WorldWideScience

Sample records for month field campaign

  1. Field Campaign Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, J. W. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Chapman, L. A. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This document establishes a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking System and are specifically tailored to meet the scope of each field campaign.

  2. TRMM Field Campaigns: Objectives and Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipser, Edward I.; Heymsfield, Gerald; Kummerow, Christian; Simpson, Joanne; Thiele, Otto; Rutledge, Steven; Dias, Maria Assuncio Silva; Houze, Robert A., Jr.; Yuter, Sandra; Kakar, Ramesh

    1999-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite has been sending valuable data since launch in November 1997. Some of the key goals of the joint NASA (US) and NASDA (Japan) mission are: (1) to estimate the four-dimensional diabatic heating in the tropical and subtropical atmosphere, (2) understand the role of latent heating in driving tropical and extratropical circulations, (3) obtain monthly area-averaged estimates of rainfall over the data-sparse oceans, and (4) estimate the relative contribution of convective and stratiform precipitation over different regions during different seasons. The overarching scientific objective is to understand and improve estimates of rainfall and latent heating profiles throughout the global tropics. This requires observations for fundamental understanding of cloud dynamics and microphysics, as well as for validation, testing assumptions and error estimates of cloud-resolving models, forward radiative transfer models, algorithms used to estimate rainfall statistics and vertical structure of precipitation from surface-based radar, and from satellites. Field experiments designed to contribute to this understanding have been conducted in Texas and the South China Sea in spring of 1998, Florida in summer of 1998, and interior Brazil in (boreal) winter 1999. In summer 1999, a major oceanic campaign will be based at Kwajalein Atoll. Some early results will be highlighted, noting some significant contrasts between oceanic and continental convective systems.

  3. Collaboration Portals for NASA's Airborne Field Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Helen; Kulkami, Ajinkya; Garrett, Michele; Goodman, Michael; Peterson, Walter Arthur; Drewry, Marilyn; Hardin, Danny M.; He, Matt

    2011-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), in collaboration with the Global Hydrology Resource Center, a NASA Earth Science Data Center, has provided information management for a number of NASA Airborne Field campaigns, both hurricane science investigations and satellite instrument validation. Effective field campaign management requires communication and coordination tools, including utilities for personnel to upload and share flight plans, weather forecasts, a variety of mission reports, preliminary science data, and personal photos. Beginning with the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) hurricane field campaign in 2010, we have provided these capabilities via a Drupal-based collaboration portal. This portal was reused and modified for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), part of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission ground validation program. An end goal of these development efforts is the creation of a Drupal profile for field campaign management. This presentation will discuss experiences with Drupal in developing and using these collaboration portals. Topics will include Drupal modules used, advantages and disadvantages of working with Drupal in this context, and how the science teams used the portals in comparison with other communication and collaboration tools.

  4. Precipitation properties observed during CHUVA Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, C.; Machado, L. A.; Angelis, C. F.; Silva Dias, M. A. F.; Fisch, G.; Carvalho, I. C.; Biscaro, T.; Sakuragi, J.; Neves, J. R.; Anselmo, E. M.; Lacerda, M.

    2012-04-01

    CHUVA is a Brazilian research program that seeks to depict the main precipitating systems observed in Brazil as a support for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. CHUVA is conducting a series of field campaigns in the time frame of 2010-2013 to sample raining systems that vary from maritime to continental regime and in polluted and clean environments. For this study, we will present initially the drop size distribution (DSD) variability observed in the field experiments of Alcantara (March/2010), Fortaleza (April/2011), Belém (June/2011) and Vale do Paraiba (November-December/2011). Secondly, with the help of the mobile X-Band and MRR-2, we will show the DSD differences observed on warm and cold phase clouds, and convective and stratiform precipitation. Finally, by employing the vertical electrical field and lightning measurements together with the weather radar, we will present the main vertical precipitation features observed in thunderstorms and non- thunderstorms, in addition to the different raining systems observed during the four field campaigns.

  5. Critical Metadata for Spectroscopy Field Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Rasaiah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A field spectroscopy metadata standard is defined as those data elements that explicitly document the spectroscopy dataset and field protocols, sampling strategies, instrument properties and environmental and logistical variables. Standards for field spectroscopy metadata affect the quality, completeness, reliability, and usability of datasets created in situ. Currently there is no standardized methodology for documentation of in situ spectroscopy data or metadata. This paper presents results of an international experiment comprising a web-based survey and expert panel evaluation that investigated critical metadata in field spectroscopy. The survey participants were a diverse group of scientists experienced in gathering spectroscopy data across a wide range of disciplines. Overall, respondents were in agreement about a core metadataset for generic campaign metadata, allowing for a prioritization of critical metadata elements to be proposed including those relating to viewing geometry, location, general target and sampling properties, illumination, instrument properties, reference standards, calibration, hyperspectral signal properties, atmospheric conditions, and general project details. Consensus was greatest among individual expert groups in specific application domains. The results allow the identification of a core set of metadata fields that enforce long term data storage and serve as a foundation for a metadata standard. This paper is part one in a series about the core elements of a robust and flexible field spectroscopy metadata standard.

  6. Magnetic Field Observations at Purcell, Oklahoma Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, P. J. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gibson, J. P. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The campaign “Magnetic Field Observations at Purcell, Oklahoma” installed a ground-based magnetometer at Purcell’s U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility boundary installation at the Kessler Atmospheric and Ecological Field Station, University of Oklahoma, to measure local magnetic field variations. It is a part of the nine stations of the Mid-continent MAgnetoseismic Chain (McMAC) placed as close to the 330° magnetic longitude as possible. This is the meridian in the world where land covers the greatest continuous range in magnetic latitude. Figure 1 shows the map of the magnetometer stations along the 330th magnetic meridian, including the Purcell (PCEL) station. The main scientific objective of the campaign is to detect the field line resonance (FLR) frequencies of the magnetic field line connected to the Purcell station. This magnetic field line extends from Purcell to the outer space at distances as far as 2 Earth radii (RE). To accurately identify FLR frequencies, however, simultaneous measurements at slightly different latitudes along the same meridian are necessary to allow the use of the cross-phase technique. This consideration explains the arrangement to operate magnetometers at the Americus (AMER) and Richardson (RICH) stations nearby. The measured resonant frequency can infer the plasma mass density along the field line through the method of normal-mode magnetoseismology. The magnetometer at the Purcell station can detect many other types of magnetic field fluctuations associated with the changes in the electric currents in the ionosphere and the magnetosphere, which by large are affected by the solar activity. In other words, the magnetic field data collected by this campaign are also useful for understanding space weather phenomena. The magnetometer was installed at Purcell’s ARM boundary facility in March 27, 2006. The construction of the triaxial fluxgate magnetometer used by the

  7. Manus Water Isotope Investigation Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Jessica L [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Cobb, Kim M [Georgia Institute of Technology; Noone, David [University of Colorado, Boulder

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this field campaign was to investigate climatic controls on the stable isotopic composition of water vapor, precipitation, and seawater in the western tropical Pacific. Simultaneous measurements of the stable isotopic composition of vapor and precipitation from April 28 to May 8, 2013, at the Manus Tropical Western Pacific Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site, provided several key insights into the nature of the climate signal archived in precipitation and vapor isotope ratios. We observed a large shift from lower to higher isotopic values in vapor and precipitation because of the passage of a mesoscale convective system west of the site and a transition from a regional stormy period into a more quiescent period. During the quiescent period, the stable isotopic composition of vapor and precipitation indicated the predominance of oceanic evaporation in determining the isotopic composition of boundary-layer vapor and local precipitation. There was not a consistent relationship between intra-event precipitation amount at the site and the stable isotopic composition of precipitation, thus challenging simplified assumptions about the isotopic “amount effect” in the tropics on the time scale of individual storms. However, some storms did show an amount effect, and deuterium excess values in precipitation had a significant relationship with several meteorological variables, including precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and cloud base height across all measured storms. The direction of these relationships points to condensation controls on precipitation deuterium excess values on intra-event time scales. The relationship between simultaneous measurements of vapor and precipitation isotope ratios during precipitation events indicates the ratio of precipitation-to-vapor isotope ratios can diagnose precipitation originating from a vapor source unique from boundary-layer vapor and rain re-evaporation.

  8. GLOBE Aerosol Field Campaign - U.S. Pilot Study 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Margaret; Marentette, Christina; Bujosa, Robert; Taylor, Jessica; Lewis, Preston

    2016-01-01

    During the spring of 2016, from April 4 - May 27, sixteen GLOBE schools participated in the GLOBE Aerosol Field Campaign - U.S. Pilot Study. Thirteen teachers from these schools had previously participated in the NASA LEARN program (Long-term Experience in Authentic Research with NASA) where they were GLOBE trained in Atmosphere protocols, and engaged in 1-3 years of research under the mentorship of NASA scientists. Each school was loaned two aerosol instruments for the Campaign duration, either 2 GLOBE sun photometers, 2 Calitoo sun photometers, or 1 of each. This allowed for students to make measurements side-by-side and in the case of the Calitoos, to compare AOT results immediately with each other for better consistency in data collection. Additionally, as part of the Field Campaign evaluation, multiple instruments allow for an assessment of the ease of use of each instrument for grade level of students, whether in middle school or high school. Before the Campaign, all GLOBE and Calitoo instruments were 'checked out' against an AERONET, then checked again upon return after the Campaign. By examining all data, before, during and after the Campaign, this gives an indication of instrument performance and proficiency obtained by the students. Support was provided to each teacher and their students at the level requested, via email, phone or video conferencing.

  9. Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigor, Ignatius [Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington; Johnson, Jim [Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington; Motz, Emily [National Ice Center; Bisic, Aaron [National Ice Center

    2017-06-30

    Our ability to understand and predict weather and climate requires an accurate observing network. One of the pillars of this network is the observation of the fundamental meteorological parameters: temperature, air pressure, and wind. We plan to assess our ability to measure these parameters for the polar regions during the Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX, Figure 1) to support the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP), Arctic Observing Network (AON), International Program for Antarctic Buoys (IPAB), and Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS). Accurate temperature measurements are also necessary to validate and improve satellite measurements of surface temperature across the Arctic. Support for research associated with the campaign is provided by the National Science Foundation, and by other US agencies contributing to the US Interagency Arctic Buoy Program. In addition to the support provided by the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site at Barrow and the National Science Foundation (NSF), the U.S. IABP is supported by the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Ice Center (NIC), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Office of Naval Research (ONR).

  10. Eifel field operation campaign supporting Moon Mars and NEO exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Offringa, Marloes

    2016-07-01

    As follow-up on the 2009 Eifel field campaign new field tests with our ExoGeoLab lander were conducted in November 2015 and February 2016. The two phase campaign was used to test the usability of a mock-up lander as test bench for experiments and its remote control in a Moon, Mars analogue environment. In a real mission such a lander could be used in a robotic or manned mission as scientific tool for scientists on Earth to do preliminary study on in-situ collected rocks. This could be useful for example for a sample return mission where scientists on Earth can determine if sample is interesting enough for a more detailed study. The prototype lander is one of the components of the ExoGeoLab project from ESA and ILEWG. Several student projects have prepared the lander for a geological field campaign in lunar and Martian analogue terrain. The lander can be divided in three sections which are used to store several components of the lander. The lower compartment can be used to store a rover or used as laboratory. The middle compartment is used for the lander computer(s), spectrometers and the associated cables. The top plate is used for a telescope which in our case is used to observe the environment around the lander and to guide astronauts during their EVA. As closest volcanic are there is chosen to do the Eifel area, Germany. Several stages of volcanism from Devon till Quaternary resulted in a variation of rocks which is analogue to volcanic rocks from Moon, Mars and other near Earth objects. Several topics we would like to test were pre-defined. Functional tests and demo were performed at European astronaut centre prior to the campaign. The latest updates with respect to the remote control were tested. The pressurised transport vehicle was equipped as remote base for (scientific) support during the campaign. The new instrument set-up were tested and some spectra were measured on collected rocks. The telescope was used to study the environment around the lander

  11. Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, Geraint [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-01

    The last field campaign held at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility site on Manus Island, Papua New Guinea (PNG), was conducted in February 2014 as part of the Co-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) campaign. This campaign was a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and the United Kingdom’s (UK) Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) to study the composition of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and the impact of deep convection on this composition. There are three main areas of interest: i) transport of trace gases in the tropical atmosphere (especially short-lived halogenated compounds that can be lifted rapidly into the TTL, where they augment the stratospheric loading of these species); ii) formation of cirrus and its impact on the TTL; and iii) the upper-atmosphere water vapor budget. Overall, the aim was to improve understanding of the dynamical, radiative, and chemical role of the TTL. The Manus operation was a joint experiment between the Universities of Manchester and Cambridge and the UK National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS). It consisted of two elements: an ozonesonde campaign to measure ozone vertical profiles through the TTL, and ground-based monitoring of ozone, halogenated hydrocarbons, and greenhouse gases to determine the composition of lower-boundary-layer air in the Warm Pool region. Thanks to the support from the ARM Climate Research Facility and the exemplary collaboration of ARM staff in the region, the campaign was very successful.

  12. CoMStOC vs. International Solar Month - Experience gained and lessons learned from SMM campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, J. T.

    1991-01-01

    The factors that should be addressed by the organizers of a solar observing campaign are outlined and described. Two recent solar observing campaigns are compared and discussed. Lessons learned from these and other campaigns involving the SMM satellite are analyzed and advice for future campaigns is offered.

  13. OLYMPEX Counterflow Spectrometer and Impactor Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellot, Michael [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Counterflow Spectrometer and Impactor (CSI) probe was flown on the University of North Dakota Cessna Citation research aircraft during the Olympic Mountain Experiment (OLYMPEX). The field campaign took place from November 12 through December 19, 2015, over the Olympic Mountains and coastal waters of Washington State as part of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) validation campaign. The CSI was added to the Citation instrument suite to support the NASA Aerosol-Cloud Ecosystem (ACE) satellite program and flights of the NASA Lockheed Earth Resources (ER-2) aircraft. ACE funded extra ER-2 flights to focus on clouds that are weakly precipitating, which are also of interest to the DOE Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program.

  14. Spectral reflectance measurement methodologies for TUZ Golu field campaign

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Boucher, Y

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGIES FOR TUZ GOLU FIELD CAMPAIGN Y. Bouchera, F. Viallefonta, A. Deadmanb, N. Foxb , I. Behnertb, D. Griffithc, P. Harrisb, D. Helderd, E. Knaepse, L. Leighd, Y. Lif, H. Ozeng, F. Ponzonih, S. Sterckxe a Onera - The French Aerospace... A uncertainty [4]. Thus, the variation of the reflectance between the different points is a combination of the variation at small scale and at the scale of the sampling grid, typically between 20 m and 40 m. This strategy has been chosen by Onera...

  15. Towards combined global monthly gravity field solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggi, Adrian; Meyer, Ulrich; Beutler, Gerhard; Weigelt, Matthias; van Dam, Tonie; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Flury, Jakob; Flechtner, Frank; Dahle, Christoph; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Bruinsma, Sean

    2014-05-01

    Currently, official GRACE Science Data System (SDS) monthly gravity field solutions are generated independently by the Centre for Space Research (CSR) and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Additional GRACE SDS monthly fields are provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for validation and outside the SDS by a number of other institutions worldwide. Although the adopted background models and processing standards have been harmonized more and more by the various processing centers during the past years, notable differences still exist and the users are more or less left alone with a decision which model to choose for their individual applications. This procedure seriously limits the accessibility of these valuable data. Combinations are well established in the area of other space geodetic techniques, such as the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Regularly comparing and combining space-geodetic products has tremendously increased the usefulness of the products in a wide range of disciplines and scientific applications. Therefore, we propose in a first step to mutually compare the large variety of available monthly GRACE gravity field solutions, e.g., by assessing the signal content over selected regions, by estimating the noise over the oceans, and by performing significance tests. We make the attempt to assign different solution characteristics to different processing strategies in order to identify subsets of solutions, which are based on similar processing strategies. Using these subsets we will in a second step explore ways to generate combined solutions, e.g., based on a weighted average of the individual solutions using empirical weights derived from pair-wise comparisons. We will also assess the quality of such a combined solution and discuss the potential benefits for the GRACE and GRACE-FO user community, but also address minimum processing

  16. ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, L Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) field campaign contributes to CalWater 2015, a multi-agency field campaign that aims to improve understanding of atmospheric rivers and aerosol sources and transport that influence cloud and precipitation processes. The ultimate goal is to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of droughts and floods in California. With the DOE G-1 aircraft and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2) well equipped for making aerosol and cloud measurements, ACAPEX focuses specifically on understanding how aerosols from local pollution and long-range transport affect the amount and phase of precipitation associated with atmospheric rivers. ACAPEX took place between January 12, 2015 and March 8, 2015 as part of CalWater 2015, which included four aircraft (DOE G-1, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA] G-IV and P-3, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] ER-2), the NOAA research ship Ron Brown, carrying onboard the AMF2, National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored aerosol and precipitation measurements at Bodega Bay, and the California Department of Water Resources extreme precipitation network.

  17. Parsivel Disdrometer Support for MAGIC Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollias, Pavlos [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Bartholomew, Mary Jane [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s second Mobile Facility (AMF2) was deployed on the Horizon Lines cargo ship Spirit traversing a route between Los Angeles, California and Honolulu, Hawaii for one full year. The transect for this deployment was chosen specifically because it crosses the stratocumulus-to-cumulus transition of the North-East Pacific, a region of great climatic interest and a close approximation to the transect used for several focused model intercomparison efforts. The cloud type and cover along this transect vary from low marine stratocumulus with high areal coverage near the California coast to isolated shallow cumulus with much lower areal coverage in the trade wind regime near Hawaii. The low marine stratocumulus decks, with their high albedo, exert a major influence on the shortwave radiation budget in the ocean environment, and thus provide an extremely important forcing of Earth’s climate. The trade cumulus clouds play a large role in the global surface evaporation and also in Earth’s albedo. One of the important science drivers of the MAGIC campaign was to measure the properties of clouds and precipitation, specifically cloud type, fractional coverage, base height, physical thickness, liquid water path (LWP), optical depth, and drizzle and precipitation frequency, amount, and extent. Retrievals of cloud and precipitation properties during the MAGIC campaign relied critically on the calibration of the AMF2 radar systems. For MAGIC this included the KAZR and M-WACR, both fixed zenith-pointing systems, and the 1290 MHz beam steerable wind profiler.

  18. Aerosol Properties Downwind of Biomass Burns Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buseck, Peter R [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We determined the morphological, chemical, and thermal properties of aerosol particles generated by biomass burning during the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) campaign during the wildland fire season in the Pacific Northwest from July to mid-September, 2013, and in October, 2013 from prescribed agricultural burns in the lower Mississippi River Valley. BBOP was a field campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The morphological information was both two-dimensional, as is typical of most microscopy images and that have many of the characteristic of shadows in that they lack depth data, and three-dimensional (3D). The electron tomographic measurements will provided 3D data, including the presence and nature of pores and interstices, and whether the individual particles are coated by or embedded within other materials. These microphysical properties were determined for particles as a function of time and distance from the respective sources in order to obtain detailed information regarding the time evolution of changes during aging.

  19. The NAME 2004 Field Campaign and Modeling Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Wayne; Ahijevych, Dave; Amador, Jorge; Barros, Ana; Berbery, E. Hugo; Caetano, Ernesto; Carbone, Richard; Ciesielski, Paul; Cifelli, Rob; Cortez-Vazquez, Miguel; Douglas, Art; Douglas, Michael; Emmanuel, Gus; Fairall, Chris; Gochis, David; Gutzler, David; Jackson, Thomas; Johnson, Richard; King, Clark; Lang, Timothy; Lee, Myong-In; Lettenmaier, Dennis; Lobato, Rene; Magaña, Victor; Meiten, Jose; Mo, Kingtse; Nesbitt, Stephen; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco; Pytlak, Erik; Rogers, Peter; Rutledge, Steven; Schemm, Jae; Schubert, Siegfried; White, Allen; Williams, Christopher; Wood, Andrew; Zamora, Robert; Zhang, Chidong

    2006-01-01

    The North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) is an internationally coordinated process study aimed at determining the sources and limits of predictability of warm-season precipitation over North America. The scientific objectives of NAME are to promote a better understanding and more realistic simulation of warm-season convective processes in complex terrain, intraseasonal variability of the monsoon, and the response of the warm-season atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns to slowly varying, potentially predictable surface boundary conditions.During the summer of 2004, the NAME community implemented an international (United States, Mexico, Central America), multiagency (NOAA, NASA, NSF, USDA) field experiment called NAME 2004. This article presents early results from the NAME 2004 campaign and describes how the NAME modeling community will leverage the NAME 2004 data to accelerate improvements in warm-season precipitation forecasts for North America.

  20. IceBridge: Bringing a Field Campaign Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J.; Beck, J.; Bartholow, S.

    2015-12-01

    IceBridge, a six-year NASA mission, is the largest airborne survey of Earth's polar ice ever flown. It will yield an unprecedented three-dimensional view of Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets, ice shelves and sea ice. These flights will provide a yearly, multi-instrument look at the behavior of the rapidly changing features of the Greenland and Antarctic ice. Data collected during IceBridge will help scientists bridge the gap in polar observations between NASA's Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) -- in orbit since 2003 -- and ICESat-2, planned for 2017. ICESat stopped collecting science data in 2009, making IceBridge critical for ensuring a continuous series of observations. IceBridge will use airborne instruments to map Arctic and Antarctic areas once a year at a minimum, with new campaigns being developed during the Arctic melt season. IceBridge flights are conducted in the spring and summer for the Arctic and in the fall over Antarctica. Other smaller airborne surveys around the world are also part of the IceBridge campaign. IceBridge actively engages the public and educators through a variety of outlets ranging from communications strategies through social media outlets, to larger organized efforts such as PolarTREC. In field activities include blog posts, photo updates, in flight chat sessions, and more intensive live events to include google hangouts, where field team members can interact with the public during a scheduled broadcast. The IceBridge team provides scientists and other team members with the training and support to become communicators in their own right. There is an exciting new initiative where IceBridge will be collaborating with Undergraduate and Graduate students to integrate the next generation of scientists and communicators into the Science Teams. This will be explored through partnerships with institutions that are interested in mentoring through project based initiatives.

  1. Enhanced Soundings for Local Coupling Studies Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, Craig R [University at Albany, State University of New York; Santanello, Joseph A [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Gentine, Pierre [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This document presents initial analyses of the enhanced radiosonde observations obtained during the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Enhanced Soundings for Local Coupling Studies Field Campaign (ESLCS), which took place at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF) from June 15 to August 31, 2015. During ESLCS, routine 4-times-daily radiosonde measurements at the ARM-SGP CF were augmented on 12 days (June 18 and 29; July 11, 14, 19, and 26; August 15, 16, 21, 25, 26, and 27) with daytime 1-hourly radiosondes and 10-minute ‘trailer’ radiosondes every 3 hours. These 12 intensive operational period (IOP) days were selected on the basis of prior-day qualitative forecasts of potential land-atmosphere coupling strength. The campaign captured 2 dry soil convection advantage days (June 29 and July 14) and 10 atmospherically controlled days. Other noteworthy IOP events include: 2 soil dry-down sequences (July 11-14-19 and August 21-25-26), a 2-day clear-sky case (August 15-16), and the passing of Tropical Storm Bill (June 18). To date, the ESLCS data set constitutes the highest-temporal-resolution sampling of the evolution of the daytime planetary boundary layer (PBL) using radiosondes at the ARM-SGP. The data set is expected to contribute to: 1) improved understanding and modeling of the diurnal evolution of the PBL, particularly with regard to the role of local soil wetness, and (2) new insights into the appropriateness of current ARM-SGP CF thermodynamic sampling strategies.

  2. EPIC Calibration/Validation Experiment Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Steven E [National Severe Storm Laboratory/NOAA; Chilson, Phillip [University of Oklahoma; Argrow, Brian [University of Colorado

    2017-03-15

    A field exercise involving several different kinds of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and supporting instrumentation systems provided by DOE/ARM and NOAA/NSSL was conducted at the ARM SGP site in Lamont, Oklahoma on 29-30 October 2016. This campaign was part of a larger National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) UAS Program Office program awarded to the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL). named Environmental Profiling and Initiation of Convection (EPIC). The EPIC Field Campaign (Test and Calibration/Validation) proposed to ARM was a test or “dry-run” for a follow-up campaign to be requested for spring/summer 2017. The EPIC project addresses NOAA’s objective to “evaluate options for UAS profiling of the lower atmosphere with applications for severe weather.” The project goal is to demonstrate that fixed-wing and rotary-wing small UAS have the combined potential to provide a unique observing system capable of providing detailed profiles of temperature, moisture, and winds within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) to help determine the potential for severe weather development. Specific project objectives are: 1) to develop small UAS capable of acquiring needed wind and thermodynamic profiles and transects of the ABL using one fixed-wing UAS operating in tandem with two different fixed rotary-wing UAS pairs; 2) adapt and test miniaturized, high-precision, and fast-response atmospheric sensors with high accuracy in strong winds characteristic of the pre-convective ABL in Oklahoma; 3) conduct targeted short-duration experiments at the ARM Southern Great Plains site in northern Oklahoma concurrently with a second site to be chosen in “real-time” from the Oklahoma Mesonet in coordination with the (National Weather Service (NWS)-Norman Forecast Office; and 4) gain valuable experience in pursuit of NOAA’s goals for determining the value of airborne, mobile observing systems for monitoring rapidly evolving high-impact severe weather

  3. Earth Expeditions: Telling the stories of eight NASA field campaigns by focusing on the human side of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, S.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Earth Right Now communication team kicked off an ambitious multimedia campaign in March 2016 to tell the stories of eight major field campaigns studying regions of critical change from the land, sea and air. Earth Expeditions focused on the human side of science, with live reporting from the field, behind-the-scenes images and videos, and extended storytelling over a six-month period. We reported from Greenland to Namibia, from the eastern United States to the South Pacific. Expedition scientists explored ice sheets, air quality, coral reefs, boreal forests, marine ecosystems and greenhouse gases. All the while the campaign communications team was generating everything from blog posts and social media shareables, to Facebook Live events and a NASA TV series. We also participated in community outreach events and pursued traditional media opportunities. A massive undertaking, we will share lessons learned, best practices for social media and some of our favorite moments when science communication touched our audience's lives.

  4. HI-SCALE Nanoparticle Composition and Precursors Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Stark, Harald [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Browne, Eleanor [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Hanson, David [Augsburg College, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-06-15

    From 21 August to 27 September, 2016, during the second Intensive Operational Period (IOP) of the Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecoystems (HI-SCALE) field campaign, a suite of instruments were placed in the Guest Instrument Facility (GIF) at the Central Facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Lamont, Oklahoma. The goal of these measurements was to fully characterize the formation and evolution of atmospheric aerosol particles through measurements of gas-phase precursor and ambient nanoparticle composition. Specifically, we sought to: 1. investigate the role of acid-base chemistry in new-particle growth through measurements of ammonia and amines as well as organic and inorganic acids in both atmospheric nanoparticles and the gas phase; 2. investigate the contribution of other surface-area or volume-controlled processes to nanoparticle formation and growth, such as the uptake of extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOCs); 3. evaluate the performance of a new instrument being developed with funding from the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program for measuring gas-phase amines and related compounds; and 4. together with colleagues measuring on the ground and onboard the ARM Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft during HI-SCALE, create a comprehensive data set related to new particle formation and growth that can be used in modeling efforts by the research team as well as DOE collaborators.

  5. ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubin, Daniel [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; Bromwich, David H [Ohio State University; Vogelmann, Andrew M [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Verlinde, Johannes [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Russell, Lynn M [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography

    2017-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) is the most technologically advanced atmospheric and climate science campaign yet fielded in Antarctica. AWARE was motivated be recent concern about the impact of cryospheric mass loss on global sea level rise. Specifically, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is now the second largest contributor to rising sea level, after the Greenland Ice Sheet. As steadily warming ocean water erodes the grounding lines of WAIS components where they meet the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas, the retreating grounding lines moving inland and downslope on the underlying terrain imply mechanical instability of the entire WAIS. There is evidence that this point of instability may have already been reached, perhaps signifying more rapid loss of WAIS ice mass. At the same time, the mechanical support provided by adjacent ice shelves, and also the fundamental stability of exposed ice cliffs at the ice sheet grounding lines, will be adversely impacted by a warming atmosphere that causes more frequent episodes of surface melting. The surface meltwater damages the ice shelves and ice cliffs through hydrofracturing. With the increasing concern regarding these rapid cryospheric changes, AWARE was motivated by the need to (a) diagnose the surface energy balance in West Antarctica as related to both summer season climatology and potential surface melting, and (b) improve global climate model (GCM) performance over Antarctica, such that future cryospheric projections can be more reliable.

  6. Jet engine noise and infrared plume correlation field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunio, Phillip M.; Weber, Reed A.; Knobel, Kimberly R.; Smith, Christine; Draudt, Andy

    2015-09-01

    Jet engine noise can be a health hazard and environmental pollutant, particularly affecting personnel working in close proximity to jet engines, such as airline mechanics. Mitigating noise could reduce the potential for hearing loss in runway workers; however, there exists a very complex relationship between jet engine design parameters, operating conditions, and resultant noise power levels, and understanding and characterizing this relationship is a key step in mitigating jet engine noise effects. We demonstrate initial results highlighting the utility of high-speed imaging (hypertemporal imaging) in correlating the infrared signatures of jet engines with acoustic noise. This paper builds on prior theoretical analysis of jet engine infrared signatures and their potential relationships to jet engine acoustic emissions. This previous work identified the region of the jet plume most likely to emit both in infrared and in acoustic domains, and it prompted the investigation of wave packets as a physical construct tying together acoustic and infrared energy emissions. As a means of verifying these assertions, a field campaign to collect relevant data was proposed, and data collection was carried out with a bank of infrared instruments imaging a T700 turboshaft engine undergoing routine operational testing. The detection of hypertemporal signatures in association with acoustic signatures of jet engines enables the use of a new domain in characterizing jet engine noise. This may in turn enable new methods of predicting or mitigating jet engine noise, which could lead to socioeconomic benefits for airlines and other operators of large numbers of jet engines.

  7. Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Ernie R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign, which deployed the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) aboard the Horizon Lines cargo container ship Spirit as it ran its regular route between Los Angeles, California and Honolulu, Hawaii, measured properties of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, radiation, and atmospheric, meteorological, and oceanic conditions with the goal of obtaining statistics of these properties to achieve better understanding of the transition between stratocumulus and cumulus cloud regimes that occur in that region. This Sc-Cu transition is poorly represented in models, and a major reason for this is the lack of high-quality and comprehensive data that can be used to constrain, validate, and improve model representation of the transition. MAGIC consisted of 20 round trips between Los Angeles and Honolulu, and thus over three dozen transects through the transition, totaling nearly 200 days at sea between September, 2012 and October, 2013. During this time MAGIC collected a unique and unprecedented data set, including more than 550 successful radiosonde launches. An Intensive Observational Period (IOP) occurred in July, 2013 during which more detailed measurements of the atmospheric structure were made. MAGIC was very successful in its operations and overcame numerous logistical and technological challenges, clearly demonstrating the feasibility of a marine AMF2 deployment and the ability to make accurate measurements of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, and radiation while at sea.

  8. Particle Number Concentrations for HI-SCALE Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, Susanne V [Aerosol Dynamics, Inc.

    2016-06-01

    In support of the Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) project to study new particle formation in the atmosphere, a pair of custom water condensation particle counters were provided to the second intensive field campaign, from mid-August through mid-September 2017, at the U.S. Department of Energy Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility observatory. These custom instruments were developed by Aerosol Dynamics, Inc. (Hering et al. 2017) to detect particles into the nanometer size range. Referred to as “versatile water condensation particle counter (vWCPC)”, they are water-based, laminar-flow condensational growth instruments whose lower particle size threshold can be set based on user-selected operating temperatures. For HI-SCALE, the vWCPCs were configured to measure airborne particle number concentrations in the size range from approximately 2nm to 2μm. Both were installed in the particle sizing system operated by Chongai Kuang of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). One of these was operated in parallel to a TSI Model 3776, upstream of the mobility particle sizing system, to measure total ambient particle concentrations. The airborne particle concentration data from this “total particle number vWCPC” (Ntot-vWCPC) system has been reported to the ARM database. The data are reported with one-second resolution. The second vWCPC was operated in parallel with the BNL diethylene glycol instrument to count particles downstream of a separate differential mobility size analyzer. Data from this “DMA-vWCPC” system was logged by BNL, and will eventually be provided by that laboratory.

  9. The NOAA El Niño Rapid Response Field Campaign: Implementation Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, J. R.; Dole, R. M.; Webb, R. S.; Barnet, C. D.; Barsugli, J. J.; Cifelli, R.; Compo, G. P.; Cox, C. J.; Darby, L. S.; Fairall, C. W.; Hartten, L. M.; Hoell, A.; Hoerling, M. P.; Intrieri, J. M.; Iraci, L. T.; Johnston, P. J.; Kiladis, G. N.; Konopleva-Akish, E.; Newman, M.; Ryoo, J. M.; Smith, C. A.; White, A. B.; Wick, G. A.; Wolfe, D. E.; Wolter, K.

    2016-12-01

    The NOAA El Niño Rapid Response (ENRR) field campaign gathered unprecedented observations at the heart of the recent strong El Niño in January to March 2016. Despite extremely limited lead times, NOAA mounted a complex field response in a remote part of the world in four months for a campaign that usually takes two or three years to plan. Deploying multiple research aircraft, a NOAA oceangoing vessel, and with observations from Kiritimati, the field campaign was designed to examine the tropical-extratropical response to convection triggered by the warm El Niño ocean conditions in the central and eastern tropical Pacific proceeding high-impact weather events expected to occur downstream in the continental U.S. This presentation provides a detailed overview of the implementation of the ENRR field campaign. The NOAA Gulfstream IV research aircraft completed 22 successful science flights, releasing over 625 dropsondes in the central tropical Pacific to examine the thermodynamic, wind, and precipitation environments around large-scale convection located between the equator and 5°N south of Hawaii. To add spatial and temporal sampling, radiosonde balloons were launched twice daily from Kiritimati in the central tropical Pacific and up to 8 times daily from the NOAA Ronald H. Brown research vessel in the data-sparse eastern tropical Pacific. The ENRR sampling strategy was complemented by additional research flights with the NASA Global Hawk (GH), two U.S. Air Force Weather Reconnaissance C-130Js, and the NASA Ames-led Alpha Jet. To link atmospheric processes observed by the G-IV in the tropics with downstream weather events at midlatitudes, NOAA led three long-endurance flights with the GH in the eastern Pacific as part of the Sensing Hazards with Operational Unmanned Technology (SHOUT) project. The final series of G-IV flights captured the cascade of dynamical processes between the tropics and precipitation along the U.S. West Coast over a week-long period in early

  10. Overview of the synoptic and pollution situation over Europe during the EUCAARI-LONGREX field campaign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamburger, T.; McMeeking, G.; Minikin, A.; Birmili, W.; Dall'Osto, M.; O'Dowd, C.; Flentje, H.; Henzing, B.; Junninen, H.; Kristensson, A.; Leeuw, G. de; Stohl, A.; Burkhart, J.F.; Coe, H.; Krejci, R.; Petzold, A.

    2011-01-01

    In May 2008 the EUCAARI-LONGREX aircraft field campaign was conducted within the EUCAARI intensive observational period. The campaign aimed at studying the distribution and evolution of air mass properties on a continental scale. Airborne aerosol and trace gas measurements were performed aboard the

  11. Evaluation of the Impact of a Mass Media Campaign on Periodontal Knowledge among Iranian Adults: A Three-Month Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mahdia; Pakdaman, Afsaneh; Montazeri, Ali; Virtanen, Jorma I.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a national media campaign to promote oral health and periodontal knowledge among adults after a three-month follow-up. Methods We conducted a population-based study of adults aged 18 to 50 years using a stratified multi-stage sampling method in Tehran, Iran in 2011. The campaign included an animation clip about periodontal health and disease telecast on national TV for ten consecutive days. We used an instrument to assess the effect of the campaign at baseline, immediately after the campaign and after a three-month follow-up. A total of 543 participants responded at baseline and immediately after the intervention, and 294 were interviewed at the three-month follow-up assessment (response rate: 54.1%). We assessed each participant’s periodontal knowledge score, calculated as a sum of correct answers, and the change in their score following the campaign. We then used a five-item questionnaire to evaluate the participants’ opinion of the success of the campaign. We used descriptive statistics and generalised estimating equations (GEE) analysis to conduct the statistical analysis. Results The mean score for knowledge improvement from baseline to immediate post-intervention evaluation was higher among those who saw the campaign (0.61) than among those who did not (0.29); the corresponding figures from immediate evaluation to three-month follow-up were -0.17 and 0.15, respectively. Adjusting for baseline values, the GEE analysis demonstrated that improvement in the mean score of post-campaign knowledge associated significantly with age, education and seeing the campaign. Significant interaction between the time since seeing the campaign and whether the participant saw it (p periodontal knowledge among adults had a positive short-term impact, although the effect seemed to plateau after three months. PMID:28060959

  12. Carbonyl Sulfide for Tracing Carbon Fluxes Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J. Elliott [Univ. of California, Merced, CA (United States); Berry, Joseph A. [Carnegie Inst. of Science, Stanford, CA (United States); Billesbach, Dave [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Torn, Margaret S [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zahniser, Mark [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Seibt, Ulrike [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Maseyk, Kadmiel [Pierre and Marie Curie Univ., Paris (France)

    2016-04-01

    The April-June 2012 campaign was located at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site Central Facility and had three purposes. One goal was to demonstrate the ability of current instrumentation to correctly measure fluxes of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS). The approach has been describe previously as a critical approach to advancing carbon cycle science1,2, but requires further investigation at the canopy scale to resolve ecosystem processes. Previous canopy-scale efforts were limited to data rates of 1Hz. While 1 Hz measurements may work in a few ecosystems, it is widely accepted that data rates of 10 to 20 Hz are needed to fully capture the exchange of traces gases between the atmosphere and vegetative canopy. A second goal of this campaign was to determine if canopy observations could provide information to help interpret the seasonal double peak in airborne observations at SGP of CO2 and COS mixing ratios. A third goal was to detect potential sources and sinks of COS that must be resolved before using COS as a tracer of gross primary productivity (GPP).

  13. Laser Ceilometer CL51 Demonstration Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Victor [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Winston, Herb A. [Vaisala, Inc., Vantaa (Finland)

    2016-05-01

    Improvements in the measurements of clouds and the ability to support observation systems are critically important to advancing our understanding and improving global climate model performance. The purpose of a demonstration of the Vaisala CL51 ceilometer was to evaluate its high-range capabilities as a possible augmentation to data provided by the CL31 ceilometer that currently is deployed at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility sites. Vaisala performed a no-cost demonstration of the equipment; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supported the data analysis; and ARM provided logistical support, power, maintenance, etc. The laser ceilometer provided measurements of cloud-base height, vertical visibility, and backscatter profile at a vertical range of 15 km. The ceilometer demonstration was conducted during the Characterization of Cirrus and Aerosol Properties campaign (CCAP) to provide coincident observations of cirrus cloud heights and potential backscatter signals by aerosols. This campaign included deployment of a CL51 ceilometer at the ARM Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, co-located with the current CL31, micropulse lidar, and balloon-borne sounding system. Data collected from these sensors were analyzed to compare and contrast the data from the CL51 ceilometer.

  14. Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, Dan A. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States); Sedlacek, Arthur [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Laing, James R. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This campaign was initiated to measure refractory black carbon (rBC, as defined in Schwarz et al. (2010)) at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO) using the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility single-particle soot photometer (SP2; unit 54). MBO is a high-elevation site located on the summit of Mt. Bachelor in central Oregon, USA (43.979°N, 121.687°W, 2,763 meters ASL). This site is operated by Professor Dan Jaffe’s group at the University of Washington Bothell and has been used continuously as an atmospheric observatory for the past 12 years (Jaffe et al., 2005; Gratz et al., 2014). The location of MBO allows frequent sampling of the free troposphere along with a wide array of plumes from regional and distant sources. MBO is currently supported with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the Principal Investigator (PI; D. Jaffe) via the project “Influence of Free Tropospheric Ozone and PM on Surface Air Quality in the Western U.S.” (#1447832) covering the period 03/15/2015 to 02/28/2018. The SP2 instrument from Droplet Measurement Technologies provides particle-resolved measurements of rBC mass loading, size and mass distributions, and mixing state. The SP2 was installed at MBO on 6/27/2016 and ran through 9/23/2016. Additional measurements at MBO during this campaign included carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM1), aerosol light scattering coefficients (σscat) at three wavelengths using a TSI nephelometer, aerosol absorption coefficients (σabs) with the Brechtel tricolor absorption photometer (TAP), aerosol number size distributions with a scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer (SMPS), and black carbon (eBC) with an aethalometer. BC data from this campaign have been submitted to the ARM Data Archive. Black carbon (BC) is the predominant light-absorbing aerosol constituent in the atmosphere, and is estimated to exert a positive radiative forcing second only to CO

  15. An eight month test campaign of the Qinetiq ZephIR system. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindler, D. [Windtest Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog GmbH (Germany); Oldroyd, A. [Oldbaum Services Ltd, Callander (United Kingdom); MacAskill, A. [Talisman Energy Ltd, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Finch, D. [Scottish and Southern Energy Ltd, Perth (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    The Beatrice Windfarm Demonstrator project is a major part of the European Union sponsored DOWNVInD programme (Distant Offshore Wind farms with No Visual Impact iN Demonstrator) that will install two multi megawatt wind turbines (of type REpower 5M) in the Moray Firth Scotland, adjacent to the Beatrice Alpha oil platform, owned and operated by Talisman Energy. As part of the project, a programme has been designed and instigated over the last eight months to thoroughly examine the performance and capabilities of the QinetiQ ZephIR LiDAR system as well as to establish its suitability for being the primary wind data acquisition instrument on the Beatrice project. This paper represents a first look at the results of this programme. (orig.)

  16. Evaluating a campaign GNSS velocity field derived from an online precise point positioning service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, L.; Silcock, D.; Choy, S.; Cas, R.; Ailleres, L.; Fournier, N.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional processing of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data using dedicated scientific software has provided the highest levels of positional accuracy, and has been used extensively in geophysical deformation studies. To achieve these accuracies a significant level of understanding and training is required, limiting their availability to the general scientific community. Various online GNSS processing services, now freely available, address some of these difficulties and allow users to easily process their own GNSS data and potentially obtain high quality results. Previous research into these services has focused on Continually Operating Reference Station (CORS) GNSS data. Less research exists on the results achievable with these services using large campaign GNSS data sets, which are inherently noisier than CORS data. Even less research exists on the quality of velocity fields derived from campaign GNSS data processed through online precise point positioning services. Particularly, whether they are suitable for geodynamic and deformation studies where precise and reliable velocities are needed. In this research, we process a very large campaign GPS data set (spanning 10 yr) with the online Jet Propulsion Laboratory Automated Precise Positioning Service. This data set is taken from a GNSS network specifically designed and surveyed to measure deformation through the central North Island of New Zealand. This includes regional CORS stations. We then use these coordinates to derive a horizontal and vertical velocity field. This is the first time that a large campaign GPS data set has been processed solely using an online service and the solutions used to determine a horizontal and vertical velocity field. We compared this velocity field to that of another well utilized GNSS scientific software package. The results show a good agreement between the CORS positions and campaign station velocities obtained from the two approaches. We discuss the implications

  17. Evaluating a campaign GNSS velocity field derived from an online precise point positioning service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, L.; Silcock, D.; Choy, S.; Cas, R.; Ailleres, L.; Fournier, N.

    2016-10-01

    Traditional processing of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data using dedicated scientific software has provided the highest levels of positional accuracy, and has been used extensively in geophysical deformation studies. To achieve these accuracies a significant level of understanding and training is required, limiting their availability to the general scientific community. Various online GNSS processing services, now freely available, address some of these difficulties and allow users to easily process their own GNSS data and potentially obtain high quality results. Previous research into these services has focused on Continually Operating Reference Station (CORS) GNSS data. Less research exists on the results achievable with these services using large campaign GNSS datasets, which are inherently noisier than CORS data. Even less research exists on the quality of velocity fields derived from campaign GNSS data processed through online PPP services. Particularly, whether they are suitable for geodynamic and deformation studies where precise and reliable velocities are needed. In this research, we process a very large campaign GPS dataset (spanning ten years) with the online Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Automated Precise Positioning Service (APPS) service. This dataset is taken from a GNSS network specifically designed and surveyed to measure deformation through the central North Island of New Zealand (NZ). This includes regional CORS stations. We then use these coordinates to derive a horizontal and vertical velocity field. This is the first time that a large campaign GPS dataset has been processed solely using an online service and the solutions used to determine a horizontal and vertical velocity field. We compared this velocity field to that of another well utilised GNSS scientific software package. The results show a good agreement between the CORS positions and campaign station velocities obtained from the two approaches. We discuss the

  18. Field Evaluation of Real-time Cloud OD Sensor TWST during the DOE ARM TCAP Campaign 2013 Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niple, E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Conant, J. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Jones, S. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Scott, H. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Iannarilli, F. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)

    2016-02-02

    The objective of this internal research and development (IRAD)-funded campaign by Aerodyne Research, Inc. was to demonstrate the field-worthiness and assess the performance of a real-time cloud optical depth (COD) sensor (dubbed three-waveband spectrally-agile technique [TWST]) through a side-by-side comparison with proven, ground-based operational sensors currently deployed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Mobile Facility (AMF) site on the Cape Cod National Seashore for the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). We anticipated direct comparisons with the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET; when in cloud mode) and SAS instruments and expected ancillary data from other sensors such as the Total Sky Imager, the Scanning Cloud Radar, and the Microwave Radiometer to facilitate and validate these comparisons. Because the cloud optical depth retrieval algorithms used by AERONET, solar array spectrometer (SAS), and TWST are totally independent, this deployment provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the field performance of TWST. If the effort proves successful, it may qualify TWST for operational service or additional evaluation effort.

  19. Field Evaluation of Real-time Cloud OD Sensor TWST during the DOE ARM TCAP Campaign 2013 Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niple, N. [Aerodyne Research, Billerica, MA (United States); Conant, J. [Aerodyne Research, Billerica, MA (United States); Jones, S. [Aerodyne Research, Billerica, MA (United States); Scott, H. [Aerodyne Research, Billerica, MA (United States); Lannarilli, F. [Aerodyne Research, Billerica, MA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this internal research and development (IRAD)-funded campaign by Aerodyne Research, Inc. was to demonstrate the field-worthiness and assess the performance of a real-time cloud optical depth (COD) sensor (dubbed three-waveband spectrally-agile technique [TWST]) through a side-by-side comparison with proven, ground-based operational sensors currently deployed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Mobile Facility (AMF) site on the Cape Cod National Seashore for the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). We anticipated direct comparisons with the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET; when in cloud mode) and SAS instruments and expected ancillary data from other sensors such as the Total Sky Imager, the Scanning Cloud Radar, and the Microwave Radiometer to facilitate and validate these comparisons. Because the cloud optical depth retrieval algorithms used by AERONET, solar array spectrometer (SAS), and TWST are totally independent, this deployment provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the field performance of TWST. If the effort proves successful, it may qualify TWST for operational service or additional evaluation effort.

  20. Project Overview: Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS): Proposed Summer 2007 ASP Field Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Berg, Larry K.; Ogren, J. A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard

    2006-05-18

    This white paper presents the scientific motivation and preliminary logistical plans for a proposed ASP field campaign to be carried out in the summer of 2007. The primary objective of this campaign is to use the DOE Gulfstream-1 aircraft to make measurements characterizing the chemical, physical and optical properties of aerosols below, within and above large fields of fair weather cumulus and to use the NASA Langley Research Center’s High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) to make independent measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles in the vicinity of these fields. Separate from the science questions to be addressed by these observations will be information to add in the development of a parameterized cumulus scheme capable of including multiple cloud fields within a regional or global scale model. We will also be able to compare and contrast the cloud and aerosol properties within and outside the Oklahoma City plume to study aerosol processes within individual clouds. Preliminary discussions with the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) science team have identified overlap between the science questions posed for the CLASIC Intensive Operation Period (IOP) and the proposed ASP campaign, suggesting collaboration would benefit both teams.

  1. Pajarito Aerosol Couplings to Ecosystems (PACE) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, M [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Laboratory (LANL) worked on the Pajarito Aerosol Couplings to Ecosystems (PACE) intensive operational period (IOP). PACE’s primary goal was to demonstrate routine Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) field operations and improve instrumental and operational performance. LANL operated the instruments efficiently and effectively with remote guidance by the instrument mentors. This was the first time a complex suite of instruments had been operated under the ARM model and it proved to be a very successful and cost-effective model to build upon.

  2. Interdisciplinary Coordinated Experiment of the Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle (ICESOCC) - A Field Campaign Scoping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, B. G.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate estimates in time and space of organic carbon export to the ocean interior via plankton net community production (NCP) for the global oceans (the biological pump) are essential for understanding the feedback between NCP, atmospheric CO2 and climate. Since integrated, multi-sensor satellite and in situ observations of many ocean variables are required to estimate NCP from space, this is a complex, interdisciplinary challenge. Satellite ocean color sensors are a fundamental component in estimating spatial and temporal variations in NCP. Therefore, NASA's PACE mission (NASA-PACE 2012), a mission included in NASA's Climate Architecture Plan (NASA-CAP, 2010), specifies a need for field programs to improve satellite algorithms and models to reduce uncertainties in estimates of NCP. Diverse data from sediment and glacial cores, and climate models, indicate that the Southern Ocean plays a large role in the glacial-interglacial variations in the biological pump, with considerable implications for variations in atmospheric CO2. The "Interdisciplinary Coordinated Experiment of the Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle (ICESOCC)" project is a NASA-funded field campaign scoping (planning) effort. Over 18 months and many public meetings and workshops, the ICESOCC team of 13 interdisciplinary scientists has integrated the input from scientific experts in ocean, atmosphere, ice physics, biogeochemistry, advanced observational tools (ship, autonomous, atmospheric gases and dust, cryosphere dynamics, winds), and models, to create a draft recommendation to NASA for field observations required to constrain uncertainty of NCP for the Southern Ocean. The ICESOCC team requests and encourages careful review and comments of the draft to ensure the most robust final recommendations are submitted in early 2016 for NASA consideration.

  3. Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds Psychrometer Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, R Michael [Remote Measurements & Research Company, Seattle, WA (United States); Lewis, Ernie [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-09-01

    One of the most critical measurements in the suite of meteorological measurements used for the calculation of evaporation and latent heat flux is the relative humidity (RH). In order to achieve an overall net flux uncertainty < 10 W/m2 (Bradley and Fairall, 2006), the RH must be accurate to < 2 %RH. Anyone experienced in shipboard meteorological measurements will recognize that this is a tough specification. During the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Marine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud System Study (GCSS) Pacific Cross-Section Intercomparison (GPCI) Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) experiment, the meteorological package used three different RH sensors. We found approximately 3-4 % differences between units. To arbitrate the differences and to track calibration drift over the months of exposure, we used a precision psychrometer. The Assmann Psychrometer, Model 430101 is a classic, mercury-in-glass instrument that gives a precise measure of the wet and dry bulb temperatures from which atmospheric humidity and RH are computed. On a regular basis, typically after each balloon launch, a technician took the psychrometer to an exposed location on the bridge roof. That was just below the instruments on the mast and high enough into the mixed layer that the difference is negligible.

  4. Report of third LASFLEUR field campaign for remote sensing of vegetation health: ENEA contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbini, R.; Colao, F.; Fantoni, R.; Palucci, A.; Ribezzo, S. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia - Area Energia e Innovazione

    1994-11-01

    The third european joint field campaign for remote sensing of vegetation health has been held in Avignon F (September 6th to 17th, 1993) in the frame of the EUREKA/LASFLEUR Project. The Italian group from ENEA (Italian Agency forn New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) participated to this campaign together with Germany, French and Swedish groups from different institutes. On the occasion of this campaign, the lidar fluorosensor system built at ENEA Frascati for remote sensing of water and territory has been improved with the addition of a new short pulse laser source more suitable to time resolved measurements. The new version of the set-up is presented here, together with the measurements performed on the available targets (different trees, maize and sorghum cultivations). Data analysis is discussed in detail, attempting to correlate the fluorescence measurements with the plant photosynthetic activity under different weather and (chemical- or water-) stress conditions.

  5. Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Larry K [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This study included the deployment of the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Mobile Facility (AMF), ARM Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The study was a collaborative effort involving scientists from DOE national laboratories, NOAA, NASA, and universities. The AAF and MAOS were deployed for two approximately month-long Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) conducted in June 2012 and February 2013. Seasonal differences in the aerosol chemical and optical properties observed using the AMF, AAF, and MAOS are presented in this report. The total mass loading of aerosol is found to be much greater in the summer than in the winter, with the difference associated with greater amounts of organic aerosol. The mass fraction of organic aerosol is much reduced in the winter, when sulfate is the dominant aerosol type. Surprisingly, very little sea-salt aerosol was observed in the summer. In contrast, much more sea salt aerosol was observed in the winter. The mass loading of black carbon is nearly the same in both seasons. These differences lead to a relative increase in the aerosol light absorption in the winter and an associated decrease in observed single-scattering albedo. Measurements of aerosol mixing state were made using a single-particle mass spectrometer, which showed that the majority of the summertime aerosol consisted of organic compounds mixed with various amounts of sulfate. A number of other findings are also summarized in the report, including: impact of aerosol layers aloft on the column aerosol optical depth; documentation of the aerosol properties at the AMF; differences in the aerosol properties associated with both columns, which are not systematic but reflect the complicated meteorological and chemical processes that impact aerosol as it is advected away from North America; and new instruments and data-processing techniques for measuring both aerosol and

  6. Report of second LASFLEUR field campaign for remote sensing of vegetation health: ENEA contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbini, R.; Colao, F.; Fantoni, R.; Palucci, A.; Ribezzo, S. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipt. Sviluppo Tecnologie di Punta

    1993-09-15

    The second European joint field campaign for the remote sensing of vegetation health was held in Oberpfaffenhofen (D) (30 Jun-9 Jul 1992) within the framework of the EUREKA/LASFLEUR Project. Italian groups, from ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment), CNR (Italian National Research Council) and Viterbo University participated in this campaign together with German, French and Swedish groups from different institutes. On the occasion of this campaign, the lidar (light detection and ranging) fluorosensor system built at ENEA Frascati for the remote sensing of water and territory was improved, on the basis of the former field experience on plant fluorescence remote detection gained during the first LASFLEUR campaign held in Viterbo, and carried out on-site by means of a movable container. The new version of the set-up is presented here, together with the measurements performed on the available targets (spruce, maple, elm and cornel trees, and mais plants). Data analysis is discussed in detail, attempting to correlate the present spectral domain measurements with the plant photosynthetic activity under different weather and (nutrition or water) stress conditions. Several correlations were found between different pigment concentrations in various vegetables and spectrally resolved remote sensed data on the same species. It was demonstrated that the measurements, when performed from an airborne platform, would allow for a remote vegetation recognition across large areas (monitoring cultivations or forests). Part of the campaign was dedicated to the inter-calibration of different lidar systems operating in the spectrally resolved mode: this point is discussed here as well. Some conclusions drawn at the end of the LASFLEUR project Phase 1 are presented at the end of this report, as discussed during the last Project Workshop held in Florence from October 22nd to 26th, 1992.

  7. KEGS Transients Discovered by a Pan-STARRS1 Search of the Kepler Campaign 15 Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. W.; Rest, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Garnavich, P.; Shaya, E.; Kasen, D.; Villar, A.; Forster, F.; Mushotzky, R.; Zenteno, A.; James, D.; Smith, R. Chris; Smartt, S. J.; Wright, D.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Schultz, A.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Bulger, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.

    2017-08-01

    We report the following transient discovered by Pan-STARRS1 during a targeted search of the Kepler Campaign 15 field as part of the K2 Extragalactic Survey (KEGS) for Transients (see http://www.mso.anu.edu.au/kegs/) Information on the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  8. Botswana water and surface energy balance research program. Part 1: Integrated approach and field campaign results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Vugts, H. F.; Ramothwa, G. K.

    1992-01-01

    The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. Results of the first part of the program (Botswana 1) which ran from 1 Jan. 1988 - 31 Dec. 1990 are summarized. Botswana 1 consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components in general are described and activities performed during the surface energy modeling component including the extensive field campaign are summarized. The results of the passive microwave component are summarized. The key of the field campaign was a multilevel approach, whereby measurements by various similar sensors were made at several altitudes and resolution. Data collection was performed at two adjacent sites of contrasting surface character. The following measurements were made: micrometeorological measurements, surface temperatures, soil temperatures, soil moisture, vegetation (leaf area index and biomass), satellite data, aircraft data, atmospheric soundings, stomatal resistance, and surface emissivity.

  9. Air Quality and Meteorological Boundary Conditions during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, G.; Arriaga, J.; Vega, E.; Magaña, V.; Caetano, E.; de Foy, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Ramos, R.; Retama, A.; Zaragoza, J.; Martínez, A. P.; Márquez, C.; Cárdenas, B.; Lamb, B.; Velasco, E.; Allwine, E.; Pressley, S.; Westberg, H.; Reyes, R.

    2004-12-01

    A comprehensive field campaign to characterize photochemical smog in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) was conducted during April 2003. An important number of equipment was deployed all around the urban core and its surroundings to measure gas and particles composition from the various sources and receptor sites. In addition to air quality measurements, meteorology variables were also taken by regular weather meteorological stations, tethered balloons, radiosondes, sodars and lidars. One important issue with regard to the field campaign was the characterization of the boundary conditions in order to feed meteorological and air quality models. Four boundary sites were selected to measure continuously criteria pollutants, VOC and meteorological variables at surface level. Vertical meteorological profiles were measured at three other sites : radiosondes in Tacubaya site were launched every six hours daily; tethered balloons were launched at CENICA and FES-Cuautitlan sites according to the weather conditions, and one sodar was deployed at UNAM site in the south of the city. Additionally to these measurements, two fixed meteorological monitoring networks deployed along the city were available to complement these measurements. In general, we observed that transport of pollutants from the city to the boundary sites changes every day, according to the coupling between synoptic and local winds. This effect were less important at elevated sites such as Cerro de la Catedral and ININ, where synoptic wind were more dominant during the field campaign. Also, local sources nearby boundary sites hide the influence of pollution coming from the city some days, particularly at the La Reforma site.

  10. Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment Counter-Flow Spectrometer and Impactor Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellot, Michael [University of North Dakota

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Aerial Facility (ARM AAF) counter-flow spectrometer and impactor (CSI) probe was flown on the University of North Dakota Cessna Citation research aircraft during the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEX). The field campaign took place during May and June of 2014 over North Carolina and its coastal waters as part of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement validation campaign. The CSI was added to the Citation instrument suite to support the involvement of Jay Mace through the NASA Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite program and flights of the NASA ER-2 aircraft, which is a civilian version of the Air Force’s U2-S reconnaissance platform. The ACE program funded extra ER-2 flights to focus on clouds that are weakly precipitating, which are also of interest to the Atmospheric System Research program sponsored by DOE.

  11. Development of Waypoint Planning Tool in Response to NASA Field Campaign Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Matt; Hardin, Danny; Mayer, Paul; Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Airborne real time observations are a major component of NASA 's Earth Science research and satellite ground validation studies. Multiple aircraft are involved in most NASA field campaigns. The coordination of the aircraft with satellite overpasses, other airplanes and the constantly evolving, dynamic weather conditions often determines the success of the campaign. Planning a research aircraft mission within the context of meeting the science objectives is a complex task because it requires real time situational awareness of the weather conditions that affect the aircraft track. A flight planning tools is needed to provide situational awareness information to the mission scientists, and help them plan and modify the flight tracks. Scientists at the University of Alabama ]Huntsville and the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center developed the Waypoint Planning Tool, an interactive software tool that enables scientists to develop their own flight plans (also known as waypoints) with point -and-click mouse capabilities on a digital map filled with real time raster and vector data. The development of this Waypoint Planning Tool demonstrates the significance of mission support in responding to the challenges presented during NASA field campaigns. Analysis during and after each campaign helped identify both issues and new requirements, and initiated the next wave of development. Currently the Waypoint Planning Tool has gone through three rounds of development and analysis processes. The development of this waypoint tool is directly affected by the technology advances on GIS/Mapping technologies. From the standalone Google Earth application and simple KML functionalities, to Google Earth Plugin on web platform, and to the rising open source GIS tools with New Java Script frameworks, the Waypoint Planning Tool has entered its third phase of technology advancement. Adapting new technologies for the Waypoint Planning Tool ensures its success in helping scientist reach their

  12. Preliminary Electric Field Results From A Multiple Balloon Campaign to Study Relativistic Electron Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E. A.; Kokorowski, M.; Holzworth, R. H.; Sample, J. G.; McCarthy, M. P.; Smith, D. M.; Parks, G. K.; Millan, R. M.; Woodger, L.; Reddell, B. D.; Lay, E.; Bale, S. D.; Pulupa, M.; O'Brien, T. P.; Blake, J. B.; Lin, R. P.; Moraal, H.; Stoker, P.; Hughes, A. R.; Collier, A. B.

