluid that rises to form additional layers below and within the overlying multiply layered cloud. One layer and multiply layered clouds have distinct depositional patterns and present unique risks to air traffic.

  17. Ten Years of Cloud Optical and Microphysical Retrievals from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Wind, Galina; Hubanks, Paul; Arnold, G. Thomas; Amarasinghe, Nandana

    2010-01-01

    The MODIS cloud optical properties algorithm (MOD06/MYD06 for Terra and Aqua MODIS, respectively) has undergone extensive improvements and enhancements since the launch of Terra. These changes have included: improvements in the cloud thermodynamic phase algorithm; substantial changes in the ice cloud light scattering look up tables (LUTs); a clear-sky restoral algorithm for flagging heavy aerosol and sunglint; greatly improved spectral surface albedo maps, including the spectral albedo of snow by ecosystem; inclusion of pixel-level uncertainty estimates for cloud optical thickness, effective radius, and water path derived for three error sources that includes the sensitivity of the retrievals to solar and viewing geometries. To improve overall retrieval quality, we have also implemented cloud edge removal and partly cloudy detection (using MOD35 cloud mask 250m tests), added a supplementary cloud optical thickness and effective radius algorithm over snow and sea ice surfaces and over the ocean, which enables comparison with the "standard" 2.1 11m effective radius retrieval, and added a multi-layer cloud detection algorithm. We will discuss the status of the MOD06 algorithm and show examples of pixellevel (Level-2) cloud retrievals for selected data granules, as well as gridded (Level-3) statistics, notably monthly means and histograms (lD and 2D, with the latter giving correlations between cloud optical thickness and effective radius, and other cloud product pairs).

  18. High consumption of commercial food products among children less than 24 months of age and product promotion in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pries, Alissa M; Huffman, Sandra L; Adhikary, Indu; Upreti, Senendra Raj; Dhungel, Shrid; Champeny, Mary; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Commercially produced complementary foods can help improve nutritional status of young children if they are appropriately fortified and of optimal nutrient composition. However, other commercially produced snack food products may be nutritionally detrimental, potentially increasing consumption of foods high in salt or sugar and displacing consumption of other more nutritious options. Helen Keller International, in collaboration with the Nepal government, implemented a study to assess mothers' utilization of commercial food products for child feeding and exposure to commercial promotions for these products. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 309 mothers of children less than 24 months of age across 15 health facilities. Utilization of breastmilk substitutes was low, having been consumed by 6.2% of children 0-5 months of age and 7.5% of children 6-23 months of age. Approximately one-fourth (24.6%) of children 6-23 months age had consumed a commercially produced complementary food in the prior day. Twenty-eight percent of mothers reported observing a promotion for breastmilk substitutes, and 20.1% reported promotions for commercially produced complementary foods. Consumption of commercially produced snack food products was high at 74.1% of children 6-23 months. Promotions for these same commercially produced snack food products were highly prevalent in Kathmandu Valley, reported by 85.4% of mothers. In order to improve diets during the complementary feeding period, development of national standards for complementary food products is recommended. Nutritious snack options should be promoted for the complementary feeding period; consumption of commercially produced snack food products high in sugar and salt and low in nutrients should be discouraged.

  19. High consumption of commercial food products among children less than 24 months of age and product promotion in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sandra L.; Adhikary, Indu; Upreti, Senendra Raj; Dhungel, Shrid; Champeny, Mary; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Commercially produced complementary foods can help improve nutritional status of young children if they are appropriately fortified and of optimal nutrient composition. However, other commercially produced snack food products may be nutritionally detrimental, potentially increasing consumption of foods high in salt or sugar and displacing consumption of other more nutritious options. Helen Keller International, in collaboration with the Nepal government, implemented a study to assess mothers' utilization of commercial food products for child feeding and exposure to commercial promotions for these products. A cross‐sectional survey was conducted among 309 mothers of children less than 24 months of age across 15 health facilities. Utilization of breastmilk substitutes was low, having been consumed by 6.2% of children 0–5 months of age and 7.5% of children 6–23 months of age. Approximately one‐fourth (24.6%) of children 6–23 months age had consumed a commercially produced complementary food in the prior day. Twenty‐eight percent of mothers reported observing a promotion for breastmilk substitutes, and 20.1% reported promotions for commercially produced complementary foods. Consumption of commercially produced snack food products was high at 74.1% of children 6–23 months. Promotions for these same commercially produced snack food products were highly prevalent in Kathmandu Valley, reported by 85.4% of mothers. In order to improve diets during the complementary feeding period, development of national standards for complementary food products is recommended. Nutritious snack options should be promoted for the complementary feeding period; consumption of commercially produced snack food products high in sugar and salt and low in nutrients should be discouraged. PMID:27061954

  20. Snow mapping from MODIS products: the application of an improved cloud removal methodology to the Po river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Ronco, Pierfrancesco; De Michele, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Digital snow maps are a powerful tool for reproducing large-scale snow distribution and extension. The use of such information for hydrological purposes is now considered an outlet of great practical interest: when combined with local assessments or measurements of the snow water equivalent (SWE), it allows to estimate the regional snow resource. In this context, MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on board Terra and Aqua satellites) daily Snow Covered Area product has been widely tested and proved to be appropriate for hydrologic applications. However, within a daily map the presence of cloudiness can hide the ground, thus preventing any snow detection. On the basis of previous studies, we recently developed a new methodology for cloud removal able to deal with the problem in wide areas, characterized by an high topographical and geomorphological heterogeneity such as northern Italy. Given the Aqua/Terra daily snow map of the basin, the standard condition shows a cloud-free part and a cloud-covered part. The latter is the assessment area, where a stepped procedure for cloud reduction combines temporal and spatial information obtained from neighboring areas to estimate whether there is snow. While conceiving the new method, our first target was to preserve the daily temporal resolution of the product as far as possible. In cases when there were not enough information on the same day within the cloud-free part, or in the nearest days, we adopted an improved method which ensures an acceptable reproduction of the micro-cycles which characterize the transition altitudes (where snow does not stand continually over the entire winter). Daily binary (snow/not snow) maps of ten years (2003-2012) have been analyzed and processed with the support of a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the basin with 500 m spatial resolution. We deeply investigated the issue of cloudiness over the study period, highlighting its dependence on altitude and season. Snow maps seem

  1. Implementation of conceptual product models into configurators: From months to minutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Anders; Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2009-01-01

    by ordinary product experts into the knowledge base of a configurator, and the other way around. Thus, this new technology enables new ways of carrying out the tasks of configurator development and maintenance. This paper defines the new use patterns that the technology enables and deduces the possible...

  2. A Universal Dynamic Threshold Cloud Detection Algorithm (UDTCDA) supported by a prior surface reflectance database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lin; Wei, Jing; Wang, Jian; Mi, Xueting; Guo, Yamin; Lv, Yang; Yang, Yikun; Gan, Ping; Zhou, Xueying; Jia, Chen; Tian, Xinpeng

    2016-06-01

    Conventional cloud detection methods are easily affected by mixed pixels, complex surface structures, and atmospheric factors, resulting in poor cloud detection results. To minimize these problems, a new Universal Dynamic Threshold Cloud Detection Algorithm (UDTCDA) supported by a priori surface reflectance database is proposed in this paper. A monthly surface reflectance database is constructed using long-time-sequenced MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer surface reflectance product (MOD09A1) to provide the surface reflectance of the underlying surfaces. The relationships between the apparent reflectance changes and the surface reflectance are simulated under different observation and atmospheric conditions with the 6S (Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum) model, and the dynamic threshold cloud detection models are developed. Two typical remote sensing data with important application significance and different sensor parameters, MODIS and Landsat 8, are selected for cloud detection experiments. The results were validated against the visual interpretation of clouds and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation cloud measurements. The results showed that the UDTCDA can obtain a high precision in cloud detection, correctly identifying cloudy pixels and clear-sky pixels at rates greater than 80% with error rate and missing rate of less than 20%. The UDTCDA cloud product overall shows less estimation uncertainty than the current MODIS cloud mask products. Moreover, the UDTCDA can effectively reduce the effects of atmospheric factors and mixed pixels and can be applied to different satellite sensors to realize long-term, large-scale cloud detection operations.

  3. Factors Influencing F/OSS Cloud Computing Software Product Success: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letort, D. Brian

    2012-01-01

    Cloud Computing introduces a new business operational model that allows an organization to shift information technology consumption from traditional capital expenditure to operational expenditure. This shift introduces challenges from both the adoption and creation vantage. This study evaluates factors that influence Free/Open Source Software…

  4. Factors Influencing F/OSS Cloud Computing Software Product Success: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letort, D. Brian

    2012-01-01

    Cloud Computing introduces a new business operational model that allows an organization to shift information technology consumption from traditional capital expenditure to operational expenditure. This shift introduces challenges from both the adoption and creation vantage. This study evaluates factors that influence Free/Open Source Software…

  5. Cloud Optical Properties from the Multi-Filter Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSRCLDOD): An ARM Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, DD; Lo, C; Min, Q

    2004-12-01

    The Min and Harrison algorithm has been incorporated into an ARM Value-Added Product (VAP) called MFRSR CLDOD. This version of the VAP (1Min) uses the diffuse transmission at 415 nm from the MFRSR. Therefore, the results are only valid for “horizontally homogeneous” stratiform clouds with optical depths larger than approximately 7. The retrieval assumes a single cloud layer consisting solely of liquid water drops. As specified by Min and Harrison (1996), the wavelength at 415 nm was chosen due to the lack of gaseous absorption and the relatively constant surface albedo (in the absence of snow) at this wavelength. The MFRSR CLDOD VAP (henceforth referred to as “the VAP”) retrieves cloud optical depth (τ) from the MFRSR measurements. If the LWP is available from a coincident MWR observation, then the droplet effective radius (re) can be determined. Knowledge of the estimated re can be used to improve the estimate of τ because there is a slight dependence on the extinction coefficient, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter on effective radius at this wavelength. However, if the MWR’s LWP is not available, then the VAP assumes that re = 8.0 μm. The primary output from the VAP is τ and re.

  6. All sky imaging observations in visible and infrared waveband for validation of satellite cloud and aerosol products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Daren; Huo, Juan; Zhang, W.; Liu, J.

    A series of satellite sensors in visible and infrared wavelengths have been successfully operated on board a number of research satellites, e.g. NOAA/AVHRR, the MODIS onboard Terra and Aqua, etc. A number of cloud and aerosol products are produced and released in recent years. However, the validation of the product quality and accuracy are still a challenge to the atmospheric remote sensing community. In this paper, we suggest a ground based validation scheme for satellite-derived cloud and aerosol products by using combined visible and thermal infrared all sky imaging observations as well as surface meteorological observations. In the scheme, a visible digital camera with a fish-eye lens is used to continuously monitor the all sky with the view angle greater than 180 deg. The digital camera system is calibrated for both its geometry and radiance (broad blue, green, and red band) so as to a retrieval method can be used to detect the clear and cloudy sky spatial distribution and their temporal variations. A calibrated scanning thermal infrared thermometer is used to monitor the all sky brightness temperature distribution. An algorithm is developed to detect the clear and cloudy sky as well as cloud base height by using sky brightness distribution and surface temperature and humidity as input. Based on these composite retrieval of clear and cloudy sky distribution, it can be used to validate the satellite retrievals in the sense of real-simultaneous comparison and statistics, respectively. What will be presented in this talk include the results of the field observations and comparisons completed in Beijing (40 deg N, 116.5 deg E) in year 2003 and 2004. This work is supported by NSFC grant No. 4002700, and MOST grant No 2001CCA02200

  7. Method for validating cloud mask obtained from satellite measurements using ground-based sky camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letu, Husi; Nagao, Takashi M; Nakajima, Takashi Y; Matsumae, Yoshiaki

    2014-11-01

    Error propagation in Earth's atmospheric, oceanic, and land surface parameters of the satellite products caused by misclassification of the cloud mask is a critical issue for improving the accuracy of satellite products. Thus, characterizing the accuracy of the cloud mask is important for investigating the influence of the cloud mask on satellite products. In this study, we proposed a method for validating multiwavelength satellite data derived cloud masks using ground-based sky camera (GSC) data. First, a cloud cover algorithm for GSC data has been developed using sky index and bright index. Then, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data derived cloud masks by two cloud-screening algorithms (i.e., MOD35 and CLAUDIA) were validated using the GSC cloud mask. The results indicate that MOD35 is likely to classify ambiguous pixels as "cloudy," whereas CLAUDIA is likely to classify them as "clear." Furthermore, the influence of error propagations caused by misclassification of the MOD35 and CLAUDIA cloud masks on MODIS derived reflectance, brightness temperature, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in clear and cloudy pixels was investigated using sky camera data. It shows that the influence of the error propagation by the MOD35 cloud mask on the MODIS derived monthly mean reflectance, brightness temperature, and NDVI for clear pixels is significantly smaller than for the CLAUDIA cloud mask; the influence of the error propagation by the CLAUDIA cloud mask on MODIS derived monthly mean cloud products for cloudy pixels is significantly smaller than that by the MOD35 cloud mask.

  8. Cloud-based design and manufacturing (CBDM) a service-oriented product development paradigm for the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book introduces the reader to game-changing ways of building and utilizing Internet-based services related to design and manufacture activities through the cloud. In a broader sense, CBDM refers to a new product realization model that enables collective open innovation and rapid product development with minimum costs through social networking and negotiation platforms between service providers and consumers. It is a type of parallel and distributed system consisting of a collection of inter-connected physical and virtualized service pools of design and manufacturing resources as well as intelligent search capabilities for design and manufacturing solutions. Practicing engineers and decision makers will learn how to strategically position their product development operations for success in a globalized interconnected world.

  9. In situ extraction of polar product of whole cell microbial transformation with polyethylene glycol-induced cloud point system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhilong; Xu, Jian-He; Zhang, Wenzhi; Zhuang, Baohua; Qi, Hanshi

    2008-01-01

    A novel polyethylene glycol-induced cloud point system (PEG-CPS) was developed for in situ extraction of moderate polar product by setting a microbial transformation of benzaldehyde into L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) as a model reaction. The biocompatibility of the microorganism in PEG-CPS was comparatively studied with a series of water-organic solvent two-phase partitioning systems. The tolerance of microorganism to the toxic substrate benzaldehyde was increased and the moderate polar product L-PAC was extracted into the surfactant-rich phase in the PEG-CPS. The novel PEG-CPS fills the gap of in situ extraction of polar product in microbial transformation left by water-organic solvent two-phase partitioning system. At the same time, the application of PEG-CPS in a microbial transformation also avoids expensive solvent when compared with that of aqueous two-phase system or CPS.

  10. Cloud Computing Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Şiclovan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing was and it will be a new way of providing Internet services and computers. This calculation approach is based on many existing services, such as the Internet, grid computing, Web services. Cloud computing as a system aims to provide on demand services more acceptable as price and infrastructure. It is exactly the transition from computer to a service offered to the consumers as a product delivered online. This paper is meant to describe the quality of cloud computing services, analyzing the advantages and characteristics offered by it. It is a theoretical paper.Keywords: Cloud computing, QoS, quality of cloud computing

  11. Ten Years of Cloud Properties from MODIS: Global Statistics and Use in Climate Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), launched onboard the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts, began Earth observations on February 24, 2000 and June 24,2002, respectively. Among the algorithms developed and applied to this sensor, a suite of cloud products includes cloud masking/detection, cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure), and optical properties (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path, and thermodynamic phase). All cloud algorithms underwent numerous changes and enhancements between for the latest Collection 5 production version; this process continues with the current Collection 6 development. We will show example MODIS Collection 5 cloud climatologies derived from global spatial . and temporal aggregations provided in the archived gridded Level-3 MODIS atmosphere team product (product names MOD08 and MYD08 for MODIS Terra and Aqua, respectively). Data sets in this Level-3 product include scalar statistics as well as 1- and 2-D histograms of many cloud properties, allowing for higher order information and correlation studies. In addition to these statistics, we will show trends and statistical significance in annual and seasonal means for a variety of the MODIS cloud properties, as well as the time required for detection given assumed trends. To assist in climate model evaluation, we have developed a MODIS cloud simulator with an accompanying netCDF file containing subsetted monthly Level-3 statistical data sets that correspond to the simulator output. Correlations of cloud properties with ENSO offer the potential to evaluate model cloud sensitivity; initial results will be discussed.

  12. Seasonal cycle of cloud cover analyzed using Meteosat images

    OpenAIRE

    Massons, J.; Domingo, D.; Lorente, J.

    1998-01-01

    A cloud-detection method was used to retrieve cloudy pixels from Meteosat images. High spatial resolution (one pixel), monthly averaged cloud-cover distribution was obtained for a 1-year period. The seasonal cycle of cloud amount was analyzed. Cloud parameters obtained include the total cloud amount and the percentage of occurrence of clouds at three altitudes. Hourly variations of cloud cover are also analyzed. Cloud properties determined are coherent with those obtained in previous studies....

  13. Galactic Cosmic-Ray Induced Production of Lithium in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Ćiprijanović, A

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the first lithium detection outside of the Milky Way was made in low-metallicity gas of the Small Magellanic Cloud, which was at the level of the expected primordial value. Part of the observed lithium in any environment has primordial origin, but there is always some post-BBN (Big Bang Nucleosynthesis) contamination, since lithium can also be produced in cosmic-ray interactions with the interstellar medium. Using the fact that processes involving cosmic rays produce lithium, but also gamma rays through neutral pion decay, we use the Small Magellanic Cloud gamma-ray observations by Fermi-LAT to make predictions on the amount of lithium in this galaxy that was produced by galactic cosmic rays accelerated in supernova remnants. By including both fusion processes, as well as spallation of heavier nuclei, we find that galactic cosmic rays could produce a very small amount of lithium. In the case of 6Li isotope (which should only be produced by cosmic rays) we can only explain 0.16% of the measured abund...

  14. MISR Level 2 TOA/Cloud Classifier parameters V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the Level 2 TOA/Cloud Classifiers Product. It contains the Angular Signature Cloud Mask (ASCM), Regional Cloud Classifiers, Cloud Shadow Mask, and...

  15. Simultaneous preconcentration of toxic elements in artificial saliva extract of smokeless tobacco product, mainpuri by cloud point extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Jamshed Bashir; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Shah, Faheem; Naeemullah; Arain, Salma; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem

    2013-06-01

    It has been extensively investigated that smokeless tobacco chewing can lead mainly to inflammation of oral cavity. In present study, the total and artificial saliva extracted toxic elements, arsenic, cadmium, nickel and lead were estimated in smokeless tobacco product, mainpuri. Cloud point extraction has been used for the preconcentration of arsenic, cadmium, nickel and lead in artificial saliva extract, using complexing reagent, ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate. Total and extractable toxic elements were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The chemical variables of cloud point extraction were optimized. The validity of methodology was tested by simultaneously analyzing certified reference material (Virginia tobacco leaves) and spike recovery test. The artificial saliva extractable levels of arsenic, cadmium, nickel and lead ranged from 15-22, 45-70, 35-58, and 18-32%, respectively, of total elemental contents in mainpuri samples. It was estimated that intake of 10g of different brands of mainpuri contributing the 5.88, 55.0, 45.0 and 40.3% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake for arsenic, cadmium, nickel and lead, respectively for adults of ~60kg.

  16. The Impact of Age, Educational Background,Gender, and Monthly Expenditure on the Potential of Green Products Buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Abdurachman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of environmental degradation continues rising to lead a global warming. Without immediate prevention measures, this could bring the Earth into total breakdown. Therefore environmental preservation campaign buzzing for every element of the society to participate in the campaign. Number of people understand and care about environmental degradation and global warming is growing. Many people aim is to influence the lifestyle and consumption pattern of the society. The campaign is to attract and motivate the society to purchase environ mentally friendly goods which are also known as green products. The number of potential people to the purchase green products continues rising along with the spread of knowledge concerning the importance of conserving the environment. Such condition recognized by the companies. Therefore they start to consist them as the target market. One of the important marketing aspects is market segmentation. There are many ways and statistical methods to classifying consumers into particular segmentations; one of the methods is the Chi-squared Auto-matic Interaction Detector (CHAID. CHAID, it is implemented in this research for green product market segmentation (Segmentation result subsequently used to determination of the following strategic marketing measures. CHAID examines independent variables used in classification and arrangement process based on the level of chi-square statistical significance towards the dependent variable. Dependent variable used in this research is potential customer trend to purchase preference of green products. The result shows that significantly influential variables towards the potential of green products buyers are age, educational background, gender and their monthly amount of expenditure / spending.

  17. The Impact of Age, Educational Background,Gender, and Monthly Expenditure on the Potential of Green Products Buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Abdurachman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of environmental degradation continues rising to lead a global warming. Without immediate prevention measures, this could bring the Earth into total breakdown. Therefore environmental preservation campaign buzzing for every element of the society to participate in the campaign. Number of people understand and care about environmen-tal degradation and global warming is growing. Many people aim is to influence the lifestyle and consumption pattern of the society. The campaign is to attract and motivate the society to purchase environ mentally friendly goods which are also known as green products. The number of potential people to the purchase green products continues rising along with the spread of knowledge concerning the importance of conserving the environment. Such condition recognized by the com-panies. Therefore they start to consist them as the target market. One of the important marketing aspects is market segmentation. There are many ways and statistical methods to classifying consumers into par-ticular segmentations; one of the methods is the Chi-squared Auto- matic Interaction Detector (CHAID. CHAID, it is implemented in this research for green product market segmentation (Segmentation result subsequently used to determination of the following strategic marketing measures. CHAID examines independent variables used in classification and arrangement process based on the level of chi-square statistical significance towards the dependent variable. Dependent variable used in this research is potential customer trend to purchase preference of green products. The result shows that significantly influential variables towards the potential of green products buyers are age, educational background, gender and their monthly amount of expenditure / spending.

  18. Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The second half of the 20th century has been characterized by an explosive development in information technology (Maney, Hamm, & O'Brien, 2011). Processing power, storage capacity and network bandwidth have increased exponentially, resulting in new possibilities and shifting IT paradigms. In step...... with technological changes, the paradigmatic pendulum has swung between increased centralization on one side and a focus on distributed computing that pushes IT power out to end users on the other. With the introduction of outsourcing and cloud computing, centralization in large data centers is again dominating...... the IT scene. In line with the views presented by Nicolas Carr in 2003 (Carr, 2003), it is a popular assumption that cloud computing will be the next utility (like water, electricity and gas) (Buyya, Yeo, Venugopal, Broberg, & Brandic, 2009). However, this assumption disregards the fact that most IT production...

  19. Investigating a solar influence on cloud cover using the North American Regional Reanalysis data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krahenbuhl Daniel Scott

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The controversial connection between cosmic rays, solar activity, and cloud cover is investigated using a climatological reconstructed reanalysis product: the North American Regional Reanalysis which provides high-resolution, low, mid-level, high, and total cloud cover data over a Lambert conformal conic projection permitting land/ocean discrimination. Pearson’s product-moment regional correlations were obtained between monthly cloud cover data and solar variability indicators, cosmic ray neutron monitors, several climatological indices, including the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO, and between cloud layers. Regions of the mid-latitude oceans exhibited a positive correlation with cosmic ray flux. Additionally, this maritime low cloud cover exhibits the only failed correlation significance with other altitudes. The cross correlation reveals that cloud cover is positively correlated everywhere but for ocean low cloud cover, supporting the unique response of the marine layer. The results of this investigation suggest that with the assumption that solar forcing does impact cloud cover, measurements of solar activity exhibits a slightly higher correlation than GCRs. The only instance where GCRs exhibit a positive regional correlation with cloud cover is for maritime low clouds. The AMO exerts the greatest control of cloud cover in the NARR domain.

  20. Search Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/cloud.html Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this ... of Top 110 zoster vaccine Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search ...

  1. Cloud processing of soluble gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laj, P.; Fuzzi, S.; Facchini, M. C.; Lind, J. A.; Orsi, G.; Preiss, M.; Maser, R.; Jaeschke, W.; Seyffer, E.; Helas, G.; Acker, K.; Wieprecht, W.; Möller, D.; Arends, B. G.; Mols, J. J.; Colvile, R. N.; Gallagher, M. W.; Beswick, K. M.; Hargreaves, K. J.; Storeton-West, R. L.; Sutton, M. A.

    Experimental data from the Great Dun Fell Cloud Experiment 1993 were used to investigate interactions between soluble gases and cloud droplets. Concentrations of H 2O 2, SO 2, CH 3COOOH, HCOOH, and HCHO were monitored at different sites within and downwind of a hill cap cloud and their temporal and spatial evolution during several cloud events was investigated. Significant differences were found between in-cloud and out-of-cloud concentrations, most of which could not be explained by simple dissolution into cloud droplets. Concentration patterns were analysed in relation to the chemistry of cloud droplets and the gas/liquid equilibrium. Soluble gases do not undergo similar behaviour: CH 3COOH simply dissolves in the aqueous phase and is outgassed upon cloud dissipation; instead, SO 2 is consumed by its reaction with H 2O 2. The behaviour of HCOOH is more complex because there is evidence for in-cloud chemical production. The formation of HCOOH interferes with the odd hydrogen cycle by enhancing the liquid-phase production of H 2O 2. The H 2O 2 concentration in cloud therefore results from the balance of consumption by oxidation of SO 2 in-cloud production, and the rate by which it is supplied to the system by entrainment of new air into the clouds.

  2. Toward advanced daily cloud-free snow cover and snow water equivalent products from Terra-Aqua MODIS and Aqua AMSR-E measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Xie, Hongjie; Lu, Ning; Yao, Tandong; Liang, Tiangang

    2010-05-01

    SummaryBy taking advantage of the high spatial resolution of optical sensors and cloud penetration of a passive microwave sensor, a method is developed to generate new daily cloud-free snow cover (SC) and snow water equivalent (SWE) products, both in 500 m spatial resolution, utilizing daily Terra-Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for NASA's Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) snow products. This method was tested in Fairbanks and Upper Susitna Valley, Alaska area for one hydrological year (October 2006-September 2007). The results confirm that daily MODIS products and Terra-Aqua MODIS combined products have similar and high classification accuracy (91-94%) in cloud-free conditions and that the daily combination can reduce cloud cover ˜10%. The results also show the snow accuracy of the new SC products is 86%, which is much higher than the 31%, 45%, and 49% of the Terra, Aqua, and Terra/Aqua combined snow cover products (in all weather conditions), respectively. The validation demonstrates that the accuracy of AMSR-E SWE products is 68.5% and they tend to overestimate SWE. Redistribution of SWE, based on sub-pixel analysis of AMSR-E pixels, not only generates the new product at higher spatial resolution, now more suitable for basin and regional monitoring and modeling, but also slightly increases the accuracy of the SWE estimations. This method can also be used in merging other optical data such as AVHRR, Landsat with passive microwave data such as SSMR, SSM/I, and for future NPP and NPOESS missions.