    2005-05-01

    The MINIS balloon campaign was successfully conducted in January 2005 to investigate relativistic electron loss mechanisms. Quantifying and understanding losses is an integral part of understanding the variability of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts. Balloon-based experiments directly measure precipitation and thus provide a method for quantifying losses, while the nearly stationary platform allows for the separation of temporal and spatial variations. A new class of precipitation event, characterized by extremely hard spectra, short durations, and complex temporal structure, occurring in the evening to midnight sector, was discovered by the INTERBOA balloon in 1996 and studied further by the MAXIS balloon in 2000. The MINIS campaign provided the first opportunities for multi-point measurements of electron precipitation up to MeV energies, including simultaneous measurements at different longitudes and at near-conjugate locations. Two balloons, each carrying an X-ray spectrometer for measuring the bremsstrahlung produced as electrons precipitate into the atmosphere, were launched from Churchill, Manitoba at 0850 UT on 21 January 2005 and 0140 UT on 25 January 2005. Four balloons, each carrying an X-ray spectrometer, a Z-axis search coil magnetometer, and a 3-axis electric field instrument providing DC electric field and VLF measurements in 3 frequency bands, were launched from the South African Antarctic Station (SANAE IV). The Southern launches took place at 1400 UT on 17 January, 1309 UT on 19 January, 2115 UT on 20 January, and 0950 UT on 24 January 2005. In this paper, we present the preliminary results from the MINIS South electric field instrumentation. We have good DC and VLF electric field data from all payloads, and the payload rotation mechanism worked in all four as well. The campaign began with two large solar flares. In the post-flare environment, some very magnetospherically active periods are included in our data, with strong and

  13. Ocean tides in GRACE monthly averaged gravity fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per

    2003-01-01

    aims at. In this analysis the results of Knudsen and Andersen (2002) have been verified using actual post-launch orbit parameter of the GRACE mission. The current ocean tide models are not accurate enough to correct GRACE data at harmonic degrees lower than 47. The accumulated tidal errors may affect......The GRACE mission will map the Earth's gravity fields and its variations with unprecedented accuracy during its 5-year lifetime. Unless ocean tide signals and their load upon the solid earth are removed from the GRACE data, their long period aliases obscure more subtle climate signals which GRACE...... the GRACE data up to harmonic degree 60. A study of the revised alias frequencies confirm that the ocean tide errors will not cancel in the GRACE monthly averaged temporal gravity fields. The S-2 and the K-2 terms have alias frequencies much longer than 30 days, so they remain almost unreduced...

  14. Validation of the EGSIEM combined monthly GRACE gravity fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao; van Dam, Tonie; Chen, Qiang; Weigelt, Matthias; Güntner, Andreas; Jäggi, Adrian; Meyer, Ulrich; Jean, Yoomin; Altamimi, Zuheir; Rebischung, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Observations indicate that global warming is affecting the water cycle. Here in Europe predictions are for more frequent high precipitation events, wetter winters, and longer and dryer summers. The consequences of these changes include the decreasing availability of fresh water resources in some regions as well as flooding and erosion of coastal and low-lying areas in other regions. These weather related effects impose heavy costs on society and the economy. We cannot stop the immediate effects global warming on the water cycle. But there may be measures that we can take to mitigate the costs to society. The Horizon2020 supported project, European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM), will add value to EO observations of variations in the Earth's gravity field. In particular, the EGSIEM project will interpret the observations of gravity field changes in terms of changes in continental water storage. The project team will develop tools to alert the public water storage conditions could indicate the onset of regional flooding or drought. As part of the EGSIEM project, a combined GRACE gravity product is generated, using various monthly GRACE solutions from associated processing centers (ACs). Since each AC follows a set of common processing standards but applies its own independent analysis method, the quality, robustness, and reliability of the monthly combined gravity fields should be significantly improved as compared to any individual solution. In this study, we present detailed and updated comparisons of the combined EGSIEM GRACE gravity product with GPS position time series, hydrological models, and existing GRACE gravity fields. The GPS residuals are latest REPRO2 station position residuals, obtained by rigorously stacking the IGS Repro 2 , daily solutions, estimating, and then restoring the annual and semi-annual signals.

  15. Development of Way Point Planning Tool in Response to NASA Field Campaign Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Conover, H.; Graves, S. J.; Meyer, P.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Airborne real time observations are a major component of NASA's Earth Science research and satellite ground validation studies. For mission scientists, planning a research aircraft mission within the context of meeting the science objectives is a complex task because it requires real time situational awareness of the weather conditions that affect the aircraft track. Multiple aircrafts are often involved in NASA field campaigns. The coordination of the aircrafts with satellite overpasses, other airplanes and the constantly evolving, dynamic weather conditions often determines the success of the campaign. A flight planning tool is needed to provide situational awareness information to the mission scientists, and help them plan and modify the flight tracks. Scientists at the University of Alabama-Huntsville and the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center developed the Waypoint Planning Tool, an interactive software tool that enables scientists to develop their own flight plans (also known as waypoints) with point-and-click mouse capabilities on a digital map filled with real time raster and vector data. The development of this Waypoint Planning Tool demonstrates the significance of mission support in responding to the challenges presented during NASA field campaigns. Analysis during and after each campaign helped identify both issues and new requirements, and initiated the next wave of development. Currently the Waypoint Planning Tool has gone through three rounds of development and analysis processes. The development of this waypoint tool is directly affected by the technology advances on GIS/Mapping technologies. From the standalone Google Earth application and simple KML functionalities, to Google Earth Plugin and Java Web Start/Applet on web platform, and to the rising open source GIS tools with new JavaScript frameworks, the Waypoint Planning Tool has entered its third phase of technology advancement. The newly innovated, cross-platform, modular designed Java

  16. ECInvestigation of NO2 Pollutions on Board of Research Aircraft (Some Results of QUANTIFY and POLARCAT Field Campaigns)

    OpenAIRE

    Sitnikov, N.; Sitnikova, V.; Ulanovskiy, A.; Lukyanov, A.; H. Schlager; Roiger, A.; Scheiber, M.; M. Lichtenstern; Stock, P.; F. Ravegnani

    2010-01-01

    The results of investigation of NO2 pollutions on board of research aircraft Falcon (DLR, Germany) are presented. The measurements have been carried out by chemiluminescent nitrogen dioxide analyzer developed in Central Aerological Observatory (Russia). The data of NO2 distribution have been obtained during QUANTIFY (West Europe, July 2007) and POLARCAT (Greenland, July 2008) field campaigns. NO2 measurements over Greenland during POLARCAT field campaign have been carried out using ACCENT sup...

  17. Electric field measurements in a NLC/PMSE region during the MASS/ECOMA campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shimogawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We present results of electric field measurements made during the MASS rocket campaign in Andøya, Norway into noctilucent clouds (NLC and polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE on 3 August 2007. The instrument used high input-impedance preamps to measure vertical and horizontal electric fields. No large-amplitude geophysical electric fields were detected in the cloud layers, but significant levels of electric field fluctuations were measured. Within the cloud layer, the probe potentials relative to the rocket skin were driven negative by incident heavy charged aerosols. The amplitude of spikes caused by probe shadowing were also larger in the NLC/PMSE region. We describe a method for calculating positive ion conductivities using these shadowing spike amplitudes and the density of heavy charged aerosols.

  18. Automated decision algorithm applied to a field experiment with multiple research objectives: The DC3 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Christopher J.; Small, Arthur A.; Bose, Satyajit; Young, George S.; Verlinde, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Automated decision systems have shown the potential to increase data yields from field experiments in atmospheric science. The present paper describes the construction and performance of a flight decision system designed for a case in which investigators pursued multiple, potentially competing objectives. The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) campaign in 2012 sought in situ airborne measurements of isolated deep convection in three study regions: northeast Colorado, north Alabama, and a larger region extending from central Oklahoma through northwest Texas. As they confronted daily flight launch decisions, campaign investigators sought to achieve two mission objectives that stood in potential tension to each other: to maximize the total amount of data collected while also collecting approximately equal amounts of data from each of the three study regions. Creating an automated decision system involved understanding how investigators would themselves negotiate the trade-offs between these potentially competing goals, and representing those preferences formally using a utility function that served to rank-order the perceived value of alternative data portfolios. The decision system incorporated a custom-built method for generating probabilistic forecasts of isolated deep convection and estimated climatologies calibrated to historical observations. Monte Carlo simulations of alternative future conditions were used to generate flight decision recommendations dynamically consistent with the expected future progress of the campaign. Results show that a strict adherence to the recommendations generated by the automated system would have boosted the data yield of the campaign by between 10 and 57%, depending on the metrics used to score success, while improving portfolio balance.

  19. Classification of hemispheric monthly mean stratospheric potential vorticity fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Huth

    Full Text Available Monthly mean NCEP reanalysis potential vorticity fields at the 650 K isentropic level over the Northern and Southern Hemispheres between 1979 and 1997 were studied using multivariate analysis tools. Principal component analysis in the T-mode was applied to demonstrate the validity of such statistical techniques for the study of stratospheric dynamics and climatology. The method, complementarily applied to both the raw and anomaly fields, was useful in determining and classifying the characteristics of winter and summer PV fields on both hemispheres, in particular, the well-known differences in the behaviour and persistence of the polar vortices. It was possible to identify such features as sudden warming events in the Northern Hemisphere and final warming dates in both hemispheres. The stratospheric impact of other atmospheric processes, such as volcanic eruptions, also identified though the results, must be viewed at this stage as tentative. An interesting change in behaviour around 1990 was detected over both hemispheres.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; general circulation; climatology

  20. Validating NU-WRF simulations during GPM field campaigns for various precipitation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Tao, W.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Iguchi, T.

    2013-12-01

    Several recent Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Ground Validation (GV) field campaigns have provided excellent measurements for model validations, such as Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx), and Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS). Two series of real-time forecasts have been conducted during MC3E and IFloodS field campaigns using NASA Unified WRF (NU-WRF). These NU-WRF performances were evaluated through the investigation of a various precipitation systems under different weather regimes. Four cases are selected from MC3E (late spring) and IFloodS (late spring into early summer), covering strong convective vs. widespread stratiform systems for post mission study. And two cases are selected from GCPEx (winter) covering lake effect vs. synoptic snow events. Each simulated case will be validated rigorously against available observational datasets with an emphasis on microphysics, such as simulated radar reflectivity, particle size distribution, and ice water content. The study also features inter-comparisons among different microphysics schemes for MC3E cases, such as Goddard 4-ice, spectral-bin, and Morrison schemes, in order to understand how microphysics impact on storm evolution and structures. In addition, we will examine whether (and why) these model-observation differences are case dependent or systematically biased in model physics. The above effort will be beneficial for algorithm development and model improvement.

  1. X-band radar field campaign data analysis for orographic/warm-rain precipitation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcacchia, Leonardo; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Anagnostou, Marios N.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Bousquet, Olivier; Cheong, Boon-Leng; Maggioni, Viviana; Hong, Yang

    2016-04-01

    Accurate quantitative precipitation estimation over mountainous basins is of great importance because of their susceptibility to hazards such as flash floods, shallow landslides, and debris flows. It is usually hard to obtain reliable weather radar information in mountainous areas, due to difficulties connected to non-meteorological scattering and the elevation of the study sites. Such regions are particularly interested by orographic/warm-rain precipitation processes, characterized by no ice phase in the cloud and prevailing concentration of small drops in the drop size distribution. Field campaigns are able to provide complete and solid datasets in mountainous regions, thanks to mobile radars and the complementary information provided by rain gauges and disdrometers. This study analyzes datasets collected during the Hymex, IPHEX, and Colorado field campaigns in mountainous areas in Italy, France, North Carolina, and Colorado. Mobile X-band radars from the NOAA National Severe Storm Laboratory and the Advanced Radar Research Center at the University of Oklahoma are utilized. The X-band dual polarimetric radar data are corrected for attenuation through the SCOP algorithm, and evaluated against disdrometer and rain-gauge data. Warm-rain events are identified by looking at the Gorgucci, Cao-Zhang, and Kumjian-Ryzhkov parameter spaces relating polarimetric radar variables to precipitation development processes in the cloud and rain size distributions. A conceptual model for the vertical profile of precipitation and microphysical structure of the cloud is also derived, to be contrasted against other typical convective and stratiform profiles.

  2. IASI spectral radiance validation inter-comparisons: case study assessment from the JAIVEx field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Larar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced satellite sensors are tasked with improving global-scale measurements of the Earth's atmosphere, clouds, and surface to enable enhancements in weather prediction, climate monitoring, and environmental change detection. Measurement system validation is crucial to achieving this goal and maximizing research and operational utility of resultant data. Field campaigns employing satellite under-flights with well-calibrated Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS sensors aboard high-altitude aircraft are an essential part of this validation task. The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I has been a fundamental contributor in this area by providing coincident high spectral and spatial resolution observations of infrared spectral radiances along with independently-retrieved geophysical products for comparison with like products from satellite sensors being validated. This manuscript focuses on validating infrared spectral radiance from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI through a case study analysis using data obtained during the recent Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx field campaign. Emphasis is placed upon the benefits achievable from employing airborne interferometers such as the NAST-I since, in addition to IASI radiance calibration performance assessments, cross-validation with other advanced sounders such as the AQUA Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS is enabled.

  3. Source Attributions of Pollution to the Western Arctic During the NASA ARCTAS Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, H.; Colarco, P. R.; Chin, M.; Chen, G.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Liang, Q.; Blake, D.; Chu, D. A.; daSilva, A.; Darmenov, A. S.; Diskin. G.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Huey, G.; Kondo, Y.; Nielsen, J. E.; Pan, X.; Wisthaler, A.

    2013-01-01

    We use the NASA GEOS-5 transport model with tagged tracers to investigate the contributions of different regional sources of CO and black carbon (BC) to their concentrations in the Western Arctic (i.e., 50-90 deg N and 190- 320 deg E) in spring and summer 2008. The model is evaluated by comparing the results with airborne measurements of CO and BC from the NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) field campaigns to demonstrate the strengths and limitations of our simulations. We also examine the reliability of tagged CO tracers in characterizing air mass origins using the measured fossil fuel tracer of dichloromethane and the biomass burning tracer of acetonitrile. Our tagged CO simulations suggest that most of the enhanced CO concentrations (above background level from CH4 production) observed during April originate from Asian anthropogenic emissions. Boreal biomass burning emissions and Asian anthropogenic emissions are of similar importance in July domain wise, although the biomass burning CO fraction is much larger in the area of the ARCTAS field experiments. The fraction of CO from Asian anthropogenic emissions is larger in spring than in summer. European sources make up no more than 10% of CO levels in the campaign domain during either period. Comparisons of CO concentrations along the flight tracks with regional averages from GEOS-5 show that the alongtrack measurements are representative of the concentrations within the large domain of the Western Arctic in April but not in July.

  4. Global chemical weather forecasts for field campaign planning: predictions and observations of large-scale features during MINOS, CONTRACE, and INDOEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Lawrence

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The first global tropospheric forecasts of O3 and its precursors have been used in the daily flight planning of field measurement campaigns. The 3-D chemistry-transport model MATCH-MPIC is driven by meteorological data from a weather center (NCEP to produce daily 3-day forecasts of the global distributions of O3 and related gases, as well as regional CO tracers. This paper describes the forecast system and its use in three field campaigns, MINOS, CONTRACE and INDOEX. An overview is given of the forecasts by MATCH-MPIC and by three other chemical weather forecast models (EURAD, ECHAM, and FLEXPART, focusing on O3 and CO. Total CO and regional CO tracers were found to be the most valuable gases for flight planning, due to their relatively well-defined anthropogenic source regions and lifetimes of one to a few months. CO was in good agreement with the observations on nearly all the flights (generally  r > 0.7, RMS  < 20%. In every case in which the chemical weather forecasts were primarily responsible for the flight plans, the targeted features were observed. Two forecasted phenomena are discussed in detail: outflow from Asia observed in the Mediterranean upper troposphere during MINOS, and outflow from North America observed in the middle troposphere over northern Europe during CONTRACE. It is shown that although such pollution plumes occur repeatedly during the months around the campaigns, their frequency is sufficiently low (~10--30% of the time that global chemical weather forecasts are important for enabling them to be observed during limited-duration field campaigns. The MATCH-MPIC chemical weather forecasts, including an interface for making customized figures from the output, are available for community use via  http://www.mpch-mainz.mpg.de/~lawrence/forecasts.html .

  5. Atmospheric polarimetric effects on GNSS radio occultations: the ROHP-PAZ field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padullés, R.; Cardellach, E.; de la Torre Juárez, M.; Tomás, S.; Turk, F. J.; Oliveras, S.; Ao, C. O.; Rius, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the first experimental observations showing that hydrometeors induce polarimetric signatures in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals. This evidence is relevant to the PAZ low Earth orbiter, which will test the concept and applications of polarimetric GNSS radio occultation (RO) (i.e. ROs obtained with a dual-polarization antenna). A ground field campaign was carried out in preparation for PAZ to verify the theoretical sensitivity studies on this concept (Cardellach et al., 2015). The main aim of the campaign is to identify and understand the factors that might affect the polarimetric GNSS observables. Studied for the first time, GNSS signals measured with two polarimetric antennas (H, horizontal, and V, vertical) are shown to discriminate between heavy rain events by comparing the measured phase difference between the H and V phase delays (ΔΦ) in different weather scenarios. The measured phase difference indicates higher dispersion under rain conditions. When individual events are examined, significant increases in ΔΦ occur when the radio signals cross rain cells. Moreover, the amplitude of such a signal is much higher than the theoretical prediction for precipitation; thus, other sources of polarimetric signatures have been explored and identified. Modelling of other hydrometeors, such as melting particles and ice crystals, have been proposed to explain the obtained measurements, with good agreement in more than 90 % of the cases.

  6. Analysis of Doppler Lidar Data Acquired During the Pentagon Shield Field Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom, Rob K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2011-04-14

    Observations from two coherent Doppler lidars deployed during the Pentagon Shield field campaign are analyzed in conjunction with other sensors to characterize the overall boundary-layer structure, and identify the dominant flow characteristics during the entire two-week field campaign. Convective boundary layer (CBL) heights and cloud base heights (CBH) are estimated from an analysis of the lidar signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), and mean wind profiles are computed using a modified velocity-azimuth-display (VAD) algorithm. Three-dimensional wind field retrievals are computed from coordinated overlapping volume scans, and the results are analyzed by visualizing the flow in horizontal and vertical cross sections. The VAD winds show that southerly flows dominate during the two-week field campaign. Low-level jets (LLJ) were evident on all but two of the nights during the field campaign. The LLJs tended to form a couple hours after sunset and reach maximum strength between 03 and 07 UTC. The surface friction velocities show distinct local maxima during four nights when strong LLJs formed. Estimates of the convective boundary layer height and residual layer height are obtained through an analysis of the vertical gradient of the lidar signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). Strong minimum in the SNR gradient often develops just above the surface after sunrise. This minimum is associated with the developing CBL, and increases rapidly during the early portion of the daytime period. On several days, this minimum continues to increase until about sunset. Secondary minima in the SNR gradient were also observed at higher altitudes, and are believed to be remnants of the CBL height from previous days, i.e. the residual layer height. The dual-Doppler analysis technique used in this study makes use of hourly averaged radial velocity data to produce three-dimensional grids of the horizontal velocity components, and the horizontal velocity variance. Visualization of horizontal and vertical cross

  7. Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) 2007 Field Campaign Objectives and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmo, Joseph; Romig, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Desert "RATS" (Research and Technology Studies) is a combined, multi-discipline group of inter-NASA center scientists and engineers, net-working and collaborating with representatives of industry and academia, for the purpose of conducting planetary surface exploration-focused remote field exercises. These integrated testing exercises conducted under representative analog Lunar and Mars surface terrain conditions, provide NASA the capability to validate experimental prototype hardware and software systems as well as to evaluate and develop mission operational techniques in order to identify and establish technical requirements and identify potential technology "gaps" applicable for future planetary human exploration. The 2007 D-RATS field campaign test activities were initiated based on the major themes and objectives of a notional 5-year plan developed for conducting relative analog test activities in support of the engineering evaluation and assessment of various system architectural requirements, conceptual prototype support equipment and selected technologies necessary for the establishment of a lunar outpost. Specifically, the major objectives included measuring task efficiency during robot, human, and human-robot interactive tasks associated with lunar outpost site surveying and reconnaissance activities and deployment of a representative solar panel power and distribution system. In addition, technology demonstrations were conducted with a new Lithium-ion battery and autonomous software to coordinate multiple robot activities. Secondary objectives were evaluating airlock concept mockups and prototype removable space suit over-garment elements for dust mitigation, and upgrades to the prototype extravehicular activities (EVA) communication and information system. Dry run test activities, prior to testing at a designated remote field site location, were initially conducted at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Remote Field Demonstration Test Site. This is a multi

  8. Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) 2007 Field Campaign Objectives and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmo, Joseph; Romig, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Desert "RATS" (Research and Technology Studies) is a combined, multi-discipline group of inter-NASA center scientists and engineers, net-working and collaborating with representatives of industry and academia, for the purpose of conducting planetary surface exploration-focused remote field exercises. These integrated testing exercises conducted under representative analog Lunar and Mars surface terrain conditions, provide NASA the capability to validate experimental prototype hardware and software systems as well as to evaluate and develop mission operational techniques in order to identify and establish technical requirements and identify potential technology "gaps" applicable for future planetary human exploration. The 2007 D-RATS field campaign test activities were initiated based on the major themes and objectives of a notional 5-year plan developed for conducting relative analog test activities in support of the engineering evaluation and assessment of various system architectural requirements, conceptual prototype support equipment and selected technologies necessary for the establishment of a lunar outpost. Specifically, the major objectives included measuring task efficiency during robot, human, and human-robot interactive tasks associated with lunar outpost site surveying and reconnaissance activities and deployment of a representative solar panel power and distribution system. In addition, technology demonstrations were conducted with a new Lithium-ion battery and autonomous software to coordinate multiple robot activities. Secondary objectives were evaluating airlock concept mockups and prototype removable space suit over-garment elements for dust mitigation, and upgrades to the prototype extravehicular activities (EVA) communication and information system. Dry run test activities, prior to testing at a designated remote field site location, were initially conducted at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Remote Field Demonstration Test Site. This is a multi

  9. Increasing the dose of television advertising in a national antismoking media campaign: results from a randomised field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Tim; Davis, Kevin C; Shafer, Paul; Patel, Deesha; Alexander, Robert; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    While antismoking media campaigns have demonstrated effectiveness, less is known about the country-level effects of increased media dosing. The 2012 US Tips From Former Smokers (Tips) campaign generated approximately 1.6 million quit attempts overall; however, the specific dose-response from the campaign was only assessed by self-report. Assess the impact of higher ad exposure during the 2013 Tips campaign on quit-related behaviours and intentions, campaign awareness, communication about campaign, and disease knowledge. A 3-month national media buy was supplemented within 67 (of 190) randomly selected local media markets. Higher-dose markets received media buys 3 times that of standard-dose markets. We compared outcomes of interest using data collected via web-based surveys from nationally representative, address-based probability samples of 5733 cigarette smokers and 2843 non-smokers. In higher-dose markets, 87.2% of smokers and 83.9% of non-smokers recalled television campaign exposure versus 75.0% of smokers and 73.9% of non-smokers in standard-dose markets. Among smokers overall, the relative quit attempt rate was 11% higher in higher-dose markets (38.8% vs 34.9%; pmarkets without a mental health condition, with a chronic health condition, or with only some college education made quit attempts at a higher rate than those in standard-dose markets. Non-smokers in higher-dose markets were more likely to talk with family or friends about smoking dangers (43.1% vs 35.7%; pmedia campaign compared standard and higher doses by randomisation of local media markets. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of a higher dose for engaging non-smokers and further increasing quit attempts among smokers, especially African-Americans. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. A general measles vaccination campaign in urban Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, S.; Thysen, Sanne Marie; Rodrigues, A

    2017-01-01

    Background Measles vaccination campaigns targeting children aged 9–59 months are conducted every three years in Guinea-Bissau. Studies have demonstrated beneficial non-specific effects of measles vaccine. We compared mortality one year after the December 2012 measles vaccination campaign in Bissau...... city for children who received campaign measles vaccine with children who did not receive campaign measles vaccine. Methods Field workers from Bandim Health Project registered all children living in the Bandim Health Project's study area who received measles vaccination at the campaign posts. Children...... not seen during the campaign were visited at home and campaign participation status was assessed. We compared mortality rates of participants vs. non-participants in Cox regression models. Results 5633 children aged 9–59 months (85%) received campaign measles vaccination and 1006 (15%) did not. During...

  11. Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buchard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur dioxide (SO2 is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5 model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  12. Evaluation of GEOS-5 Sulfur Dioxide Simulations During the Frostburg, MD 2010 Field Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchard, V.; Da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spenei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  13. DACCIWA Cloud-Aerosol Observations in West Africa Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, J Christine [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Blanchard, Yann [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Hill, Peter [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Gregory, Laurie [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wagener, Richard [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Interactions between aerosols and clouds, and their effects on radiation, precipitation, and regional circulations, are one of the largest uncertainties in understanding climate. With reducing uncertainties in predictions of weather, climate, and climate impacts in mind, the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project, funded by the European Commission, set out to improve our understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions in southern West Africa. This region is ideal for studying cloud-aerosol interactions because of its rich mix of natural and anthropogenic aerosols and diverse clouds, and because of the strong dependence on the regional and global climate of the sensitive West African monsoon. The overview of DACCIWA is described in Knippertz et al. 2015. The interdisciplinary DACCIWA team includes not only several European and African universities, but also Met Centres in the UK, France, Germany, Switzerland, Benin, Ghana, and Nigeria. One of the crucial research activities in DACCIWA is the major field campaign in southern West Africa from June to July 2016, comprising a benchmark data set for assessing detailed processes on natural and anthropogenic emissions; atmospheric composition; air pollution and its impacts on human and ecosystem health; boundary layer processes; couplings between aerosols, clouds, and rainfall; weather systems; radiation; and the monsoon circulation. Details and highlights of the campaign can be found in Flamant et al. 2017. To provide aerosol/cloud microphysical and optical properties that are essential for model evaluations and for the linkage between ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne observations, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility loaned two sun photometers to the DACCWIA team for the campaign from June 8 to July 29, 2016. The first sun photometer was deployed at Kumasi, Ghana (6.67962°N, 1.56019°W) by the University of Leeds

  14. Basin-scale wind transport during the MILAGRO field campaign and comparison to climatology using cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The MILAGRO field campaign was a multi-agency international collaborative project to evaluate the regional impacts of the Mexico City air pollution plume as a means of understanding urban impacts on the global climate. Mexico City lies on an elevated plateau with mountains on three sides and has complex mountain and surface-driven wind flows. This paper asks what the wind transport was in the basin during the field campaign and how representative it was of the climatology. Surface meteorology and air quality data, radiosoundings and radar wind profiler data were collected at sites in the basin and its vicinity. Cluster analysis is used to identify the dominant wind patterns both during the campaign and within the past 10 years of operational data from the warm dry season. Our analysis shows that March 2006 was representative of typical flow patterns experienced in the basin. Six episode types were identified for the basin scale circulation providing a way of interpreting atmospheric chemistry and particulate data collected during the campaign. Decoupling between surface winds and those aloft had a strong influence in leading to convection and poor air quality episodes. Hourly characterisation of wind circulation during the MILAGRO, MCMA-2003 and IMADA field campaigns will enable the comparisons of similar air pollution episodes and the evaluation of the impact of wind transport on measurements of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in the basin.

  15. Basin-scale wind transport during the MILAGRO field campaign and comparison to climatology using cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The MILAGRO field campaign was a multi-agency international collaborative project to evaluate the regional impacts of the Mexico City air pollution plume as a means of understanding urban impacts on the global climate. Mexico City lies on an elevated plateau with mountains on three sides and has complex mountain and surface-driven wind flows. This paper asks what the wind transport was in the basin during the field campaign and how representative it was of the climatology. Surface meteorology and air quality data, radiosondes and radar wind profiler data were collected at sites in the basin and its vicinity. Cluster analysis was used to identify the dominant wind patterns both during the campaign and within the past 10 years of operational data from the warm dry season. Our analysis shows that March 2006 was representative of typical flow patterns experienced in the basin. Six episode types were identified for the basin-scale circulation providing a way of interpreting atmospheric chemistry and particulate data collected during the campaign. Decoupling between surface winds and those aloft had a strong influence in leading to convection and poor air quality episodes. Hourly characterisation of wind circulation during the MILAGRO, MCMA-2003 and IMADA field campaigns enables the comparisons of similar air pollution episodes and the evaluation of the impact of wind transport on measurements of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in the basin.

  16. ARM Support for the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (AS-PECAN) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D. D. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Silver Spring, MD (United States); Geerts, B. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) field campaign was a large multi-agency/multi-institutional experiment that targeted nighttime convection events in the central plains of the United States in order to better understand a range of processes that lead to the initiation and upscale growth of deep convection. Both weather and climate models struggle to properly represent the timing and intensity of precipitation in the central United States in their simulations. These models must be able to represent the interactions between the nocturnal stable boundary layer (SBL), the nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ), and a reservoir of convectively available potential energy (CAPE) that frequently exists above the SBL. Furthermore, a large fraction of the nocturnal precipitation is due to the organization of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). In particular, there were four research foci for the PECAN campaign: •The initiation of elevated nocturnal convection focus seeks to elucidate the mesoscaleenvironmental characteristics and processes that lead to convection initiation (CI) and provide baseline data on the early evolution of mesoscale convective clusters. •The dynamics and internal structure and microphysics of nocturnal MCSs focus will investigatethe transition from surface-based to elevated storm structure, the interaction of cold pools generated by MCSs with the nocturnal stable boundary layer, and how the organization and evolution of elevated convection is influenced by the SBL and the vertical profile of wind and stability above the LLJ. •The bores and wave-like disturbances focus seeks to advance knowledge of the initiation of boredisturbances by convection, how the vertical profile of stability and winds modulate bore structure, the role of these disturbances in the initiation, maintenance, and organization of deep convection, and their impact on the LLJ and SBL. •The LLJ focus seeks to understand the processes that influence the spatial and

  17. Overview of the synoptic and pollution situation over Europe during the EUCAARI-LONGREX field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hamburger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The European integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI focuses on understanding the interactions of climate and air pollution. As part of the EUCAARI intensive observational period, an aircraft field campaign (EUCAARI-LONGREX was conducted in May 2008. The campaign aimed at studying the distribution and evolution of air mass properties on a continental scale. Airborne aerosol and trace gas measurements were performed aboard the German DLR Falcon 20 and the British FAAM BAe-146 aircraft. This paper outlines the meteorological situation over Europe during May 2008 and the temporal and spatial evolution of predominantly anthropogenic particulate pollution inside the boundary layer and the free troposphere. Time series data of six selected ground stations are used to discuss continuous measurements besides the single flights. The observations encompass total and accumulation mode particle number concentration (0.1–0.8 μm and black carbon mass concentration as well as several meteorological parameters. Vertical profiles of total aerosol number concentration up to 10 km are compared to vertical profiles probed during previous studies.

    During the first half of May 2008 an anticyclonic blocking event dominated the weather over Central Europe. It led to increased pollutant concentrations within the centre of the high pressure inside the boundary layer. Due to long-range transport the accumulated pollution was partly advected towards Western and Northern Europe. The measured aerosol number concentrations over Central Europe showed in the boundary layer high values up to 14 000 cm−3 for particles in diameter larger 10 nm and 2300 cm−3 for accumulation mode particles during the high pressure period, whereas the middle free troposphere showed rather low concentrations of particulates. Thus a strong negative gradient of aerosol concentrations between the well mixed boundary layer

  18. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: Parsivel2 Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Courtney [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-07-01

    One of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Parsivel2 disdrometers was deployed at the first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil at the beginning of the second Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon)2014/15 intensive operational period (IOP2) in September 2014 through the end of the field campaign in December 2015. The Parsivel2 provided one-minute drop-size distribution (DSD) observations that have already been used for a number of applications related to GoAmazon2014/15 science objectives. The first use was the creation of a reflectivity-rain rate (Z-R) relation enabling the calculation of rain rates from the Brazilian Sistema de Protecao da Amazonia (SIPAM) S-band operational radar in Manaus. The radar-derived rainfall is an important constraint for the variational analysis of a large-scale forcing data set, which was recently released for the two IOPs that took place in the 2014 wet and transition seasons, respectively. The SIPAM radar rainfall is also being used to validate a number of cloud-resolving model simulations being run for the campaign. A second use of the Parsivel2 DSDs has been to provide a necessary reference point to calibrate the vertical velocity retrievals from the AMF1 W Band ARM Cloud Radar (WACR) cloud-profiling and ultra-high-frequency (UHF) wind-profiling instruments. Accurate retrievals of in-cloud vertical velocities are important to understand the microphysical and kinematic properties of Amazonian convective clouds and their interaction with the land surface and atmospheric aerosols. Further use of the Parsivel2 DSD observations can be made to better understand precipitation characteristics and their variability during GoAmazon2014/15.

  19. Mexico City basin wind circulation during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available MCMA-2003 was a major field campaign investigating the atmospheric chemistry of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA in April of 2003. This paper describes the wind circulation patterns during the campaign both within the Mexico City basin and on the regional scale. ''Time roses'' are introduced to concisely analyze the diurnal wind patterns. Three episode types were identified that explain the conditions encountered: ''O3-South'', ''Cold Surge'' and ''O3-North''. These can be diagnosed from a combination of synoptic and basin observations based on whether the day was predominantly cloudy, or whether the O3 peak was in the north or south of the basin. O3-South days have weak synoptic forcing due to an anti-cyclone over the eastern Pacific. Strong solar heating leads to northerly flows in the basin and an evening shift due to a gap flow from the south-east. Peak ozone concentrations are in the convergence zone in the south of the city. Cold Surge days are associated with ''El Norte'' events, with strong surface northerlies bringing cold moist air and rain. Stable conditions lead to high concentrations of primary pollutants and peak ozone in the city center. O3-North days occur when the sub-tropical jet is closer to Mexico City. With strong westerlies aloft, the circulation pattern is the same as O3-South days except for a wind shift in the mid-afternoon leading to ozone peaks in the north of the city. This classification is proposed as a means of understanding pollutant transport in the Mexico City basin and as a basis for future meteorological and chemical analysis. Furthermore, model evaluation and design of policy recommendations will need to take into account the three episode types.

  20. Mexico City basin wind circulation during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available MCMA-2003 was a major field campaign investigating the atmospheric chemistry of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA in April of 2003. This paper describes the wind circulation patterns during the campaign both within the Mexico City basin and on the regional scale. ''Time roses'' are introduced to concisely analyze the diurnal wind patterns. Three episode types were identified that explain the conditions encountered: ''O3-South'', ''Cold Surge'' and ''O3-North''. These can be diagnosed from a combination of synoptic and basin observations based on whether the day was predominantly cloudy, or whether the O3 peak was in the north or south of the basin. O3-South days have weak synoptic forcing due to an anti-cyclone over the eastern Pacific. Strong solar heating leads to northerly flows in the basin and an evening shift due to a gap flow from the south-east. Peak ozone concentrations are in the convergence zone in the south of the city. Cold Surge days are associated with ''El Norte'' events, with strong surface northerlies bringing cold moist air and rain. Stable conditions lead to high concentrations of primary pollutants and peak ozone in the city center. O3-North days occur when the sub-tropical jet is closer to Mexico City. With strong westerlies aloft, the circulation pattern is the same as O3-South days except for a wind shift in the mid-afternoon leading to ozone peaks in the north of the city. This classification is proposed as a means of understanding pollutant transport in the Mexico City basin and as a basis for future meteorological and chemical analysis. Furthermore, model evaluation and design of policy recommendations will need to take into account the three episode types.

  1. Field Testing of a Pneumatic Regolith Feed System During a 2010 ISRU Field Campaign on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Jack; Zacny, Kris; Chu, Philip; Wilson, Jack; Santoro, Chris; Carlson, Lee; Maksymuk, Michael; Townsend, Ivan I.; Mueller, Robert P.; Mantovani, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Lunar In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) consists of a number of tasks starting with mining of lunar regolith, followed by the transfer of regolith to an oxygen extraction reactor and finally processing the regolith and storing of extracted oxygen. The transfer of regolith from the regolith hopper at the ground level to an oxygen extraction reactor many feet above the surface could be accomplished in different ways, including using a mechanical auger, bucket ladder system or a pneumatic system. The latter system is commonly used on earth when moving granular materials since it offers high reliability and simplicity of operation. In this paper, we describe a pneumatic regolith feed system, delivering feedstock to a Carbothermal reactor and lessons learned from deploying the system during the 2010 ISRU field campaign on the Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

  2. The Gravity Field of Mercury After the Messenger Low-Altitude Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gary A.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2015-01-01

    The final year of the MESSENGER mission was designed to take advantage of the remaining propellant onboard to provide a series of lowaltitude observation campaigns and acquire novel scientific data about the innermost planet. The lower periapsis altitude greatly enhances the sensitivity to the short-wavelength gravity field, but only when the spacecraft is in view of Earth. After more than 3 years in orbit around Mercury, the MESSENGER spacecraft was tracked for the first time below 200-km altitude on 5 May 2014 by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). Between August and October, periapsis passages down to 25-km altitude were routinely tracked. These periods considerably improved the quality of the data coverage. Before the end of its mission, MESSENGER will fly at very low altitudes for extended periods of time. Given the orbital geometry, however the periapses will not be visible from Earth and so no new tracking data will be available for altitudes lower than 75 km. Nevertheless, the continuous tracking of MESSENGER in the northern hemisphere will help improve the uniformity of the spatial coverage at altitudes lower than 150 km, which will further improve the overall quality of the Mercury gravity field.

  3. REFIR/BB initial observations in the water vapour rotational band: Results from a field campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente (DIFA)-Universita della Basilicata, Viale dell' Ateneo Lucano10, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Istituto di Metodologie per l' Analisi Ambientale, IMAA-CNR, C. da S. Loya, Tito Scalo, Potenza (Italy); Grieco, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente (DIFA)-Universita della Basilicata, Viale dell' Ateneo Lucano10, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Leone, L. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente (DIFA)-Universita della Basilicata, Viale dell' Ateneo Lucano10, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Restieri, R. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente (DIFA)-Universita della Basilicata, Viale dell' Ateneo Lucano10, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Serio, C. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente (DIFA)-Universita della Basilicata, Viale dell' Ateneo Lucano10, 85100 Potenza (Italy) and Istituto di Metodologie per l' Analisi Ambientale, IMAA-CNR, C. da S. Loya, Tito Scalo, Potenza (Italy)]. E-mail: serio@unibas.it; Bianchini, G. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata ' Nello Carrara' , IFAC-CNR, Via Panciatichi 64, Firenze (Italy); Palchetti, L. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata ' Nello Carrara' , IFAC-CNR, Via Panciatichi 64, Firenze (Italy); Pellegrini, M. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata ' Nello Carrara' , IFAC-CNR, Via Panciatichi 64, Firenze (Italy); Cuomo, V. [Istituto di Metodologie per l' Analisi Ambientale, IMAA-CNR, C. da S. Loya, Tito Scalo, Potenza (Italy); Masiello, G. [Istituto di Metodologie per l' Analisi Ambientale, IMAA-CNR, C. da S. Loya, Tito Scalo, Potenza (Italy); Pavese, G. [Istituto di Metodologie per l' Analisi Ambientale, IMAA-CNR, C. da S. Loya, Tito Scalo, Potenza (Italy)

    2007-02-15

    There is a growing interest in the far infrared spectral region 17-50 {mu}m as a remote sensing tool in atmospheric sciences, since this portion of the spectrum contains the characteristic molecular rotational band for water vapour. Much of the Earth energy lost to space is radiated through this spectral region. The Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed Breadboard (REFIR/BB) spectrometer was born because of the quest to make observations in the far infrared. REFIR/BB is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with a sampling resolution of 0.5 cm{sup -1} and it was tested for the first time in the field to check its reliability and radiometric performance. The field campaign was held at Toppo di Castelgrande (40{sup o} 49' N, 15{sup o} 27' E, 1258 m a. s. l.), a mountain site in South Italy. The spectral and radiometric performance of the instrument and initial observations are shown in this paper. Comparisons to both (1) BOMEM MR100 Fourier Transform spectrometer observations and (2) line-by-line radiative transfer calculations for selected clear sky are presented and discussed. These comparisons (1) show a very nice agreement between radiance measured by REFIR/BB and by BOMEM MR100 and (2) demonstrate that REFIR/BB accurately observes the very fine spectral structure in the water vapour rotational band.

  4. Movements, Markets and Fields: The Effects of Anti-Sweatshop Campaigns on U.S. Firms, 1993-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Tim; Child, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    How do social movements influence corporations? Recent work suggests that movements can inflict material damage on their targets and shape categories of evaluation in organizational fields. Extending these ideas, we examine the effects of anti-sweatshop campaigns on sales, stock performance, reputation and specialized ratings of U.S. firms, using…

  5. Tropical deep convection, entrainment, and dilution during the dynamo field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Walter

    This dissertation presents a study of outstanding questions in tropical meteorology relating to tropical deep convection, entrainment, and dilution. Much of the discussion in this study will focus on an important convectively-coupled phenomenon in the tropical atmosphere known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which is an eastward propagating atmospheric disturbance over the Indian and West Pacific Oceans that dominates the tropical variability on intraseasonal timescales (30-90 days). A field campaign known as the "Dynamics of the MJO" (DYNAMO) was conducted in the boreal winter months from October 2011 through February 2012 to study the initialization of the MJO with in-situ observations. The first part of this study examines hindcast simulations of the first two MJO events during DYNAMO in a general circulation model (GCM). The model used for this is the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) version 5, which uses parameterized convection. In these simulations, an entrainment rate parameter is varied to test its effects on the representation of the MJO, following previous studies. Hindcast simulations with CAM5 reveal that the entrainment parameter can improve the representation of the MJO. However, analysis of the column integrated moist static energy (MSE) budget reveals that this improvement is the right answer for the wrong reason. CAM5 incorrectly enhances vertical MSE advection, which compensates for cloud radiative feedbacks that are too weak. A promising theory for the MJOs fundamental dynamics is that of a moisture mode. The second part of the study examines hindcasts using the super-parameterized version of CAM5 (SP-CAM) that uses embedded cloud-resolving models (CRM) to explicitly simulate convection on the sub-grid scale. SP-CAM was used for these hindcast simulations because previous studies have shown this type of model can reproduce the MJO much better than conventional GCMs. SP-CAM hindcasts yield

  6. Study of the unknown HONO daytime source at an European suburban site during the MEGAPOLI summer and winter field campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Michoud

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous acid measurements were carried out during the MEGAPOLI summer and winter field campaigns at SIRTA observatory in Paris surroundings. Highly variable HONO levels were observed during the campaigns, ranging from 10 ppt to 500 ppt in summer and from 10 ppt to 1.7 ppb in winter. Significant HONO mixing ratios have also been measured during daytime hours, comprised between some tenth of ppt and 200 ppt for the summer campaign and between few ppt and 1 ppb for the winter campaign. Ancillary measurements, such as NOx, O3, photolysis frequencies, meteorological parameters (pressure, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction, black carbon concentration, total aerosol surface area, boundary layer height and soil moisture, were conducted during both campaigns. In addition, for the summer period, OH radical measurements were made with a CIMS (Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometer. This large dataset has been used to investigate the HONO budget in a suburban environment. To do so, calculations of HONO concentrations using PhotoStationary State (PSS approach have been performed, for daytime hours. The comparison of these calculations with measured HONO concentrations revealed an underestimation of the calculations making evident a missing source term for both campaigns. This unknown HONO source exhibits a bell shaped like average diurnal profile with a maximum around noon of approximately 0.7 ppb h−1 and 0.25 ppb h−1, during summer and winter respectively. This source is the main HONO source during daytime hours for both campaigns. In both cases, this source shows a slight positive correlation with J(NO2 and the product between J(NO2 and soil moisture. This original approach had, thus, indicated that this missing source is photolytic and might be heterogeneous occurring on ground surface and involving water content available at the ground.

  7. Overview of the DACCIWA ground-based field campaign in southern West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohou, Fabienne; Kalthoff, Norbert; Brooks, Barbara; Jegede, Gbenga; Adler, Bianca; Ajao, Adewale; Ayoola, Muritala; Babić, Karmen; Bessardon, Geoffrey; Delon, Claire; Dione, Cheikh; Handwerker, Jan; Jambert, Corinne; Kohler, Martin; Lothon, Marie; Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, Xabier; Smith, Victoria; Sunmonu, Lukman; Wieser, Andreas; Derrien, Solène

    2017-04-01

    During June and July 2016, a ground-based field campaign took place in southern West Africa within the framework of the Dynamics-aerosol-chemistry-cloud interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project. In the investigated region, extended low-level stratus clouds form very frequently during night-time and persist long into the following day influencing the diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer and, hence, the regional climate. The motivation for the measurements was to identify the meteorological controls on the whole process chain from the formation of nocturnal stratus clouds, via the daytime transition to convective clouds and the formation of deep precipitating clouds. During the measurement period, extensive remote sensing and in-situ measurements were performed at three supersites in Kumasi (Ghana), Savè (Benin) and Ile-Ife (Nigeria). The gathered observations included the energy-balance components at the Earth's surface, the mean and turbulent conditions in the nocturnal and daytime ABL as well as the de- and entrainment processes between the ABL and the free troposphere. The meteorological measurements were supplemented by aerosol and air-chemistry observations. We will give an overview of the conducted measurements including instrument availability and strategy during intensive observation periods.

  8. TECNAIRE winter field campaign: turbulent characteristics and their influence on air quality conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagüe, Carlos; Román Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio; Sastre, Mariano; Arrillaga, Jon A.; Artíñano, Begoña; Diaz-Ramiro, Elías; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Borge, Rafael; Narros, Adolfo; Pérez, Javier

    2016-04-01

    An urban field campaign was conducted at an air pollution hot spot in Madrid city (Spain) during winter 2015 (from 16th February to 2nd March). The zone selected for the study is a square (Plaza Fernández Ladreda) located in the southern part of the city. This area is an important intersection of several principal routes, and therefore a significant impact in the air quality of the area is found due to the high traffic density. Meteorological data (wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation and global solar radiation) were daily recorded as well as micrometeorological measurements obtained from two sonic anemometers. To characterize this urban atmospheric boundary layer (uABL), micrometeorological parameters (turbulent kinetic energy -TKE-, friction velocity -u∗- and sensible heat flux -H-) are calculated, considering 5-minute average for variance and covariance evaluations. Furthermore, synoptic atmospheric features were analyzed. As a whole, a predominant influence of high pressure systems was found over the Atlantic Ocean and western Spain, affecting Madrid, but during a couple of days (17th and 21st February) some atmospheric instability played a role. The influence of the synoptic situation and specially the evolution of the micrometeorological conditions along the day on air quality characteristics (Particulate Matter concentrations: PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, and NOx concentrations) are analyzed and shown in detail. This work has been financed by Madrid Regional Research Plan through TECNAIRE (P2013/MAE-2972).

  9. GoAmazon 2014/15 Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, JN [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) deployment to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil, was motivated by two main scientific objectives of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15 field campaign. 1) Study the interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions by determining important molecular species in ambient nanoparticles. To address this, TDCIMS data will be combined with coincident measurements such as gas-phase sulfuric acid to determine the contribution of sulfuric acid condensation to nucleation and growth. We can then compare that result to TDCIMS-derived nanoparticle composition to determine the fraction of growth that can be attributed to the uptake of organic compounds. The molecular composition of sampled particles will also be used to attribute specific chemical species and mechanisms to growth, such as the condensation of low-volatility species or the oligomerization of α-dicarbonyl compounds. 2) Determine the source of new ambient nanoparticles in the Amazon. The hypothesis prior to measurements was that potassium salts formed from the evaporation of primary particles emitted by fungal spores can provide a unique and important pathway for new particle production in the Amazon basin. To explore this hypothesis, the TDCIMS recorded the mass spectra of sampled ambient particles using a protonated water cluster Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS). Laboratory tests performed using potassium salts show that the TDCIMS can detect potassium with high sensitivity with this technique.

  10. Uncertainties in SOA simulations due to meteorological uncertainties in Mexico City during MILAGRO-2006 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, N.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the uncertainties in simulating secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA) due to meteorological initial uncertainties using the WRF-CHEM model through ensemble simulations. The simulated periods (24 and 29 March 2006) represent two typical meteorological episodes ("Convection-South" and "Convection-North", respectively) in the Mexico City basin during the MILAGRO-2006 field campaign. The organic aerosols are simulated using a non-traditional SOA model including the volatility basis-set modeling method and the contributions from glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Model results demonstrate that uncertainties in meteorological initial conditions have significant impacts on SOA simulations, including the peak time concentrations, the horizontal distributions, and the temporal variations. The ensemble spread of the simulated peak SOA at T0 can reach up to 4.0 μg m-3 during the daytime, which is around 35% of the ensemble mean. Both the basin wide wind speed and the convergence area affect the magnitude and the location of the simulated SOA concentrations inside the Mexico City basin. The wind speed, especially during the previous midnight and the following early morning, influences the magnitude of the peak SOA concentration through ventilation. The surface horizontal convergence zone generally determines the area with high SOA concentrations. The magnitude of the ensemble spreads may vary with different meteorological episodes but the ratio of the ensemble spread to mean does not change significantly.

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Chuck [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.

    2016-07-01

    Every 30–90 days during the Northern Hemisphere winter, the equatorial tropical atmosphere experiences pulses of extraordinarily strong deep convection and rainfall. This phenomenon is referred to as the Madden–Julian Oscillation, or MJO, named after the scientists who identified this cycle. The MJO significantly affects weather and rainfall patterns around the world (Zhang 2013). To improve predictions of the MJO—especially about how it forms and evolves throughout its lifecycle—an international group of scientists collected an unprecedented set of observations from the Indian Ocean and western Pacific region from October 2011 through March 2012 through several coordinated efforts. The coordinated field campaigns captured six distinct MJO cycles in the Indian Ocean. The rich set of observations capturing several MJO events from these efforts will be used for many years to study the physics of the MJO. Here we highlight early research results using data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment (AMIE), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility.

  12. Findings of the SHIVA field campaign in the South China Sea in Nov.-Dec. 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeilsticker, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Marine emissions of so-called halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) are known to considerably contribute to the ozone destroying halogen loading of the stratosphere. In this context, most crucial are VSLS emissions in regions of large vertical transport, i.e. the tropics and in particular in the warm pool of the Western Pacific during the rainy seasons (November to March). In order to study the biogenic emissions of halogenated VSLS, their atmospheric transport and transformation, the internationally coordinated field expedition SHIVA (Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) was performed within the margins of the South China Sea in November and December 2011. Partners from 19 institutions from 9 countries participated in the campaign. Funding came from the EU's 7th framework programme and additionally from a larger number of national funding agencies. The activities included investigations in the laboratory and on the ground, during local ship cruises, the research vessel SONNE, deployments of the DLR (Germany's national research center for aeronautics and space) Falcon aircraft around Borneo, simultaneous satellite observations, the meteorological forecasting and analysis, and numerical modeling of atmospheric transport and photochemistry. The present talk provides an overview on the performed research activities, reports on joint studies, and some core research results obtained to date.

  13. Air mass characterization during the DAURE field campaign by PTR-TOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Axel; Schallhart, Simon; Müller, Markus; Hansel, Armin

    2010-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere from a wide variety of biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Although some of the sources are well characterized, many uncertainties remain about the fate of these compounds in the atmosphere and their role in organic aerosol formation. Here we present measurements using Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight (PTR-TOF) Mass Spectrometry during the DAURE field campaign ("Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean") obtained during February and March 2009. Measurements were performed at a rural mountain site located in the Montseny Natural Park 40 km to the NNE of the city of Barcelona, and 25 km from the Mediterranean coast. Volatile organic compounds where identified and quantified using PTR-TOF with 1 minute time resolution. The instruments mass resolving power of 4000 - 5000 and a mass accuracy of 5 ppm allows for the unambiguous sum-formula identification of e.g. hydrocarbons (HCs) or oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs). The high time resolution allows separating out on site pollution events. Air masses impacted by biomass-burning, urban, marine and vegetation emissions are characterized using tracers like acetonitrile, aromatics, dimethyl sulfide or biogenic compounds (terpenoids) and the degree of photochemical processing is inferred from the data.

  14. Real-Time Mesoscale Forecast Support During the CLAMS Field Campaign

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Donghai; P. MINNIS; T. P. CHARLOCK; D. K. ZHOU; F. G. ROSE; W. L. SMITH; W. L. SMITH Jr.; L. NGUYEN

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the use of a specialized, mesoscale, numerical weather prediction (NWP) system and a satellite imaging and prediction system that were set up to support the CLAMS (Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites) field campaign during the summer of 2001. The primary objective of CLAMS was to validate satellite-based retrievals of aerosol properties and vertical profiles of the radiative flux, temperature and water vapor. Six research aircraft were deployed to make detailed coincident measurements of the atmosphere and ocean surface with the research satellites that orbited overhead. The mesoscale weather modeling system runs in real-time to provide high spatial and temporal resolution for forecasts that are delivered via the World Wide Web along with a variety of satellite imagery and satellite location predictions. This system is a multi-purpose modeling system capable of both data analysis/assimilation and multi-scale NWP ranging from cloud-scale to larger than regional scale. This is a three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic compressible model in a terrain-following coordinate. The model employs advanced numerical techniques and contains detailed interactive physical processes. The utility of the forecasting system is illustrated throughout the discussion on the impact of the surface-wind forecast on BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) and the description of the cloud/moisture forecast versus the aircraft measurement.

  15. Exploring Dust Impacts on Tropical Systems from the NASA HS-3 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowottnick, Ed; Colarco, Pete; da Silva, Arlindo; Barahona, Donifan; Hlavka, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    One of the overall scientific goals of the NASA Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS-3) field campaign is to better understand the role of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) in tropical storm development. During the 2012 HS-3 deployment, the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) observed dust within SAL air in close proximity to a developing Nadine (September 11, 2012). Throughout the mission, the NASA GEOS-5 modeling system supported HS-3 by providing 0.25 degrees resolution 5-day global forecasts of aerosols, which were used to support mission planning. The aerosol module was radiatively interactive within the GEOS-5 model, but aerosols were not directly coupled to cloud and precipitation processes. In this study we revisit the aerosol forecasts with an updated version of the GEOS-5 model. For the duration of Hurricane Nadine, we run multiday climate simulations leading up to each respective Global Hawk flight with and without aerosol direct interaction. For each set of simulations, we compare simulated dust mass fluxes to identify differences in SAL entrainment related to the interaction between dust aerosols and the atmosphere. We find that the direct effects of dust induce a low level anticyclonic circulation that temporarily shields Nadine from the intrusion of dry air, leading to a more intense storm.

  16. Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter During the 2006 MIRAGE (MILAGRO) Field Campaign. Part I. Data Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, M.; Matias, E.; Nenes, A.; Ponce de Leon, C.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the MIRAGE (MILAGRO, http://mirage-mex.acd.ucar.edu) field campaign, particulate matter in size ranges of 1, 2.5 μm was collected at the T1 site (located ~ 35 km NE downwind Mexico city) from March 5th-31st, 2006. Scientific objectives related to this database are focused on application of different aerosol modeling tools (Part II of this work). In this part a discussion of data validation and findings related is presented. Overall, highest concentrations of fine PM are present during the morning sampling periods (PM1, ~90% and PM2.5, ~70% of the time) suggesting a combination of transport of emissions from the Valley of Mexico and combustion processes nearby T1 are occurring. Although electroneutrality balances are achieved for both PM size ranges on the different sampling periods, it is noted that levels of concentration (neq/m3) found at the MIRAGE site (100-500 neq/m3) are significantly lower than those observed in Mexico City, reported previously around 200-1000 neq/m3. A considerable amount of crustal species is observed in the 2.5-1 μm size range. Additional analysis of K/Na ratio supports this finding and also suggests the dominating emissions in PM1 are of anthropogenic origin while in the PM2.5-1 size range are of crustal origin.

  17. CLOUD-MAP Field Campaign Measurements of the Earth's Lower Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Nicholas; Avery, Alyssa; Jacob, Jamey

    2016-11-01

    CLOUD-MAP (Collaboration Leading Operational UAS Development for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics) is a 4 year, 4 university collaboration to develop capabilities that will allow meteorologists and atmospheric scientists to use unmanned aircraft as a common, useful everyday tool. Currently, we know that systems can be used for meteorological measurements, but they are far from being practical or robust for everyday field diagnostics by the average meteorologist or scientist. In particular, UAS are well suited for the lower atmosphere, namely the lower boundary layer that has a large impact on the atmosphere and where much of the weather phenomena begin. A sensor set called MDASS (Meteorological Data Acquisition Sonde System) was developed and used to collect and transmit live data necessary for developing such forecasts as well as be usable on multiple platforms ranging from fixed-wing and multi-rotor UAVs to rockets. The data transmitted from MDASS is viewed and stored on a ground control station via LabVIEW in a program developed for real-time data analysis. Results from the first CLOUD-MAP are presented. The campaign resulted in nearly 250 unmanned aircraft flights of 12 separate platforms over a 3 day period, collecting meteorological data at 3 different sites.

  18. Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx)/Orographic Precipitation Processes Study Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, A. P. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Petersen, W. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Washington, DC (United States); Wilson, A. M. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Three Microwave Radiometers (two 3-channel and one 2-channel) were deployed in the Southern Appalachian Mountains in western North Carolina as part of the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx), which was the first National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Ground Validation (GV) field campaign after the launch of the GPM Core Satellite (Barros et al. 2014). The radiometers were used along with other instrumentation to estimate the liquid water content of low-level clouds and fog. Specifically, data from the radiometers were collected to help, with other instrumentation, to characterize fog formation, evolution, and dissipation in the region (by monitoring the liquid water path in the column) and observe the effect of that fog on the precipitation regime. Data were collected at three locations in the Southern Appalachians, specifically western North Carolina: a valley in the inner mountain region, a valley in the open mountain pass region, and a ridge in the inner region. This project contributes to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility mission by providing in situ observations designed to improve the understanding of clouds and precipitation processes in complex terrain. The end goal is to use this improved understanding of physical processes to improve remote-sensing algorithms and representations of orographic precipitation microphysics in climate and earth system models.

  19. The effect of breast cancer awareness month on internet search activity--a comparison with awareness campaigns for lung and prostate cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glynn, Ronan W; Kelly, John C; Coffey, Norma; Sweeney, Karl J; Kerin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    This work aimed to assess the effects of the annual breast cancer awareness campaign on internet search activity, and to compare these effects with those of similar campaigns in prostate and lung cancer...

  20. Outreach and education from EuroGeoMoonMars2009 Field Campaign in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    The goal of the EuroGeoMoonMars mission at Utah Desert Research station(from 24 January to 28 February 2009) was to demonstrate instruments from ExoGeoLab pilot project, to support the interpretation of ongoing lunar and planetary missions, to validate a procedure for surface in-situ and return science, to study human performance aspects, and perform outreach and education projects. The EuroGeoMoonMars campaign included four sets of objectives: 1) Technology demonstration aspects: a set of instruments were deployed, tested, assessed, and training was provided to scientists using them in subsequent rotations 2) Research aspects: a series of field science and exploration investigations were conducted in geology, geochemistry, biology, astronomy, with synergies with space missions and research from planetary surfaces and Earth extreme environments. 3) Human crew related aspects, i.e. (a) evaluation of the different functions and interfaces of a planetary habitat, (b) crew time organization in this habitat, (c) evaluation of man-machine interfaces of science and technical equipment; 4) Education, outreach, communications, multi-cultural public relations Outreach, education and inspiration: We produced written, pictures, and video materials that can be used for education, outreach and public relations. Daily reports were posted on the MDRS website. We had during the Technical crew preparation, the visit of film producer Mark Arabella and film crew for a Moon related National Geographics documentary "Earth without the Moon". Two media crew visitors stayed also in the Hab to film our activities documenting the operational, research, human, simulation, imaginative and fantasy aspects of Moon-Mars-extreme Earth exploration. They contributed a journalist report, and even performed an EVA outreach filming a sortie to Hanksville village on Earth. Other film and journalists visited the EuroGeoMars crew for interviews and exchange. Specific crew reports were also prepared for

  1. Biomass Burning Research Using DOE ARM Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onasch, Timothy B [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Sedlacek, Arthur J [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lewis, Ernie [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The focus of this laboratory study was to investigate the chemical and optical properties, and the detection efficiencies, of tar balls generated in the laboratory using the same instruments deployed on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft during the 2013 Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field study, during which tar balls were observed in wildland biomass burning particulate emissions. Key goals of this laboratory study were: (a) measuring the chemical composition of tar balls to provide insights into the atmospheric processes that form (evaporation/oxidation) and modify them in biomass burning plumes, (b) identifying whether tar balls contain refractory black carbon, (c) determining the collection efficiencies of tar balls impacting on the 600oC heated tungsten vaporizer in the Aerodyne Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) (i.e., given the observed low volatilities, AMS measurements might underestimate organic biomass burning plume loadings), and (d) measuring the wavelength-dependent, mass-specific absorption cross-sections of brown carbon components of tar balls. This project was funded primarily by the DOE Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program, and the ARM Facility made their single-particle soot photometer (SP2) available for September 1-September 31, 2016 in the Aerodyne laboratories. The ARM mentor (Dr. Sedlacek) requested no funds for mentorship or data reduction. All ARM SP2 data collected as part of this project are archived in the ARM Data Archive in accordance with established protocols. The main objectives of the ARM Biomass Burning Observation Period (BBOP, July-October, 2013) field campaign were to (1) assess the impact of wildland fires in the Pacific Northwest on climate, through near-field and regional intensive measurement campaigns, and (2) investigate agricultural burns to determine how those biomass burn plumes differ from

  2. Implementing the Mars Science Laboratory Terminal Descent Sensor Field Test Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, James F.; Bodie, James H.; Brown, Joseph D.; Chen, Allen; Chen, Curtis W.; Essmiller, John C.; Fisher, Charles D.; Goldberg, Hannah R.; Lee, Steven W.; Shaffer, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will deliver a 900 kg rover to the surface of Mars in August 2012. MSL will utilize a new pulse-Doppler landing radar, the Terminal Descent Sensor (TDS). The TDS employs six narrow-beam antennas to provide unprecedented slant range and velocity performance at Mars to enable soft touchdown of the MSL rover using a unique sky crane Entry, De-scent, and Landing (EDL) technique. Prior to use on MSL, the TDS was put through a rigorous verification and validation (V&V) process. A key element of this V&V was operating the TDS over a series of field tests, using flight-like profiles expected during the descent and landing of MSL over Mars-like terrain on Earth. Limits of TDS performance were characterized with additional testing meant to stress operational modes outside of the expected EDL flight profiles. The flight envelope over which the TDS must operate on Mars encompasses such a large range of altitudes and velocities that a variety of venues were neces-sary to cover the test space. These venues included an F/A-18 high performance aircraft, a Eurocopter AS350 AStar helicopter and 100-meter tall Echo Towers at the China Lake Naval Air Warfare Center. Testing was carried out over a five year period from July 2006 to June 2011. TDS performance was shown, in gen-eral, to be excellent over all venues. This paper describes the planning, design, and implementation of the field test campaign plus results and lessons learned.