  3. Construction of a Matched Global Cloud and Radiance Product from LEO/GEO and EPIC Observations to Estimate Daytime Earth Radiation Budget from DSCOVR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, David P.; Khlopenkov, Konstantin V.; Thiemann, Mandana; Palikonda, Rabindra; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Su, Wenying

    2016-01-01

    With the launch of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), new estimates of the daytime Earth radiation budget can be computed from a combination of measurements from the two Earth-observing sensors onboard the spacecraft, the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR). Although these instruments can provide accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance measurements, they lack sufficient resolution to provide details on small-scale surface and cloud properties. Previous studies have shown that these properties have a strong influence on the anisotropy of the radiation at the TOA, and ignoring such effects can result in large TOA-flux errors. To overcome these effects, high-resolution scene identification is needed for accurate Earth radiation budget estimation. Selected radiance and cloud property data measured and derived from several low earth orbit (LEO, including NASA Terra and Aqua MODIS, NOAA AVHRR) and geosynchronous (GEO, including GOES (east and west), METEOSAT, INSAT-3D, MTSAT-2, and HIMAWARI-8) satellite imagers were collected to create hourly 5-km resolution global composites of data necessary to compute angular distribution models (ADM) for reflected shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation. The satellite data provide an independent source of radiance measurements and scene identification information necessary to construct ADMs that are used to determine the daytime Earth radiation budget. To optimize spatial matching between EPIC measurements and the high-resolution composite cloud properties, LEO/GEO retrievals within the EPIC fields of view (FOV) are convolved to the EPIC point spread function (PSF) in a similar manner to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product. Examples of the merged LEO/GEO/EPIC product will be presented, describing the chosen radiance and cloud properties and

  4. Dinoflagellate cyst production in Hudson Bay, the world's largest inland sea, based on monthly sediment trap data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Maija; Pospelova, Vera; Forest, Alexandre; Stern, Gary

    2014-05-01

    Phytoplankters, microscopic primary producers of oceans are capable of responding rapidly to environmental fluctuations due to their high cell replication rates. Fast phytoplankton growth maybe balanced out by equally fast consumption by herbivorous grazers. In high-latitude marine systems, seasonal fluctuations in plankton biomass are essentially linked to light regime controlled by the waxing and waning sea-ice cover. In addition, nutrient limitation in surface waters, seasonal temperature fluctuations and changes in freshwater inputs may play important roles. In cold-water seas, many planktonic organisms cope with seasonal harshness by the production of benthic dormant stages. Dinoflagellates are a diverse group of single-celled plankton, constituting major marine primary producers, as well as herbivorous grazers of the microbial loop. Many dinoflagellate species produce highly resistant, organic-walled resting cysts that are archived in sediments and have been increasingly used to reconstruct past environmental conditions, e.g., sea-surface temperature and salinity, productivity, sea-ice cover and eutrophication. Marine sediment core sequences are characterized by slow accumulation rates and high mixing rates: the top centimeter of surface sediment from an arctic shelf may correspond to several years or decades of deposition. Consequently, sedimentary archives do not give direct information on long-term changes in seasonal bloom patterns or cues of annually recurring life-cycle events. We used two particle-intercepting sediment traps moored in eastern and western Hudson Bay, respectively, to study monthly fluctuations in dinoflagellate cyst production from October 2005 to September 2006. The traps were deployed close to the seafloor and recovered during the ArcticNet annual expeditions onboard the CCGS Amundsen in 2005 and the CCGS Pierre Radisson in 2006. We document the seasonal succession of dinoflagellate cyst taxa, together with cyst species composition

  5. Siderophores in Cloud Waters and Potential Impact on Atmospheric Chemistry: Production by Microorganisms Isolated at the Puy de Dôme Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinatier, Virginie; Wirgot, Nolwenn; Joly, Muriel; Sancelme, Martine; Abrantes, Magali; Deguillaume, Laurent; Delort, Anne-Marie

    2016-09-06

    A total of 450 bacteria and yeast strains isolated from cloud waters sampled at the puy de Dôme station in France (1465 m) were screened for their ability to produce siderophores. To achieve this, a high-throughput method in 96-well plates was adapted from the CAS (chrome azurol S) method. Notably, 42% of the isolates were siderophore producers. This production was examined according to the phyla of the tested strains and the type of chelating functional groups (i.e., hydroxamate, catechol, and mixed type). The most active bacteria in the clouds belong to the γ-Proteobacteria class, among which the Pseudomonas genus is the most frequently encountered. γ-Proteobacteria are produced in the majority of mixed function siderophores, such as pyoverdines, which bear a photoactive group. Finally, siderophore production was shown to vary with the origin of the air masses. The organic speciation of iron remains largely unknown in warm clouds. Our results suggest that siderophores could partly chelate Fe(III) in cloud waters and thus potentially impact the chemistry of the atmospheric aqueous phase.

  6. Cloud Computing Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Şiclovan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Cloud computing was and it will be a new way of providing Internet services and computers. This calculation approach is based on many existing services, such as the Internet, grid computing, Web services. Cloud computing as a system aims to provide on demand services more acceptable as price and infrastructure. It is exactly the transition from computer to a service offered to the consumers as a product delivered online. This paper is meant to describe the quality of cloud computing services, analyzing the advantages and characteristics offered by it. It is a theoretical paper.

    Keywords: Cloud computing, QoS, quality of cloud computing

  7. A Concept-to-Product Knowledge Management Framework: Towards a Cloud-based Enterprise 2.0 Environment at a Multinational Corporation in Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-N Cheah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management initiatives of a multinational corporation in Penang are currently deployed via its enterprise-wide portal and Intranet. To improve knowledge management initiatives from its current strength, efforts could now be focused on synergizing organizational workflow as well as computing resources and repositories. This paper proposes a concept-to-product knowledge management framework to be deployed in a cloud-based environment. It aims to provide effective support for collaborative knowledge management efforts at all stages of projects. The multi-layered framework is built upon the organizational memory which drives relevant processors and applications. The framework manifests itself in the form of a cloud-based concept-to-product dashboard from which employees can access applications and tools that facilitate their day-to-day tasks in a seamless manner.

  8. Cloud Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthing, Hans Henrik

    Denne præsentation beskriver fordele og værdier ved anvendelse af Cloud Computing. Endvidere inddrager resultater fra en række internationale analyser fra ISACA om Cloud Computing.......Denne præsentation beskriver fordele og værdier ved anvendelse af Cloud Computing. Endvidere inddrager resultater fra en række internationale analyser fra ISACA om Cloud Computing....

  9. Characterization of melting level clouds over the tropical western pacific warm pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M.; Johnson, K.; Billings, J.; Troyan, D.; Long, C.; Comstock, J.

    2010-03-15

    A cursory examination of historical ARSCL data indicates a common cloud feature in the tropics are thin detrainment shelves (Attendant Shelf Clouds, or ASCs) near the melting level (see figure for example). We use the ARSCL product to identify ASCs by defining them as cloud layers with bases above 4 km, a corresponding top below 6 km, and a thickness of less than 1 km. In order to prevent biases in determination of the diurnal cycle of cloud occurrence, we require that both the MMCR and MPL are operating well. In this study we use a total of 55 months of data collected over 14 years of deployments at the Manus, Nauru, and Darwin ARM sites in the Tropical Western Pacific to define the frequency of occurrence (~ 14% of the time) and diurnal cycle of these clouds, along with the atmospheric thermodynamic profile. We further investigate the horizontal extent, cloud radiative forcing, and cloud particle phase through a series of “golden cases” where there is a general absence of additional cloud types in the column and nearby deep convection. These cases indicate that the clouds can cover horizontal areas on the order of a GCM gridbox, have significant (but not always) cloud radiative forcing, and may be composed of liquid or ice water.

  10. Assessment of Image-Based Point Cloud Products to Generate a Bare Earth Surface and Estimate Canopy Heights in a Woodland Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. R. Jensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the utility of Structure from Motion (SfM point cloud products to generate a digital terrain model (DTM and estimate canopy heights in a woodland ecosystem in the Texas Hill Country, USA. Very high spatial resolution images were acquired with a Canon PowerShot A800 digital camera mounted on an unmanned aerial system. Image mosaicking and dense point matching were accomplished using Agisoft PhotoScan. The resulting point cloud was classified according to ground/non-ground classes and used to interpolate a high resolution DTM which was both compared to a DTM from an existing lidar dataset and used to model vegetation height for fifteen 20 × 20 m plots. Differences in the interpolated DTM surfaces demonstrate that the SfM surface overestimates lidar-modeled ground height with a mean difference of 0.19 m and standard deviation of 0.66 m. Height estimates obtained solely from SfM products were successful with R2 values of 0.91, 0.90, and 0.89 for mean, median, and maximum canopy height, respectively. Use of the lidar DTM in the analyses resulted in R2 values of 0.90, 0.89, and 0.89 for mean, median, and maximum canopy height. Our results suggest that SfM-derived point cloud products function as well as lidar data for estimating vegetation canopy height for our specific study area.

  11. Cloud optics

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, A

    2006-01-01

    Clouds affect the climate of the Earth, and they are an important factor in the weather. Therefore, their radiative properties must be understood in great detail. This book summarizes current knowledge on cloud optical properties, for example their ability to absorb, transmit, and reflect light, which depends on the clouds' geometrical and microphysical characteristics such as sizes of droplets and crystals, their shapes, and structures. In addition, problems related to the image transfer through clouds and cloud remote sensing are addressed in this book in great detail. This book can be an im

  12. Arctic ocean radiative fluxes and cloud forcing estimated from the ISCCP C2 cloud dataset, 1983-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Axel J.; Key, Jeffrey R.

    1994-01-01

    Radiative fluxes and cloud forcings for the ocean areas of the Arctic are computed from the monthly cloud product of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) for 1983-90. Spatially averaged short-wave fluxes are compared well with climatological values, while downwelling longwave fluxes are significantly lower. This is probably due to the fact that the ISCCP cloud amounts are underestimates. Top-of-the-atmosphere radiative fluxes are in excellent agreement with measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Computed cloud forcings indicate that clouds have a warming effect at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere during winter and a cooling effect during summer. The net radiative effect of clouds is larger at the surface during winter but greater at the top of the atmosphere during summer. Overall the net radiative effect of clouds at the top of the atmosphere is one of cooling. This is in contrast to a previous result from ERBE data showing arctic cloud forcings have a net warming effect. Sensitivities to errors in input parameters are generally greater during winter with cloud amount being the most important paarameter. During summer the surface radiation balance is most sensitive to errors in the measurements of surface reflectance. The results are encouraging, but the estimated error of 20 W/sq m in surface net radiative fluxes is too large, given that estimates of the net radiative warming effect due to a doubling of CO2 are on the order of 4 W/sq m. Because it is difficult to determine the accuracy of results with existing in situ observations, it is recommended that the development of improved algorithms for the retrieval of surface radiative properties be accompanied by the simultaneous assembly of validation datasets.

  13. High-Resolution Analysis Products to Support Severe Weather and Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Threat Assessments over Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan; Spratt, Scott; Sharp, David

    2006-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) located at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC)/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) implemented an operational configuration of the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS), as well as the ARPS numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. Operational, high-resolution ADAS analyses have been produced from this configuration at the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) over the past several years. Since that time, ADAS fields have become an integral part of forecast operations at both NWS MLB and SMG. To continue providing additional utility, the AMU has been tasked to implement visualization products to assess the potential for supercell thunderstorms and significant tornadoes, and to improve assessments of short-term cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning potential. This paper and presentation focuses on the visualization products developed by the AMU for the operational high-resolution ADAS and AR.PS at the NWS MLB and SMG. The two severe weather threat graphics implemented within ADAS/ARPS are the Supercell Composite Parameter (SCP) and Significant Tornado Parameter (SIP). The SCP was designed to identify areas with supercell thunderstorm potential through a combination of several instability and shear parameters. The SIP was designed to identify areas that favor supercells producing significant tornadoes (F2 or greater intensity) versus non-tornadic supercells. Both indices were developed by the NOAAINWS Storm Prediction Center (SPC) and were normalized by key threshold values based on previous studies. The indices apply only to discrete storms, not other convective modes. In a post-analysis mode, the AMU calculated SCP and SIP for graphical output using an ADAS configuration similar to the operational set-ups at NWS MLB and SMG. Graphical images from ADAS were generated every 15 minutes for 13 August 2004, the day that Hurricane Charley approached and

  14. Toward Cloud Computing Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Susanto, Heru; Almunawar, Mohammad Nabil; Kang, Chen Chin

    2012-01-01

    -Information Technology (IT) shaped the success of organizations, giving them a solid foundation that increases both their level of efficiency as well as productivity. The computing industry is witnessing a paradigm shift in the way computing is performed worldwide. There is a growing awareness among consumers and enterprises to access their IT resources extensively through a "utility" model known as "cloud computing." Cloud computing was initially rooted in distributed grid-based computing. ...

  15. Neopterin production and tryptophan degradation during 24-months therapy with interferon beta-1a in multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sessa Edoardo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Increased synthesis of neopterin and degradation of tryptophan to kynurenine, measured as kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (kyn/trp ratio, are considered in vitro markers of interferon beta-1a (IFNβ-1a activity. The aim of the study was to investigate the dynamic profile of neopterin and kyn/trp ratio in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS treated with two different doses of IFNβ-1a over a period of 24 months. Methods RRMS patients (n = 101 received open-label IFNβ-1a 22 mcg (low dose, LD or 44 mcg (high dose, HD subcutaneously (sc, three times weekly for 24 months. Serum measurements of neopterin, kyn/trp ratio and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs were obtained before treatment (i.e., at baseline and 48 hours post-injection every 3 months thereafter. Clinical assessments were performed at baseline and every 6 months. Changes in biomarkers over time were compared between LD- and HD-group as well as between patients with/without relapses and with/without NAbs using Analysis of Variance and Mann-Whitney tests. Results Neopterin (p Conclusions Although differences in serum markers concentration were found following IFNβ administration the clinical relevance of these findings needs to be confirmed with more detailed studies.

  16. MISR Level 2 TOA/Cloud Stereo parameters V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the Level 2 TOA/Cloud Stereo Product. It contains the Stereoscopically Derived Cloud Mask (SDCM), cloud winds, Reflecting Level Reference Altitude (RLRA),...

  17. Quantifying nighttime cloud cover over Manila Observatory (14.64N, 121.07E) using a digital camera: red and blue difference algorithm and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrosas, N.; Gacal, G. F. B.

    2016-12-01

    temperatures for nights without clouds (cloud cover 0%) are relatively lower compared to nights with higher cloud cover (>80%). Using this instrument and the algorithm, quantifying monthly cloud cover is considered in the future to look at monthly and seasonal variations of nighttime cloud cover and to compare ground-measured nighttime cloud cover with satellite nighttime cloud cover product.

  18. Research Agenda in Cloud Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sriram, Ilango

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing is the latest effort in delivering computing resources as a service. It represents a shift away from computing as a product that is purchased, to computing as a service that is delivered to consumers over the internet from large-scale data centres - or "clouds". Whilst cloud computing is gaining growing popularity in the IT industry, academia appeared to be lagging behind the rapid developments in this field. This paper is the first systematic review of peer-reviewed academic research published in this field, and aims to provide an overview of the swiftly developing advances in the technical foundations of cloud computing and their research efforts. Structured along the technical aspects on the cloud agenda, we discuss lessons from related technologies; advances in the introduction of protocols, interfaces, and standards; techniques for modelling and building clouds; and new use-cases arising through cloud computing.

  19. An Assessment of Differences Between Cloud Effective Particle Radius Retrievals for Marine Water Clouds from Three MODIS Spectral Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven; Zhang, Zhibo

    2011-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud product provides three separate 1 km resolution retrievals of cloud particle effective radii (r (sub e)), derived from 1.6, 2.1 and 3.7 micron band observations. In this study, differences among the three size retrievals for maritime water clouds (designated as r (sub e), 1.6 r (sub e), 2.1 and r (sub e),3.7) were systematically investigated through a series of case studies and global analyses. Substantial differences are found between r (sub e),3.7 and r (sub e),2.1 retrievals (delta r (sub e),3.7-2.l), with a strong dependence on cloud regime. The differences are typically small, within +/- 2 micron, over relatively spatially homogeneous coastal stratocumulus cloud regions. However, for trade wind cumulus regimes, r (sub e),3.7 was found to be substantially smaller than r (sub e),2.1, sometimes by more than 10 micron. The correlation of delta r(sub e),3.7-2.1 with key cloud parameters, including the cloud optical thickness (tau), r (sub e) and a cloud horizontal heterogeneity index (H-sigma) derived from 250 m resolution MODIS 0.86 micron band observations, were investigated using one month of MODIS Terra data. It was found that differences among the three r (sub e) retrievals for optically thin clouds (tau 0.3, both r (sub e),1.6 and r (sub e),2.1 were seen to increase quickly with H-sigma. On the other hand, r (sub e),3.7 statistics showed little dependence on H-sigma and remained relatively stable over the whole range of H-sigma values. Potential contributing causes to the substantial r (sub e),3.7 and r (sub e),2.1 differences are discussed. In particular, based on both 1-D and 3-D radiative transfer simulations, we have elucidated mechanisms by which cloud heterogeneity and 3-D radiative effects can cause large differences between r (sub e),3.7 and r (sub e),2.l retrievals for highly inhomogeneous clouds. Our results suggest that the contrast in observed delta r (sub e)3.7-2.1 between cloud

  20. Monthly errors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2006 monthly average statistical metrics for 2m Q (g kg-1) domain-wide for the base and MODIS WRF simulations against MADIS observations. This dataset is...

  1. Antarctic clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Lachlan-Cope, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Sensitivity studies with global climate models show that, by their influence on the radiation balance, Antarctic clouds play a major role in the climate system, both directly at high southern latitudes and indirectly globally, as the local circulation changes lead to global teleconnections. Unfortunately, observations of cloud distribution in the Antarctic are limited and often of low quality because of the practical difficulty in observing clouds in the harsh Antarctic environment. The best ...

  2. Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Antonopoulos, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing has recently emerged as a subject of substantial industrial and academic interest, though its meaning and scope is hotly debated. For some researchers, clouds are a natural evolution towards the full commercialisation of grid systems, while others dismiss the term as a mere re-branding of existing pay-per-use technologies. From either perspective, 'cloud' is now the label of choice for accountable pay-per-use access to third party applications and computational resources on a massive scale. Clouds support patterns of less predictable resource use for applications and services a

  3. CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian IVANUS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has been a tremendous innovation, through which applications became available online, accessible through an Internet connection and using any computing device (computer, smartphone or tablet. According to one of the most recent studies conducted in 2012 by Everest Group and Cloud Connect, 57% of companies said they already use SaaS application (Software as a Service, and 38% reported using standard tools PaaS (Platform as a Service. However, in the most cases, the users of these solutions highlighted the fact that one of the main obstacles in the development of this technology is the fact that, in cloud, the application is not available without an Internet connection. The new challenge of the cloud system has become now the offline, specifically accessing SaaS applications without being connected to the Internet. This topic is directly related to user productivity within companies as productivity growth is one of the key promises of cloud computing system applications transformation. The aim of this paper is the presentation of some important aspects related to the offline cloud system and regulatory trends in the European Union (EU.

  4. Adapt-N: A Cloud-Based Computational Tool for Crop Nitrogen Management that Improves Production and Environmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Es, Harold; Sela, Shai; Marjerison, Rebecca; Melkonian, Jeff

    2016-04-01

    Maize production accounts for the largest share of crop land area in the US and is the largest consumer of nitrogen (N) fertilizers, while also having low N use efficiency. Routine application of N fertilizer has led to well-documented environmental problems and social costs. Adapt-N is a computational tool that combines soil, crop and management information with near-real-time weather data to estimate optimum N application rates for maize. Its cloud-based implementation allows for tracking and timely management of the dynamic gains and losses of N in cropping systems. This presentation will provide an overview of the tool and its implementation of farms. We also evaluated Adapt-N tool during five growing seasons (2011-to-2015) using a large dataset of both side-by-side (SBS) strip trials and multi-N rate experiments. The SBS trials consisted of 115 on-farm strip trials in Iowa and New York, each trial including yield results from replicated field-scale plots involving two sidedress N rate treatments: Adapt-N-estimated and Grower-selected (conventional). The Adapt-N rates were on average 53 and 30 kg ha-1 lower than Grower rates for NY and IA, respectively (-34% overall), with no statistically significant difference in yields. On average, Adapt-N rates increased grower profits by 63.9 ha-1 and resulted in an Adapt-N estimated decrease of 28 kg ha-1 (38%) in environmental N losses. A second set of strip trials involved multiple N-rate experiments in Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio and NY, which allowed for the comparison of Adapt-N and conventional static recommendations to an Economic Optimum N Rate (determined through response model fitting). These trials demonstrated that Adapt-N can achieve the same profitability with greatly reduced average N inputs of 20 lbs N/ac for the Midwest and 65 lbs N/ac for the Northeast, resulting in significantly lower environmental losses. In conclusion, Adapt-N recommendations resulted in both increased growers profits and decreased

  5. Understanding the drivers of marine liquid-water cloud occurrence and properties with global observations using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Andersen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of aerosols, clouds and their interactions with radiation remain among the largest unknowns in the climate system. Even though the processes involved are complex, aerosol–cloud interactions are often analyzed by means of bivariate relationships. In this study, 15 years (2001–2015 of monthly satellite-retrieved near-global aerosol products are combined with reanalysis data of various meteorological parameters to predict satellite-derived marine liquid-water cloud occurrence and properties by means of region-specific artificial neural networks. The statistical models used are shown to be capable of predicting clouds, especially in regions of high cloud variability. On this monthly scale, lower-tropospheric stability is shown to be the main determinant of cloud fraction and droplet size, especially in stratocumulus regions, while boundary layer height controls the liquid-water amount and thus the optical thickness of clouds. While aerosols show the expected impact on clouds, at this scale they are less relevant than some meteorological factors. Global patterns of the derived sensitivities point to regional characteristics of aerosol and cloud processes.

  6. Managing Clouds in Cloud Platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmat, Kamal A

    2010-01-01

    Managing cloud services is a fundamental challenge in todays virtualized environments. These challenges equally face both providers and consumers of cloud services. The issue becomes even more challenging in virtualized environments that support mobile clouds. Cloud computing platforms such as Amazon EC2 provide customers with flexible, on demand resources at low cost. However, they fail to provide seamless infrastructure management and monitoring capabilities that many customers may need. For instance, Amazon EC2 doesn't fully support cloud services automated discovery and it requires a private set of authentication credentials. Salesforce.com, on the other hand, do not provide monitoring access to their underlying systems. Moreover, these systems fail to provide infrastructure monitoring of heterogenous and legacy systems that don't support agents. In this work, we explore how to build a cloud management system that combines heterogeneous management of virtual resources with comprehensive management of phys...

  7. Cloud Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Rama; Raths, David; Schaffhauser, Dian; Skelly, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    For many IT shops, the cloud offers an opportunity not only to improve operations but also to align themselves more closely with their schools' strategic goals. The cloud is not a plug-and-play proposition, however--it is a complex, evolving landscape that demands one's full attention. Security, privacy, contracts, and contingency planning are all…

  8. Cloud Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    This article features a major statewide initiative in North Carolina that is showing how a consortium model can minimize risks for districts and help them exploit the advantages of cloud computing. Edgecombe County Public Schools in Tarboro, North Carolina, intends to exploit a major cloud initiative being refined in the state and involving every…

  9. Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Mirashe, Shivaji P

    2010-01-01

    Computing as you know it is about to change, your applications and documents are going to move from the desktop into the cloud. I'm talking about cloud computing, where applications and files are hosted on a "cloud" consisting of thousands of computers and servers, all linked together and accessible via the Internet. With cloud computing, everything you do is now web based instead of being desktop based. You can access all your programs and documents from any computer that's connected to the Internet. How will cloud computing change the way you work? For one thing, you're no longer tied to a single computer. You can take your work anywhere because it's always accessible via the web. In addition, cloud computing facilitates group collaboration, as all group members can access the same programs and documents from wherever they happen to be located. Cloud computing might sound far-fetched, but chances are you're already using some cloud applications. If you're using a web-based email program, such as Gmail or Ho...

  10. FAME-C: Retrieval of cloud top pressure with vertically inhomogeneous cloud profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henken, Cintia Carbajal; Lindstrot, Rasmus; Filipitsch, Florian; Walther, Andi; Preusker, Rene; Fischer, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    A synergistic FAME-C (Freie Universität Berlin AATSR-MERIS Cloud Retrieval) algorithm is developed within the frame of the ESA CCI Cloud project. Within FAME-C the ratio of two MERIS measurements (the Oxygen-A absorption channel and a window channel) is used to retrieve cloud top pressure. In case of high, extended clouds the retrieved cloud top pressure is generally too high. This can be understood as an overestimation of extinction in upper cloud layers due to the assumption of vertical homogeneous clouds in the radiative transfer simulations. To include more realistic cloud vertical profiles, one year of data from the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) onboard CloudSat has been used to determine average normalized cloud vertical extinction profiles with a fixed pressure thickness for nine cloud types. The nine cloud types are based on the ISCCP COT-CTP classification table. The retrieved cloud top pressure, now using CloudSat cloud profiles in the forward model, is compared to CPR reflectivities as well as the retrieved cloud top pressure using vertically homogeneous cloud profiles. In the first number of cases under examination the overestimation of cloud top pressure, and therefore the bias, is reduced by a large amount when using CloudSat vertical cloud profiles. Another advantage is that no assumption about the cloud geometrical thickness has to be made in the new retrieval. It should be noted that comparisons between FAME-C products and A-train products can only be made at high latitudes where A-train and ENVISAT have overlapping overflights.

  11. NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget: Integrated Data Product With Reprocessed Radiance, Cloud, and Meteorology Inputs, and New Surface Albedo Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephen J.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; Zhang, Taiping

    2016-01-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project produces shortwave and longwave surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes for the 1983-near present time period. Spatial resolution is 1 degree. The current release 3.0 (available at gewex-srb.larc.nasa.gov) uses the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) DX product for pixel level radiance and cloud information. This product is subsampled to 30 km. ISCCP is currently recalibrating and recomputing their entire data series, to be released as the H product, at 10km resolution. The ninefold increase in pixel number will allow SRB a higher resolution gridded product (e.g. 0.5 degree), as well as the production of pixel-level fluxes. In addition to the input data improvements, several important algorithm improvements have been made. Most notable has been the adaptation of Angular Distribution Models (ADMs) from CERES to improve the initial calculation of shortwave TOA fluxes, from which the surface flux calculations follow. Other key input improvements include a detailed aerosol history using the Max Planck Institut Aerosol Climatology (MAC), temperature and moisture profiles from HIRS, and new topography, surface type, and snow/ice. Here we present results for the improved GEWEX Shortwave and Longwave algorithm (GSW and GLW) with new ISCCP data, the various other improved input data sets and the incorporation of many additional internal SRB model improvements. As of the time of abstract submission, results from 2007 have been produced with ISCCP H availability the limiting factor. More SRB data will be produced as ISCCP reprocessing continues. The SRB data produced will be released as part of the Release 4.0 Integrated Product, recognizing the interdependence of the radiative fluxes with other GEWEX products providing estimates of the Earth's global water and energy cycle (I.e., ISCCP, SeaFlux, LandFlux, NVAP, etc.).

  12. Comparisons of Monthly Mean 10 M Wind Speeds from Satellites and NWP Products Over the Global Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-09

    Resolution QSCAT SSM/I NOGAPS ERA-40 NCEP Sea Winds instrument on the Quick Scatterometer Special Sensor Microwave/Imager Navy Operational...measurements with 25-point smoothing as described earlier. [25] Within the latitudes spanning the Arctic and Antarctic , no ice mask is applied in order to...ET AL.: 10 M WINDS OVER THE GLOBAL OCEAN D16109 egies that blend two or more of these products to produce improved forcing fields. [53

  13. Screaming Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikke, Svein; Egill Kristjánsson, Jón; Nordli, Øyvind

    2017-04-01

    "Mother-of-pearl clouds" appear irregularly in the winter stratosphere at high northern latitudes, about 20-30 km above the surface of the Earth. The size range of the cloud particles is near that of visible light, which explains their extraordinary beautiful colours. We argue that the Norwegian painter Edvard Munch could well have been terrified when the sky all of a sudden turned "bloodish red" after sunset, when darkness was expected. Hence, there is a high probability that it was an event of mother-of-pearl clouds which was the background for Munch's experience in nature, and for his iconic Scream. Currently, the leading hypothesis for explaining the dramatic colours of the sky in Munch's famous painting is that the artist was captivated by colourful sunsets following the enormous Krakatoa eruption in 1883. After carefully considering the historical accounts of some of Munch's contemporaries, especially the physicist Carl Störmer, we suggest an alternative hypothesis, namely that Munch was inspired by spectacular occurrences of mother-of-pearl clouds. Such clouds, which have a wave-like structure akin to that seen in the Scream were first observed and described only a few years before the first version of this motive was released in 1892. Unlike clouds related to conventional weather systems in the troposphere, mother-of-pearl clouds appear in the stratosphere, where significantly different physical conditions prevail. This result in droplet sizes within the range of visible light, creating the spectacular colour patterns these clouds are famous for. Carl Störmer observed such clouds, and described them in minute details at the age of 16, but already with a profound interest in science. He later noted that "..these mother-of-pearl clouds was a vision of indescribable beauty!" The authors find it logical that the same vision could appear scaring in the sensible mind of a young artist unknown to such phenomena.

  14. Cloud computing patterns fundamentals to design, build, and manage cloud applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fehling, Christoph; Retter, Ralph; Schupeck, Walter; Arbitter, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The current work provides CIOs, software architects, project managers, developers, and cloud strategy initiatives with a set of architectural patterns that offer nuggets of advice on how to achieve common cloud computing-related goals. The cloud computing patterns capture knowledge and experience in an abstract format that is independent of concrete vendor products. Readers are provided with a toolbox to structure cloud computing strategies and design cloud application architectures. By using this book cloud-native applications can be implemented and best suited cloud vendors and tooling for i

  15. Bureau of hydrocarbons exploration-production (BEPH) - Monthly information bulletin. December 2006; Bureau exploration-production des hydrocarbures. Bulletin mensuel d'information. Decembre 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    This newsletter takes stock of the recent highlights in the domain of hydrocarbons exploration and production in the French territory: mining domain (demands and allocations of research permits and concessions; list of demands under instruction), drilling activity (new drillings, advance of existing exploratory and extension-development drillings); production activity (interventions on wells, crude oil, crude gas, commercialized gas, natural gas-derived hydrocarbons, related products, production shares by company in the Paris and Aquitain basins); underground storage facilities (allocation and extension of concessions). (J.S.)

  16. Marine Cloud Brightening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

    2012-09-07

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  17. Marine cloud brightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-09-13

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could-subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein-have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  18. Securing Cloud from Cloud Drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niva Das

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, in the world of communication, connected systems is growing at a rapid pace. To accommodate this growth the need for computational power and storage is also increasing at a similar rate. Companies are investing a large amount of resources in buying, maintaining and ensuring availability of the system to their customers. To mitigate these issues, cloud computing is playing a major role [1]. The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the ‘50s but the term entering into widespread usage can be traced to 2006 when Amazon.com announced the Elastic Compute Cloud. In this paper, we will discuss about cloud security approaches. We have used the term “CloudDrain” to define data leakage in case of security compromise.

  19. Monitoring snow cover variability (2000-2014) in the Hengduan Mountains based on cloud-removed MODIS products with an adaptive spatio-temporal weighted method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinghua; Fu, Wenxuan; Shen, Huanfeng; Huang, Chunlin; Zhang, Liangpei

    2017-08-01

    Monitoring the variability of snow cover is necessary and meaningful because snow cover is closely connected with climate and ecological change. In this work, 500 m resolution MODIS daily snow cover products from 2000 to 2014 were adopted to analyze the status in Hengduan Mountains. In order to solve the spatial discontinuity caused by clouds in the products, we propose an adaptive spatio-temporal weighted method (ASTWM), which is based on the initial result of a Terra and Aqua combination. This novel method simultaneously considers the temporal and spatial correlations of the snow cover. The simulated experiments indicate that ASTWM removes clouds completely, with a robust overall accuracy (OA) of above 93% under different cloud fractions. The spatio-temporal variability of snow cover in the Hengduan Mountains was investigated with two indices: snow cover days (SCD) and snow fraction. The results reveal that the annual SCD gradually increases and the coefficient of variation (CV) decreases with elevation. The pixel-wise trends of SCD first rise and then drop in most areas. Moreover, intense intra-annual variability of the snow fraction occurs from October to March, during which time there is abundant snow cover. The inter-annual variability, which mainly occurs in high elevation areas, shows an increasing trend before 2004/2005 and a decreasing trend after 2004/2005. In addition, the snow fraction responds to the two climate factors of air temperature and precipitation. For the intra-annual variability, when the air temperature and precipitation decrease, the snow cover increases. Besides, precipitation plays a more important role in the inter-annual variability of snow cover than temperature.

  20. The Evolution of Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00224309; The ATLAS collaboration; Berghaus, Frank; Love, Peter; Leblanc, Matthew Edgar; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Paterson, Michael; Gable, Ian; Sobie, Randall; Field, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has successfully incorporated cloud computing technology and cloud resources into its primarily grid-based model of distributed computing. Cloud R&D activities continue to mature and transition into stable production systems, while ongoing evolutionary changes are still needed to adapt and refine the approaches used, in response to changes in prevailing cloud technology. In addition, completely new developments are needed to handle emerging requirements. This work will describe the overall evolution of cloud computing in ATLAS. The current status of the VM management systems used for harnessing IAAS resources will be discussed. Monitoring and accounting systems tailored for clouds are needed to complete the integration of cloud resources within ATLAS' distributed computing framework. We are developing and deploying new solutions to address the challenge of operation in a geographically distributed multi-cloud scenario, including a system for managing VM images across multiple clouds, ...

  1. Cloud migration

    CERN Document Server

    Höllwarth, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    This book is designed for managers and entrepreneurs, who are considering improving the economics and flexibility of their IT solutions and infrastructures. The book is also for readers who wish to learn more about the Cloud, but do not want to become specialists.This book discusses the technical, legal, fiscal, economic, organisational and environmental aspects of Cloud services. If you are looking for practical advice on vendor selection and certification, as well as real world Cloud project case studies, this is the book to consult.It is the result of a highly cooper

  2. Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Baun, Christian; Nimis, Jens; Tai, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is a buzz-word in today's information technology (IT) that nobody can escape. But what is really behind it? There are many interpretations of this term, but no standardized or even uniform definition. Instead, as a result of the multi-faceted viewpoints and the diverse interests expressed by the various stakeholders, cloud computing is perceived as a rather fuzzy concept. With this book, the authors deliver an overview of cloud computing architecture, services, and applications. Their aim is to bring readers up to date on this technology and thus to provide a common basis for d

  3. Scaling the CERN OpenStack cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T.; Bompastor, B.; Bukowiec, S.; Castro Leon, J.; Denis, M. K.; van Eldik, J.; Fermin Lobo, M.; Fernandez Alvarez, L.; Fernandez Rodriguez, D.; Marino, A.; Moreira, B.; Noel, B.; Oulevey, T.; Takase, W.; Wiebalck, A.; Zilli, S.

    2015-12-01

    CERN has been running a production OpenStack cloud since July 2013 to support physics computing and infrastructure services for the site. In the past year, CERN Cloud Infrastructure has seen a constant increase in nodes, virtual machines, users and projects. This paper will present what has been done in order to make the CERN cloud infrastructure scale out.

  4. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children between 6-24 months; I: formulation and acceptability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The revaluation of the Andean cultivations, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupin (Lupinus albus L.), to be used in nutritional mixtures, with traditional cereals like corn (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), originate mixtures without gluten which constitute a good alternative for the nutrition of children under 24 months that suffer from celiac disease, since they improve the quality of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, and also impacts in the product's diversification strategy. In the present work, the percentage composition of each flour in the mixture was determined by means of Linear Programming by means of the Solver form from the Excel spreadsheet. Prolamines were determined in the quinua and lupin flours by the ELISA test and the HPLC technique was used in both products obtained called "sweet mix" and "dessert mix", to define the quantity of amino acids with the purpose of providing around the 15% of the proteins required in the day. The flour mixtures selected as optimum, sweet mix, suitable for the preparation of sweet pancakes, as well as for the dessert mix, that by addition of water or milk produce a semi solid dessert, were evaluated after three months of storage, being acceptable their microbiological, bromatological and sensorial requirements, corroborating the results with the good acceptance of the products, prepared from the formulated mixtures, by the children of two Day Care centers of the City of Antofagasta-Chile.

  5. Phonology in Swedish-speaking 3-year-olds born with cleft lip and palate and the relationship with consonant production at 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintö, Kristina; Eva-Kristina-Salameh; Olsson, Maria; Flynn, Traci; Svensson, Henry; Lohmander, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 50% of children born with cleft palate present speech difficulties around 3 years of age, and several studies report on persisting phonological problems after palatal closure. However, studies on early phonology related to cleft palate are few and have so far mainly been carried out on English-speaking children. Studies on phonology related to cleft palate in languages other than English are also warranted. To assess phonology in Swedish-speaking children born with and without unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) at 3 years of age, and to identify variables at 18 months that are associated with restricted phonology at age 3 years. Eighteen consecutive children born with UCLP and 20 children without cleft lip and palate were included. Transcriptions of audio recordings at 18 months and 3 years were used. Per cent correct consonants adjusted for age (PCC-A), the number of established phonemes, and phonological simplification processes at 3 years were assessed and compared with different aspects of consonant inventory at 18 months. PCC-A, the number of established phonemes, and the total number of phonological processes differed significantly at 3 years between the two groups. Total number of oral consonants, oral stops, dental/alveolar oral stops and number of different oral stops at 18 months correlated significantly with PCC-A at 3 years in the UCLP group. As a group, children born with UCLP displayed deviant phonology at 3 years compared with peers without cleft lip and palate. Measures of oral consonant and stop production at 18 months might be possible predictors for phonology at 3 years in children born with cleft palate. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  6. Cloud Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mark Talmage

    2004-05-01

    Cloud formation is crucial to the heritage of modern physics, and there is a rich literature on this important topic. In 1927, Charles T.R. Wilson was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for applications of the cloud chamber.2 Wilson was inspired to study cloud formation after working at a meteorological observatory on top of the highest mountain in Scotland, Ben Nevis, and testified near the end of his life, "The whole of my scientific work undoubtedly developed from the experiments I was led to make by what I saw during my fortnight on Ben Nevis in September 1894."3 To form clouds, Wilson used the sudden expansion of humid air.4 Any structure the cloud may have is spoiled by turbulence in the sudden expansion, but in 1912 Wilson got ion tracks to show up by using strobe photography of the chamber immediately upon expansion.5 In the interim, Millikan's study in 1909 of the formation of cloud droplets around individual ions was the first in which the electron charge was isolated. This study led to his famous oil drop experiment.6 To Millikan, as to Wilson, meteorology and physics were professionally indistinct. With his meteorological physics expertise, in WWI Millikan commanded perhaps the first meteorological observation and forecasting team essential to military operation in history.7 But even during peacetime meteorology is so much of a concern to everyone that a regular news segment is dedicated to it. Weather is the universal conversation topic, and life on land could not exist as we know it without clouds. One wonders then, why cloud formation is never covered in physics texts.

  7. Design for Fusion News Production System Based on Cloud Technology%基于云技术的融合新闻生产系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡一梁

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the business demand of the fusion news production system based on cloud tech-nology,analyzes system business process,puts forward design thought,designed the fusion news business process,and constructs the overall fusion architecture news system;realize the basic functions of fusion news production system.%描述基于云技术融合新闻生产系统的业务需求,分析融合新闻生产系统的业务流程,提出了融合新闻生产系统的设计思路,设计了融合新闻业务流程,构建融合新闻系统的总体架构,实现了融合媒体生产系统的基本功能。

  8. Getting started with Citrix CloudPortal

    CERN Document Server

    U, Puthiyavan

    2013-01-01

    The book will follow a step-by-step, tutorial-based approach and show readers how to take advantage of Citrix CloudPortal's capabilities.This book is ideal for administrators and engineers new to the Citrix Cloud Solution CPSM, CPBM, and who are looking to get a good grounding in Citrix's new product. It's assumed that you will have some experience in the basics of cloud computing already. No prior knowledge of CloudPortal is expected.

  9. Transition to the Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Xiao, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    companies operate. In this paper, we present a case study of an ERP vendor for SMB (small and mediumsize business) in making a transition towards a cloud-based business model. Through the theoretical lens of ecosystem, we are able to analyze the evolution of the vendor and its business network as a whole......The rising of cloud computing has dramatically changed the way software companies provide and distribute their IT product and related services over the last decades. Today, most software is bought offthe-shelf and distributed over the Internet. This transition is greatly influencing how software...

  10. On the optimal method for evaluating cloud products from passive satellite imagery using CALIPSO-CALIOP data: example investigating the CM SAF CLARA-A1 dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-G. Karlsson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A method for detailed evaluation of a new satellite-derived global 28-yr cloud and radiation climatology (Climate Monitoring SAF Cloud, Albedo and Radiation dataset from AVHRR data, named CLARA-A1 from polar orbiting NOAA and Metop satellites is presented. The method combines 1 km and 5 km resolution cloud datasets from the CALIPSO-CALIOP cloud lidar for estimating cloud detection limitations and the accuracy of cloud top height estimations.

    Cloud detection is shown to work efficiently for clouds with optical thicknesses above 0.30 except for at twilight conditions when this value increases to 0.45. Some misclassifications generating erroneous clouds over land surfaces in semi-arid regions in the sub-tropical and tropical regions are revealed. In addition, a substantial fraction of all clouds remains undetected in the Polar regions during the polar winter season due to the lack of or an inverted temperature contrast between Earth surfaces and clouds.

    Subsequent cloud top height evaluation took into account the derived information about the cloud detection limits. It was shown that this has fundamental importance for the achieved results. An overall bias of −274 m was achieved compared to a bias of −2762 m if no measures were taken to compensate for cloud detection limitations. Despite this improvement it was concluded that high-level clouds still suffer from substantial height underestimations while the opposite is true for low-level (boundary layer clouds.

    The validation method and the specifically collected satellite dataset with optimal matching in time and space are suggested for a wider use in the future for evaluation of other cloud retrieval methods based on passive satellite imagery.

  11. MONTHLY REVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Bird flu researchThe central government has allocated 100 million yuan (US$ 12 million) in special funding for researchinto bird flu, a spokesman with China’s National Avian Influenza Prevention Headquarters said on 9 February.The funding would be used to develop vaccines, technology and products for rapid diagnosis, analysis of mutations of the virus, new transmission channels and technology for prevention and control, and the screening of anti-virus drugs, said the spokesman.

  12. Marine cloud brightening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action

  13. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children aged 6-24 months; II: properties of the mixtures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional formulations of high protein content, provided by a flour mixture from two Andean cultures, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupino (Lupinus albus L), with two traditional cereals, maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), entailed to the preparation of a "sweet mixture" for the elaboration of "queques" and another "dessert mixture" flavoured with banana, that can be prepared with water or milk, constituted a good alternative as food supplement for the nutrition of children aged 6-24 months who suffer from celiac disease, since they contribute to the quality improvement of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, they are of low cost and allow an increase in availability of products for gluten-intolerant children. Some physical, chemical, rheological, mechanical and fluidity properties, as well as the color of these mixtures for a period of conservation of 90 days were evaluated. At the end of the storage, the sweet mixture turned out to be of "little flow" and the dessert mixture changed from "little flow" to "easy flow". Viscosity for the dessert mixture, with its two types of dilutions, water and milk, presented a behavior of pseudoplastic fluid. It was possible to guess that the time of shelf life of the mixtures would be of 9 months before achieving the rancidity limit (10 mEq of oxigen/kg of fat, which would disqualify the product for consumption). The CIEL*a*b* color coordinates did not show significant differences keeping the colour in "a beige" tonality.

  14. Sea-ice, clouds and atmospheric conditions in the arctic and their interactions as derived from a merged C3M data product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Bappaditya

    The polar regions of the world constitute an important sector in the global energy balance. Among other effects responsible for the change in the sea-ice cover like ocean circulation and ice-albedo feedback, the cloud-radiation feedback also plays a vital role in modulation of the Arctic environment. However the annual cycle of the clouds is very poorly represented in current global circulation models. This study aimed to explore the atmospheric conditions in the Arctic on an unprecedented spatial coverage spanning 70°N to 80°N through the use of a merged data product, C3MData (derived from NASA's A-Train Series). The following three topics provide outline on how this dataset can be used to accomplish a detailed analysis of the Arctic environment and provide the modelling community with first information to update their models aimed at better forecasts. (1)The three properties of the Arctic climate system to be studied using the C3MData are sea-ice, clouds, and the atmospheric conditions. The first topic is to document the present states of the three properties and also their time evolutions or their seasonal cycles. (2)The second topic is aimed at the interactions or the feedbacks processes among the three properties. For example, the immediate alteration in the fluxes and the feedbacks arising from the change in the sea-ice cover is investigated. Seasonal and regional variations are also studied. (3)The third topics is aimed at the processes in native spatial resolution that drive or accompany with sea ice melting and sea ice growth. Using a composite approach based on a classification due to surface type, it is found that limitation of the water vapour influx from the surface due to change in phase at the surface featuring open oceans or marginal sea-ice cover to complete sea-ice cover is a major determinant in the modulation of the atmospheric moisture. The impact of the cloud-radiative effects in the Arctic is found to vary with sea-ice cover and seasonally

  15. Submicron aerosols at thirteen diversified sites in China: size distribution, new particle formation and corresponding contribution to cloud condensation nuclei production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Peng

    2014-06-01

    (CS during NPF days were observed among different site types, suggesting that the NPF events in background area were more influenced by the pollutant transport. In addition, average contributions of NPF events to potential cloud condensation nuclei (CCN at 0.2% super-saturation in the afternoon of all sampling days were calculated as 11% and 6% at urban sites and regional sites, respectively. On the other hand, NPF events at coastal and cruise measurement sites had little impact on potential production of CCN. This study provides a large dataset of aerosol size distribution in diversified atmosphere of China, improving our general understanding of emission, secondary formation, new particles formation and corresponding CCN activity of submicron aerosols in Chinese environments.

  16. Laboratory simulation for the aqueous OH-oxidation of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein: significance to the in-cloud SOA production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that secondary organic aerosol (SOA is formed through aqueous phase reactions in atmospheric clouds. In the present study, the aqueous oxidation of methyl vinyl ketone (MVK and methacrolein (MACR via OH radical were investigated under conditions typical of cloud droplets, with an emphasis on the composition and variation of oxygenated organic products. In addition to the small products, high-molecular-weight compounds (HMCs with an oligomer system was found, interpreted as the ion abundance and time evolution. We observed the SOA yields of 23.8% and 8.8% from MVK–OH and MACR–OH reactions, respectively, for the entire 7 h experiment. Our results provide, for the first time to our knowledge, experimental evidence that aqueous OH-oxidation of MVK contributes to SOA formation. Further, a mechanism primarily involving radical processes was proposed to gain a basic understanding of these two reactions. Based on the assumed mechanism, a specific box model was developed for comparison with the experimental results. The model reproduced the observed profiles of first-generation intermediates, but failed to simulate the kinetics of most organic acids mainly due to the lack of chemical kinetics parameters for HMCs. A sensitivity analysis was performed in terms of the effect of reaction branching ratios on oxalic acid yields and the result indicates that additional pathways involving HMCs chemistry might play an important role in the formation of oxalic acid. We suggest that corresponding experiments are needed for better understanding the behavior of multi-functional products and their contribution to the oxalic acid formation.

  17. 基于云服务的复杂产品协同设计方法%Method for complex product collaborative design based on cloud service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺东京; 宋晓; 王琪; 徐程

    2011-01-01

    围绕复杂产品设计过程中设计者之间的分布协同以及信息、资源共享和知识重用等问题,提出了一种基于云服务的复杂产品协同设计方法.该方法以云服务中间件技术为主体,通过云服务中构建的领域本体和知识库所包含的语义来描述复杂产品设计过程中的信息、资源和知识,进而提出一种结合事件驱动服务模型和语义服务逻辑图的服务组合方法.在事件驱动下完成任务分解、服务发布等操作,利用语义服务逻辑图表达服务之间的逻辑和时序关系,接着进行服务组合并执行组合服务以完成复杂产品设计任务.以某型航空器总体设计为例验证了该方法的有效件和正确性.%To solve the problems of distributed collaboration, information or resources sharing, and knowledge reuse among designers during process of complex product design, a novel method for complex product collaborative design based on cloud service was proposed.The key point of the method was Cloud Service Middleware(CSM).Information, resources and knowledge during design process were described by abundant semantics, which were contained by construction of domain ontology and knowledge base in cloud services.A new service-composition approach was proposed, which integrated event-driven service model and Semantic Service Logic Graphics(S2 LG).Firstly, operations such as task decomposition and service publication were completed under event-driven.Then, S2 LG was utilized to express logic or sequential relationships among services.Subsequently, service composition was executed to accomplish complex product design.Finally, a case study of the whole design of an aircraft was presented to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the approach.

  18. Research Challenges for Enterprise Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Khajeh-Hosseini, Ali; Sriram, Ilango

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing represents a shift away from computing as a product that is purchased, to computing as a service that is delivered to consumers over the internet from large-scale data centers - or "clouds". This paper discusses some of the research challenges for cloud computing from an enterprise or organizational perspective, and puts them in context by reviewing the existing body of literature in cloud computing. Various research challenges relating to the following topics are discussed: the organizational changes brought about by cloud computing; the economic and organizational implications of its utility billing model; the security, legal and privacy issues that cloud computing raises. It is important to highlight these research challenges because cloud computing is not simply about a technological improvement of data centers but a fundamental change in how IT is provisioned and used. This type of research has the potential to influence wider adoption of cloud computing in enterprise, and in the consumer...

  19. The Evolution of Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00224309; Berghaus, Frank; Brasolin, Franco; Cordeiro, Cristovao; Desmarais, Ron; Field, Laurence; Gable, Ian; Giordano, Domenico; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Hover, John; Leblanc, Matthew Edgar; Love, Peter; Paterson, Michael; Sobie, Randall; Zaytsev, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has successfully incorporated cloud computing technology and cloud resources into its primarily grid-based model of distributed computing. Cloud R&D activities continue to mature and transition into stable production systems, while ongoing evolutionary changes are still needed to adapt and refine the approaches used, in response to changes in prevailing cloud technology. In addition, completely new developments are needed to handle emerging requirements. This paper describes the overall evolution of cloud computing in ATLAS. The current status of the virtual machine (VM) management systems used for harnessing infrastructure as a service (IaaS) resources are discussed. Monitoring and accounting systems tailored for clouds are needed to complete the integration of cloud resources within ATLAS' distributed computing framework. We are developing and deploying new solutions to address the challenge of operation in a geographically distributed multi-cloud scenario, including a system for ma...

  20. Cloud computing can simplify HIT infrastructure management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, John

    2011-08-01

    Software as a Service (SaaS), built on cloud computing technology, is emerging as the forerunner in IT infrastructure because it helps healthcare providers reduce capital investments. Cloud computing leads to predictable, monthly, fixed operating expenses for hospital IT staff. Outsourced cloud computing facilities are state-of-the-art data centers boasting some of the most sophisticated networking equipment on the market. The SaaS model helps hospitals safeguard against technology obsolescence, minimizes maintenance requirements, and simplifies management.

  1. Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Katz, Marcos

    users in very different ways and for various purposes. The book provides many stimulating examples of resource-sharing applications. Enabling technologies for mobile clouds are also discussed, highlighting the key role of network coding. Mobile clouds have the potential to enhance communications...... of resource sharing takes a wider and deeper meaning, creating the foundations for a global real-time multidimensional resource pool, the underlying infrastructure for shareconomy. Above all, this is an inspiring book for anyone who is concerned about the future of wireless and mobile communications networks...... and their relationship with Social networks. Key Features: Provides fundamental ideas and promising concepts for exploiting opportunistic cooperation and cognition in wireless and mobile networks Gives clear definitions of mobile clouds from different perspectives Associates mobile and wireless networks with social...

  2. Monthly energy review, January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Major activities covered include production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  3. The Future of Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaroa SIclovan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Cloud computing was and it will be a new way of providing Internet services and computers. This calculation approach is based on many existing services, such as the Internet, grid computing, Web services. Cloud computing as a system aims to provide on demand services more acceptable as price and infrastructure. It is exactly the transition from computer to a service offered
    to the consumers as a product delivered online. This represents an advantage for the organization both regarding the cost and the opportunity for the new business. This paper presents the future perspectives in cloud computing. The paper presents some issues of the cloud computing paradigm. It is a theoretical paper.

    Keywords: Cloud Computing, Pay-per-use

  4. The Future of Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaroa SIclovan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing was and it will be a new way of providing Internet services and computers. This calculation approach is based on many existing services, such as the Internet, grid computing, Web services. Cloud computing as a system aims to provide on demand services more acceptable as price and infrastructure. It is exactly the transition from computer to a service offeredto the consumers as a product delivered online. This represents an advantage for the organization both regarding the cost and the opportunity for the new business. This paper presents the future perspectives in cloud computing. The paper presents some issues of the cloud computing paradigm. It is a theoretical paper.Keywords: Cloud Computing, Pay-per-use

  5. Effects on Milk Production of Calving Months for Holstein Cows%产犊月份对荷斯坦牛产奶量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧林; 刘小林; 朱建华; 茹彩霞; 宋爱龙

    2012-01-01

    以西安草滩第二牛场的荷斯坦牛为研究对象,选择2~4胎产奶量记录完整的健康母牛共587头,其中2胎217头,3胎196头,4胎174头,主要探讨产犊月份对产奶量的影响.将所有产奶数据校正到305 d产奶量,用Excel进行统计分析,做出全年产奶量的整体分布曲线.对12个月份和4个季节的产奶量分别采用单因素方差分析,确定各月份和不同季节的影响效果.结果表明,冬季12、1、2月份和早春的3月份产犊的母牛305 d产奶量最高,显著或极显著高于其他月份,属高产奶量月份;夏季6、7、8月份产犊的母牛305 d产奶量最低,显著或极显著低于其他月份,属低产奶量月份;春季4、5月份和秋季9、10、11月份产犊的母牛305 d产奶量处于中等水平,显著或极显著低于冬季和早春,但显著或极显著高于夏季,属中等产奶量月份.产犊月份对产奶量的影响效果表明,在保证全年牛奶供求基本平衡的前提下,适当调整在高产月份产犊,对提高奶牛群体产奶量具有重要意义.%This research analyzed the effect of calving season on milk production in Holstein cow, so that providing the basis of improving the milk production. The Holstein cows from second ranch in Caotan herd Farm were selected. We recorded 587 milk production data, including 217 cows in the second lactation, 196 cows in the third lactation, 174 cows in the forth lactation. All data were corrected to 305-day milk yield, and then did statistic analysis by Excel as well as drew the curve of whole year's milk yield distribution. This study used single factor variance analysis to investigate the effect of different calving month and season on milk yield in Holstein cows. The results showed that the cows calved in December, January, Feb and March had the highest 305-day milk production, which were significant higher than cows calved in other month. The cows calved in June, July and August had the lowest milk yield

  6. Comparison of differences between MODIS 250 m and 1 km cloud masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Andrzej Z.

    2016-11-01

    The spatial resolution of remote sensing instruments installed onboard satellites is one of the key factors for accurate estimations of cloud amount. In general terms, the larger the instantaneous field of view (IFOV), the greater the overestimation of cloud amount - assuming that data are collected with exactly the same methodology, and processed with exactly the same algorithms. While most meteorological imagers collect data at a spatial resolution of 1 km, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) offers cloud amount estimates at both 1 km (the standard product) and 250 m (additional, high-resolution products). However, these datasets are produced using different methodological approaches, which impacts the quality and reliability of the product. This study compared 250 m data with 1 km data over elevated terrain with complex orography. Results showed significant discrepancies between the datasets, with 250 m data reporting mean seasonal (June-August) cloud amount 15.8% lower, than 1 km dataset. This was not related to the presence of snow, or to the increased spatial resolution of the cloud mask. On the other hand, both 1 km and 250 m data described similar spatial variability in mean monthly cloud amount (correlation coefficients of 0.85-0.98, p < 0.01).