  3. Radar Wind Profiler for Cloud Forecasting at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M. P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Giangrande, S. E. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bartholomew, M. J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Radar Wind Profiler for Cloud Forecasting at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) [http://www.arm.gov/campaigns/osc2013rwpcf] campaign was scheduled to take place from 15 July 2013 through 15 July 2015 (or until shipped for the next U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement [ARM] Climate Research Facility first Mobile Facility [AMF1] deployment). The campaign involved the deployment of the AMF1 Scintec 915 MHz Radar Wind Profiler (RWP) at BNL, in conjunction with several other ARM, BNL and National Weather Service (NWS) instruments. The two main scientific foci of the campaign were: 1) To provide profiles of the horizontal wind to be used to test and validate short-term cloud advection forecasts for solar-energy applications and 2) to provide vertical profiling capabilities for the study of dynamics (i.e., vertical velocity) and hydrometeors in winter storms. This campaign was a serendipitous opportunity that arose following the deployment of the RWP at the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) campaign in Cape Cod, Massachusetts and restriction from participation in the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GoAmazon 2014/15) campaign due to radio-frequency allocation restriction for international deployments. The RWP arrived at BNL in the fall of 2013, but deployment was delayed until fall of 2014 as work/safety planning and site preparation were completed. The RWP further encountered multiple electrical failures, which eventually required several shipments of instrument power supplies and the final amplifier to the vendor to complete repairs. Data collection began in late January 2015. The operational modes of the RWP were changed such that in addition to collecting traditional profiles of the horizontal wind, a vertically pointing mode was also included for the purpose of precipitation sensing and estimation of vertical velocities. The RWP operated well until the end of the campaign in July 2015 and collected observations for more than 20 precipitation

  4. Challenges for the Sequential Interaction Between Optimal Design of Field Campaigns and Model Calibration for Non-Linear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiges, A.; Nowak, W.; Rubin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Stochastic models of sub-surface systems generally suffer from parametric and conceptual uncertainty. To reduce the model uncertainty, model parameters are calibrated using additional collected data. These data often come from costly data acquisition campaigns that need to be optimized to collect the data with the highest data utility (DU) or value of information. In model-based approaches, the DU is evaluated based on the uncertain model itself and is therefore uncertain as well. Additionally, for non-linear models, data utility depends on the yet unobserved measurement values and can only be estimated as an expected value over an assumed distribution of possible measurement values. Both factors introduce uncertainty into the optimization of field campaigns. We propose and investigate a sequential interaction scheme between campaign optimization, data collection and model calibration. The field campaign is split in individual segments. Each segment consists of optimization, segment-wise data collection, and successive model calibration or data assimilation. By doing so, (1) the expected data utility for the newly collected data is replaced by their actual one, (2) the calibration restricts both conceptual and parametric model uncertainty, and thus (3) the distribution of possible future data values for the subsequent campaign segments also changes. Hence, the model to describe the real system improves successively with each collected data segment, and so does the estimate of the yet remaining data requirements to achieve the overall investigation goals. We will show that using the sequentially improved model for the optimal design (OD) of the remaining field campaign leads to superior and more targeted designs.However, this traditional sequential OD optimizes small data segments one-by-one. In such a strategy, possible mutual dependencies with the possible data values and the optimization of data values collection in later segments are neglected. This allows a

  5. Global chemical weather forecasts for field campaign planning: predictions and observations of large-scale features during MINOS, CONTRACE, and INDOEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The first global tropospheric forecasts of O3 and its precursors have been used in the daily flight planning of field measurement campaigns. The 3-D chemistry-transport model MATCH-MPIC is driven by meteorological data from a weather center (NCEP to produce daily 3-day forecasts of the global distributions of O3 and related gases, as well as regional CO tracers. This paper describes the forecast system and its use in three field campaigns, MINOS, CONTRACE and INDOEX. An overview is given of the forecasts by MATCH-MPIC and by three other chemical weather forecast models (EURAD, ECHAM, and FLEXPART, focusing on O3 and CO. Total CO and regional CO tracers were found to be the most valuable gases for flight planning, due to their relatively well-defined anthropogenic source regions and lifetimes of one to a few months. CO was in good agreement with the observations on nearly all the flights (generally  r > 0.7, and the relative RMS differences for the deviations from the means was less than 20%. In every case in which the chemical weather forecasts were primarily responsible for the flight plans, the targeted features were observed. Three forecasted phenomena are discussed in detail: outflow from Asia observed in the Mediterranean upper troposphere during MINOS, outflow from North America observed in the middle troposphere over northern Europe during CONTRACE, and the location of the "chemical ITCZ'' over the Indian Ocean during INDOEX. In particular it is shown that although intercontinental pollution plumes such as those observed during MINOS and CONTRACE occur repeatedly during the months around the campaigns, their frequency is sufficiently low (~10--30% of the time that global chemical weather forecasts are important for enabling them to be observed during limited-duration field campaigns. The MATCH-MPIC chemical weather forecasts, including an interface for making customized figures from the output, are available for community use via http://www.mpch-mainz.mpg.de/~lawrence/forecasts.html.

  6. ULF fluctuations of the geomagnetic field and ionospheric sounding measurements at low latitudes during the first CAWSES campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Villante

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of ULF geomagnetic field fluctuations at low latitudes during the first CAWSES campaign (29 March-3 April 2004. During the whole campaign, mainly in the prenoon sector, a moderate Pc3-4 pulsation activity is observed, clearly related to interplanetary upstream waves. On 3 April, in correspondence to the Earth's arrival of a coronal mass ejection, two SIs are observed whose waveforms are indicative of a contribution of the high-latitude ionospheric currents to the low-latitude ground field. During the following geomagnetic storm, low frequency (Pc5 waves are observed at discrete frequencies. Their correspondence with the same frequencies detected in the radial components of the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind speed suggests that Alfvénic solar wind fluctuations may act as direct drivers of magnetospheric fluctuations. A cross-phase analysis, using different pairs of stations, is also presented for identifying field line resonant frequencies and monitoring changes in plasmaspheric mass density. Lastly, an analysis of ionospheric vertical soundings, measured at the Rome ionosonde station (41.8° N, 12.5° E, and vertical TEC measurements deduced from GPS signals within an European network shows the relation between the ULF resonances in the inner magnetosphere and thermal plasma density variations during geomagnetically quiet conditions, in contrast to various storm phases at the end of the CAWSES campaign.

  7. Coherent Structure Patterns Affect Energy Balance Closure: Evidence from Virtual Measurements for a Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; De Roo, F.; Heinze, R.; Eder, F.; Huq, S.; Schmidt, M.; Kalthoff, N.; Mauder, M.

    2015-12-01

    The energy balance closure problem is a well-known issue of eddy-covariance measurements. However, the underlying mechanisms are still under debate. Recent evidence suggests that organized low-frequency motion contributes significantly to the energy balance residual, because the associated transport cannot be captured by a point measurement. In this study, we carry out virtual measurements using a PArallelized Large-Eddy Simulation Model (PALM). In order to represent specific measurement days of the field campaign "High definition clouds and precipitation for advancing climate prediction" (HD(CP)²), which was part of the project "High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for Advancing Climate Prediction"(HOPE) in 2013, the simulations were driven by synoptic-scale COSMO-DE reanalysis data. Planet boundary layer height, the vertical profiles of variance and skewness of vertical wind were analyzed and a comparison with Doppler-lidar observations shows good agreement. Furthermore, simulated energy imbalances were compared with real-world imbalances from two eddy-covariance stations in the model domain. Particularly poor energy balance closure was found for a day with cellular organized structures in the surface layer, while the energy balance closure was better on other days with roll-like structures. This finding might be one explanation why the energy balance closure generally tends to improve with increasing friction velocity, since roll-like structures are typically associated with higher wind speeds. In order to gain insight into the partitioning of the energy balance residual between the sensible and latent heat fluxes, we further employed a control volume method within the numerical simulation. Hence, advection and storage terms were identified as the most important causes for the lack of energy balance closure by the eddy-covariance method. The results of the virtual measurements indicate that the "missing" part of the surface energy mainly comes from the

  8. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 Terrestrial Ecosystem Project (Geco) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, Kolby [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility GoAmazon campaign, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science (TES)-funded Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon 2014/15) terrestrial ecosystem project (Geco) was designed to: • evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of leaf-level algorithms for biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions in Amazon forests near Manaus, Brazil, and • conduct mechanistic field studies to characterize biochemical and physiological processes governing leaf- and landscape-scale tropical forest BVOC emissions, and the influence of environmental drivers that are expected to change with a warming climate. Through a close interaction between modeling and observational activities, including the training of MS and PhD graduate students, post-doctoral students, and technicians at the National Institute for Amazon Research (INPA), the study aimed at improving the representation of BVOC-mediated biosphere-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks under a warming climate. BVOCs can form cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that influence precipitation dynamics and modify the quality of down welling radiation for photosynthesis. However, our ability to represent these coupled biosphere-atmosphere processes in Earth system models suffers from poor understanding of the functions, identities, quantities, and seasonal patterns of BVOC emissions from tropical forests as well as their biological and environmental controls. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), the current BVOC sub-model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), was evaluated to explore mechanistic controls over BVOC emissions. Based on that analysis, a combination of observations and experiments were studied in forests near Manaus, Brazil, to test existing parameterizations and algorithm structures in MEGAN. The model was actively modified as needed to improve tropical BVOC emission simulations on

  9. Simultaneous Retrieval of Aerosol and Cloud Properties During the MILAGRO Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobelspiesse, K.; Cairns, B.; Redemann, J.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Stohl, A.

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of Direct Climate Forcing (DCF) due to aerosols in cloudy areas has historically been a difficult task, mainly because of a lack of appropriate measurements. Recently, passive remote sensing instruments have been developed that have the potential to retrieve both cloud and aerosol properties using polarimetric, multiple view angle, and multi spectral observations, and therefore determine DCF from aerosols above clouds. One such instrument is the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), an airborne prototype of a sensor on the NASA Glory satellite, which unfortunately failed to reach orbit during its launch in March of 2011. In the spring of 2006, the RSP was deployed on an aircraft based in Veracruz, Mexico, as part of the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) field campaign. On 13 March, the RSP over flew an aerosol layer lofted above a low altitude marine stratocumulus cloud close to shore in the Gulf of Mexico. We investigate the feasibility of retrieving aerosol properties over clouds using these data. Our approach is to first determine cloud droplet size distribution using the angular location of the cloud bow and other features in the polarized reflectance. The selected cloud was then used in a multiple scattering radiative transfer model optimization to determine the aerosol optical properties and fine tune the cloud size distribution. In this scene, we were able to retrieve aerosol optical depth, the fine mode aerosol size distribution parameters and the cloud droplet size distribution parameters to a degree of accuracy required for climate modeling. This required assumptions about the aerosol vertical distribution and the optical properties of the coarse aerosol size mode. A sensitivity study was also performed to place this study in the context of future systematic scanning polarimeter observations, which found that the aerosol complex refractive index can also be observed accurately if the aerosol optical depth is

  10. Ice nucleation properties of atmospheric aerosol particles collected during a field campaign in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Petya; Maier, Stefanie; Lang-Yona, Naama; Tamm, Alexandra; Meusel, Hannah; Pöschl, Ulrich; Weber, Bettina; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles, including desert and soil dust as well as marine aerosols, are well known to act as ice nuclei (IN) and thus have been investigated in numerous ice nucleation studies. Based on their cloud condensation nuclei potential and their impacts on radiative properties of clouds (via scattering and absorption of solar radiation), aerosol particles may significantly affect the cloud and precipitation development. Atmospheric aerosols of the Eastern Mediterranean have been described to be dominated by desert dust, but only little is known on their composition and ice nucleating properties. In this study we investigated the ice nucleating ability of total suspended particles (TSP), collected at the remote site Agia Marina Xyliatou on Cyprus during a field campaign in April 2016. Airborne TSP samples containing air masses of various types such as African (Saharan) and Arabian dust and European and Middle Eastern pollution were collected on glass fiber filters at 24 h intervals. Sampling was performed ˜5 m above ground level and ˜521 m above sea level. During the sampling period, two major dust storms (PM 10max 118 μg/m3 and 66 μg/m3) and a rain event (rainfall amount: 3.4 mm) were documented. Chemical and physical characterizations of the particles were analyzed experimentally through filtration, thermal, chemical and enzyme treatments. Immersion freezing experiments were performed at relatively high subzero temperatures (-1 to -15˚ C) using the mono ice nucleation array. Preliminary results indicate that highest IN particle numbers (INPs) occurred during the second dust storm event with lower particle concentrations. Treatments at 60˚ C lead to a gradual IN deactivation, indicating the presence of biological INPs, which were observed to be larger than 300 kDa. Additional results originating from this study will be shown. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by the DFG Ice Nuclei Research Unit (INUIT).

  11. Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties during the MILAGRO field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Knobelspiesse

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of Direct Climate Forcing (DCF due to aerosols in cloudy areas has historically been a difficult task, mainly because of a lack of appropriate measurements. The Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS, on the upcoming NASA Glory mission, has the potential to retrieve both cloud and aerosol properties because of its polarimetric, multiple view angle, and multi spectral observations. The APS airborne prototype is the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP, which has similar characteristics and can be used to demonstrate APS capabilities. In the spring of 2006, the RSP was deployed on an aircraft based in Veracruz, Mexico, as part of the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO field campaign. On March 13th, the RSP over flew an aerosol layer lofted above a low altitude marine stratocumulus cloud close to shore in the Gulf of Mexico. We investigate the feasibility of retrieving aerosol properties over clouds using these data. Our approach is to first determine cloud droplet size distribution using the angular location of the cloud bow and other features in the polarized reflectance. The selected cloud was then used in a multiple scattering radiative transfer model optimization to determine the aerosol optical properties and fine tune the cloud size distribution. In this scene, we were able to retrieve aerosol optical depth, the fine mode aerosol size distribution and the cloud droplet size distribution to a degree of accuracy required for climate modeling. This required assumptions about the aerosol vertical distribution and the optical properties of the coarse aerosol size mode. A sensitivity study was also performed to place this case study in the context of the potential for future systematic APS observations of this kind, which found that the aerosol complex refractive index can also be observed accurately if the aerosol optical depth is larger than roughly 0.8 at a wavelength of 0.555 μm.

  12. Hydroxyl and Hydroperoxy Radical Chemistry during the MCMA-2006 Field Campaign: Measurement and Model Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusanter, S.; Vimal, D.; Stevens, P. S.; Volkamer, R.; Molina, L. T.

    2007-12-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) field campaign, held in March 2006, was a unique opportunity to collect data in one of the most polluted megacities in the world. Such environments exhibit a complex oxidation chemistry involving a strong coupling between odd hydrogen radicals (HOX=OH+HO2) and nitrogen oxides species (NOX=NO+NO2). High levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NOX control the HOX budget and lead to elevated tropospheric ozone formation. The HOX-NOX coupling can be investigated by comparing measured and model-predicted HOx concentrations. Atmospheric HOX concentrations were measured by the Indiana University laser-induced fluorescence instrument and data were collected at the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo between 14 and 31 March. Measured hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations are comparable to that measured in less polluted urban environments and suggest that the OH concentrations are highly buffered under high NOX conditions. In contrast, hydroperoxy radical (HO2) concentrations are more sensitive to the NOX levels and are highly variable between different urban sites. Enhanced levels of OH and HO2 radicals were observed on several days between 9h30-11h00 AM and suggest an additional HOX source for the morning hours and/or a fast HOX cycling under the high NOX conditions of the MCMA. A preliminary investigation of the HOX chemistry occurring in the MCMA urban atmosphere was performed using a photochemical box model based on the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM). Model comparisons will be presented and the agreement between measured and predicted HOX concentrations will be discussed.

  13. Field experimental vaccination campaigns against myxomatosis and their effectiveness in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Catarina; Ramírez, Esther; Castro, Francisca; Ferreras, Pablo; Alves, Paulo Célio; Redpath, Steve; Villafuerte, Rafael

    2009-11-23

    We conducted a field experiment in SW Spain to test the efficacy of a myxomatosis vaccine, a viral disease strongly affecting wild rabbit populations, by assessing individual survival and antibody seroprevalence of monthly live-trapped, vaccinated (N=466) and unvaccinated (N=558) juvenile wild rabbits, between April and October 2007. Eight percent of all juveniles caught from April to June showed maternal antibodies against myxomatosis, whereas all animals were seropositive to the disease after the outbreak. Juveniles vaccinated before the outbreak showed 17% higher survival (31% vs. 14%) and an increased mortality probability of 8% after the outbreak. Results suggest that only a costly and systematic vaccination performed before the annual myxomatosis outbreak, would improve the survival of juvenile rabbits, a premise not always accomplished that compromises its efficacy in the field.

  14. Multi-year satellite and surface observations of AOD in support of two-column aerosol project (TCAP) field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassianov, Evgueni; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry; Fast, Jerome; Tomlinson, Jason; Ferrare, Richard; Hostetler, Chris; Hair, John

    2012-11-01

    We use combined multi-year measurements from the surface and space for assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosol properties within a large (~400x400 km) region centered on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, along the East Coast of the United States. The ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements at Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO) site and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensors on board the Terra and Aqua satellites provide horizontal and temporal variations of aerosol optical depth, while the Cloud- Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) offers the altitudes of aerosol-layers. The combined ground-based and satellite measurements indicated several interesting features among which were the large differences in the aerosol properties observed in July and February. We applied the climatology of aerosol properties for designing the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The TCAP field campaign involves 12-month deployment (started July 1, 2012) of the ground-based ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) on Cape Cod and complimentary aerosol observations from two research aircraft: the DOE Gulfstream-1 (G-1) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) B200 King Air. Using results from the coordinated G-1 and B200 flights during the recent (July, 2012) Intensive Observation Period, we demonstrated that the G-1 in situ measurements and B200 active remote sensing can provide complementary information on the temporal and spatial changes of the aerosol properties off the coast of North America.

  15. Integrated field testing of planetary robotics vision processing: the PRoVisG campaign in Tenerife 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paar, G.; Waugh, L.; Barnes, D. P.; Pajdla, T.; Woods, M.; Graf, H.-R.; Gao, Y.; Willner, K.; Muller, J.-P.; Li, R.

    2012-01-01

    In order to maximize the use of a robotic probe during its limited lifetime, scientists immediately have to be provided the best achievable visual quality of 3D data products. The EU FP7-SPACE Project PRoVisG (2008-2012) develops technology for the rapid processing and effective representation of visual data by improving ground processing facilities. In September 2011 PRoVisG held a Field Trials campaign in the Caldera of Tenerife to verify the implemented 3D Vision processing mechanisms and to collect various sets of reference data in representative environment. The campaign was strongly supported by the Astrium UK Rover Bridget as a representative platform which allows simultaneous onboard mounting and powering of various vision sensors such as the Aberystwyth ExoMars PanCam Emulator (AUPE). The paper covers the preparation work for such a campaign and highlights the experiments that include standard operations- and science- related components but also data capture to verify specific processing functions. We give an overview of the captured data and the compiled and envisaged processing results, as well as a summary of the test sites, logistics and test assets utilized during the campaign.

  16. Global Hawk dropsonde observations of the Arctic atmosphere obtained during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) field campaign

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Intrieri; Boer, G.; Shupe, M. D.; J. R. Spackman; J. Wang; P. J. Neiman; Wick, G. A.; T. F. Hock; R. E. Hood

    2014-01-01

    In February and March of 2011, the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) was deployed over the Pacific Ocean and the Arctic during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) field campaign. The WISPAR science missions were designed to (1) mprove our understanding of Pacific weather systems and the polar atmosphere; (2) evaluate operational use of unmanned aircraft for investigating these atmospheric events; and (3) demonstrate operational and research applic...

  17. HYMEX-SOPI the field campaign dedicated to heavy precipitation and flash flooding in the Northwestern Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Ducrocq, V; Braud, I.; S. Davolio; Ferretti, R.; Flamant, C; Jansa, A.; Kalthoff, N.; Richard, E.; Taupier-Letage, I.; Ayral, P. A.; Belamari, S.; A. Berne; Borga, M; Boudevillain, B.; Bock, O.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean region is frequently affected by heavy precipitation events associated with flash floods, landslides, and mudslides that cause hundreds of millions of euros in damages per year and, often, casualties. A major field campaign was devoted to heavy precipitation and flash floods from 5 September to 6 November 2012 within the framework of the 10-yr international Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX) dedicated to the hydrological cycle and related high-impact ...

  18. Influence of clouds on the spectral actinic flux density in the lower troposphere (INSPECTRO: overview of the field campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thiel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation is the key factor driving tropospheric photochemistry. It is strongly modulated by clouds and aerosols. A quantitative understanding of the radiation field and its effect on photochemistry is thus only possible with a detailed knowledge of the interaction between clouds and radiation. The overall objective of the project INSPECTRO was the characterization of the three-dimensional actinic radiation field under cloudy conditions. This was achieved during two measurement campaigns in Norfolk (East Anglia, UK and Lower Bavaria (Germany combining space-based, aircraft and ground-based measurements as well as simulations with the one-dimensional radiation transfer model UVSPEC and the three-dimensional radiation transfer model MYSTIC.

    During both campaigns the spectral actinic flux density was measured at several locations at ground level and in the air by up to four different aircraft. This allows the comparison of measured and simulated actinic radiation profiles. In addition satellite data were used to complete the information of the three dimensional input data set for the simulation. A three-dimensional simulation of actinic flux density data under cloudy sky conditions requires a realistic simulation of the cloud field to be used as an input for the 3-D radiation transfer model calculations. Two different approaches were applied, to derive high- and low-resolution data sets, with a grid resolution of about 100 m and 1 km, respectively.

    The results of the measured and simulated radiation profiles as well as the results of the ground based measurements are presented in terms of photolysis rate profiles for ozone and nitrogen dioxide. During both campaigns all spectroradiometer systems agreed within ±10% if mandatory corrections e.g. stray light correction were applied. Stability changes of the systems were below 5% over the 4 week campaign periods and negligible over a few days. The J(O1D data of

  19. Influence of clouds on the spectral actinic flux density in the lower troposphere (INSPECTRO: overview of the field campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Topaloglou

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation is the key factor driving tropospheric photochemistry. It is strongly modulated by clouds and aerosols. A quantitative understanding of the radiation field and its effect on photochemistry is thus only possible with a detailed knowledge of the interaction between clouds and radiation. The overall objective of the project INSPECTRO was the characterization of the three-dimensional actinic radiation field under cloudy conditions. This was achieved during two measurement campaigns in Norfolk (East Anglia, UK and Lower Bavaria (Germany combining space-based, aircraft and ground-based measurements as well as simulations with the one-dimensional radiation transfer model UVSPEC and the three-dimensional radiation transfer model MYSTIC.

    During both campaigns the spectral actinic flux density was measured at several locations at ground level and in the air by up to four different aircraft. This allows the comparison of measured and simulated actinic radiation profiles. In addition satellite data were used to complete the information of the three dimensional input data set for the simulation. A three-dimensional simulation of actinic flux density data under cloudy sky conditions requires a realistic simulation of the cloud field to be used as an input for the 3-D radiation transfer model calculations. Two different approaches were applied, to derive high- and low-resolution data sets, with a grid resolution of about 100 m and 1 km, respectively.

    The results of the measured and simulated radiation profiles as well as the results of the ground based measurements are presented in terms of photolysis rate profiles for ozone and nitrogen dioxide. During both campaigns all spectroradiometer systems agreed within ±10% if mandatory corrections e.g. stray light correction were applied. Stability changes of the systems were below 5% over the 4 week campaign periods and negligible over a few days. The J(O1D data of

  20. Comparisons of cirrus cloud formation and evolution lifetime between five field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, M.; Zondlo, M. A.; DiGangi, J. P.; O'Brien, A.; Heymsfield, A.; Rogers, D. C.; Beaton, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    In order to understand the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds, it is important to understand the formation and evolution of the environments where ice crystals form and reside on the microscale (~100 m). Uncertainties remain in simulating/parameterizing the evolution of ice crystals, which require more analyses in the Lagrangian view. However, most in situ observations are in the Eulerian view and are restricted from examining the lifecycle of cirrus clouds. In this work, a new method of Diao et al. GRL (2013)* is used to separate out five phases of ice crystal evolution, using the horizontal spatial relationships between ice supersaturated regions (ISSRs) and ice crystal regions (ICRs). In-situ, aircraft-based observations from five flight campaigns are used to compare the evolution processes of ISSRs and ICRs, which include the National Science Foundation HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) Global campaign (2009-2011 Arctic to Antarctic over the central Pacific Ocean), the Stratosphere Troposphere Analyses Regional Transport 2008 (START08) campaign (2008 North America), the Pre-Depression Investigation of Cloud-Systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) campaign (2010 tropical western Atlantic), the Tropical Ocean Troposphere Exchange of Reactive Halogen Species and Oxygenated VOC (2012 Costa Rica), and the Deep Convection, Clouds, and Chemistry (DC3) campaign (2011 Interior North America). To understand the evolution of ICRs and ISSRs on the microscale, we compare the microphysical evolution processes inside ISSRs and ICRs in terms of relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi), ice crystal mean diameter (Dc) and ice crystal number density (Nc) at different meteorological and dynamical backgrounds during these five campaigns. Different phases of ice nucleation and evolution are contrasted to understand how cirrus clouds evolve from clear-sky ISS into fully developed clouds, and finally into sedimentation/evaporation phase. The results show that the ratios of

  1. Overview of the Cassini In-Situ Observations of Auroral Field-Aligned Currents During the 2013 Saturn Aurora Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, E. J.; Badman, S. V.; Cowley, S. W.; Dougherty, M. K.; Gurnett, D. A.; Jinks, S.; Kurth, W. S.; Mitchell, D. G.; Nichols, J. D.; Provan, G.; Pryor, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Saturn Aurora Campaign 2013 is a coordinated effort to provide a clearer understanding of Saturn's auroral emissions at multiple wavelengths in the upper atmosphere, and their associated magnetospheric signatures and dynamics. Structures such as Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) are known to play a significant role in the modulation of Saturn's auroral emissions via abrupt changes in the dynamic pressure associated with forward shocks at the start of the CIR compression regions. Recent observations from the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn have also taught us that the 'magnetosphere oscillations' observed in magnetic field perturbations in the northern and southern hemispheres, which are associated with the SKR modulations in each hemisphere, also significantly modulate the magnetosphere and auroral emissions. Here we present an overview of the in situ magnetosphere measurements during the campaign, along with an overview of the solar wind conditions upstream of Saturn inferred from the Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR) emissions. We will discuss evidence of the high-latitude field-aligned currents and plasma boundaries (e.g. the open-closed field line (or related) boundary) from the magnetic field data, plasma signatures and/or auroral hiss observations (using the Cassini magnetometer-MAG, the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument-MIMI, and the Radio Plasma Wave Science-RPWS instruments respectively). We will attempt to characterise the morphology and variability (e.g. co-latitude, intensity) of the current system(s) from both the knowledge of the northern or southern magnetosphere oscillation phase (according to the location of the spacecraft) and the inferred solar wind conditions. We will compare these results with available IR/UV auroral images from the campaign.

  2. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon: Sounding Enhancement Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Courtney [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this campaign was to provide higher temporal sampling of the vertical structure of the atmosphere during the two intensive observational periods (IOPs) of the GoAmazon 2014/15 campaign. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) baseline launches for 2014 and 2015 was 4 sondes/day at 2 am, 8 am, 2 pm, and 8 pm local time (LT) (6, 12, 18 and 0 Coordinated Universal Time [UTC]). However, rapid changes in boundary layer and free tropospheric temperature, humidity, and wind profiles happen throughout the diurnal cycle over Manaus, Brazil's complex forest canopy with resulting responses in aerosol, cloud, and precipitation characteristics. This campaign increased sampling to 5 sondes/day for the 2014 wet and dry season IOPs by adding a launch at 11 am (15 UTC) to capture rapid changes in boundary layer properties and convective cloud growth during that time. The extra launch also corresponded to the time of day the ARM Gulfstream (G-1) and German HALO aircraft most often flew, thus providing useful measurements of the large-scale environment during the flights. In addition, the extra launch will significantly add to the quality of AMF1 instrument retrievals and variational analysis forcing data set during the IOPs.

  3. GroundWinds 2000 field campaign: demonstration of new Doppler lidar technology and wind lidar data intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoe, James G.; Varma Raja, M. K. Rama; Hardesty, R. Michael; Brewer, W. Alan; Moore, Berrien, III; Ryan, James M.; Hays, Paul B.; Nardell, Carl A.; Gentry, Bruce M.; Day, Michelle; Rancourt, Kenneth

    2003-03-01

    A field campaign featuring three collocated Doppler wind lidars was conducted over ten days during September 2000 at the GroundWinds Observatory in New Hampshire. The lidars were dissimilar in wavelength and Doppler detection method. The GroundWinds lidar operated at 532 nm and used fringe-imaging direct detection, while the Goddard Lidar Observatory for Winds (GLOW) ran at 355 nm and employed double-edge filter direct detection, and the NOAA mini-MOPA operated at 10 microns and used heterodyne detection. The objectives of the campaign were (1) to demonstrate the capability of the GroundWinds lidar to measure winds while employing several novel components, and (2) to compare directly the radial wind velocities measured by the three lidars for as wide a variety of conditions as possible. Baseline wind profiles and ancillary meteorological data (temperature and humidity profiles) were obtained by launching GPS radiosondes from the observatory as frequently as every 90 minutes. During the final week of the campaign the lidars collected data along common lines-of-sight for several extended periods. The wind speed varied from light to jet stream values, and sky conditions ranged from clear to thick clouds. Intercomparisons of overlapping lidar and radiosonde observations show that all three lidars were able to measure wind given sufficient backscatter. At ranged volumes containing thicker clouds, and those beyond, the wind sensing capability of the direct detection lidars was adversely affected.

  4. A 12-month follow-up of an influenza vaccination campaign based on voluntary adherence: report on upper-respiratory symptoms among volunteers and non-volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Páris Ali Ramadan

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Routine immunization of groups at high risk for influenza has been progressively implemented as a matter of Brazilian public health policy. Although the benefits of the vaccination for healthy young adults are still controversial, it has been offered yearly to hundreds of thousands of Brazilian workers, generally as part of wellness initiatives in the workplace. OBJECTIVE: To study the characteristics of subjects that accepted or refused to be vaccinated against influenza and to report on respiratory symptoms in both groups, one year after the campaign date. DESIGN: A prospective observational study. SETTING: Workers at a subsidiary of an international bank in São Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 124 persons that did not accept and 145 that voluntarily accepted the vaccine completed 12 months of follow-up. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Data concerning gender, age, tobacco use, and any history of chronic respiratory illness such as asthma, bronchitis, rhinitis, and repetitive upper-respiratory infections, were recorded at the time of vaccination. After that, workers were asked monthly by questionnaire or telephone about respiratory symptoms, days of work lost and medical consultations. RESULTS: The results showed statistically significant differences regarding age (P = 0.004 with the vaccinated group (V being younger than the non-vaccinated (NV one, and with reference to previous repetitive upper-respiratory infections being higher among the V group (P < 0.0001. During the follow-up, the V group reported more occurrences of upper respiratory symptoms (P < 0.0001, due to both non-influenza (P < 0.0001 and influenza-like illness (P = 0.045. Differences were also found between V and NV groups concerning days off work and number of medical consultations due to upper-respiratory symptoms and non-influenza illness. Gender and history of repetitive upper-respiratory infections were the best predictors of influenza-like illness-related events. CONCLUSIONS

  5. Upper tropospheric water vapor: A field campaign of two Raman lidars, Airborne hygrometers, and Radiosondes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfi, S. Harvey; Turner, Dave; Evans, Keith; Whiteman, Dave; Schwemmer, Geary; Ferrare, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Water vapor in the atmosphere plays an important role in radiative transfer and the process of radiative balance so critical for understanding global change. It is the principal ingredient in cloud formation, one of the most difficult atmospheric processes to model, and the most variable component of the Earth-atmosphere albedo. And as a free molecule, it is the most active infrared absorber and emitter, thus, the most important greenhouse gas. The radiative impact of water vapor is important at all levels of the atmosphere. Even though moisture decreases by several orders-of-magnitude from the Earth's surface to the tropopause, recent research has shown that, from a radiative standpoint, a small percentage change in water vapor at any level is nearly equivalent. Therefore accurate and precise measurements of this important atmospheric constituent are needed at all levels to evaluate the full radiative impact. The need for improved measurements in the upper troposphere is particularly important because of the generally hostile (very dry and cold) conditions encountered. Because of the importance of water vapor to the understanding of radiative transfer, the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program initiated a series of measurement campaigns at the Cloud And Radiation Testbed (CART) site in Oklahoma, especially focused on atmospheric water vapor. Three water vapor intensive observation period (water vapor IOP) campaigns were planned. Two of the water vapor IOP campaigns have been completed: the first IOP was held during the fall of 1996 with a focus on boundary layer water vapor measurements, and the second was conducted during the fall of 1997 with a focus on both boundary layer moisture e and moisture in the upper troposphere. This paper presents a review of the intercomparisons of water vapor measurements in the upper troposphere aquired during the second water vapor IOP. Data to be presented include water vapor measurements ements

  6. Coincident Aerosol and H2O Retrievals versus HSI Imager Field Campaign ReportH2O Retrievals versus HSI Imager Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Gail P. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Cipar, John [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Armstrong, Peter S. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States); van den Bosch, J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Two spectrally calibrated tarpaulins (tarps) were co-located at a fixed Global Positioning System (GPS) position on the gravel antenna field at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Their placement was timed to coincide with the overflight of a new hyperspectral imaging satellite. The intention was to provide an analysis of the data obtained, including the measured and retrieved spectral albedos for the calibration tarps. Subsequently, a full suite of retrieved values of H2O column, and the aerosol overburden, were to be compared to those determined by alternate SGP ground truth assets. To the extent possible, the down-looking cloud images would be assessed against the all-sky images. Because cloud contamination above a certain level precludes the inversion processing of the satellite data, coupled with infrequent targeting opportunities, clear-sky conditions were imposed. The SGP site was chosen not only as a target of opportunity for satellite validation, but as perhaps the best coincident field measurement site, as established by DOE’s ARM Facility. The satellite team had every expectation of using the information obtained from the SGP to improve the inversion products for all subsequent satellite images, including the cloud and radiative models and parameterizations and, thereby, the performance assessment for subsequent and historic image collections. Coordinating with the SGP onsite team, four visits, all in 2009, to the Central Facility occurred: • June 6-8 (successful exploratory visit to plan tarp placements, etc.) • July 18-24 (canceled because of forecast for heavy clouds) • Sep 9-12 (ground tarps placed, onset of clouds) • Nov 7-9 (visit ultimately canceled because of weather predictions). As noted, in each instance, any significant overcast prediction precluded image collection from the satellite. Given the long task-scheduling procedures

  7. Absorption/transmission measurements of PSAP particle-laden filters from the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presser, Cary; Nazarian, Ashot; Conny, Joseph M.; Chand, Duli; Sedlacek, Arthur; Hubbe, John M.

    2016-12-02

    Absorptivity measurements with a laser-heating approach, referred to as the laser-driven thermal reactor (LDTR), were carried out in the infrared and applied at ambient (laboratory) non-reacting conditions to particle-laden filters from a three-wavelength (visible) particle/soot absorption photometer (PSAP). The particles were obtained during the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field campaign. The focus of this study was to determine the particle absorption coefficient from field-campaign filter samples using the LDTR approach, and compare results with other commercially available instrumentation (in this case with the PSAP, which has been compared with numerous other optical techniques). Advantages of the LDTR approach include 1) direct determination of material absorption, 2) information on the filter optical properties, and 3) identification of the filter material effects on particle absorption (e.g., leading to particle absorption enhancement or shadowing). For measurements carried out under ambient conditions, the particle absorptivity is obtained with a thermocouple placed flush with the filter back surface and the laser probe beam impinging normal to the filter particle-laden surface. Thus, in principle one can employ a simple experimental arrangement to measure simultaneously both the transmissivity and absorptivity (at different discrete wavelengths) and ascertain the particle absorption coefficient. For this investigation, LDTR measurements were carried out with PSAP filters (pairs with both blank and exposed filters) from eight different days during the campaign, having relatively light but different particle loadings. The observed particles coating the filters were found to be carbonaceous (having broadband absorption characteristics). The LDTR absorbance compared well with results from both the PSAP. The analysis was also expanded to account for the filter fiber scattering on particle absorption in assessing particle absorption enhancement

  8. Biogenic Aerosols—Effects on Clouds and Climate: Snowfall Experiment Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseev, Dmitri [University of Helsinki

    2016-04-01

    The snowfall measurement campaign took place during deployment of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) in Finland. The campaign focused on understanding snowfall microphysics and characterizing performance of surface-based snowfall measurement instruments. This was achieved by combining triple frequency (X, Ka, W-band) radar observations of vertical structure of the precipitation, microwave radiometer observations of liquid water path (LWP), and lidar measurements of supercooled water layers with surface-based observations of snowfall rate and particle size distributions. To facilitate accurate surface measurements of snowfall properties, a double-fence intercomparison reference wind protection for the weighing precipitation gauge and two-dimensional (2D)-video disdrometer was built on site. Due to the duplication of some instruments, namely the 2D-video disdrometer and the weighing gauge, we were able to characterize their measurement errors as a function of wind speed, thus aiming at providing a correction procedure for the other ARM sites.

  9. The monthly-averaged and yearly-averaged cosine effect factor of a heliostat field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rabghi, O.M.; Elsayed, M.M. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Thermal Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Calculations are carried out to determine the dependence of the monthly-averaged and the yearly-averaged daily cosine effect factor on the pertinent parameters. The results are plotted on charts for each month and for the full year. These results cover latitude angles between 0 and 45[sup o]N, for fields with radii up to 50 tower height. In addition, the results are expressed in mathematical correlations to facilitate using them in computer applications. A procedure is outlined to use the present results to preliminary layout the heliostat field, and to predict the rated MW[sub th] reflected by the heliostat field during a period of a month, several months, or a year. (author)

  10. The effect of breast cancer awareness month on internet search activity - a comparison with awareness campaigns for lung and prostate cancer

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Ronan W

    2011-10-12

    Abstract Background This work aimed to assess the effects of the annual breast cancer awareness campaign on internet search activity, and to compare these effects with those of similar campaigns in prostate and lung cancer. We further aimed to assess overall levels of online activity relating to all three neoplasms between 2004 and 2009. Methods Google Insights for Search was employed to examine search trends for the term "breast cancer", across all Google domains between January 2004 and December 2009 (6 years). Search trends for both "prostate cancer" and "lung cancer" across all domains were also analysed for the same period, and these trends were compared with those for "breast cancer". Repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc analyses were performed to assess for significant differences in activity. Results Increased levels of online activity relating to breast cancer are consistently generated each October. There is a significantly higher level of background activity in breast cancer compared with that in lung or prostate cancer (p < 0.001), and the October campaign stimulates online activity more effectively than equivalent campaigns for these other malignancies (p < 0.001). Conclusions The annual breast cancer awareness campaign is proving effective in stimulating online activity and may hold useful lessons for other cancer awareness initiatives.

  11. Sources, Composition, and Properties of Newly Formed and Regional Organic Aerosol in a Boreal Forest during the Biogenic Aerosol: Effects on Clouds and Climate Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Joel [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Thornton Laboratory participated in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Biogenic Aerosol Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) campaign in Finland by deploying our mass spectrometer. We then participated in environmental simulation chamber studies at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Thereafter, we analyzed the results as demonstrated in the several presentations and publications. The field campaign and initial environmental chamber studies are described below.

  12. Methods to assess the impact of mass oral cholera vaccination campaigns under real field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Deen

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest to use oral cholera vaccination as an additional strategy to water and sanitation interventions against endemic and epidemic cholera. There are two internationally-available and WHO-prequalified oral cholera vaccines: an inactivated vaccine containing killed whole-cells of V. cholerae O1 with recombinant cholera toxin B-subunit (WC/rBS and a bivalent inactivated vaccine containing killed whole cells of V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 (BivWC. The efficacy, effectiveness, direct and indirect (herd protection conferred by WC/rBS and BivWC are well established. Yet governments may need local evidence of vaccine impact to justify and scale-up mass oral cholera vaccination campaigns. We discuss various approaches to assess oral cholera vaccine protection, which may be useful to policymakers and public health workers considering deployment and evaluation of the vaccine.

  13. Atmospheric polarimetric effects on GNSS Radio Occultations: the ROHP-PAZ field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Padullés

    2015-07-01

    2015. The main aim of the campaign is to identify and understand the factors that might affect the polarimetric GNSS observables. Studied for the first time, GNSS signals measured with two polarimetric antennas (H, horizontal and V, vertical are shown to discriminate heavy rain events, by comparing the measured phase difference between the H and V phase delays (Δ Φ in different weather scenarios. The measured phase difference indicates higher dispersion under rain conditions. When individual events are examined, significant increases of Δ Φ occur when the radio signals cross rain cells. Moreover, the amplitude of such signal is much higher than the theoretical prediction for precipitation; thus other sources of polarimetric signatures have been explored and identified. Modelling of other hydrometeors like melting particles and ice crystals have been proposed to explain the obtained measurements, with good agreement in more than 90 % of the cases.

  14. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements Using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, Gijs [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES); Lawrence, Dale [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Palo, Scott [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Argrow, Brian [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); LoDolce, Gabriel [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Curry, Nathan [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Weibel, Douglas [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Finnamore, W [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); D' Amore, P [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Borenstein, Steven [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Nichols, Tevis [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Elston, Jack [Blackswift Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States); Ivey, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bendure, Al [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schmid, Beat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Long, Chuck [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Telg, Hagen [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES); Gao, Rushan [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Hock, T [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Bland, Geoff [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) campaign was proposed with two central goals; to obtain scientifically relevant measurements of quantities related to clouds, aerosols, and radiation, including profiles of temperature, humidity, and aerosol particles, the structure of the arctic atmosphere during transitions between clear and cloudy states, measurements that would allow us to evaluate the performance of retrievals from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility remote sensors in the Arctic atmosphere, and information on the spatial variability of heat and moisture fluxes from the arctic surface; and to demonstrate unmanned aerial system (UAS) capabilities in obtaining measurements relevant to the ARM and ASR programs, particularly for improving our understanding of Arctic clouds and aerosols.

  15. Evaluation of the lake model FLake over a coastal lagoon during the THAUMEX field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Le Moigne

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The THAUMEX measurement campaign, carried out during the summer of 2011 in Thau, a coastal lagoon in southern France, focused on episodes of marine breezes. During the campaign, three intensive observation periods (IOPs were conducted and a large amount of data were collected. Subsequently, standalone modelling using the FLake lake model was used, first to assess the surface temperature and the surface energy balance, and second to determine the energy budget of the water column at the measurement site. Surface fluxes were validated against in situ measurements, and it was determined that heat exchanges are dominated by evaporation. We also demonstrated that the model was sensitive to the light extinction coefficient at Thau, due to its shallowness and clarity nature. A heat balance was calculated, and the inclusion of a radiative temperature has improved it, especially by reducing the nocturnal evaporation. The FLake lake model was then evaluated in three-dimensional numerical simulations performed with the Meso-NH mesoscale model, in order to assess the changing structure of the boundary layer above the lagoon during the IOPs more accurately. We highlighted the first time ever when Meso-NH and FLake were coupled and proved the ability of the coupled system to forecast a complex phenomenon but also the importance of the use of the FLake model was pointed out. We demonstrated the impact of the lagoon and more precisely the Lido, a sandy strip of land between the lagoon and the Mediterranean Sea, on the vertical distribution of turbulent kinetic energy, evidence of the turbulence induced by the breeze. This study showed the complementarities between standalone and coupled simulations.

  16. Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds, and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Flynn, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS), a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) field campaign, was based out of Ellington Field in Houston, Texas, during August and September 2013. The study focused on pollution emissions and the evolution of gases and aerosols in deep convective outflow, and the influences and feedbacks of aerosol particles from anthropogenic pollution and biomass burning on meteorology, clouds, and climate. The project required three aircraft to accomplish these goals. The NASA DC-8 provided observations from near the surface to 12 km, while the NASA ER-2 provided high-altitude observations reaching into the lower stratosphere as well as important remote-sensing observations connecting satellites with observations from lower-flying aircraft and surface sites. The SPEC, Inc. Learjet obtained aerosol and cloud microphysical measurement in convective clouds and convective outflow.

  17. On-Road Measurement of Vehichle VOC Emission Measurements During the 2003 Mexico City Metropolitan Area Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T.; Grimsrud, E.; Herndon, S.; Allwine, E.; Lamb, B.; Velasco, E.; Westberg, H.

    2004-12-01

    In the spring of 2003 (April 1-May 5), a multinational team of experts conducted an intensive, five-week field campaign in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The overall goal of this effort was to contribute to the understanding of the air quality problem in megacities. As part of the campaign the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory was equipped with state-of-the-art analytical instruments and deployed for measuring a variety of vehicle emissions in real time including CO2, NO2, NH3, HCHO, VOC's and volatile (at 600 °C) aerosol. The on-road measurement of vehicle VOC emissions were performed using a commercial version of the IONICON PTR-MS modified to operate onboard the mobile lab platform. A summary of the PTR-MS results from these and supporting laboratory experiments will be presented and discussed. In particular, selected chase events will be presented to illustrate the utility of the PTR-MS technique for characterizing vehicle VOC emission profiles in real time. VOC emission profiles for different vehicle engine types which include gasoline, diesel and compressed natural gas will be discussed and compared to the measurements from other high time response instruments deployed on the Aerodyne mobile van.

  18. Arctic Black Carbon Loading and Profile Using the Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur J [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-01

    One of the major issues confronting aerosol climate simulations of the Arctic and Antarctic cryospheres is the lack of detailed data on the vertical and spatial distribution of aerosols with which to test these models. This is due, in part, to the inherent difficulty of conducting such measurements in extreme environments. However given the pronounced sensitivity of the polar regions to radiative balance perturbations, it is incumbent upon our community to better understand and quantify these perturbations, and their unique feedbacks, so that robust model predictions of this region can be realized. One class of under-measured radiative forcing agents in the polar region is the absorbing aerosol—black carbon and brown carbon. Black carbon (BC; also referred to as light-absorbing carbon [LAC], refractory black carbon [rBC], and soot) is second only to CO2 as a positive forcing agent. Roughly 60% of BC emissions can be attributed to anthropogenic sources (fossil fuel combustion and open-pit cooking), with the remaining fraction being due to biomass burning. Brown carbon (BrC), a major component of biomass burning, collectively refers to non-BC carbonaceous aerosols that typically possess minimal light absorption at visible wavelengths but exhibit pronounced light absorption in the near-ultraviolet (UV) spectrum. Both species can be sourced locally or be remotely transported to the Arctic region and are expected to perturb the radiative balance. The work conducted in this field campaign addresses one of the more glaring deficiencies currently limiting improved quantification of the impact of BC radiative forcing in the cryosphere: the paucity of data on the vertical and spatial distributions of BC. By expanding the Gulfstream aircraft (G-1) payload for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility-sponsored ACME-V campaign to include the Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2)) and leveraging the ACME-V campaign

  19. The INCOMPASS project field and modelling campaign: Interaction of Convective Organization and Monsoon Precipitation, Atmosphere, Surface and Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Bhat, Ganapati; Evans, Jonathan; Madan, Ranju; Marsham, John; Martin, Gill; Mitra, Ashis; Mrudula, Gm; Parker, Douglas; Pattnaik, Sandeep; Rajagopal, En; Taylor, Christopher; Tripathi, Sachchida

    2017-04-01

    The INCOMPASS project uses data from a field and aircraft measurement campaign during the 2016 monsoon onset to better understand and predict monsoon rainfall. The monsoon supplies the majority of water in South Asia, however modelling and forecasting the monsoon from days to the season ahead is limited by large model errors that develop quickly. Likely problems lie in physical parametrizations such as convection, the boundary layer and land surface. At the same time, lack of detailed observations prevents more thorough understanding of monsoon circulation and its interaction with the land surface; a process governed by boundary layer and convective cloud dynamics. From May to July 2016, INCOMPASS used a modified BAe-146 jet aircraft operated by the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM), for the first project of this scale in India. The India and UK team flew around 100 hours of science sorties from bases in northern and southern India. Flights from Lucknow in the northern plains took measurements to the west and southeast to allow sampling of the complete contrast from dry desert air to the humid environment over the north Bay of Bengal. These routes were repeated in the pre-monsoon and monsoon phases, measuring contrasting surface and boundary layer structures. In addition, flights from the southern base in Bengaluru measured contrasts from the Arabian Sea, across the intense rains of the Western Ghats mountains, over the rain shadow in southeast India and over the southern Bay of Bengal. Flight planning was performed with the aid of forecasts from a new UK Met Office 4km limited area model. INCOMPASS also installed a network of surface flux towers, as well as operating a cloud-base ceilometer and performing intensive radiosonde launches from a supersite in Kanpur. Here we will outline preliminary results from the field campaign including new observations of the surface, boundary layer structure and atmospheric profiles from aircraft data. We

  20. B fields in OB stars (BOB): Concluding the FORS 2 observing campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöller, M.; Hubrig, S.; Fossati, L.; Carroll, T. A.; Briquet, M.; Oskinova, L. M.; Järvinen, S.; Ilyin, I.; Castro, N.; Morel, T.; Langer, N.; Przybilla, N.; Nieva, M.-F.; Kholtygin, A. F.; Sana, H.; Herrero, A.; Barbá, R. H.; de Koter, A.; BOB Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    Aims: The B fields in OB stars (BOB) Collaboration is based on an ESO Large Programme to study the occurrence rate, properties, and ultimately the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars. Methods: In the framework of this program, we carried out low-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of a large sample of massive stars using FORS 2 installed at the ESO VLT 8 m telescope. Results: We determined the magnetic field values with two completely independent reduction and analysis pipelines. Our in-depth study of the magnetic field measurements shows that differences between our two pipelines are usually well within 3σ errors. From the 32 observations of 28 OB stars, we were able to monitor the magnetic fields in CPD -57° 3509 and HD 164492C, confirm the magnetic field in HD 54879, and detect a magnetic field in CPD -62° 2124. We obtain a magnetic field detection rate of 6 ± 3% for the full sample of 69 OB stars observed with FORS 2 within the BOB program. For the preselected objects with a v sin i below 60 km s-1, we obtain a magnetic field detection rate of 5 ± 5%. We also discuss X-ray properties and multiplicity of the objects in our FORS 2 sample with respect to the magnetic field detections. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program ID 191.D-0255(E,G).

  1. Lidar Comparison for GoAmazon 2014/15 Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Henrique MJ [Universidade de Sao Paulo; Barja, B [Universidade de Sao Paulo; Landulfo, E [Universidade de Sao Paulo

    2016-04-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GoAmazon 2014/15) experiment uses the city of Manaus, Amazonas (AM), Brazil, in the setting of the surrounding green ocean as a natural laboratory for understanding the effects of present and future anthropogenic pollution on the aerosol and cloud life cycle in the tropics. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supported this experiment through the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s first Mobile Facility (AMF-1) in the city of Manacapuru, which is 100 km downwind of Manaus, from January 1 2014 to December 31 2015. During the second Intensive Operational Period (IOP) from August 15 to October 15 2014, three lidar systems were operated simultaneously at different experimental sites, and an instrument comparison campaign was carried out during the period October 4 to 10, during which the mobile lidar system from Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares-Universidade de São Paulo was brought from the T2 site (Iranduba) to the other sites (T3 [Manacapuru] and then T0e-Embrapa). In this report we present the data collected by the mobile lidar system at the DOE-ARM site and compare its measurements with those from the micro-pulse lidar system running at that site.

  2. Aldehydes in Artic Snow at Barrow (AK) during the Barrow 2009 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Manuel; Houdier, Stephan; Gallet, Jean-Charles; Domine, Florent; Beine, Harry; Jacobi, Hans-Werner; Weibring, Petter; Walega, James; Fried, Alan; Richter, Dirk

    2010-05-01

    Aldehydes (RCHO) are key reactive intermediates in hydrocarbon oxidation and in OH cycling. They are also emitted and taken up by the snowpack and a combination of both physical and photochemical processes are likely involved. Since the photolysis of aldehydes is a source of HOx radicals, these exchanges can modify the oxidative capacity of the overlying air. Formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (MeCHO), glyoxal (CHOCHO) and methylglyoxal (MeCOCHO) concentrations were measured in over 250 snow samples collected during the Barrow 2009 campaign between late February and mid April 2009. Both continental and marine snowpacks were studied as well as frost flowers on sea ice. We found that HCHO was the most abundant aldehyde (1 to 9 µg/L), but significant concentrations of dicarbonyls glyoxal and methylglyoxal were also measured for the first time in Arctic snow. Similar concentrations were measured for the continental and marine snowpacks but some frost flowers exhibited HCHO concentrations as high as 150 µg/L. Daily cycles in the surface snow were observed for HCHO and CH3CHO but also for the dicarbonyls and we concluded to a photochemical production of these species from organic precursors. Additional data such as gas phase concentrations for the measured aldehydes and snow physical properties (specific surface area, density …) will be used to discuss on the location of aldehydes in the snow. This is essential to identify and quantify the physical processes that occur during the exchange of trace gases between the snow and the atmosphere.

  3. Harvard Bounce Apparatus GoAmazon 2014/15 Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Adam [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Martin, Scott T. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The effect of relative humidity (RH) on the physical state of particulate matter during the GoAmazon 2014/15 campaign was investigated through the use of particle rebound (or lack thereof) during impaction. The physics governing particle rebound have been previously modeled and can be attributed to the surface and material properties. The physical state of secondary organic material is regulated by several factors, including the local RH, the recent RH history in the case of hysteresis, and chemical composition. Across the range of atmospheric RH, hygroscopic water uptake can occur and transitions from higher to lower viscosity phases are possible. By varying the particulate matter water content and observing particle rebound as a function of RH, the phase state of the organic material under investigation can be determined. Custom-made impactors were employed to study the effects of RH (up to 95%) on the particle physical state. Results inferred from the particle rebound measurements indicate that, under ambient conditions (RH >80%), particulate matter in Amazonia can be considered in a liquid phase state. However, during certain time periods, a fraction (10 to 30%) of particulate matter is found to rebound during the highest RH conditions, which indicates the presence of hydrophobic particles. The source of the hydrophobic particulates appears to be anthropogenic, from either biomass burning or the Manaus plume.

  4. Modeling studies on the formation of Hurricane Helene: the impact of GPS dropwindsondes from the NAMMA 2006 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, Michael J.; Pasken, Robert W.; Chiao, Sen; Dunion, Jason; Halverson, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    Numerical simulations, using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model in concert with GPS dropwindsondes released during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses 2006 Field Campaign, were conducted to provide additional insight on SAL-TC interaction. Using NCEP Final analysis datasets to initialize the WRF, a sensitivity test was performed on the assimilated (i.e., observation nudging) GPS dropwindsondes to understand the effects of individual variables (i.e., moisture, temperature, and winds) on the simulation and determine the extent of improvement when compared to available observations. The results suggested that GPS dropwindsonde temperature data provided the most significant difference in the simulated storm organization, storm strength, and synoptic environment, but all of the variables assimilated at the same time give a more representative mesoscale and synoptic picture.

  5. B fields in OB stars (BOB): Concluding the FORS2 observing campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Schoeller, M; Fossati, L; Carroll, T A; Briquet, M; Oskinova, L M; Jarvinen, S; Ilyin, I; Castro, N; Morel, T; Langer, N; Przybilla, N; Nieva, M F; Kholtygin, A F; Sana, H; Herrero, A; Barba, R H; de Koter, A

    2016-01-01

    The "B fields in OB stars" (BOB) collaboration is based on an ESO Large Programme, to study the occurrence rate, properties, and ultimately the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars. In the framework of this programme, we carried out low-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of a large sample of massive stars using FORS2 installed at the ESO VLT 8-m telescope. We determined the magnetic field values with two completely independent reduction and analysis pipelines. Our in-depth study of the magnetic field measurements shows that differences between our two pipelines are usually well within 3sigma errors. From the 32 observations of 28 OB stars, we were able to monitor the magnetic fields in CPD-57 3509 and HD164492C, confirm the magnetic field in HD54879, and detect a magnetic field in CPD-62 2124. We obtain a magnetic field detection rate of 6+-3% for the full sample of 69 OB stars observed with FORS2 within the BOB programme. For the pre-selected objects with a v sin i below 60 km/s, we obtain a m...

  6. Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, J. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Berg, L. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burleyson, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fan, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Feng, Z. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hagos, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guenther, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Laskin, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ovchinnikov, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shilling, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shrivastava, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xiao, H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zaveri, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zelenyuk-Imre, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, J. [University of California-Irvine; Turner, D. [National Severe Storms Laboratory; Gentine, P. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Cumulus convection is an important component in the atmospheric radiation budget and hydrologic cycle over the southern Great Plains and over many regions of the world, particularly during the summertime growing season when intense turbulence induced by surface radiation couples the land surface to clouds. Current convective cloud parameterizations contain uncertainties resulting in part from insufficient coincident data that couples cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties to inhomogeneities in land surface, boundary layer, and aerosol properties. The Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) campaign was designed to provide a detailed set of measurements that are needed to obtain a more complete understanding of the lifecycle of shallow clouds by coupling cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties to land surface properties, ecosystems, and aerosols. Some of the land-atmosphere-cloud interactions that can be studied using HI-SCALE data are shown in Figure 1. HI-SCALE consisted of two 4-week intensive operation periods (IOPs), one in the spring (April 24-May 21) and the other in the late summer (August 28-September 24) of 2016, to take advantage of different stages of the plant lifecycle, the distribution of “greenness” for various types of vegetation in the vicinity of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, and aerosol properties that vary during the growing season. As expected, satellite measurements indicated that the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was much “greener” in the vicinity of the SGP site during the spring IOP than the late summer IOP as a result of winter wheat maturing in the spring and being harvested in the early summer. As shown in Figure 2, temperatures were cooler than average and soil moisture was high during the spring IOP, while temperatures were warmer than average and

  7. North Slope of Alaska Snow Intensive Operational Period Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verlinde, Johannes [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Bartholomew, Mary Jane [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cherry, Jessica [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Ritsche, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-05-15

    The campaign was motivated by the need to improve the quantification of measurements of ice-phase precipitation in the Arctic and was by the acquisition and deployment of the new X- and Ka/W-band radars. These radars opened up an opportunity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility to obtain spatial estimates of snowfall rates using the polarimetric X-band measurements and dual-frequency measurements (using different combinations of the three wavelengths). However, calculations of X- and Ka-band radar back-scattering of ice crystal aggregates with their complex structure suggest that the commonly used T-matrix approach (Matrosov et al. 2007) for modeling the radar back-scattering underestimates the reflectivity by several decibels, with errors increasing with increasing radar frequency (Botta et al. 2010, 2011). Moreover, the X-band polarimetric measurements and the Ka/W-band measurements are sensitive to the assumed shape of the snow (Botta et al. 2011). One of the five ARM two-dimensional video disdrometers (manufactured by Joanneum Research) were deployed in Barrow at the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site from 1 October, 2011 to 31 May, 2012 in an attempt to use the instrument in a novel way. The instrument was originally designed to measure the drop size distribution of rain but it seemed worthwhile to explore its capability to quantify ice precipitation particle size and shape distributions in the cold north for scattering calculations and precipitation estimations. Furthermore, this deployment gave us an opportunity to see how reliable it could be in arctic conditions.