  7. Validation of VIIRS Cloud Base Heights at Night Using Ground and Satellite Measurements over Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOH, Y. J.; Miller, S. D.; Seaman, C.; Forsythe, J. M.; Brummer, R.; Lindsey, D. T.; Walther, A.; Heidinger, A. K.; Li, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of Cloud Base Height (CBH) is critical to describing cloud radiative feedbacks in numerical models and is of practical significance to aviation communities. We have developed a new CBH algorithm constrained by Cloud Top Height (CTH) and Cloud Water Path (CWP) by performing a statistical analysis of A-Train satellite data. It includes an extinction-based method for thin cirrus. In the algorithm, cloud geometric thickness is derived with upstream CTH and CWP input and subtracted from CTH to generate the topmost layer CBH. The CBH information is a key parameter for an improved Cloud Cover/Layers product. The algorithm has been applied to the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi NPP spacecraft. Nighttime cloud optical properties for CWP are retrieved from the nighttime lunar cloud optical and microphysical properties (NLCOMP) algorithm based on a lunar reflectance model for the VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB) measuring nighttime visible light such as moonlight. The DNB has innovative capabilities to fill the polar winter and nighttime gap of cloud observations which has been an important shortfall from conventional radiometers. The CBH products have been intensively evaluated against CloudSat data. The results showed the new algorithm yields significantly improved performance over the original VIIRS CBH algorithm. However, since CloudSat is now operational during daytime only due to a battery anomaly, the nighttime performance has not been fully assessed. This presentation will show our approach to assess the performance of the CBH algorithm at night. VIIRS CBHs are retrieved over the Alaska region from October 2015 to April 2016 using the Clouds from AVHRR Extended (CLAVR-x) processing system. Ground-based measurements from ceilometer and micropulse lidar at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site on the North Slope of Alaska are used for the analysis. Local weather conditions are checked using temperature and precipitation

  8. Cloud radiative properties and aerosol - cloud interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviana Vladutescu, Daniela; Gross, Barry; Li, Clement; Han, Zaw

    2015-04-01

    The presented research discusses different techniques for improvement of cloud properties measurements and analysis. The need for these measurements and analysis arises from the high errors noticed in existing methods that are currently used in retrieving cloud properties and implicitly cloud radiative forcing. The properties investigated are cloud fraction (cf) and cloud optical thickness (COT) measured with a suite of collocated remote sensing instruments. The novel approach makes use of a ground based "poor man's camera" to detect cloud and sky radiation in red, green, and blue with a high spatial resolution of 30 mm at 1km. The surface-based high resolution photography provides a new and interesting view of clouds. As the cloud fraction cannot be uniquely defined or measured, it depends on threshold and resolution. However as resolution decreases, cloud fraction tends to increase if the threshold is below the mean, and vice versa. Additionally cloud fractal dimension also depends on threshold. Therefore these findings raise concerns over the ability to characterize clouds by cloud fraction or fractal dimension. Our analysis indicate that Principal Component analysis may lead to a robust means of quantifying cloud contribution to radiance. The cloud images are analyzed in conjunction with a collocated CIMEL sky radiometer, Microwave Radiometer and LIDAR to determine homogeneity and heterogeneity. Additionally, MFRSR measurements are used to determine the cloud radiative properties as a validation tool to the results obtained from the other instruments and methods. The cloud properties to be further studied are aerosol- cloud interaction, cloud particle radii, and vertical homogeneity.

  9. Monthly energy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  10. Monthly Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-28

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief ``energy plugs`` (reviews of EIA publications) are included, as well.

  11. Evolution of Cloud Storage as Cloud Computing Infrastructure Service

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Arokia Paul; Shanmugapriyaa

    2013-01-01

    Enterprises are driving towards less cost, more availability, agility, managed risk - all of which is accelerated towards Cloud Computing. Cloud is not a particular product, but a way of delivering IT services that are consumable on demand, elastic to scale up and down as needed, and follow a pay-for-usage model. Out of the three common types of cloud computing service models, Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is a service model that provides servers, computing power, network bandwidth and S...

  12. Monthly CO2 at A4HDYD station in a productive shallow marginal sea (Yellow Sea) with a seasonal thermocline: Controlling processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuemei; Zang, Kunpeng; Zhao, Huade; Zheng, Nan; Huo, Cheng; Wang, Juying

    2016-07-01

    Based upon 21 field surveys conducted from March 2011 to November 2013, monthly variation of carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) and other carbon system parameters were investigated for the first time (to our knowledge) at A4HDYD station (38°40‧N, 122°10‧E) located in the North Yellow Sea, a region with a seasonal thermocline. Surface pCO2 was undersaturated from March to May and nearly in equilibrium with the atmosphere from June to August. During September and November, pCO2 declined to a lower level than that from June to August, but reached the highest level in December. In contrast, pCO2 declined to atmospheric CO2 levels in February. Overall, the study area was a net CO2 sink at a rate of 0.85 ± 0.59 mol C m- 2 yr- 1. The underlying processes governing the variation of pCO2 were also examined. In general, temperature had an important influence on the monthly variation of pCO2, but its effect was counterbalanced by biological production in spring and vertical mixing in early winter. Our study indicated that dynamic mechanism studies based on high temporal resolution observations are urgently needed to understand the complexity of the carbon cycle and detect biogeochemical changes or ecosystem responses to climate change on continental margins.

  13. Biomass production and nutrient accumulation by Tephrosia vogelii (Hemsley A. Gray and Tothonia diversifolia Hook F. fallows during the six-month growth period at Maseno, Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanja N.K.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Two planted fallows namely, Tephrosia vogelii Hook F. and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley A. Gray, a natural fallow and a Zea mays L. crop were grown on N and P depleted soils at Maseno in Kenya during a period of six months. Growth performance and biomass production were assessed. Roots and aerial plant parts grew fast. Most of the shrubs had produced flowers by the 165th day after transplanting. T. vogelii and T. diversifolia yielded more above ground biomass than maize and natural fallow. The amount of roots in the shrub and natural fallows was higher in the topsoil (0-30 cm than in the deep layer (30 45cm. T. vogelii produced the least root biomass compared to the Tithonia and natural fallows. Tephrosia and Tithonia leaves were high in N, K, Ca and Mg, Tephrosia roots in N and K, and Tephrosia stems high in Ca only. All plant parts had low P content. The six month-old fallows of T. vogelii or T. diversifolia accumulated high amount of N, K- and Ca. This biomass and nutrient accumulation may even be higher where rainfall is evenly distributed and sufficient and if initial soil fertility status is not very highly depleted. Tithonia leaves had a higher proton consumption capacity compared to other plant parts or Tephrosia and natural fallow materials.

  14. Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Katz, Marcos

    examples of mobile clouds applications, based on both existing commercial initiatives as well as proof-of-concept test-beds. Visions and prospects are also discussed, paving the way for further development. As mobile networks and social networks become more and more reliant on each other, the concept...

  15. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas;

    2012-01-01

    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound...

  16. Monthly energy review, August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review for the month of August 1997, presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  17. 以云计算为基础的制播系统设计分析%Analysis of Cloud-based Production and Broadcast System Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一帆

    2015-01-01

    The design is more reliable production and broadcast radio and television system is an important measure to adapt to the times, to promote their development. For radio and television broadcasting center system are discussed and analyzed, describes the design and product and broadcast system, introduced on all television product and broadcast network system design and system architecture, and gives data center cloud platform design ideas, with a view provide a reference for the relevant units.%设计更加可靠的制作和播出系统是广播电视台适应时代潮流、促进自身发展的重要举措。对广播电视台的广播中心系统进行了讨论和分析,阐述了制播分离系统的设计,介绍了基于制播分离的全台网系统设计和系统架构,并给出了云平台数据中心设计思路,以期为相关单位提供参考。

  18. EucaTool®, a cloud computing application for estimating the growth and production of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Galicia (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rojo-Alboreca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To present the software utilities and explain how to use EucaTool®, a free cloud computing application developed to estimate the growth and production of seedling and clonal blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Galicia (NW Spain.Area of study: Galicia (NW Spain.Material and methods: EucaTool® implements a dynamic growth and production model that is valid for clonal and non-clonal blue gum plantations in the region. The model integrates transition functions for dominant height (site index curves, number of stems per hectare (mortality function and basal area, as well as output functions for tree and stand volume, biomass and carbon content.Main results: EucaTool® can be freely accessed from any device with an Internet connection, from http://app.eucatool.com. In addition, useful information about the application is published on a related website: http://www.eucatool.com.Research highlights: The application has been designed to enable forest stakeholders to estimate volume, biomass and carbon content of forest plantations from individual trees, diameter classes or stand data, as well as to estimate growth and future production (indicating the optimal rotation age for maximum income by measurement of only four stand variables: age, number of trees per hectare, dominant height and basal area.Keywords: forest management; biomass; seedling; clones; blue gum; forest tool.

  19. The Relationship Between Surface Temperature Anomaly Time Series and those of OLR, Water Vapor, and Cloud Cover as Observed Using Nine Years of AIRS Version-5 Level-3 Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Outline: (1) Comparison of AIRS and CERES anomaly time series of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and OLR(sub CLR), i.e. Clear Sky OLR (2) Explanation of recent decreases in global and tropical mean values of OLR (3) AIRS "Short-term" Longwave Cloud Radiative Feedback -- A new product

  20. Productivity, part 2: cloud storage, remote meeting tools, screencasting, speech recognition software, password managers, and online data backup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Amanda E; Pandey, Tarun; Moshiri, Mariam; Lalwani, Neeraj; Lall, Chandana; Bhargava, Puneet

    2014-06-01

    It is an opportune time for radiologists to focus on personal productivity. The ever increasing reliance on computers and the Internet has significantly changed the way we work. Myriad software applications are available to help us improve our personal efficiency. In this article, the authors discuss some tools that help improve collaboration and personal productivity, maximize e-learning, and protect valuable digital data.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  4. Product DSS Model Based on Cloud Service%基于云服务的产品决策支持系统模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯青; 余隋怀; 杨延璞; 宋红; 陆长德

    2013-01-01

    为了更好地解决复杂产品设计中的决策服务问题,提出一种将云服务、需求驱动和面向服务架构(service oriented architecture,SOA)相结合的决策支持系统.在该决策支持系统中,通过云服务将各类软硬件设计资源和制造能力虚拟化和服务化,利用其富含语义的Web服务,实现决策支持过程中抽象决策过程建模与实际决策服务执行之间的动态映射.另外,为了提高系统的决策能力,在系统层次模型的基础上,提出了决策任务提交及分解模型,论述了模型各模块相互调用协作的运作流程,设计并开发了面向决策支持系统的云服务平台雏形,验证了该方法的可行性.%To solve the decision service problems in the process of complex product design,cloud services,requirements-driven and service-oriented architecture were used to DSS.In the DSS,through cloud service's virtualization and service-orientation to various types of hardware and software,also with its rich semantic web services,the decision support process modeling and dynamic mapping among the actual implementation of decision-making process service could be achieved.In addition,to improve the system's decision-making capacity,based on the system-level model the paper proposed the idea of decision-making task submission and a decomposition model;meanwhile,it discussed the module operation between each model and then developed cloud services platform prototype for DSS to verify the feasibility of this method.

  5. The Evolution of Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan P.; Berghaus, Frank; Brasolin, Franco; Domingues Cordeiro, Cristovao Jose; Desmarais, Ron; Field, Laurence; Gable, Ian; Giordano, Domenico; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Hover, John; LeBlanc, Matthew; Love, Peter; Paterson, Michael; Sobie, Randall; Zaytsev, Alexandr

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has successfully incorporated cloud computing technology and cloud resources into its primarily grid-based model of distributed computing. Cloud R&D activities continue to mature and transition into stable production systems, while ongoing evolutionary changes are still needed to adapt and refine the approaches used, in response to changes in prevailing cloud technology. In addition, completely new developments are needed to handle emerging requirements. This paper describes the overall evolution of cloud computing in ATLAS. The current status of the virtual machine (VM) management systems used for harnessing Infrastructure as a Service resources are discussed. Monitoring and accounting systems tailored for clouds are needed to complete the integration of cloud resources within ATLAS' distributed computing framework. We are developing and deploying new solutions to address the challenge of operation in a geographically distributed multi-cloud scenario, including a system for managing VM images across multiple clouds, a system for dynamic location-based discovery of caching proxy servers, and the usage of a data federation to unify the worldwide grid of storage elements into a single namespace and access point. The usage of the experiment's high level trigger farm for Monte Carlo production, in a specialized cloud environment, is presented. Finally, we evaluate and compare the performance of commercial clouds using several benchmarks.

  6. Cloud management and security

    CERN Document Server

    Abbadi, Imad M

    2014-01-01

    Written by an expert with over 15 years' experience in the field, this book establishes the foundations of Cloud computing, building an in-depth and diverse understanding of the technologies behind Cloud computing. In this book, the author begins with an introduction to Cloud computing, presenting fundamental concepts such as analyzing Cloud definitions, Cloud evolution, Cloud services, Cloud deployment types and highlighting the main challenges. Following on from the introduction, the book is divided into three parts: Cloud management, Cloud security, and practical examples. Part one presents the main components constituting the Cloud and federated Cloud infrastructure(e.g., interactions and deployment), discusses management platforms (resources and services), identifies and analyzes the main properties of the Cloud infrastructure, and presents Cloud automated management services: virtual and application resource management services. Part two analyzes the problem of establishing trustworthy Cloud, discuss...

  7. Monthly energy review, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-26

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities.

  8. MISR Level 2 TOA/Cloud Height and Motion parameters V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the Level 2 TOA/Cloud Product containing the Stereo Heights, Stereoscopically Derived Cloud Mask (SDCM) and Cloud Motion Vectors with associated data....

  9. MISR Level 2 FIRSTLOOK TOA/Cloud Classifier parameters V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the Level 2 FIRSTLOOK TOA/Cloud Classifiers Product. It contains the Angular Signature Cloud Mask (ASCM), Cloud Classifiers, and Support Vector Machine...

  10. Laboratory Studies of Stabilities of Heterocyclic Aromatic Molecules: Suggested Gas Phase Ion-Molecule Routes to Production in Interstellar Gas Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nigel G.; Fondren, L. Dalila; McLain, Jason L.; Jackson, Doug M.

    2006-01-01

    Several ring compounds have been detected in interstellar gas clouds, ISC, including the aromatic, benzene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, have been implicated as carriers of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) and unidentified infrared (UIR) bands. Heterocyclic aromatic rings of intermediate size containing nitrogen, possibly PreLife molecules, were included in early searches but were not detected and a recent search for Pyrimidine was unsuccessful. Our laboratory investigations of routes to such molecules could establish their existence in ISC and suggest conditions under which their concentrations would be maximized thus aiding the searches. The stability of such ring compounds (C5H5N, C4H4N2, C5H11N and C4H8O2) has been tested in the laboratory using charge transfer excitation in ion-molecule reactions. The fragmentation paths, including production of C4H4(+), C3H3N(+) and HCN, suggest reverse routes to the parent molecules, which are presently under laboratory investigation as production sources.

  11. Laboratory simulation for the aqueous OH-oxidation of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein: significance to the in-cloud SOA production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that secondary organic aerosol (SOA is formed through aqueous phase reactions in atmospheric clouds. In the present study, the aqueous oxidation of methyl vinyl ketone (MVK and methacrolein (MACR via OH radical were investigated, with an emphasis on the composition and variation of small-molecular-weight organic products. In addition, high-molecular-weight compounds (HMWs were found, interpreted as the ion abundance and time evolution. Our results provide, for the first time to our knowledge, experimental evidence that aqueous OH-oxidation of MVK contributes to SOA formation. Further, a mechanism primarily involving radical processes was proposed to gain a basic understanding of these two reactions. Based on the assumed mechanism, a kinetic model was developed for comparison with the experimental results. The model reproduced the observed profiles of first-generation intermediates, but failed to simulate the kinetics of most organic acids mainly due to the lack of chemical kinetics parameters for HMWs. A sensitivity analysis was performed in terms of the effect of stoichiometric coefficients for precursors on oxalic acid yields and the result indicates that additional pathways involving HMWs chemistry might play an important role in the formation of oxalic acid. We suggest that further study is needed for better understanding the behavior of multi-functional products and their contribution to the oxalic acid formation.

  12. Research of Production Configuration Management Based on the Internet of Things-mixed Cloud Enterprise%基于物联网-混合云企业的生产配置管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光荣; 刘彩霞; 鲁泳; 王云霞; 王志亮; 胡升平

    2013-01-01

    Configuration requirement of the mixed cloud production enterprise is analyzed and the production configuration function is summarized.Production allocation content is inducted based on the intemet of things-mixed cloud enterprise.The workshop production of configuration management is designed in detail.Those are elaborated on the specific content and mode of operation of material configuration.It is obtained that the configuration of the model and relation model diagram.Production resource allocation method is studied based on multi-tree theory of internet of things-mixed cloud enterprise.Production resource allocation model based on the tree is established.It has laid a theoretical basis for optimal application and reasonable allocation of resources.%研究了基于多叉树理论的物联网-混合云企业的生产资源配置方法,建立了基于多叉树的生产资源配置模型,为充分合理地应用生产资源配置奠定了理论基础.

  13. Production of Ionospheric Perturbations by Cloud-to-Ground Lightning and the Recovery of the Lower Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ningyu; Dwyer, Joseph; Rassoul, Hamid

    2013-04-01

    The fact that lightning/thunderstorm activities can directly modify the lower ionosphere has long been established by observations of the perturbations of very low frequency (VLF) signals propagating in the earth-ionosphere waveguide. These perturbations are known as early VLF events [Inan et al., 2010, JGR, 115, A00E36, 2010]. More recently discovered transient luminous events caused by the lightning/thunderstorm activities only last ~1-100 ms, but studies of the early VLF events show that the lightning ionospheric effects can persist much longer, >10s min [Cotts and Inan, GRL, 34, L14809, 2007; Haldoupis et al., JGR, 39, L16801, 2012; Salut et al., JGR, 117, A08311, 2012]. It has been suggested that the long recovery is caused by long-lasting conductivity perturbations in the lower ionosphere, which can be created by sprites/sprite halos which in turn are triggered by cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning [Moore et al., JGR, 108, 1363, 2003; Haldoupis et al., 2012]. We recently developed a two-dimensional fluid model with simplified ionospheric chemistry for studying the quasi-electrostatic effects of lightning in the lower ionosphere [Liu, JGR, 117, A03308, 2012]. The model chemistry captures major ion species and reactions in the lower ionosphere. Additional important features of the model include self-consistent background ion density profiles and full description of electron and ion transport. In this talk, we present the simulation results on the dynamics of sprite halos caused by negative CG lightning. The modeling results indicate that electron density around 60 km altitude can be enhanced in a region as wide as 80 km. The enhancement reaches its full extent in ~1 s and recovers in 1-10 s, which are on the same orders as the durations of slow onset and post-onset peaks of some VLF events, respectively. In addition, long-lasting electron and ion density perturbations can occur around 80 km altitude due to negative halos as well as positive halos, which can explain

  14. CloudSat observations of cloud-type distribution over the Indian summer monsoon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Subrahmanyam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional distribution of various cloud types over the Indian summer monsoon (ISM region using five years (2006–2010 of CloudSat observations during June-July-August-September months is discussed for the first time. As the radiative properties, latent heat released and microphysical properties of clouds differ largely depending on the cloud type, it becomes important to know what types of clouds occur over which region. In this regard, the present analysis establishes the three-dimensional distribution of frequency of occurrence of stratus (St, stratocumulus (Sc, nimbostratus (Ns, cumulus (Cu, altocumulus (Ac, altostratus (As, cirrus (Ci and deep convective (DC clouds over the ISM region. The results show that the various cloud types preferentially occur over some regions of the ISM, which are consistent during all the years of observations. It is found that the DC clouds frequently occur over northeast of Bay of Bengal (BoB, Ci clouds over a wide region of south BoB–Indian peninsula–equatorial Indian Ocean, and Sc clouds over the north Arabian Sea. Ac clouds preferentially occur over land, and a large amount of As clouds are found over BoB. The occurrence of both St and Ns clouds over the study region is much lower than all other cloud types.The interannual variability of all these clouds including their vertical distribution is discussed. It is envisaged that the present study opens up possibilities to quantify the feedback of individual cloud type in the maintenance of the ISM through radiative forcing and latent heat release.

  15. 农产品安全追溯系统的云计算技术性能提升设计%Performance improving design on cloud computing for agricultural products safety traceability system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈联诚; 胡月明; 张飞扬; 段文杰; 余平祥

    2013-01-01

    农业生产及环境的信息采集是农业信息系统的重要环节,无线传感器网络以它的低成本、无线传输等优势广泛应用于农产品安全追溯的信息采集中。由于无线传感器网络长年不间断信息采集的积累,数据库的大信息量及网站用户高访问量将对网站服务器造成高负载的压力,这将导致网站的响应速度大大降低。采用高存储、高负载处理性能云计算计算技术,能提高网站访问的响应速度,提高网站的访问性能。该文设计了基于私有云的农产品安全追溯网站,研究了Hill-Climbing搜索算法优化云平台配置及MapReduce对大数据的并行计算,提高了私有云上的农产品安全追溯系统的性能。通过将网站系统迁移至私有云的前后的比较试验,说明将网站系统迁移至私有云后各方面性能得到较大提升,网站访问响应速度提高了33%。%Information collection of the production, supply and marketing chain in agriculture is an absolutely necessary part in the driving process of construction of agricultural informationization. As a new technique in collecting information, and relying on its low cost, low power consumption and wireless transmission, a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has already permeated into the agriculture area. For an agricultural information system which employs a wireless sensor as its collection terminal, there is no doubt that the uninterrupted process for information collection, transmission, and storage, as well as inquiries from a large number of users, puts so much pressure on the system server, resulting in a low speed for web access and inquiry. The response time and response rate when visiting a web site are key points of a web site’s performance. A supporting platform that has the capacity of mass storage and dealing with high concurrency traffic, therefore, is necessary for a Safety Tracing System for Agricultural Products. A cloud

  16. Cloud Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 1 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. This image was acquired during mid-spring near the North Pole. The linear water-ice clouds are now regional in extent and often interact with neighboring cloud system, as seen in this image. The bottom of the image shows how the interaction can destroy the linear nature. While the surface is still visible through most of the clouds, there is evidence that dust is also starting to enter the atmosphere. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.4, Longitude 258.8 East (101.2 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara

  17. Retrieval of ice cloud properties using an optimal estimation algorithm and MODIS infrared observations: 2. Retrieval evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenxi; Platnick, Steven; Zhang, Zhibo; Meyer, Kerry; Wind, Gala; Yang, Ping

    2016-05-01

    An infrared-based optimal estimation (OE-IR) algorithm for retrieving ice cloud properties is evaluated. Specifically, the implementation of the algorithm with MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations is assessed in comparison with the operational retrieval products from MODIS on the Aqua satellite (MYD06), Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), and the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR); the latter two instruments fly on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite in the Afternoon Constellation (A-Train) with Aqua. The results show that OE-IR cloud optical thickness (τ) and effective radius (reff) retrievals perform best for ice clouds having 0.5 1 km) occurs for τ < 0.5. Analysis of 1 month of the OE-IR retrievals shows large τ and reff uncertainties in storm track regions and the southern oceans where convective clouds are frequently observed, as well as in high-latitude regions where temperature differences between the surface and cloud top are more ambiguous. Generally, comparisons between the OE-IR and the operational products show consistent τ and h retrievals. However, obvious differences between the OE-IR and the MODIS Collection 6 reff are found.

  18. Six month-duration Tephrosia vogelii Hook. f. and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray planted-fallows for improving maize production in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gachene C.K.K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment including planted Tephrosia vogelii and Tithonia diversifolia fallow species and natural fallow was conducted at Maseno, Kenya, for assessing whether these fallows grown on a nutrient depleted land could produce sufficient green manure in six month period, whether their biomass retained on the same plots or transferred to continuously cropped plots with or without added P fertiliser could increase yield of consecutive maize crops and whether it is useful to regularly repeat these fallows on same plots. First fallow was established in randomized complete blocks with three replicates. At harvesting, biomass was recorded, then either incorporated in situ or transferred to continuous cropped plots split with and without added P fertiliser and monitored for the effect in improving consecutive maize crops. The second fallow was managed on this split plot design. The two-planted shrubs fallows produced more than 9 Mg total dry biomass and accumulated 154 to 234 kg N.ha-1, which were significantly higher compared to the production in the natural fallow. The shrubs were also superior to natural fallow for P accumulation (5-22 kg versus 2 kg.ha-1. The aboveground dry biomass harvested from planted T. vogelii and T. diversifolia and either incorporated in situ or transferred into continuously cropped plots increased maize yields by 2.5 folds compared to the unmanured crop, the control. Supplementing the organic materials with an additional 20 kg P inorganic fertilizer increased the 1st maize yield by about 40%. Productivity in the plots with T. vogelii or T. diversifolia aboveground biomass removal was low for the subsequent fallow and maize crops when compared to the performance in plots where biomass was incorporated. To achieve sustained yields of maize in depleted soils requires regular improved fallowing at least one season alternating with one season maize, and additional P inputs.

  19. Considerations about Cloud Services: Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Cognini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud services are ubiquitous: for small to large companies the phenomenon of cloud service is nowadays a standard business practice. This paper would compile an analysis over a possible implementation of a cloud system, treating especially the legal aspect of this theme. In the Italian market has a large number of issues arise form cloud computing. First of all, this paper investigates the legal issues associated to cloud computing, specific contractual scheme that is able to define rights a duties both of user (private and/or public body and cloud provider. On one side there is all the EU legislative production related to privacy over electronic communication and, furthermore, the Privacy Directive is under a revision process to be more adaptable to new challenges of decentralized data treatment, but concretely there are no any structured and well defined legal instruments. Objectives: we present a possible solution to address the uncertainty of this area, starting from the EU legislative production with the help of the specific Italian scenario that could offer an operative solution. Indeed the Italian legal system is particularly adaptable to changing technologies and it could use as better as possible to adapt the already existing legal tools to this new technological era. Prior work: after an introduction to the state of the art, we show the main issues and their critical points that must be solved. Approach: observation of the state of the art to propose a new approach to find the suitable disciple

  20. Slow proton production in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and the pion cloud in the nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Szczurek, A; Dieperink, A E L; Szczurek, A; Bosveld, G D; Dieperink, A E L

    1994-01-01

    The semi-inclusive cross section for producing slow protons in charged current deep inelastic (anti-) neutrino scattering on protons and neutrons is calculated as a function of the Bjorken x and the proton momentum. The standard hadronization models based upon the colour neutralization mechanism appear to underestimate the rate of slow proton production on hydrogen. The presence of the virtual mesons (pions) in the nucleon leads to an additional mechanism for proton production, referred to as spectator process. It is found that at low proton momenta both mechanisms compete, whereas the spectator mechanism dominates at very small momenta, while the color neutralization mechanism dominates at momenta larger than 1-2 \\, GeV/c. The results of the calculations are compared with the CERN bubble chamber (BEBC) data. The spectator model predicts a sharp increase of the semi-inclusive cross section at small x due to the sea quarks in virtual mesons.

  1. The MSG-SEVIRI-based cloud property data record CLAAS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benas, Nikos; Finkensieper, Stephan; Stengel, Martin; van Zadelhoff, Gerd-Jan; Hanschmann, Timo; Hollmann, Rainer; Fokke Meirink, Jan

    2017-07-01

    Clouds play a central role in the Earth's atmosphere, and satellite observations are crucial for monitoring clouds and understanding their impact on the energy budget and water cycle. Within the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF), a new cloud property data record was derived from geostationary Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) measurements for the time frame 2004-2015. The resulting CLAAS-2 (CLoud property dAtAset using SEVIRI, Edition 2) data record is publicly available via the CM SAF website (https://doi.org/10.5676/EUM_SAF_CM/CLAAS/V002). In this paper we present an extensive evaluation of the CLAAS-2 cloud products, which include cloud fractional coverage, thermodynamic phase, cloud top properties, liquid/ice cloud water path and corresponding optical thickness and particle effective radius. Data validation and comparisons were performed on both level 2 (native SEVIRI grid and repeat cycle) and level 3 (daily and monthly averages and histograms) with reference datasets derived from lidar, microwave and passive imager measurements. The evaluation results show very good overall agreement with matching spatial distributions and temporal variability and small biases attributed mainly to differences in sensor characteristics, retrieval approaches, spatial and temporal samplings and viewing geometries. No major discrepancies were found. Underpinned by the good evaluation results, CLAAS-2 demonstrates that it is fit for the envisaged applications, such as process studies of the diurnal cycle of clouds and the evaluation of regional climate models. The data record is planned to be extended and updated in the future.

  2. The MSG-SEVIRI-based cloud property data record CLAAS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Benas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Clouds play a central role in the Earth's atmosphere, and satellite observations are crucial for monitoring clouds and understanding their impact on the energy budget and water cycle. Within the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF, a new cloud property data record was derived from geostationary Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI measurements for the time frame 2004–2015. The resulting CLAAS-2 (CLoud property dAtAset using SEVIRI, Edition 2 data record is publicly available via the CM SAF website (https://doi.org/10.5676/EUM_SAF_CM/CLAAS/V002. In this paper we present an extensive evaluation of the CLAAS-2 cloud products, which include cloud fractional coverage, thermodynamic phase, cloud top properties, liquid/ice cloud water path and corresponding optical thickness and particle effective radius. Data validation and comparisons were performed on both level 2 (native SEVIRI grid and repeat cycle and level 3 (daily and monthly averages and histograms with reference datasets derived from lidar, microwave and passive imager measurements. The evaluation results show very good overall agreement with matching spatial distributions and temporal variability and small biases attributed mainly to differences in sensor characteristics, retrieval approaches, spatial and temporal samplings and viewing geometries. No major discrepancies were found. Underpinned by the good evaluation results, CLAAS-2 demonstrates that it is fit for the envisaged applications, such as process studies of the diurnal cycle of clouds and the evaluation of regional climate models. The data record is planned to be extended and updated in the future.

  3. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  4. Comparison of surface-derived and ISCCP cloud optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Poole, L. R.; Lecroy, S. R.; Rossow, W. B.; Bell, K. L.; Robinson, David A.; Grund, Christian J.

    1990-01-01

    One objective of the FIRE Project is to validate the cloud parameters given on ISCCP tapes. ISCCP first defines whether or not a region is clear or has clouds based on two threshold algorithms. If the region has clouds, then a cloud optical depth is given as well as a cloud height. Special high resolution ISCCP CX tapes were created for the time period of the Wisconsin FIRE experiment. These tapes did not include the cloud height product, however, other parameters used to make up the standard ISCCP Cl products were available. The ISCCP cloud/no cloud and cloud depth parameters are compared with surface derived values for the Wisconsin FIRE region during the October 27 and 28 case study days.

  5. The Clouds of Isidore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These views of Hurricane Isidore were acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on September 20, 2002. After bringing large-scale flooding to western Cuba, Isidore was upgraded (on September 21) from a tropical storm to a category 3hurricane. Sweeping westward to Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, the hurricane caused major destruction and left hundreds of thousands of people homeless. Although weakened after passing over the Yucatan landmass, Isidore regained strength as it moved northward over the Gulf of Mexico.At left is a colorful visualization of cloud extent that superimposes MISR's radiometric camera-by-camera cloud mask (RCCM) over natural-color radiance imagery, both derived from data acquired with the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Using brightness and statistical metrics, the RCCM is one of several techniques MISR uses to determine whether an area is clear or cloudy. In this rendition, the RCCM has been color-coded, and purple = cloudy with high confidence, blue = cloudy with low confidence, green = clear with low confidence, and red = clear with high confidence.In addition to providing information on meteorological events, MISR's data products are designed to help improve our understanding of the influences of clouds on climate. Cloud heights and albedos are among the variables that govern these influences. (Albedo is the amount of sunlight reflected back to space divided by the amount of incident sunlight.) The center panel is the cloud-top height field retrieved using automated stereoscopic processing of data from multiple MISR cameras. Areas where heights could not be retrieved are shown in dark gray. In some areas, such as the southern portion of the image, the stereo retrieval was able to detect thin, high clouds that were not picked up by the RCCM's nadir view. Retrieved local albedo values for Isidore are shown at right. Generation of the albedo product is dependent upon observed cloud radiances as a function of

  6. Kinetic chemistry of dense interstellar clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graedel, T.E.; Langer, W.D.; Frerking, M.A.

    1982-03-01

    A detailed model of the time-dependent chemistry of dense interstellar clouds has been developed to study the dominant chemical processes in carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation, formation of nitrogen-containing molecules, evolution of product molecules as a function of cloud density and temperature, and other topics of interest. The full computation involves 328 individual reactions (expanded to 1067 to study carbon and oxygen isotope chemistry); photodegradation processes are unimportant in these dense clouds and are excluded.

  7. Vertical Structure of Ice Cloud Layers From CloudSat and CALIPSO Measurements and Comparison to NICAM Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Seung-Hee; Sohn, Byung-Ju; Kato, Seiji; Satoh, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    The shape of the vertical profile of ice cloud layers is examined using 4 months of CloudSat and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) global measurements taken on January, April, July, and October 2007. Ice clouds are selected using temperature profiles when the cloud base is located above the 253K temperature level. The obtained ice water content (IWC), effective radius, or extinction coefficient profiles are normalized by their layer mean values and are expressed in the normalized vertical coordinate, which is defined as 0 and 1 at the cloud base and top heights, respectively. Both CloudSat and CALIPSO observations show that the maximum in the IWC and extinction profiles shifts toward the cloud bottom, as the cloud depth increases. In addition, clouds with a base reaching the surface in a high-latitude region show that the maximum peak of the IWC and extinction profiles occurs near the surface, which is presumably due to snow precipitation. CloudSat measurements show that the seasonal difference in normalized cloud vertical profiles is not significant, whereas the normalized cloud vertical profile significantly varies depending on the cloud type and the presence of precipitation. It is further examined if the 7 day Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM) simulation results from 25 December 2006 to 1 January 2007 generate similar cloud profile shapes. NICAM IWC profiles also show maximum peaks near the cloud bottom for thick cloud layers and maximum peaks at the cloud bottom for low-level clouds near the surface. It is inferred that oversized snow particles in the NICAM cloud scheme produce a more vertically inhomogeneous IWC profile than observations due to quick sedimentation.

  8. Martian Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 June 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. This image was acquired during early spring near the North Pole. The linear 'ripples' are transparent water-ice clouds. This linear form is typical for polar clouds. The black regions on the margins of this image are areas of saturation caused by the build up of scattered light from the bright polar material during the long image exposure. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.1, Longitude 147.9 East (212.1 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip

  9. Cloud water in windward and leeward mountain forests: The stable isotope signature of orographic cloud water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, M.A.; Giambelluca, T.W.; Gingerich, S.B.; Nullet, M.A.; Loope, L.L.

    2007-01-01

    Cloud water can be a significant hydrologic input to mountain forests. Because it is a precipitation source that is vulnerable to climate change, it is important to quantify amounts of cloud water input at watershed and regional scales. During this study, cloud water and rain samples were collected monthly for 2 years at sites on windward and leeward East Maui. The difference in isotopic composition between volume-weighted average cloud water and rain samples was 1.4??? ??18O and 12??? ??2H for the windward site and 2.8??? ??18O and 25??? ??2H for the leeward site, with the cloud water samples enriched in 18O and 2H relative to the rain samples. A summary of previous literature shows that fog and/or cloud water is enriched in 18O and 2H compared to rain at many locations around the world; this study documents cloud water and rain isotopic composition resulting from weather patterns common to montane environments in the trade wind latitudes. An end-member isotopic composition for cloud water was identified for each site and was used in an isotopic mixing model to estimate the proportion of precipitation input from orographic clouds. Orographic cloud water input was 37% of the total precipitation at the windward site and 46% at the leeward site. This represents an estimate of water input to the forest that could be altered by changes in cloud base altitude resulting from global climate change or deforestation.

  10. Setting of cloud albedo in the atmospheric correction procedure to generate the ocean colour data products from OCM-2

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagamani, P.V.; Latha, T.P.; Rao, K.H.; Suresh, T.; Choudhury, S.B.; Dutt, C.B.S.; Dadhwal, V.K.

    GLOBAL ocean colour sensor “Ocean Colour Monitor” on board Oceansat-2 satellite on 23rd September 2009. Since then the ocean colour data with 1 km resolution is available for the global community for free of cost. The purpose of the OCEANSAT-2, Ocean... high solar and view angle observations of apparently clear ocean pixels to pass through unmasked. Standard Algorithm imple- mented (tuned for reprocessing #4) for SeaWiFS sensor for generating the Geophysical data products is given below: albedo ¼ 100...

  11. Cloud Computing (4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Bai; Xu Liutong

    2010-01-01

    @@ 8 Case Study Cloud computing is still a new phenomenon. Although many IT giants are developing their own cloud computing infrastructures,platforms, software, and services, few have really succeeded in becoming cloud computing providers.

  12. Blue skies for CLOUD

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Through the recently approved CLOUD experiment, CERN will soon be contributing to climate research. Tests are being performed on the first prototype of CLOUD, an experiment designed to assess cosmic radiation influence on cloud formation.

  13. Validation of SCIAMACHY O2 A band cloud heights using Cloudnet radar/lidar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available For the first time two SCIAMACHY O2 A band cloud height products are validated using ground-based radar/lidar measurements between January 2003 and December 2011. The products are the ESA Level 2 (L2 version 5.02 cloud top height and the FRESCO (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A band version 6 cloud height. The radar/lidar profiles are obtained at the Cloudnet sites of Cabauw and Lindenberg, and are averaged for one hour centered at the SCIAMACHY overpass time to achieve an optimal temporal and spatial match. In total we have about 220 cases of single layer clouds and 200 cases of multi-layer clouds. The FRESCO cloud height and ESA L2 cloud top height are compared with the Cloudnet cloud top height and Cloudnet cloud middle height. We find that the ESA L2 cloud top height has a better agreement with the Cloudnet cloud top height than the Cloudnet cloud middle height. The ESA L2 cloud top height is on average 0.44 km higher than the Cloudnet cloud top height, with a standard deviation of 3.07 km. The FRESCO cloud height is closer to the Cloudnet cloud middle height than the Cloudnet cloud top height. The mean difference between the FRESCO cloud height and the Cloudnet cloud middle height is −0.14 km with a standard deviation of 1.88 km. The SCIAMACHY cloud height products are further compared to the Cloudnet cloud top height and the Cloudnet cloud middle height in 1 km bins. For single layer clouds, the difference between the ESA L2 cloud top height and the Cloudnet cloud top height is less than 1 km for each cloud bin at 3–7 km, which is 24 % percent of the data. The difference between the FRESCO cloud height and the Cloudnet cloud middle height is less than 1 km for each cloud bin at 0–6 km, which is 85 % percent of the data. The results are similar for multi-layer clouds, but the percentage of cases having a bias within 1 km is smaller than for single layer clouds. Since globally about 60 % of all clouds are low clouds

  14. Monthly energy review, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Monthly Energy Review provides information on production, distribution, consumption, prices, imports, and exports for the following US energy sources: petroleum; petroleum products; natural gas; coal; electricity; and nuclear energy. The section on international energy contains data for world crude oil production and consumption, petroleum stocks in OECD countries, and nuclear electricity gross generation.

  15. Cloud-Top Entrainment in Stratocumulus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Juan Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Cloud entrainment, the mixing between cloudy and clear air at the boundary of clouds, constitutes one paradigm for the relevance of small scales in the Earth system: By regulating cloud lifetimes, meter- and submeter-scale processes at cloud boundaries can influence planetary-scale properties. Understanding cloud entrainment is difficult given the complexity and diversity of the associated phenomena, which include turbulence entrainment within a stratified medium, convective instabilities driven by radiative and evaporative cooling, shear instabilities, and cloud microphysics. Obtaining accurate data at the required small scales is also challenging, for both simulations and measurements. During the past few decades, however, high-resolution simulations and measurements have greatly advanced our understanding of the main mechanisms controlling cloud entrainment. This article reviews some of these advances, focusing on stratocumulus clouds, and indicates remaining challenges.

  16. Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCloud)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeVore, P. T. S.; Jiang, Y.; Lynch, M.;

    2015-01-01

    Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCloud.org) is the first silicon photonics interactive web tool. Here we report new features of this tool including mode propagation parameters and mode distribution galleries for user specified waveguide dimensions and wavelengths.......Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCloud.org) is the first silicon photonics interactive web tool. Here we report new features of this tool including mode propagation parameters and mode distribution galleries for user specified waveguide dimensions and wavelengths....

  17. Arctic clouds and surface radiation – a critical comparison of satellite retrievals and the ERA-interim reanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zygmuntowska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Clouds regulate Earth's radiation budget, both by reflecting part of the incoming sunlight leading to cooling and by absorbing and emitting infrared radiation which tends to have a warming effect. Globally averaged, at the top of the atmosphere the cloud radiative effect is to cool the climate, while at the Arctic surface, clouds are thought to be warming. Ground-based observations of central Arctic Ocean cloudiness are limited to sporadic field campaigns. Therefore many studies rely on satellite- or reanalysis data. Here we compare a passive instrument, the AVHRR-based retrieval from CM-SAF, with recently launched active instruments onboard CloudSat and CALIPSO and the widely used ERA-Interim reanalysis. We find that the three data sets differ significantly. In summer, the two satellite products agree having monthly means of 70–80 percent, but the reanalysis are approximately ten percent higher. In winter passive satellite instruments have serious difficulties, detecting only half the cloudiness of the reanalysis, active instruments being in between. The monthly mean long- and shortwave components of the surface cloud radiative effect obtained from the ERA-Interim reanalysis are about twice that calculated on the basis of CloudSat retrievals. We discuss these discrepancies in terms of instrument-, retrieval- and reanalysis characteristics.

  18. Automatic Cloud Bursting under FermiCloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao [Fermilab; Shangping, Ren [IIT; Garzoglio, Gabriele [Fermilab; Timm, Steven [Fermilab; Bernabeu, Gerard [Fermilab; Kim, Hyun Woo; Chadwick, Keith; Jang, Haengjin [KISTI, Daejeon; Noh, Seo-Young [KISTI, Daejeon

    1900-01-01

    Cloud computing is changing the infrastructure upon which scientific computing depends from supercomputers and distributed computing clusters to a more elastic cloud-based structure. The service-oriented focus and elasticity of clouds can not only facilitate technology needs of emerging business but also shorten response time and reduce operational costs of traditional scientific applications. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) is currently in the process of building its own private cloud, FermiCloud, which allows the existing grid infrastructure to use dynamically provisioned resources on FermiCloud to accommodate increased but dynamic computation demand from scientists in the domains of High Energy Physics (HEP) and other research areas. Cloud infrastructure also allows to increase a private cloud’s resource capacity through “bursting” by borrowing or renting resources from other community or commercial clouds when needed. This paper introduces a joint project on building a cloud federation to support HEP applications between Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Korea Institution of Science and Technology Information, with technical contributions from the Illinois Institute of Technology. In particular, this paper presents two recent accomplishments of the joint project: (a) cloud bursting automation and (b) load balancer. Automatic cloud bursting allows computer resources to be dynamically reconfigured to meet users’ demands. The load balance algorithm which the cloud bursting depends on decides when and where new resources need to be allocated. Our preliminary prototyping and experiments have shown promising success, yet, they also have opened new challenges to be studied

  19. Automatic Cloud Bursting under FermiCloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao [Fermilab; Shangping, Ren [IIT; Garzoglio, Gabriele [Fermilab; Timm, Steven [Fermilab; Bernabeu, Gerard [Fermilab; Kim, Hyun Woo; Chadwick, Keith; Jang, Haengjin [KISTI, Daejeon; Noh, Seo-Young [KISTI, Daejeon

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing is changing the infrastructure upon which scientific computing depends from supercomputers and distributed computing clusters to a more elastic cloud-based structure. The service-oriented focus and elasticity of clouds can not only facilitate technology needs of emerging business but also shorten response time and reduce operational costs of traditional scientific applications. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) is currently in the process of building its own private cloud, FermiCloud, which allows the existing grid infrastructure to use dynamically provisioned resources on FermiCloud to accommodate increased but dynamic computation demand from scientists in the domains of High Energy Physics (HEP) and other research areas. Cloud infrastructure also allows to increase a private cloud’s resource capacity through “bursting” by borrowing or renting resources from other community or commercial clouds when needed. This paper introduces a joint project on building a cloud federation to support HEP applications between Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Korea Institution of Science and Technology Information, with technical contributions from the Illinois Institute of Technology. In particular, this paper presents two recent accomplishments of the joint project: (a) cloud bursting automation and (b) load balancer. Automatic cloud bursting allows computer resources to be dynamically reconfigured to meet users’ demands. The load balance algorithm which the cloud bursting depends on decides when and where new resources need to be allocated. Our preliminary prototyping and experiments have shown promising success, yet, they also have opened new challenges to be studied

  20. Monthly energy review, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  1. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  2. Monthly energy review: April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This monthly report presents an overview of energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. A section is also included on international energy. The feature paper which is included each month is entitled ``Energy equipment choices: Fuel costs and other determinants.`` 37 figs., 59 tabs.

  3. Monthly energy review, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 91 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  5. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  6. Monthly energy review, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  7. Monthly energy review, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 36 figs., 61 tabs.

  8. Monthly energy review, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  9. Monthly energy review, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  10. Monthly energy review, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  11. Monthly energy review, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 74 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  13. Monthly Energy Review, February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-26

    This monthly publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics, covering the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief descriptions (`energy plugs`) on two EIA publications are presented at the start.

  14. Monthly energy review, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 75 tabs.

  15. Monthly energy review, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs. 73 tabs.

  16. Point Clouds (2): Survey of Processing Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, M.J.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this themed edition on collecting and processing point clouds, this article focuses on point cloud processing software aimed at creating DEMs or DSMs and products derived from these. The fi rst article of this diptych, published in the June issue of GIM International, focused on functionalities.

  17. Monthly energy review, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Activities covered include: U.S. production, consumption, trade, stock, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  18. Monthly energy review, August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  19. STUDY& ANALYSIS OF CLOUD BASED ERP SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Sharma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research paper is to explore the knowledge of the existing studies related to cloud computing current trend. The outcome of my work will be demonstrated in the form of diagram which will exemplify the ERP integration process for in-house and cloud eco-system. It will provide a conceptual view to the new client or entrepreneurs using ERP services and explain them how to deal with two stages of ERP systems (cloud and in-house. Also suggest how to improve knowledge about ERP services and implementation process for both stages. The work recommends which ERP services can be outsourced over the cloud. Cloud ERP is a mix of standard ERP services along with cloud flexibility and low cost to afford these services. This is a recent phenomenon in enterprise service offering. For most of non IT background entrepreneurs it is unclear and broad concept, since all the research work related to it are done in couple of years. Most of cloud ERP vendors describe their products as straight forward tasks. The process and selection of Cloud ERP Services and vendors is not clear. This research work draws a framework for selecting non-core business process from preferred ERP service partners. It also recommends which ERP services outsourced first over the cloud, and the security issues related to data or information moved out from company premises to the cloud eco-system.

  20. On Web Services Based Cloud Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeta Sony A.L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing is a paradigm shift in the field of Computing. It is moving at an incredible fast pace and one of the fastest evolving domains of computer science today. It consist set of technology and service models that concentrates on the internet base use and delivery of IT applications, processing capability, storage and memory space. There is a shift from the traditional in-house servers and applications to the next generation of cloud computing applications. With many of the computer giants like Google, Microsoft, etc. entering into the cloud computing arena, there will be thousands of applications running on the cloud. There are several cloud environments available in the market today which support a huge consumer-base. Eventually this will lead to a multitude of standards, technologies and products being provided on the cloud. Consumers will need certain degrees of flexibility to use the cloud application/services of their choice and at the same time will need these applications/services to communicate with each other. This paper emphasizes cloud computing and provides a solution to achieve Interoperability, which is in the form of Web Services. The paper will also provide a Live Case Study where interoperability comes into play - Connecting Google App Engine and Microsoft Windows Azure Platform, two of the leading Cloud Platforms available today. GAE and WAP are two Cloud Frameworks which have very little in common, making interoperability an absolute necessary.

  1. Improved cloud mask algorithm for FY-3A/VIRR data over the northwest region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Li, W.; Zhu, Y.; Zhao, B.

    2013-03-01

    The existence of various land surfaces always leads to more difficulties in cloud detection based on satellite observations, especially over bright surfaces such as snow and deserts. To improve the cloud mask result over complex terrain, an unbiased, daytime cloud detection algorithm for the Visible and InfRared Radiometer (VIRR) on board the Chinese FengYun-3A polar-orbiting meteorological satellite is applied over the northwest region of China. The algorithm refers to the concept of the clear confidence level from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the unbiased structure of the CLoud and Aerosol Unbiased Decision Intellectual Algorithm (CLAUDIA). Six main channels of VIRR centered at the wavelengths of 0.455, 0.63, 0.865, 1.595, 1.36, and 10.8 μm are designed to estimate the degree of a pixel's cloud contamination judged by the clear confidence level. Based on the statistical data set during four months (January, April, July, and October) in 2010, seasonal thresholds are applied to improve the accuracy of the cloud detection results. Flags depicting snow and water are also generated by the specific threshold tests for special surfaces. As shown in image inspections, the cloud detection results over snow and deserts, adopting the proposed scheme, exhibit better correlations with true-color images than the VIRR official cloud mask results do. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been evaluated in detail for four seasons in 2011, using cloud mask products from MODIS and the ground-based observations. The evaluation is based on, overall, 47 scenes collocated with MODIS and 96 individual matchups between VIRR and the ground-based observations from two weather stations located in the research region. The quantitative validations suggest that the estimations of clear-sky regions have been greatly improved by the proposed algorithm, while a poor identification of the cirrus clouds occurs over deserts.

  2. Improved cloud mask algorithm for FY-3A/VIRR data over the northwest region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The existence of various land surfaces always leads to more difficulties in cloud detection based on satellite observations, especially over bright surfaces such as snow and deserts. To improve the cloud mask result over complex terrain, an unbiased, daytime cloud detection algorithm for the Visible and InfRared Radiometer (VIRR on board the Chinese FengYun-3A polar-orbiting meteorological satellite is applied over the northwest region of China. The algorithm refers to the concept of the clear confidence level from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and the unbiased structure of the CLoud and Aerosol Unbiased Decision Intellectual Algorithm (CLAUDIA. Six main channels of VIRR centered at the wavelengths of 0.455, 0.63, 0.865, 1.595, 1.36, and 10.8 μm are designed to estimate the degree of a pixel's cloud contamination judged by the clear confidence level. Based on the statistical data set during four months (January, April, July, and October in 2010, seasonal thresholds are applied to improve the accuracy of the cloud detection results. Flags depicting snow and water are also generated by the specific threshold tests for special surfaces. As shown in image inspections, the cloud detection results over snow and deserts, adopting the proposed scheme, exhibit better correlations with true-color images than the VIRR official cloud mask results do. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been evaluated in detail for four seasons in 2011, using cloud mask products from MODIS and the ground-based observations. The evaluation is based on, overall, 47 scenes collocated with MODIS and 96 individual matchups between VIRR and the ground-based observations from two weather stations located in the research region. The quantitative validations suggest that the estimations of clear-sky regions have been greatly improved by the proposed algorithm, while a poor identification of the cirrus clouds occurs over deserts.

  3. CALIPSO Observations of Aerosol Properties Near Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Yang, Weidong

    2010-01-01

    Clouds are surrounded by a transition zone of rapidly changing aerosol properties. Characterizing this zone is important for better understanding aerosol-cloud interactions and aerosol radiative effects as well as for improving satellite measurements of aerosol properties. We present a statistical analysis of a global dataset of CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) Lidar observations over oceans. The results show that the transition zone extends as far as 15 km away from clouds and it is ubiquitous over all oceans. The use of only high confidence level cloud-aerosol discrimination (CAD) data confirms the findings. However, the results underline the need for caution to avoid biases in studies of satellite aerosol products, aerosol-cloud interactions, and aerosol direct radiative effects.

  4. The kinetic chemistry of dense interstellar clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graedel, T. E.; Langer, W. D.; Frerking, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A model of the time-dependent chemistry of dense interstellar clouds is formulated to study the dominant chemical processes in carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation, the formation of nitrogen-containing molecules, and the evolution of product molecules as a function of cloud density and temperature. The abundances of the dominant isotopes of the carbon- and oxygen-bearing molecules are calculated. The chemical abundances are found to be quite sensitive to electron concentration since the electron concentration determines the ratio of H3(+) to He(+), and the electron density is strongly influenced by the metals abundance. For typical metal abundances and for H2 cloud density not less than 10,000 molecules/cu cm, nearly all carbon exists as CO at late cloud ages. At high cloud density, many aspects of the chemistry are strongly time dependent. Finally, model calculations agree well with abundances deduced from observations of molecular line emission in cold dense clouds.

  5. Monthly energy review, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Energy production during December 1997 totaled 5.9 quadrillion Btu, a 2.8 percent increase from the level of production during December 1996. Coal production increased 9.5 percent, natural gas production increased 3.9 percent, and production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 1.1 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.9 percent from the level of production during December 1996.

  6. Estimate of the Impact of Absorbing Aerosol Over Cloud on the MODIS Retrievals of Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius Using Two Independent Retrievals of Liquid Water Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Eric M.; Harshvardhan; Platnick, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Two independent satellite retrievals of cloud liquid water path (LWP) from the NASA Aqua satellite are used to diagnose the impact of absorbing biomass burning aerosol overlaying boundary-layer marine water clouds on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) retrievals of cloud optical thickness (tau) and cloud droplet effective radius (r(sub e)). In the MODIS retrieval over oceans, cloud reflectance in the 0.86-micrometer and 2.13-micrometer bands is used to simultaneously retrieve tau and r(sub e). A low bias in the MODIS tau retrieval may result from reductions in the 0.86-micrometer reflectance, which is only very weakly absorbed by clouds, owing to absorption by aerosols in cases where biomass burning aerosols occur above water clouds. MODIS LWP, derived from the product of the retrieved tau and r(sub e), is compared with LWP ocean retrievals from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E), determined from cloud microwave emission that is transparent to aerosols. For the coastal Atlantic southern African region investigated in this study, a systematic difference between AMSR-E and MODIS LWP retrievals is found for stratocumulus clouds over three biomass burning months in 2005 and 2006 that is consistent with above-cloud absorbing aerosols. Biomass burning aerosol is detected using the ultraviolet aerosol index from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite. The LWP difference (AMSR-E minus MODIS) increases both with increasing tau and increasing OMI aerosol index. During the biomass burning season the mean LWP difference is 14 g per square meters, which is within the 15-20 g per square meter range of estimated uncertainties in instantaneous LWP retrievals. For samples with only low amounts of overlaying smoke (OMI AI less than or equal to 1) the difference is 9.4, suggesting that the impact of smoke aerosols on the mean MODIS LWP is 5.6 g per square meter. Only for scenes with OMI aerosol index greater than 2 does the

  7. Design, Evaluation and GCM-Performance of a New Parameterization for Microphysics of Clouds with Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert Scheme (McRas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    A prognostic cloud scheme named McRAS (Microphysics of clouds with Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert Scheme) was developed with the aim of improving cloud-microphysics, and cloud-radiation interactions in GCMs. McRAS distinguishes convective, stratiform, and boundary-layer clouds. The convective clouds merge into stratiform clouds on an hourly time-scale, while the boundary-layer clouds do so instantly. The cloud condensate transforms into precipitation following the auto-conversion relations of Sundqvist that contain a parametric adaptation for the Bergeron-Findeisen process of ice crystal growth and collection of cloud condensate by precipitation. All clouds convect, advect, and diffuse both horizontally and vertically with a fully active cloud-microphysics throughout its life-cycle, while the optical properties of clouds are derived from the statistical distribution of hydrometeors and idealized cloud geometry. An evaluation of McRAS in a single column model (SCM) with the GATE Phase III data has shown that McRAS can simulate the observed temperature, humidity, and precipitation without discernible systematic errors. An evaluation with the ARM-CART SCM data in a cloud model intercomparison exercise shows reasonable but not an outstanding accurate simulation. Such a discrepancy is common to almost all models and is related, in part, to the input data quality. McRAS was implemented in the GEOS II GCM. A 50 month integration that was initialized with the ECMWF analysis of observations for January 1, 1987 and forced with the observed sea-surface temperatures and sea-ice distribution and vegetation properties (biomes, and soils), with prognostic soil moisture, snow-cover, and hydrology showed a very realistic simulation of cloud process, incloud water and ice, and cloud-radiative forcing (CRF). The simulated ITCZ showed a realistic time-mean structure and seasonal cycle, while the simulated CRF showed sensitivity to vertical distribution of cloud water which can be easily

  8. Heroku cloud application development

    CERN Document Server

    Hanjura, Anubhav

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow, hands-on guide that clearly explains the various components of the Heroku platform and provides step-by-step guidance as well as numerous examples on how to build and troubleshoot robust and scalable production-ready web applications on the Heroku platform.This book is intended for those who want to learn Heroku the right way. Perhaps you are new to Heroku or are someone who has heard about Heroku but have not built anything significant with it. You should have knowledge or familiarity with cloud computing and basic knowledge of database and network deployment.