  8. Deployment of ARM Aerial Facility Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence global climate by scattering and absorbing sunlight (direct effects) and by changing the microphysical structure, lifetime, and coverage of clouds (indirect effects). While it is widely accepted that aerosol indirect effects cool the Earth-atmosphere system by increasing cloud reflectivity and coverage, the magnitudes of the indirect effects are poorly quantified. One key aerosol property for understanding aerosol indirect effects is the ability of aerosol particles to form cloud droplets at atmospheric relevant supersaturations—i.e., cloud condensation Nuclei (CCN) activity. For particles consisting of typical atmospheric inorganic compounds, their CCN activity is well understood and can be effectively predicted using Köhler theory based on physicochemical properties of the solute, such as its mass, molar volume, and activity coefficient. However, atmospheric aerosols often consist of hundreds of organic species, which can contribute ~20-90% to the total fine aerosol mass. Depending on their properties, organic species can significantly influence the ability of aerosol particles to act as CCN and form cloud droplets. This project focuses on the CCN activity of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) compounds formed from key biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under representative conditions, and the relationship between the hygroscopicity and composition of organic aerosols. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Aerial Facility (AAF) scanning mobility particles sizer (SMPS) was deployed during a ~ 2-week intensive measurement campaign, taking place February 10-February 23, 2016 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Environmental Simulation Chamber. The SMPS was operated with a CCN counter (CCNc). Aerosol particles were first classified by the differential mobility analyzer inside the SMPS; the classified aerosol will then be simultaneously characterized

  9. Deployment of ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Atmospheric aerosols influence global climate by scattering and absorbing sunlight (direct effects) and by changing the microphysical structure, lifetime, and coverage of clouds (indirect effects). While it is widely accepted that aerosol indirect effects act to cool the Earth-atmosphere system by increasing cloud reflectivity and coverage, the magnitudes of the indirect effects are poorly quantified. One key aerosol property for understanding aerosol indirect effects is the ability of aerosol particles to form cloud droplets at atmospheric relevant supersaturations—i.e., cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. For particles consisting of typical atmospheric inorganic compounds, their CCN activity is well understood and can be effectively predicted using Köhler theory based on physicochemical properties of the solute, such as its mass, molar volume, and activity coefficient. However, atmospheric aerosols often consist of hundreds of organic species, which can contribute ~20-90% to the total fine aerosol mass. Depending on their properties, organic species can significantly influence the ability of aerosol particles to act as CCN and form cloud droplets. This project focuses on the CCN activity of secondary organic aerosol compounds formed from key biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under representative conditions, and the relationship between the hygroscopicity and composition of organic aerosols. The ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) scanning mobility particles sizer (SMPS) was deployed during a ~ 6 week intensive measurement campaign, taking place June 15-July 31 2015 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Environmental Simulation Chamber. The SMPS was operated with a CCN counter. Aerosol particles were first classified by the differential mobility analyzer inside the SMPS; the classified aerosol will then be simultaneously characterized by a condensation particle counter (part of the SMPS) and the CCN counter.

  10. Intercomparison of field measurements of nitrous acid (HONO) during the SHARP campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, J. P.; Dibb, J.; Lee, B. H.; Rappenglück, B.; Wood, E. C.; Levy, M.; Zhang, R.-Y.; Lefer, B.; Ren, X.-R.; Stutz, J.; Tsai, C.; Ackermann, L.; Golovko, J.; Herndon, S. C.; Oakes, M.; Meng, Q.-Y.; Munger, J. W.; Zahniser, M.; Zheng, J.

    2014-05-01

    Because of the importance of HONO as a radical reservoir, consistent and accurate measurements of its concentration are needed. As part of SHARP (Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors), time series of HONO were obtained by six different measurement techniques on the roof of the Moody Tower at the University of Houston. Techniques used were long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), stripping coil-visible absorption photometry (SC-AP), long path absorption photometry (LOPAP®), mist chamber/ion chromatography (MC-IC), quantum cascade-tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy (QC-TILDAS), and ion drift-chemical ionization mass spectrometry (ID-CIMS). Various combinations of techniques were in operation from 15 April through 31 May 2009. All instruments recorded a similar diurnal pattern of HONO concentrations with higher median and mean values during the night than during the day. Highest values were observed in the final 2 weeks of the campaign. Inlets for the MC-IC, SC-AP, and QC-TILDAS were collocated and agreed most closely with each other based on several measures. Largest differences between pairs of measurements were evident during the day for concentrations IC, and QC-TILDAS converged to within about 20%, with slightly larger discrepancies when DOAS was considered. During the first 2 weeks, HONO measured by ID-CIMS agreed with these techniques, but ID-CIMS reported higher values during the afternoon and evening of the final 4 weeks, possibly from interference from unknown sources. A number of factors, including building related sources, likely affected measured concentrations.

  11. Climatology of aerosol optical properties near the New England coast: preparation for the Two Column Aerosol Program (TCAP) field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, C. M.; Chand, D.; Berg, L.; Kassianov, E.; Chapman, E.

    2011-12-01

    A key objective of the U.S. Department of Energy's Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) is to provide observations with which to evaluate the uncertainty in model simulations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and their relation to estimates of aerosol radiative forcing and hence, to climate. To meet this objective, detailed ground-based aerosol measurements will be made via deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and the Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) at Cape Cod, Massachusetts for a 12-month period starting in the summer of 2012. These measurements will be supported by two scheduled aircraft campaigns using the ARM Aerial Facility's (AAF) G-1 aircraft and the NASA B-200 aircraft in July 2012 and again in February 2013. Each campaign will include sampling within two atmospheric columns using the aircrafts; one column will be located directly over, or very close to, Cape Cod, while the second will be over a relatively remote maritime location. This preliminary study presented here is designed to select the optimum location of the second, remote maritime atmospheric column using the mean and standard deviation of previously observed AODs from surface and space. An area with the large variability in AOD will be considered as a potential location for evaluation of the outputs from atmospheric models. In this study, we present regional climatological values of (1) AOD from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua satellite platforms; (2) single scattering albedo from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) satellite; (3) the vertical distribution of aerosol layers from the Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite; and (4) the long term aerosol optical properties from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) surface sunphotometer at Martha's Vineyard, MA. Seasonal and geographical variations in these quantities will be analyzed and possible explanations will be presented based on

  12. Analysis of the Uncertainty in Wind Measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Doppler Lidar during XPIA: Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom, Rob [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    In March and April of 2015, the ARM Doppler lidar that was formerly operated at the Tropical Western Pacific site in Darwin, Australia (S/N 0710-08) was deployed to the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) for the eXperimental Planetary boundary-layer Instrument Assessment (XPIA) field campaign. The goal of the XPIA field campaign was to investigate methods of using multiple Doppler lidars to obtain high-resolution three-dimensional measurements of winds and turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer, and to characterize the uncertainties in these measurements. The ARM Doppler lidar was one of many Doppler lidar systems that participated in this study. During XPIA the 300-m tower at the BAO site was instrumented with well-calibrated sonic anemometers at six levels. These sonic anemometers provided highly accurate reference measurements against which the lidars could be compared. Thus, the deployment of the ARM Doppler lidar during XPIA offered a rare opportunity for the ARM program to characterize the uncertainties in their lidar wind measurements. Results of the lidar-tower comparison indicate that the lidar wind speed measurements are essentially unbiased (~1cm s-1), with a random error of approximately 50 cm s-1. Two methods of uncertainty estimation were tested. The first method was found to produce uncertainties that were too low. The second method produced estimates that were more accurate and better indicators of data quality. As of December 2015, the first method is being used by the ARM Doppler lidar wind value-added product (VAP). One outcome of this work will be to update this VAP to use the second method for uncertainty estimation.

  13. The effect of breast cancer awareness month on internet search activity - a comparison with awareness campaigns for lung and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweeney Karl J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This work aimed to assess the effects of the annual breast cancer awareness campaign on internet search activity, and to compare these effects with those of similar campaigns in prostate and lung cancer. We further aimed to assess overall levels of online activity relating to all three neoplasms between 2004 and 2009. Methods Google Insights for Search was employed to examine search trends for the term "breast cancer", across all Google domains between January 2004 and December 2009 (6 years. Search trends for both "prostate cancer" and "lung cancer" across all domains were also analysed for the same period, and these trends were compared with those for "breast cancer". Repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc analyses were performed to assess for significant differences in activity. Results Increased levels of online activity relating to breast cancer are consistently generated each October. There is a significantly higher level of background activity in breast cancer compared with that in lung or prostate cancer (p Conclusions The annual breast cancer awareness campaign is proving effective in stimulating online activity and may hold useful lessons for other cancer awareness initiatives.

  14. Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosol Particulates at the Southern Great Plains Site Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) fractions of PM2.5 particulate matter at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) sampling site for a 6-month period during the summer of 2013. The site is in a rural location remote from any populated areas, so it would be expected to reflect carbon concentration over long-distance transport patterns. During the same period in 2012, a number of prairie fires in Oklahoma and Texas had produced large plumes of smoke particles, but OC and EC particles had not been quantified. In addition, during the summer months, other wild fires, such as forest fires in the Rocky Mountain states and other areas, can produce carbon aerosols that are transported over long distances. Both of these source types would be expected to contain mixtures of both OC and EC.

  15. Turbulence influence on urban air pollution in a hot spot in Madrid: comparison of winter and summer field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagüe, Carlos; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Sastre, Mariano; Maqueda, Gregorio; Arrillaga, Jon A.; Artiñano, Begoña; Díaz-Ramiro, Elías; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Borge, Rafael; Narros, Adolfo; Pérez, Javier; Quaassdorff, Christina

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is a major problem in the city of Madrid during weak synoptic forcing, since the presence of atmospheric stability conditions often develops night surface-based thermal inversions and subsidence inversions during daytime for several consecutive days, reaching high levels of NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) concentration. In this context, the TECNAIRE-CM (Innovative technologies for the assessment and improvement of urban air quality) research project has developed two field campaigns along 2015 (winter and summer) in a hot spot in the city of Madrid (Fernández Ladreda square). This hot spot includes one important intersection of different streets and also the start of the A42 motorway, which crosses down the square through a tunnel of about 150 m length. Besides, the location has numerous traffic lights and a lot of pedestrians walking in the vicinity. In addition to direct measurements related to air quality, data from different meteorological variables were recorded in order to characterize the atmospheric conditions. Moreover, two sonic anemometers where deployed to carry out a micrometeorological assessment of physical processes that take place in the urban atmospheric surface layer (TKE, friction velocity and sensible heat flux were evaluated). The evolution of the turbulence will be analyzed and compared for both campaigns (winter and summer), searching for the key seasonal differences as well as the importance of the different scales influencing the diffusion of pollutants (from multi resolution flux decomposition -MRFD- analysis). Specific case studies corresponding to high levels of pollution will be studied in detailed, to understand local pollution dynamics under the influence of both high traffic density and low turbulence situations. This work has been financed by Madrid Regional Research Plan through TECNAIRE (P2013/MAE-2972).

  16. Comparison of Ground- and Space-based Radar Observations with Disdrometer Measurements During the PECAN Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A. D.; Rasmussen, K. L.; Bodine, D. J.; Dougherty, E.

    2015-12-01

    Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) was a large field campaign that studied nocturnal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), convective initiation, bores, and low-level jets across the central plains in the United States. MCSs are responsible for over half of the warm-season precipitation across the central U.S. plains. The rainfall from deep convection of these systems over land have been observed to be underestimated by satellite radar rainfall-retrieval algorithms by as much as 40 percent. These algorithms have a strong dependence on the generally unmeasured rain drop-size distribution (DSD). During the campaign, our group measured rainfall DSDs, precipitation fall velocities, and total precipitation in the convective and stratiform regions of MCSs using Ott Parsivel optical laser disdrometers. The disdrometers were co-located with mobile pod units that measured temperature, wind, and relative humidity for quality control purposes. Data from the operational NEXRAD radar in LaCrosse, Wisconsin and space-based radar measurements from a Global Precipitation Measurement satellite overpass on July 13, 2015 were used for the analysis. The focus of this study is to compare DSD measurements from the disdrometers to radars in an effort to reduce errors in existing rainfall-retrieval algorithms. The error analysis consists of substituting measured DSDs into existing quantitative precipitation estimation techniques (e.g. Z-R relationships and dual-polarization rain estimates) and comparing these estimates to ground measurements of total precipitation. The results from this study will improve climatological estimates of total precipitation in continental convection that are used in hydrological studies, climate models, and other applications.

  17. Surface Measurements of dust/local aerosol properties over Northern China during 2008 China-US joined dust field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Huang, J.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the detailed characteristics and underlying mechanisms of aerosol physical and optical parameters over China Loess Plateau and its potential impacts on the regional/global climate. In order to characterize the emission, transport, and removal of atmospheric pollutants emitted from East Asia, the 2008 China-US joined field campaign are conducted from late April to May 2008 focused specifically on the Asian direct measurements of dust and pollution transport, following the plume from the Northern China which from the Taklamakan desert and Gobi desert to the Eastern Pacific and into North America. Such measurements are crucial to understanding how the dust and the pollution plume (including black carbon) are modified as their age. Three sites involved this campaign, including one permanent site (Semi-Arid Climate & Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL)) (located in Yuzhong, 35.95N/104.1E), one SACOL's Mobile Facility (SMF) (deployed in Jintai, 37.57N/104.23E) and the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurements(ARM) Ancillary Facility (AAF mobile laboratories, SMART-COMMIT) (deployed in Zhangye, 39.08N/100.27E). Results indicate that the dust plumes are transported from the surface to a long distance from their sources have a significant influence on the air quality in the study area. The meteorological analysis indicates that these polluted layers are not from local sources during dust plume and this large-scale transport of dust and pollutants remains a major uncertainty in quantifying the global effect of emissions from Northern China.

  18. Contribution to the EFEDA field campaigns in 1991 and 1994; measurements and first data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogink-Hendriks, M.J.; Kabat, P.; Elbers, J.A.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.; sic Elsen, van der H.G.M.

    1995-01-01

    In 1991 and 1994 SC-DLO participated in the ECHIVAL Field Experiment in a Desertification-Threatened Area (EFEDA) supported by the Commission of the European Communities (Directorate General XII). SC-DLO's contribution to EFEDA was focused on a multiple-scale approach. Measurements on single leaves,

  19. Pilot application of Delft3D Flexible Mesh: assisting a field campaign at the sand engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijendijk, Arjen; Braat, L.; Waagmeester, Niek; Scheel, Freek

    2015-01-01

    For the execution of field measurements around the Sand Engine during MegaPEX2014 there was a need for operational model predictions. Local river outflow causes non-uniform velocities and spatially complex current patterns near the Sand Engine. For assessing the optimal timing and location of the in

  20. Contribution to the EFEDA field campaigns in 1991 and 1994; measurements and first data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogink-Hendriks, M.J.; Kabat, P.; Elbers, J.A.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.; sic Elsen, van der H.G.M.

    1995-01-01

    In 1991 and 1994 SC-DLO participated in the ECHIVAL Field Experiment in a Desertification-Threatened Area (EFEDA) supported by the Commission of the European Communities (Directorate General XII). SC-DLO's contribution to EFEDA was focused on a multiple-scale approach. Measurements on single leaves,

  1. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at Landsat spatial scales during the BEAREX'08 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robust spatial information about environmental water use at field scales and daily to seasonal timesteps will benefit many applications in agriculture and water resource management. This information is particularly critical in arid climates where freshwater resources are limited or expensive, and g...

  2. Variable stars in two open clusters within the Kepler/K2-Campaign-0 field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nardiello, D.; Bedin, L. R.; Nascimbeni, V.

    2015-01-01

    and exoplanetary transits in four fields containing five nearby open clusters spanning a broad range of ages. More in detail, our project will (1) constitute a preparatory survey for the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher for the Northern hemisphere (HARPS-N) mounted at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo...

  3. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at Landsat spatial scales during the BEAREX'08 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Martha C.; Kustas, William P.; Alfieri, Joseph G.; Gao, Feng; Hain, Christopher; Prueger, John H.; Evett, Steven; Colaizzi, Paul; Howell, Terry; Chávez, José L.

    2012-12-01

    Robust spatial information about environmental water use at field scales and daily to seasonal timesteps will benefit many applications in agriculture and water resource management. This information is particularly critical in arid climates where freshwater resources are limited or expensive, and groundwater supplies are being depleted at unsustainable rates to support irrigated agriculture as well as municipal and industrial uses. Gridded evapotranspiration (ET) information at field scales can be obtained periodically using land-surface temperature-based surface energy balance algorithms applied to moderate resolution satellite data from systems like Landsat, which collects thermal-band imagery every 16 days at a resolution of approximately 100 m. The challenge is in finding methods for interpolating between ET snapshots developed at the time of a clear-sky Landsat overpass to provide complete daily time-series over a growing season. This study examines the efficacy of a simple gap-filling algorithm designed for applications in data-sparse regions, which does not require local ground measurements of weather or rainfall, or estimates of soil texture. The algorithm relies on general conservation of the ratio between actual ET and a reference ET, generated from satellite insolation data and standard meteorological fields from a mesoscale model. The algorithm was tested with ET retrievals from the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) surface energy balance model and associated DisALEXI flux disaggregation technique, which uses Landsat-scale thermal imagery to reduce regional ALEXI maps to a finer spatial resolution. Daily ET at the Landsat scale was compared with lysimeter and eddy covariance flux measurements collected during the Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing EXperiment of 2008 (BEAREX08), conducted in an irrigated agricultural area in the Texas Panhandle under highly advective conditions. The simple gap-filling algorithm performed

  4. A SOCIAL MEDIA CAMPAIGN APPLICATION IN A MARKETING FIELD EXPERIENCE COURSE

    OpenAIRE

    Mine Ucok Hughes

    2014-01-01

    Most university students today use social media daily, are knowledgeable about a myriad of applications, and can navigate numerous platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter. Despite their affinity for social media, however, it is not clear whether or not they understand how social media can be used to create effective marketing strategies. This paper describes a social media assignment that was incorporated into a marketing field experience course for undergraduate students. The aim of the pape...

  5. Comparisons of Wind Speed Retrievals from an Airborne Microwave Radiometer (AMPR) with Satellite-Based Observations During the OLYMPEX/RADEX Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Timothy J.; Biswas, Sayak

    2017-01-01

    AMPR is an airborne instrument that flew aboard the NASA ER-2 during the OLYMPEX/RADEX field campaign in late 2015. This poster's goal is to explore how well the instrument can retrieve near-surface wind speed over the ocean.

  6. Assessment of the Aerosol Optics Component of the Coupled WRF-CMAQ Model usingCARES Field Campaign data and a Single Column Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES), a field campaign held in central California in June 2010, provides a unique opportunity to assess the aerosol optics modeling component of the two-way coupled Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) – Community Multisc...

  7. Ship-based Surface Flux Observations Under Atmospheric Rivers During the CALWATER 2015 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, B.; Fairall, C. W.; Intrieri, J. M.; Wolfe, D. E.; Pezoa, S.

    2015-12-01

    The NOAA Physical Sciences Division portable flux system was deployed on the R/V Ron Brown as part of the surface observational strategy for the CALWATER 2015 field investigation. Measurements included turbulent fluxes of temperature, water vapor and wind stress. A refined 'best' set of bulk meteorological measurements for the duration of the cruise was produced from combined NOAA, DOE ARM-AMF2 and shipboard sensors. Direct eddy correlation and bulk model estimates of sensible and latent heat are broadly consistent (RMSE transport budget.

  8. 3D Visualization of near real-time remote-sensing observation for hurricanes field campaign using Google Earth API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Turk, J.; Vu, Q.; Knosp, B.; Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Poulsen, W. L.; Licata, S.

    2009-12-01

    NASA is planning a new field experiment, the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP), in the summer of 2010 to better understand how tropical storms form and develop into major hurricanes. The DC-8 aircraft and the Global Hawk Unmanned Airborne System (UAS) will be deployed loaded with instruments for measurements including lightning, temperature, 3D wind, precipitation, liquid and ice water contents, aerosol and cloud profiles. During the field campaign, both the spaceborne and the airborne observations will be collected in real-time and integrated with the hurricane forecast models. This observation-model integration will help the campaign achieve its science goals by allowing team members to effectively plan the mission with current forecasts. To support the GRIP experiment, JPL developed a website for interactive visualization of all related remote-sensing observations in the GRIP’s geographical domain using the new Google Earth API. All the observations are collected in near real-time (NRT) with 2 to 5 hour latency. The observations include a 1KM blended Sea Surface Temperature (SST) map from GHRSST L2P products; 6-hour composite images of GOES IR; stability indices, temperature and vapor profiles from AIRS and AMSU-B; microwave brightness temperature and rain index maps from AMSR-E, SSMI and TRMM-TMI; ocean surface wind vectors, vorticity and divergence of the wind from QuikSCAT; the 3D precipitation structure from TRMM-PR and vertical profiles of cloud and precipitation from CloudSAT. All the NRT observations are collected from the data centers and science facilities at NASA and NOAA, subsetted, re-projected, and composited into hourly or daily data products depending on the frequency of the observation. The data products are then displayed on the 3D Google Earth plug-in at the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) website. The data products offered by the TCIS in the Google Earth display include image overlays, wind vectors, clickable

  9. Understanding the Effect of Aerosol Properties on Cloud Droplet Formation during TCAP Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cziczo, Daniel [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The formation of clouds is an essential element in understanding the Earth’s radiative budget. Liquid water clouds form when the relative humidity exceeds saturation and condensedphase water nucleates on atmospheric particulate matter. The effect of aerosol properties such as size, morphology, and composition on cloud droplet formation has been studied theoretically as well as in the laboratory and field. Almost without exception these studies have been limited to parallel measurements of aerosol properties and cloud formation or collection of material after the cloud has formed, at which point nucleation information has been lost. Studies of this sort are adequate when a large fraction of the aerosol activates, but correlations and resulting model parameterizations are much more uncertain at lower supersaturations and activated fractions.

  10. An overview of measurement comparisons from the INTEX-B/MILAGRO airborne field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Kleb

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of the NASA's INTEX-B mission, the NASA DC-8 and NSF C-130 conducted three wing-tip to wing-tip comparison flights. The intercomparison flights sampled a variety of atmospheric conditions (polluted urban, non-polluted, marine boundary layer, clean and polluted free troposphere. These comparisons form a basis to establish data consistency, but also should also be viewed as a continuation of efforts aiming to better understand and reduce measurement differences as identified in earlier field intercomparison exercises. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of 140 intercomparisons of data collected during INTEX-B. For interpretation and most effective use of these results, the reader is strongly urged to consult with the instrument principle investigator.

  11. Lessons Learned from the Wide Field Camera 3 TV1 Test Campaign and Correlation Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Hume; Stavley, Richard; Bast, William

    2007-01-01

    In January 2004, shortly after the Columbia accident, future servicing missions to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) were cancelled. In response to this, further work on the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument was ceased. Given the maturity level of the design, a characterization thermal test (TV1) was completed in case the mission was re-instated or an alternate mission found on which to fly the instrument. This thermal test yielded some valuable lessons learned with respect to testing configurations and modeling/correlation practices, including: 1. Ensure that the thermal design can be tested 2. Ensure that the model has sufficient detail for accurate predictions 3. Ensure that the power associated with all active control devices is predicted 4. Avoid unit changes for existing models. This paper documents the difficulties presented when these recommendations were not followed.

  12. University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Sky Imager Cloud Position Study Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleissl, J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Urquhart, B. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Ghonima, M. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Dahlin, E. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Nguyen, A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Kurtz, B. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Chow, C. W. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Mejia, F. A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    During the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Sky Imager Cloud Position Study, two University of California, San Diego Sky Imagers (USI) (Figure 1) were deployed the U.S. Department of Energy(DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains SGP) research facility. The UCSD Sky Imagers were placed 1.7 km apart to allow for stereographic determination of the cloud height for clouds over approximately 1.5 km. Images with a 180-degree field of view were captured from both systems during daylight hours every 30 seconds beginning on March 11, 2013 and ending on November 4, 2013. The spatial resolution of the images was 1,748 × 1,748, and the intensity resolution was 16 bits using a high-dynamic-range capture process. The cameras use a fisheye lens, so the images are distorted following an equisolid angle projection.

  13. An Overview of Measurement Comparisons from the INTEX-B/MILAGRO Airborne Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleb, Mary M.; Chen, Gao; Crawford, James H.; Flocke, Frank M.; Brown, Clyde C.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the NASA's INTEX-B mission, the NASA DC-8 and NSF C-130 conducted three wing-tip to wing-tip comparison flights. The intercomparison flights sampled a variety of atmospheric conditions (polluted urban, non-polluted, marine boundary layer, clean and polluted free troposphere). These comparisons form a basis to establish data consistency, but also should also be viewed as a continuation of efforts aiming to better understand and reduce measurement differences as identified in earlier field intercomparison exercises. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of 140 intercomparisons of data collected as well as a record of the measurement consistency demonstrated during INTEX-B. It is the primary goal to provide necessary information for the future research to determine if the observations from different INTEX-B platforms/instrument are consistent within the PI reported uncertainties and used in integrated analysis. This paper may also contribute to the formulation strategy for future instrument developments. For interpretation and most effective use of these results, the reader is strongly urged to consult with the instrument principle investigator.

  14. STORMVEX. Ice Nuclei and Cloud Condensation Nuclei Characterization Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cziczo, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between aerosol particles and the formation of clouds is among the most uncertain aspects in our current understanding of climate change. Warm clouds have been the most extensively studied, in large part because they are normally close to the Earth’s surface and only contain large concentrations of liquid droplets. Ice and mixed-phase clouds have been less studied even though they have extensive global coverage and dominate precipitation formation. Because they require low temperatures to form, both cloud types are infrequently found at ground level, resulting in more difficult field studies. Complex mixtures of liquid and ice elements, normally at much lower concentrations than found in warm clouds, require precise separation techniques and accurate identification of phase. Because they have proved so difficult to study, the climatic impact of ice-containing clouds remains unresolved. In this study, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and associated single particles’ composition and size were measured at a high-elevation research site—Storm Peak Lab, east of Steamboat Springs, Colorado, operated by the Desert Research Institute. Detailed composition analyses were presented to compare CCN activation with single-particle composition. In collaboration with the scientists of the Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX), our goal was to relate these findings to the cloud characteristics and the effect of anthropogenic activities.

  15. Field Observation of the Green Ocean Amazon. Neutral Cluster Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petaja, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Backman, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Manninen, H. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wimmer, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The neutral cluster and air ion spectrometer (NAIS) was deployed to the T3 site for Intensive Operations Periods 1 and 2 (IOP1 and IOP2). The NAIS is an instrument that measures aerosol particle and ion number size distributions in the mobility diameter range of 0.8 to 42 nm, corresponding to electrical mobility range between 3.2 and 0.0013 cm2 V-1 s-1. New particle formation (NPF) events were detected using the NAIS at the T3 field site during IOP1 and IOP2. Secondary NPF is a globally important source of aerosol number. To fully explain atmospheric NPF and subsequent growth, we need to directly measure the initial steps of the formation processes in different environments, including rain forest. Particle formation characteristics, such as formation and growth rates, were used as indicators of the relevant processes and participating compounds in the initial formation. In a case of parallel ion and neutral cluster measurements, we estimated the relative contribution of ion-induced and neutral nucleation to the total particle formation.

  16. AIUB-RL02: an improved time-series of monthly gravity fields from GRACE data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, U.; Jäggi, A.; Jean, Y.; Beutler, G.

    2016-05-01

    The new release AIUB-RL02 of monthly gravity models from GRACE GPS and K-Band range-rate data is based on reprocessed satellite orbits referring to the reference frame IGb08. The release is consistent with the IERS2010 conventions. Improvements with respect to its predecessor AIUB-RL01 include the use of reprocessed (RL02) GRACE observations, new atmosphere and ocean dealiasing products (RL05), an upgraded ocean tide model (EOT11A), and the interpolation of shallow ocean tides (admittances). The stochastic parametrization of AIUB-RL02 was adapted to include daily accelerometer scale factors, which drastically reduces spurious signal at the 161 d period in C20 and at other low degree and order gravity field coefficients. Moreover, the correlation between the noise in the monthly gravity models and solar activity is considerably reduced in the new release. The signal and the noise content of the new AIUB-RL02 monthly gravity fields are studied and calibrated errors are derived from their non-secular and non-seasonal variability. The short-period time-variable signal over the oceans, mostly representing noise, is reduced by 50 per cent with respect to AIUB-RL01. Compared to the official GFZ-RL05a and CSR-RL05 monthly models, the AIUB-RL02 stands out by its low noise at high degrees, a fact emerging from the estimation of seasonal variations for selected river basins and of mass trends in polar regions. Two versions of the monthly AIUB-RL02 gravity models, with spherical harmonics resolution of degree and order 60 and 90, respectively, are available for the time period from March 2003 to March 2014 at the International Center for Global Earth Models or from ftp://ftp.unibe.ch/aiub/GRAVITY/GRACE (last accessed 22 March 2016).

  17. Capital Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandro, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight articles focus on capital campaigns including setting goals (D. Dalessandro), the lead gift (D. A. Campbell), motivating trustees (J. J. Ianolli, Jr.), alumni associations (W. B. Adams), role of public relations officers (R. L. Williams), special events( H.R. Gilbert), the campaign document (R. King), and case statements (D. R. Treadwell,…

  18. Comparing Aerosol Retrievals from Ground-Based Instruments at the Impact-Pm Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupinski, M.; Bradley, C. L.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Xu, F.; Diner, D. J.; Clements, C. B.; Camacho, C.

    2016-12-01

    Detection of aerosol types, components having different size and chemical composition, over urban areas is important for understanding their impact on health and climate. In particular, sustained contact with size-differentiated airborne particulate matter: PM10 and PM2.5 can lead to adverse health effects such as asthma attacks, heart and lung diseases, and premature mortality. Multi-angular polarimetric measurements have been advocated in recent years as an additional tool to better understand and retrieve the aerosol properties needed for improved predictions of aerosol impart on air quality and climate. We deployed the ground-based Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (GroundMSPI) for accurate spectropolarimetric and radiance measurements co-located with the AERONET CIMEL sun photometer and a Halo Doppler 18 m resolution lidar from San José State University at the Garland-Fresno Air Quality supersite in Fresno, CA on July 7 during the Imaging Polarimetric Assessment and Characterization of Tropospheric Particulate Matter (ImPACT-PM) field experiment. GroundMSPI sampled the atmospheric scattering phase function in and 90 degrees out of the principal plane every 15 minutes in an automated manner, utilizing the 2-axis gimbal mount in elevation and azimuth. The goal of this work is verify atmospheric measurement of GroundMSPI with the coincident CIMEL sun photometer and ground-based lidar. Diffuse-sky radiance measurements of GroundMSPI are compared with the CIMEL sun photometer throughout the day. AERONET aerosol parameters such as size, shape, and index of refraction as well as lidar aerosol extinction profiles will be used in a forward radiative transfer model to compare with GroundMSPI observations and optimize these parameters to best match GroundMSPI data.

  19. Radiative Energetics of Mineral Dust Aerosol over Zhangye China during the AMY 2008 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, R. A.; Tsay, S.; Ji, Q.; Hsu, C.; Bell, S.; Li, C.; Wang, C.

    2010-12-01

    In support of the DOE ARM program, NASA Goddard’s mobile ground-based laboratories (SMART-COMMIT) were deployed to Zhangye China (39.082°N; 100.276°E) from April-June 2008 as an ARM Ancillary Facility (AAF) to support the Asian Monsoon Year (AMY) field study. The primary objective at Zhangye, a semi-arid region located between the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts, was to both capture and characterize dust aerosol near the source region and to determine its direct aerosol radiative effects (DARE). To facilitate this study, the AAF’s Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), a key instrument for spectrally characterizing the thermal IR, is employed to retrieve the daytime/nighttime dust IR aerosol optical thickness (AOT) for several notable dust events. Regional dust microphysical and mineralogy measurements are also used for developing a representative aerosol optical model of dust single-scattering properties. The retrieved AOT are then inputted into a 1-D radiative transfer model constrained by local measurements to evaluate dust’s local instantaneous shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) DARE at the surface and top of the atmosphere (TOA) along with the heating rate profiles under cloud-free atmospheres. Comparisons of the SW DARE are made with a previous study over the same area using broadband data from thermal dome effect corrected pyranometers and the significance of the LW effects relative to the SW is examined. This study is part of an on-going effort to complete a global assessment of dust DARE for the major dust source regions of the world.

  20. FIREX-Related Biomass Burning Research Using ARM Single-Particle Soot Photometer Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onasch, Timothy B [Aerodyne Research, Inc.; Sedlacek, Arthur J [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The scientific focus of this study was to investigate and quantify the mass loadings, chemical compositions, and optical properties of biomass burning particulate emissions generated in the laboratory from Western U.S. fuels using a similar instrument suite to the one deployed on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft during the 2013 Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field study (Kleinman and Sedlacek, 2013). We deployed the single-particle soot photometer (SP2) to make measurements of biomass burning refractory black carbon (rBC) mass loadings and size distributions to correlate with non-refractory particulate matter (NR-PM; i.e., HR-AMS) and rBC (SP-AMS) measurements as a function of photo-oxidation processes in an environmental chamber. With these measurements, we will address the following scientific questions: 1. What are the emission indices (g/kg fuel) of rBC from various wildland fuels from the Pacific Northwest (i.e., relevant to BBOP analysis) as a function of combustion conditions and simulated atmospheric processing in an environmental chamber? 2. What are the optical properties (e.g., mass-specific absorption cross-section [MAC], single-scattering albedo [SSA], and absorption Angstrom exponent [AAE)] of rBC emitted from various wildland fuels and how are they impacted by atmospheric processing? 3. How does the mixing state of rBC in biomass-burning plumes relate to the optical properties? 4. How does the emitted rBC affect radiative forcing?

  1. Field campaign LINEX 96/1 - possibilities of water vapor observation in the free atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhagen, H.; Dier, H.; Engelbart, D.; Goersdorf, U.; Lehmann, V.; Leiterer, U.; Neisser, J. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Lindenberg (Germany). Meteorologisches Observatorium; Bakan, S. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.; Boesenberg, J.; Jansen, F.; Wulfmeyer, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Fischer, J. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Weltraumwissenschaften; Gendt, G. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany); Gueldner, J. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Potsdam (Germany). Meteorologisches Observatorium

    1998-12-01

    LINEX 96/1 was a field experiment to assess information content, accuracy, and availability for different remote sensing techniques measuring water vapor. An important goal of LINEX 96/1 was the test of a new differential absorption lidar (DIAL) developed by the MPI fuer meteorologie Hamburg. Comparisons of DIAL with rawinsonde and tethersonde measurements showed an excellent accuracy of the DIAL method in the determination of water vapor with high vertical and temporal resolution. The operation of the microwave radiometer WVR-1100 showed a high availability of water vapor and liquid water column content measurements except during rain. Microwave radiometers are reliable systems to measure the precipitable water vapor and liquid water content under unattended operational conditions with high accuracy and temporal resolution. Measurements of the water vapor column content by ground-based GPS receivers proved highly reliable. Comparisons with corresponding values of the microwave radiometer showed a bias less than 0.6 mm and a standard deviation less than 0.9 mm. The main problem of an operational use of this new information is that the evaluated data are not available in real-time because, at present, the data have to be postprocessed in a ground control center. During LINEX 96/1, possibilities for estimation of water vapor column content from sun and star photometer measurements were also demonstrated. The comparison of the precipitable water vapor content measurements of sun and star photometers, microwave radiometer, and rawinsondes RS 80 showed a good agreement. Unfortunately, the use of optical methods like sun and star photometers is restricted by cloudy conditions. 28 refs.

  2. Evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer in southern West Africa - an overview from the DACCIWA field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalthoff, Norbert; Lohou, Fabienne; Brooks, Barbara; Jegede, Gbenga; Adler, Bianca; Ajao, Adewale; Ayoola, Muritala; Babić, Karmen; Bessardon, Geoffrey; Delon, Claire; Dione, Cheikh; Handwerker, Jan; Jambert, Corinne; Kohler, Martin; Lothon, Marie; Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, Xabier; Smith, Victoria; Sunmonu, Lukman; Wieser, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    In southern West Africa, extended low-level stratus clouds form very frequently during night-time and persist long into the following day influencing the diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). During the course of the day, a transition from nocturnal low-level stratus to stratocumulus, cumulus, and sometimes congestus and possibly cumulonimbus clouds is observed. In June and July 2016, a ground-based field campaign took place in southern West Africa within the framework of the Dynamics-aerosol-chemistry-cloud interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project with the aim to identify the meteorological controls on the stratus and the evolution of the ABL. During the measurement period, extensive remote sensing and in-situ measurements were performed at three supersites in Kumasi (Ghana), Savè (Benin) and Ile-Ife (Nigeria). We give an overview of the atmospheric conditions during the whole measurement period focusing on the vertical and temporal distribution of the stratus and relevant related atmospheric features.

  3. Lessons Learned from the Wide Field Camera 3 TV1 and TV2 Thermal Vacuum Test Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Hume; Stavely, Richard; Bast, William

    2008-01-01

    The Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument has undergone two complete thermal vacuum tests (TV1 and TV2), during which valuable lessons were learned regarding test configuration, test execution, model capabilities, and modeling practices. The very complex thermal design of WFC3 produced a number of challenging aspects to ground testing with numerous ThermoElectric Coolers and heat pipes, not all of which were functional. Lessons learned during TV1 resulted in significant upgrades to the model capabilities and a change in the test environment approach for TV2. These upgrades proved invaluable during TV2 when pretest modeling assumptions proved to be false. Each of the lessons learned relate to one of two following broad statements: 1. Ensure the design can be tested and that the effect of non-flight like conditions is well understood, particularly with respect to non passive devices (TECs, Heat Pipes, etc) 2. Ensure that the model is sufficiently detailed and is capable of predicting off-nominal behavior and the power dissipation of any thermal devices, especially TECs This paper outlines a number of the lessons learned over these two test campaigns with respect to the thermal design, model, and test configuration and presents recommendations for future tests.

  4. Latent Heating Profiles Derived from ARM Radar Observations in MC3E and GoAmazon Field Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Q.; Li, R.; Mu, Z.; Giangrande, S. E.; Wang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Atmosphere latent heating (LH) is released through water phase change processes in the atmosphere. There is a physical connection between LH rate and updraft velocity (ω) inside clouds. In this study, we develop a new LH algorithm based on a quantified LH-ω relationship found in cloud resolving model (CRM) simulations. The self-consistency check with CRM simulations shows that the retrievals correctly replicate the main features of LH profiles, including their total and individual components (i.e. condensation-evaporation heating rate, deposition-sublimation heating rate, and freezing-melting heating rate). Further, the algorithm is applied to real cases from the DOE-ARM MC3E and GoAmazon2014/6 Field Campaigns using available UHF (915 and 1290 MHz) zenith radar retrievals of vertical velocity and rain rate as input. The retrieved LH profiles in the deep convective rains show positive heating throughout the column, the LH profiles in the stratiform rains with well-defined bright-band showing clear dipole patterns with positive heating above and negative cooling below the freezing level. The altitudes of maximum heating in the widespread stratiform regimes are clearly higher than those found within deep convective regions. Overall, these Latent heating rate profiles, as an important geophysical quantity of interest, can provide useful climate diagnostic data, and ultimately, constraints for model-based analyses of large-scale heating distributions.

  5. Moist Process Biases in Simulations of the Madden–Julian Oscillation Episodes Observed during the AMIE/DYNAMO Field Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Feng, Zhe; Burleyson, Casey D.; Zhao, Chun; Martini, Matus N.; Berg, Larry K.

    2016-02-01

    Two Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) episodes observed during the 2011 AMIE/DYNAMO field campaign are simulated using a regional cloud-permitting model, a regional model with various cumulus parameterizations, and a global variable-resolution model with a high-resolution region centered over the tropical Indian Ocean. Model biases associated with moisture mode instability, wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE), and convective momentum transport (CMT) are examined and their relative contributions to the overall model errors are quantified using a linear statistical model. Linear relationships are found among the normalized root mean square errors of precipitation, saturation fraction, evaporation, and surface wind speed suggesting that errors may propagate across the processes involving these variables. Analysis using a linear statistical model shows the relationship between convection and local surface wind speed (related to CMT processes) is the source of the largest uncertainty. In comparison, WISHE processes in the simulations tend to be biased consistently, with excess evaporation for the same wind speeds as the observations, which suggests they are likely related to biases in boundary layer and/or surface schemes. The relationship between precipitation and saturation fraction (which is associated with moisture mode instability) is captured relatively well with slightly larger model precipitation in the simulations in comparison to observations for the same saturation fraction, especially for weak rain rates. By linking developments in theoretical understanding of MJO processes and cumulus parameterizations, this study provides guidance to future improvements of MJO simulation by in high-resolution regional and global models.

  6. CU Airborne MAX-DOAS measurements over California during the CalNEx and CARES field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidar, S.; Oetjen, H.; Coburn, S.; Ortega, I.; Dix, B. K.; Sinreich, R.; Volkamer, R.

    2010-12-01

    The University of Colorado Airborne Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU AMAX-DOAS) instrument was deployed aboard the NOAA Optical Remote Sensing Twin Otter Research Aircraft during the CalNEx 2010 and CARES field campaigns. A total of 52 flights (48 research + 4 transfer flights) were carried out between May 19 and July 19 2010 and included flights in the South California Air Basin, the High deserts, Northern Mexico, the Central Valley, Sacramento, and the San Francisco Bay Area. A particular component of the CU AMAX-DOAS deployment was to enhance the value of ground-based super sites in Pasadena and Bakersfield, as well as the CARES T0 and T1 sites. The CU AMAX-DOAS is measuring column amounts of NO2, HCHO, CHOCHO, O4 and other gases above and below the aircraft. The focus of this deployment was to map the horizontal and vertical distribution of these gases. Here we describe the CU AMAX-DOAS instrument and give an overview of the NO2 vertical columns below the plane along the flight tracks. A first comparison of NO2 vertical columns measured by AMAX-DOAS and two CU Ground based MAX-DOAS instruments which were deployed in Pasadena and Fontana Arrows during CalNEx and at the T1 site during CARES is also presented.

  7. Bromoform and Dibromomethane Emission During the SHIVA Western Pacific 2011 Field Campaign: A 3-D Model Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantle, Hannah; Hossaini, Ryan; Chipperfield, Martyn

    2013-04-01

    Halogenated very short-lived species (VSLS) with atmospheric lifetimes of SHIVA Malaysia 2011 field campaign provided a comprehensive VSLS dataset obtained in a region where these source gases have the potential to reach the stratosphere and deplete ozone. Observations of VSLS were collected during November and December 2011 on board the DLR Falcon aircraft during sixteen local flights. Fourteen of these flights have been used in this study due to technical difficulties experienced on the remaining two flights. Four emission scenarios, including both top-down and bottom-up approaches derived from airborne measurements and ocean fluxes of VSLS, were used in TOMCAT and each scenario was compared to observations of bromoform and dibromomethane collected during the SHIVA campaign. The mean bias of each emission scenario against the SHIVA observations was calculated for all fourteen flights considered. Results indicate that the bottom-up emission scenario, derived from measured oceanic fluxes of bromoform and dibromomethane, matches the SHIVA observed values of both major VSLS source gases more closely than that of the top-down emission scenarios (0.16 pptv total mean bias for both bromoform and dibromomethane for all fourteen flights considered). Although slightly underestimating the SHIVA observed values, all other emission scenarios overestimate the observations of bromoform by a greater magnitude. Dibromomethane is underestimated by two emission scenarios and overestimated by one, all by a greater extent than that of the bottom-up emission scenario derived from measured VSLS oceanic fluxes. Global mixing ratio maps highlight the difference in global distribution of VSLS emissions between each emission scenario. Our work suggests that bottom-up derived emission estimates may be more accurate than those derived from airborne measurements, but that all methods produce surface level values within the WMO ranges given for MBL bromoform and dibromomethane. A truly global

  8. Determination of Cloud Base Height, Wind Velocity, and Short-Range Cloud Structure Using Multiple Sky Imagers Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Dong [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Schwartz, Stephen E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yu, Dantong [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Clouds are a central focus of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and more broadly are the subject of much investigation because of their important effects on atmospheric radiation and, through feedbacks, on climate sensitivity. Significant progress has been made by moving from a vertically pointing (“soda-straw”) to a three-dimensional (3D) view of clouds by investing in scanning cloud radars through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Yet, because of the physical nature of radars, there are key gaps in ARM's cloud observational capabilities. For example, cloud radars often fail to detect small shallow cumulus and thin cirrus clouds that are nonetheless radiatively important. Furthermore, it takes five to twenty minutes for a cloud radar to complete a 3D volume scan and clouds can evolve substantially during this period. Ground-based stereo-imaging is a promising technique to complement existing ARM cloud observation capabilities. It enables the estimation of cloud coverage, height, horizontal motion, morphology, and spatial arrangement over an extended area of up to 30 by 30 km at refresh rates greater than 1 Hz (Peng et al. 2015). With fine spatial and temporal resolution of modern sky cameras, the stereo-imaging technique allows for the tracking of a small cumulus cloud or a thin cirrus cloud that cannot be detected by a cloud radar. With support from the DOE SunShot Initiative, the Principal Investigator (PI)’s team at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed some initial capability for cloud tracking using multiple distinctly located hemispheric cameras (Peng et al. 2015). To validate the ground-based cloud stereo-imaging technique, the cloud stereo-imaging field campaign was conducted at the ARM Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma from July 15 to December 24. As shown in Figure 1, the

  9. A meteorological and chemical overview of the DACCIWA field campaign in West Africa in June–July 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Knippertz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In June and July 2016 the Dynamics–Aerosol–Chemistry–Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA project organised a major international field campaign in southern West Africa (SWA including measurements from three inland ground supersites, urban sites in Cotonou and Abidjan, radiosondes, and three research aircraft. A significant range of different weather situations were encountered during this period, including the monsoon onset. The purpose of this paper is to characterise the large-scale setting for the campaign as well as synoptic and mesoscale weather systems affecting the study region in the light of existing conceptual ideas, mainly using objective and subjective identification algorithms based on (re-analysis and satellite products. In addition, it is shown how the described synoptic variations influence the atmospheric composition over SWA through advection of mineral dust, biomass burning and urban pollution plumes.The boreal summer of 2016 was characterised by Pacific La Niña, Atlantic El Niño and warm eastern Mediterranean conditions, whose competing influences on precipitation led to an overall average rainy season. During the relatively dusty pre-onset Phase 1 (1–21 June 2016, three westward-propagating coherent cyclonic vortices between 4 and 13° N modulated winds and rainfall in the Guinea coastal area. The monsoon onset occurred in connection with a marked extratropical trough and cold surge over northern Africa, leading to a breakdown of the Saharan heat low and African easterly jet and a suppression of rainfall. During this period, quasi-stationary low-level vortices associated with the trough transformed into more tropical, propagating disturbances resembling an African easterly wave (AEW. To the east of this system, moist southerlies penetrated deep into the continent. The post-onset Phase 2 (22 June–20 July 2016 was characterised by a significant increase in low-level cloudiness, unusually dry conditions

  10. A meteorological and chemical overview of the DACCIWA field campaign in West Africa in June-July 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knippertz, Peter; Fink, Andreas H.; Deroubaix, Adrien; Morris, Eleanor; Tocquer, Flore; Evans, Mat J.; Flamant, Cyrille; Gaetani, Marco; Lavaysse, Christophe; Mari, Celine; Marsham, John H.; Meynadier, Rémi; Affo-Dogo, Abalo; Bahaga, Titike; Brosse, Fabien; Deetz, Konrad; Guebsi, Ridha; Latifou, Issaou; Maranan, Marlon; Rosenberg, Philip D.; Schlueter, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    In June and July 2016 the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project organised a major international field campaign in southern West Africa (SWA) including measurements from three inland ground supersites, urban sites in Cotonou and Abidjan, radiosondes, and three research aircraft. A significant range of different weather situations were encountered during this period, including the monsoon onset. The purpose of this paper is to characterise the large-scale setting for the campaign as well as synoptic and mesoscale weather systems affecting the study region in the light of existing conceptual ideas, mainly using objective and subjective identification algorithms based on (re-)analysis and satellite products. In addition, it is shown how the described synoptic variations influence the atmospheric composition over SWA through advection of mineral dust, biomass burning and urban pollution plumes.The boreal summer of 2016 was characterised by Pacific La Niña, Atlantic El Niño and warm eastern Mediterranean conditions, whose competing influences on precipitation led to an overall average rainy season. During the relatively dusty pre-onset Phase 1 (1-21 June 2016), three westward-propagating coherent cyclonic vortices between 4 and 13° N modulated winds and rainfall in the Guinea coastal area. The monsoon onset occurred in connection with a marked extratropical trough and cold surge over northern Africa, leading to a breakdown of the Saharan heat low and African easterly jet and a suppression of rainfall. During this period, quasi-stationary low-level vortices associated with the trough transformed into more tropical, propagating disturbances resembling an African easterly wave (AEW). To the east of this system, moist southerlies penetrated deep into the continent. The post-onset Phase 2 (22 June-20 July 2016) was characterised by a significant increase in low-level cloudiness, unusually dry conditions and strong northeastward

  11. Simulated Source and Flash Detection Efficiency during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Field Campaign Using a New Interactive Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, V.; Bruning, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    Detailed source and flash detection efficiencies for Lightning Mapping Arrays (LMA) are needed for observational and climatological work with the data. Simulations of the LMAs active during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry campaign (DC3) were performed with a new Monte Carlo interactive tool. As with previous simulations, it propagated emissions from a given source point, added Gaussian observed timing errors to the retrieval times at each station and used a least squared algorithm to find the best solution for the source. This simulation added the ability to account for variable receiver thresholds to restrict the stations contributing to the solution based on received power, which allowed a better examination of the overall impacts of site selection. The average errors were then calculated as has been done previously but with the addition of the probability of detection for a given source location. Based on a 17 month climatology of flashes over the West Texas Lightning Mapping Array (WTLMA), the distribution of flashes by number of sources was used to relate the source detection efficiency from the simulation to the most likely flash detection efficiency. As observed in previous theoretical and observational studies, the average errors in azimuth, range and especially altitude of the source point solutions increased with increasing distance from the center of the network, with the standard deviations of these errors highly dependent on the station configuration and noise thresholds. The source and therefore flash detection efficiency also decreased with range as expected, but its centroid was offset from the center of the WTLMA when variable, observed receiver thresholds were used instead of uniform thresholds across the network. With the observed WTLMA thresholds, 95% of flashes could be detected to approximately 150 km from the center of the network, where average altitude errors were less than 0.4 km but the standard deviation of those errors

  12. Ground measurements of carboxylic acids during the ChArMEx field campaign using PTR-ToFMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusanter, Sébastien; Sauvage, Stéphane; Locoge, Nadine; Michoud, Vincent; Touati, Nabil; Zhang, Shouwen; Riffault, Véronique

    2014-05-01

    Carboxylic acids are long-lived and persistent species that have been shown to be important for ambient acidity and secondary organic aerosol formation. Formic, acetic, and propionic acids are among the most abundant carboxylic acids in the troposphere. However, their atmospheric sources are poorly characterized due to limited measurement data. Techniques usually used to measure gas-phase concentrations of carboxylic acids suffer from low time resolution and the use of fast instruments would be of prime interest to apportion the contribution of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, as well as photochemical processes to the carboxylic acid budget. A Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToFMS) was characterized for field measurements of n-carboxylic acids (C1-C4). Laboratory experiments were carried out to get insights into fragmentation patterns of parent (RCOOHH+) and acylium (RCO+) ions, sensitivities, and detection limits under various operating conditions. Carefully designed experiments were conducted to assess the impact of relative humidity on the sensitivity. Detection limits of 500, 90, 50 and 40 ppt were achieved for 10-min measurements of formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids, respectively. This instrument was deployed for the first time during the 2013 ChArMEx intensive field campaign at a ground site in Cap Corsica and successfully measured concentrations of carboxylic acids from July 15th to August 5th. Elevated mixing ratios in the range 500-4000 ppt, 260-2500 ppt, and 50-500 ppt were observed for formic, acetic, and propionic acids, respectively. Mixing ratios of butyric acids were close to the detection limit. In this presentation, we will discuss the potential of carboxylic acid measurements by PTR-ToFMS in remote areas and we will provide a preliminary analysis of carboxylic acid sources in an area impacted by local biogenic emissions as well as aged anthropogenic air masses.

  13. Evaluation of single and multiple Doppler lidar techniques to measure complex flow during the XPIA field campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choukulkar, Aditya; Brewer, W. Alan; Sandberg, Scott P.; Weickmann, Ann; Bonin, Timothy A.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Lundquist, Julie K.; Delgado, Ruben; Iungo, G. Valerio; Ashton, Ryan; Debnath, Mithu; Bianco, Laura; Wilczak, James M.; Oncley, Steven; Wolfe, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Accurate three-dimensional information of wind flow fields can be an important tool in not only visualizing complex flow but also understanding the underlying physical processes and improving flow modeling. However, a thorough analysis of the measurement uncertainties is required to properly interpret results. The XPIA (eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment) field campaign conducted at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in Erie, CO, from 2 March to 31 May 2015 brought together a large suite of in situ and remote sensing measurement platforms to evaluate complex flow measurement strategies.

    In this paper, measurement uncertainties for different single and multi-Doppler strategies using simple scan geometries (conical, vertical plane and staring) are investigated. The tradeoffs (such as time–space resolution vs. spatial coverage) among the different measurement techniques are evaluated using co-located measurements made near the BAO tower. Sensitivity of the single-/multi-Doppler measurement uncertainties to averaging period are investigated using the sonic anemometers installed on the BAO tower as the standard reference. Finally, the radiometer measurements are used to partition the measurement periods as a function of atmospheric stability to determine their effect on measurement uncertainty.

    It was found that with an increase in spatial coverage and measurement complexity, the uncertainty in the wind measurement also increased. For multi-Doppler techniques, the increase in uncertainty for temporally uncoordinated measurements is possibly due to requiring additional assumptions of stationarity along with horizontal homogeneity and less representative line-of-sight velocity statistics. It was also found that wind speed measurement uncertainty was lower during stable conditions compared to unstable conditions.

  14. Evaluation of single and multiple Doppler lidar techniques to measure complex flow during the XPIA field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukulkar, Aditya; Brewer, W. Alan; Sandberg, Scott P.; Weickmann, Ann; Bonin, Timothy A.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Lundquist, Julie K.; Delgado, Ruben; Valerio Iungo, G.; Ashton, Ryan; Debnath, Mithu; Bianco, Laura; Wilczak, James M.; Oncley, Steven; Wolfe, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Accurate three-dimensional information of wind flow fields can be an important tool in not only visualizing complex flow but also understanding the underlying physical processes and improving flow modeling. However, a thorough analysis of the measurement uncertainties is required to properly interpret results. The XPIA (eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment) field campaign conducted at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in Erie, CO, from 2 March to 31 May 2015 brought together a large suite of in situ and remote sensing measurement platforms to evaluate complex flow measurement strategies. In this paper, measurement uncertainties for different single and multi-Doppler strategies using simple scan geometries (conical, vertical plane and staring) are investigated. The tradeoffs (such as time-space resolution vs. spatial coverage) among the different measurement techniques are evaluated using co-located measurements made near the BAO tower. Sensitivity of the single-/multi-Doppler measurement uncertainties to averaging period are investigated using the sonic anemometers installed on the BAO tower as the standard reference. Finally, the radiometer measurements are used to partition the measurement periods as a function of atmospheric stability to determine their effect on measurement uncertainty. It was found that with an increase in spatial coverage and measurement complexity, the uncertainty in the wind measurement also increased. For multi-Doppler techniques, the increase in uncertainty for temporally uncoordinated measurements is possibly due to requiring additional assumptions of stationarity along with horizontal homogeneity and less representative line-of-sight velocity statistics. It was also found that wind speed measurement uncertainty was lower during stable conditions compared to unstable conditions.

  15. Evaluation of urban surface parameterizations in the WRF model using measurements during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-H. Lee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of urban surface parameterizations in the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting model on the simulation of local meteorological fields is investigated. The Noah land surface model (LSM, a modified LSM, and a single-layer urban canopy model (UCM have been compared, focusing on urban patches. The model simulations were performed for 6 days from 12 August to 17 August during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006 field campaign. Analysis was focused on the Houston-Galveston metropolitan area. The model simulated temperature, wind, and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL height were compared with observations from surface meteorological stations (Continuous Ambient Monitoring Stations, CAMS, wind profilers, the NOAA Twin Otter aircraft, and the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown. The UCM simulation showed better results in the comparison of ABL height and surface temperature than the LSM simulations, whereas the original LSM overestimated both the surface temperature and ABL height significantly in urban areas. The modified LSM, which activates hydrological processes associated with urban vegetation mainly through transpiration, slightly reduced warm and high biases in surface temperature and ABL height. A comparison of surface energy balance fluxes in an urban area indicated the UCM reproduces a realistic partitioning of sensible heat and latent heat fluxes, consequently improving the simulation of urban boundary layer. However, the LSMs have a higher Bowen ratio than the observation due to significant suppression of latent heat flux. The comparison results suggest that the subgrid heterogeneity by urban vegetation and urban morphological characteristics should be taken into account along with the associated physical parameterizations for accurate simulation of urban boundary layer if the region of interest has a large fraction of vegetation within the urban patch. Model showed significant discrepancies in the specific meteorological

  16. Monthly gravity field recovery from GRACE orbits and K-band measurements using variational equations approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE mission can significantly improve our knowledge of the temporal variability of the Earth's gravity field. We obtained monthly gravity field solutions based on variational equations approach from GPS-derived positions of GRACE satellites and K-band range-rate measurements. The impact of different fixed data weighting ratios in temporal gravity field recovery while combining the two types of data was investigated for the purpose of deriving the best combined solution. The monthly gravity field solution obtained through above procedures was named as the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics (IGG temporal gravity field models. IGG temporal gravity field models were compared with GRACE Release05 (RL05 products in following aspects: (i the trend of the mass anomaly in China and its nearby regions within 2005–2010; (ii the root mean squares of the global mass anomaly during 2005–2010; (iii time-series changes in the mean water storage in the region of the Amazon Basin and the Sahara Desert between 2005 and 2010. The results showed that IGG solutions were almost consistent with GRACE RL05 products in above aspects (i–(iii. Changes in the annual amplitude of mean water storage in the Amazon Basin were 14.7 ± 1.2 cm for IGG, 17.1 ± 1.3 cm for the Centre for Space Research (CSR, 16.4 ± 0.9 cm for the GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ and 16.9 ± 1.2 cm for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL in terms of equivalent water height (EWH, respectively. The root mean squares of the mean mass anomaly in Sahara were 1.2 cm, 0.9 cm, 0.9 cm and 1.2 cm for temporal gravity field models of IGG, CSR, GFZ and JPL, respectively. Comparison suggested that IGG temporal gravity field solutions were at the same accuracy level with the latest temporal gravity field solutions published by CSR, GFZ and JPL.

  17. Campaigns Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Møller; Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2014-01-01

    Election campaigns are more than simple competitions for votes; they also represent an opportunity for voters to become politically knowledgeable and engaged. Using a large-scale web panel (n≈5,000), we track the development of political knowledge, internal efficacy and external efficacy among vo...... external efficacy. The findings suggest that positive campaign effects are universal across various media and party systems....... and the external efficacy increase over the course of the campaign, with gains found across different demographic groups, particularly narrowing the gaps in internal efficacy. The news media play a crucial role, as increased knowledge and efficacy are partly driven by media use, although tabloids actually decrease...

  18. Preliminary study on the source field mode of geomagnetic six-month-period variations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伯舫; 冯戬云

    1997-01-01

    The monthly means of north component X of geomagnetic field from 16 observatories during 1984-1988 were analyzed using the Sompi spectral analysis technique. Most of these observatories are located in China. The analysis of the semiannual variations indicates that the latitude has no apparent effect on the X component. This clearly implies that the source field mode of semiannual variations cannot simply be described by using the P°1 mode. Using the P°1 mode to estimate the inductive scale length C in the semiannual period, the value of C at each observatory would be biased significantly. The purpose of this study is to find which kind of modes is optimal for estimating the values of C corresponding to the semiannual variations. The results show that a composite mode, involving five terms P°n(n = 1,....,5), might be a reasonable and acceptable one.

  19. HAIC/HIWC field campaign - investigating ice microphysics in high ice water content regions of mesoscale convective systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Delphine; Fontaine, Emmanuel; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Strapp, J. Walter; Lilie, Lyle; Dezitter, Fabien; Grandin, Alice

    2015-04-01

    Despite existing research programs focusing on tropical convection, high ice water content (IWC) regions in Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS) - potentially encountered by commercial aircraft and related to reported in-service events - remain poorly documented either because investigation of such high IWC regions was not of highest priority or because utilized instrumentation was not capable of providing accurate cloud microphysical measurements. To gather quantitative data in high IWC regions, a multi-year international HAIC/HIWC (High Altitude Ice Crystals / High Ice Water Content) field project has been designed including a first field campaign conducted out of Darwin (Australia) in 2014. The French Falcon 20 research aircraft had been equipped among others with a state-of-the-art in situ microphysics package including the IKP (isokinetic evaporator probe which provides a reference measurement of IWC and TWC), the CDP (cloud droplet spectrometer probe measuring particles in the range 2-50 µm), the 2D-S (2D-Stereo, 10-1280 µm) and PIP (precipitation imaging probe, 100-6400 µm) optical array probes. Microphysical data collection has been performed mainly at -40°C and -30°C levels, whereas little data could be sampled at -50°C and at -15C/-10°C. The study presented here focuses on ice crystal size properties, thereby analyzing in detail the 2D image data from 2D-S and PIP optical array imaging probes. 2D images recorded with 2D-S and PIP were processed in order to extract a large variety of geometrical parameters, such as maximum diameter (Dmax), 2D surface equivalent diameter (Deq), and the corresponding number particle size distribution (PSD). Using the PSD information from both probes, a composite size distribution was then built, with sizes ranging from few tens of µm to roughly 10 mm. Finally, mass-size relationships for ice crystals in tropical convection were established in terms of power laws in order to compute median mass diameters MMDmax and

  20. A multi-resolution, multi-epoch low radio frequency survey of the Kepler K2 mission Campaign 1 field

    CERN Document Server

    Tingay, S J; Wayth, R B; Intema, H; Jagannathan, P; Mooley, K

    2016-01-01

    We present the first dedicated radio continuum survey of a Kepler K2 mission field, Field 1 covering the North Galactic Cap. The survey is wide field, contemporaneous, multi-epoch, and multi-resolution in nature and was conducted at low radio frequencies between 140 and 200 MHz. The multi-epoch and ultra wide field (but relatively low resolution) part of the survey was provided by 15 nights of observation with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) over a period of approximately a month, contemporaneous with K2 observations of the field. The multi-resolution aspect of the survey was provided by the low resolution (4') MWA imaging, complemented by non-contemporaneous but much higher resolution (20") observations using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). The survey is therefore sensitive to the details of radio structures across a wide range of angular scales. Consistent with other recent low radio frequency surveys, no significant radio transients or variables were detected in the survey. The resulting so...