  9. Berkeley Nuclear Data Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-27

    The software was developed to serve and curate arbitrarily large datasets comprising data acquired from various mobile platforms. The software is contained in a number of server and client libraries. The former manage the ingestion, indexing, querying, and serving of the data. The latter libraries are distributed for Linux, Mac OSX, and Windows and enable users to interact with data downloaded from the service either in the form of an HDF5 file or streamed in a BSON data chunk. Using the Berkeley Data Cloud, researchers from varying fields can collaborate, compare results and curate both their raw data and the derived products of their analysis.

  10. Regional and monthly and clear-sky aerosol direct radiative effect (and forcing derived from the GlobAEROSOL-AATSR satellite aerosol product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the GlobAEROSOL-AATSR dataset, estimates of the instantaneous, clear-sky, direct aerosol radiative effect and radiative forcing have been produced for the year 2006. Aerosol Robotic Network sun-photometer measurements have been used to characterise the random and systematic error in the GlobAEROSOL product for 22 regions covering the globe. Representative aerosol properties for each region were derived from the results of a wide range of literature sources and, along with the de-biased GlobAEROSOL AODs, were used to drive an offline version of the Met Office unified model radiation scheme. In addition to the mean AOD, best-estimate run of the radiation scheme, a range of additional calculations were done to propagate uncertainty estimates in the AOD, optical properties, surface albedo and errors due to the temporal and spatial averaging of the AOD fields. This analysis produced monthly, regional estimates of the clear-sky aerosol radiative effect and its uncertainty, which were combined to produce annual, global mean values of (−6.7 ± 3.9 W m−2 at the top of atmosphere (TOA and (−12 ± 6 W m−2 at the surface. These results were then used to give estimates of regional, clear-sky aerosol direct radiative forcing, using modelled pre-industrial AOD fields for the year 1750 calculated for the AEROCOM PRE experiment. However, as it was not possible to quantify the uncertainty in the pre-industrial aerosol loading, these figures can only be taken as indicative and their uncertainties as lower bounds on the likely errors. Although the uncertainty on aerosol radiative effect presented here is considerably larger than most previous estimates, the explicit inclusion of the major sources of error in the calculations suggest that they are closer to the true constraint on this figure from similar methodologies, and point to the need for more, improved estimates of both global aerosol loading and aerosol optical properties.

  11. Regional and monthly and clear-sky aerosol direct radiative effect (and forcing derived from the GlobAEROSOL-AATSR satellite aerosol product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the GlobAEROSOL-AATSR dataset, estimates of the instantaneous, clear-sky, direct aerosol radiative effect and radiative forcing have been produced for the year 2006. Aerosol Robotic Network sun-photometer measurements have been used to characterise the random and systematic error in the GlobAEROSOL product for 22 regions covering the globe. Representative aerosol properties for each region have been derived from the results of a wide range of literature sources and, along with the de-biased GlobAEROSOL AODs, were used to drive an offline version of the Met Office unified model radiation scheme. In addition to the mean AOD, best-estimate run of the radiation scheme, a range of additional calculations were done to propagate uncertainty estimates in the AOD, optical properties, surface albedo and errors due to the temporal and spatial averaging of the AOD fields. This analysis produced monthly, regional estimates of the clear-sky aerosol radiative effect and its uncertainty, which produce annual, global mean values of (−6.7 ± 3.9 W m−2 at the top of atmosphere (TOA and (−12 ± 6 W m−2 at the surface. These results were then used to produce estimates of regional, clear-sky aerosol direct radiative forcing, using modelled pre-industrial AOD fields for 1750 calculated for the AEROCOM PRE experiment. However, as it was not possible to quantify the uncertainty in the pre-industrial aerosol loading, these figures can only be taken as indicative and their uncertainties as lower bounds on the likely errors. Although the uncertainty on aerosol radiative effect presented here is considerably larger than most previous estimates, the explicit inclusion of the major sources of error in the calculations suggest that they are closer to the true constraint on this figure from similar methodologies, and point to the need for more, improved estimates of both global aerosol loading and aerosol optical properties.

  12. Natural gas monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured articles for this month are: Opportunities with fuel cells, and revisions to monthly natural gas data.

  13. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  16. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  17. Simultaneous determination of antimony and boron in beverage and dairy products by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after separation and pre-concentration by cloud-point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunay, Nail; Gürkan, Ramazan

    2016-01-01

    A new cloud-point extraction (CPE) method was developed for the pre-concentration and simultaneous determination of Sb(III) and B(III) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The method was based on complexation of Sb(III) and B(III) with azomethine-H in the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a signal-enhancing agent, and then extraction into the micellar phase of Triton X-114. Under optimised conditions, linear calibration was obtained for Sb(III) and B(III) in the concentration ranges of 0.5-180 and 2.5-600 μg l(-1) with LODs of 0.15 and 0.75 μg l(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) (25 and 100 μg l(-1) of Sb(III) and B(III), n = 6) were in a range of 2.1-3.8% and 1.9-2.3%, respectively. Recoveries of spiked samples of Sb(III) and B(III) were in the range of 98-103% and 99-102%, respectively. Measured values for Sb and B in three standard reference materials were within the 95% confidence limit of the certified values. Also, the method was used for the speciation of inorganic antimony. Sb(III), Sb(V) and total Sb were measured in the presence of excess boron before and after pre-reduction with an acidic mixture of KI-ascorbic acid. The method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of total Sb and B in selected beverage and dairy products.

  18. Observations of cloud and rainfall enhancement over irrigated agriculture in an arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Carreras, Luis; Marsham, John H.; Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2017-04-01

    The impact of irrigated agriculture on clouds and rainfall remains uncertain, particularly in less studied arid regions. Irrigated crops account for 20% of global cropland area, and non-renewable groundwater accounts for 20% of global irrigation water demand. Quantifying the feedbacks between agriculture and the atmosphere are therefore not only necessary to better understand the climate impacts of land-use change, but are also crucial for predicting long-term water use in water-scarce regions. Here we use high spatial-resolution satellite data to show the impact of irrigated crops in the arid environment of northern Saudi Arabia on cloud cover and rainfall patterns. Land surface temperatures over the crops are 5-10 K lower than their surroundings, linked to evapotranspiration rates of up to 20 mm/ month. Daytime cloud cover is up to 30% higher over the cropland compared to its immediate surroundings, and this enhancement is highly correlated with the seasonal variability in leaf area index. The cloud enhancement is associated with a much more rapid cloud cloud development during the morning. Afternoon rainfall is 85% higher over, and just downwind, of the cropland during the growing season, although rainfall remains very low in absolute terms. The feedback sign we find is the opposite to what has been observed in tropical and semiarid regions, where temperature gradients promote convergence and clouds on the warmer side of land-surface type discontinuities. This suggests that different processes are responsible for the land-atmosphere feedback in very dry environments, where lack of moisture may be a stronger constraint. Increased cloud and rainfall, and associated increases in diffuse radiation and reductions in temperature, can affect vegetation growth thus producing an internal feedback. These effects will therefore need to be taken into account to properly assess the impact of climate change on crop productivity and water use, as well as how global land

  19. Cloud storage for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Linda; Loughlin, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    Understand cloud computing and save your organization time and money! Cloud computing is taking IT by storm, but what is it and what are the benefits to your organization? Hitachi Data Systems' Cloud Storage For Dummies provides all the answers, With this book, you discover a clear explanation of cloud storage, and tips for how to choose the right type of cloud storage for your organization's needs. You also find out how cloud storage can free up valuable IT resources, saving time and money. Cloud Storage For Dummies presents useful information on setting up a

  20. Robots and sensor clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Shakshuki, Elhadi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprises four chapters that address some of the latest research in clouds robotics and sensor clouds. The first part of the book includes two chapters on cloud robotics. The first chapter introduces a novel resource allocation framework for cloud robotics and proposes a Stackelberg game model and the corresponding task oriented pricing mechanism for resource allocation. In the second chapter, the authors apply Cloud Computing for building a Cloud-Based 3D Point Cloud extractor for stereo images. Their objective is to have a dynamically scalable and applicable to near real-time scenarios.  .

  1. The Community Cloud Atlas - Building an Informed Cloud Watching Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, N.; Rowe, A.

    2014-12-01

    The sky is dynamic, from long lasting cloud systems to ethereal, fleeting formations. After years of observing the sky and growing our personal collections of cloud photos, we decided to take to social media to share pictures, as well as build and educate a community of cloud enthusiasts. We began a Facebook page, the Community Cloud Atlas, described as "...the place to show off your pictures of the sky, identify clouds, and to discuss how specific cloud types form and what they can tell you about current and future weather." Our main goal has been to encourage others to share their pictures, while we describe the scenes from a meteorological perspective and reach out to the general public to facilitate a deeper understanding of the sky. Nearly 16 months later, we have over 1400 "likes," spanning 45 countries with ages ranging from 13 to over 65. We have a consistent stream of submissions; so many that we decided to start a corresponding blog to better organize the photos, provide more detailed explanations, and reach a bigger audience. Feedback from users has been positive in support of not only sharing cloud pictures, but also to "learn the science as well as admiring" the clouds. As one community member stated, "This is not 'just' a place to share some lovely pictures." We have attempted to blend our social media presence with providing an educational resource, and we are encouraged by the response we have received. Our Atlas has been informally implemented into classrooms, ranging from a 6th grade science class to Meteorology courses at universities. NOVA's recent Cloud Lab also made use of our Atlas as a supply of categorized pictures. Our ongoing goal is to not only continue to increase understanding and appreciation of the sky among the public, but to provide an increasingly useful tool for educators. We continue to explore different social media options to interact with the public and provide easier content submission, as well as software options for

  2. Teaching through Trade Books: Cloud Watchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Emily; Ansberry, Karen; Phillips-Birdsong, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    Weather is a topic in science that is applicable to our lives on an everyday basis. The weather often determines what we wear, where we go, and what we do. This month's column focuses on clouds and the part they play in determining our weather. In the K-3 lesson, students learn about different cloud types and sculpt each type out of shaving cream.…

  3. Super-cooled liquid water topped sub-arctic clouds and precipitation - investigation based on combination of ground-based in-situ and remote-sensing observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsikko, Anne; Brus, David; O'Connor, Ewan J.; Filioglou, Maria; Komppula, Mika; Romakkaniemi, Sami

    2017-04-01

    In the high and mid latitudes super-cooled liquid water layers are frequently observed on top of clouds. These layers are difficult to forecast with numerical weather prediction models, even though, they have strong influence on atmospheric radiative properties, cloud microphysical properties, and subsequently, precipitation. This work investigates properties of super-cooled liquid water layer topped sub-arctic clouds and precipitation observed with ground-based in-situ (cloud probes) and remote-sensing (a cloud radar, Doppler and multi-wavelength lidars) instrumentation during two-month long Pallas Cloud Experiment (PaCE 2015) in autumn 2015. Analysis is based on standard Cloudnet scheme supplemented with new retrieval products of the specific clouds and their properties. Combination of two scales of observation provides new information on properties of clouds and precipitation in the sub-arctic Pallas region. Current status of results will be presented during the conference. The authors acknowledge financial support by the Academy of Finland (Centre of Excellence Programme, grant no 272041; and ICINA project, grant no 285068), the ACTRIS2 - European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 654109, the KONE foundation, and the EU FP7 project BACCHUS (grant no 603445).

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  5. The CLOUD experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets (CLOUD) experiment as shown by Jasper Kirkby (spokesperson). Kirkby shows a sketch to illustrate the possible link between galactic cosmic rays and cloud formations. The CLOUD experiment uses beams from the PS accelerator at CERN to simulate the effect of cosmic rays on cloud formations in the Earth's atmosphere. It is thought that cosmic ray intensity is linked to the amount of low cloud cover due to the formation of aerosols, which induce condensation.

  6. Cloud Computing (3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Bai; Xu Liutong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Editor's Desk: In the preceding two parts of this series, several aspects of cloud computing-including definition, classification, characteristics, typical applications, and service levels-were discussed. This part continues with a discussion of Cloud Computing Oopen Architecture and Market-Oriented Cloud. A comparison is made between cloud computing and other distributed computing technologies, and Google's cloud platform is analyzed to determine how distributed computing is implemented in its particular model.

  7. Cloud Robotics Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busra Koken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud robotics is a rapidly evolving field that allows robots to offload computation-intensive and storage-intensive jobs into the cloud. Robots are limited in terms of computational capacity, memory and storage. Cloud provides unlimited computation power, memory, storage and especially collaboration opportunity. Cloud-enabled robots are divided into two categories as standalone and networked robots. This article surveys cloud robotic platforms, standalone and networked robotic works such as grasping, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM and monitoring.

  8. Distributions and radiative forcings of various cloud types based on active and passive satellite datasets – Part 1: Geographical distributions and overlap of cloud types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on four year' 2B-CLDCLASS-Lidar (Radar-Lidar cloud classification product from CloudSat, we analyze the geographical distributions of different cloud types and their co-occurrence frequency across different seasons, moreover, utilize the vertical distributions of cloud type to further evaluate the cloud overlap assumptions. The statistical results show that more high clouds, altocumulus, stratocumulus or stratus and cumulus are identified in the Radar-Lidar cloud classification product compared to previous results from Radar-only cloud classification (2B-CLDCLASS product from CloudSat. In particularly, high clouds and cumulus cloud fractions increased by factors 2.5 and 4–7, respectively. The new results are in more reasonable agreement with other datasets (typically the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP and surface observer reports. Among the cloud types, altostratus and altocumulus are more popular over the arid/semi-arid land areas of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, respectively. These features weren't observed by using the ISCCP D1 dataset. For co-occurrence of cloud types, high cloud, altostratus, altocumulus and cumulus are much more likely to co-exist with other cloud types. However, stratus/stratocumulus, nimbostratus and convective clouds are much more likely to exhibit individual features. After considering the co-occurrence of cloud types, the cloud fraction based on the random overlap assumption is underestimated over the vast ocean except in the west-central Pacific Ocean warm pool. Obvious overestimations are mainly occurring over land areas in the tropics and subtropics. The investigation therefore indicates that incorporate co-occurrence information of cloud types based on Radar-Lidar cloud classification into the overlap assumption schemes used in the current GCMs possible be able to provide an better predictions for vertically projected total cloud fraction.

  9. Monthly energy review, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-24

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  10. Monthly energy review, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  11. Monthly energy review, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  12. Cloud Native Java

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    “It is not necessary to change. Survival is not mandatory.” -W. Edwards Deming Work takes time to flow through an organization and ultimately be deployed to production where it captures value. It’s critical to reduce time-to-production. Software – for many organizations and industries – is a competitive advantage. Organizations break their larger software ambitions into smaller, independently deployable, feature -centric batches of work – microservices. In order to reduce the round-trip between stations of work, organizations collapse or consolidate as much of them as possible and automate the rest; developers and operations beget “devops,” cloud-based services and platforms (like Cloud Foundry) automate operations work and break down the need for ITIL tickets and change management boards. But velocity, for velocity’s sake, is dangerous. Microservices invite architectural complexity that few are prepared to address. In this talk, we’ll look at how high performance organizations like Tic...

  13. New insights about cloud vertical structure from CloudSat and CALIPSO observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Cho, Nayeong; Lee, Dongmin

    2017-09-01

    Active cloud observations from A-Train's CloudSat and CALIPSO satellites offer new opportunities to examine the vertical structure of hydrometeor layers. We use the 2B-CLDCLASS-LIDAR merged CloudSat-CALIPSO product to examine global aspects of hydrometeor vertical stratification. We group the data into major cloud vertical structure (CVS) classes based on our interpretation of how clouds in three standard atmospheric layers overlap and provide their global frequency of occurrence. The two most frequent CVS classes are single-layer (per our definition) low and high clouds that represent 53% of cloudy skies, followed by high clouds overlying low clouds, and vertically extensive clouds that occupy near-contiguously a large portion of the troposphere. The prevalence of these configurations changes seasonally and geographically, between daytime and nighttime, and between continents and oceans. The radiative effects of the CVS classes reveal the major radiative warmers and coolers from the perspective of the planet as a whole, the surface, and the atmosphere. Single-layer low clouds dominate planetary and atmospheric cooling and thermal infrared surface warming. We also investigate the consistency between passive and active views of clouds by providing the CVS breakdowns of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer cloud regimes for spatiotemporally coincident MODIS-Aqua (also on the A-Train) and CloudSat-CALIPSO daytime observations. When the analysis is expanded for a more in-depth look at the most heterogeneous of the MODIS cloud regimes, it ultimately confirms previous interpretations of their makeup that did not have the benefit of collocated active observations.

  14. Six month-duration Tephrosia vogelii Hook.f. and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.). A.Gray planted-fallows for improving maize production in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutunga, V.; Karanja, N.K.; Gachene, C.K.K.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment including planted Tephrosia vogelii and Tithonia diversifolia fallow species and natural fallow was conducted at Maseno, Kenya, for assessing whether these fallows grown on a nutrient depleted land could produce sufficient green manure in six month period, whether their biomass

  15. Six month-duration Tephrosia vogelii Hook.f. and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.). A.Gray planted-fallows for improving maize production in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutunga, V.; Karanja, N.K.; Gachene, C.K.K.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment including planted Tephrosia vogelii and Tithonia diversifolia fallow species and natural fallow was conducted at Maseno, Kenya, for assessing whether these fallows grown on a nutrient depleted land could produce sufficient green manure in six month period, whether their biomass retaine

  16. Six month-duration Tephrosia vogelii Hook.f. and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.). A.Gray planted-fallows for improving maize production in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutunga, V.; Karanja, N.K.; Gachene, C.K.K.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment including planted Tephrosia vogelii and Tithonia diversifolia fallow species and natural fallow was conducted at Maseno, Kenya, for assessing whether these fallows grown on a nutrient depleted land could produce sufficient green manure in six month period, whether their biomass retaine

  17. Three months of regular aerobic exercise in patients with obesity improve systemic subclinical inflammation without major influence on blood pressure and endocrine production of subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachta, P; Drápalová, J; Kaválková, P; Toušková, V; Cinkajzlová, A; Lacinová, Z; Matoulek, M; Zelinka, T; Widimský, J; Mráz, M; Haluzík, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore the effects of regular aerobic exercise on anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal parameters and mRNA expression of selected factors involved in metabolic regulations in subcutaneous adipose tissue of patients with obesity. Fifteen obese women with arterial hypertension underwent a three-month exercise program consisting of 30 min of aerobic exercise 3 times a week. Fifteen healthy lean women with no intervention served as a control group. Obese group underwent anthropometric measurements, blood sampling, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) biopsy and 24-h blood pressure monitoring at baseline and after three months of exercise, while control group was examined only once. At baseline, obese group had increased SCAT expression of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines relative to control group. Three months of regular exercise improved anthropometric parameters, decreased CRP, blood glucose and HOMA-IR, while having no significant effect on lipid profile and blood pressure. Gene expressions in SCAT were not affected by physical activity with the exception of increased aquaporin-3 mRNA expression. We conclude that three months of regular exercise decrease systemic subclinical inflammation with only minor influence on the blood pressure and the endocrine function of subcutaneous fat.

  18. Towards Successful Cloud Ordering Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yan-Kwang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rise of cloud services has led to a drastic growth of e-commerce and a greater investment in development of new cloud services systems by related industries. For SaaS developers, it is important to understand customer needs and make use of available resources at as early as the system design and development stage. Objectives: This study integrates E-commerce Systems (ECS Success model and Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA into empirical research of the critical factors for cloud ordering system success. Methods/Approach: A survey research is conducted to collect data on customer perceptions of the importance and performance of each attribute of the particular cloud ordering service. The sample is further divided according to the degree of use of online shopping into high-usage users and low-usage users in order to explore their views regarding the system and generate adequate coping strategies. Results: Developers of online ordering systems can refer to the important factors obtained in this study when planning strategies of product/service improvement. Conclusions: The approach proposed in this study can also be applied to evaluation of other kinds of cloud services systems.

  19. Monthly Meteorological Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly forms that do not fit into any regular submission. Tabulation sheets and generic monthly forms designed to capture miscellaneous monthly observations.

  20. Hybrid cloud for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Judith; Halper, Fern; Kirsch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Understand the cloud and implement a cloud strategy for your business Cloud computing enables companies to save money by leasing storage space and accessing technology services through the Internet instead of buying and maintaining equipment and support services. Because it has its own unique set of challenges, cloud computing requires careful explanation. This easy-to-follow guide shows IT managers and support staff just what cloud computing is, how to deliver and manage cloud computing services, how to choose a service provider, and how to go about implementation. It also covers security and

  1. Secure cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Samarati, Pierangela; Singhal, Anoop; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a range of cloud computing security challenges and promising solution paths. The first two chapters focus on practical considerations of cloud computing. In Chapter 1, Chandramouli, Iorga, and Chokani describe the evolution of cloud computing and the current state of practice, followed by the challenges of cryptographic key management in the cloud. In Chapter 2, Chen and Sion present a dollar cost model of cloud computing and explore the economic viability of cloud computing with and without security mechanisms involving cryptographic mechanisms. The next two chapters addres

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  3. Accessing commercial cloud resources within the European Helix Nebula cloud marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, C.; De Salvo, A.; Di Girolamo, A.; Field, L.; Giordano, D.; Jones, R.; Villazon, L.

    2015-12-01

    Helix Nebula - the Science Cloud Initiative - is a public-private partnership between Europe's leading scientific research organisations and European IT cloud providers. CERN contributed to this initiative by providing a flagship use case: the workloads from the ATLAS experiment. Aiming to gain experience in managing and monitoring large-scale deployments, as well as in benchmarking the cloud resources, a sizable Monte Carlo production was performed using the Helix Nebula platform. This contribution describes the Helix Nebula initiative and summarizes the experience and the lessons learned from deploying ATLAS experiment application within large cloud setups involving several commercial providers.

  4. A cosmic ray-climate link and cloud observations

    CERN Document Server

    Laken, Benjamin A; Calogovic, Jasa; Dunne, Eimear M; 10.1051/swsc/2012018

    2012-01-01

    Despite over 35 years of constant satellite-based measurements of cloud, reliable evidence of a long-hypothesized link between changes in solar activity and Earth's cloud cover remains elusive. This work examines evidence of a cosmic ray cloud link from a range of sources, including satellite-based cloud measurements and long-term ground-based climatological measurements. The satellite-based studies can be divided into two categories: 1) monthly to decadal timescale correlations, and 2) daily timescale epoch-superpositional (composite) analysis. The latter analyses frequently focus on high-magnitude reductions in the cosmic ray flux known as Forbush Decrease (FD) events. At present, two long-term independent global satellite cloud datasets are available (ISCCP and MODIS). Although the differences between them are considerable, neither shows evidence of a solar-cloud link at either long or short timescales. Furthermore, reports of observed correlations between solar activity and cloud over the 1983 to 1995 per...

  5. Monthly energy review, August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  6. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. Natural gas monthly, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  8. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  9. Natural gas monthly, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  10. Natural gas monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-26

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  11. Natural gas monthly, September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  13. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  14. Monthly energy review, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy data. A brief summary of the monthly and historical comparison data is provided in Section 1 of the report. A highlight section of the report provides an assessment of summer 1997 motor gasoline price increases.

  15. Monthly energy review, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  16. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  17. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  18. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  19. Natural Gas Monthly, March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  20. Natural gas monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-20

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  1. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-29

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  2. Natural gas monthly, October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-23

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

  3. Cloud Processed CCN Affect Cloud Microphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J. G.; Noble, S. R., Jr.; Tabor, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Variations in the bimodality/monomodality of CCN spectra (Hudson et al. 2015) exert opposite effects on cloud microphysics in two aircraft field projects. The figure shows two examples, droplet concentration, Nc, and drizzle liquid water content, Ld, against classification of CCN spectral modality. Low ratings go to balanced separated bimodal spectra, high ratings go to single mode spectra, strictly monomodal 8. Intermediate ratings go merged modes, e.g., one mode a shoulder of another. Bimodality is caused by mass or hygroscopicity increases that go only to CCN that made activated cloud droplets. In the Ice in Clouds Experiment-Tropical (ICE-T) small cumuli with lower Nc, greater droplet mean diameters, MD, effective radii, re, spectral widths, σ, cloud liquid water contents, Lc, and Ld were closer to more bimodal (lower modal ratings) below cloud CCN spectra whereas clouds with higher Nc, smaller MD, re, σ, and Ld were closer to more monomodal CCN (higher modal ratings). In polluted stratus clouds of the MArine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) clouds that had greater Nc, and smaller MD, re, σ, Lc, and Ld were closer to more bimodal CCN spectra whereas clouds with lower Nc, and greater MD, re, σ, Lc, and Ld were closer to more monomodal CCN. These relationships are opposite because the dominant ICE-T cloud processing was coalescence whereas chemical transformations (e.g., SO2 to SO4) were dominant in MASE. Coalescence reduces Nc and thus also CCN concentrations (NCCN) when droplets evaporate. In subsequent clouds the reduced competition increases MD and σ, which further enhance coalescence and drizzle. Chemical transformations do not change Nc but added sulfate enhances droplet and CCN solubility. Thus, lower critical supersaturation (S) CCN can produce more cloud droplets in subsequent cloud cycles, especially for the low W and effective S of stratus. The increased competition reduces MD, re, and σ, which inhibit coalescence and thus reduce drizzle

  4. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  5. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  6. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. How well can we monitor cloud properties over polar regions in winter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Holz, R.; Frey, R.; Heidinger, A.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding the impact of clouds on the Earth's radiation balance and detecting changes in the amount and distribution of global cloud cover requires accurate global cloud climatologies with well-characterized uncertainties. To meet this challenge, significant effort has been given to generating climate quality long-term cloud data sets using over 30 years of polar-orbiting satellite measurements [Rossow and Schiffer, 1999; Jacobowitz et al, 2003; Wylie and Menzel, 1999] with plans to continue the cloud record using the next generation of polar orbiting sensors [e.g. Ackerman, et al., 1998]. A "Climate Quality" climatology requires that both the uncertainties and the physical sensitivities are quantified and are smaller than the expected climate signature. Clouds play a critical role in the Arctic climate system, through interacting with other important climate processes, including snow/ice albedo feedback. Clouds modulate the surface radiative fluxes (Wang and Key, 2003) that influence the growth and melting of sea ice. Increasing cloud cover, which keeps the shortwave irradiances at the top-of-atmosphere unchanged, possibly compensates the reduced sea ice extent (Kato et al., 2006). However, assessing changes in polar conditions during winter has been a challenge. Holz et al (2008) presented a global two-month comparison between the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud properties. Both CALIOP and MODIS are part of the NASA A-Train constellation of satellites and provide continuous near-coincident measurements that result in over 28 million cloud detection comparisons in a month. Globally (includes polar regions), it was found that the MODIS 1-km cloud mask and the CALIOP 1-km averaged layer product agreement is 88% for cloudy conditions in both August 2006 and February 2007. For clear-sky conditions the agreement is 84 (85) % for August (February). The best agreement is

  8. Adaptively Spatio-temporal Weighted Method for Removing Cloud Obscuration from MODIS Daily Snow Cover Products%时空自适应加权的MODIS积雪产品去云方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付文轩; 沈焕锋; 李星华; 黄春林; 侯金亮

    2016-01-01

    Due to the cloud obscuration,MODIS snow cover products are subjected to spatially discontinuous issues,which decrease the application potential.Therefore,this work proposed an adaptively spatio-temporal weighted method for alleviating the trouble.This method simultaneously took the spatial and temporal correlations of snow cover into consideration,and weighted their contributions to snow distribution automatically.Based on simulated experiments and daily snow depth data at climate stations,we evaluated its accuracy in Ili river basin of Xinjiang.The results indicated that our proposed method can remove cloud obscuration completely,with overall accuracy above 90% under different cloud coverages.Since the cloud-free snow cover maps reflect the real distribution of snow cover,they can be widely used for monitoring snow.%鉴于MODIS积雪产品存在的空间不连续降低了数据的应用潜力,该文提出一种时空自适应加权的去云方法,同时顾及积雪在空间和时间上的相关性,自适应地衡量两者对积雪分布的影响.以新疆伊犁河流域为实验区,进行了模拟验证和基于气象台站数据的真实验证.结果表明:该方法能完全去除云覆盖,去云精度可达到90%以上,且对不同云量的修复都有较好的鲁棒性,能真实地反映地面积雪覆盖情况,可为积雪监测研究提供数据保障.

  9. Evolution in Cloud Population Statistics of the MJO: From AMIE Field Observations to Global-Cloud Permitting Models Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollias, Pavlos [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada). Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Dept.

    2017-02-09

    This is a multi-institutional, collaborative project using a three-tier modeling approach to bridge field observations and global cloud-permitting models, with emphases on cloud population structural evolution through various large-scale environments. Our contribution was in data analysis for the generation of high value cloud and precipitation products and derive cloud statistics for model validation. There are two areas in data analysis that we contributed: the development of a synergistic cloud and precipitation cloud classification that identify different cloud (e.g. shallow cumulus, cirrus) and precipitation types (shallow, deep, convective, stratiform) using profiling ARM observations and the development of a quantitative precipitation rate retrieval algorithm using profiling ARM observations. Similar efforts have been developed in the past for precipitation (weather radars), but not for the millimeter-wavelength (cloud) radar deployed at the ARM sites.

  10. Cosmic rays, cloud condensation nuclei and clouds – a reassessment using MODIS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Kristjánsson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The response of clouds to sudden decreases in the flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCR – Forbush decrease events – has been investigated using cloud products from the space-borne MODIS instrument, which has been in operation since 2000. By focusing on pristine Southern Hemisphere ocean regions we examine areas where we believe that a cosmic ray signal should be easier to detect than elsewhere. While previous studies have mainly considered cloud cover, the high spatial and spectral resolution of MODIS allows for a more thorough study of microphysical parameters such as cloud droplet size, cloud water content and cloud optical depth, in addition to cloud cover. Averaging the results from the 22 Forbush decrease events that were considered, no statistically significant correlations were found between any of the four cloud parameters and GCR, when autocorrelations were taken into account. Splitting the area of study into six domains, all of them have a negative correlation between GCR and cloud droplet size, in agreement with a cosmic ray – cloud coupling, but in only one of the domains (eastern Atlantic Ocean was the correlation statistically significant. Conversely, cloud optical depth is mostly negatively correlated with GCR, and in the eastern Atlantic Ocean domain that correlation is statistically significant. For cloud cover and liquid water path, the correlations with GCR are weaker, with large variations between the different domains. When only the six Forbush decrease events with the largest amplitude (more than 10% decrease were studied, the correlations fit the hypothesis slightly better, with 16 out of 24 correlations having the expected sign, although many of the correlations are quite weak. Introducing a time lag of a few days for clouds to respond to the cosmic ray signal the correlations tend to become weaker and even to change sign.

  11. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2004-05-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  12. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2003-02-28] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  13. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  14. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2004-05-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  15. Moving towards Cloud Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edit Szilvia Rubóczki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing hosts and delivers many different services via Internet. There are a lot of reasons why people opt for using cloud resources. Cloud development is increasing fast while a lot of related services drop behind, for example the mass awareness of cloud security. However the new generation upload videos and pictures without reason to a cloud storage, but only few know about data privacy, data management and the proprietary of stored data in the cloud. In an enterprise environment the users have to know the rule of cloud usage, however they have little knowledge about traditional IT security. It is important to measure the level of their knowledge, and evolve the training system to develop the security awareness. The article proves the importance of suggesting new metrics and algorithms for measuring security awareness of corporate users and employees to include the requirements of emerging cloud security.

  16. In the clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2012-01-01

    Clouds always used to be the least understood element of the weather system, but that is rapidly changing . Computer clouds increasingly correspond with those in the sky, which promises weather forecasts at street level and more accurate climate scenarios.

  17. Cloud Computing for radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, Amit T; Safvi, Amjad; Thind, Ss; Singh, Amarjit

    2012-07-01

    Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as applications, client, infrastructure, storage, services, and processing power, Cloud computing can help imaging units rapidly scale and descale operations and avoid huge spending on maintenance of costly applications and storage. Cloud computing allows flexibility in imaging. It sets free radiology from the confines of a hospital and creates a virtual mobile office. The downsides to Cloud computing involve security and privacy issues which need to be addressed to ensure the success of Cloud computing in the future.

  18. Research on the Production Mode of Personalized Customization Based on Cloud Manufacturing%基于云制造的个性化定制生产模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 史志强; 闫洪波; 李丽

    2016-01-01

    〔Abstract〕 For a single enterprise to implement personalized custom production is facing the lack of resources , the ability is not strong and so on the actual situation , and this paper combined with the characteristics of personalized customization and cloud manufacturing theory proposed a new personalized custom production mode . The organization form of the model was analyzed , and the operation mode of the pattern from inside and outside the two angles of the cloud manufacturing platform was studied . Finally , the key technologies and the advantages of the pattern were described . The analysis results show that the personalized customization production model based on cloud manufacturing can not only effectively solve the problem of the existing problems of individual enterprises , but also has an important role in improving the ability to respond to market changes .%针对单个企业实施个性化定制生产面临资源不足、能力不强等实际情况,本文结合个性化定制特点及云制造理论提出一种新的个性化定制生产模式。分析了该模式的组织形式,并以云制造平台为核心从内外两个角度研究了该模式的运作方式,最后对其关键技术及优势进行了说明。研究结果表明,基于云制造的个性化定制生产模式不仅能够有效解决单个企业存在的能力不足问题,而且对于提高定制企业应对市场变化的能力也具重要的作用。

  19. Setting up of an Open Source based Private Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G R Karpagam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing is an attractive concept in IT field, since it allows the resources to be provisioned according to the user needs[11]. It provides services on virtual machines whereby the user can share resources, software and other devices on demand. Cloud services are supported both by Proprietary and Open Source Systems. As Proprietary products are very expensive, customers are not allowed to experiment on their product and security is a major issue in it, Open source systems helps in solving out these problems. Cloud Computing motivated many academic and non academic members to develop Open Source Cloud Setup, here the users are allowed to study the source code and experiment it. This paper describes the configuration of a private cloud using Eucalyptus. Eucalyptus an open source system has been used to implement a private cloud using the hardware and software without making any modification to it and provide various types of services to the cloud computing environment

  20. Computer animation of clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N.

    1994-01-28

    Computer animation of outdoor scenes is enhanced by realistic clouds. I will discuss several different modeling and rendering schemes for clouds, and show how they evolved in my animation work. These include transparency-textured clouds on a 2-D plane, smooth shaded or textured 3-D clouds surfaces, and 3-D volume rendering. For the volume rendering, I will present various illumination schemes, including the density emitter, single scattering, and multiple scattering models.

  1. Computer animation of clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N.

    1994-01-28

    Computer animation of outdoor scenes is enhanced by realistic clouds. I will discuss several different modeling and rendering schemes for clouds, and show how they evolved in my animation work. These include transparency-textured clouds on a 2-D plane, smooth shaded or textured 3-D clouds surfaces, and 3-D volume rendering. For the volume rendering, I will present various illumination schemes, including the density emitter, single scattering, and multiple scattering models.

  2. Comparing Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Point clouds are one of the most primitive and fundamental surface representations. A popular source of point clouds are three dimensional shape...acquisition devices such as laser range scanners. Another important field where point clouds are found is in the representation of high-dimensional...framework for comparing manifolds given by point clouds is presented in this paper. The underlying theory is based on Gromov-Hausdorff distances, leading

  3. Cloud computing strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Chorafas, Dimitris N

    2011-01-01

    A guide to managing cloud projects, Cloud Computing Strategies provides the understanding required to evaluate the technology and determine how it can be best applied to improve business and enhance your overall corporate strategy. Based on extensive research, it examines the opportunities and challenges that loom in the cloud. It explains exactly what cloud computing is, what it has to offer, and calls attention to the important issues management needs to consider before passing the point of no return regarding financial commitments.

  4. Grid today, clouds on the horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiers, Jamie

    2009-04-01

    By the time of CCP 2008, the largest scientific machine in the world - the Large Hadron Collider - had been cooled down as scheduled to its operational temperature of below 2 degrees Kelvin and injection tests were starting. Collisions of proton beams at 5+5 TeV were expected within one to two months of the initial tests, with data taking at design energy ( 7+7 TeV) foreseen for 2009. In order to process the data from this world machine, we have put our "Higgs in one basket" - that of Grid computing [The Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), in: Proceedings of the Conference on Computational Physics 2006 (CCP 2006), vol. 177, 2007, pp. 219-223]. After many years of preparation, 2008 saw a final "Common Computing Readiness Challenge" (CCRC'08) - aimed at demonstrating full readiness for 2008 data taking, processing and analysis. By definition, this relied on a world-wide production Grid infrastructure. But change - as always - is on the horizon. The current funding model for Grids - which in Europe has been through 3 generations of EGEE projects, together with related projects in other parts of the world, including South America - is evolving towards a long-term, sustainable e-infrastructure, like the European Grid Initiative (EGI) [The European Grid Initiative Design Study, website at http://web.eu-egi.eu/]. At the same time, potentially new paradigms, such as that of "Cloud Computing" are emerging. This paper summarizes the results of CCRC'08 and discusses the potential impact of future Grid funding on both regional and international application communities. It contrasts Grid and Cloud computing models from both technical and sociological points of view. Finally, it discusses the requirements from production application communities, in terms of stability and continuity in the medium to long term.

  5. Governmental Cloud - Part of Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian IVANUS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large IT (Information Technology companies propose cloud government's (G-Cloud development model through investment from the private sector, which will facilitate the access of users from public sector to the new generation IT services. Through the G-Cloud private operators that operate governmental cloud infrastructure by adding specific SaaS (Software as a Service functionalities, proposed model by big companies, supports public institutions in optimizing costs and increased operational efficiency, bringing tangible benefits in relation with citizens and thus with the whole society. These optimizations are achieved by moving the initial investment to the private sector, through type subscription model cost by eliminating dependency on human factors (technical and by providing a low cost [1]. This paper aims to bring to the attention of specialists, some aspects of Governmental Cloud from the European Union (EU countries to be understood and implemented in Romania.

  6. Security in the cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degaspari, John

    2011-08-01

    As more provider organizations look to the cloud computing model, they face a host of security-related questions. What are the appropriate applications for the cloud, what is the best cloud model, and what do they need to know to choose the best vendor? Hospital CIOs and security experts weigh in.

  7. On clocks and clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Witte

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cumulus clouds exhibit a life cycle that consists of: (a the growth phase (increasing size, most notably in the vertical direction; (b the mature phase (growth ceases; any precipitation that develops is strongest during this period; and (c the dissipation phase (cloud dissipates because of precipitation and/or entrainment; no more dynamical support. Although radar can track clouds over time and give some sense of the age of a cloud, most aircraft in situ measurements lack temporal context. We use large eddy simulations of trade wind cumulus cloud fields from cases during the Barbados Oceanographic and Meteorological Experiment (BOMEX and Rain In Cumulus over the Ocean (RICO campaigns to demonstrate a potential cumulus cloud "clock". We find that the volume-averaged total water mixing ratio rt is a useful cloud clock for the 12 clouds studied. A cloud's initial rt is set by the subcloud mixed-layer mean rt and decreases monotonically from the initial value due primarily to entrainment. The clock is insensitive to aerosol loading, environmental sounding and extrinsic cloud properties such as lifetime and volume. In some cases (more commonly for larger clouds, multiple pulses of buoyancy occur, which complicate the cumulus clock by replenishing rt. The clock is most effectively used to classify clouds by life phase.

  8. Cloud Computing Explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Rosalyn

    2010-01-01

    While many talk about the cloud, few actually understand it. Three organizations' definitions come to the forefront when defining the cloud: Gartner, Forrester, and the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST). Although both Gartner and Forrester provide definitions of cloud computing, the NIST definition is concise and uses…

  9. Cloud Computing Explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Rosalyn

    2010-01-01

    While many talk about the cloud, few actually understand it. Three organizations' definitions come to the forefront when defining the cloud: Gartner, Forrester, and the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST). Although both Gartner and Forrester provide definitions of cloud computing, the NIST definition is concise and uses…

  10. On CLOUD nine

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The team from the CLOUD experiment - the world’s first experiment using a high-energy particle accelerator to study the climate - were on cloud nine after the arrival of their new three-metre diameter cloud chamber. This marks the end of three years’ R&D and design, and the start of preparations for data taking later this year.

  11. Radiative Effect of Clouds on Tropospheric Chemistry: Sensitivity to Cloud Vertical Distributions and Optical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Crawford, J. H.; Pierce, R. B.; Considine, D. B.; Logan, J. A.; Duncan, B. N.; Norris, P.; Platnick, S. E.; Chen, G.; Yantosca, R. M.; Evans, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    Representation of clouds in global models poses a significant challenge since most cloud processes occur on sub-grid scales and must be parameterized. Uncertainties in cloud distributions and optical properties are therefore a limiting factor in model assessments of the radiative effect of clouds on global tropospheric chemistry. We present an analysis of the sensitivity of the radiative effect of clouds to cloud vertical distributions and optical properties with the use of the GEOS-CHEM global 3-D chemistry transport model coupled with the Fast-J radiative transfer algorithm. GEOS-CHEM was driven with a series of meteorological archives (GEOS1-STRAT, GEOS-3, and GEOS-4) generated by the Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation system (GEOS DAS) at the NASA global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO), which have significantly different cloud optical depths and vertical distributions. The column cloud optical depths in GEOS-3 generally agree with the satellite retrieval products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) within ±10%, while those in GEOS1-STRAT and GEOS-4 are too low by factors of about 5 and 2, respectively. With respect to vertical distribution, clouds in GEOS-4 are optically much thinner in the tropical upper troposphere compared to those in GEOS1-STRAT and GEOS-3. Assuming linear scaling of cloud optical depth with cloud fraction in a grid-box, our model calculations indicate that the changes in global mean hydroxyl radical (OH) due to the radiative effect of clouds in June are about -1% (GEOS1-STRAT), 1% (GEOS-3), and 14% (GEOS-4), respectively. The effects on global mean OH are similar for GEOS1-STRAT and GEOS-3 due to similar vertical distributions of clouds, even though the column cloud optical depths in the two archives differ by a factor of about 5. Clouds in GEOS-4 have a much larger impact on global mean OH because more solar radiation is

  12. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separations operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  13. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separations operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  14. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  15. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  16. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation; tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  17. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation; tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  18. Intergalactic HI Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Briggs, F H

    2005-01-01

    Neutral intergalactic clouds are so greatly out numbered by galaxies that their integral HI content is negligible in comparison to that contained in optically luminous galaxies. In fact, no HI cloud that is not associated with a galaxy or grouping of galaxies has yet been identified. This points to a causal relationship that relies on gravitational potentials that bind galaxies also being responsible for confining HI clouds to sufficient density that they can become self-shielding to the ionizing background radiation. Unconfined clouds of low density become ionized, but confined clouds find themselves vulnerable to instability and collapse, leading to star formation.

  19. Cloud Computing Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Sosinsky, Barrie

    2010-01-01

    The complete reference guide to the hot technology of cloud computingIts potential for lowering IT costs makes cloud computing a major force for both IT vendors and users; it is expected to gain momentum rapidly with the launch of Office Web Apps later this year. Because cloud computing involves various technologies, protocols, platforms, and infrastructure elements, this comprehensive reference is just what you need if you'll be using or implementing cloud computing.Cloud computing offers significant cost savings by eliminating upfront expenses for hardware and software; its growing popularit

  20. Cloud Computing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Carlin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the key characteristics that cloud computing technologies possess and illustrates the cloud computing stack containing the three essential services (SaaS, PaaS and IaaS that have come to define the technology and its delivery model. The underlying virtualization technologies that make cloud computing possible are also identified and explained. The various challenges that face cloud computing technologies today are investigated and discussed. The future of cloud computing technologies along with its various applications and trends are also explored, giving a brief outlook of where and how the technology will progress into the future.

  1. Study on global cloud computing research trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Feicheng; Zhan, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Since "cloud computing" was put forward by Google , it quickly became the most popular concept in IT industry and widely permeated into various areas promoted by IBM, Microsoft and other IT industry giants. In this paper the methods of bibliometric analysis were used to investigate the global cloud computing research trend based on Web of Science (WoS) database and the Engineering Index (EI) Compendex database. In this study, the publication, countries, institutes, keywords of the papers was deeply studied in methods of quantitative analysis, figures and tables are used to describe the production and the development trends of cloud computing.

  2. Monthly energy review, October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Information is also provided for oil and gas resource development. International energy statistics are given for petroleum production, consumption, and stocks, and for nuclear electricity gross generation. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  3. CLOUD COMPUTING SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan IOVAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing reprentes the software applications offered as a service online, but also the software and hardware components from the data center.In the case of wide offerd services for any type of client, we are dealing with a public cloud. In the other case, in wich a cloud is exclusively available for an organization and is not available to the open public, this is consider a private cloud [1]. There is also a third type, called hibrid in which case an user or an organization might use both services available in the public and private cloud. One of the main challenges of cloud computing are to build the trust and ofer information privacy in every aspect of service offerd by cloud computingle. The variety of existing standards, just like the lack of clarity in sustenability certificationis not a real help in building trust. Also appear some questions marks regarding the efficiency of traditionsecurity means that are applied in the cloud domain. Beside the economic and technology advantages offered by cloud, also are some advantages in security area if the information is migrated to cloud. Shared resources available in cloud includes the survey, use of the "best practices" and technology for advance security level, above all the solutions offered by the majority of medium and small businesses, big companies and even some guvermental organizations [2].

  4. Community Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Marinos, Alexandros

    2009-01-01

    Cloud Computing is rising fast, with its data centres growing at an unprecedented rate. However, this has come with concerns over privacy, efficiency at the expense of resilience, and environmental sustainability, because of the dependence on Cloud vendors such as Google, Amazon and Microsoft. Our response is an alternative model for the Cloud conceptualisation, providing a paradigm for Clouds in the community, utilising networked personal computers for liberation from the centralised vendor model. Community Cloud Computing (C3) offers an alternative architecture, created by combing the Cloud with paradigms from Grid Computing, principles from Digital Ecosystems, and sustainability from Green Computing, while remaining true to the original vision of the Internet. It is more technically challenging than Cloud Computing, having to deal with distributed computing issues, including heterogeneous nodes, varying quality of service, and additional security constraints. However, these are not insurmountable challenge...

  5. Prototyping manufacturing in the cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciortea, E. M.

    2017-08-01

    This paper attempts a theoretical approach to cloud systems with impacts on production systems. I call systems as cloud computing because form a relatively new concept in the field of informatics, representing an overall distributed computing services, applications, access to information and data storage without the user to know the physical location and configuration of systems. The advantages of this approach are especially computing speed and storage capacity without investment in additional configurations, synchronizing user data, data processing using web applications. The disadvantage is that it wants to identify a solution for data security, leading to mistrust users. The case study is applied to a module of the system of production, because the system is complex.

  6. Global variability of cloud condensation nuclei concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, Risto; Krüger, Olaf

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols can influence cloud optical and dynamical processes by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Globally, these indirect aerosol effects are significant to the radiative budget as well as a source of high uncertainty in anthropogenic radiative forcing. While historically many global climate models have fixed CCN concentrations to a certain level, most state-of-the-art models calculate aerosol-cloud interactions with sophisticated methodologies based on interactively simulated aerosol size distributions. However, due to scarcity of atmospheric observations simulated global CCN concentrations remain poorly constrained. Here we assess global CCN variability with a climate model, and attribute potential trends during 2000-2010 to changes in emissions and meteorological fields. Here we have used ECHAM5.5-HAM2 with model M7 microphysical aerosol model. The model has been upgraded with a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) scheme including ELVOCs. Dust and sea salt emissions are calculated online, based on wind speed and hydrology. Each experiment is 11 years, analysed after a 6-month spin-up period. The MODIS CCN product (Terra platform) is used to evaluate model performance throughout 2000-2010. While optical remote observation of CCN column includes several deficiencies, the products serves as a proxy for changes during the simulation period. In our analysis we utilize the observed and simulated vertical column integrated CCN concentration, and limit our analysis only over marine regions. Simulated annual CCN column densities reach 2ṡ108 cm-2 near strong source regions in central Africa, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and China sea. The spatial concentration gradient in CCN(0.2%) is steep, and column densities drop to meteorological variability. Most evident pattern of high temporal correlation is found over North Atlantic ocean, extending throughout Europe and up to Gulf of Mexico. All of these regions show a generally decreasing trend throughout the

  7. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  8. Proposing Chinese Pharmacists Month

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dear Pharmacists: Today I would like to share with you about the American Pharmacists Month which is celebrated in October every year.This month-long observance is promoted by American Pharmacist Association.

  9. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  10. Monthly energy review, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum,natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal metric conversion factors.

  11. Monthly energy review, July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document presents an overview of the recent monthly energy statistics from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Statistical data covers activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels , nuclear energy, and electricity. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  12. Monthly energy review, November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal and metric conversion factors are included.

  13. Monthly energy review, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report presents an overview of monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal metric conversion factors are included.

  14. Monthly energy review, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-25

    The Monthly Energy Review provides an overview of the production, distribution, and consumption of energy derived from petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. It also discusses oil and gas resource development, energy prices, and issues relevant to international energy markets.

  15. Natural gas monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-03

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  16. A cost modelling system for cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Ajeh, Daniel; Ellman, Jeremy; Keogh, Shelagh

    2014-01-01

    An advance in technology unlocks new opportunities for organizations to increase their productivity, efficiency and process automation while reducing the cost of doing business as well. The emergence of cloud computing addresses these prospects through the provision of agile systems that are scalable, flexible and reliable as well as cost effective. Cloud computing has made hosting and deployment of computing resources cheaper and easier with no up-front charges but pay per-use flexible payme...

  17. The retrieval of cloud-top pressure of multilayer clouds using combined measurements of MERIS and AATSR onboard ENVISAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrot, R.; Preusker, R.; Fischer, J.

    2009-04-01

    Measurements of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) within the oxygen A band at 762nm are operationally used for the retrieval of cloud-top pressure. A validation with airborne LIDAR measurements revealed a high accuracy (~25hPa) of the cloud-top pressure product in case of low, single-layer clouds. However, problems arise in presence of multilayered clouds, as the single channel within the oxygen A band does not allow the identification of multiple cloud layers. The retrieved cloud height thus represents the effective single layer height, located in-between the true cloud layers. This problem can be resolved by combining MERIS observations with measurements in the thermal infrared spectral range. Since clouds are strongly absorbing at infrared wavelengths, the cloud-top temperature of even optically thin clouds can be determined and related to cloud-top pressure using the respective temperature profile. The Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) onboard ENVISAT provides radiance measurements in the thermal infrared region that can easily be combined with MERIS observations, as both are nadir viewing, imaging instruments with a similar spatial resolution of ~1km. The synergetic measurements can be used for the retrieval of the height of two cloud layers in case the upper layer is optically thin (? ? 5). The retrieval algorithm is based on the Optimal Estimation technique using radiative transfer simulations of the Matrix Operator Model (MOMO).

  18. Temperamental profiles and linguistic development: differences in the quality of linguistic production in relation to temperament in children of 28 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usai, M Carmen; Garello, Valentina; Viterbori, Paola

    2009-06-01

    The temperamental constellations that can be found in the infant population may influence the development trajectories of single domains of knowledge, such as that relative to language. The main objective of this study is to identify temperamental profiles to which one associates different levels of linguistic competence and to identify the profile associated with the highest risk for language acquisition. The temperamental characteristics of a sample of 106 children of 28 months attending day-care centres were surveyed and three temperamental profiles were highlighted: a profile typical of the Italian population which grouped most of the children; another made up of easily distractible and not very persistent children, who show a poor capacity to modulate motor activity and finally, the third with children inhibited in new situations. A comparison of the three groups on the basis of the level of linguistic competence revealed important differences regarding certain indices such as the vocabulary size and composition: in particular, the group of "inattentive" children has a more "immature" vocabulary composition, characterised by the presence of more primitive components of the lexical repertory.

  19. 中国干旱区积雪面积产品去云处理方法验证与评估%Validation and Assessment of Cloud Obscuration Reduction of Snow Cover Products in Arid Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王增艳; 车涛

    2012-01-01

    Cloud coverage in daily snow cover products is a main obstacle in using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer(MODIS).In this study,the multi-temporal and multi-sensor combination approaches are applied to reduce cloud obscuration with Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for NASA'S Earth Observing System(AMSR-E) snow depth products introduced as the auxiliary data to develop 6 new kinds of snow cover products.Different snow cover duration days(SCD) maps are developed from these combined products.The results are as follows:(1) MODIS and AMSR-E 4-day threshold-combined snow cover product performed well in algorithm efficiency,cloud-reducing effect and capability in maintaining relatively high spatiotemporal resolutions;(2) Under all weather conditions,the overall,snow and land accuracies of the resulted cloud-free products were 96%,80% and 99%,and they were significantly higher than 64%,32% and 70% of the original MODIS Terra and Aqua combination product,respectively;(3) The SCD map generated from this product could not only maintain a high spatial resolution of the original MODIS product,but also could precisely reflect the spatial distribution of the snow cover status in the study area.%针对MODIS每日积雪产品中云覆盖现象严重这一问题,以中国干旱区作为研究对象,结合AMSR-E被动微波雪深数据,采用多时相、多传感器数据融合的方法进行去云处理,获取MODIS每日,4 d,8 d和MODIS与AM-SR-E融合后的每日,4 d与8 d共6种新的积雪产品,并分别提取其积雪持续日数(SCD)。对比结果显示,MODIS与AMSR-E多传感器的阈值法4日融合产品在融合算法效率、云去除效果和融合后保持较高分类精度方面均有较好表现,其融合后的无云产品在全天气条件下具有96%的整体分类精度、80%的雪分类精度和99%的陆地分类精度,大大高于研究区原MODIS Terra-Aqua每日融合积雪产品全天候条件下64%,32%

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  2. Security Problems in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Rola Motawie; Mahmoud M. El-Khouly; Samir Abou El-Seoud

    2016-01-01

    Cloud is a pool of computing resources which are distributed among cloud users. Cloud computing has many benefits like scalability, flexibility, cost savings, reliability, maintenance and mobile accessibility. Since cloud-computing technology is growing day by day, it comes with many security problems. Securing the data in the cloud environment is most critical challenges which act as a barrier when implementing the cloud. There are many new concepts that cloud introduces, such as resource sh...

  3. Cross-Cloud Testing Strategies Over Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Nageswararao,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is the new paradigm to deliver all the hosted services over internet on demand. The ultimate goal of cloud computing paradigm is to realize computing as a utility. The cloud is rapidly maturing towards its goal to support a wide variety of enterprise and consumer services and real-world applications. Recently a movement towards cross cloud also called as multi-clouds or inters clouds or cloud-of-clouds has emerged which take advantage of multiple independent cloud provider offers for cloud resilience and dependability. This cross cloud represents the next logical wave in computing, enabling complex hybrid applications, cost and performance optimization, enhanced reliability, customer flexibility and lock-in avoidance. Providing testing as a service (TaaS in cross clouds become hot topics in industry. Testing heterogeneous e-commerce sites, Software as a Service solutions, and Cloud based applications is extremely challenging.

  4. Integration of Cloud resources in the LHCb Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Stagni, Federico; Cabarrou, Baptiste; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Charpentier, Philippe; Closier, Joel

    2014-01-01

    This contribution describes how Cloud resources have been integrated in the LHCb Distributed Computing. LHCb is using its specific Dirac extension (LHCbDirac) as an interware for its Distributed Computing. So far, it was seamlessly integrating Grid resources and Computer clusters. The cloud extension of DIRAC (VMDIRAC) allows the integration of Cloud computing infrastructures. It is able to interact with multiple types of infrastructures in commercial and institutional clouds, supported by multiple interfaces (Amazon EC2, OpenNebula, OpenStack and CloudStack) – instantiates, monitors and manages Virtual Machines running on this aggregation of Cloud resources. Moreover, specifications for institutional Cloud resources proposed by Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), mainly by the High Energy Physics Unix Information Exchange (HEPiX) group, have been taken into account. Several initiatives and computing resource providers in the eScience environment have already deployed IaaS in production during 2013. Keepin...