  1. Global Hawk dropsonde observations of the Arctic atmosphere obtained during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrieri, J. M.; de Boer, G.; Shupe, M. D.; Spackman, J. R.; Wang, J.; Neiman, P. J.; Wick, G. A.; Hock, T. F.; Hood, R. E.

    2014-11-01

    In February and March of 2011, the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) was deployed over the Pacific Ocean and the Arctic during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) field campaign. The WISPAR science missions were designed to (1) mprove our understanding of Pacific weather systems and the polar atmosphere; (2) evaluate operational use of unmanned aircraft for investigating these atmospheric events; and (3) demonstrate operational and research applications of a UAS dropsonde system at high latitudes. Dropsondes deployed from the Global Hawk successfully obtained high-resolution profiles of temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind information between the stratosphere and surface. The 35 m wingspan Global Hawk, which can soar for ~ 31 h at altitudes up to ~ 20 km, was remotely operated from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) in California. During the 25 h polar flight on 9-10 March 2011, the Global Hawk released 35 sondes between the North Slope of Alaska and 85° N latitude, marking the first UAS Arctic dropsonde mission of its kind. The polar flight transected an unusually cold polar vortex, notable for an associated record-level Arctic ozone loss, and documented polar boundary layer variations over a sizable ocean-ice lead feature. Comparison of dropsonde observations with atmospheric reanalyses reveal that, for this day, large-scale structures such as the polar vortex and air masses are captured by the reanalyses, while smaller-scale features, including low-level jets and inversion depths, are mischaracterized. The successful Arctic dropsonde deployment demonstrates the capability of the Global Hawk to conduct operations in harsh, remote regions. The limited comparison with other measurements and reanalyses highlights the potential value of Arctic atmospheric dropsonde observations where routine in situ measurements are practically nonexistent.

  2. Global Hawk dropsonde observations of the Arctic atmosphere during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrieri, J. M.; de Boer, G.; Shupe, M. D.; Spackman, J. R.; Wang, J.; Neiman, P. J.; Wick, G. A.; Hock, T. F.; Hood, R. E.

    2014-04-01

    In February and March of 2011, the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) was deployed over the Pacific Ocean and the Arctic during the WISPAR field campaign. The WISPAR science missions were designed to: (1) improve our understanding of Pacific weather systems and the polar atmosphere; (2) evaluate operational use of unmanned aircraft for investigating these atmospheric events; and (3) demonstrate operational and research applications of a UAS dropsonde system at high latitudes. Dropsondes deployed from the Global Hawk successfully obtained high-resolution profiles of temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind information between the stratosphere and surface. The 35 m wingspan Global Hawk, which can soar for ~ 31 h at altitudes up to ~ 20 km, was remotely operated from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards AFB in California. During the 25 h polar flight on 9-10 March 2011, the Global Hawk released 35 sondes between the North Slope of Alaska and 85° N latitude marking the first UAS Arctic dropsonde mission of its kind. The polar flight transected an unusually cold polar vortex, notable for an associated record-level Arctic ozone loss, and documented polar boundary layer variations over a sizable ocean-ice lead feature. Comparison of dropsonde observations with atmospheric reanalyses reveal that for this day, large-scale structures such as the polar vortex and air masses are captured by the reanalyses, while smaller-scale features, including low-level jets and inversion depths, are mischaracterized. The successful Arctic dropsonde deployment demonstrates the capability of the Global Hawk to conduct operations in harsh, remote regions. The limited comparison with other measurements and reanalyses highlights the value of Arctic atmospheric dropsonde observations where routine in situ measurements are practically non-existent.

  3. Assessing State-of-the-Art Capabilities for Probing the Atmospheric Boundary Layer: The XPIA Field Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundquist, Julie K. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Wilczak, James M. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado; Ashton, Ryan [The University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, Texas; Bianco, Laura [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Brewer, W. Alan [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado; Choukulkar, Aditya [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado; Clifton, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Debnath, Mithu [The University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, Texas; Delgado, Ruben [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland; Friedrich, Katja [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Gunter, Scott [Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas; Hamidi, Armita [The University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, Texas; Iungo, Giacomo Valerio [The University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, Texas; Kaushik, Aleya [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Kosović, Branko [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; Langan, Patrick [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland; Lass, Adam [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland; Lavin, Evan [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland; Lee, Joseph C. -Y. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; McCaffrey, Katherine L. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado; Newsom, Rob K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Noone, David C. [College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon; Oncley, Steven P. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; Quelet, Paul T. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Sandberg, Scott P. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado; Schroeder, John L. [Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas; Shaw, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Sparling, Lynn [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland; Martin, Clara St. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Pe, Alexandra St. [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland; Strobach, Edward [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland; Tay, Ken [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Vanderwende, Brian J. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Weickmann, Ann [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado; Wolfe, Daniel [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Worsnop, Rochelle [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado

    2017-02-01

    The synthesis of new measurement technologies with advances in high performance computing provides an unprecedented opportunity to advance our understanding of the atmosphere, particularly with regard to the complex flows in the atmospheric boundary layer. To assess current measurement capabilities for quantifying features of atmospheric flow within wind farms, the U.S. Dept. of Energy sponsored the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) campaign at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in spring 2015. Herein, we summarize the XPIA field experiment design, highlight novel approaches to boundary-layer measurements, and quantify measurement uncertainties associated with these experimental methods. Line-of-sight velocities measured by scanning lidars and radars exhibit close agreement with tower measurements, despite differences in measurement volumes. Virtual towers of wind measurements, from multiple lidars or dual radars, also agree well with tower and profiling lidar measurements. Estimates of winds over volumes,conducted with rapid lidar scans, agree with those from scanning radars, enabling assessment of spatial variability. Microwave radiometers provide temperature profiles within and above the boundary layer with approximately the same uncertainty as operational remote sensing measurements. Using a motion platform, we assess motion-compensation algorithms for lidars to be mounted on offshore platforms. Finally, we highlight cases that could be useful for validation of large-eddy simulations or mesoscale numerical weather prediction, providing information on accessing the archived dataset. We conclude that modern remote Lundquist et al. XPIA BAMS Page 4 of 81 sensing systems provide a generational improvement in observational capabilities, enabling resolution of refined processes critical to understanding 61 inhomogeneous boundary-layer flows such as those found in wind farms.

  4. Observation of the spectrally invariant properties of clouds in cloudy-to-clear transition zones during the MAGIC field campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; McBride, Patrick J.; Chiu, J. Christine; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Flynn, Connor; Lewis, Ernie R.; Eloranta, Edwin W.

    2016-12-01

    We use the spectrally invariant method to study the variability of cloud optical thickness τ and droplet effective radius reff in transition zones (between the cloudy and clear sky columns) observed from Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) and Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Zenith (SASZe) during the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign. The measurements from the SSFR and the SASZe are different, however inter-instrument differences of self-normalized measurements (divided by their own spectra at a fixed time) are small. The spectrally invariant method approximates the spectra in the cloud transition zone as a linear combination of definitely clear and cloudy spectra, where the coefficients, slope and intercept, character-ize the spectrally invariant properties of the transition zone. Simulation results from the SBDART (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) model demonstrate that (1) the slope of the visible band is positively correlated with the cloud optical thickness τ while the intercept of the near-infrared band has high negative cor-relation with the cloud drop effective radius reff even without the exact knowledge of τ; (2) the above relations hold for all Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) and for cloud-contaminated skies. In observations using redundant measure-ments from SSFR and SASZe, we find that during cloudy-to-clear transitions, (a) the slopes of the visible band de-crease, and (b) the intercepts of the near-infrared band remain almost constant near cloud edges. The findings in simulations and observations suggest that, while the optical thickness decreases during the cloudy-to-clear transition, the cloud drop effective radius does not change when cloud edges are approached. These results sup-port the hypothesis that inhomogeneous mixing dominates near cloud edges in the studied cases.

  5. Assessing State-of-the-Art Capabilities for Probing the Atmospheric Boundary Layer: The XPIA Field Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundquist, Julie K. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Wilczak, James M. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado; Ashton, Ryan [The University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, Texas; Bianco, Laura [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Brewer, W. Alan [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado; Choukulkar, Aditya [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado; Clifton, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Debnath, Mithu [The University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, Texas; Delgado, Ruben [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland; Friedrich, Katja [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Gunter, Scott [Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas; Hamidi, Armita [The University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, Texas; Iungo, Giacomo Valerio [The University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, Texas; Kaushik, Aleya [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Kosović, Branko [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; Langan, Patrick [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland; Lass, Adam [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland; Lavin, Evan [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland; Lee, Joseph C. -Y. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; McCaffrey, Katherine L. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado; Newsom, Rob K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Noone, David C. [College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon; Oncley, Steven P. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; Quelet, Paul T. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Sandberg, Scott P. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado; Schroeder, John L. [Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas; Shaw, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Sparling, Lynn [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland; Martin, Clara St. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Pe, Alexandra St. [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland; Strobach, Edward [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland; Tay, Ken [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Vanderwende, Brian J. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Weickmann, Ann [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado; Wolfe, Daniel [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; Worsnop, Rochelle [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado

    2017-03-07

    To assess current capabilities for measuring flow within the atmospheric boundary layer, including within wind farms, the U.S. Dept. of Energy sponsored the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) campaign at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in spring 2015. Herein, we summarize the XPIA field experiment, highlight novel measurement approaches, and quantify uncertainties associated with these measurement methods. Line-of-sight velocities measured by scanning lidars and radars exhibit close agreement with tower measurements, despite differences in measurement volumes. Virtual towers of wind measurements, from multiple lidars or radars, also agree well with tower and profiling lidar measurements. Estimates of winds over volumes from scanning lidars and radars are in close agreement, enabling assessment of spatial variability. Strengths of the radar systems used here include high scan rates, large domain coverage, and availability during most precipitation events, but they struggle at times to provide data during periods with limited atmospheric scatterers. In contrast, for the deployment geometry tested here, the lidars have slower scan rates and less range, but provide more data during non-precipitating atmospheric conditions. Microwave radiometers provide temperature profiles with approximately the same uncertainty as Radio-Acoustic Sounding Systems (RASS). Using a motion platform, we assess motion-compensation algorithms for lidars to be mounted on offshore platforms. Finally, we highlight cases for validation of mesoscale or large-eddy simulations, providing information on accessing the archived dataset. We conclude that modern remote sensing systems provide a generational improvement in observational capabilities, enabling resolution of fine-scale processes critical to understanding inhomogeneous boundary-layer flows.

  6. Global Hawk dropsonde observations of the Arctic atmosphere during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Intrieri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In February and March of 2011, the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS was deployed over the Pacific Ocean and the Arctic during the WISPAR field campaign. The WISPAR science missions were designed to: (1 improve our understanding of Pacific weather systems and the polar atmosphere; (2 evaluate operational use of unmanned aircraft for investigating these atmospheric events; and (3 demonstrate operational and research applications of a UAS dropsonde system at high latitudes. Dropsondes deployed from the Global Hawk successfully obtained high-resolution profiles of temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind information between the stratosphere and surface. The 35 m wingspan Global Hawk, which can soar for ~ 31 h at altitudes up to ~ 20 km, was remotely operated from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards AFB in California. During the 25 h polar flight on 9–10 March 2011, the Global Hawk released 35 sondes between the North Slope of Alaska and 85° N latitude marking the first UAS Arctic dropsonde mission of its kind. The polar flight transected an unusually cold polar vortex, notable for an associated record-level Arctic ozone loss, and documented polar boundary layer variations over a sizable ocean-ice lead feature. Comparison of dropsonde observations with atmospheric reanalyses reveal that for this day, large-scale structures such as the polar vortex and air masses are captured by the reanalyses, while smaller-scale features, including low-level jets and inversion depths, are mischaracterized. The successful Arctic dropsonde deployment demonstrates the capability of the Global Hawk to conduct operations in harsh, remote regions. The limited comparison with other measurements and reanalyses highlights the value of Arctic atmospheric dropsonde observations where routine in situ measurements are practically non-existent.

  7. Spatial distributions and chemical properties of PM2.5 based on 21 field campaigns at 17 sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Hu, Min; Peng, Jianfei; Wu, Zhijun; Kumar, Prashant; Li, Mengren; Wang, Yujue; Guo, Song

    2016-09-01

    Severe air pollution and its associated health impacts have become one of the major concerns in China. A detailed analysis of PM2.5 chemical compositions is critical for optimizing pollution control measures. In this study, daily 24-h bulk filter samples were collected and analyzed for totally 21 field campaigns at 17 sites in China between 2008 and 2013. The 17 sites were classified into four groups including six urban sites, seven regional sites, two coastal sites in four fast developing regions of China (i.e. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and Sichuan Basin), and two ship cruise measurements covered the East China Sea and Yellow Sea of China. The high average concentrations of PM2.5 and the occurrences of extreme cases at most sites imply the widespread air pollution in China. Fine particles were largely composed of organic matter and secondary inorganic species at most sites. High correlation between the temporal trends of PM2.5 and secondary species of urban and regional sites highlights the uniformly distributed air pollutants within one region. Secondary inorganic species were the dominant contributors to the high PM2.5 concentration in Northern China. However in Southern China, the relative contributions of different chemical species kept constant as PM2.5 increased. This study provides us a better understanding of the current state of air pollution in diversified Chinese cities. Analysis of chemical signatures of PM2.5 could be a strong support for model validation and emission control strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing uncertainties in the Noah-MP ensemble simulations of a cropland site during the Tibet Joint International Cooperation program field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo; Chen, Fei; Gan, Yanjun

    2016-08-01

    Despite the widespread use of the latest community Noah with multiparameterization (Noah-MP) land surface model, it has not been rigorously evaluated over the complex Tibetan Plateau. This study assessed uncertainties in Noah-MP simulations of a cropland site using observations from the 2008 Joint International Cooperation program field campaign. Such an assessment was conducted in the context of performing a total number of 4608 Noah-MP physics ensemble simulations using two analysis methods: the natural selection approach and Tukey's test, where the impacts of uncertainties in atmospheric forcing conditions, vegetation parameters, and subprocesses on model simulations were identified. Uncertainty in precipitation data exerts greater influence on the general behavior of Noah-MP ensemble simulations than that in the leaf area index (LAI). However, using a more realistic seasonal LAI improves the seasonal variations of surface heat fluxes. Combining a better precipitation forcing data set and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer monthly LAI significantly reduces the uncertainty range of the ensemble mean of surface heat fluxes. The uncertainty analysis results using the natural selection method are largely similar to that from Tukey's test but show some subtle differences. Both methods reveal greater uncertainties in the following subprocess schemes: canopy resistance, soil moisture threshold for evaporation, runoff and groundwater, and surface-layer parameterization for this cropland site. The uncertainty analysis identifies the parameterization schemes that demonstrably degrade model performance. The uncertainties in ensemble simulations were significantly reduced when those schemes were excluded, and it was possible to configure an optimal combination of parameterization schemes to obtain similar performance to the ensemble mean of the "best" ensemble experiment.

  9. Spatial Variability of the Background Diurnal Cycle of Deep Convection around the GoAmazon2014/5 Field Campaign Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Feng, Zhe; Hagos, Samson M.; Fast, Jerome; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-07-01

    The Amazon rainforest is one of a few regions of the world where continental tropical deep convection occurs. The Amazon’s isolation makes it challenging to observe, but also creates a unique natural laboratory to study anthropogenic impacts on clouds and precipitation in an otherwise pristine environment. Extensive measurements were made upwind and downwind of the large city of Manaus, Brazil during the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014-2015 (GoAmazon2014/5) field campaign. In this study, 15 years of high-resolution satellite data are analyzed to examine the spatial and diurnal variability of convection occurring around the GoAmazon2014/5 sites. Interpretation of anthropogenic differences between the upwind (T0) and downwind (T1-T3) sites is complicated by naturally-occurring spatial variability between the sites. During the rainy season, the inland propagation of the previous day’s sea-breeze front happens to be in phase with the background diurnal cycle near Manaus, but is out of phase elsewhere. Enhanced convergence between the river-breezes and the easterly trade winds generates up to 10% more frequent deep convection at the GoAmazon2014/5 sites east of the river (T0a, T0t/k, and T1) compared to the T3 site which was located near the western bank. In general, the annual and diurnal cycles during 2014 were representative of the 2000-2013 distributions. The only exceptions were in March when the monthly mean rainrate was above the 95th percentile and September when both rain frequency and intensity were suppressed. The natural spatial variability must be accounted for before interpreting anthropogenically-induced differences among the GoAmazon2014/5 sites.

  10. HyMeX-SOP1, the field campaign dedicated to heavy precipitation and flash-flooding in the northwestern Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Ducrocq, V; Braud, I.; S. Davolio; Ferretti, R.; Flamant, C; Jansa, A.; Kalthoff, N.; Richard, E.; Taupier Letage, I.; Ayral, P. A.; Belamari, S.; A. Berne; Borga, M; Boudevillain, B.; Bock, O.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean region is frequently affected by heavy precipitation events associated with flash floods, landslides, and mudslides that cause hundreds of millions of euros in damages per year and often, casualties. A major field campaign was devoted to heavy precipitation and flash floods from 5 September to 6 November 2012 within the framework of the 10-year international HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment) dedicated to the hydrological cycle and related high-impact...

  11. 40 CFR Table C-5 to Subpart C of... - Summary of Comparability Field Testing Campaign Site and Seasonal Requirements for Class II and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Summary of Comparability Field Testing Campaign Site and Seasonal Requirements for Class II and III FEMs for PM10â2.5 and PM2.5 C Table C-5 to... III FEMs for PM10−2.5 and PM2.5 Candidate method Test site A B C D PM2.5 Test site location area Los...

  12. Using initial field campaigns for optimal placement of high resolution stable water isotope and water chemistry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraei, Amirhossein; Kraft, Philipp; Windhorst, David; Orlowski, Natalie; Bestian, Konrad; Holly, Hartmut; Breuer, Lutz

    2017-04-01

    Understanding hydrological processes and flow paths is of major importance for the management of catchment water resources. The power of stable isotopes as a tracer and to encoder environmental information provides the opportunity to assess hydrological flow paths, catchment residence times, landscape influences, and the origin of water resources in catchments. High resolution isotope sampling of multiple sources ensures detailed comprehension of hydrological and biogeochemical interactions within catchments. Technical advances over the last years have made it feasible to directly measure stable water isotope signatures of various sources online in a high temporal resolution during field campaigns. However, measuring long time series in a high temporal resolutions are still costly and can only be performed at few places in a study area. The identification of locations where measurements should be implemented is still challenging. Our study is conducted in the developed landscape of the Schwingbach catchment located in central Germany. A reconnaissance assessment of the spatial distribution of runoff generating areas was performed in a short time frame prior to the selection of the final sampling site. We used a combination of: water quality snapshot sampling to identify spatial differences and potential hot spots, event-based hydrograph separation to differentiate possible flow paths, consecutive runoff measurements by salt dilution to identify gaining and loosing reaches, field reconnaissance mapping of potentially variable source areas in the riparian zone, infrared imagery of stream surface temperatures to locate potential concentrated groundwater discharge to the stream, and groundwater table mapping to identify sites where different dominant processes (e.g., groundwater flow, groundwater-surface water interactions and runoff generation) can be expected. First results indicated that precipitation and stream water are significantly different in isotopic

  13. Absorbing aerosol in the troposphere of the Western Arctic during the 2008 ARCTAS/ARCPAC airborne field campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Mc Naughton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2008 NASA and NOAA funded the ARCTAS and ARCPAC field campaigns as contributions to POLARCAT, a core IPY activity. During the campaigns the NASA DC-8, P-3B and NOAA WP-3D aircraft conducted over 150 h of in-situ sampling between 0.1 and 12 km throughout the Western Arctic north of 55° N (i.e. Alaska to Greenland. All aircraft were equipped with multiple wavelength measurements of aerosol optics, trace gas and aerosol chemistry measurements, as well as direct measurements of black carbon mass and the aerosol size distribution. Late April of 2008 proved to be exceptional in terms of Asian biomass burning emissions transported to the Western Arctic. Though these smoke plumes account for only 11–14% of the samples within the Western Arctic domain, they account for 43–47% of the total burden of black carbon. Light absorbing carbon from urban/industrial activities and biomass burning together account for 93–98% of total light absorption in the middle troposphere. Light absorption by mineral dust accounts for the remaining absorption in the middle troposphere, but up to 14% near the surface and in the upper troposphere below the tropopause. Stratifying the data to reduce the influence of dust allows us to determine mass absorption efficiencies for black carbon of 11.2±0.8, 9.5±0.6 and 7.4±0.7 m2 g−1 at 470, 530 and 660 nm wavelengths. These estimates are consistent with 35–80% enhancements in 530 nm absorption due to clear or slightly absorbing coatings of pure black carbon particulate. Assuming a 1/λ wavelength dependence for BC absorption, and assuming that refractory aerosol (420 °C, τ = 0.1 s in low-dust samples is dominated by brown carbon, we derive mass absorption efficiencies for brown carbon of 0.83±0.15 and 0.27±0.08 m2 g−1 at 470 and 530 nm wavelengths. Estimates for the mass absorption efficiencies of Asian Dust are 0.034 m2 g−1 and 0

  14. Absorbing aerosol in the troposphere of the Western Arctic during the 2008 ARCTAS/ARCPAC airborne field campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. McNaughton

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2008 NASA and NOAA funded the ARCTAS and ARCPAC field campaigns as contributions to POLARCAT, a core IPY activity. During the campaigns the NASA DC-8, P-3B and NOAA WP-3D aircraft conducted over 160 h of in-situ sampling between 0.1 and 12 km throughout the Western Arctic north of 55° N (i.e. Alaska to Greenland. All aircraft were equipped with multiple wavelength measurements of aerosol optics, trace gas and aerosol chemistry measurements, as well as direct measurements of the aerosol size distributions and black carbon mass. Late April of 2008 proved to be exceptional in terms of Asian biomass burning emissions transported to the Western Arctic. Though these smoke plumes account for only 11–14 % of the samples within the Western Arctic domain, they account for 42–47 % of the total burden of black carbon. Dust was also commonly observed but only contributes to 4–12 % and 3–8 % of total light absorption at 470 and 530 nm wavelengths above 6 km. Below 6 km, light absorption by carbonaceous aerosol derived from urban/industrial and biomass burning emissions account for 97–99 % of total light absorption by aerosol. Stratifying the data to reduce the influence of dust allows us to determine mass absorption efficiencies for black carbon of 11.2±0.8, 9.5±0.6 and 7.4±0.7 m2 g−1 at 470, 530 and 660 nm wavelengths. These estimates are consistent with 35–80 % enhancements in 530 nm absorption due to clear or slightly absorbing coatings of pure black carbon particulate. Assuming a 1/λ wavelength dependence for BC absorption, and assuming that refractory aerosol (420 °C, τ = 0.1 s in low-dust samples is dominated by brown carbon, we derive mass absorption efficiencies for brown carbon of 0.83±0.15 and 0.27±0.08 m2 g−1 at 470 and 530 nm wavelengths. Estimates for the mass absorption efficiencies of Asian dust are 0.034 m2 g−1 and 0.017 m2

  15. Field Investigation of Surface-Lake Processes on Ice Shelves: Results of the 2015/16 Field Campaign on McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAyeal, Doug; Banwell, Alison; Willis, Ian; Macdonald, Grant

    2016-04-01

    Ice-shelf instability and breakup of the style exhibited by Larsen B Ice Shelf in 2002 remains the most difficult glaciological process of consequence to observe in detail. It is, however, vital to do so because ice-shelf breakup has the potential to influence the buttressing controls on inland ice discharge, and thus to affect sea level. Several mechanisms enabling Larsen B style breakup have been proposed, including the ability of surface lakes to introduce ice-shelf fractures when they fill and drain, thereby changing the surface loads the ice-shelf must adjust to. Our model suggest that these fractures resulted in a chain-reaction style drainage of >2750 surface lakes on the Larsen B in the days prior to its demise. To validate this and other models, we began a field project on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) during the 2015/16 austral summer. Advantages of the MIS study site are: there is considerable surface melting during 3-6 weeks of the summer season, the ice is sufficiently thin (logistical support (McMurdo Station). Here we show initial results from the field campaign, including GPS and water-depth observations of a lake that has filled and drained over multiple week timescales in previous austral summers. We also report on the analysis of high-resolution WorldView satellite imagery from several summers that reveals the complexity of surface meltwater movement in channels and subsurface void spaces. Initial reconnaissance of the largest surface-lake features reveal that they have a central circular depression surrounded by an uplifted ring, which supports one of the central tenets of our ice-shelf flexure theory. A second field season is anticipated for the 2016/17 austral summer.

  16. The Sprite 2005 Observation Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud; Crosby, Norma; Armone, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    and outreach programmes for the young scientists hired. Educational activities were based on the following elements: national PhD programmes, activities at CAL and other meetings, a dedicated summer school, and two European sprite observational campaigns. The young scientists were strongly involved...... in the latter and, as an example, the "EuroSprite2005" observational campaign is presented in detail. Some of the young scientists participated in the instrument set-up, others in the campaign logistics, some coordinated the observations, and others gathered the results to build a catalogue. During the four......-month duration of this campaign, all of them took turns in operating the system and making their own night observations. The ongoing campaign activities were constantly advertised and communicated via an Internet blog. In summary the campaign required all the CAL young scientists to embark on experimental work...

  17. Measurements of OH and HO2 concentrations during the MCMA-2006 field campaign – Part 2: Model comparison and radical budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dubey

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of hydroxyl (OH and hydroperoxy (HO2 radicals were made during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA field campaign as part of the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations project during March 2006. These measurements provide a unique opportunity to test current models of atmospheric ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2 photochemistry under polluted conditions. A zero-dimensional box model based on the Regional Atmospheric Chemical Mechanism (RACM was constrained by 10-min averages of 24 J-values and the concentrations of 97 chemical species. Several issues related to the ROx chemistry under polluted conditions are highlighted in this study: (i Measured concentrations of both OH and HO2 were underpredicted during morning hours on a median campaign basis, suggesting a significant source of radicals is missing from current atmospheric models under polluted conditions, consistent with previous urban field campaigns. (ii The model-predicted HO2/OH ratios underestimate the measurements for NO mixing ratios higher than 5 ppb, also consistent with previous urban field campaigns. This suggests that under high NOx conditions, the HO2 to OH propagation rate may be overestimated by the model or a process converting OH into HO2 may be missing from the chemical mechanism. On a daily basis (08:40 a.m.–06:40 p.m., an analysis of the radical budget indicates that HONO photolysis, HCHO photolysis, O3-alkene reactions and dicarbonyls photolysis are the main radical sources. O3 photolysis contributes to less than 6% of the total radical production.

  18. Evaluation of the Weather Research and Forecasting model in the Durance Valley complex terrain during the KASCADE field campaign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalverla, P.C.; Duine, Gert-Jan; Steeneveld, G.J.; Hedde, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    In the winter of 2012-2013, the KASCADE observational campaign was
    carried out in southeast France in order to characterize the wind and thermodynamic structure of the (stable) planetary boundary layer (PBL). Data were
    collected with two micro-meteorological towers, a SODAR, a tethered ballo

  19. Investigations of Possible Low-Level Temperature and Moisture Anomalies During the AMIE Field Campaign on Manus Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, CN; Holdridge, DJ

    2012-11-19

    This document discusses results stemming from the investigation of near-surface temperature and moisture “oddities” that were brought to light as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment (AMIE), Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO), and Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011) campaigns.

  20. Mauna Kea, Hawaii as an Analogue Site for Future Planetary Resource Exploration: Results from the 2010 ILSO-ISRU Field-Testing Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Kate, I. L.; Armstrong, R.; Bernhardt, B.; Blummers, M.; Boucher, D.; Caillibot, E.; Captain, J.; Deleuterio, G.; Farmer, J. D.; Glavin, D. P.; Hamilton, J. C.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Morris, R. V.; Nunez, J. I.; Quinn, J. W.; Sanders, G. B.; Sellar, R. G.; Sigurdson, L.; Taylor, R.; Zacny, K.

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the International Lunar Surface Operation - In-Situ Resource Utilization Analogue Test held on January 27 - February 11, 2010 on the Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii, a number of scientific instrument teams collaborated to characterize the field site and test instrument capabilities outside laboratory environments. In this paper, we provide a geological setting for this new field-test site, a description of the instruments that were tested during the 2010 ILSO-ISRU field campaign, and a short discussion for each instrument about the validity and use of the results obtained during the test. These results will form a catalogue that may serve as reference for future test campaigns. In this paper we provide a description and regional geological setting for a new field analogue test site for lunar resource exploration, and discuss results obtained from the 2010 ILSO-ISRU field campaign as a reference for future field-testing at this site. The following instruments were tested: a multispectral microscopic imager, MMI, a Mossbauer spectrometer, an evolved gas analyzer, VAPoR, and an oxygen and volatile extractor called RESOLVE. Preliminary results show that the sediments change from dry, organic-poor, poorly-sorted volcaniclastic sand on the surface, containing basalt, iron oxides and clays, to more water- and organic-rich, fine grained, well-sorted volcaniclastic sand, primarily consisting of iron oxides and depleted of basalt and clays. Furthermore, drilling experiments showed a very close correlation between drilling on the Moon and drilling at the test site. The ILSO-ISRU test site was an ideal location for testing strategies for in situ resource exploration at the lunar or martian surface.

  1. Size-dependent particle activation properties in fog during the ParisFog 2012/13 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hammer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fog causes a variety of hazards in road traffic, maritime navigation, as well as in air traffic and railway traffic. There is a great demand, e.g. from airports, for more reliable fog forecasts to prevent fog related accidents. Improved fog forecasts require a better understanding of the numerous complex mechanisms during the fog life cycle. During winter 2012/13 a field campaign called ParisFog aiming at fog research took place at SIRTA (Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research. SIRTA is located about 20 km southwest of the Paris city centre, France in a semi-urban environment. In situ activation properties of the prevailing fog were investigated by measuring: (1 total and interstitial (non-activated dry particle number size distributions behind two different inlet systems; (2 interstitial hydrated aerosol and fog droplet size distributions at ambient conditions; (3 cloud condensation nuclei (CCN number concentration at different supersaturations (SS with a CCN counter. The aerosol particles were characterized regarding their hygroscopic properties, fog droplet activation behavior and contribution to light scattering for 17 developed fog events. Low particle hygroscopicity with an overall median of hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of 0.14 was found, likely caused by substantial influence from local traffic and wood burning emissions. Measurements of the aerosol size distribution at ambient RH revealed that the critical wet diameter, above which the hydrated aerosols activate to fog droplets, is rather large with a median value of 2.4 μm and is highly variable (ranging from 1 to 5 μm between the different fog events. Thus, the number of activated fog droplets was very small and the non-activated hydrated particles were found to contribute siginificantly to the observed light scattering and thus to the reduction in visibility. Combining all experimental data, the effective peak supersaturation, SSpeak, a measure of the peak

  2. Simulation of Mexico City plumes during the MIRAGE-Mex field campaign using the WRF-Chem model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Tie

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of tropospheric O3 production in the downwind of the Mexico City plume is a major objective of the MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. We used a regional chemistry-transport model (WRF-Chem to predict the distribution of O3 and its precursors in Mexico City and the surrounding region during March 2006, and compared the model with in-situ aircraft measurements of O3, CO, VOCs, NOx, and NOy concentrations. The comparison shows that the model is capable of capturing the timing and location of the measured city plumes, and the calculated variability along the flights is generally consistent with the measured results, showing a rapid increase in O3 and its precursors when city plumes are detected. However, there are some notable differences between the calculated and measured values, suggesting that, during transport from the surface of the city to the outflow plume, ozone mixing ratios are underestimated by about 0–25% during different flights. The calculated O3-NOx, O3-CO, and O3-NOz correlations generally agree with the measured values, and the analyses of these correlations suggest that photochemical O3 production continues in the plume downwind of the city (aged plume, adding to the O3 already produced in the city and exported with the plume. The model is also used to quantify the contributions to OH reactivity from various compounds in the aged plume. This analysis suggests that oxygenated organics (OVOCs have the highest OH reactivity and play important roles for the O3 production in the aging plume. Furthermore, O3 production per NOx molecule consumed (O3 production efficiency is more efficient in the aged plume than in the young plume near the city. The major contributor to the high O3 production efficiency in the aged plume is the

  3. Simulation of Mexico City plumes during the MIRAGE-Mex field campaign using the WRF-Chem model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Tie

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of tropospheric O3 production in the Mexico City outflow is a major objective of the MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. We used a regional chemistry-transport model (WRF-Chem to predict the distribution of O3 and its precursors in Mexico City and the surrounding region during March 2006, and compared with in-situ aircraft measurement of O3, CO, VOCs, NOx, and NOy concentrations. The comparison shows that the model is capable of capturing the timing/location of the measured city plumes, and the calculated variability along the flights is generally consistent with the measured results, showing a rapid enhancement of O3 and its precursors when city plumes are detected. However, there are some notable differences between the calculated and measured values, suggesting that, during transport from the surface of the city to the outflow plume, pollution levels are underestimated by about 0–25% during different flights. The calculated O3-NOx, O3-CO, and O3-NOz correlations generally agree with the measured values, and the analysis of these correlations suggest that photochemical O3 production continues in the plume downwind of the city (aged plume, adding to the O3 already produced in the city and exported with the plume. The model is also used to quantify the contributions to OH reactivity from various compounds in the aged plume. This analysis suggests that oxygenated organics (OVOCs have the highest OH reactivity and play important roles for the O3 production in the aging plume. Furthermore, O3 production per NOx molecule consumed (O3 production efficiency is more efficient in the aged plume than in the young plume near the city. The major contributor to the high O3 production efficiency in the aged plume is the reaction RO2+NO. By

  4. Size-dependent particle activation properties in fog during the ParisFog 2012/13 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, E.; Gysel, M.; Roberts, G. C.; Elias, T.; Hofer, J.; Hoyle, C. R.; Bukowiecki, N.; Dupont, J.-C.; Burnet, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.

    2014-04-01

    Fog causes a variety of hazards in road traffic, maritime navigation, as well as in air traffic and railway traffic. There is a great demand, e.g. from airports, for more reliable fog forecasts to prevent fog related accidents. Improved fog forecasts require a better understanding of the numerous complex mechanisms during the fog life cycle. During winter 2012/13 a field campaign called ParisFog aiming at fog research took place at SIRTA (Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research). SIRTA is located about 20 km southwest of the Paris city centre, France in a semi-urban environment. In situ activation properties of the prevailing fog were investigated by measuring: (1) total and interstitial (non-activated) dry particle number size distributions behind two different inlet systems; (2) interstitial hydrated aerosol and fog droplet size distributions at ambient conditions; (3) cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration at different supersaturations (SS) with a CCN counter. The aerosol particles were characterized regarding their hygroscopic properties, fog droplet activation behavior and contribution to light scattering for 17 developed fog events. Low particle hygroscopicity with an overall median of hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of 0.14 was found, likely caused by substantial influence from local traffic and wood burning emissions. Measurements of the aerosol size distribution at ambient RH revealed that the critical wet diameter, above which the hydrated aerosols activate to fog droplets, is rather large with a median value of 2.4 μm and is highly variable (ranging from 1 to 5 μm) between the different fog events. Thus, the number of activated fog droplets was very small and the non-activated hydrated particles were found to contribute siginificantly to the observed light scattering and thus to the reduction in visibility. Combining all experimental data, the effective peak supersaturation, SSpeak, a measure of the peak supersaturation

  5. Cloud Occurrence Measurements Over Sea during the 2nd 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) Field Campaign in Palawan Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioquia, C. T.; Uy, S. N.; Caballa, K.; Lagrosas, N.

    2014-12-01

    Ground based sky imaging cameras have been used to measure cloud cover over an area to aid in radiation budget models. During daytime, certain clouds tend to help decrease atmospheric temperature by obstructing sunrays in the atmosphere. Thus, the detection of clouds plays an important role in the formulation of radiation budget in the atmosphere. In this study, a wide angled sky imager (GoPro Hero 2) was brought on board M/Y Vasco to detect and quantity cloud occurrence over sea during the 2nd 7SEAS field campaign. The camera is just a part of a number of scientific instruments used to measure weather, aerosol chemistry and solar radiation among others. The data collection started during the departure from Manila Bay on 05 September 2012 and went on until the end of the cruise (29 September 2012). The camera was placed in a weather-proof box that is then affixed on a steel mast where other instruments are also attached during the cruise. The data has a temporal resolution of 1 minute, and each image is 500x666 pixels in size. Fig. 1a shows the track of the ship during the cruise. The red, blue, hue, saturation, and value of the pixels are analysed for cloud occurrence. A pixel is considered to "contain" thick cloud if it passes all four threshold parameters (R-B, R/B, R-B/R+B, HSV; R is the red pixel color value, blue is the blue pixel color value, and HSV is the hue saturation value of the pixel) and considered thin cloud if it passes two or three parameters. Fig. 1b shows the daily analysis of cloud occurrence. Cloud occurrence here is quantified as the ratio of the pixels with cloud to the total number of pixels in the data image. The average cloud cover for the days included in this dataset is 87%. These measurements show a big contrast when compared to cloud cover over land (Manila Observatory) which is usually around 67%. During the duration of the cruise, only one day (September 6) has an average cloud occurrence below 50%; the rest of the days have

  6. Vertical profiles of ozone, VOCs and meteorological parameters in within and outside of Mexico City during the MILAGRO field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, C.; Greenberg, J.; Bueno, E.; Bernabe, R.; Aguilar, J.; Blanco, S.; Wöhrnschimmel, H.; Guenther, A.; Cardenas, B.; Turnipseed, A.

    2007-05-01

    High ozone levels with maxima over 250 ppb have been an air quality problem in Mexico City for more than a decade. This ozone is produced in the daytime by photochemical reactions, initiated by its precursors, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of solar ultraviolet radiation. The objective of this work is to contribute to the understanding of the evolution of these air pollutants at different heights of the boundary layer by means of vertical profile measurements. Ozone, VOCs and meteorological vertical profiles were determined in Northern Mexico City (T0 site) using a tethered balloon for 10 days during the MILAGRO field Campaign 2006, between 4 AM and 4 PM. Measurements were done up to 1000 meter above ground (ozone and meteorological parameters) and up to 200 m above ground for VOCs. VOCs samples were collected during 4 minutes in canisters and analyzed with GC-FID to identify 13 species (ethane, propane, propylene, butane, acetylene, pentane, hexane, heptane, benzene, octane, toluene, nonane and o-xylene). For 4 of the days, VOC integrated samples were also taken using personal pumps and absorbent cartridges at height between 200 and 1000 m. Sample cartridges were analyzed by GC-MS for volatile organic compounds (n-butane, i-pentane, n- pentane, benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, o-xylene, m&p-xylene, 1,2,4-tri-methyl-benzene and C3-benzenes). Ozone vertical profiles, frequently presented high concentrations above 400 m in the early morning. During the daytime, more homogeneous profiles indicate an increased vertical mixing. VOCs profiles show similar concentrations for all heights at dawn. In the morning, highest concentrations were determined at a height of about 100 meter, whereas at noon and in the afternoon concentrations decreased with height. Comparing VOC concentrations during the course of a day, highest values are measured in the morning. The highest VOC concentrations were propane, butane, and toluene. For some

  7. Output fields from the NOAA WAVEWATCH III® wave model monthly hindcasts for 2007-03 (NODC Accession 0089833)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA WAVEWATCH III® hindcast dataset comprises output fields from the monthly WAVEWATCH III® hindcast model runs conducted at the National Centers for...

  8. Output fields from the NOAA WAVEWATCH III® wave model monthly hindcasts for 2007-02 (NODC Accession 0089832)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA WAVEWATCH III® hindcast dataset comprises output fields from the monthly WAVEWATCH III® hindcast model runs conducted at the National Centers for...

  9. Output fields from the NOAA WAVEWATCH III® wave model monthly hindcasts for 2009-04 (NODC Accession 0089858)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA WAVEWATCH III® hindcast dataset comprises output fields from the monthly WAVEWATCH III® hindcast model runs conducted at the National Centers for...

  10. Output fields from the NOAA WAVEWATCH III® wave model monthly hindcasts for 2015-06 (NCEI Accession 0130740)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA WAVEWATCH III® hindcast dataset comprises output fields from the monthly WAVEWATCH III® hindcast model runs conducted at the National Centers for...

  11. Output fields from the NOAA WAVEWATCH III® wave model monthly hindcasts for 2012-02 (NODC Accession 0089892)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA WAVEWATCH III® hindcast dataset comprises output fields from the monthly WAVEWATCH III® hindcast model runs conducted at the National Centers for...

  12. Output fields from the NOAA WAVEWATCH III® wave model monthly hindcasts for 2010-03 (NODC Accession 0089869)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA WAVEWATCH III® hindcast dataset comprises output fields from the monthly WAVEWATCH III® hindcast model runs conducted at the National Centers for...

  13. Output fields from the NOAA WAVEWATCH III® wave model monthly hindcasts for 2014-09 (NODC Accession 0125935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA WAVEWATCH III® hindcast dataset comprises output fields from the monthly WAVEWATCH III® hindcast model runs conducted at the National Centers for...

  14. Output fields from the NOAA WAVEWATCH III® wave model monthly hindcasts for 2010-12 (NODC Accession 0089878)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA WAVEWATCH III® hindcast dataset comprises output fields from the monthly WAVEWATCH III® hindcast model runs conducted at the National Centers for...

  15. Output fields from the NOAA WAVEWATCH III® wave model monthly hindcasts for 2013-10 (NODC Accession 0115066)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA WAVEWATCH III® hindcast dataset comprises output fields from the monthly WAVEWATCH III® hindcast model runs conducted at the National Centers for...

  16. Output fields from the NOAA WAVEWATCH III® wave model monthly hindcasts for 2006-05 (NODC Accession 0089823)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA WAVEWATCH III® hindcast dataset comprises output fields from the monthly WAVEWATCH III® hindcast model runs conducted at the National Centers for...

  17. Organizational Campaigning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    approach will in be named: organizational campaigning and means (e.g. Kotter, 2012, p. 9 and Clegg, Kornberger & Pitsis, 2009) that the manager takes control with communication and communication cannels in order to ensure successful organizational changes. Since the changes were not succeeding the approach...

  18. Twitter and political campaigning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, M.R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of Twitter by politicians, parties, and the general audience in politics, particularly during election campaigns, has become an extremely popular research field almost overnight. Even though Twitter, a medium that emerged early in 2006 – the first tweet was posted on 21 March 2006 by Jack Do

  19. Concentrations and fluxes of aerosol particles during the LAPBIAT measurement campaign in Värriö field station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Ruuskanen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The LAPBIAT measurement campaign took place in the SMEAR I measurement station located in Eastern Lapland in the spring of 2003 between 26 April and 11 May. In this paper we describe the measurement campaign, concentrations and fluxes of aerosol particles, air ions and trace gases, paying special attention to an aerosol particle formation event broken by a polluted air mass approaching from industrial areas of Kola Peninsula, Russia. Aerosol particle number flux measurements show strong downward fluxes during that time. Concentrations of coarse aerosol particles were high for 1–2 days before the nucleation event (i.e. 28–29 April, very low immediately before and during the observed aerosol particle formation event (30 April and increased moderately from the moment of sudden break of the event. In general particle deposition measurements based on snow samples show the same changes. Measurements of the mobility distribution of air ions showed elevated concentrations of intermediate air ions during the particle formation event. We estimated the growth rates in the nucleation mode size range. For particles <10 nm, the growth rate increases with size on 30 April. Dispersion modelling made with model SILAM support the conclusion that the nucleation event was interrupted by an outbreak of sulphate-rich air mass in the evening of 30 April that originated from the industry at Kola Peninsula, Russia. The results of this campaign highlight the need for detailed research in atmospheric transport of air constituents for understanding the aerosol dynamics.

  20. Physicochemical changes in pyrogenic organic matter (biochar) after 15 months of field aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Zimmerman, A. R.; Hamdan, R.; Cooper, W. T.

    2014-07-01

    Predicting the effects of pyrogenic organic matter (OM) addition (either natural or intentional as in the case of biochar amendment) on soil chemistry and crop yields has been hampered by a lack of understanding of how pyrogenic OM evolves in the environment over time. This work compared the physicochemical characteristics of newly made and 15-month-field-aged biochars and biochar-soil mixtures. After aging, biochars made by pyrolysis of wood and grass at 250, 400 and 650 °C exhibited 5-fold increases in cation exchange capacity (CEC), on average; appearance of anion exchange capacity (AEC); and significant decreases in pH, ash content and nanopore surface area. Cross polarization 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses indicated relative increases in O-containing functional groups, including substituted aryl, carboxyl and carbonyl C, and losses of O-alkyl groups. Similar chemical trends were observed for soil-biochar mixtures, suggesting the same biochar aging processes occurred in the soil environment. However, there was evidence for a role of soil OM-microbe-biochar interaction during aging. Field aging of soil with biochar resulted in large increases in C and N content (up to 124 and 143%, respectively) and exchange capacity (up to 43%) beyond that calculated by the weighted addition of the properties of biochar and soil aged separately. These beneficial interactive effects varied with soil and biochar type. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images of biochar particles aged with soil showed colonization by microbes and widespread OM coatings. Thus, sorption of both microbially produced and soil OM are likely processes that enhanced biochar aging. Thus, biochar's full beneficial effects on soil properties likely increase over time, and proper assignment of C sequestration credits to biochar users will require consideration of soil-biochar interactions.

  1. Campaigning for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, Larry

    2002-07-01

    Most organizations must change if they're to stay alive. Change is tough to accomplish, but it's not impossible and can be systematized. The author, who has been involved in change initiatives at scores of companies, believes that the success of such programs has more to do with execution than with conceptualization. The successful change programs he observed had one thing in common: They employed three distinct but linked campaigns--political, marketing, and military. The author cites examples from such companies as Hewlett-Packard, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Saturn to illustrate how effective such campaigns can be. A political campaign creates a coalition strong enough to support and guide the initiative. Sometimes, coalitions arise from changes to a company's formal structure. But they may come out of the informal structure, or they could stem from a temporary counterstructure. A marketing campaign must go beyond simply publicizing the initiative's benefits. It focuses on listening to ideas that bubble up from the field as well as on working with lead customers to design the initiative. A clearly articulated theme for the transformation program must also be developed. A military campaign deploys executives' scarce resources of attention and time. Successful executives secure their supply lines by, for instance, piggybacking onto initiatives that have already captured people's interests or already exist as bootleg projects. These managers also set up pilot projects that turn into beachheads because the projects expose them to the difficult dynamics they will ultimately face. Successful executives launch all three campaigns simultaneously. The three always feed on one another, and if any one campaign is not properly implemented, the change initiative is bound to fail.

  2. Multi-EM27/SUN Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) Comparison at the Southern Great Plains Site Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hedelius, J. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    During the summer of 2015, a field campaign took place to help characterize off-the-shelf portable solar-viewing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) instruments (EM27/SUN). These instruments retrieve greenhouse gas (GHG) abundances from direct solar spectra. A focus of this campaign was to test possible dependence on different atmospheric conditions. Along with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma, experiments were conducted in Pasadena, California; Park Falls, Wisconsin; and the Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC), California. These locations are home to instruments in the Total Column Carbon Observing Network (TCCON). TCCON measurements were used as standards for the portable (EM27/SUN) measurements. Comparisons between the two types of instruments are crucial in the attempt to use the portable instruments to broaden the capabilities of GHG measurements for monitoring, reporting, and verification of carbon in the atmosphere. This campaign was aimed at testing the response of the portable FTS to different atmospheric conditions both local and regional. Measurements made at ARM SGP provided data in an agricultural environment with a relatively clean atmosphere with respect to pollution. Due to the homogeneity of the region surrounding Lamont, Oklahoma, portable FTS measurements were less effected by large changes in column GHG abundances from air mass movement between regions. These conditions aided in characterizing potential artificial solar zenith angle dependence of the retrievals. Data collected under atmospheric conditions at ARM SGP also provide for the analysis of cloud interference on solar spectra. In situ measurements were also made using a Picarro isotopic methane analyzer to determine surface-level in situ GHG concentrations and possible influences due to local agriculture and nearby towns. Data collected in this campaign have been presented

  3. 4STAR Sky-Scanning Retrievals of Aerosol Intensive Optical Properties from Multiple Field Campaigns with Detailed Comparisons of SSA Reported During SEAC4RS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Connor; Dahlgren, R. P.; Dunagan, S.; Johnson, R.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; LeBlanc, S.; Livingston, J.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Segal Rozenhaimer, M.; Shinozuka, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Schmidt, S.; Holben, B.; Sinyuk, A.; Hair, J.; Anderson, B.; Ziemba, L.

    2015-01-01

    The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument combines airborne sun tracking capabilities of the Ames Airborne Tracking Sun Photometer (AATS-14) with AERONET-like sky-scanning capability and adds state-of-the-art fiber-coupled grating spectrometry to yield hyper spectral measurements of direct solar irradiance and angularly resolved sky radiance. The combination of sun-tracking and sky-scanning capability enables retrievals of wavelength-dependent aerosol optical depth (AOD), mode-resolved aerosol size distribution (SD), asphericity, and complex refractive index, and thus also the scattering phase function, asymmetry parameter, single-scattering albedo (SSA), and absorption aerosol optical thickness (AAOT).From 2012 to 2014 4STAR participated in four major field campaigns: the U.S. Dept. of Energy TCAP I II campaigns, and NASAs SEAC4RS and ARISE campaigns. Establishing a strong performance record, 4STAR operated successfully on all flights conducted during each of these campaigns. Sky radiance spectra from scans in either constant azimuth (principal plane) or constant zenith angle (almucantar) were interspersed with direct beam measurements during level legs. During SEAC4RS and ARISE, 4STAR airborne measurements were augmented with flight-level albedo from the collocated Shortwave Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) providing improved specification of below-aircraft radiative conditions for the retrieval. Calibrated radiances and retrieved products will be presented with particular emphasis on detailed comparisons of ambient SSA retrievals and measurements during SEAC4RS from 4STAR, AERONET, HSRL2, and from in situ measurements.

  4. Highlights from 4STAR Sky-Scanning Retrievals of Aerosol Intensive Optical Properties from Multiple Field Campaigns with Detailed Comparisons of SSA Reported During SEAC4RS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument combines airborne sun tracking capabilities of the Ames Airborne Tracking Sun Photometer (AATS-14) with AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network)-like sky-scanning capability and adds state-of-the-art fiber-coupled grating spectrometry to yield hyperspectral measurements of direct solar irradiance and angularly resolved sky radiance. The combination of sun-tracking and sky-scanning capability enables retrievals of wavelength-dependent aerosol optical depth (AOD), mode-resolved aerosol size distribution (SD), asphericity, and complex refractive index, and thus also the scattering phase function, asymmetry parameter, single-scattering albedo (SSA), and absorption aerosol optical thickness (AAOT). From 2012 to 2014 4STAR participated in four major field campaigns: the U.S. Dept. of Energy's TCAP (Two-Column Aerosol Project) I & II campaigns, and NASA's SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) and ARISE (Arctic Radiation - IceBridge Sea & Ice Experiment) campaigns. Establishing a strong performance record, 4STAR operated successfully on all flights conducted during each of these campaigns. Sky radiance spectra from scans in either constant azimuth (principal plane) or constant zenith angle (almucantar) were interspersed with direct beam measurements during level legs. During SEAC4RS and ARISE, 4STAR airborne measurements were augmented with flight-level albedo from the collocated Shortwave Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) providing improved specification of below-aircraft radiative conditions for the retrieval. Calibrated radiances and retrieved products will be presented with particular emphasis on detailed comparisons of ambient SSA retrievals and measurements during SEAC4RS from 4STAR, AERONET, HSRL2 (High Spectral Resolution Lidar), and from in situ measurements.

  5. Modeling ozone plumes observed downwind of New York City over the North Atlantic Ocean during the ICARTT field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-H. Lee

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Transport and chemical transformation of well-defined New York City (NYC urban plumes over the North Atlantic Ocean were studied using aircraft measurements collected on 20–21 July 2004 during the ICARTT (International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation field campaign and WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry model simulations. The strong NYC urban plumes were characterized by carbon monoxide (CO mixing ratios of 350–400 parts per billion by volume (ppbv and ozone (O3 levels of about 100 ppbv near New York City on 20 July in the WP-3D in-situ and DC-3 lidar aircraft measurements. On 21 July, the two aircraft captured strong urban plumes with about 350 ppbv CO and over 150 ppbv O3 (~160 ppbv maximum about 600 km downwind of NYC over the North Atlantic Ocean. The measured urban plumes extended vertically up to about 2 km near New York City, but shrank to 1–1.5 km over the stable marine boundary layer (MBL over the North Atlantic Ocean. The WRF-Chem model reproduced ozone formation processes, chemical characteristics, and meteorology of the measured urban plumes near New York City (20 July and in the far downwind region over the North Atlantic Ocean (21 July. The quasi-Lagrangian analysis of transport and chemical transformation of the simulated NYC urban plumes using WRF-Chem results showed that the pollutants can be efficiently transported in (isentropic layers in the lower atmosphere (<2–3 km over the North Atlantic Ocean while maintaining a dynamic vertical decoupling by cessation of turbulence in the stable MBL. The O3 mixing ratio in the NYC urban plumes remained at 80–90 ppbv during nocturnal transport over the stable MBL, then grew to over 100 ppbv by daytime oxidation of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2 with mixing ratios on the order of 1 ppbv. Efficient transport of reactive nitrogen species (NOy, specifically nitric

  6. Modeling ozone plumes observed downwind of New York City over the North Atlantic Ocean during the ICARTT field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-H. Lee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Transport and chemical transformation of well-defined New York City (NYC urban plumes over the North Atlantic Ocean were studied using aircraft measurements collected on 20–21 July 2004 during the ICARTT (International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation field campaign and WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry model simulations. The strong NYC urban plumes were characterized by carbon monoxide (CO mixing ratios of 350–400 parts per billion by volume (ppbv and ozone (O3 levels of about 100 ppbv near New York City on 20 July in the WP-3D in-situ and DC-3 lidar aircraft measurements. On 21 July, the two aircraft captured strong urban plumes with about 350 ppbv CO and over 150 ppbv O3 (~160 ppbv maximum about 600 km downwind of NYC over the North Atlantic Ocean. The measured urban plumes extended vertically up to about 2 km near New York City, but shrank to 1–1.5 km over the stable marine boundary layer (MBL over the North Atlantic Ocean. The WRF-Chem model reproduced ozone formation processes, chemical characteristics, and meteorology of the measured urban plumes near New York City (20 July and in the far downwind region over the North Atlantic Ocean (21 July. The quasi-Lagrangian analysis of transport and chemical transformation of the simulated NYC urban plumes using WRF-Chem results showed that the pollutants can be efficiently transported in (isentropic layers in the lower atmosphere (<2–3 km over the North Atlantic Ocean while maintaining a dynamic vertical decoupling by cessation of turbulence in the stable MBL. The O3 mixing ratio in the NYC urban plumes remained at 80–90 ppbv during nocturnal transport over the stable MBL, then grew to over 100 ppbv by daytime oxidation of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2 with mixing ratios on the order of 1 ppbv. Efficient transport of reactive nitrogen species (NOy, specifically nitric

  7. Measurements of OH and HO2 concentrations during the MCMA-2006 field campaign – Part 2: Model comparison and radical budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Dubey

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of hydroxyl (OH and hydroperoxy (HO2 radicals were made during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA field campaign as part of the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations project during March 2006. These measurements provide a unique opportunity to test current models of atmospheric ROx (OH+HO2+RO2 photochemistry under polluted conditions. A zero-dimensional box model based on the Regional Atmospheric Chemical Mechanism (RACM was constrained by 10-min averages of 24 J-values and the concentrations of 97 chemical species. Several issues related to the ROx chemistry under polluted conditions are highlighted in this study: (i median concentrations of both OH and HO2 were underpredicted during morning hours, suggesting a significant source of radicals is missing from current atmospheric models under polluted conditions, consistent with previous urban field campaigns. (ii The predicted HO2/OH ratios were underestimated for NO mixing ratios higher than 5 ppb, also consistent with previous urban field campaigns. This suggests that under high NOx conditions, the HO2 to OH propagation rate may be overestimated by the model or a process converting OH into HO2 may be missing from the chemical mechanism. On a daily basis (08:40 a.m.–06:40 p.m., an analysis of the radical budget indicates that HONO photolysis, HCHO photolysis, O3-alkene reactions and dicarbonyls photolysis are the main radical sources. O3 photolysis contributes to less than 6% of the total radical production.

  8. The Abundance of Star-Forming Galaxies in the Redshift Range 8.5 to 12: New Results from the 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field Campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Richard S; Dunlop, James S; Robertson, Brant E; Ono, Yoshiaki; Schenker, Matthew A; Koekemoer, Anton; Bowler, Rebecca A A; Ouchi, Masami; Rogers, Alexander B; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Schneider, Evan; Charlot, Stephane; Stark, Daniel P; Furlanetto, Steven R; Cirasuolo, Michele

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of the deepest search to date for star-forming galaxies beyond a redshift z~8.5 utilizing a new sequence of near-infrared Wide Field Camera 3 images of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. This `UDF12' campaign completed in September 2012 doubles the earlier exposures with WFC3/IR in this field and quadruples the exposure in the key F105W filter used to locate such distant galaxies. Combined with additional imaging in the F140W filter, the fidelity of high redshift candidates is greatly improved. Using spectral energy distribution fitting techniques on objects selected from a deep multi-band near-infrared stack we find 7 promising z>8.5 candidates. As none of the previously claimed UDF candidates with 8.510 galaxies with JWST.

  9. What makes or breaks a health fundraising campaign on twitter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prasetyo, N.D.; Hauff, C.; Nguyen, D.; Broek, T.A. van den; Hiemstra, D.

    2015-01-01

    Health campaigns that aim to raise awareness and subsequently raise funds for research and treatment are commonplace. While many local campaigns exist, very few attract the attention of a global audience. One of those global campaigns is Movember, an annual campaign during the month of November, tha

  10. The role of refinery flaring events and bay breezes on a high surface ozone episode during the Houston, Texas DISCOVER-AQ field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Fried, A.; Pickering, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    The highest observed surface ozone concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area in 2013 occurred on September 25, which coincided with the Texas DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign. Surface ozone was elevated throughout the Houston metropolitan area with maximum 8-hour average ozone peaking along the western shore of Galveston Bay, reaching 124 ppbv, almost 50 ppbv above the current EPA standard of 75 ppbv. The NASA P-3B aircraft observed plumes from refinery flares west and northwest of Galveston Bay that were transported over the water. Continental air pollution from the north was transported into the Houston metropolitan area where it mixed with locally generated emissions. A bay breeze circulation formed causing pollutants that were transported out over the water in the morning to recirculate back inland where they mixed with freshly emitted pollution near the bay breeze convergence zone. The highest surface ozone concentrations were reported near the bay breeze front. This ozone episode will be presented using measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and a CMAQ model simulation with integrated source apportionment, which tracks the contribution of emissions source groups and regions on ozone concentrations.

  11. The role of bay breezes and regional transport on a high surface ozone episode during the Houston, Texas DISCOVER-AQ field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Pickering, K. E.; Estes, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The highest observed surface ozone concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area in 2013 occurred on September 25, which coincided with the Texas DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign. Surface ozone was elevated throughout the Houston metropolitan area. Maximum 8-hour average ozone peaked along the western shore of Galveston Bay, reaching 124 ppbv, almost 50 ppbv above the current EPA standard of 75 ppbv, at La Porte Sylvan Beach. Continental air pollution from the north and northeast was transported into the Houston metropolitan area where it mixed with locally generated emissions. A bay breeze circulation formed causing pollutants that were transported out over the water in the morning to recirculate back inland where they mixed with freshly emitted pollution near the bay breeze convergence zone. The highest surface ozone concentrations were reported near the bay breeze front at La Porte Sylvan Beach. This ozone episode will be presented using measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and WRF and CMAQ model simulations.

  12. Overview of the field measurement campaign in Hyytiälä, August 2001 in the framework of the EU project OSOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boy

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the OSOA (Origin and formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols project, two intensive field campaigns were conducted in Melpitz, Germany and Hyytiälä, Finland. This paper gives an overview of the measurements made during the Hyytiälä campaign, which was held between 1 and 16 August 2001. Various instrumental techniques were used to achieve physical and chemical characterisation of aerosols and to investigate possible precursor gases. During the OSOA campaign in Hyytiälä, particle formation was observed on three consecutive days at the beginning of the campaign (1 to 3 August 2001 and on three days later on. The investigation of the meteorological situation divided the campaign into two parts. During the first three days of August, relatively cold and clean air masses from northwest passed over the station (condensation sink – CS: -1, NOx: -3 were observed. After this period, warmer and more polluted air from south-west to south-east arrived at the station (CS: 0.002–0.01 s-1, NOx: 0.5–4 ppb and during these 13 days only three events were observed. These events were not as apparent as those that occurred during the earlier period of the campaign. The chemical analyses from different institutes of PM2, PM2.5 and PM10 particles confirmed the assumption that organic matter from the oxidation of various terpenes contributed to the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA. Concerning these conclusions among others, the ratio between formic (oxidation product of isoprene and monoterpenes by ozone and acetic acid (increased by anthropogenic emissions (ratio=1 to 1.5 and concentration of different carboxylic acids (up to 62 ngm-3 were investigated. Gas/particle partitioning of five photo-oxidation products from α- and β-pinene resulted in higher concentrations of pinonic, nor pinonic and pinic acids in the particle phase than in the gas phase, which indicates a preference to the particle phase for these compounds. The average

  13. Overview of the field measurement campaign in Hyytiälä, August 2001 in the framework of the EU project OSOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boy

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available As one part of the OSOA (Origin and formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols project, two intensive field campaigns were conducted in Melpitz, Germany and Hyytiälä, Finland. This paper gives an overview of the measurements made during the Hyytiälä campaign, which was held between the 1st and 16th of August 2001. Various instrumental techniques were used to achieve physical and chemical characterisation of aerosols and to investigate possible precursor gases.