  5. Secure Cloud Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Munir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is set of resources and services offered through the Internet. Cloud services are delivered from data centers located throughout the world. Cloud computing facilitates its consumers by providing virtual resources via internet. The biggest challenge in cloud computing is the security and privacy problems caused by its multi-tenancy nature and the outsourcing of infrastructure, sensitive data and critical applications. Enterprises are rapidly adopting cloud services for their businesses, measures need to be developed so that organizations can be assured of security in their businesses and can choose a suitable vendor for their computing needs. Cloud computing depends on the internet as a medium for users to access the required services at any time on pay-per-use pattern. However this technology is still in its initial stages of development, as it suffers from threats and vulnerabilities that prevent the users from trusting it. Various malicious activitiesfrom illegal users have threatened this technology such as data misuse, inflexible access control and limited monitoring. The occurrence of these threats may result into damaging or illegal access of critical and confidential data of users. In this paper we identify the most vulnerable security threats/attacks in cloud computing, which will enable both end users and vendors to know a bout the k ey security threats associated with cloud computing and propose relevant solution directives to strengthen security in the Cloud environment. We also propose secure cloud architecture for organizations to strengthen the security.

  6. The Cloud Radar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Paul; Heymsfield, Gerald; Li, Lihua; Tian, Lin; Zenker, Ed

    2003-01-01

    Improvement in our understanding of the radiative impact of clouds on the climate system requires a comprehensive view of clouds including their physical dimensions, dynamical generation processes, and detailed microphysical properties. To this end, millimeter vave radar is a powerful tool by which clouds can be remotely sensed. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed the Cloud Radar System (CRS). CRS is a highly sensitive 94 GHz (W-band) pulsed-Doppler polarimetric radar that is designed to fly on board the NASA high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. The instrument is currently the only millimeter wave radar capable of cloud and precipitation measurements from above most all clouds. Because it operates from high-altitude, the CRS provides a unique measurement perspective for cirrus cloud studies. The CRS emulates a satellite view of clouds and precipitation systems thus providing valuable measurements for the implementation and algorithm validation for the upcoming NASA CloudSat mission that is designed to measure ice cloud distributions on the global scale using a spaceborne 94 GHz radar. This paper describes the CRS instrument and preliminary data from the recent Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE). The radar design is discussed. Characteristics of the radar are given. A block diagram illustrating functional components of the radar is shown. The performance of the CRS during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign is discussed.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly: December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Data are presented which describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. Data are presented in two sections: Summary Statistics, presenting a time series of selected petroleum data on a U.S. level, and Detailed Statistics, presenting statistics for the most current month available as well as year to date.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  9. Virtualization and cloud computing in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Frank; Muftu, Ali; Shorter, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The use of virtualization and cloud computing has changed the way we use computers. Virtualization is a method of placing software called a hypervisor on the hardware of a computer or a host operating system. It allows a guest operating system to run on top of the physical computer with a virtual machine (i.e., virtual computer). Virtualization allows multiple virtual computers to run on top of one physical computer and to share its hardware resources, such as printers, scanners, and modems. This increases the efficient use of the computer by decreasing costs (e.g., hardware, electricity administration, and management) since only one physical computer is needed and running. This virtualization platform is the basis for cloud computing. It has expanded into areas of server and storage virtualization. One of the commonly used dental storage systems is cloud storage. Patient information is encrypted as required by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and stored on off-site private cloud services for a monthly service fee. As computer costs continue to increase, so too will the need for more storage and processing power. Virtual and cloud computing will be a method for dentists to minimize costs and maximize computer efficiency in the near future. This article will provide some useful information on current uses of cloud computing.

  10. Global observations of cloud-sensitive aerosol loadings in low-level marine clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, H.; Cermak, J.; Fuchs, J.; Schwarz, K.

    2016-11-01

    Aerosol-cloud interaction is a key component of the Earth's radiative budget and hydrological cycle, but many facets of its mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In this study, global satellite-derived aerosol and cloud products are used to identify at what aerosol loading cloud droplet size shows the greatest sensitivity to changes in aerosol loading (ACSmax). While, on average, cloud droplet size is most sensitive at relatively low aerosol loadings, distinct spatial and temporal patterns exist. Possible determinants for these are identified with reanalysis data. The magnitude of ACSmax is found to be constrained by the total columnar water vapor. Seasonal patterns of water vapor are reflected in the seasonal patterns of ACSmax. Also, situations with enhanced turbulent mixing are connected to higher ACSmax, possibly due to intensified aerosol activation. Of the analyzed aerosol species, dust seems to impact ACSmax the most, as dust particles increase the retrieved aerosol loading without substantially increasing the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei.

  11. MERIS albedo climatology for FRESCO+ O2 A-band cloud retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhou

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new global albedo climatology for Oxygen A-band cloud retrievals is presented. The climatology is based on MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS Albedomap data and its favourable impact on the derivation of cloud fraction is demonstrated for the FRESCO+ (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A-band algorithm. To date, a relatively coarse resolution (1° × 1° surface reflectance dataset from GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Lambert-equivalent reflectivity (LER is used in FRESCO+. The GOME LER climatology does not account for the usually higher spatial resolution of UV/VIS instruments designed for trace gas remote sensing which introduces several artefacts, e.g. in regions with sharp spectral contrasts like coastlines or over bright surface targets. Therefore, MERIS black-sky albedo (BSA data from the period October 2002 to October 2006 were aggregated to a grid of 0.25° × 0.25° for each month of the year and for different spectral channels. In contrary to other available surface reflectivity datasets, MERIS includes channels at 754 nm and 775 nm which are located close to the spectral windows required for O2 A-band cloud retrievals. The MERIS BSA in the near-infrared compares well to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS derived BSA with an average difference lower than 1% and a correlation coefficient of 0.98. However, when relating MERIS BSA to GOME LER a distinctly lower correlation (0.80 and enhanced scatter is found. Effective cloud fractions from two exemplary months (January and July 2006 of Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY data were subsequently derived with FRESCO+ and compared to those from the Heidelberg Iterative Cloud Retrieval Utilities (HICRU algorithm. The MERIS climatology generally improves FRESCO+ effective cloud fractions. In particular small cloud fractions are in better agreement with HICRU. This is of importance for atmospheric

  12. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  13. Natural gas monthly, March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas analysis and geographic information systems.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly, October 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  15. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  16. Monthly energy review, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  17. Natural gas monthly, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Monthly energy review, July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 75 tabs.

  19. Entangled Cloud Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ateniese, Giuseppe; Dagdelen, Özgür; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    2012-01-01

    Entangled cloud storage enables a set of clients {P_i} to “entangle” their files {f_i} into a single clew c to be stored by a (potentially malicious) cloud provider S. The entanglement makes it impossible to modify or delete significant part of the clew without affecting all files in c. A clew...... recover their files. We provide theoretical foundations for entangled cloud storage, introducing the notion of an entangled encoding scheme that guarantees strong security requirements capturing the properties above. We also give a concrete construction based on privacy-preserving polynomial interpolation......, along with protocols for using the encoding scheme in practice. Protocols for cloud storage find application in the cloud setting, where clients store their files on a remote server and need to be ensured that the cloud provider will not delete their data illegitimately. Current solutions, e.g., based...

  20. Encyclopedia of cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Bojanova, Irena

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Cloud Computing provides IT professionals, educators, researchers and students with a compendium of cloud computing knowledge. Authored by a spectrum of subject matter experts in industry and academia, this unique publication, in a single volume, covers a wide range of cloud computing topics, including technological trends and developments, research opportunities, best practices, standards, and cloud adoption. Providing multiple perspectives, it also addresses questions that stakeholders might have in the context of development, operation, management, and use of clouds. Furthermore, it examines cloud computing's impact now and in the future. The encyclopedia presents 56 chapters logically organized into 10 sections. Each chapter covers a major topic/area with cross-references to other chapters and contains tables, illustrations, side-bars as appropriate. Furthermore, each chapter presents its summary at the beginning and backend material, references and additional resources for further i...

  1. Cloud Robotics Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyula Mester

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Robotics was born from the merger of service robotics and cloud technologies. It allows robots to benefit from the powerful computational, storage, and communications resources of modern data centres. Cloud robotics allows robots to take advantage of the rapid increase in data transfer rates to offload tasks without hard real time requirements. Cloud Robotics has rapidly gained momentum with initiatives by companies such as Google, Willow Garage and Gostai as well as more than a dozen active research projects around the world. The presentation summarizes the main idea, the definition, the cloud model composed of essential characteristics, service models and deployment models, planning task execution and beyond. Finally some cloud robotics projects are discussed.

  2. AIRS Water Vapor and Cloud Products Validate and Explain Recent Short Term Decreases in Global and Tropical OLR as Observed by CERES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena

    2010-01-01

    A strong equatorial SST cooling occurred from 160E westward to 120W during the period of September 2002 through August 2010, surrounded by a weaker warming ring to the west. This is the result of a transition from a strong El Nino in late 2002 to a strong La Nina in 2008. Late 2009 is characterized by the beginning of another El Nino. Average rates of change (ARC's) in 500mb specific humidity and cloud cover are in phase with those in the Sea surface temperature (SST). In the El Nino and surrounding region causing outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), to decrease significantly near the dateline and increase in the vicinity of Indonesia. Tropical OLR ARC's in these two areas cancel each other to first order. The negative zonal mean tropical OLR ARC from a drop in equatorial OLR in region 1 from 140W to 40E. This results from increasing water vapor and cloud cover in this area during La Nina with the reverse holding during El Nino.

  3. CLOUD Experiment - How it works -

    CERN Multimedia

    Jasper Kirkby

    2016-01-01

    A brief tour of the CLOUD experiment at CERN, and its scientific aims. CLOUD uses a special cloud chamber to study the possible link between galactic cosmic rays and cloud formation. The results should contribute much to our fundamental understanding of aerosols and clouds, and their affect on climate.

  4. Considerations for Cloud Security Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Cusick, James

    2016-01-01

    Information Security in Cloud Computing environments is explored. Cloud Computing is presented, security needs are discussed, and mitigation approaches are listed. Topics covered include Information Security, Cloud Computing, Private Cloud, Public Cloud, SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, ISO 27001, OWASP, Secure SDLC.

  5. MISR Level 2 FIRSTLOOK TOA/Cloud Stereo parameters V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the Level 2 FIRSTLOOK TOA/Cloud Stereo Product. It contains the Stereoscopically Derived winds, heights and cloud mask along with associated data, produced...

  6. Cryptographic Cloud Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamara, Seny; Lauter, Kristin

    We consider the problem of building a secure cloud storage service on top of a public cloud infrastructure where the service provider is not completely trusted by the customer. We describe, at a high level, several architectures that combine recent and non-standard cryptographic primitives in order to achieve our goal. We survey the benefits such an architecture would provide to both customers and service providers and give an overview of recent advances in cryptography motivated specifically by cloud storage.

  7. CLOUD COMPUTING SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANISH JAMIL,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is no secret that cloud computing is becoming more and more popular today and is ever increasing inpopularity with large companies as they share valuable resources in a cost effective way. Due to this increasingdemand for more clouds there is an ever growing threat of security becoming a major issue. This paper shalllook at ways in which security threats can be a danger to cloud computing and how they can be avoided.

  8. Geodesics on Point Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Hongchuan Yu; Zhang, Jian J.; Zheng Jiao

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel framework to compute geodesics on implicit surfaces and point clouds. Our framework consists of three parts, particle based approximate geodesics on implicit surfaces, Cartesian grid based approximate geodesics on point clouds, and geodesic correction. The first two parts can effectively generate approximate geodesics on implicit surfaces and point clouds, respectively. By introducing the geodesic curvature flow, the third part produces smooth and accurate geodesic solution...

  9. Cloud Detection with MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    P. Shrivastava

    2013-01-01

    The accurate detection of clouds in satellite imagery is important in research and operational applications. Cloud cover influences the distribution of solar radiation reaching the ground where it is absorbed. Resulting fluxes of sensible and latent heat are critical to the accurate characterization of boundary layer behavior and mesoscale circulations that often lead to convective development. Therefore the spatial and temporal variation in cloud cover can greatly affect regional an...

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  12. FRESCO+: an improved O2 A-band cloud retrieval algorithm for tropospheric trace gas retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Roozendael

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The FRESCO (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A-band algorithm has been used to retrieve cloud information from measurements of the O2 A-band around 760 nm by GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2. The cloud parameters retrieved by FRESCO are the effective cloud fraction and cloud pressure, which are used for cloud correction in the retrieval of trace gases like O3 and NO2. To improve the cloud pressure retrieval for partly cloudy scenes, single Rayleigh scattering has been included in an improved version of the algorithm, called FRESCO+. We compared FRESCO+ and FRESCO effective cloud fractions and cloud pressures using simulated spectra and one month of GOME measured spectra. As expected, FRESCO+ gives more reliable cloud pressures over partly cloudy pixels. Simulations and comparisons with ground-based radar/lidar measurements of clouds show that the FRESCO+ cloud pressure is about the optical midlevel of the cloud. Globally averaged, the FRESCO+ cloud pressure is about 50 hPa higher than the FRESCO cloud pressure, while the FRESCO+ effective cloud fraction is about 0.01 larger. The effect of FRESCO+ cloud parameters on O3 and NO2 vertical column density (VCD retrievals is studied using SCIAMACHY data and ground-based DOAS measurements. We find that the FRESCO+ algorithm has a significant effect on tropospheric NO2 retrievals but a minor effect on total O3 retrievals. The retrieved SCIAMACHY tropospheric NO2 VCDs using FRESCO+ cloud parameters (v1.1 are lower than the tropospheric NO2VCDs which used FRESCO cloud parameters (v1.04, in particular over heavily polluted areas with low clouds. The difference between SCIAMACHY tropospheric NO2 VCDs v1.1 and ground-based MAXDOAS measurements performed in Cabauw, The Netherlands, during the DANDELIONS campaign is about −2.12×1014molec cm−2.

  13. Providing Availability, Performance, and Scalability By Using Cloud Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr. Alaa Hussein Al-Hamami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the internet, new technical and concepts have attention to all users of the internet especially in the development of information technology, such as concept is cloud. Cloud computing includes different components, of which cloud database has become an important one. A cloud database is a distributed database that delivers computing as a service or in form of virtual machine image instead of a product via the internet; its advantage is that database can be accessed from anywhere and anytime. In this paper, we explain the cloud computing database issue in general, cloud database in especially, selection the important characteristics of cloud database, types of cloud deployment models and finally decide which primary methods to run a database on the cloud. Also, we focus on two subjects, the first one, we tried to determine which type of the deployment model is the best to deliver database services and discuss the reasons for this determination. The second, we explain how the user dealing with database in the cloud computing. Depending on the second, we explain the main challenges which are affecting the cloud performance, and suggest a method to handle these challenges.

  14. Core of Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. C.P.Chandgude

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in computing facilities marks back from 1960’s with introduction of mainframes. Each of the computing has one or the other issues, so keeping this in mind cloud computing was introduced. Cloud computing has its roots in older technologies such as hardware virtualization, distributed computing, internet technologies, and autonomic computing. Cloud computing can be described with two models, one is service model and second is deployment model. While providing several services, cloud management’s primary role is resource provisioning. While there are several such benefits of cloud computing, there are challenges in adopting public clouds because of dependency on infrastructure that is shared by many enterprises. In this paper, we present core knowledge of cloud computing, highlighting its key concepts, deployment models, service models, benefits as well as security issues related to cloud data. The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the cloud computing and to identify important research directions in this field

  15. CLOUD TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Dukkardt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the review of main features of cloud computing that can be used in education. Particular attention is paid to those learning and supportive tasks, that can be greatly improved in the case of the using of cloud services. Several ways to implement this approach are proposed, based on widely accepted models of providing cloud services. Nevertheless, the authors have not ignored currently existing problems of cloud technologies , identifying the most dangerous risks and their impact on the core business processes of the university. 

  16. Cloud Computing: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ling; Luo, Zhiguo; Du, Yujian; Guo, Leitao

    In order to support the maximum number of user and elastic service with the minimum resource, the Internet service provider invented the cloud computing. within a few years, emerging cloud computing has became the hottest technology. From the publication of core papers by Google since 2003 to the commercialization of Amazon EC2 in 2006, and to the service offering of AT&T Synaptic Hosting, the cloud computing has been evolved from internal IT system to public service, from cost-saving tools to revenue generator, and from ISP to telecom. This paper introduces the concept, history, pros and cons of cloud computing as well as the value chain and standardization effort.

  17. JINR cloud infrastructure evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, A. V.; Balashov, N. A.; Kutovskiy, N. A.; Semenov, R. N.

    2016-09-01

    To fulfil JINR commitments in different national and international projects related to the use of modern information technologies such as cloud and grid computing as well as to provide a modern tool for JINR users for their scientific research a cloud infrastructure was deployed at Laboratory of Information Technologies of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. OpenNebula software was chosen as a cloud platform. Initially it was set up in simple configuration with single front-end host and a few cloud nodes. Some custom development was done to tune JINR cloud installation to fit local needs: web form in the cloud web-interface for resources request, a menu item with cloud utilization statistics, user authentication via Kerberos, custom driver for OpenVZ containers. Because of high demand in that cloud service and its resources over-utilization it was re-designed to cover increasing users' needs in capacity, availability and reliability. Recently a new cloud instance has been deployed in high-availability configuration with distributed network file system and additional computing power.

  18. ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, C; Xie, S; Klein, SA; McCoy, R; Comstock, JM; Delanoë, J; Deng, M; Dunn, M; Hogan, RJ; Jensen, MP; Mace, GG; McFarlane, SA; O’Connor, EJ; Protat, A; Shupe, MD; Turner, D; Wang, Z

    2011-09-12

    This document describes a new Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data set, the ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED), which is created by assembling nine existing ground-based cloud retrievals of ARM measurements from different cloud retrieval algorithms. The current version of ACRED includes an hourly average of nine ground-based retrievals with vertical resolution of 45 m for 512 layers. The techniques used for the nine cloud retrievals are briefly described in this document. This document also outlines the ACRED data availability, variables, and the nine retrieval products. Technical details about the generation of ACRED, such as the methods used for time average and vertical re-grid, are also provided.

  19. A cloud storage overlay to aggregate heterogeneous cloud services

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Guilherme Sperb; Bocek, Thomas; Ammann, Michael; Stiller, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    Many Cloud services provide generic (e.g., Amazon S3 or Dropbox) or data-specific Cloud storage (e.g., Google Picasa or SoundCloud). Although both Cloud storage service types have the data storage in common, they present heterogeneous characteristics: different interfaces, accounting and charging schemes, privacy and security levels, functionality and, among the data-specific Cloud storage services, different data type restrictions. This paper proposes PiCsMu (Platform-independent Cloud Stora...

  20. OH+ in Diffuse Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Porras, A J; Welty, D E; Ritchey, A M

    2013-01-01

    Near ultraviolet observations of OH+ and OH in diffuse molecular clouds reveal a preference for different environments. The dominant absorption feature in OH+ arises from a main component seen in CH+ (that with the highest CH+/CH column density ratio), while OH follows CN absorption. This distinction provides new constraints on OH chemistry in these clouds. Since CH+ detections favor low-density gas with small fractions of molecular hydrogen, this must be true for OH+ as well, confirming OH+ and H2O+ observations with the Herschel Space Telescope. Our observed correspondence indicates that the cosmic ray ionization rate derived from these measurements pertains to mainly atomic gas. The association of OH absorption with gas rich in CN is attributed to the need for high enough density and molecular fraction before detectable amounts are seen. Thus, while OH+ leads to OH production, chemical arguments suggest that their abundances are controlled by different sets of conditions and that they coexist with differen...

  1. Natural gas monthly, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Clouds Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Menzel, W. Paul; Ackerman, Steven A.; Hubanks, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched aboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. A comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms for the retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties have enabled over twelve years of continuous observations of cloud properties from Terra and over nine years from Aqua. The archived products from these algorithms include 1 km pixel-level (Level-2) and global gridded Level-3 products. In addition to an extensive cloud mask, products include cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure, effective emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical and microphysical parameters (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path), as well as derived statistics. Results include the latitudinal distribution of cloud optical and radiative properties for both liquid water and ice clouds, as well as latitudinal distributions of cloud top pressure and cloud top temperature. MODIS finds the cloud fraction, as derived by the cloud mask, is nearly identical during the day and night, with only modest diurnal variation. Globally, the cloud fraction derived by the MODIS cloud mask is approx.67%, with somewhat more clouds over land during the afternoon and less clouds over ocean in the afternoon, with very little difference in global cloud cover between Terra and Aqua. Overall, cloud fraction over land is approx.55%, with a distinctive seasonal cycle, whereas the ocean cloudiness is much higher, around 72%, with much reduced seasonal variation. Cloud top pressure and temperature have distinct spatial and temporal patterns, and clearly reflect our understanding of the global cloud distribution. High clouds are especially prevalent over the northern hemisphere continents between 30 and 50 . Aqua and Terra have comparable zonal cloud top pressures, with Aqua having somewhat higher clouds (cloud top pressures lower by 100 hPa) over land due to

  3. How might Australian rainforest cloud interception respond to climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jim; McJannet, Dave

    2013-02-01

    SummaryThe lower and upper montane rainforests in northern Queensland receive significant amounts of cloud interception that affect both in situ canopy wetness and downstream runoff. Cloud interception contributes 5-30% of the annual water input to the canopy and this increases to 40-70% of the monthly water input during the dry season. This occult water is therefore an important input to the canopy, sustaining the epiphytes, mosses and other species that depend on wet canopy conditions. The potential effect of climate change on cloud interception was examined using the relationship between cloud interception and cloud frequency derived from measurements made at four different rainforest locations. Any given change in cloud frequency produces a greater change in cloud interception and this 'amplification' increases from 1.1 to 1.7 as cloud frequency increases from 5% to 70%. This means that any changes in cloud frequency will have the greatest relative effects at the higher altitude sites where cloud interception is greatest. As cloud frequency is also a major factor affecting canopy wetness, any given change in cloud frequency will therefore have a greater impact on canopy wetness at the higher altitude sites. These changes in wetness duration will augment those due to changes in rainfall and may have important implications for the fauna and flora that depend on wet canopy conditions. We also found that the Australian rainforests may be more efficient (by ˜50% on average) in intercepting cloud water than American coniferous forests, which may be due to differences in canopy structure and exposure at the different sites.

  4. Retrieval of radiative and microphysical properties of clouds from multispectral infrared measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Hironobu; Saito, Masanori; Tokoro, Yuka; Putri, Nurfiena Sagita; Sekiguchi, Miho

    2016-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing of the macroscopic, microphysical, and optical properties of clouds are useful for studying spatial and temporal variations of clouds at various scales and constraining cloud physical processes in climate and weather prediction models. Instead of using separate independent algorithms for different cloud properties, a unified, optimal estimation-based cloud retrieval algorithm is developed and applied to moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations using ten thermal infrared bands. The model considers sensor configurations, background surface and atmospheric profile, and microphysical and optical models of ice and liquid cloud particles and radiative transfer in a plane-parallel, multilayered atmosphere. Measurement and model errors are thoroughly quantified from direct comparisons of clear-sky observations over the ocean with model calculations. Performance tests by retrieval simulations show that ice cloud properties are retrieved with high accuracy when cloud optical thickness (COT) is between 0.1 and 10. Cloud-top pressure is inferred with uncertainty lower than 10 % when COT is larger than 0.3. Applying the method to a tropical cloud system and comparing the results with the MODIS Collection 6 cloud product shows good agreement for ice cloud optical thickness when COT is less than about 5. Cloud-top height agrees well with estimates obtained by the CO2 slicing method used in the MODIS product. The present algorithm can detect optically thin parts at the edges of high clouds well in comparison with the MODIS product, in which these parts are recognized as low clouds by the infrared window method. The cloud thermodynamic phase in the present algorithm is constrained by cloud-top temperature, which tends not to produce results with an ice cloud that is too warm and liquid cloud that is too cold.

  5. Hispanic Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    Hispanic heritage month is from September 15 to October 15. One problem that arises when grouping people into categories such as Hispanic or Latino is stereotyping, stereotypes can be promoted or used in this Hispanic month to promote a greater understanding of Latino cultures.

  6. Progress report, 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests...... of the multimirror cutting head have been started....

  7. Progress report, 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests...... of the multimirror cutting head have been started....

  8. Progress report, 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  9. Progress report, 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  10. Cloud-Point Extraction Combined with Liquid Chromatography for the Determination of Ergosterol, a Natural Product with Diuretic Activity, in Rat Plasma, Urine, and Faeces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Qian Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ergosterol from many medicinal fungi has been demonstrated to possess a variety of pharmacological activities in vivo and in vitro. A new method based on cloud-point extraction has been developed, optimized and validated for the determination of ergosterol in rat plasma, urine and faeces by liquid chromatography. The non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 was chosen as the extract solvent. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Inertsil ODS-3 analytical column with a mobile phase consisting of methanol and water (98 : 2, v/v at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The methodology was validated completely. The results indicated good performance in terms of specificity, linearity, detection and quantification limits, precision and accuracy. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic studies of ergosterol in rats. The results indicate that the ergosterol levels in feces are much higher than those in plasma and urine of the rat.

  11. Cloud-point extraction combined with liquid chromatography for the determination of ergosterol, a natural product with diuretic activity, in rat plasma, urine, and faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan-Qian; An, Jun-Min; Feng, Ya-Long; Tian, Ting; Qin, Xiang-Yang; Zhao, Ying-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Ergosterol from many medicinal fungi has been demonstrated to possess a variety of pharmacological activities in vivo and in vitro. A new method based on cloud-point extraction has been developed, optimized and validated for the determination of ergosterol in rat plasma, urine and faeces by liquid chromatography. The non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 was chosen as the extract solvent. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Inertsil ODS-3 analytical column with a mobile phase consisting of methanol and water (98 : 2, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The methodology was validated completely. The results indicated good performance in terms of specificity, linearity, detection and quantification limits, precision and accuracy. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic studies of ergosterol in rats. The results indicate that the ergosterol levels in feces are much higher than those in plasma and urine of the rat.

  12. Numerical modeling of altocumulus cloud layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuairen

    1998-07-01

    turbulent transport. The Ac clouds become deeper when the RH above the cloud is high and can be maintained even if the RH above cloud is very low. The results and observations suggest that Ac layers are approximately well-mixed and similar to STBL. Therefore, an elevated MLM has been developed and tested for Ac layers. The Ac MLM uses a method for determining the entrainment rate at the mixed layer top that is used in many MLMs of the STBL. At the mixed layer base, the Ac mixed-layer model detrains at a rate that keeps the ratio of buoyant consumption of TKE in the subcloud layer to buoyant production in the cloud layer less than or equal to a critical value. The MLM results were good compared to the CRM results for cloud thickness, and fair for the LWP. The mixed layer magnitudes of conservative variables and flux profiles for the MLM agree reasonably to the results for the CRM.

  13. VMware vCloud security

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Prasenjit

    2013-01-01

    VMware vCloud Security provides the reader with in depth knowledge and practical exercises sufficient to implement a secured private cloud using VMware vCloud Director and vCloud Networking and Security.This book is primarily for technical professionals with system administration and security administration skills with significant VMware vCloud experience who want to learn about advanced concepts of vCloud security and compliance.

  14. Natural gas monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-25

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The NGM also features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  15. Monthly energy review, December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-21

    This publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. An energy preview of alternative fuel providers vehicle fleet surveys is included. The publication is intended for use by members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  16. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  17. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  19. Monthly energy review, September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Information is also provided on international energy, including petroleum production, consumption, and stocks and nuclear electricity gross generation. This issues provides a brief industry overview and a detailed analysis of the spring 1996 gasoline price runup, crude oil supply issues, U.S. crude oil imports, petroleum stocks, futures markets, refining cash margin trends, and the financial performance of U.S. refining and marketing firms. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase prices, the f.o b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.