    During the OSOA campaign in Hyytiälä, particle formation was observed on three consecutive days at the beginning of the campaign (1 to 3 August 2001 and on three days later on. The investigation of the meteorological situation divided the campaign into two parts. During the first three days of August, relatively cold and clean air masses from northwest passed over the station (condensation sink – CS: <0.002 s−1, NOx: < 0.5 ppb. Daily particle bursts of one fraction of the nucleation mode aerosols (3–10,nm with number concentrations between 600–1200 particles cm-3 were observed. After this period, warmer and more polluted air from south-west to south-east arrived at the station (CS: 0.002-0.01 s−1, NOx: 0.5–4 ppb and during these 13 days only three events were observed. These events were not as apparent as those that occurred during the earlier period of the campaign. The chemical analyses from different institutes of PM2, PM2.5 and PM10 particles confirmed the assumption that organic matter from the oxidation of various terpenes contributed to the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA. Concerning these conclusions among others, the ratio between formic (oxidation product of isoprene and monoterpenes by ozone and acetic acid (increased by anthropogenic emissions (ratio=1 to 1.5 and concentration of different carboxylic acids (up to 62 ng m−3 were investigated

  14. On the impact of anthropogenic emissions on biogenic SOA formation above West Africa: results from DACCIWA aircraft field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Joel; Freney, Evelyn; Colomb, Aurelie; Dupuy, Régis; Duplissy, Jonathan; Denjean, Cyrielle; Dominutti, Pamela; Batenburg, Anneke; Haslett, Sophie; Schulz, Christiane; Bourrianne, Thierry; Burnet, Frederic; Borbon, Agnès; Schneider, Johannes; Borrmann, Stephan; Coe, Hugh; Sellegri, Karine; Flamant, Cyrille; Knippertz, Peter; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons

    2017-04-01

    As part of the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project, airborne campaigns were designed to measure a large range of atmospheric constituents focusing on the improvement of our current understanding on the effect of anthropogenic emissions on regional climate. The targeted region, Southern West Africa, holds currently a population of over 340 million people, and is predicted by the United Nations to reach about 800 million by 2050. The climate in the region is characterized by a large-scale atmospheric circulation system which controls precipitation over a land area of about 6 million km2, directly impacting the water resources, agriculture and power generation of hundreds of millions of people. Besides its large natural variability, the West African monsoon system is also expected to be significantly affected by global and regional climate change, with large uncertainties on the role of local pollution. An important aspect assessing the impact of human activities on the local climate is thereby the understanding of aerosol sources and properties. The presented study details results of the DACCIWA measurement campaign using the French ATR42 research aircraft, which in combination with the German Falcon 20 and British Twin Otter aircraft, aimed to characterize physico-chemical properties of aerosols in the region using a suite of aerosol measurement techniques (e.g. C-TOF AMS, APITOF, SMPS, etc.) and supporting information from simultaneous trace gas measurements (e.g. PTRMS). This large dataset has been used to assess how anthropogenic emission (NOx, SO2, SO4) is impacting formation of biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation, in particular through the formation of isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX). The recently collected data will certainly help understanding the coupling between human activities and regional climate in a sensitive, highly populated area.

  15. Sand body geometry, constrained and predicted during a horizontal drilling campaign in a Lower Cretaceous turbidite sand system, Captain Field, UKCS Block 13/22a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, P.T.S.; Manighetti, A.A. [Texaco Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Regan, K.J.; Smith, T. [STAG Geological Services Ltd., Aldermaston, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2000-08-01

    The Captain Field is a large viscous oil accumulation located in the Western Moray Firth. UK Block 13/22a which is being developed by long horizontal wells. The reservoir sand body geometry was defined in the appraisal phase by 20 vertical wells. Seismic attributes were not used because of the poor seismic signal to noise ratio in the reservoir interval. As the development drilling campaign has unfolded, the appraisal sand body geometry model has been significantly refined using a wealth of data from the horizontal wells. During development it has proved cheap to sidetrack horizontal well sections without a requirement to isolate the abandoned hole. This has resulted in significant extra geological data (e.g. top reservoir penetrations, sand thickness data). Integrating this dataset with top reservoir topography derived from seismic and weak internal reservoir seismic reflectors, the sand body geometry model is significantly improved in underdeveloped parts of the field. (Author)

  16. Constraints on a priori assumptions and microphysical properties in precipitation from in situ measurements in GPM-GV field campaigns: regime dependence and impact on retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, S. W.; Harnos, D. S.; Harnos, K.; Reed, K. A.; Duffy, G.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Tanelli, S.; Williams, C. R.; Johnson, B. T.; Petersen, W. A.; Tokay, A.; Barros, A. P.; Wilson, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Active and passive physical precipitation retrieval algorithms are tasked to retrieve precipitation across a wide variety of precipitation types and environments, however, there is presently little knowledge as to how characteristics of precipitation, some of which are retrieved and some assumed a priori, vary across the diverse precipitation profiles on earth, particular in the vertical. GPM-Ground Validation (GV) has collected a broad range of microphysical observations both on the ground and through airborne campaigns. For retrieval algorithm a priori assumptions, which must reliably represent the natural variability of cloud properties, statistical characterization of in situ measurements of parameters that algorithms retrieve or assume are known to vary in meteorological regimes and must be characterized as well as their uncertainties reported in order to aid in algorithm accuracy and uncertainty characterization. In this study, we will use data collected from in situ aircraft and ground based sensors, as well as remote sensing retrievals from GPM field campaigns across meteorological regimes to characterize the statistical relationships among a priori assumptions as a function of height as well as meteorological regime. Parameters that will be investigated include the variability of parameters such as cloud liquid water, effective mass-diameter relationships, as well as parameterized hydrometeor size distribution characteristics. Joint probability distributions of these parameters will be examined across campaigns as a function of height to understand the variability in these parameters for constraining algorithm assumptions. Variations in these parameters will be propagated through a dual-wavelength precipitation retrieval algorithm to assess their impacts on retrievals in warm and cold season precipitation. Results will consider how these parameters to what degree these parameters should be allowed to vary in global retrieval algorithms.

  17. Organizational Campaigning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    This conference paper will explore the difference between communicating changes and changing communication. Based on a case study in which a manager applies two quite different approaches to organizational communication in order to change the organization he is leading. The first and failing...... approach will in be named: organizational campaigning and means (e.g. Kotter, 2012, p. 9 and Clegg, Kornberger & Pitsis, 2009) that the manager takes control with communication and communication cannels in order to ensure successful organizational changes. Since the changes were not succeeding the approach...... is replaced with a new approach which will be named organizing communication. During the case analysis we will see that this change in approach not only change the managers perception of communication but also his perception of the organization he is leading....

  18. Improved simulation of isoprene oxidation chemistry with the ECHAM5/MESSy chemistry-climate model: lessons from the GABRIEL airborne field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Butler

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The GABRIEL airborne field measurement campaign, conducted over the Guyanas in October 2005, produced measurements of hydroxyl radical (OH concentration which are significantly higher than can be simulated using current generation models of atmospheric chemistry. Based on the hypothesis that this "missing OH" is due to an as-yet undiscovered mechanism for recycling OH during the oxidation chain of isoprene, we determine that an OH recycling of about 40–50% (compared with 5–10% in current generation isoprene oxidation mechanisms is necessary in order for our modelled OH to approach the lower error bounds of the OH observed during GABRIEL. Such a large amount of OH in our model leads to unrealistically low mixing ratios of isoprene. In order for our modelled isoprene mixing ratios to match those observed during the campaign, we also require that the effective rate constant for the reaction of isoprene with OH be reduced by about 50% compared with the lower bound of the range recommended by IUPAC. We show that a reasonable explanation for this lower effective rate constant could be the segregation of isoprene and OH in the mixed layer. Our modelling results are consistent with a global, annual isoprene source of about 500 Tg(C yr−1, allowing experimentally derived and established isoprene flux rates to be reconciled with global models.

  19. Improved simulation of isoprene oxidation chemistry with the ECHAM5/MESSy chemistry-climate model: lessons from the GABRIEL airborne field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Butler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The GABRIEL airborne field measurement campaign, conducted over the Guyanas in October 2005, produced measurements of hydroxyl radical (OH concentration which are significantly higher than can be simulated using current generation models of atmospheric chemistry. Based on the hypothesis that this "missing OH" is due to an as-yet undiscovered mechanism for recycling OH during the oxidation chain of isoprene, we determine that an OH recycling of about 40–50% (compared with 5–10% in current generation isoprene oxidation mechanisms is necessary in order for our modelled OH to approach the lower error bounds of the OH observed during GABRIEL. Such a large amount of OH in our model leads to unrealistically low mixing ratios of isoprene. In order for our modelled isoprene mixing ratios to match those observed during the campaign, we also require that the effective rate constant for the reaction of isoprene with OH be reduced by about 50% compared with the lower bound of the range recommended by IUPAC. We show that a reasonable explanation for this lower effective rate constant could be the segregation of isoprene and OH in the mixed layer. Our modelling results are consistent with a global, annual isoprene source of about 500 Tg(C yr−1, allowing experimentally derived and established isoprene flux rates to be reconciled with global models.

  20. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Atmospheric CO2 as Observed from In-Situ Measurements over North America during NASA Field Campaigns (2004-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yonghoon; Vay, Stephanie A.; Woo, Jung-Hun; Choi, Kichul; Diskin, Glenn S.; Sachse, G. W.; Vadrevu, Krishna P.; Czech, E.

    2009-01-01

    Regional-scale measurements were made over the eastern United States (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment - North America (INTEX-NA), summer 2004); Mexico (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO), March 2006); the eastern North Pacific and Alaska (INTEX-B May 2006); and the Canadian Arctic (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS), spring and summer 2008). For these field campaigns, instrumentation for the in situ measurement of CO2 was integrated on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft providing high-resolution (1 second) data traceable to the WMO CO2 mole fraction scale. These observations provide unique and definitive data sets via their intermediate-scale coverage and frequent vertical profiles (0.1 - 12 km) for examining the variability CO2 exhibits above the Earth s surface. A bottom-up anthropogenic CO2 emissions inventory (1deg 1deg) and processing methodology has also been developed for North America in support of these airborne science missions. In this presentation, the spatio-temporal distributions of CO2 and CO column values derived from the campaign measurements will be examined in conjunction with the emissions inventory and transport histories to aid in the interpretation of the CO2 observations.

  1. Analysis of star camera errors in GRACE data and their impact on monthly gravity field models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inacio, P.M.G.; Ditmar, P.G.; Klees, R.; Hashemifarahani, H.

    2015-01-01

    Star cameras (SCs) on board the GRACE satellites provide information about the attitudes of the spacecrafts. This information is needed to reduce the K-band ranging data to the centre of mass of the satellites. In this paper, we analyse GRACE SC errors using two months of real data of the primary an

  2. UAS Observations of Polynya Wave Height and Surface Temperature During the September 2012 Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A. C.; Palo, S. E.; Knuth, S. L.; Cassano, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    A 2012 campaign flew Aerosonde unmanned aerial systems (UASs) over the Terra Nova Bay polynya in Antarctica to study air-sea fluxes in this environment. Sea ice forms over the open water of the polynya and is pushed out from the coast by strong offshore winds, resulting in significant heat and moisture flux out of the area. The Aerosonde UAS payloads contained a number of instruments, including the Everest IR surface temperature sensor and the CULPIS LIDAR profilometer system, for the purpose of measuring these fluxes. Wave heights were extracted from the CULPIS data and compared to wind speed measurements collected onboard the Aerosonde and to wind speed measurements from AWS stations upwind. Wave height showed minimal correlation to the co-located UAS wind speed measurements, but high geographic predictability. High moisture flux out of polynyas often results in cloud formation, limiting the utility of satellite-based IR measurement of surface temperatures and ice extent. This study compares sea surface temperature measurements from the Everest instrument to the MODIS sea ice surface temperature data product. Surface temperature measurements from the Everest system show high agreement with concurrent MODIS data over a variety of ice surface conditions. The sample time of the UAV instrument relative to the time of the MODIS data provides an estimate of the time rate of change of the surface temperatures of different ice surface types (thin ice, thick ice, open water), which is related to air temperature.

  3. Evolution of the Sizes of Galaxies over 7Field Campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Schenker, Matthew A; Ellis, Richard S; McLure, Ross J; Dunlop, James S; Robertson, Brant E; Koekemoer, Anton M; Bowler, Rebecca A A; Rogers, Alexander B; Schneider, Evan; Charlot, Stephane; Stark, Daniel P; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Furlanetto, Steven R; Cirasuolo, Michele

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the redshift- and luminosity-dependent sizes of dropout galaxy candidates in the redshift range z~7-12 using deep images from the UDF12 campaign, data which offers two distinct advantages over that used in earlier work. Firstly, we utilize the increased S/N ratio offered by the UDF12 imaging to provide improved size measurements for known galaxies at z=6.5-8 in the HUDF. Specifically, we stack the new deep F140W image with the existing F125W data in order to provide improved measurements of the half-light radii of z-dropouts. Similarly we stack this image with the new deep UDF12 F160W image to obtain new size measurements for a sample of Y-dropouts. Secondly, because the UDF12 data have allowed the construction of the first robust galaxy sample in the HUDF at z>8, we have been able to extend the measurement of average galaxy size out to significantly higher redshifts. Restricting our size measurements to sources which are now detected at >15sigma, we confirm earlier indications that the average hal...

  4. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15. Nanoparticle Size Distribution (NPSD) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, C [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Artaxo, P [University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Martin, S [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Wang, J [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol nucleation and initial growth were investigated during the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15 campaign. Aerosol sampling occurred during the wet and dry seasons of 2014, and took place at the T3 measurement site, downwind of the city of Manaus, Brazil. Characterization of the aerosol size distribution from 10 to 500 nm was accomplished through the deployment of a conventional Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS) and a fine condensation particle counter (> 10 nm). In order to directly measure aerosol nucleation and initial growth, a Nano SMPS (1.5-20 nm) was also deployed, consisting of a condensation particle counter-based electrical mobility spectrometer that was modified for the detection of sub-3 nm aerosol. Measurements of the aerosol size distribution from 1.5 nm to 10 nm were obtained during the first observational period, and from 3 nm to 15 nm during the second observational period. Routine, stable measurement in this size range was complicated due to persistent water condensation in the Nano SMPS and diffusional transport losses

  5. An industry update: what is new in the field of therapeutic delivery this month?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    The present industry update covers the period of 1-30 November 2016, with information sourced primarily from company press releases, regulatory and patent agencies, scientific literature and various news websites. There was positive news on the clinical trials front for both EyeNovia and Glaxo SmithKline, but this month also saw Innocol release disappointing Phase IIb results for its Cogenzia product. In regulatory news, it was announced that the US FDA indicated that EyeGate may use the 510(k) De Novo Path for their device, the Ocular Bandage Gel. Also this month, Glaxo SmithKline announced that it filed a regulatory submission with the FDA for its novel triple-combination therapy product, utilizing its Ellipta(®) inhaler.

  6. What influences crowdfunding campaign success.

    OpenAIRE

    Drabløs, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Crowdfunding is a recently emerged market for entrepreneurs; it represents a new and growing source of potential capital. The potential crowdfunding is starting to reach it potential, and has beginning to go mainstream. There is a gap in the research on crowdfunding and within the field of what separates a successful campaign from a failed one. To explore the variables influencing crowdfunding campaign this paper looks into academic articles, the crowdfunding platforms, general...

  7. The Movember campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Mikkelsen, Marta K; Hansen, Rikke B;

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The aims of the present study were to investigate referral patterns and the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) before and after the Movember campaign was initiated in Denmark. METHODS: All men (n=2817) referred to the Department of Urology at Frederiksberg Hospital with suspicion of having....../100.000 in the Movember period (RR 1.25 [95% CI 1.16-1.35]). In contrast to what we anticipated, there was no increase in referral in the months following the campaign. The incidence rates of men diagnosed with PCa and low-risk PCa were similar in the Movember period and the pre-Movember period (PCa: RR 1.08 [0.......97-1.21]; low-risk PCa: RR 1.29 [0.98-1.73]). CONCLUSIONS: After the initiation of the Movember campaign a significant decline in the PSA level at referral and an increase in the number of patients referred under suspicion of PCa was observed; however, only minor differences in referral patterns and PCa...

  8. Characteristics of the NO-NO2-O3 system in different chemical regimes during the MIRAGE-Mex field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Hall

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The NO-NO2 system was analyzed in different chemical regimes/air masses based on observations of reactive nitrogen species and peroxy radicals made during the intensive field campaign MIRAGE-Mex (4 to 29 March 2006. In general, NO2/NO ratios, which can be used as an indicator to test current understanding of tropospheric chemistry mechanism, are near photostationary state. The air masses were categorized into 5 groups: boundary layer (labeled as "BL", free troposphere (continental, "FTCO" and marine, "FTMA", biomass burning ("BB", and Tula industrial complex ("TIC". The time- and air mass-dependent NO2/NO ratios ranged from 2.35 (TIC to 5.18 (BB, while the NOx/NOy ratios varied from 0.17 (FTCO to 0.54 (BL. The ozone production efficiency for the 5 air mass categories ranged from 5.0 (TIC to 10.2 (BL, indicating photochemically young and reactive air masses.

  9. Characteristics of the NO-NO2-O3 system in different chemical regimes during the MIRAGE-Mex field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Tie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The NO-NO2 system was analyzed in different chemical regimes/air masses based on observations of reactive nitrogen species and peroxy radicals made during the intensive field campaign MIRAGE-Mex (4 to 29 March 2006. The air masses were categorized into 5 groups based on combinations of macroscopic observations, geographical location, meteorological parameters, models, and observations of trace gases: boundary layer (labeled as "BL", biomass burning ("BB", free troposphere (continental, "FTCO" and marine, "FTMA", and Tula industrial complex ("TIC". In general, NO2/NO ratios in different air masses are near photostationary state. Analysis of this ratio can be useful for testing current understanding of tropospheric chemistry. The ozone production efficiency (OPE for the 5 air mass categories ranged from 4.5 (TIC to 8.5 (FTMA, consistent with photochemical aging of air masses exiting the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

  10. Functional group analysis by H NMR/chemical derivatization for the characterization of organic aerosol from the SMOCC field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tagliavini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water soluble organic compounds (WSOC in aerosol samples collected in the Amazon Basin in a period encompassing the middle/late dry season and the beginning of the wet season, were investigated by H NMR spectroscopy. HiVol filter samples (PM2.5 and PM>2.5 and size-segregated samples from multistage impactor were subjected to H NMR characterization. The H NMR methodology, recently developed for the analysis of organic aerosol samples, has been improved by exploiting chemical methylation of carboxylic groups with diazomethane, which allows the direct determination of the carboxylic acid content of WSOC. The content of carboxylic carbons for the different periods and sizes ranged from 12% to 20% of total measured carbon depending on the season and aerosol size, with higher contents for the fine particles in the transition and wet periods with respect to the dry period. A comprehensive picture is presented of WSOC functional groups in aerosol samples representative of the biomass burning period, as well as of transition and semi-clean atmospheric conditions. A difference in composition between fine (PM2.5 and coarse (PM>2.5 size fractions emerged from the NMR data, the former showing higher alkylic content, the latter being largely dominated by R-O-H (or R-O-R' functional groups. Very small particles (<0.14 μm, however, present higher alkyl-chain content and less oxygenated carbons than larger fine particles (0.42–1.2 μm. More limited variations were found between the average compositions in the different periods of the campaign.

  11. Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground-Based Radiation and Aerosol Validation Using the NOAA Mobile SURFRAD Station Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, Joseph [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Lantz, Kathy [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is preparing for the launch of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R) satellite in 2015. This satellite will feature higher time (5-minute versus 30-minute sampling) and spatial resolution (0.5 km vs 1 km in the visible channel) than current GOES instruments provide. NOAA’s National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service has funded the Global Monitoring Division at the Earth System Research Laboratory to provide ground-based validation data for many of the new and old products the new GOES instruments will retrieve specifically related to radiation at the surface and aerosol and its extensive and intensive properties in the column. The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) had an emphasis on aerosol; therefore, we asked to be involved in this campaign to de-bug our new instrumentation and to provide a new capability that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Mobile Facilities (AMF) did not possess, namely surface albedo measurement out to 1625 nm. This gave us a chance to test remote operation of our new multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer/multi-filter radiometer (MFRSR/MFR) combination. We did not deploy standard broadband shortwave and longwave radiation instrumentation because ARM does this as part of every AMF deployment. As it turned out, the ARM standard MFRSR had issues, and we were able to provide the aerosol column data for the first 2 months of the campaign covering the summer flight phase of the deployment. Using these data, we were able to work with personnel at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to retrieve not only aerosol optical depth (AOD), but single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter, as well.

  12. Assessment of microscale spatio-temporal variation of air pollution at an urban hotspot in Madrid (Spain) through an extensive field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge, Rafael; Narros, Adolfo; Artíñano, Begoña; Yagüe, Carlos; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco Javier; de la Paz, David; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Díaz, Elías; Maqueda, Gregorio; Sastre, Mariano; Quaassdorff, Christina; Dimitroulopoulou, Chrysanthi; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2016-09-01

    Poor urban air quality is one of the main environmental concerns worldwide due to its implications for population exposure and health-related issues. However, the development of effective abatement strategies in cities requires a consistent and holistic assessment of air pollution processes, taking into account all the relevant scales within a city. This contribution presents the methodology and main results of an intensive experimental campaign carried out in a complex pollution hotspot in Madrid (Spain) under the TECNAIRE-CM research project, which aimed at understanding the microscale spatio-temporal variation of ambient concentration levels in areas where high pollution values are recorded. A variety of instruments were deployed during a three-week field campaign to provide detailed information on meteorological and micrometeorological parameters and spatio-temporal variations of the most relevant pollutants (NO2 and PM) along with relevant information needed to simulate pedestrian fluxes. The results show the strong dependence of ambient concentrations on local emissions and meteorology that turns out in strong spatial and temporal variations, with gradients up to 2 μg m-3 m-1 for NO2 and 55 μg m-3 min-1 for PM10. Pedestrian exposure to these pollutants also presents strong variations temporally and spatially but it concentrates on pedestrian crossings and bus stops. The analysis of the results show that the high concentration levels found in urban hotspots depend on extremely complex dynamic processes that cannot be captured by routinely measurements made by air quality monitoring stations used for regulatory compliance assessment. The large influence from local traffic in the concentration fields highlights the need for a detailed description of specific variables that determine emissions and dispersion at microscale level. This also indicates that city-scale interventions may be complemented with local control measures and exposure management, to improve

  13. Teaching Health Campaigns by Doing Health Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Health Campaigns, Health Communication,Communication Campaigns, Public Relations Campaigns, Persuasion. Objectives: Students will demonstrate their ability to work effectively both individually and in teams to apply "health communication" theory to emerging, practical, on-campus health issues via formative research, multimodal…

  14. Meteorological fields variability over the Indian seas in pre and summer monsoon months during extreme monsoon seasons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U C Mohanty; R Bhatla; P V S Raju; O P Madan; A Sarkar

    2002-09-01

    In this study, the possible linkage between summer monsoon rainfall over India and surface meteorological fields (basic fields and heat budget components) over monsoon region (30° E-120°E, 30°S-30°N) during the pre-monsoon month of May and summer monsoon season (June to September) are examined. For this purpose, monthly surface meteorological fields anomaly are analyzed for 42 years (1958-1999) using reanalysis data of NCEP/NCAR (National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research). The statistical significance of the anomaly (difference) between the surplus and deficient monsoon years in the surface meteorological fields are also examined by Student's t-test at 95% confidence level. Significant negative anomalies of mean sea level pressure are observed over India, Arabian Sea and Arabian Peninsular in the pre-monsoon month of May and monsoon season. Significant positive anomalies in the zonal and meridional wind (at 2m) in the month of May are observed in the west Arabian Sea off Somali coast and for monsoon season it is in the central Arabian Sea that extends up to Somalia. Significant positive anomalies of the surface temperature and air temperature (at 2m) in the month of May are observed over north India and adjoining Pakistan and Afghanistan region. During monsoon season this region is replaced by significant negative anomalies. In the month of May, significant positive anomalies of cloud amount are observed over Somali coast, north Bay of Bengal and adjoining West Bengal and Bangladesh. During monsoon season, cloud amount shows positive anomalies over NW India and north Arabian Sea. There is overall reduction in the incoming shortwave radiation flux during surplus monsoon years. A higher magnitude of latent heat flux is also found in surplus monsoon years for the month of May as well as the monsoon season. The significant positive anomaly of latent heat flux in May, observed over southwest Arabian Sea, may be considered

  15. Evaluation of biomass burning aerosols in the HadGEM3 climate model with observations from the SAMBBA field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ben T.; Haywood, James M.; Langridge, Justin M.; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Morgan, William T.; Szpek, Kate; Brooke, Jennifer K.; Marenco, Franco; Coe, Hugh; Artaxo, Paulo; Longo, Karla M.; Mulcahy, Jane P.; Mann, Graham W.; Dalvi, Mohit; Bellouin, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    We present observations of biomass burning aerosol from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) and other measurement campaigns, and use these to evaluate the representation of biomass burning aerosol properties and processes in a state-of-the-art climate model. The evaluation includes detailed comparisons with aircraft and ground data, along with remote sensing observations from MODIS and AERONET. We demonstrate several improvements to aerosol properties following the implementation of the Global Model for Aerosol Processes (GLOMAP-mode) modal aerosol scheme in the HadGEM3 climate model. This predicts the particle size distribution, composition, and optical properties, giving increased accuracy in the representation of aerosol properties and physical-chemical processes over the Coupled Large-scale Aerosol Scheme for Simulations in Climate Models (CLASSIC) bulk aerosol scheme previously used in HadGEM2. Although both models give similar regional distributions of carbonaceous aerosol mass and aerosol optical depth (AOD), GLOMAP-mode is better able to capture the observed size distribution, single scattering albedo, and Ångström exponent across different tropical biomass burning source regions. Both aerosol schemes overestimate the uptake of water compared to recent observations, CLASSIC more so than GLOMAP-mode, leading to a likely overestimation of aerosol scattering, AOD, and single scattering albedo at high relative humidity. Observed aerosol vertical distributions were well captured when biomass burning aerosol emissions were injected uniformly from the surface to 3 km. Finally, good agreement between observed and modelled AOD was gained only after scaling up GFED3 emissions by a factor of 1.6 for CLASSIC and 2.0 for GLOMAP-mode. We attribute this difference in scaling factor mainly to different assumptions for the water uptake and growth of aerosol mass during ageing via oxidation and condensation of organics. We also note that similar agreement

  16. Ocular hypotensive effect, preservation of visual fields, and safety of adding dorzolamide to prostaglandin therapy for twelve months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Inoue

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Inoue1,3, Mieko Masumoto1,3, Masato Wakakura1, Goji Tomita2, On behalf of the Ochanomizu Ophthalmology Study Group31Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Ochanomizu Ophthalmology, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To prospectively evaluate the safety, hypotensive effect, and preservation of visual fields of dorzolamide when added to latanoprost.Subjects and methods: This study included 46 patients (46 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma who had been treated with latanoprost. Dorzolamide (1% was added to latanoprost, and the intraocular pressure (IOP was monitored before and after 3, 6, and 12 months. The mean deviation shown by Humphrey perimetry was compared before and after twelve months of treatment. Adverse reactions were monitored over the 12-month study period.Results: The mean baseline IOP was 17.2 ± 3.0 mmHg while those after 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment were 14.9 ± 3.0 mmHg, 14.5 ± 3.2 mmHg, and 14.6 ± 2.6 mmHg respectively (P < 0.0001, 1-ß(power = 0.9999571. The absolute reduction of IOP and the percent reduction were similar after 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment. The mean deviation on Humphrey perimetry was similar before and after twelve months of treatment. Three patients discontinued dorzolamide therapy due to elevation of IOP and one patient discontinued it because of adverse reactions.Conclusion: Dorzolamide is safe and effective when used for twelve months as add-on therapy to latanoprost for open-angle glaucoma.Keywords: dorzolamide, primary open-angle glaucoma, latanoprost 

  17. Comparative Analysis of Atmospheric Glyoxal Column Densities Retrieved from MAX-DOAS Observations in Pakistan and during MAD-CAT Field Campaign in Mainz, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahim Khokhar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Photolysis of glyoxal (CHOCHO and other volatile organic compounds (VOC in the presence of NOx results in tropospheric ozone and secondary organic pollutants formation. Glyoxal, with a relatively short lifetime, plays an important role in VOC formation in the planetary boundary layer. This study presents a comparative analysis of CHOCHO retrieval from mini MAX-DOAS observations at two different monitoring sites in Germany and Pakistan. Firstly, CHOCHO differential slant column densities (DSCDs were retrieved by using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS technique during a field campaign called MAD-CAT (Multi Axis DOAS-Comparison Campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases from 18 June to 17 July 2013 in Mainz, Germany (49.965387°N, 8.242531°E. A second dataset was acquired from 18 June to 17 July 2015 at ground-based measurements taken with mini MAX-DOAS at IESE (Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, NUST (National University of Sciences and Technology Islamabad (33.6416°N, 72.9835°E, Pakistan. Tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs of CHOCHO were derived from measured DSCDs by using geometric air mass factor approach. Results show that CHOCHO emissions from biogenic sources are largely driven by actinic flux. Covariance of ambient temperature and relative humidity was also investigated at both sites. Significant correlation between actinic flux and CHOCHO VCDs (r > 0.8 along with similar diurnal variation was observed at both monitoring sites. Quantitative difference observed in CHOCHO VCDs is primarily triggered by the difference in actinic flux and vegetation profiles of both monitoring sites.

  18. Retrieving soil moisture for non-forested areas using PALS radiometer measurements in SMAPVEX12 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper we investigate retrieval of soil moisture based on L-band brightness temperature under diverse conditions and land cover types. We apply the PALS (Passive Active L-band System) radiometer data collected in the SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012) field ex...

  19. Everyday practices at the medical ward: a 16-month ethnographic field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Axel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern hospital care should ostensibly be multi-professional and person-centred, yet it still seems to be driven primarily by a hegemonic, positivistic, biomedical agenda. This study aimed to describe the everyday practices of professionals and patients in a coronary care unit, and analyse how the routines, structures and physical design of the care environment influenced their actions and relationships. Methods Ethnographic fieldwork was conducted over a 16-month period (between 2009 and 2011 by two researchers working in parallel in a Swedish coronary care unit. Observations, informal talks and formal interviews took place with registered nurses, assistant nurses, physicians and patients in the coronary care unit. The formal interviews were conducted with six registered nurses (five female, one male including the chief nurse manager, three assistant nurses (all female, two cardiologists and three patients (one female, two male. Results We identified the structures that either promoted or counteracted the various actions and relationships of patients and healthcare professionals. The care environment, with its minimalistic design, strong focus on routines and modest capacity for dialogue, restricted the choices available to both patients and healthcare professionals. This resulted in feelings of guilt, predominantly on the part of the registered nurses. Conclusions The care environment restricted the choices available to both patients and healthcare professionals. This may result in increased moral stress among those in multi-professional teams who work in the grey area between biomedical and person-centred care.

  20. Airborne Open Polar/Imaging Nephelometer for Ice Particles in Cirrus Clouds and Aerosols Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, JV [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Open Imaging Nephelometer (O-I-Neph) instrument is an adaptation of a proven laboratory instrument built and tested at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), the Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph). The instrument design of both imaging nephelometers uses a narrow-beam laser source and a wide-field-of-view imaging camera to capture the entire scattering-phase function in one image, quasi-instantaneously.

  1. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: Hydroxyl Radical (OH) Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Saewung [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The University of California, Irvine, science team (Dr. Saewung Kim, Dr. Roger Seco, Dr. Alex Guenther, and Dr. Jim Smith) deployed a chemical ionization mass spectrometer system for hydroxyl radical (OH) and sulfuric acid quantifications. As part of the GoAmazon 2014/15 field campaign. Hydroxyl radical determines tropospheric oxidation capacity and had been expected to be very low in the pristine rain forest region such as the Brazilian Amazon because of the presence of significant levels of highly reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds and very low levels of NO, which is an OH recycling agent. However, several recent in situ OH observations provided by a laser-induced fluorescence system reported unaccountably high OH concentrations. To address this discrepancy, a series of laboratory and theoretical studies has postulated chemical reaction mechanisms of isoprene that may regenerate OH in photo-oxidation processes. Along with these efforts, potential artifacts on the laser induced fluorescence system from isoprene and its oxidation products also have been explored. Therefore, the first chemical ionization mass spectrometer observations at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil, are expected to provide a critical experimental constraint to address uncertainty in constraining oxidation capacity over pristine rain forest environments. In addition, we deployed a National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer to characterize atmospheric volatile organic compound levels, especially isoprene and its oxidation products, which are critical input parameters for box modeling to simulate OH with different isoprene photo-oxidation schemes. As there has been no report on noticeable new particle formation events, our first in situ sulfuric acid observations in the Amazon rain forest were expected to constrain the

  2. 0.355 μm direct detection wind lidar under testing during a field campaign in consideration of ESA's ADM-Aeolus Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lolli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric wind field information is a key issue to Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP and climate studies. A space based Wind Doppler lidar mission so-called ADM-Aeolus is currently developed by the European Space Agency for a launch in 2015. Such a Doppler lidar will provide accurate direct measurements of horizontal wind velocity in the depth of atmosphere. The wind data will be evenly distributed at a global scale. The goal is to enhance the present meteorological observation system over sparse wind data regions, and more important to provide direct wind information in the tropics where no geostrophic wind can be derived from passive radiometer satellite. ADM-Aeolus is basically a 0.355 μm high spectral resolution backscatter lidar. This concept was under test during a field campaign conducted at the Haute Provence Observatory in France 1999. It was the opportunity to address the self-consistency of wind measurements made by different active remote sensors i.e. lidars and a 72-MHz radar, and balloon radio soundings.

  3. SAYANI'91 - A joint United States/Commonwealth of Independent States field campaign to investigate forest decline damage in the Krasnoyarsk region of southcentral Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. L.; Kharuk, V. I.; Zhirin, V. M.; Rock, B. N.; Ranson, K. J.; Wessman, C. A.; Curtiss, B.

    1992-01-01

    The field experiment described took place in the Sayani Mountains of Siberia. The purpose of the joint field campaign was to observe and exchange methodologies with Russian scientists with regard to the development of remote sensing techniques for the early detection and assessment of forest decline damage believed to be associated with atmospheric deposition and/or insect and disease infestations. Several types of passive and active remote sensing measurements were made in conjunction with biophysical measurements on vegetative samples collected from four study sites representing a strong elevational gradient. Relatively cloud-free SPOT data were also acquired over the study area. Moderate canopy damage was recorded at the mid-elevation site (3400 ft/1037 m). The lowest levels of damage were recorded at the lowest elevation site (2300 ft/701 m.) At all sites, east versus west flagging of the canopy was noted (i.e., full canopy on the west-facing side of the canopy, significantly less foliage on the east-facing side).

  4. Po-Basin Atmospheric Composition during the Pegasos Field Campaign (summer 2012): Evaluation of ninfa/aodeM Simulation with In-Situ e Remote Sensing Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Tony C.; Bonafe, Giovanni; Stortini, Michele; Minguzzi, Enrico; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Giulianelli, Lara; Sandrini, Silvia; Gilardoni, Stefania; Rinaldi, Matteo; Ricciardelli, Isabella

    2014-05-01

    Within the EU project PEGASOS one of three field campaigns took place in the Po Valley during the summer of 2012. Photochemistry, particle formation, and particle properties related to diurnal evolution of the PBL were investigated through both in-situ and airborne measurements on board a Zeppelin NT air ship. In addition, 3-D air quality modeling systems were implemented over the Po valley for the summer 2012 to better characterize the atmospheric conditions, in terms of meteorological parameters and chemical composition. In this work, we present a comparison between atmospheric composition simulations carried out by the modeling system NINFA/AODEM with measurements performed during the PEGASOS field campaign for the period 13 June - 12 July 2012. NINFA (Stortini et al., 2007) is based on the chemical transport model CHIMERE (Bessagnet et al., 2008), driven by COSMO-I7, the meteorological Italian Limited Area Model, (Steppeler et al., 2003). Boundary conditions are provided by Prev'air data (www.prevair.org), and emission data input are based on regional, national and European inventory. Besides, a post-processing tool for aerosol optical properties calculation, called AODEM (Landi T. C. 2013) was implemented. Thus, predictions of Aerosol Optical Depth and aerosol extinction coefficient were also used for model comparison to vertical-resolved observations. For this experiment, NINFA/AODEM has been also evaluated by using measurements of size-segregated aerosol samples, number particles concentration and aerosol optical properties collected on hourly basis at the 3 different sampling sites representative of urban background (Bologna), rural background (San Pietro Capofiume) and remote high altitude station (Monte Cimone 2165 ma.s.l.). ). In addition, we focused on new particles formations events and long range transports from Northern Africa observed during the field campaign. References Bessagnet, Bertrand, Laurent Menut, Gabriele Curci, Alma Hodzic, Bruno

  5. A tropical cyclone dynamic initialization technique using high temporal and spatial density atmospheric motion vectors and airborne field campaign data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, E. A.; Bell, M. M.; Elsberry, R. L.; Velden, C.

    2016-12-01

    A new tropical cyclone dynamic initialization technique is described and tested. The technique uses the triple-nested Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System-Tropical Cyclones (COAMPS-TC) (with horizontal grid spacings of 45-,15-, and 5-km, respectively) in conjunction with the Spline Analysis at Mesoscale Utilizing Radar and Aircraft Instrumentation (SAMURAI). A proof-of-concept demonstration of this technique is given for Hurricane Joaquin from the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Tropical Cyclone Intensity (TCI) field program conducted in 2015. High spatial and temporal resolution atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs), dropwindsondes from the Yankee Environmental Systems High Definition Sounding System (HDSS), and surface wind speed retrievals from the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) are ingested into SAMURAI to produce increments, which are then used by the COAMPS-TC dynamic initialization scheme to produce consistent dynamic and thermodynamically balanced fields. This high temporal resolution (order of 10-15 minutes) incremental dynamic initialization procedure has advantages over conventional methods in that a bogus vortex is not used, and existing asymmetries (including convective heating and upper and low level wind asymmetries) that exist in the TC are retained. The use of dynamic initialization also ensures improved vortex and environment balance, and consistency with the model physics. A preliminary verification of this new TC initialization scheme will be presented for the initialization and forecast of Hurricane Joaquin (2015).

  6. A field-trial of two restorative materials used with atraumatic restorative treatment in rural Turkey: 24-month results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertugrul Ercan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of high-strength glass ionomer cement (HSGIC and resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGIC in single and multiple surface carious cavities in the field conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A split-mouth design, including ninety-one fillings placed on contra lateral molar pairs of 37 children, was used in permanent dentition. As filling materials, a HSGIC (Ketac Molar/3M ESPE and a RMGIC (Vitremer/ 3M ESPE were used with the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART. Baseline and 6, 12 and 24-month evaluations of the fillings were made with standard-ART and USPHS criteria by two examiners with kappa values of 0.92 and 0.87 for both criteria. RESULTS: According to the USPHS criteria, the retention rates of RMGIC and HSGIC restorations were 100% and 80.9% for single surface, and 100% and 41.2% for multiple surface restorations after 24 months, respectively. Irrespective of surface number, RMGIC was significantly superior to HSGIC (p= 0.004, according to both standard-ART and USPHS criteria. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that RMGIC may be an alternative restorative technique in comparison to high-strength GIC applications in ART-field-trials. However, further clinical and field trials are needed to support this conclusion.

  7. Role of land atmosphere interactions in WCRP - overview of the terrestrial component of GEWEX and the observing networks and field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Try, P.

    2002-06-01

    The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) has been designed to observe and model the hydrologic cycle and energy fluxes in the atmosphere, at the land surface, and in the upper oceans. GEWEX is an integrated program of research, observations, and science activities ultimately leading to the prediction of global and regional climate change. The objectives of the GEWEX Program are to: -- determine the hydrological cycle and energy fluxes by means of global measurements of atmospheric and surface properties; -- model the global hydrological cycle and its impact on the atmosphere, oceans and land surfaces; -- develop the ability to predict the variations of global and regional hydrological processes and water resources, and their response to environmental change; and, -- advance the development of observing techniques, data management, and assimiliation systems for operational application to long-range weather forecasts, hydrology, and climate predictions. The primary activities of GEWEX are a) global data set development, b) process studies, c) model development support. To accomplish this, GEWEX has many components to address the critical elements with roles in the energy and water cycles. The data projects focus on global distribution and variability of clouds, water vapour, aerosols, surface radiation, precipitation and the features of the land surface and near surface meteorology that couple the land to the atmosphere. The modelling projects focus on the cloud, land-atmosphere and boundary layer parameterizations necessary to drive our regional and global predictive models. Coupling the land-atmosphere at the mesoscale has been the initial strategy for GEWEX and five major continental-scale field campaigns have been underway to provide new process and modelling understanding in the Amazon, Baltic Sea, Mississippi River Basin, MacKenzie River Basin, and four basins in Asia (Thailand, Tibet, Siberia and China

  8. ARM Radiosondes for National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project Validation Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, Lori [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tobin, David [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Reale, Anthony [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Knuteson, Robert [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Feltz, Michelle [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Liu, Mark [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Holdridge, Donna J [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This IOP has been a coordinated effort involving the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation (ARM) Climate Research Facility, the University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison, and the JPSS project to validate SNPP NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) temperature and moisture sounding products from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). In this arrangement, funding for radiosondes was provided by the JPSS project to ARM. These radiosondes were launched coincident with the SNPP satellite overpasses (OP) at four of the ARM field sites beginning in July 2012 and running through September 2017. Combined with other ARM data, an assessment of the radiosonde data quality was performed and post-processing corrections applied producing an ARM site Best Estimate (BE) product. The SNPP targeted radiosondes were integrated into the NOAA Products Validation System (NPROVS+) system, which collocated the radiosondes with satellite products (NOAA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA], European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites [EUMETSAT], Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite [GOES], Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate [COSMIC]) and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP forecasts for use in product assessment and algorithm development. This work was a fundamental, integral, and cost-effective part of the SNPP validation effort and provided critical accuracy assessments of the SNPP temperature and water vapor soundings.

  9. Variable stars in one open cluster within the Kepler/K2-Campaign-5 field: M 67 (NGC 2682)

    CERN Document Server

    Nardiello, D; Bedin, L R; Piotto, G; Ochner, P; Cunial, A; Borsato, L; Granata, V

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we continue the release of high-level data products from the multiyear photometric survey collected at the 67/92 cm Schmidt Telescope in Asiago. The primary goal of the survey is to discover and to characterise variable objects and exoplanetary transits in four fields containing five nearby open clusters spanning a broad range of ages. This second paper releases a photometric catalogue, in five photometric bands, of the Solar-age, Solar-metallicity open cluster M 67 (NGC 2682). Proper motions are derived comparing the positions observed in 2013 at the Asiago's Schmidt Telescope with those extracted from WFI@2.2m MPG/ESO images in 2000. We also analyse the variable sources within M 67. We detected 68 variables, 43 of which are new detection. Variable periods and proper-motion memberships of a large majority of sources in our catalogue are improved with respect to previous releases. The entire catalogue will be available in electronic format. Besides the general interest on an improved catalogue, ...

  10. Initial Analysis of VOCs Speciation in CREATE Emissions Inventory using the MAPS-Seoul Aircraft Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, C.; Woo, J. H.; Lee, Y.; Kim, J.; Choi, K. C.; Kim, Y.; Kim, J.; Jang, Y. K.; Kim, S.

    2016-12-01

    As the first international cooperative air quality field study, the MAPS-Seoul (Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul) aircraft mission was conducted in May - June 2016 over the South Korea, to understand of climate and atmospheric environment. The aircraft carried observation instruments for measurements of GHGs, ozone and its precursors, aerosols, and chemical tracers. The CREATE (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Environment) emissions inventory and SMOKE-Asia emission processing system were used to support chemical forecasting and to serve as a priori for evaluation. Initial results of comparison studies show large discrepancies in VOC species over the South Korea - especially over urban regions. Several VOC species observed high near megacities and petro-chemical plants but under-predicted by chemical transport models (CTMs) - possibly due to relatively low emissions. The chemical speciation profiles and emissions inventory for each emission sources, therefore, have to be re-visited to improve emissions information. In this study, we have; 1) re-examined our emissions inventory and emission speciation processes, 2) and tried to find possible missing sources and alternative chemical speciation profiles, to improve our modelling emissions inventory. Initial review of the mapping and classification profiles, the original US chemical speciation profiles were found to be low in partitioning painting and surface coating sources, although they are the very significant contributors. Unlike other major national cities in China, Shanghai's VOC emissions fraction seems very similar to that of Seoul. Continuous analysis of major urban and industrial areas of the country will be presented at site.Acknowledgements : This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change Correspondence Program". This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Environment Research (NIER), funded by the Ministry of Environment

  11. Standardisation of a European measurement method for the determination of anions and cations in PM2.5: results of field trial campaign and determination of measurement uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccaceci, Sonya; Brown, Richard J C; Butterfield, David M; Harris, Peter M; Otjes, René P; van Hoek, Caroline; Makkonen, Ulla; Catrambone, Maria; Patier, Rosalía Fernández; Houtzager, Marc M G; Putaud, Jean-Philippe

    2016-12-08

    European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) Technical Committee 264 'Air Quality' has recently produced a standard method for the measurements of anions and cations in PM2.5 within its Working Group 34 in response to the requirements of European Directive 2008/50/EC. It is expected that this method will be used in future by all Member States making measurements of the ionic content of PM2.5. This paper details the results of a field measurement campaign and the statistical analysis performed to validate this method, assess its uncertainty and define its working range to provide clarity and confidence in the underpinning science for future users of the method. The statistical analysis showed that, except for the lowest range of concentrations, the expanded combined uncertainty is expected to be below 30% at the 95% confidence interval for all ions except Cl(-). However, if the analysis is carried out on the lower concentrations found at rural sites the uncertainty can be in excess of 50% for Cl(-), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+). An estimation of the detection limit for all ions was also calculated and found to be 0.03 μg m(-3) or below.

  12. PTR-MS measurements of non-methane volatile organic compounds during an intensive field campaign at the summit of Mount Tai, China, in June 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, S.; Tanimoto, H.; Kato, S.; Suthawaree, J.; Kanaya, Y.; Pochanart, P.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2010-08-01

    Owing to recent industrialization, Central East China has become a significant source of air pollutants. To examine the processes controlling the chemistry and transport of tropospheric ozone, we performed on-line measurements of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) as part of an intensive field campaign at Mount Tai, China, in June 2006 (MTX2006), using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Temporal variations of NMVOCs were recorded in mass-scan mode from m/z17 to m/z 300 during 12-30 June 2006. More than thirty kinds of NMVOCs were detected up to m/z 160, including alkenes, aromatics, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. In combination with non-methane hydrocarbon data obtained by a gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, it was found that oxygenated VOCs were the predominant NMVOCs. Diurnal variations depending mainly on local photochemistry were observed during 24-28 June. During the night of 12 June, we observed an episode of high NMVOCs concentrations attributed to the burning of agricultural biomass. The ΔNMVOCs/ΔCO ratios derived by PTR-MS measurements for this episode (with biomass burning (BB) plume) and during 16-23 June (without BB plume) are compared to emission ratios from various types of biomass burning as reviewed by Andreae and Merlet (2001) and to ratios recently measured by PTR-MS in tropical forests (Karl et al., 2007) and at urban sites (Warneke et al., 2007).

  13. Evaluation of convection-permitting model simulations of cloud populations associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation using data collected during the AMIE/DYNAMO field campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagos, Samson M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Feng, Zhe [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burleyson, Casey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lim, Kyo-Sun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Long, Charles N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wu, Di [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States); Thompson, Gregory [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-11-12

    Regional cloud permitting model simulations of cloud populations observed during the 2011 ARM Madden Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment/ Dynamics of Madden-Julian Experiment (AMIE/DYNAMO) field campaign are evaluated against radar and ship-based measurements. Sensitivity of model simulated surface rain rate statistics to parameters and parameterization of hydrometeor sizes in five commonly used WRF microphysics schemes are examined. It is shown that at 2 km grid spacing, the model generally overestimates rain rate from large and deep convective cores. Sensitivity runs involving variation of parameters that affect rain drop or ice particle size distribution (more aggressive break-up process etc) generally reduce the bias in rain-rate and boundary layer temperature statistics as the smaller particles become more vulnerable to evaporation. Furthermore significant improvement in the convective rain-rate statistics is observed when the horizontal grid-spacing is reduced to 1 km and 0.5 km, while it is worsened when run at 4 km grid spacing as increased turbulence enhances evaporation. The results suggest modulation of evaporation processes, through parameterization of turbulent mixing and break-up of hydrometeors may provide a potential avenue for correcting cloud statistics and associated boundary layer temperature biases in regional and global cloud permitting model simulations.

  14. Ambient in-situ immersion freezing measurements - findings from the ZAMBIS 2014 field campaign for three ice nucleation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Monika; Atkinson, James D.; Lohmann, Ulrike; Kanji, Zamin A.

    2015-04-01

    To estimate the influence of clouds on the Earth's radiation budget, it is crucial to understand cloud formation processes in the atmosphere. A key process, which significantly affects cloud microphysical properties and the initiation of precipitation thus contributing to the hydrological cycle, is the prevailing type of ice nucleation mechanism. In mixed-phase clouds immersion freezing is the dominant ice crystal forming mechanism, whereby ice nucleating particles (INP) first act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and are activated to cloud droplets followed by freezing upon supercooling. There are a number of experimental methods and techniques to investigate the ice nucleating ability in the immersion mode, however most techniques are offline for field sampling or only suitable for laboratory measurements. In-situ atmospheric studies are needed to understand the ice formation processes of 'real world' particles. Laboratory experiments simulate conditions of atmospheric processes like ageing or coating but are still idealized. Our method is able to measure ambient in-situ immersion freezing on single immersed aerosol particles. The instrumental setup consists of the recently developed portable immersion mode cooling chamber (PIMCA) as a vertical extension to the portable ice nucleation chamber (PINC, [1]), where the frozen fraction of activated aerosol particles are detected by the ice optical depolarization detector (IODE, [2]). Two additional immersion freezing techniques based on a droplet freezing array [3,4] are used to sample ambient aerosol particles either in a suspension (fraction larger ~0.6 μm) or on PM10-filters to compare different ice nucleation techniques. Here, we present ambient in-situ measurements at an urban forest site in Zurich, Switzerland held during the Zurich ambient immersion freezing study (ZAMBIS) in spring 2014. We investigated the ice nucleating ability of natural atmospheric aerosol with the PIMCA/PINC immersion freezing setup as

  15. Measurements of OH and HO2 concentrations during the MCMA-2006 field campaign – Part 1: Deployment of the Indiana University laser-induced fluorescence instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Molina

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of tropospheric hydroxyl (OH and hydroperoxy (HO2 radicals were made during the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign as part of the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations project during March 2006. These radicals were measured using a laser-induced fluorescence instrument developed at Indiana University. This new instrument takes advantage of the Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion technique (FAGE together with direct excitation and detection of OH at 308 nm. HO2 is indirectly measured as OH by titration with NO inside the fluorescence cell. At this stage of development, IU-FAGE is capable of detecting 3.9×105molec cm−3 of both OH and HO2, with a signal to noise ratio of 1, an averaged laser power of 10 mW and an averaging time of 5 min. The calibration accuracies (1σ are ±17% for OH and ±18% for HO2 using the water-vapor photolysis/O2 actinometry calibration technique. OH and HO2 concentrations were successfully measured at an urban site in Mexico City, with observed concentrations comparable to those measured in other polluted environments. Enhanced levels of OH and HO2 radicals were observed on several days between 09:30–11 a.m. and suggest an intense photochemistry during morning hours that may be due to elevated sources of HOx (OH+HO2 and a fast cycling between the radicals under the high NOx conditions of the MCMA. A comparison with other urban and sub-urban field measurements suggests that OH concentrations are highly buffered under these conditions. In contrast, HO2 concentrations are highly variable between different urban sites.

  16. The "Know Stroke" Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section The "Know Stroke" Campaign Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... campaign for the U.S. Hispanic community. 1 Know Stroke A stroke occurs when the blood supply to ...

  17. Campaign Consultants - Client Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of San Francisco — Campaign Consultants are required to report ���economic consideration�۝ promised by or received from clients in exchange for campaign consulting services during the...

  18. PERBANDINGAN IMPLEMENTASI ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Hanna , Febrianti

    2013-01-01

    Advertising campaign merupakan serangkaian bentuk iklan melalui berbagai media dan berpusat pada satu tema dalam satu waktu. Tujuan utama advertising campaign adalah menyampaikan pesan dalam suatu tema yang diluncurkan kepada masyarakat sehingga tema tersebut menjadi ciri khas produk. Peluncuran tema campaign oleh Coca Cola dan Pepsi yang merupakan rival dalam kategori beverage merupakan obyek dari penelitian ini. Kesuksesan sebuah tema advertising campaign dilihat dengan menggunakan paramet...

  19. Diversity: A Corporate Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Diana D.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author calls for a "campaign" because she believes there is a need to build upon the successes of diversity initiatives with renewed commitment, in much the same way as capital campaigns build upon past successes and refocus campuses on their work. Just as a capital campaign invests in financial stability by stimulating…

  20. The Sprite 2003 Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubert, T.; Laursen, S.; Rasmussen, I. L.;

    2003-01-01

    During the northern hemisphere summer of 2003, from July 18 to September 18, a sprite observation campaign was conducted with measurements from Southern Europe, coordinated with measurements from the magnetically conjugate region in South Africa. The goal of the campaign was to investigate...... emissions. The presentation will give an overview of the campaign, the meteorological conditions, and present some first results....

  1. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 High-Volume Filter Sampling: Atmospheric Particulate Matter of an Amazon Tropical City and its Relationship to Population Health Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, C. M. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Santos, Erickson O. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Fernandes, Karenn S. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Neto, J. L. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Souza, Rodrigo A. [Univ. of the State of Amazonas (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Manaus, the capital of the Brazilian state of Amazonas, is developing very rapidly. Its pollution plume contains aerosols from fossil fuel combustion mainly due to vehicular emission, industrial activity, and a thermal power plant. Soil resuspension is probably a secondary source of atmospheric particles. The plume transports from Manaus to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ARM site at Manacapuru urban pollutants as well as pollutants from pottery factories along the route of the plume. Considering the effects of particulate matter on health, atmospheric particulate matter was evaluated at this site as part of the ARM Facility’s Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GoAmazon 2014/15) field campaign. Aerosol or particulate matter (PM) is typically defined by size, with the smaller particles having more health impact. Total suspended particulate (TSP) are particles smaller than 100 μm; particles smaller than 2.5 μm are called PM2.5. In this work, the PM2.5 levels were obtained from March to December of 2015, totaling 34 samples and TSP levels from October to December of 2015, totaling 17 samples. Sampling was conducted with PM2.5 and TSP high-volume samplers using quartz filters (Figure 1). Filters were stored during 24 hours in a room with temperature (21,1ºC) and humidity (44,3 %) control, in order to do gravimetric analyses by weighing before and after sampling. This procedure followed the recommendations of the Brazilian Association for Technical Standards local norm (NBR 9547:1997). Mass concentrations of particulate matter were obtained from the ratio between the weighted sample and the volume of air collected. Defining a relationship between particulate matter (PM2.5 and TSP) and respiratory diseases of the local population is an important goal of this project, since no information exists on that topic.

  2. Hygroscopic growth of atmospheric aerosol particles based on lidar, radiosonde, and in situ measurements: Case studies from the Xinzhou field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Min; Liu, Dong; Li, Zhanqing; Mao, Jietai; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zhenzhu; Wang, Yingjian; Xie, Chenbo

    2017-02-01

    Lidar, radiosonde, and ground-based in situ nephelometer measurements made during an intensive field campaign carried out from July to September 2014 at the Xinzhou meteorological station were used to determine the aerosol hygroscopic growth effect in a cloud-capped, well-mixed boundary layer. Aerosol hygroscopic properties at 355 and 532 nm were examined for two cases with distinct aerosol layers. Lidar-derived maximum enhancement factors in terms of aerosol backscatter coefficient derived using a relative humidity (RH) reference value of 85% were 1.19 at 532 nm and 1.10 at 355 nm for Case I and 2.32 at 532 nm and 1.94 at 355 nm for Case II. To derive the aerosol particle hygroscopic growth factor at specific RH values, the Kasten and Hänel models were used. A comparison of the goodness of fit for the two models showed that the Kasten model performed better. The hygroscopic growth curve for RH>90% was much steeper than that for RH in the range of 85-90%. The slopes of the lidar-derived enhancement factor curve (measured from 85% to 95% RH) and the nephelometer-derived enhancement factor curve (measured from 40% to 62% RH) in Case I show similar trends, which lends confidence to using lidar measurements for studying aerosol particle hygroscopic growth. Data from a ground aerosol chemical speciation monitor showed that the larger values of aerosol hygroscopic enhancement factor in Case II corresponded to greater mass concentrations of sulfate and nitrate in the atmosphere.

  3. Distribution, magnitudes, reactivities, ratios and diurnal patterns of volatile organic compounds in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA 2002 & 2003 field campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Velasco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide array of volatile organic compound (VOC measurements was conducted in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA-2002 and 2003 field campaigns. Study sites included locations in the urban core, in a heavily industrial area and at boundary sites in rural landscapes. In addition, a novel mobile-laboratory-based conditional sampling method was used to collect samples dominated by fresh on-road vehicle exhaust to identify those VOCs whose ambient concentrations were primarily due to vehicle emissions. Four distinct analytical techniques were used: whole air canister samples with Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID, on-line chemical ionization using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS, continuous real-time detection of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS, and long path measurements using UV Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (DOAS. The simultaneous use of these techniques provided a wide range of individual VOC measurements with different spatial and temporal scales. The VOC data were analyzed to understand concentration and spatial distributions, diurnal patterns, origin and reactivity in the atmosphere of Mexico City. The VOC burden (in ppbC was dominated by alkanes (60%, followed by aromatics (15% and olefins (5%. The remaining 20% was a mix of alkynes, halogenated hydrocarbons, oxygenated species (esters, ethers, etc. and other unidentified VOCs. However, in terms of ozone production, olefins were the most relevant hydrocarbons. Elevated levels of toxic hydrocarbons, such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene and xylenes, were also observed. Results from these various analytical techniques showed that vehicle exhaust is the main source of VOCs in Mexico City and that diurnal patterns depend on vehicular traffic in addition to meteorological processes. Finally, examination of the VOC data in terms of lumped modeling VOC classes and its comparison to the VOC lumped emissions reported in other

  4. Nitryl chloride as a 'new' radical source and its role in production of ozone in polluted troposphere: an overview of the results from four field campaigns in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Tham, Yee Jun; Xue, Likun; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Weihao; Wang, Hao; Yun, Hui; Lu, Keding; Shao, Min; Louie, Peter K. K.; Blake, Donald R.; Brown, Steven S.; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2016-04-01

    Nitryl chloride (ClNO2) - a trace gas produced from heterogeneous reactions of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) on aerosols containing chorine - can significantly affect radical budget and concentrations of ozone and other secondary pollutants. However, the abundance, formation kinetics, and impact of ClNO2are not fully understood under different environmental conditions. This presentation gives an overview of recent field campaigns of ClNO2 and related chemical constituents in China, including one at a mountain top (957 m a.s.l) in Hong Kong of South China in winter 2013 and three in North China (urban Ji'nan, semi-rural Wangdu, and Mt Tai (1534 m a.s.l)) in summer 2014. ClNO2 and N2O5 were measured with a chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) system with iodide as the primary ions. Ambient concentrations of several hundreds ppts and up to 4.7 ppbv of ClNO2were observed in these locations, suggesting existence of elevated ClNO2 in both coastal and inland atmospheres of China. Measurements in North China exhibited generally low concentrations of N2O5, indicative of its fast uptake of on aerosols under aerosol and humid conditions. Indications of anthropogenic sources of chloride were observed at all these sites. The impact of photolysis of ClNO2 on radical budget and ozone enhancement was assessed with a MCM model which was updated with detailed chlorine chemistry and constrained by measurement data for the southern and a northern site. The results show that the ClNO2 could increase ozone production by 2-16% in the following day. Overall, our study re-affirms the need to include ClNO2 related reactions in photochemical models for prediction of ground-level ozone in polluted environments.

  5. Simulating black carbon and dust and their radiative forcing in seasonal snow: a case study over North China with field campaign measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-the-art regional model, WRF-Chem, is coupled with the SNICAR model that includes the sophisticated representation of snow metamorphism processes available for climate study. The coupled model is used to simulate the black carbon (BC and dust concentrations and their radiative forcing in seasonal snow over North China in January–February of 2010, with extensive field measurements used to evaluate the model performance. In general, the model simulated spatial variability of BC and dust mass concentrations in the top snow layer (hereafter BCS and DSTS, respectively are quantitatively or qualitatively consistent with observations. The model generally moderately underestimates BCS in the clean regions but significantly overestimates BCS in some polluted regions. Most model results fall into the uncertainty ranges of observations. The simulated BCS and DSTS are highest with >5000 μg g−1 and up to 5 μg g−1, respectively, over the source regions and reduce to −1 and −1, respectively, in the remote regions. BCS and DSTS introduce a similar magnitude of radiative warming (~10 W m−2 in the snowpack, which is comparable to the magnitude of surface radiative cooling due to BC and dust in the atmosphere. This study represents a significant effort in using a regional modeling framework to simulate BC and dust and their direct radiative forcing in snowpack. Although a variety of observational datasets have been used to attribute model biases, some uncertainties in the results remain, which highlights the need for more observations, particularly concurrent measurements of atmospheric and snow aerosols and the deposition fluxes of aerosols, in future campaigns.

  6. Measurements of OH and HO2 concentrations during the MCMA-2006 field campaign – Part 1: Deployment of the Indiana University laser-induced fluorescence instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Molina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of tropospheric hydroxyl (OH and hydroperoxy (HO2 radicals were made during the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign as part of the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations project during March 2006. These radicals were measured using a laser-induced fluorescence instrument developed at Indiana University. This new instrument takes advantage of the Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion technique (FAGE together with direct excitation and detection of OH at 308 nm. HO2 is indirectly measured as OH by titration with NO inside the fluorescence cell. At this stage of development, IU-FAGE is capable of detecting 3.9×105 molecule/cm3 of both OH and HO2, with a signal to noise ratio of 1, an averaged laser power of 10-mW and an averaging time of 5-min. The calibration accuracies (1σ are ±17% for OH and ±18% for HO2 using the water-vapor photolysis/O2 actinometry calibration technique. OH and HO2 concentrations were successfully measured at an urban site in Mexico City, with observed concentrations comparable to those measured in other polluted environments. Enhanced levels of OH and HO2 radicals were observed on several days between 09:30–11:00 a.m. and suggest an intense photochemistry during morning hours that may be due to elevated sources of HOx (OH+HO2 and a fast cycling between the radicals under the high NOx (NO+NO2 conditions of the MCMA.

  7. Distribution, Magnitudes, Reactivities, Ratios and Diurnal Patterns of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Valley of Mexico During the MCMA 2002 & 2003 Field Campaigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Westberg, Halvor; Allwine, Eugene J.; Sosa, G.; Arriaga-Colina, J. L.; Jobson, B. T.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Prazeller, Peter; Knighton, Walter B.; Rogers, T.; Grutter, M.; Herndon, S.; Kolb, C. E.; Zavala, Mary A.; de Foy, B.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Molina, Luisa; Molina, Mario J.

    2007-01-23

    A wide array of volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements was conducted in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA-2002 and 2003 field campaigns. Study sites included locations in the urban core, in a heavily industrial area and at boundary sites in rural landscapes. In addition, a novel mobile-laboratory-based conditional sampling method was used to collect samples dominated by fresh on-road vehicle exhaust to identify those VOCs whose ambient concentrations were primarily due to vehicle emissions. Four distinct analytical techniques were used: whole air canister samples with Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID), on-line chemical ionization using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), continuous real-time detection of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS), and long path measurements using UV Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (DOAS). The simultaneous use of these techniques provided a wide range of individual VOC measurements with different spatial and temporal scales. The VOC data were analyzed to understand concentration and spatial distributions, diurnal patterns, origin and reactivity in the atmosphere of Mexico City. The VOC burden (in ppbC) was dominated by alkanes (60%), followed by aromatics (15%) and olefins (5%). The remaining 20% was a mix of alkynes, halogenated hydrocarbons, oxygenated species (esters, ethers, etc.) and other unidentified VOCs. However, in terms of ozone production, olefins were the most relevant hydrocarbons. Elevated levels of toxic hydrocarbons, such as 1, 3-butadiene, benzene, toluene and xylenes, were also observed. Results from these various analytical techniques showed that vehicle exhaust is the main source of VOCs in Mexico City and that diurnal patterns depend on vehicular traffic in addition to meteorological processes. Finally, examination of the VOC data in terms of lumped modeling VOC classes and its comparison to the VOC lumped emissions reported in other photochemical air

  8. Distribution, magnitudes, reactivities, ratios and diurnal patterns of volatile organic compounds in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA 2002 and 2003 field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E.; Lamb, B.; Westberg, H.; Allwine, E.; Sosa, G.; Arriaga-Colina, J. L.; Jobson, B. T.; Alexander, M.; Prazeller, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Grutter, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Zavala, M.; de Foy, B.; Volkamer, R.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2006-08-01

    A wide array of volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements was conducted in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA-2002 and 2003 field campaigns. Study sites included locations in the urban core, in a heavily industrial area and at boundary sites in rural landscapes. In addition, a novel mobile-laboratory-based conditional sampling method was used to collect samples dominated by fresh on-road vehicle exhaust to identify those VOCs whose ambient concentrations were primarily due to vehicle emissions. Five distinct analytical techniques were used: whole air canister samples with Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID), on-line chemical ionization using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), continuous real-time detection of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS), and long path measurements using UV Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (DOAS). The simultaneous use of these techniques provided a wide range of individual VOC measurements with different spatial and temporal scales. The VOC data were analyzed to understand concentration and spatial distributions, diurnal patterns, origin and reactivity in the atmosphere of Mexico City. The VOC burden (in ppbC) was dominated by alkanes (60%), followed by aromatics (15%) and olefins (5%). The remaining 20% was a mix of alkynes, halogenated hydrocarbons, oxygenated species (esters, ethers, etc.) and other unidentified VOCs. However, in terms of ozone production, olefins were the most relevant hydrocarbons. Elevated levels of toxic hydrocarbons, such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene and xylenes were also observed. Results from these various analytical techniques showed that vehicle exhaust is the main source of VOCs in Mexico City and that diurnal patterns depend on vehicular traffic. Finally, examination of the VOC data in terms of lumped modeling VOC classes and its comparison to the VOC lumped emissions reported in other photochemical air quality modeling studies suggests that

  9. Distribution, magnitudes, reactivities, ratios and diurnal patterns of volatile organic compounds in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA 2002 & 2003 field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E.; Lamb, B.; Westberg, H.; Allwine, E.; Sosa, G.; Arriaga-Colina, J. L.; Jobson, B. T.; Alexander, M. L.; Prazeller, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Grutter, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Zavala, M.; de Foy, B.; Volkamer, R.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    A wide array of volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements was conducted in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA-2002 and 2003 field campaigns. Study sites included locations in the urban core, in a heavily industrial area and at boundary sites in rural landscapes. In addition, a novel mobile-laboratory-based conditional sampling method was used to collect samples dominated by fresh on-road vehicle exhaust to identify those VOCs whose ambient concentrations were primarily due to vehicle emissions. Four distinct analytical techniques were used: whole air canister samples with Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID), on-line chemical ionization using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), continuous real-time detection of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS), and long path measurements using UV Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (DOAS). The simultaneous use of these techniques provided a wide range of individual VOC measurements with different spatial and temporal scales. The VOC data were analyzed to understand concentration and spatial distributions, diurnal patterns, origin and reactivity in the atmosphere of Mexico City. The VOC burden (in ppbC) was dominated by alkanes (60%), followed by aromatics (15%) and olefins (5%). The remaining 20% was a mix of alkynes, halogenated hydrocarbons, oxygenated species (esters, ethers, etc.) and other unidentified VOCs. However, in terms of ozone production, olefins were the most relevant hydrocarbons. Elevated levels of toxic hydrocarbons, such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene and xylenes, were also observed. Results from these various analytical techniques showed that vehicle exhaust is the main source of VOCs in Mexico City and that diurnal patterns depend on vehicular traffic in addition to meteorological processes. Finally, examination of the VOC data in terms of lumped modeling VOC classes and its comparison to the VOC lumped emissions reported in other photochemical air

  10. Safety campaigns. TIS Launches New Safety Information Campaign

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Need to start a new installation and worried about safety aspects? Or are you newly responsible for safety matters in a CERN building? Perhaps you're simply interested in how to make the working environment safer for yourself and your colleagues. Whatever the case, a new information campaign launched by TIS this week can help. The most visible aspects of the new campaign will be posters distributed around the Laboratory treating a different subject each month. The Web site - http://safety.cern.ch/ - which provides all safety related information. But these are not the only aspects of the new campaign. Members of the TIS/GS group, whose contact details can be found on the safety web site, are available to give information and advice on a one-to-one basis at any time. The campaign's launch has been timed to coincide with European Safety Week, organized by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work and the subject treated in the first posters is safety inspection. This particular topic only concerns thos...

  11. Pakistan's breastfeeding campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, L

    1989-01-01

    A campaign to promote and protect breastfeeding in Pakistan was launched March 1988 with the adoption by the Pakistan Pediatric Association (PPA) of a twenty-point statement in support of breastfeeding. A national committee on breastfeeding comprised of representatives of the PPA, UNICEF, USAID, and the Nutrition Section of the Government of Pakistan was subsequently formed. The committee prepared over the course of six months a bibliography on breastfeeding studies in Pakistan, developed and coordinated two research studies on infant feeding practices, and planned a series of six regional seminars and a national workshop on Breastfeeding for Child Survival. The two-day seminars brought together almost 1000 health professionals, government officials, and representatives from the media, family planning associations, social welfare groups, and private voluntary organizations. Seminar recommendations formed the basis for discussion at the national workshop. The National Breastfeeding Committee has tried to sustain the momentum generated during the seminars through personal communication with health professionals and through journal articles and conferences. Over the next few months, the committee will be developing a national newborn feeding policy to issue to health facilities. The committee will also be identifying ways to train health care providers so that they are better able to assist lactating mothers. A study tour of infant feeding programs is being planned for health policymakers.

  12. An improved GRACE monthly gravity field solution by modeling the non-conservative acceleration and attitude observation errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiujie; Shen, Yunzhong; Chen, Wu; Zhang, Xingfu; Hsu, Houze

    2016-06-01

    The main contribution of this study is to improve the GRACE gravity field solution by taking errors of non-conservative acceleration and attitude observations into account. Unlike previous studies, the errors of the attitude and non-conservative acceleration data, and gravity field parameters, as well as accelerometer biases are estimated by means of weighted least squares adjustment. Then we compute a new time series of monthly gravity field models complete to degree and order 60 covering the period Jan. 2003 to Dec. 2012 from the twin GRACE satellites' data. The derived GRACE solution (called Tongji-GRACE02) is compared in terms of geoid degree variances and temporal mass changes with the other GRACE solutions, namely CSR RL05, GFZ RL05a, and JPL RL05. The results show that (1) the global mass signals of Tongji-GRACE02 are generally consistent with those of CSR RL05, GFZ RL05a, and JPL RL05; (2) compared to CSR RL05, the noise of Tongji-GRACE02 is reduced by about 21 % over ocean when only using 300 km Gaussian smoothing, and 60 % or more over deserts (Australia, Kalahari, Karakum and Thar) without using Gaussian smoothing and decorrelation filtering; and (3) for all examples, the noise reductions are more significant than signal reductions, no matter whether smoothing and filtering are applied or not. The comparison with GLDAS data supports that the signals of Tongji-GRACE02 over St. Lawrence River basin are close to those from CSR RL05, GFZ RL05a and JPL RL05, while the GLDAS result shows the best agreement with the Tongji-GRACE02 result.

  13. Measurements of NO and NH3 soil fluxes at the Savé super site in Benin, West Africa, during the DACCIWA field campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, Federica; Delon, Claire; Jambert, Corinne; Durand, Pierre; Lohou, Fabienne; Reinares Martinez, Irene; Brilouet, Pierre-Etienne; Brosse, Fabien; Pedruzo Bagazgoitia, Xabier; Dione, Cheikh; Gabella, Omar

    2017-04-01

    In the next decades South West Africa will be subject to a strong increase in anthropogenic emissions due to a massive growth in population and urbanization. The impact of global climate change, local or regional land use changes, and the strong sensitivity to the West African monsoon lead to complex interactions between surface emissions and atmospheric dynamics and chemistry. Anthropogenic pollutants are transported northward from the mega cities located on the coast, and react with biogenic emissions, leading to enhanced ozone (O3) production outside urban areas, as well as secondary organic aerosols formation, with detrimental effects on humans, animals, natural vegetation and crops. Nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions from soils, among other sources, directly influence NOx concentrations. Changes in NO sources will consequently modify the rate of O3 production. The largest source of ammonia (NH3) emissions is agriculture, via the application of synthetic fertilizer. When released into the atmosphere, NH3 increases the level of air pollution. Once deposited in water and soils, it can potentially cause two major types of environmental damage, acidification and eutrophication, both of which can harm sensitive vegetation systems, biodiversity and water quality. We investigate the role of soil fluxes of NO and NH3 on atmospheric chemistry in West Africa, making use of the observations taken in June and July 2016 at the Savé super-site, Benin (8°02'03" N, 2°29'11″ E), during the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) field campaign, which took place in June-July 2016. These observations also include meteorological and soil parameters such as air temperature and humidity (at 2 m height), radiation, soil temperature and moisture at different depths (5 cm and 10 cm). The climate in Savé is typical of a wet Guinea savanna, and the wet season takes place from June to October. Soil fluxes of NO and NH3 were measured on: bare soil, grassland

  14. Ozone production during the field campaign RISFEX 2003 in the sea of Japan: analysis of sensitivity and behaviour based on an improved indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Q. Wang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The ratio Φ=kHC+OH[HC]/kNOx+OH[NOx] is used as an indicator for the sensitivity of ozone production (P(O3 to HC and NOx in the field campaign RISFEX 2003 (RIShiri Fall EXperiment 2003 at Rishiri Island (45.07° N, 141.12° E, and 35 m a.s.l. in the sea of Japan during September 2003. Four different sensitivity regimes are obtained based on the indicator. The sensitivity is found to show a distinctive pattern in each regime. In Regime I (Φ<1, P(O3 almost linearly increases with increasing HC and almost linearly decreases with increasing NOx. In Regime II (1<Φ<9 ± 5, there is a less-than-linear increase in P(O3 with HC and a less-than-linear decrease with NOx. P(O3 less-than-linearly increases with both HC and NOx in Regime III (9 ± 5<Φ<45 ± 7, and near linearly increases with NOx and is nearly constant with increasing HC in Regime IV (Φ>45 ± 7. During the campaign, 91 percent of P(O3 data appear in Regime III and IV, indicating that NOx is a limiting factor of ozone production. Hence, it may be an efficient strategy to control NOx emission for ozone abatement at the site.

    Comparisons between the observed P(O3 and the ones modelled have represented general agreement. However, the model tends to underestimate P(O3 in Regime II, implying that an important source of peroxy radicals is possibly missed. In Regime IV, the modelled P(O3 is systematically larger than the measured one under a low j(O1D condition, which may be caused by the over-estimated yields of peroxy radicals from the reactions of monoterpenes with ozone. A budget analysis indicates that sensitivity of P(O3 is declining with HC and enhancing with NO when the

  15. On the impact of Twitter-based health campaigns: a cross-country analysis of movember

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwi Prasetyo, N.; Hauff, C.; Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; van den Broek, T.; Hiemstra, D.

    2015-01-01

    Health campaigns that aim to raise awareness and subsequently raise funds for research and treatment are commonplace. While many local campaigns exist, very few attract the attention of a global audience. One of those global campaigns is Movember, an annual campaign during the month of November, tha

  16. On the Impact of Twitter-based Health Campaigns: A Cross-Country Analysis of Movember

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwi Prasetyo, N.; Hauff, C.; Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; van den Broek, T.; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    Health campaigns that aim to raise awareness and subsequently raise funds for research and treatment are commonplace. While many local campaigns exist, very few attract the attention of a global audience. One of those global campaigns is Movember, an annual campaign during the month of November,

  17. A Political Campaign Strategy and Campaign Theme : How to Win a Political Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    河村, 直幸; Kawamura, Naoyuki

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research paper is to introduce a political campaign strategy. A political campaign should do on a scientific system and needs effective strategy. Before political campaign begin, a candidate and its campaigner needs to analyze election district and sample voter opinion. An election campaign needs campaign theme. The creation of campaign theme needs careful and elaborate planning. A style of campaign varies according to incumbent or challenger. The developing of an effective po...

  18. Fast, multi-phase H2O measurements on board of HALO: Results from the novel HAI instrument during the first field campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Bernhard; Afchine, Armin; Krämer, Martina; Ebert, Volker

    2014-05-01

    in a so called "closed-path" cell [6] for total water measurement via a forward facing inlet. The other part of the laser light is coupled to an "open-path" cell [7] placed outside of the aircraft fuselage to measure gas phase water without any possible artifacts from ice or liquid particles. The frequency of the measurements can be up to 240 Hz (4.2 msec) for all four channels. Altogether, the novel HAI instrument allows fast, accurate and precise dual-phase water measurements. The individual evaluation of the multi-channel raw-data is done afterwards, without any channel interdependencies, in a calibration-free mode. The water signals are combined with an extensive set of more than 100 housekeeping data to enable a holistic data quality management and a rigorous signal scrutiny to maximize the confidence level of the final H2O values. HAI therefore represents a new unique research tool for atmospheric hygrometry to address numerous open topics in atmospheric research. First scientific HAI campaigns have been successfully realized in 2012 onboard the German research plane HALO (High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft) during the TACTS and ESMVal missions. The first two HALO campaigns in clouds (MLCIRRUS and ACRIDICON) will be realized in 2014. In our contribution we present and discuss the performance of HAI and show detailed evaluations of typical inflight data. The results of the first two HAI campaigns on HALO resulted in more than 100 operation hours of continuous data and show nice agreement between the closed-path and open-path under clear sky conditions, despite the different sampling conditions of the sensor channels and airspeed of up to 900 km/h in the open path section. All mission data are and will be uploaded to the HALO database and are available for further scientific exploitation. Furthermore, the HAI principle can be adapted to other (airborne) platforms and be used for phase resolved science of the atmospheric water cycle. In parallel HAI

  19. Field campaigns of the autonomous, closed-path, airborne TDLAS Hygrometer SEALDH-II and traceability to the German Primary Humidity Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Bernhard; Ebert, Volker

    2014-05-01

    Airborne hygrometry is often demanded in scientific flight campaigns to provide datasets for environmental modeling or to correct for water vapor dilution or cross sensitivity effects in other gas analytical techniques. Water vapor measurements, however, are quite challenging due to the large dynamic range in the atmosphere (between 2 and 40000 ppmv) and the high spatio-temporal variability. Airborne hygrometers therefore need to combine a large measurement range with high temporal resolution to resolve - at typical airspeeds of 500 to 900 km/h - atmospheric gradients of several 1000 ppmv/s. Especially during the ascent into the upper troposphere, hygrometers need to work at high gas exchange rates to minimize water vapor adsorption effects. On the other hand, water vapor sensors are difficult to calibrate due to the strong water adsorption and the lack of bottled reference gas standards, which requires pre- or/and post-flight field calibrations. Recently in-flight calibration using an airborne H2O generator was demonstrated, which minimizes calibration drift but still imposes a lot of additional work and hardware to the experiments, since these kind of calibrations just transfer the accuracy level issues to the in-flight calibration-source. To make things worse, the low gas flow (1-5 std l/min, compared with up to 100 std l/min in flight for fast response instruments) adheres critical questions of wall absorption/desorption of the source and instrument even during the calibration process. The national metrological institutes (NMIs) maintain a global metrological water vapor scale which is defined via national primary humidity generators. These provide for calibration purposes well-defined, accurate water vapor samples of excellent comparability and stability traced back to the SI-units. The humidity calibration chain is maintained via high accuracy (but rather slow) Dew-Point-Mirror-Hygrometers as transfer standards. These provide a traceable performance and

  20. Branch-level measurement of total OH reactivity for constraining unknown BVOC emission during the CABINEX (Community Atmosphere-Biosphere INteractions Experiments-09 Field Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We present OH reactivity measurements using the comparative reactivity method with a branch enclosure technique for four different tree species (red oak, white pine, beech and red maple in the UMBS PROPHET tower footprint during the Community Atmosphere Biosphere INteraction EXperiment (CABINEX field campaign in July of 2009. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was sequentially used as a detector for OH reactivity and BVOC including isoprene and monoterpenes (MT, in enclosure air, so that the measurement dataset contains both measured OH reactivity and calculated OH reactivity from well-known BVOC. The results indicate that isoprene and MT, and in one case a sesquiterpene, can account for the measured OH reactivity. Significant discrepancy between measured OH reactivity and calculated OH reactivity from isoprene and MT is found for the red maple enclosure dataset but it can be reconciled by adding reactivity from emission of a sesquiterpene, α-farnesene, detected by GC-MS. This leads us to conclude that no significant unknown BVOC emission contributed to ambient OH reactivity from these trees at least during the study period. This conclusion leads us to explore the contribution from unmeasured isoprene (the dominant OH sink in this ecosystem oxidation products such as hydroxyacetone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal and C4 and C5-hydroxycarbonyl using recently published isoprene oxidation mechanisms (Mainz Isoprene Mechanism II and Leuven Isoprene Mechanism. Evaluation of conventionally unmeasured first generation oxidation products of isoprene and their possible contribution to ambient missing OH reactivity indicates that the ratio of OH reactivity from unmeasured products over OH reactivity from MVK + MACR is strongly dependent on NO concentrations. The unmeasured oxidation products can contribute ~7.2% (8.8% from LIM and 5.6% by MIM 2 when NO = 100 pptv of the isoprene contribution towards total ambient OH reactivity. This amount can

  1. Flux Emissions of SO2 and NO2 Measured at the Tula Industrial Complex (Mexico) during MCMA 2006 Field Campaign using a Mini-DOAS System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, G.; Rivera, C.; Wöhrnschimmel, H.; de Foy, B.; Johansson, M.; Molina, L. T.

    2007-05-01

    The Tula industrial zone is located 60 km northeast from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), in the Hidalgo State in México. This region is known as the Tula-Vito-Apasco industrial corridor, where a number of industries are located. According to the latest information from the environmental authority, about 313,000 ton/year of SO2 and 40,000 ton/year of NOx are released in this region. The Miguel Hidalgo refinery (MHR) and the Francisco Pérez Ríos power plant (FPRPP) are the main emitters, contributing almost 90% of SO2 and 80% of NOx from the total emission inside the Hidalgo State. Other industries such as cement plants, open-sky mines and agricultural activities are also responsible for important emissions of particulat matter (PM) into the atmosphere and soil erosion. This highly industrialized region is thought to influence the air quality in the MCMA, where in some occasions SO2 concentrations in the north part of the city have exceeded the Mexican air quality standard (130 ppb as a 24 hour average), which could not be attributed to irregular operations of industries located in the surrounding area. To address the question of emissions from the refinery and the power plant, the total fluxes of SO2 and NO2 were determined by measurements of their respective integrated vertical column in the neighborhood of the Tula industrial zone, using a Mini-DOAS system. These measurements were carried out as part of the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO Field Campaign, from March 24th to April 18th 2006. Meteorological measurements at the height of the plume dispersion were also determined using pilot balloons and radiosondes techniques. The experimental data were complemented by model simulations. Forward Lagrangian stochastic trajectories were calculated to simulate the plume using FLEXPART in combination with meso-scale meteorological simulations with MM5. The experimental data set was used to evaluate model performance. The simulations were used as an additional estimate of

  2. Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15. Semi-Volatile Thermal Desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph (SVTAG) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, A. H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Yee, L. D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Issacman-VanWertz, G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wernis, R. A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    In areas where biogenic emissions are oxidized in the presence of anthropogenic pollutants such as SO2, NOx, and black carbon, it has become increasingly apparent that secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is substantially enhanced. Research is urgently needed to elucidate fundamental processes of natural and anthropogenically influenced VOC oxidation and the contribution of these processes to SOA formation. GoAmazon 2014/15 afforded study of the chemical transformations in the region downwind of Manaus, Brazil, where local biogenic VOC emissions are high, and their chemical oxidation can be studied both inside and outside of the urban plume to differentiate the role of anthropogenic influence on secondary aerosol formation during oxidation of these natural VOC emissions. To understand the connection between primary biogenic VOC emissions and their secondary products that form aerosols, we made time-resolved molecular level measurements by deploying a Semi-Volatile Thermal Desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph (SV-TAG) and a sequential filter sampler during two intensive operational periods (IOPs) of the GoAmazon 2014/15 field campaign. The SV-TAG measured semi-volatile organic compounds in both the gas and particle phases and the sequential filter sampler collected aerosols on quartz fiber filters in four-hour increments used for offline analysis. SV-TAG employed novel online derivatization that provided chemical speciation of highly oxygenated or functionalized compounds that comprise a substantial fraction of secondary organic aerosols, yet are poorly characterized. It also provided partitioning of these compounds between the vapor and particle phases at sufficient time resolution to define the importance of competing atmospheric processes. These measurements were supported by offline analysis of the filters using two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry

  3. Contributions of primary and secondary biogenic VOC tototal OH reactivity during the CABINEX (Community Atmosphere-Biosphere INteractions Experiments-09 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present OH reactivity measurements using the comparative reactivity method with a branch enclosure technique for four different tree species (red oak, white pine, beech and red maple in the UMBS PROPHET tower footprint during the Community Atmosphere Biosphere INteraction EXperiment (CABINEX field campaign in July of 2009. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was sequentially used as a detector for OH reactivity and BVOC concentrations including isoprene and monoterpenes (MT for enclosure air. Therefore, the measurement dataset contains both measured and calculated OH reactivity from well-known BVOC. The results indicate that isoprene and MT, and in one case a sesquiterpene, can account for the measured OH reactivity. Significant discrepancy between measured OH reactivity and calculated OH reactivity from isoprene and MT is found for the red maple enclosure dataset but it can be reconciled by adding reactivity from emission of a sesquiterpene, α-farnesene, detected by GC-MS. This leads us to conclude that no significant unknown BVOC emission contributed to ambient OH reactivity from these trees at least during the study period. However, this conclusion should be followed up by more comprehensive side-by-side intercomparison between measured and calculated OH reactivity and laboratory experiments with controlled temperature and light environments to verify effects of those essential parameters towards unknown/unmeasured reactive BVOC emissions. This conclusion leads us to explore the contribution towards ambient OH reactivity (the dominant OH sink in this ecosystem oxidation products such as hydroxyacetone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal and C4 and C5-hydroxycarbonyl using recently published isoprene oxidation mechanisms (Mainz Isoprene Mechanism II and Leuven Isoprene Mechanism. Evaluation of conventionally unmeasured first generation oxidation products of isoprene and their possible contribution to ambient missing OH reactivity

  4. How to implement data for improved modelling - Results from an extensive field campaign on the debris covered Lirung Glacier in the Nepalese Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Lene; Immerzeel, Walter; Shahi, Sonika; Baral, Prashant; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    Debris covered glaciers have become a focus of current research because of growing evidence of an increase in debris cover associated with a warming climate and the effect that debris has on melt rates. Mass balance models increasingly aim at including the melt rate enhancing/reduction effect due to a thin/thick debris layer, respectively. However, knowledge about debris cover and thickness, its distribution and characteristics is limited and data are scarce, especially in the HKKH region where debris-covered glaciers are numerous. In this work we present a data set that is complementary to modelling efforts carried out to improve our understanding of processes occurring at the debris cover surface and how debris effects can be implemented into melt and mass balance models of different complexity. A key requirement for distributed melt modelling is the availability of debris cover and thickness maps and knowledge about characteristics of the debris layer and their spatial variability. An extensive field campaign was conducted from May to October 2012 on the debris covered Lirung Glacier in the Nepalese Himalayas. The collected data set consists of observations from an automatic weather station (AWS) measuring wind direction, wind speed, air and surface temperature, incoming and outgoing shortwave radiation, relative humidity and snow height, 14 sensors measuring 2 m air temperature and 7 surface temperature sensors, 3 temperature systems (tinytags) measuring temperature at the debris surface and the ice below the debris layer and one thermistors chain (with 8 temperature sensors) measuring the temperature profile in the debris layer. In the study region there is a key difference between meteorological conditions during monsoon and the dry period. We analyze separately all meteorological records for these different climatic conditions and show how temperature, albedo, relative humidity and wind speed and direction are affected. Wind speed and direction show similar

  5. Observations of biogenic isoprene emissions and atmospheric chemistry components at the Savé super site in Benin, West Africa, during the DACCIWA field campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambert, Corinne; Pacifico, Federica; Delon, Claire; Lohou, Fabienne; Reinares Martinez, Irene; Brilouet, Pierre-Etienne; Derrien, Solene; Dione, Cheikh; Brosse, Fabien; Gabella, Omar; Pedruzzo Bagazgoitia, Xavier; Durand, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Tropospheric oxidation of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds), including isoprene, in the presence of NOx and sunlight leads to the formation of O3 and Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). Changes in NO or VOCs sources will consequently modify their atmospheric concentrations and thus, the rate of O3 production and SOA formation. NOx have also an impact on the abundance of the hydroxyl radical (OH) which determines the lifetime of some pollutants and greenhouse gases. Anthropogenic emissions of pollutants from mega cities located on the Guinean coast in South West Africa are likely to increase in the next decades due to a strong anthropogenic pressure and to land use changes at the regional or continental scale. The consequences on regional air quality and on pollutant deposition onto surfaces may have some harmful effects on human and ecosystem health. Furthermore, the regional climate and water cycle are affected by changes in atmospheric chemistry. When transported northward on the African continent, polluted air masses meet biogenic emissions from rural areas which contributes to increase ozone and SOA production, in high temperature and solar radiation conditions, highly favourable to enhanced photochemistry. During the Dynamics-aerosol-chemistry-cloud interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) field campaign, we measured the atmospheric chemical composition and the exchanges of trace components in a hinterland area of Benin, at the Savé super-site (8°02'03" N, 2°29'11″ E). The observations, monitored in June and July 2016, in a rural mixed agricultural area, include near surface concentrations of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and isoprene, isoprene fluxes and meteorological parameters. We observed hourly average concentrations of O3 up to 50 ppb, low NOx concentrations (ca. 1 ppb and CO concentrations between 75 and 300 ppb. An 8 m tower was equipped with a Fast Isoprene Sensor and sonic anemometer to measure isoprene concentrations and

  6. Source apportionment of NMVOCs in the Kathmandu Valley during the SusKat-ABC international field campaign using positive matrix factorization

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Sinha, Vinayak; Sinha, Baerbel; Panday, Arnico K.; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2017-01-01

    A positive matrix factorization model (US EPA PMF version 5.0) was applied for the source apportionment of the dataset of 37 NMVOCs measured over a period of 19 December 2012–30 January 2013 during the SusKat-ABC international air pollution measurement campaign using a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer in the Kathmandu Valley. In all, eight source categories were identified with the PMF model using the new "constrained model operation" mode. Unresolved industrial emiss...

  7. Ozone production during the field campaign RISFEX 2003 in the Sea of Japan: analysis of sensitivity and behavior basing on an improved indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Q. Wang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available An improved indicator Φ, based on the present indicator Θ=τOHVOCOHNOx, is developed to determine the sensitivity of ozone production to HC and NOx in the field campaign RISFEX 2003 (RIShiri Fall EXperiment 2003 made in September 2003 at Rishiri island (45.07° N, 141.12° E, and 35 m a.s.l. in the sea of Japan. The indicator, defined as a ratio of kHC+OH[HC] to kNOx+OH[NOx], has a close correlation with the relative sensitivity (dlnP(O3/dln[NO] and P(O3/dln[HC] which can explicitly give the sensitivity of P(O3 to NO and HC. According to the indicator, four distinctive regimes were obtained in which modeled P(O3 behaviors differently with HC and NOx. At Φ<1, P(O3 is located in Regime I and is greatly sensitive to both HC with a positive correlation and NOx with a negative one. In Regime II (1<Φ<7±3, P(O3 is more sensitive to HC than NOx, but has a similar relationship to HC and NOx. P(O3 is both positively sensitive to HC and NOx in Regime III (7±3<Φ<23±7. For a higher Φ in Regime IV, it was found that P(O3 is greatly sensitive to NOx but nearly insensitive to HC. During the campaign, 91% (247/271 of P(O3 data are located in Regime III and IV, illuminating that NOx is a limiting factor for ozone production. Hence a controlling of NOx emission can be a more efficient strategy for ozone abatement at the site.

    Detailed comparisons between the experimental and modeled P(O3 were performed in different regimes and the results show basically an agreement between the two methods. However, the model tended to underestimate

  8. 75 FR 43395 - Campaign Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Campaign Travel AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Announcement of effective date. SUMMARY: On... of the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act governing campaign travel on noncommercial aircraft.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On December 7, 2009, the Commission published final rules governing campaign...

  9. Biogenic Aerosols – Effects on Climate and Clouds. Cloud Optical Depth (COD) Sensor Three-Waveband Spectrally-Agile Technique (TWST) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niple, E. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Scott, H. E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This report describes the data collected by the Three-Waveband Spectrally-agile Technique (TWST) sensor deployed at Hyytiälä, Finland from 16 July to 31 August 2014 as a guest on the Biogenic Aerosols Effects on Climate and Clouds (BAECC) campaign. These data are currently available from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Archive website and consists of Cloud Optical Depth (COD) measurements for the clouds directly overhead approximately every second (with some dropouts described below) during the daylight periods. A good range of cloud conditions were observed from clear sky to heavy rainfall.

  10. The Eurosprite 2005 campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnone, Enrico; Berg, Peter; Boberg, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    at two locations in southern France. In total 64 sprite events were captured. Due to unfavourable conditions, none of these were captured simultaneously at both stations. The campaigns constitute a long-term effort but have already provided several new results, mainly concerning the correlation between...... optical and non-optical means of sprite detection. The campaigns will be extended into a global sprite-watch partnership and in addition space-borne instruments will be deployed....

  11. Overview of the CINDI campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roozendael, Michel; Piters, Ankie; Boersma, Folkert; Wittrock, Folkard; Hains, Jennifer; Kroon, Mark; Roscoe, Howard

    2010-05-01

    The Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign of Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI) took place in June-July 2009 at the Cabauw meteorological observatory, a semi-rural site located in the Netherlands, 30 km South of Utrecht. Its main objective was to intercompare a broad range of NO2 measuring instruments that can be used in support of the validation of tropospheric NO2 column measurements from satellites with, as primary focus, the assessment of tropospheric NO2 column and profile measurements using the DOAS and MAXDOAS techniques. The campaign included a formal semi-blind exercise following standards from the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), and was followed by a number of additional activities. In total measurements from 32 NO2 instruments, most of them of DOAS-type but also a NO2 Lidar, in-situ sensors and a new-developed NO2 sonde, were collected and intercompared. In addition, a number of other parameters were measured, among them aerosol, HCHO, CHOCHO and BrO. Measurements were also dedicated to the study of horizontal gradients in the NO2 field and their impact on remote-sensing observations. Various working groups were set up to analyse results, establish uncertainties and progress towards improved and standardized retrieval algorithms. The campaign should result in consolidated trace gas and aerosol data products from both remote-sensing and in-situ techniques, thereby contributing to fulfill the needs for improved vertically-resolved monitoring of the air quality.

  12. Standardisation of a European measurement method for organic carbon and elemental carbon in ambient air: results of the field trial campaign and the determination of a measurement uncertainty and working range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard J C; Beccaceci, Sonya; Butterfield, David M; Quincey, Paul G; Harris, Peter M; Maggos, Thomas; Panteliadis, Pavlos; John, Astrid; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Karanasiou, Angeliki

    2017-09-11

    The European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) Technical Committee 264 'Air Quality' has recently produced a standard method for the measurements of organic carbon and elemental carbon in PM2.5 within its working group 35 in response to the requirements of European Directive 2008/50/EC. It is expected that this method will be used in future by all Member States making measurements of the carbonaceous content of PM2.5. This paper details the results of a laboratory and field measurement campaign and the statistical analysis performed to validate the standard method, assess its uncertainty and define its working range to provide clarity and confidence in the underpinning science for future users of the method. The statistical analysis showed that the expanded combined uncertainty for transmittance protocol measurements of OC, EC and TC is expected to be below 25%, at the 95% level of confidence, above filter loadings of 2 μg cm(-2). An estimation of the detection limit of the method for total carbon was 2 μg cm(-2). As a result of the laboratory and field measurement campaign the EUSAAR2 transmittance measurement protocol was chosen as the basis of the standard method EN 16909:2017.

  13. Main field and secular variation candidate models for the 12th IGRF generation after 10 months of Swarm measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnino, Diana; Langlais, Benoit; Civet, François; Thébault, Erwan; Mandea, Mioara

    2015-06-01

    We describe the main field and secular variation candidate models for the 12th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field model. These two models are derived from the same parent model, in which the main field is extrapolated to epoch 2015.0 using its associated secular variation. The parent model is exclusively based on measurements acquired by the European Space Agency Swarm mission between its launch on 11/22/2013 and 09/18/2014. It is computed up to spherical harmonic degree and order 25 for the main field, 13 for the secular variation, and 2 for the external field. A selection on local time rather than on true illumination of the spacecraft was chosen in order to keep more measurements. Data selection based on geomagnetic indices was used to minimize the external field contributions. Measurements were screened and outliers were carefully removed. The model uses magnetic field intensity measurements at all latitudes and magnetic field vector measurements equatorward of 50° absolute quasi-dipole magnetic latitude. A second model using only the vertical component of the measured magnetic field and the total intensity was computed. This companion model offers a slightly better fit to the measurements. These two models are compared and discussed.We discuss in particular the quality of the model which does not use the full vector measurements and underline that this approach may be used when only partial directional information is known. The candidate models and their associated companion models are retrospectively compared to the adopted IGRF which allows us to criticize our own choices.

  14. Variability monitoring of OB stars during the Mons campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Morel, T; Eversberg, T; Alves, F; Arnold, W; Bergmann, T; Viegas, N G Correia; Fahed, R; Fernando, A; Carreira, L F Gouveia; Hunger, T; Knapen, J H; Leadbeater, R; Dias, F Marques; Moffat, A F J; Reinecke, N; Ribeiro, J; Romeo, N; Gallego, J Sanchez; Santos, E M dos; Schanne, L; Stahl, O; Stober, Ba; Stober, Be; Vollmann, K; Corcoran, M F; Dougherty, S M; Hamaguchi, K; Pittard, J M; Pollock, A M T; Williams, P M

    2010-01-01

    We present preliminary results of a 3-month campaign carried out in the framework of the Mons project, where time-resolved Halpha observations are used to study the wind and circumstellar properties of a number of OB stars.

  15. Effect of palmitoylethanolamide on visual field damage progression in normal tension glaucoma patients: results of an open-label six-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Ciro; Romano, Mario R; dell'Omo, Roberto; Russo, Andrea; Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Semeraro, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) oral administration on intraocular pressure (IOP) and visual field damage progression in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients. Thirty-two consecutive patients affected by NTG were enrolled and randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive PEA treatment (group A) or no treatment (group B). Group A patients took ultramicronized 300 mg PEA tablets two times per day for six months. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), IOP, and visual field test were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the six-month follow-up. No significant differences in clinical parameters between the two groups were observed at baseline. At six months, group A patients showed significant IOP reduction (from 14.4±3.2 mm Hg to 11.1±4.3 mm Hg, pVisual field parameters significantly diminished in patients receiving PEA compared to baseline values (-7.65±6.55 dB vs. -4.55±5.31 dB, pvisual field indices in individuals affected by NTG. Neither ocular nor systemic side effects were recorded during the study period.

  16. First results of electric field and density observations by Cluster EFW based on initial months of operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gustafsson

    Full Text Available Highlights are presented from studies of the electric field data from various regions along the Cluster orbit. They all point towards a very high coherence for phenomena recorded on four spacecraft that are separated by a few hundred kilometers for structures over the whole range of apparent frequencies from 1 mHz to 9 kHz. This presents completely new opportunities to study spatial-temporal plasma phenomena from the magnetosphere out to the solar wind. A new probe environment was constructed for the CLUSTER electric field experiment that now produces data of unprecedented quality. Determination of plasma flow in the solar wind is an example of the capability of the instrument.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (electric fields – Space plasma physics (electrostatic structures; turbulence

  17. Chemical characterisation of atmospheric aerosols during a 2007 summer field campaign at Brasschaat, Belgium: sources and source processes of biogenic secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gómez-González

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of organic marker compounds and inorganic species were performed on PM2.5 aerosols from a Belgian forest site that is severely impacted by urban pollution ("De Inslag", Brasschaat, Belgium during a 2007 summer period within the framework of the "Formation mechanisms, marker compounds, and source apportionment for biogenic atmospheric aerosols (BIOSOL" project. The measured organic species included (i low-molecular weight (MW dicarboxylic acids (LMW DCAs, (ii methanesulfonate (MSA, (iii terpenoic acids originating from the oxidation of α-pinene, β-pinene, d-limonene and Δ3-carene, and (iv organosulfates related to secondary organic aerosol from the oxidation of isoprene and α-pinene. The organic tracers explained, on average, 5.3 % of the organic carbon (OC, of which 0.7 % was due to MSA, 3.4 % to LMW DCAs, 0.6 % to organosulfates, and 0.6 % to terpenoic acids. The highest atmospheric concentrations of most species were observed during the first five days of the campaign, which were characterised by maximum day-time temperatures >22 °C. Most of the terpenoic acids and the organosulfates peaked during day-time, consistent with their local photochemical origin. High concentrations of 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA and low concentrations of cis-pinonic acid were noted during the first five days of the campaign, indicative of an aged biogenic aerosol. Several correlations between organic species were very high (r>0.85, high (0.7<r<0.85, or substantial (0.5<r<0.7, suggesting that they are generated through similar formation pathways. Substantial correlations with temperature were found for OC, water-soluble OC, MBTCA, and several other organic species. MBTCA and terebic acid were highly correlated with the temperature (r>0.7 and showed an Arrhenius-type relationship, consistent with their formation through OH radical chemistry.

  18. INTEGRATED ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Claudia NEAMŢU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Campaign and especially advertising campaign represents one of the variables of the marketing mix, an important one, being difficult to separate its contribution from the one of the other elements. Irrespective of the specific object that is behind an advertising company, the investment will be retrieved only if the right information is transmitted to the right persons in the right way. This is difficult to accomplish if the advertising responsible in that firm do not understand appropriately: the market nature; the product nature; the distribution channels nature; the communication channels nature – available advertising supports and their features

  19. Results of an experimental campaign of monitoring of agricultural practice of field combustion of rice straw; Risultati di una campagna sperimentale di monitoraggio della pratica di combustione all`aperto della paglia di riso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spezzano, P.; Cerea, E.; Massironi, L.; Nocente, M.; Olivetta, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Castellani, C. M.; De Zaiacomo, T. [ENEA, centro Ricerche ``Ezio Clementel``, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-09-01

    For the evaluation of environmental impact of agricultural practice of field combustion of rice straw following harvest an experimental campaign was performed in a field situated near Rive Vercellese (Vercelli, Italy) by burning the amount of rice straw in a 1.2 hectare piece of ground. Four sampling positions were operated, each one composed of a miniaturized impactor and a battery-powered pump, and an optical monitor was also used to measure aerosuspended aerosol concentration continuously. Experimental results show that after field combustion, resulting ash is depleted in cadmium, copper, lead and zinc while manganese and silica remaining almost quantitatively in the ash. Manganese and silica were the only components attributable to field combustion of rice straw in the atmospheric aerosol collected during this monitoring survey. Aerosuspended mass concentration values obtained by means of both optical measurements and gravimetric determinations are presented. Aerosol granulometric distribution, measured in the vicinity of the experimental field and the parameter values of the log-normal distribution obtained with experimental data are also indicated. Finally, a comparison is made between aerosol granulometric data and respirable fraction as defined by international standards.

  20. Impact of a measles immunisation campaign on measles admissions to a Natal hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdool Karim, S S; Abdool Karim, Q; Chamane, M

    1991-12-07

    During May and June 1990, a national mass measles immunisation campaign was undertaken in South Africa. This study is an assessment of the impact of the campaign on measles admissions to a provincial referral hospital that has specifically designated wards for children with communicable diseases. Data from the measles ward admissions book for the 18 months before the campaign (1 January 1989-30 June 1990) and 6 months after the campaign (1 July 1990-31 December 1990) were compared. Since the campaign, the average number of measles admissions has declined by 64.4% from 87 to 31 per month (P less than 0.01). Before the campaign, 21.3% of measles patients admitted were aged 7-9 months compared with 27.6% after the campaign, highlighting the urgent need to improve the measles vaccination coverage in this age group. An analysis of the geographical source of patients showed that measles continued to occur after the campaign in most of the areas where it existed before the campaign. It is concluded that important gains have been achieved by the campaign. These will be rapidly eroded and epidemics of measles may occur if measles vaccination efforts wane and slump back to pre-campaign levels. It is important to capitalise on the momentum generated through the campaign by continuing to support efforts of existing health care services to improve and maintain high levels of measles immunisation coverage.

  1. Vertical profiles of aerosol and black carbon in the Arctic: a seasonal phenomenology along 2 years (2011-2012) of field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Luca; Cappelletti, David; Busetto, Maurizio; Mazzola, Mauro; Lupi, Angelo; Lanconelli, Christian; Becagli, Silvia; Traversi, Rita; Caiazzo, Laura; Giardi, Fabio; Moroni, Beatrice; Crocchianti, Stefano; Fierz, Martin; Močnik, Griša; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Perrone, Maria G.; Maturilli, Marion; Vitale, Vito; Udisti, Roberto; Bolzacchini, Ezio

    2016-10-01

    We present results from a systematic study of vertical profiles of aerosol number size distribution and black carbon (BC) concentrations conducted in the Arctic, over Ny-Ålesund (Svalbard). The campaign lasted 2 years (2011-2012) and resulted in 200 vertical profiles measured by means of a tethered balloon (up to 1200 m a.g.l.) during the spring and summer seasons. In addition, chemical analysis of filter samples, aerosol size distribution and a full set of meteorological parameters were determined at ground. The collected experimental data allowed a classification of the vertical profiles into different typologies, which allowed us to describe the seasonal phenomenology of vertical aerosol properties in the Arctic. During spring, four main types of profiles were found and their behavior was related to the main aerosol and atmospheric dynamics occurring at the measuring site. Background conditions generated homogenous profiles. Transport events caused an increase of aerosol concentration with altitude. High Arctic haze pollution trapped below thermal inversions promoted a decrease of aerosol concentration with altitude. Finally, ground-based plumes of locally formed secondary aerosol determined profiles with decreasing aerosol concentration located at different altitude as a function of size. During the summer season, the impact from shipping caused aerosol and BC pollution plumes to be constrained close to the ground, indicating that increasing shipping emissions in the Arctic could bring anthropogenic aerosol and BC in the Arctic summer, affecting the climate.

  2. Remembering the 100,000 lives campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Earlier this week the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI emailed its weekly bulletin celebrating that it has been ten years since the end of the 100,000 Lives Campaign (Appendix 1. This was the campaign, according to the bulletin, that put IHI on the map. The Campaign started at the IHI National Forum in December 2004, when IHI's president, Don Berwick, announced that IHI would work together with nearly three-quarters of the US hospitals to reduce needless deaths by 100,000 over 18 months. A phrase borrowed from political campaigns became IHI's cri de coeur: “Some is not a number. Soon is not a time.” The Campaign relied on six key interventions: Rapid Response Teams; Improved Care for Acute Myocardial Infarction; Medication Reconciliation; Preventing Central Line Infections; Preventing Surgical Site Infections; Preventing Ventilator-Associated Pnemonia [sic]. According to the bulletin, the Campaign’s impact rippled across the organization and the world. IHI listed some ...

  3. Campaign Finance: Reporter Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Campaign finance might seem like the exclusive province of political reporters, but there are many good reasons why authors should be paying attention--both in races for education positions and in other key races at the local, state, and federal levels with implications for education. Basic math is a necessary skill and familiarity with a…

  4. Singapore's Speak Mandarin Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the "Speak Mandarin Campaign," that is intended to persuade the Singaporean ethnic Chinese to use Mandarin in place of Chinese dialects. The purported educational, cultural, and practical advantages are discussed, and the support of higher education and the media is evaluated. (Author/CB)

  5. Antipiracy Campaign Exasperates Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampell, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the withdrawal of some universities' support of a music industry's campaign against music piracy on their campuses. Talk to the chief information officer at just about any American university, and he will probably say that his institution has bent over backward to help the Recording Industry Association of America curb…

  6. Real Warriors Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 966-1020 Live Chat MILITARY CRISIS LINE For crisis intervention 800-273-8255 , press 1 Find Care Seek Help Live Chat ABOUT US The Real Warriors Campaign is an initiative launched by the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury (DCoE) to promote ...

  7. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  8. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  9. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  10. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  11. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  12. New computer security campaign

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    A new campaign is taking shape to promote computer security. The slogan “SEC_RITY is not complete without U!” reminds users of the importance of their contribution. The campaign kicks off on 10 June with a public awareness day in the Council Chamber.   The new campaign, organised by CERN’s computer security team, will focus on prevention and involving the user. “This is an education and awareness-raising campaign for all users at CERN,” explains Stefan Lueders, in charge of computer security. “Every day, we register thousands of computer attacks against CERN: there are attempts to tamper with web pages, hack into user accounts, take over servers, and much more. A successful attack could mean confidential user information being divulged, services being interrupted or data being lost. It could even affect operations at CERN. Another factor is the damage that a successful attack could inflict on the Organization’s reputation. &...

  13. Evaluation of NOx emission inventories in California using multi-satellite data sets, in-situ airborne measurements, and regional model simulations during the CalNex 2010 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Ahmadov, R.; Angevine, W. M.; Boersma, F. F.; Brioude, J.; Browne, E. C.; Bucsela, E. J.; Burrows, J. P.; Celarier, E. A.; Cohen, R. C.; Frost, G. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Lamsal, L.; Lee, S.; Martin, R. V.; McKeen, S. A.; Pollack, I. B.; Richter, A.; Russell, A. R.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Valin, L. C.

    2011-12-01

    Satellite NO2 column measurements indicate large NOx emissions from urban and agricultural sources in California. In this presentation, we highlight the NOx sources identified in California using the satellite measurements. Comparison of regional model-simulated NO2 columns with satellite retrievals has proven useful in evaluating emission inventories for various sectors. We compare the NO2 columns from the WRF-Chem model with the multi-satellite data sets from different instruments and retrieval groups for a variety of California sources. Use of multiple satellite data sets help to define the uncertainties in the satellite retrievals. In addition, the CalNex 2010 intensive field campaign provides a unique opportunity to independently assess California's emission inventories. The in-situ airborne observations from CalNex 2010 and fine-resolution model simulations are used to estimate the accuracy of the satellite NO2 column retrievals.

  14. Chemical characterisation of atmospheric aerosols during a 2007 summer field campaign at Brasschaat, Belgium: sources and source processes, time series, diel variations, and temperature dependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gómez-González

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of organic marker compounds and inorganic species were performed on PM2.5 aerosols from a Belgian forest site that is severely impacted by urban pollution ("De Inslag", Brasschaat, Belgium during a 2007 summer period within the framework of the "Formation mechanisms, marker compounds, and source apportionment for biogenic atmospheric aerosols (BIOSOL" project. The objectives of this study were to determine sources, source processes, time series, and diel variations of the organic species, and to explore the relationships between their concentrations and those of trace gases (O3, NO2, SO2, and CO2 or meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and rain fall. The measured organic species included (i low-molecular weight (MW dicarboxylic acids (LMW DCAs, (ii methanesulfonate (MSA, and (iii terpenoic acids originating from the oxidation of α-pinene, β-pinene, d-limonene and Δ3-carene, and (iv organosulfates related to secondary organic aerosol (SOA from the oxidation of isoprene and α-pinene. The measurements of MSA, the LMW DCAs and selected inorganic species were done with ion chromatography (IC, while those of the terpenoic acids and organosulfates were performed using liquid chromatography with negative ion electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry [LC/(−ESI-MS]. The organic tracers explained, on average, 5.3 % of the organic carbon (OC, of which 0.7 % was due to MSA, 3.4 % to LMW DCAs, and 1.2 % to organosulfates and terpenoic acids. The highest atmospheric concentrations of most species were observed during the first five days of the campaign, which were characterised by maximum day-time temperatures >22 °C. Most of the terpenoic acids and the organosulfates peaked during day-time, consistent with their photochemical origin, except the MW 295 α-pinene-related nitrooxy organosulfates and the terpenoic acids,

  15. On the Effects of Lag-Times in Networks Constructed from Similarities of Monthly Fluctuations of Climate Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Tirabassi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    The complex network framework has been successfully applied to the analysis of climatological data, providing, for example, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying reduced predictability during El Ni\\~no or La Ni\\~na years. Despite the large interest that climate networks have attracted, several issues remain to be investigated. Here we focus in the influence of the periodic solar forcing in climate networks constructed via similarities of monthly averaged surface air temperature (SAT) anomalies. We shift the time series in each pair of nodes such as to superpose their seasonal cycles. In this way, when two nodes are located in different hemispheres we are able to quantify the similarity of SAT anomalies during the winters and during the summers. We find that data time-shifting does not significantly modify the network area weighted connectivity (AWC), which is the fraction of the total area of the Earth to which each node is con- nected. This unexpected network property can be understood in terms...

  16. Aerosol optical extinction during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) 2014 summertime field campaign, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, Justin H.; Vu, Kennedy; Bahreini, Roya; Apel, Eric C.; Campos, Teresa L.; Flocke, Frank; Fried, Alan; Herndon, Scott; Hills, Alan J.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Huey, Greg; Kaser, Lisa; Montzka, Denise D.; Nowak, John B.; Reeves, Mike; Richter, Dirk; Roscioli, Joseph R.; Shertz, Stephen; Stell, Meghan; Tanner, David; Tyndall, Geoff; Walega, James; Weibring, Petter; Weinheimer, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Summertime aerosol optical extinction (βext) was measured in the Colorado Front Range and Denver metropolitan area as part of the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) campaign during July-August 2014. An Aerodyne cavity attenuated phase shift particle light extinction monitor (CAPS-PMex) was deployed to measure βext (at average relative humidity of 20 ± 7 %) of submicron aerosols at λ = 632 nm at 1 Hz. Data from a suite of gas-phase instrumentation were used to interpret βext behavior in various categories of air masses and sources. Extinction enhancement ratios relative to CO (Δβext / ΔCO) were higher in aged urban air masses compared to fresh air masses by ˜ 50 %. The resulting increase in Δβext / ΔCO for highly aged air masses was accompanied by formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). In addition, the impacts of aerosol composition on βext in air masses under the influence of urban, natural oil and gas operations (O&G), and agriculture and livestock operations were evaluated. Estimated non-refractory mass extinction efficiency (MEE) values for different air mass types ranged from 1.51 to 2.27 m2 g-1, with the minimum and maximum values observed in urban and agriculture-influenced air masses, respectively. The mass distribution for organic, nitrate, and sulfate aerosols presented distinct profiles in different air mass types. During 11-12 August, regional influence of a biomass burning event was observed, increasing the background βext and estimated MEE values in the Front Range.

  17. Variations in particulate matter over Indo-Gangetic Plains and Indo-Himalayan Range during four field campaigns in winter monsoon and summer monsoon: Role of pollution pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, A.; Abdelmaksoud, A. S.; Nazeer Ahammed, Y.; Alghamdi, Mansour ِA.; Banerjee, Tirthankar; Bhat, Mudasir Ahmad; Chatterjee, A.; Choudhuri, Anil K.; Das, Trupti; Dhir, Amit; Dhyani, Pitamber Prasad; Gadi, Ranu; Ghosh, Sanjay; Kumar, Kireet; Khan, A. H.; Khoder, M.; Maharaj Kumari, K.; Kuniyal, Jagdish Chandra; Kumar, Manish; Lakhani, Anita; Mahapatra, Parth Sarathi; Naja, Manish; Pal, Dharam; Pal, S.; Rafiq, Mahammad; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Rashid, Irfan; Saikia, Prasenjit; Shenoy, D. M.; Sridhar, Vijay; Verma, Nidhi; Vyas, B. M.; Saxena, Mohit; Sharma, A.; Sharma, S. K.; Mandal, T. K.

    2017-04-01

    Both in-situ and space-borne observations reveal an extremely high loading of particulates over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), all year around. With a burgeoning population and combustion sources (fossil fuels (FFs) and biofuels (BFs)) in close proximity to each other, the IGP is widely regarded as a hotspot for anthropogenic aerosol emission in South Asia. The deteriorating air quality over this region, particularly during winters, is a cause of major concern, since the pollutants undergo long range transport from their source regions to the Indo-Himalayan Range (IHR), Bay of Bengal (BoB) and other remote areas, polluting their pristine atmospheric conditions. Seasonal reversal in winds over the Indian mainland leads to an outflow of continental pollutants into the BoB during winters and a net advection of desert dust aerosols into the IGP from southwest Asia (SW-Asia), northwest India (NW-India) and northern Africa (N-Africa) during summers. Through the course of this study, four observational campaigns were conducted for sampling the ambient PM2.5 and PM10 during winter and summer seasons of 2014-2015, at multiple locations (18 sites) in the IGP, IHR, and semi-arid/arid sites towards their south and west, in order to accurately determine the inter-seasonal and inter-annual changes in the aerosol loading at the sites. We have also utilized data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on-board Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra satellite for estimating the columnar Aerosol Optical Depth at 550 nm (AOD550) and data from EOS Terra and Aqua satellites for discovering openly burning fires in the vicinity of sampling sites. Determination of the major source regions and key transport pathways during both seasons have also been attempted, using back-trajectory cluster analyses, as well as receptor models such as PSCF and CWT.

  18. Summer and winter time heterogeneity in aerosol single scattering albedo over the northwestern Atlantic Ocean during the TCAP field campaign: Relationship to chemical composition and mixing state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, L. K.; Chand, D.; Fast, J. D.; Zelenyuk, A.; Wilson, J. M.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Tomlinson, J. M.; Hubbe, J. M.; Comstock, J. M.; Mei, F.; Kassianov, E.; Schmid, B.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol play crucial role in earth's radiative budget by scattering and absorbing solar radiation. The impact of aerosol on radiation budget depend on several factors including single scattering albedo (SSA), composition, and the growth processes, like coating or mixing. We describe findings relevant to optical properties of aerosol characterized over the Cape Cod and nearby northwest Atlantic Ocean during the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) during the summer (July 2012) and winter (February 2013) campaigns. The average single scattering albedo (SSA) shows distinctly different vertical profiles during the summer and winter periods. During the summer study period, the average SSA is greater than 0.95 near surface, it increases to 0.97 until an altitude of 2.5 km, and then decreases to 0.94 at top of the column near 4 km. In contrast, during the winter study period the average SSA is less than 0.93 and decreases with height reaching an average value of 0.87 near the top of the column. The large difference in summer and winter time SSA is linked to the presence of biomass burning (BB) aerosol rather than black carbon or soot in both seasons. In our study, the BB on average is factor of two higher in free troposphere (FT) during summer and more than a factor of two higher in the boundary layer during winter. Single particle analysis indicates that the average profiles of refractory black carbon (rBC) mass are similar in both seasons. The average rBC size are similar at all altitudes sampled (0-4 km) in summer time but different during winter time. In addition, the particles sampled in the summertime FT appear to be more aged than those seen during winter. The observed large heterogeneity in SSA and its links to the particle coating and composition highlights the importance of aging and mixing processes of aerosol in this region and represents a challenge for both regional and global scale models.

  19. Five months of surgery in the multinational field hospital in Afghanistan with an emphasis on oral and maxillofacial injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, J; Monaghan, A M; Williams, M D; Clark, R N W; Gibbons, A J

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the workload of theatres in the role 3 Multinational Field Hospital in Kandahar, Afghanistan and to identify what period of day most emergency admissions arrived. During the period 05 August 2006 to 21 December 2006, 288 operations were performed on 259 patients and comprised 393 individually quantifiable procedures. 98% of these operations were to treat acute injuries. Oral and Maxillofacial surgeons were involved in 24% of operations. 63% of procedures done at these operations involved upper or lower limbs, 19% the head and neck and 18% involved the torso. An analysis of emergency admissions in November 2006 showed that most occurred between 18.00 and midnight. Although theatre timetabling made provision for this, whenever possible, elective surgery was scheduled for the following morning when emergency injury admissions were at their lowest.

  20. Chemistry, transport and dry deposition of trace gases in the boundary layer over the tropical Atlantic Ocean and the Guyanas during the GABRIEL field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stickler

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison of different Lagrangian and chemical box model calculations with measurement data obtained during the GABRIEL campaign over the tropical Atlantic Ocean and the Amazon rainforest in the Guyanas, October 2005. Lagrangian modelling of boundary layer (BL air constrained by measurements is used to derive a horizontal gradient (≈5.6 pmol/mol km−1 of CO from the ocean to the rainforest (east to west. This is significantly smaller than that derived from the measurements (16–48 pmol/mol km−1, indicating that photochemical production from organic precursors alone cannot explain the observed strong gradient. It appears that HCHO is overestimated by the Lagrangian and chemical box models, which include dry deposition but not exchange with the free troposphere (FT. The relatively short lifetime of HCHO implies substantial BL-FT exchange. The mixing-in of FT air affected by African and South American biomass burning at an estimated rate of 0.12 h−1 increases the CO and decreases the HCHO mixing ratios, improving agreement with measurements. A mean deposition velocity of 1.35 cm/s for H2O2 over the ocean as well as over the rainforest is deduced assuming BL-FT exchange adequate to the results for CO. The measured increase of the organic peroxides from the ocean to the rainforest (≈0.66 nmol/mol d−1 is significantly overestimated by the Lagrangian model, even when using high values for the deposition velocity and the entrainment rate. Our results point at either heterogeneous loss of organic peroxides and/or their radical precursors, underestimated photodissociation or missing reaction paths of peroxy radicals not forming peroxides in isoprene chemistry. We calculate a mean integrated daytime net ozone production (NOP in the BL of (0.2±5.9 nmol/mol (ocean and (2.4±2.1 nmol/mol (rainforest. The NOP strongly correlates with NO and has a positive tendency in

  1. Distribution and Properties of Aerosol and Gas Phase Constituents within Biomass Burning Regional Haze in Brazil, 2012, during the Sambba (South American Biomass Burning Analysis) Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, E.; Morgan, W.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Liu, D.; O'Shea, S.; Trembath, J.; Szpek, K.; Langridge, J.; Brooke, J.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Johnson, B. T.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass Burning (BB) aerosols (BBA) impact upon weather, climate, ecosystems and human health at global and regional scales. Yet quantitative evaluation is impeded by a limited understanding of BB processes and a dearth of in-situ measurements. Thus large model uncertainties prevail, especially in data poor, intensive BB regions such as Brazil. Hence the timely nature of the SAMBBA campaign, utilizing aircraft (UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement BAe-146) and ground based observations out of Porto Velho in Sept-Oct 2012. This work utilizes aircraft measurements to characterize BB regional haze - the inhomogeneous accumulation of aged BBA capped within the boundary layer, present across swathes of Brazil. As context, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and meteorological climatologies are presented and compared to the synoptic conditions of 2012. Throughout the early flights an expansive area of elevated (>1) AOD persisted, although in transitioning toward the wet season, rain out and advection significantly reduced its spatial extent and magnitude in western regions of Brazil. Concurrent decreases in haze BBA concentrations (~50%) were observed from the aircraft measurements sampling in these deforested/forested areas. However, the relative vertical structure, composition, physical and optical properties remained similar. The lofted maxima in aerosol concentrations at ~1.5km, typically not captured in models, is potentially important for regional climate. Significant differences were observed, however, during flights over the eastern savannah-like regions of Brazil, which remained drier throughout. Here, haze BBA concentrations resembled those in the west prior to wash out, with the exception of high loadings of refractive black carbon. This acted to lower the single scattering albedo and alter the number size distribution. The observed haze BBA west-east split is also present at source and remains similar throughout fresh plume evolution, thus we conclude

  2. Source apportionment of NMVOCs in the Kathmandu Valley during the SusKat-ABC international field campaign using positive matrix factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Sinha, Vinayak; Sinha, Baerbel; Panday, Arnico K.; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2017-07-01

    A positive matrix factorization model (US EPA PMF version 5.0) was applied for the source apportionment of the dataset of 37 non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) measured from 19 December 2012 to 30 January 2013 during the SusKat-ABC international air pollution measurement campaign using a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer in the Kathmandu Valley. In all, eight source categories were identified with the PMF model using the new constrained model operation mode. Unresolved industrial emissions and traffic source factors were the major contributors to the total measured NMVOC mass loading (17.9 and 16.8 %, respectively) followed by mixed industrial emissions (14.0 %), while the remainder of the source was split approximately evenly between residential biofuel use and waste disposal (10.9 %), solvent evaporation (10.8 %), biomass co-fired brick kilns (10.4 %), biogenic emissions (10.0 %) and mixed daytime factor (9.2 %). Conditional probability function (CPF) analyses were performed to identify the physical locations associated with different sources. Source contributions to individual NMVOCs showed that biomass co-fired brick kilns significantly contribute to the elevated concentrations of several health relevant NMVOCs such as benzene. Despite the highly polluted conditions, biogenic emissions had the largest contribution (24.2 %) to the total daytime ozone production potential, even in winter, followed by solvent evaporation (20.2 %), traffic (15.0 %) and unresolved industrial emissions (14.3 %). Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production had approximately equal contributions from biomass co-fired brick kilns (28.9 %) and traffic (28.2 %). Comparison of PMF results based on the in situ data versus REAS v2.1 and EDGAR v4.2 emission inventories showed that both the inventories underestimate the contribution of traffic and do not take the contribution of brick kilns into account. In addition, the REAS inventory overestimates the

  3. Campaigns in Agricultural Extension Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaven, John W.

    A booklet designed to aid those who use agricultural campaigns in their educational and advisory programs is presented. It is pointed out that a good campaign works as a chain reaction, inciting enthusiasm among workers and planners. The five steps in a well-organized campaign are: (1) planning, (2) preparing people for their jobs, (3) producing…

  4. The CHUVA Lightning Mapping Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Hoeller, Hartmut; Albrecht, Rachel I.; Morales, Carlos; Pinto, Osmar; Saba, Marcelo M.; Naccarato, Kleber; Hembury, Nikki; Nag, Amitabh; Heckman, Stan; Holzworth, Robert H.; Rudlosky, Scott D.; Betz, Hans-Dieter; Said, Ryan; Rauenzahn, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The primary science objective for the CHUVA lightning mapping campaign is to combine measurements of total lightning activity, lightning channel mapping, and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions of thunderstorms with the planned observations of the CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement) field campaign. The lightning campaign takes place during the CHUVA intensive observation period October-December 2011 in the vicinity of S o Luiz do Paraitinga with Brazilian, US, and European government, university and industry participants. Total lightning measurements that can be provided by ground-based regional 2-D and 3-D total lightning mapping networks coincident with overpasses of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) on the Meteosat Second Generation satellite in geostationary earth orbit will be used to generate proxy data sets for the next generation US and European geostationary satellites. Proxy data, which play an important role in the pre-launch mission development and in user readiness preparation, are used to develop and validate algorithms so that they will be ready for operational use quickly following the planned launch of the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in 2015 and the Meteosat Third Generation Lightning Imager (LI) in 2017. To date there is no well-characterized total lightning data set coincident with the imagers. Therefore, to take the greatest advantage of this opportunity to collect detailed and comprehensive total lightning data sets, test and validate multi-sensor nowcasting applications for the monitoring, tracking, warning, and prediction of severe and high impact weather, and to advance our knowledge of thunderstorm physics, extensive measurements from lightning mapping networks will be collected

  5. Safety Campaign Continues

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    If you see this poster, stop and read it! This is the third poster produced by TIS Division as part of its information campaign on health and safety in the workplace. It provides statistics on occupational accidents at CERN. You will see that, as in the rest of Europe, falls, slips and trips continue to be the main cause of accident. So, eyes open and take care! For more information : http://safety.cern.ch/

  6. How campaigns polarize the electorate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Møller; Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    2015-01-01

    The minimal effect theory of campaign studies stipulates that intense political competition during campaigns assures and reinforces the initial party choice of the electorate. We find that this reinforcement is two-fold. During the campaign, the party preference of the voters’ in-group party...... resulting in stronger political polarization after the campaign than before the campaign. The data utilized in this study is a large six-wave panel-study of Danish voters’ party preferences during the Danish parliamentary election of 2011. Thus, the analysis provides evidence of the minimal effect theory...

  7. Lidar Inter-Comparison Exercise Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protat, A [Australian Bureau of Meterology; Young, S

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this field campaign was to evaluate the performance of the new Leosphere R-MAN 510 lidar, procured by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, by testing it against the MicroPulse Lidar (MPL) and Raman lidars, at the Darwin Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site. This lidar is an eye-safe (355 nm), turn-key mini Raman lidar, which allows for the detection of aerosols and cloud properties, and the retrieval of particulate extinction profiles. To accomplish this evaluation, the R-MAN 510 lidar has been operated at the Darwin ARM site, next to the MPL, Raman lidar, and Vaisala ceilometer (VCEIL) for three months (from 20 January 2013 to 20 April 2013) in order to collect a sufficient sample size for statistical comparisons.

  8. Amateur astronomers in support of observing campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy (PACA) project evolved from the observational campaign of C/2012 S1 or C/ISON. The success of the paradigm shift in scientific research is now implemented in other comet observing campaigns. While PACA identifies a consistent collaborative approach to pro-am collaborations, given the volume of data generated for each campaign, new ways of rapid data analysis, mining access, and storage are needed. Several interesting results emerged from the synergistic inclusion of both social media and amateur astronomers: - the establishment of a network of astronomers and related professionals that can be galvanized into action on short notice to support observing campaigns; - assist in various science investigations pertinent to the campaign; - provide an alert-sounding mechanism should the need arise; - immediate outreach and dissemination of results via our media/blogger members; - provide a forum for discussions between the imagers and modelers to help strategize the observing campaign for maximum benefit. In 2014, two new comet observing campaigns involving pro-am collaborations have been identified: (1) C/2013 A1 (C/Siding Spring) and (2) 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG). The evolving need for individual customized observing campaigns has been incorporated into the evolution of PACA (Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy) portal that currently is focused on comets: from supporting observing campaigns for current comets, legacy data, historical comets; interconnected with social media and a set of shareable documents addressing observational strategies; consistent standards for data; data access, use, and storage, to align with the needs of professional observers. The integration of science, observations by professional and amateur astronomers, and various social media provides a dynamic and evolving collaborative partnership between professional and amateur astronomers. The recent observation of comet 67P, at a magnitude of 21.2, from Siding

  9. The Effect of Political Campaigns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Møller

    Abstract There are many somewhat competing models for measuring political campaign effects. This paper discusses six types of campaign effects. 1) The civic engagement effect that argues people will learn and become more political engaged due to the campaign. 2) The priming studies argue...... that campaigns affect what issues the voters evaluate the parties and leaders on and sequentially their vote. 3) The minimal effect models argue that campaigns only mobilize existing prepositions and voters only seek to confirm their intermediated vote choice. 4) The memory based models argue that the vote...... to measure campaign effect during the next national election for the Danish parliament. The project began in January 2008. This paper presents the general idea of the project and operationalized various classic models of campaign effects. The draft questionnaire is also included. The online...

  10. Improving the effectiveness of road safety campaigns: Current and new practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Hoekstra

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of campaigns aimed at improving road safety is still the exception rather than the rule. Because of this, ineffective campaigns and campaign techniques are allowed to continue to be utilised without question, while new methods of behaviour modification are often ignored. Therefore, the necessity and advantages of formally evaluating road safety campaign efforts are discussed. This article also describes the pros and cons of some of the more common campaign strategies and introduces a number of new methods that show a great deal of promise for the purpose of road safety campaigns. In order to infuse the field of road safety campaigning with such new insights into road user behaviour and behavioural modification, one should look beyond the confines of road safety campaign standards and learn from the knowledge gained in other disciplines such as economics and social psychology. These new insights are discussed in terms of their implications for the future of road safety campaigns.

  11. Monthly errors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2006 monthly average statistical metrics for 2m Q (g kg-1) domain-wide for the base and MODIS WRF simulations against MADIS observations. This dataset is...

  12. Water-soluble organic aerosol in the Los Angeles Basin and outflow regions: Airborne and ground measurements during the 2010 CalNex field campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Hanh T.; Sorooshian, Armin; Craven, Jill S.; Hersey, Scott P.; Metcalf, Andrew R.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney J.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2011-01-01

    A particle‐into‐liquid sampler coupled to a total organic carbon analyzer (PILS‐TOC) quantified particulate water‐soluble organic carbon (WSOC) mass concentrations during the May 2010 deployment of the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter in the CalNex field study. WSOC data collected during 16 flights provide the first spatiotemporal maps of WSOC in the San Joaquin Valley, Los Angeles Basin, and outflow regions of the Basin. WSOC w...

  13. Airborne Field Campaign Results of Ka-band Precipitation Measuring Radar in China%我国Ka频段降水测量雷达机载校飞试验结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商建; 郭杨; 吴琼; 杨虎; 尹红刚

    2011-01-01

    2010年6-10月在天津与江苏地区开展了国内首次Ku/Ka频段星载降水测量雷达机载校飞试验.此次校飞试验获得了宝贵的机载雷达观测数据和地面、海面同步观测数据,目前已开展了外定标、数据对比与衰减订正等工作.该文给出了天津校飞试验中Ka频段降水测量雷达实测结果,对Ka频段降水测量雷达资料与天津地区S波段地基多普勒雷达资料进行了详细的对比分析,有利于更好地了解Ka频段降水测量雷达仪器本身的性能及其探测降水的能力;利用由GPS探空资料、地基多通道微波辐射计观测亮温结合微波辐射传输模式得到的雷达路径积分衰减量,对Ka频段降水测量雷达进行了衰减订正,为继续开展降水反演工作奠定了基础.%Spaceborne precipitation measuring radar can measure precipitation quantitatively, observe the vertical distribution and provide three dimensional precipitation structures. Spaceborne precipitation measuring radar is an important instrument on FY-3 meteorological satellite constellation. As a possible future member of the Global Precipitation Measurement(GPM) , this satellite will carry dual-frequency precipitation radar operating at Ku and Ka bands to provide scientific data for dual-frequency retrieval algorithm. Its two prototype devices, Ku-band and Ka-band radars have already been developed under the support of National Defense Science and Industry Bureau. Field campaign of Ku/Ka-band airborne precipitation measuring radar is carried out by National Satellite Meteorological Center of China Meteorological Administration combining several groups from June to October in 2010 in Tianjin and Jiangsu, called BH-RM 2010 and JS-RM 2010, respectively. This is the first time that China carries out airborne precipitation measuring radar field campaign. The purposes of this field campaign are to validate the correctness of internal and external calibration scheme under airborne

  14. Campaigning and Contestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Sander Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article is a critical study of the Facebook pages of politicians as public spheres using Dahlberg’s notion of contestation. A method is implemented inspired by qualitative content analysis and including focus groups in order to study citizen comments on eight main political candidates......’ Facebook pages during the 2011 Danish election campaign. An analytical framework is presented that conceptualizes the particular platform as a dinner party, with a dinner table, a host, and the invited guests. The dinner party exhibits the interplay between these elements and how they limit the option...... of contesting the dominating discourse in favor of a supportive marketing logic....

  15. A Study of the Internal Boundary Layer due to a Roughness Change in Neutral Conditions Observed During the LINEX Field Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, O. O.; Foken, T.

    As an aspect of the LINEX field studies (1996-1997 Lindenberg near Beeskow, Germany), the characteristics of the internal boundary layer (IBL) that is associated with a step change of the surface roughnesses in neutral constant stress layers was investigated and is reported in this paper. Both smooth to rough (in 1996) and rough to smooth (in 1997) types of flow, have been studied based upon the profiles of mean wind and temperature realised from a 10-m mast and eddy correlation measurements taken at two levels (2m and 5m). Depending upon wind direction, the fetch at the site varied between 140m and 315m within the wind sector (200° to 340°) used for the field investigations. The height of the IBL, δ, had been determined from the intersect of the logarithmic wind-profiles below (6) the interface. Values of δ obtained at the experimental site compared fairly well to the existing theoretical/empirical fetch-height relationships of the form: δ=aċxb, where a, b, are empirical constants. The ratio for the friction velocities below and above the IBL as measured directly by the eddy correlation techniques showed that for fetches less than 250m there was an increase (decrease) of about 20% of the momentum flux arising from the smooth to rough (rough to smooth) transitions. Influences of distant obstructions (e.g., bushes, pockets of trees) on the surface flow were markedly important on the examined wind profiles and such can be indicative as multiple IBLs.

  16. Horizontal wells in the Daleel field 2nd development campaign; Dariru yuden no niji kaihatsu ni okeru suihei koi ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagisawa, K. [Japex Oman Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    The horizontal wells excavated at various places in the world have been carried out at an increasing tempo during recent some years. In particular, Oman has a number of small scale petroleum wells and a task on what means their oil production should be increased, therefore the horizontal excavation is judged to be much optimum. In this Daleed field 2nd development mainly consisting the prolonged region development ranged from north to south, all developing oil wells were determined to excavate with the horizontal excavation method and 10 wells were planned to excavate from the judgement of the possibility of low cost, in addition to the advance of the horizontal excavation technique. The excavating operation was conducted from July 1st, 1994 to March 22nd, 1995, and was finished without any failures. Test results of all oil wells are good, and the mean value of the initial production indices of the horizontal wells were about 3 times to that of vertical wells. And, it made possible to produce petroleum from the areas impossible in the vertical wells, because of presence of gas gap. Adoption of the horizontal well increased early oil production rate, which brought a lot of contribution to economics of the project. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The OJ287 observing campaign hots up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyner, G.

    2006-12-01

    In the August 2006 issue of the Journal [116(4), 163-164] I gave details of the BAAVSS observing campaign to monitor the binary black hole OJ287. The campaign is now once again in full swing for the 2006/2007 season, now that solar conjunction is finally over. During the summer break, new analysis was done on the BAAVSS & TA data by Dr Mauri Valtonen (Dept of Physics and Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Finland & Dept of Physics, University of the West Indies, Trinidad) and Dr Mark Kidger (Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy centre, Villafranca del Castillo Satellite Tracking Station, Madrid, Spain, & INSA) and Dr Harry Lehto (NORDITA, Copenhagen, Denmark). A detailed examination of these data from the past 15 years, and especially the last 12 months, has led to some interesting conclusions.

  18. Strategic campaigns and redistributive politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The article investigates strategic, informative campaigning by two parties when politics concern redistribution. Voters are uncertain about whether parties favour special groups. Parties will target campaigns on groups where most votes are gained by informing about policies. In equilibrium......, campaigning will be most intensive in groups where the uncertainty is largest and where voters are most mobile, most likely to vote, most receptive to campaigns and relatively uninformed initially. These groups will become more informed about policy. Parties will therefore gain more votes by treating...

  19. Evaluation of NOx emission inventories in California using multi-satellite data sets, AMAX-DOAS and in-situ airborne measurements, and regional model simulations during the CalNex field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Baidar, S.; Boersma, F.; Brioude, J. F.; Bucsela, E. J.; Burrows, J. P.; Celarier, E. A.; Cohen, R. C.; Frost, G. J.; Harley, R. A.; Krotkov, N. A.; Lamsal, L. N.; Martin, R.; Mcdonald, B. C.; McKeen, S. A.; Oetjen, H.; Pollack, I. B.; Richter, A.; Russell, A.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Valin, L. C.; Volkamer, R.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite NO2 column measurements indicate large NOx emissions from urban and agricultural sources in California. Comparison of regional model-simulated NO2 columns with satellite retrievals has proven useful in evaluating emission inventories for various sectors. We compare the NO2 columns from the WRF-Chem model with the multi-satellite data sets from different instruments and retrieval groups for a variety of California sources. Use of multiple satellite data sets help to define the uncertainties in the satellite retrievals. In addition, the CalNex 2010 intensive field campaign provides a unique opportunity to independently assess California's emission inventories. CU-AMAX-DOAS and in-situ airborne observations from CalNex 2010 and fine-resolution model simulations are used to estimate the accuracy of the satellite NO2 column retrievals over urban and agricultural areas. To understand differences in the retrievals, we will present sensitivity of satellite NO2 retrievals to a priori NO2 profiles that are produced from global models and the fine-resolution WRF-Chem model using state-of-the-art emission inventories.

  20. A simplified study of public perception in the nuclear field: suggestions for educational campaign for different segments of society; Um estudo simplificado sobre a percepcao publica na area nuclear: sugestoes para campanhas educativas para os diferentes segmentos da sociedade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Renata Araujo de

    2011-07-01

    During the last years the need for the increase in the electricity energy production as much as in Brazil as in the rest of the world, has raised the tone o the debate about the environmental impacts as a result of these debates, the government and the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO's) have requested several opinion researches aiming at measuring and evaluating the knowledge and perception of the public in relation to the best non-polluting energy sources. Prior to 2001 these researches would not make any sense in Brazil as the majority of its power grid is made of hydroelectric plants, a renewable energy source. However, when in that year it occurred a drought, the competent authorities have faced the necessity of developing a plan, the National Energy Plan (PNE2030) which recommends, among other objectives, finalizing the construction of the Angra 3 plant and the implementation Df new nuclear plants in places still to be determined. Even considering the complexity of the subject, this paper presents a field research realized from September 28th, 2010 to October 28th, 2010 of the current level of perception of the Brazilian population, specifically the residents of three cities of Rio de Janeiro, about the nuclear area. As a result of this work, it is suggested how the competent authorities should proceed to reach in an efficient manner, by means of communication campaigns both informative and educational, a greater understanding of the population about the proposed subject. (author)

  1. A regional scale modeling analysis of aerosol and trace gas distributions over the eastern Pacific during the INTEX-B field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Adhikary

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM is applied to the analysis of observations obtained during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEX-B, conducted over the eastern Pacific Ocean during spring 2006. Predicted trace gas and aerosol distributions over the Pacific are presented and discussed in terms of transport and source region contributions. Trace species distributions show a strong west (high to east (low gradient, with the bulk of the pollutant transport over the central Pacific occurring between ~20° N and 50° N in the 2–6 km altitude range. These distributions are evaluated in the eastern Pacific by comparison with the NASA DC-8 and NSF/NCAR C-130 airborne measurements along with observations from the Mt. Bachelor (MBO surface site. Thirty different meteorological, trace gas and aerosol parameters are compared. In general the meteorological fields are better predicted than gas phase species, which in turn are better predicted than aerosol quantities. PAN is found to be significantly overpredicted over the eastern Pacific, which is attributed to uncertainties in the chemical reaction mechanisms used in current atmospheric chemistry models in general and to the specifically high PAN production in the SAPRC-99 mechanism used in the regional model. A systematic underprediction of the elevated sulfate layer in the eastern Pacific observed by the C-130 is another issue that is identified and discussed. Results from source region tagged CO simulations are used to estimate how the different source regions around the Pacific contribute to the trace gas species distributions. During this period the largest contributions were from China and from fires in South/Southeast and North Asia. For the C-130 flights, which operated off the coast of the Northwest US, the regional CO contributions range as follows: China (35%, South/Southeast Asia fires (35%, North America anthropogenic (20%, and North Asia fires (10

  2. Botanists in Lithuania during the Michurinist Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ričkienė, Aurika

    2017-06-01

    The meeting of the Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VASKhNIL) that occurred from July 31 to August 7, 1948, declared Michurinism to be the only "correct theory" of biology in the Soviet Union. As of that moment, Michurinist biology officially took center stage in Soviet scientific institutions, and it was further developed over the next fifteen years. Scientists from all of the former Soviet Republics participated in the Michurinist campaign. In Lithuania, this campaign started in the autumn of 1948. From 1948 until 1963, the Department of Michurinist Biology was active at Vilnius University. Studies in this field were performed at Lithuanian scientific institutions, and scientists were engaged with this theory. This essay illustrates the realization of the Michurinist campaign in Lithuania using details from botany. It describes the investigations of plant genetics in Lithuania before World War II, depicts the general situation of scientists in Lithuania during the first years of the Soviet occupation, explores the involvement of botanists in propagating Michurinist biology, and in summary, reveals the peculiarities of this campaign in Lithuania. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Australian national binge drinking campaign: campaign recognition among young people at a music festival who report risky drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacks-Davis Rachel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Government launched a mass media campaign in 2009 to raise awareness of the harms and costs associated risky drinking among young Australians. The aim of this study was to assess if young people attending a music festival who report frequent risky single occasions of drinking (RSOD recognise the key message of the campaign, "Binge drinking can lead to injuries and regrets", compared to young people who report less frequent RSOD. Methods A cross-sectional behavioural survey of young people (aged 16-29 years attending a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, was conducted in January 2009. We collected basic demographics, information on alcohol and other drug use and sexual health and behaviour during the previous 12 months, and measured recognition of the Australian National Binge Drinking Campaign key message. We calculated the odds of recognition of the key slogan of the Australian National Binge Drinking Campaign among participants who reported frequent RSOD (defined as reported weekly or more frequent RSOD during the previous 12 months compared to participants who reported less frequent RSOD. Results Overall, three-quarters (74.7% of 1072 participants included in this analysis recognised the campaign message. In the adjusted analysis, those reporting frequent RSOD had significantly lower odds of recognising the campaign message compared to those not reporting frequent RSOD (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9, whilst females had significantly greater odds of recognising the campaign message compared to males (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.1. Conclusions Whilst a high proportion of the target group recognised the campaign, our analysis suggests that participants that reported frequent RSOD - and thus the most important group to target - had statistically significantly lower odds of recognising the campaign message.

  4. Measurements of HOx radicals and the total OH reactivity (kOH) in the planetary boundary layer over southern Finland aboard the Zeppelin NT airship during the PEGASOS field campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broch, Sebastian; Gomm, Sebastian; Fuchs, Hendrik; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Bachner, Mathias; Bohn, Birger; Häseler, Rolf; Jäger, Julia; Kaiser, Jennifer; Keutsch, Frank; Li, Xin; Lohse, Insa; Rohrer, Franz; Thayer, Mitchell; Tillmann, Ralf; Wegener, Robert; Mentel, Thomas F.; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The concentration of hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO2) radicals (also named HOx) and the total OH reactivity were measured over southern Finland and during transfer flights over Germany, Denmark and Sweden aboard the Zeppelin NT airship within the framework of the Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls-climate interaction Study (PEGASOS) field campaign in 2013. The measurements were performed with a remotely controlled Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) instrument which was installed on top of the airship. Together with a comprehensive set of trace gas (O3, CO, NO, NO2, HCHO, HONO, VOCs), photolysis frequencies and aerosol measurements as well as the measurement of meteorological parameters, these data provide the possibility to test the current understanding of the chemical processes in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over different landscapes and in different chemical regimes. The unique flight performance of the Zeppelin NT allowed us to measure transects at a constant altitude as well as vertical profiles within the range of 80 m to 1000 m above ground. The transect flights show changes in the HOx distribution and kOH while crossing different chemical regimes on the way from Friedrichshafen, Germany to Jämijärvi, Finland over Germany, Denmark and Sweden. Vertical profile flights over the boreal forest close to Jämijärvi and Hyytiälä (both Finland) gave the opportunity to investigate the layering of the PBL and with that the vertical distribution of HOx and kOH with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Gradients in the HOx concentration and kOH were measured between the different layers during the early morning hours. The maximum radical concentrations found during the campaign were 1.0 x 107 cm-3 for OH and 1.0 x 109 cm-3 for HO2. The total OH reactivity measured in Finland was much lower than what was reported before in the literature from ground based measurements and ranged from 1 s-1 to 6 s-1. Acknowledgement: PEGASOS project funded by the European

  5. The Ocean Literacy Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; Strang, C.

    2008-12-01

    "Ocean Literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on you and your influence on the ocean." This simple statement captures the spirit of a conceptual framework supporting ocean literacy (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework comprises 7 essential principles and 44 fundamental concepts an ocean literate person would know (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework is the result of an extensive grassroots effort to reach consensus on (1) a definition for ocean literacy and (2) an articulation of the most important concepts to be understood by ocean-literate citizen (Cava et al., 2005). In the process of reaching consensus on these "big ideas" about the ocean, what began as a series of workshops has emerged as a campaign "owned" by an ever-expanding community of individuals, organizations and networks involved in developing and promoting the framework. The Ocean Literacy Framework has provided a common language for scientists and educators working together and serves as key guidance for the ocean science education efforts. This presentation will focus on the impact this Ocean Literacy Campaign has had to date as well as efforts underway to provide additional tools to enable educators and educational policy makers to further integrate teaching and learning about the ocean and our coasts into formal K-12 education and informal education. COSEE, National Geographic Society, NOAA, College of Exploration (2005). Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences Grades K-12, a jointly published brochure, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OceanLitChart.pdf Cava, F., S. Schoedinger , C. Strang, and P. Tuddenham (2005). Science Content and Standards for Ocean Literacy: A Report on Ocean Literacy, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OLit2004-05_Final_Report.pdf.

  6. The articulation of transnational campaigns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, Michael Stewart

    2011-01-01

    The article traces the complex series of relations that are constitutive of transnational campaigning through empirical research, focusing on political campaigning critical of the WTO's General Agreement on Trade-in-Services. Applying the methodology of post-structuralist discourse theory, as dev...

  7. Multistage Campaigning in Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Farajtabar, Mehrdad; Harati, Sahar; Song, Le; Zha, Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of how to optimize multi-stage campaigning over social networks. The dynamic programming framework is employed to balance the high present reward and large penalty on low future outcome in the presence of extensive uncertainties. In particular, we establish theoretical foundations of optimal campaigning over social networks where the user activities are modeled as a multivariate Hawkes process, and we derive a time dependent linear relation between the intensity of exogenous events and several commonly used objective functions of campaigning. We further develop a convex dynamic programming framework for determining the optimal intervention policy that prescribes the required level of external drive at each stage for the desired campaigning result. Experiments on both synthetic data and the real-world MemeTracker dataset show that our algorithm can steer the user activities for optimal campaigning much more accurately than baselines.

  8. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations

    CERN Document Server

    Traag, V A

    2016-01-01

    Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50 000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find the diffusion of donations to be driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the via...

  9. Solar Energy Campaign. 2008 Norwegian student-based web campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Scott

    2009-07-01

    Student research campaigns (forskningskampanjer) have been an annual event in connection to Research Days (Forskningsdagene) since 2003 in Norway. The campaigns invite students from all over the country to participate in a common scientific research event, always connected to a special environmentally related theme - for example Air Quality in the Classroom (2003), Pollution along Roads (2004), Bacteria in Drinking Water (2005), and The Rain Check (2006). The year 2008, as with previous years, was overshadowed by the topic of climate change, and the specific role of humans. The research campaign theme for 2008 fit well into this focus: the potential benefits of solar energy as an alternative energy source. The campaign also was aligned with the Research Days theme of alternative energy sources and technologies. The campaign included the hands-on activity of assembling a solar panel and taking measurements with the device to determine efficiency, as well as a questionnaire to record the results and ask deeper questions regarding alternative energy and climate change. The results gained from data analysis of the campaign show that students were able to gain maximum efficient solar power from the devices they constructed, which gave them a solid understanding of solar power technology. Analysis of the campaign questionnaire in regards to the activity shows that students believe that solar energy should be better utilized as an energy source in Norway. (Also in Norwegian OR 24/2009). (Author)

  10. Design and Planning of Field Campaigns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, F.

    1996-01-01

    From Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop Monitoring and Control Strategies for Urban Air Pollution, held in Erice, Italy, October 9-15, 1994......From Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop Monitoring and Control Strategies for Urban Air Pollution, held in Erice, Italy, October 9-15, 1994...

  11. SMAP Post-launch Field Campaign Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SMAP post-launch Cal/Val activities are intended both to assess the quality of the mission products and to support analyses that lead to their improvement. A suite of complementary methodologies will be employed that will result in a robust global assessment. Much of the work will occur in the C...

  12. Dual Microwave Radiometer Experiment Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, Roger [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Passive microwave radiometers (MWRs) are the most commonly used and accurate instruments the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Research Facility has to retrieve cloud liquid water path (LWP). The MWR measurements (microwave radiances or brightness temperatures) are often used to derive LWP using climatological constraints, but are frequently also combined with measurements from radar and other instruments for cloud microphysical retrievals. Nominally this latter approach improves the retrieval of LWP and other cloud microphysical quantities (such as effective radius or number concentration), but this also means that when MWR data are poor, other cloud microphysical quantities are also negatively affected. Unfortunately, current MWR data is often contaminated by water on the MWR radome. This water makes a substantial contribution to the measured radiance and typically results in retrievals of cloud liquid water and column water vapor that are biased high. While it is obvious when the contamination by standing water is large (and retrieval biases are large), much of the time it is difficult to know with confidence that there is no contamination. At present there is no attempt to estimate or correct for this source of error, and identification of problems is largely left to users. Typically users are advised to simply throw out all data when the MWR “wet-window” resistance-based sensor indicates water is present, but this sensor is adjusted by hand and is known to be temperamental. In order to address this problem, a pair of ARM microwave radiometers was deployed to the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle, Washington, USA. The radiometers were operated such that one radiometer was scanned under a cover that (nominally) prevents this radiometer radome from gathering water and permits measurements away from zenith; while the other radiometer is operated normally – open or uncovered - with the radome exposed to the sky. The idea is that (1) the covered radiometer data can provide LWP (and water vapor) along the off-zenith slant path and (2) the two sets of measurements can be compared to identify when wet-radome contamination is occurring.

  13. Arctic Shield 2015 Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stafford, Robert A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ivey, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    During the week of July 13, 2015, the U.S. Coast Guard’s (USCG) Research and Development Center partnered with Conoco Phillips through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement to conduct a Search and Rescue (SAR) exercise off of Oliktok Point, Alaska. The Coast Guard was interested in exploring how unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) can be used to enhance capabilities for its SAR mission and gain a better understanding of how it could work jointly with private industry for response operations in remote regions. Participants in the exercise included Coast Guard Pacific Area Command, Coast Guard Cutter Healy, Coast Guard District Seventeen, Coast Guard Air Station Kodiak, and Conoco Phillips. Joining Conoco Phillips were their partners Insitu (a Boeing company), Era Helicopter, and Era Helicopter’s partner Priority One. Other government agencies supporting the exercise were the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Federal Aviation Administration, and the North Slope Borough of the state of Alaska. The exercise scenario involved a simulated small aircraft crash offshore where the survivors took refuge in a 6-man life raft. The aircraft’s last known position and asset availability required the Coast Guard to coordinate the response with Conoco Phillips. This included the use of an Insitu-operated ScanEagle UAS, flown from DOE-ARM’s Sandia National Laboratory-operated facility at Oliktok Point, and manned aircraft provided by both the Coast Guard’s Forward Operating Location in Deadhorse and Era Helicopter. Lessons learned from this exercise will help the Coast Guard understand how to best collaborate with private industry on the North Slope during response operations and develop requirements for UAS performing Coast Guard missions in the Arctic environment. For the ARM facility, the exercise demonstrated some of the opportunities and constraints of using UAS in the Arctic for research purposes.

  14. Arctic Clouds Infrared Imaging Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J. A. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI), a passive thermal imaging system, was deployed at the North Slope of Alaska site in Barrow, Alaska, from July 2012 to July 2014 for measuring spatial-temporal cloud statistics. Thermal imaging of the sky from the ground provides high radiometric contrast during night and polar winter when visible sensors and downward-viewing thermal sensors experience low contrast. In addition to demonstrating successful operation in the Arctic for an extended period and providing data for Arctic cloud studies, a primary objective of this deployment was to validate novel instrument calibration algorithms that will allow more compact ICI instruments to be deployed without the added expense, weight, size, and operational difficulty of a large-aperture onboard blackbody calibration source. This objective was successfully completed with a comparison of the two-year data set calibrated with and without the onboard blackbody. The two different calibration methods produced daily-average cloud amount data sets with correlation coefficient = 0.99, mean difference = 0.0029 (i.e., 0.29% cloudiness), and a difference standard deviation = 0.054. Finally, the ICI instrument generally detected more thin clouds than reported by other ARM cloud products available as of late 2015.

  15. Persuasion and Gender: Experimental Evidence from Two Political Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Galasso, Vincenzo; Nannicini, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the differential response of male and female voters to competitive persuasion in political campaigns. We implemented a survey experiment during the (mixed gender) electoral race for mayor in Milan (2011), and a field experiment during the (same gender) electoral race for mayor in Cava de' Tirreni (2015). In both cases, a sample of eligible voters was randomly divided into three groups. Two were exposed to either a positive or a negative campaign by one of the opponents...

  16. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs are presented for chase sampled vehicles and fleet averaged emissions. Results indicate that colectivos, particularly CNG-powered colectivos, are potentially significant contributors of NOx and aldehydes in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in US cities. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  17. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Slott, R. S.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L. C.; Shorter, J. H.; Zahniser, M.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2006-11-01

    A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA) indicate that - in a mole per mole basis - have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  18. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA indicate that – in a mole per mole basis – have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  19. An Airborne and Ground-based Study of a Long-lived and Intense Atmospheric River Impacting California during the CalWater-2014 Early-Start Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiman, P. J.; Benjamin, M.; White, A. B.; Wick, G. A.; Aikins, J.; Jackson, D. L.; Spackman, J. R.; Ralph, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    During the CalWater-2014 Early Start winter field campaign, the wettest period occurred with a long-lived, intense atmospheric river (AR) impacting California on 7-10 February. SSMIS satellite imagery of integrated water vapor (see figure) provides a large-scale overview of the event. Based on Lagrangian trajectories, the AR tapped into the tropical water-vapor reservoir, and the water vapor subsequently advected to California. Widespread heavy precipitation (200-400 mm) fell across the coastal mountain ranges northwest of San Francisco and across the northern Sierra Nevada, although only modest flooding ensued due to anomalously dry antecedent conditions. The NOAA G-IV aircraft - which represents the cornerstone observing platform for this study - flew through two mesoscale frontal waves in the AR environment offshore in a ~24-h period. Parallel dropsonde curtains documented key three-dimensional thermodynamic and kinematic characteristics across the AR and frontal waves prior to landfall. Different AR characteristics were evident, depending on the location of the cross section through the frontal waves. A newly-implemented tail-mounted Doppler radar on the G-IV simultaneously captured coherent precipitation features. Along the coast, a 449-MHz wind profiler and collocated global positioning system (GPS) receiver monitored tropospheric winds and water vapor during the AR landfall. These instruments also observed the transient frontal waves - which prolonged AR conditions and heavy precipitation - and highlighted the orographic character of the rainfall in the coastal mountains. A vertically pointing S-PROF radar in the coastal mountains provided detailed information on the bulk microphysical characteristics of the rainfall. Farther inland, a pair of 915-MHz wind profilers and GPS receivers quantified the orographic precipitation forcing as the AR ascended the Sierra Nevada, and as the terrain-induced Sierra barrier jet ascended the northern terminus of California

  20. The articulation of transnational campaigns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, Michael Stewart

    2011-01-01

    The article traces the complex series of relations that are constitutive of transnational campaigning through empirical research, focusing on political campaigning critical of the WTO's General Agreement on Trade-in-Services. Applying the methodology of post-structuralist discourse theory......, as developed by Laclau and Mouffe, the article is able to move beyond the search for a ‘Global Civil Society' or ‘Transnational Advocacy Network', and instead focus on the articulatory process in which the relations central to transnational campaigning are produced. This empowers an analysis that is able...

  1. The Long Live Kids campaign: awareness of campaign messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Guy E J; Kwan, Matthew Y W; MacNeill, Margaret; Brownrigg, Michelle

    2011-05-01

    Media interventions are one strategy used to promote physical activity, but little is known about their effectiveness with children. As part of a larger evaluation, the purpose of this study was to assess the short-term effect of a private industry sponsored media literacy campaign, Long Live Kids, aimed at children in Canada. Specifically, we investigated children's awareness of the campaign and its correlates. Using a cohort design, a national sample (N = 331, male = 171; mean age = 10.81, SD = 0.99) completed a telephone survey two weeks prior to the campaign release, and again 1 year later. Only 3% of the children were able to recall the Long Live Kids campaign unprompted and 57% had prompted recall. Logistic regression found family income (Wald χ(2) = 11.06, p children (≥3 days/week) were twice as likely to have recalled the campaign compared with inactive children (children living in high-income households (>$60,000/yr) were between 3.5 to 5 times more likely to have campaign recall compared with children living in a low-income households (media campaigns developed by industry may have a role in promoting physical activity to children although our findings identified a knowledge gap between children living in high- and low-income households. Future research needs to examine how children become aware of such media campaigns and how this mediated information is being used by children.

  2. Talking about Quitting: Interpersonal Communication as a Mediator of Campaign Effects on Smokers’ Quit Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Michelle; Tan, Andy; Brennan, Emily; Gibson, Laura; Hornik, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of interpersonal communication in the context of a mass media anti-smoking campaign. Specifically, it explored whether conversations about campaign ads and/or about quitting mediated campaign exposure effects on two quitting behaviors (sought help to quit and tried to quit smoking completely), as well as the relationship between ad-related and quitting-related conversations. Data were collected prior to the campaign and monthly for 16 months during the campaign through cross-sectional telephone surveys among a sample of 3277 adult Philadelphian smokers. Follow-up interviews were conducted among 877 participants three months after their first survey. Cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models with bootstrap procedures assessed the indirect effects of campaign exposure on outcomes through conversations, and of conversations about ads on outcomes through conversations about quitting. In addition, lagged regression analyses tested the causal direction of associations between the variables of interest. The results partially support hypotheses that conversations about quitting mediate campaign effects on quitting-related behaviors, and, in line with previous research, that conversations about the ads have indirect effects on quitting-related behaviors by triggering conversations about quitting. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering interpersonal communication as a route of campaign exposure effects when evaluating and designing future public health campaigns. PMID:26147367

  3. Talking About Quitting: Interpersonal Communication as a Mediator of Campaign Effects on Smokers' Quit Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Michelle; Tan, Andy S L; Brennan, Emily; Gibson, Laura; Hornik, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of interpersonal communication in the context of a mass media anti-smoking campaign. Specifically, it explored whether conversations about campaign ads and/or about quitting mediated campaign exposure effects on 2 quitting behaviors (sought help to quit and tried to quit smoking completely), as well as the relation between ad-related and quitting-related conversations. Data were collected before the campaign and monthly for 16 months during the campaign through cross-sectional telephone surveys among a sample of 3,277 adult Philadelphia smokers. Follow-up interviews were conducted among 877 participants 3 months after their first survey. Cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models with bootstrap procedures assessed the indirect effects of campaign exposure on outcomes through conversations, and the indirect effects of conversations about ads on outcomes through conversations about quitting. In addition, lagged regression analyses tested the causal direction of associations between the variables of interest. The results partially support hypotheses that conversations about quitting mediate campaign effects on quitting-related behaviors and, in line with previous research, that conversations about the ads have indirect effects on quitting-related behaviors by triggering conversations about quitting. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering interpersonal communication as a route of campaign exposure effects when evaluating and designing future public health campaigns.

  4. Multimedia campaign on a shoestring: promoting 'Stay Active - Stay Independent' among seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Leader, Franklin; Van Beurden, Eric; Barnett, Lisa; Hughes, Karen; Newman, Beth; Sternberg, Jason; Dietrich, Uta

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes a multimedia campaign implemented in rural New South Wales on a budget smaller than that typical of many published campaigns. The 'To Be Young at Heart - Stay Active Stay Independent' (SASI) campaign was one arm of a multi-strategic program to reduce falls among seniors by promoting physical activity. This 18-month campaign used social marketing techniques. Central to this campaign was strong formative research, significant use of corporate, community and media partnerships and a detailed, strategic distribution plan. Campaign reach was evaluated by a community intercept survey. A variety of high-quality information, education and communication (IEC) resources were developed. Overall, the campaign cost was calculated at USD 191,000. The actual cost of USD 42,000 (excluding staff time) was used to generate almost double this amount in sponsorship (USD 82,000). In the mid-campaign reach survey, 36% recognised the campaign and attributed this to television (58%), newspaper (33%), poster (13%) and bus-back advertising (8%). Of these respondents, 21% reported seeking information about physical activity, 33% reported increased intention to be more active, and 22% reported becoming more active as a result of the campaign. It is possible to develop and deliver a well-designed, multi-media campaign on a limited budget by using sound formative research and engaging community and corporate partners to generate sponsorship. An effective distribution strategy is crucial and may require additional partnerships at State or national level.

  5. First space debris optical detection campaign in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfilio, M.; Piergentili, F.; Graziani, F.

    In the recent years more and more countries around the world have been concerned with space debris detection and monitoring. In Italy, although satellites and debris have been definitely, though not intentionally, detected by astronomers in the last decades, dedicated observations have never been performed before April 2002. In this month the Group of Astrodynamics of the University of Rome "La Sapienza" (GAUSS) started an optical survey of the geostationary ring from the Campo Catino Astronomical Observatory. This observatory, owned by the "Associazione Astronomica Frusinate" (Frosinone Astronomical Society), is one of the best amateur astronomers' facilities in Italy: his dome hosts an 80 cm aperture Ritchey- Chrétien telescope, a 25 cm Baker-Schmidt and a 15 cm refractor, while a 40 cm Ritchey-Chrétien is going to be operated in another dome; two CCD sensors are available for such telescopes. For this first GEO campaign, the 25 cm Baker-Schmidt device was chosen, in order to have a wide field of view: the telescope was coupled with an AP-8 1024×1024 CCD, resulting in a 1° 50' FOV. The first nights of observation were dedicated to a survey of the GEO ring: about 90 degrees of right ascension were spanned, collecting several hundreds images and detecting about 100 objects; as the CCD read-out time is about 35 seconds, a relatively long exposure time (20 seconds) was selected, to improve the ratio of exposure time to gap time between frames. The telescope was pointed in a star- tracking mode, so the Earth satellites are easily detected as stripes on a dot-shaped background of stars; hence, two points of the track (lead and trailing edges) per image are generally identified in terms of topocentric right ascension and declination. Moreover, the observed star field is kept constant along some hours of observation, letting the GEO ring cross such field. The data processing, presently managed off-line, is now being carried out, in order to identify the objects and

  6. "War on Waste": A Public-Education Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Mark A.; Massetti-Miller, Karen L.

    As part of a statewide campaign to increase both awareness of the problem of littering and illegal dumping, and participation in recycling activities, Humboldt County, California, began a recycling and antilittering education project in 1981. Pre- and postcampaign survey data suggest that the 9-month program, relying largely on television and…

  7. Rock the Watt: An Energy Conservation Campaign at Pacific Northwest National Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) three-month Rock the Watt campaign to reduce energy use at its main campus in Richland, Washington. The campaign objectives were to educate PNNL employees about energy conservation opportunities in their workplace and to motivate them to help PNNL save energy and costs and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. The STAR Grants Contribution to the SOAS Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) is a community-led field campaign that was part of the Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS). As one of the largest field studies in decades to characterize air quality in the Southeastern United States, SAS is a collaborative project invo...

  9. DIE SANSUI CAMPAIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cornwell

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available EGYPT ON THE OUTBREAK OF WAR 1916On 6 November 1914, after three months of steadily worsening relations, France and Britain declared war on the Ottoman Empire. This state of affairs found Britain with no comprehensive plan for defending her intorostJ in the Middle East, indeed tho prob- 10m3 posed so suddenly by Germany's onslaught in Belgium and France found the Empire with few trained troops to use elsewhere. Within two months of Britain's entry to the war she had pulled her regular regiments out of Egypt, and replaced them largely with Indian troops, who were eventually to bear the brunt of much of the fighting in this theatre." The defence of the Suez canal was of prime importance if the war effort of the British Empire was to be properly coordinated.

  10. Feasibility study of the AOSTA experimental campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carta M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of the nuclear waste is one of the most important nuclear issues. The high radiotoxicity of the spent fuel is due to plutonium and some minor actinides (MAs such as neptunium, americium and curium, above all. One way to reduce their hazard is to destroy by fission MAs in appropriate nuclear reactors. To allow the MAs destruction an important effort have been done on the nuclear data due to the poor knowledge in this field. In the framework of one of the NEA Expert Group on Integral Experiments for Minor Actinide Management an analysis of the feasibility of MAs irradiation campaign in the TAPIRO fast research reactor is carried out. This paper provides preliminary results obtained by calculations modelling the irradiation, in different TAPIRO irradiation channels, of some CEA samples coming from the French experimental campaign OSMOSE, loaded with different contents of MAs, in order to access, through particular peak spectrometry, to their capture cross section. On the basis of neutron transport calculation results, obtained by both deterministic and Monte Carlo methods, an estimate of the irradiated samples counting levels from the AOSTA (Activation of OSMOSE Samples in TAPIRO experimental campaign is provided.

  11. Does Subjective Rating Reflect Behavioural Coding? Personality in 2 Month-Old Dog Puppies: An Open-Field Test and Adjective-Based Questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanis Barnard

    Full Text Available A number of studies have recently investigated personality traits in non-human species, with the dog gaining popularity as a subject species for research in this area. Recent research has shown the consistency of personality traits across both context and time for adult dogs, both when using questionnaire based methods of investigation and behavioural analyses of the dogs' behaviour. However, only a few studies have assessed the correspondence between these two methods, with results varying considerably across studies. Furthermore, most studies have focused on adult dogs, despite the fact that an understanding of personality traits in young puppies may be important for research focusing on the genetic basis of personality traits. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the correspondence between a questionnaire based method and the in depth analyses of the behaviour of 2-month old puppies in an open-field test in which a number of both social and non-social stimuli were presented to the subjects. We further evaluated consistency of traits over time by re-testing a subset of puppies. The correspondence between methods was high and test- retest consistency (for the main trait was also good using both evaluation methods. Results showed clear factors referring to the two main personality traits 'extroversion,' (i.e. the enthusiastic, exuberant approach to the stimuli and 'neuroticism,' (i.e. the more cautious and fearful approach to the stimuli, potentially similar to the shyness-boldness dimension found in previous studies. Furthermore, both methods identified an 'amicability' dimension, expressing the positive interactions the pups directed at the humans stranger, and a 'reservedness' dimension which identified pups who largely chose not to interact with the stimuli, and were defined as quiet and not nosey in the questionnaire.

  12. Does Subjective Rating Reflect Behavioural Coding? Personality in 2 Month-Old Dog Puppies: An Open-Field Test and Adjective-Based Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Shanis; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Passalacqua, Chiara; Beghelli, Valentina; Capra, Alexa; Normando, Simona; Pelosi, Annalisa; Valsecchi, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have recently investigated personality traits in non-human species, with the dog gaining popularity as a subject species for research in this area. Recent research has shown the consistency of personality traits across both context and time for adult dogs, both when using questionnaire based methods of investigation and behavioural analyses of the dogs' behaviour. However, only a few studies have assessed the correspondence between these two methods, with results varying considerably across studies. Furthermore, most studies have focused on adult dogs, despite the fact that an understanding of personality traits in young puppies may be important for research focusing on the genetic basis of personality traits. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the correspondence between a questionnaire based method and the in depth analyses of the behaviour of 2-month old puppies in an open-field test in which a number of both social and non-social stimuli were presented to the subjects. We further evaluated consistency of traits over time by re-testing a subset of puppies. The correspondence between methods was high and test- retest consistency (for the main trait) was also good using both evaluation methods. Results showed clear factors referring to the two main personality traits 'extroversion,' (i.e. the enthusiastic, exuberant approach to the stimuli) and 'neuroticism,' (i.e. the more cautious and fearful approach to the stimuli), potentially similar to the shyness-boldness dimension found in previous studies. Furthermore, both methods identified an 'amicability' dimension, expressing the positive interactions the pups directed at the humans stranger, and a 'reservedness' dimension which identified pups who largely chose not to interact with the stimuli, and were defined as quiet and not nosey in the questionnaire.

  13. Measurements of aerosol absorption and scattering in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO field campaign: a comparison of results from the T0 and T1 sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Marley

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In March 2006, a multiagency field campaign was undertaken in Mexico City called the Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO. Two of the five field components of the MILAGRO study focused a major part of their efforts on atmospheric particulate emissions from the Mexico City basin and their effects on radiative balance as a function of time, location and processing conditions. As part of these two MILAGRO components, measurements of aerosol optical properties were obtained at a site located in the northern part of Mexico City (T0 and also at a site located 29 km northwest (T1 to estimate the regional effects of aerosol emissions from the basin.

    Measurements of aerosol absorption and scattering for fine mode aerosols were obtained at both sites. Aerosol absorption at 550 nm was similar at both sites, ranging from 7–107 Mm−1 at T0 and from 3–147 Mm−1 at T1. Aerosol scattering measured at 550 nm at T0 ranged from 16–344 Mm−1 while the aerosol scattering values at T1 were much lower than at T0 ranging from 2–136 Mm−1. Aerosol single scattering albedos (SSAs were calculated at 550 nm for the fine mode aerosols at both sites using these data. The SSAs at T0 ranged from 0.47–0.92 while SSAs at T1 ranged from 0.35–0.86. The presence of these highly absorbing fine aerosols in the lower atmosphere of the Mexico City area will result in a positive climate forcing and a local warming of the boundary layer in the region.

    Broadband UVB intensity was found to be higher at site T0, with an average of 64 μW/cm2 at solar noon, than at site T1, which had an average of 54 μW/cm2 at solar noon. Comparisons of clear-sky modeled UVB intensities with the simultaneous UVB measurements obtained at sites T0 and T1 for cloudless days indicate a larger diffuse radiation field at site T0 than at site T1. The determination of aerosol

  14. Cuba's "Yes, I Can" Mass Adult Literacy Campaign Model in Timor-Leste and Aboriginal Australia: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Bob; Durnan, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In the field of international adult education, mass literacy campaigns enjoyed wide support in the 20th century, when they were seen as a way to increase the participation of previously marginalised and excluded populations in national development. Cuba's 1961 campaign achieved iconic status, but was only one of many successful campaigns in Latin…

  15. Cuba's "Yes, I Can" Mass Adult Literacy Campaign Model in Timor-Leste and Aboriginal Australia: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Bob; Durnan, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In the field of international adult education, mass literacy campaigns enjoyed wide support in the 20th century, when they were seen as a way to increase the participation of previously marginalised and excluded populations in national development. Cuba's 1961 campaign achieved iconic status, but was only one of many successful campaigns in Latin…

  16. Effect of a mass media campaign on ambulance use for chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehme, Ziad; Cameron, Peter A; Akram, Muhammad; Patsamanis, Harry; Bray, Janet E; Meredith, Ian T; Smith, Karen

    2017-01-16

    To evaluate the impact of comprehensive public awareness campaigns by the National Heart Foundation of Australia on emergency medical service (EMS) use by people with chest pain. A retrospective analysis of 253428 emergency ambulance attendances for non-traumatic chest pain in Melbourne, January 2008 - December 2013. Time series analyses, adjusted for underlying trend and seasonal effects, assessed the impact of mass media campaigns on EMS use. Monthly ambulance attendances. The median number of monthly ambulance attendances for chest pain was 3609 (IQR, 3011-3891), but was higher in campaign months than in non-campaign months (3880 v 3234, Pambulance use for chest pain, and a 15.4% increase (95% CI, 10.1-20.9%; Pambulance increased by 10.0% (95% CI, 6.1-14.2%; P<0.001) during campaign months, the number of patients not transported to hospital also increased, by 13.9% (95% CI, 8.3-19.8%; P<0.001). A public awareness campaign about responding to prodromal acute myocardial infarction symptoms was associated with an increase in EMS use by people with chest pain and suspected acute coronary syndromes. Campaign activity may also lead to increased EMS use in low risk populations.

  17. Campaign for Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Barack Obama triumphs at the Democratic National Convention with his running mate at his side slanding on the podium at Denver’s Invesco Field in front of 84,000 people, Senator Barack Obamamade a soaring speech accepting the Democratic presidential nomination on the final night of the Democratic National Convention (DNC) on August 28.

  18. Stop the sores: the making and evaluation of a successful social marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Aaron; Montoya, Jorge A; Rotblatt, Harlan; Kerndt, Peter R; Mall, Karen L; Pappas, Les G; Kent, Charlotte K; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2010-01-01

    Los Angeles County has experienced a rapid increase in early syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in recent years, with the number of cases rising from 126 in 2000 to 809 in 2005. As part of the public health response to this outbreak, a sustained social marketing campaign was launched in 2002, with the objectives of increasing syphilis testing, knowledge, and awareness among MSM in Los Angeles. This campaign, as implemented, exemplified key principles of social marketing, including market research, audience segmentation, and branding. A cross-sectional study conducted in 2004 to evaluate the campaign found that those MSM who were aware of the campaign were nearly twice as likely to have tested for syphilis in the past 6 months as those MSM who were not aware of the campaign. Those MSM who were aware of the campaign also had more syphilis awareness and knowledge in key areas.

  19. Schistosomiasis and the Philippine campaign

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristóbal S.Berry-Cabá

    2008-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an infection with one of a series of related trematode parasites that are endemic to at least 76 tropical and subtropical countries.Schistosomiasis affects over 200 million people in tropical and subtropical regions of South America,Africa and Asia.This paper reported more than 1500 soldiers of US troops and 560 men of Australian Air Force were affected schistosomiasis japonicum in the Leyte of the Philippines during the liberation of the Philippines from Octorber 1944 to the early months of 1945.Many troops there were affected by contaminated water with snail hosts.At first,the medical corps knew little about the situations of the schis-tosomiasis japonica in the Leyte,no preventive measure was adopted.On December 23,1944 CPT morris Goldberg discovered schistosomes first from the hospitalized soldiers while conducting a liver biopsy.Some sol-diers with markedly signs and symptoms were admitted to hospital for treatment.Preventive measure was taken since.The US sent a lot of experts to Philippines for the research of schistosomiasis japonicum,including epi-demiology,prevention,diagnosis,treatment and so on.Nineteen chemicals were used to control snail hosts. In clinical,schistosomiasis has acute and chronic stages,the manifestations are plenty and various,the liver, intestine,veins,spleen and skin etc are common sites of impingement.An extensive educational program was carried out in the troops through different means,which yielded remarkable effect,the new incidence of schis-tosomiasis dropped.Though hospitalized soldiers were a few,but there were scare and some morale and psy-chological problems among them and the other affected victims,they worried about their prognoses or being in-fected.Some patients were evacuated to United States for treatment after diagnosis,some patients were treated in Leyte.Before World War II,schistosomiasis was treated generally with trivalent antimony compounds,Fua-din and tartar emetic.In this event,no case died

  20. Methodological aspects of a pattern-scaling approach to produce global fields of monthly means of daily maximum and minimum temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremser, S.; Bodeker, G. E.; Lewis, J.

    2014-01-01

    A Climate Pattern-Scaling Model (CPSM) that simulates global patterns of climate change, for a prescribed emissions scenario, is described. A CPSM works by quantitatively establishing the statistical relationship between a climate variable at a specific location (e.g. daily maximum surface temperature, Tmax) and one or more predictor time series (e.g. global mean surface temperature, Tglobal) - referred to as the "training" of the CPSM. This training uses a regression model to derive fit coefficients that describe the statistical relationship between the predictor time series and the target climate variable time series. Once that relationship has been determined, and given the predictor time series for any greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, the change in the climate variable of interest can be reconstructed - referred to as the "application" of the CPSM. The advantage of using a CPSM rather than a typical atmosphere-ocean global climate model (AOGCM) is that the predictor time series required by the CPSM can usually be generated quickly using a simple climate model (SCM) for any prescribed GHG emissions scenario and then applied to generate global fields of the climate variable of interest. The training can be performed either on historical measurements or on output from an AOGCM. Using model output from 21st century simulations has the advantage that the climate change signal is more pronounced than in historical data and therefore a more robust statistical relationship is obtained. The disadvantage of using AOGCM output is that the CPSM training might be compromised by any AOGCM inadequacies. For the purposes of exploring the various methodological aspects of the CPSM approach, AOGCM output was used in this study to train the CPSM. These investigations of the CPSM methodology focus on monthly mean fields of daily temperature extremes (Tmax and Tmin). The methodological aspects of the CPSM explored in this study include (1) investigation of the advantage

  1. High redshift quasars monitoring campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Ismael; Lira, Paulina; Martinez, Jorge; Netzer, Hagai; Kaspi, Shai

    2014-07-01

    We present an update of the monitoring campaign we have undertaken to probe the most massive black holes in powerful quasars at high redshift through the reverberation mapping technique. Once this campaign has finished, we will be able to directly measure broad line region (BLR) sizes of quasars at z ~ 2-3, improving dramatically the BLR size-luminosity relation, and therefore, black hole mass estimates based on this relationship. So far, we have identified a dozen highly variable sources suitable for future cross-correlation analysis and reverberation measurements.

  2. South Africa: defiance campaign continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    The Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) has continued its "defiance campaign against patent abuse and AIDS profiteering." In partnership with Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders), and with the support of Oxfam and the Council of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), on 28 January 2002 three TAC members returned to South Africa from Brazil carrying generic versions of the antiretroviral drugs zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), and nevirapine (NVP). Some of the imported capsules contain a combination of AZT and 3TC.

  3. The effectiveness of television advertising campaigns on generating calls to a national Quitline by Māori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, N; Grigg, M; Graham, L; Cameron, G

    2005-08-01

    To examine the effectiveness of four mass media campaigns on calls to a national Quitline by Māori (the indigenous people of New Zealand). Monthly Quitline call data and calls within one hour of a television commercial (TVC) being shown were analysed for the 2002-2003 period. Data on target audience rating points (TARPs) and expenditure on TVCs were also used (n = 2319 TVC placements). Māori were found to register with the Quitline at higher rates during the most intense six campaign months (15% more registrations compared to less intense months). The most effective campaign generated 115 calls per 100 TARPs by Māori callers within one hour of TVC airing (the "Every cigarette" campaign). A more Māori orientated campaign with both health and cultural themes generated 91 calls per 100 TARPs from Māori callers. For these two campaigns combined, the advertising cost per new registration with the Quitline by a Māori caller was NZD 30-48. Two second hand smoke campaigns that did not show the Quitline number were much less effective at 25 and 45 calls per 100 TARPs. These television advertising campaigns were effective and cost effective in generating calls to a national Quitline by Māori. Health authorities should continue to explore the use of both "threat appeal" style media campaigns and culturally appropriate campaigns to support Quitline use by indigenous peoples.

  4. Preseismic oscillating electric field "strange attractor like" precursor, of T = 6 months, triggered by Ssa tidal wave. Application on large (Ms > 6.0R) EQs in Greece (October 1st, 2006 - December 2nd, 2008)

    CERN Document Server

    Thanassoulas, C; Verveniotis, G; Zymaris, N

    2009-01-01

    In this work the preseismic "strange attractor like" precursor is studied, in the domain of the Earth's oscillating electric field for T = 6 months. It is assumed that the specific oscillating electric field is generated by the corresponding lithospheric oscillation, triggered by the Ssa tidal wave of the same wave length (6 months) under excess strain load conditions met in the focal area of a future large earthquake. The analysis of the recorded Earth's oscillating electric field by the two distant monitoring sites of PYR and HIO and for a period of time of 26 months (October 1st, 2006 - December 2nd, 2008) suggests that the specific precursor can successfully resolve the predictive time window in terms of months and for a "swarm" of large EQs (Ms > 6.0R), in contrast to the resolution obtained by the use of electric fields of shorter (T = 1, 14 days, single EQ identification) wave length. More over, the fractal character of the "strange attractor like" precursor in the frequency domain is pointed out. Fina...

  5. Advanced Fuels Campaign 2012 Accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed

    2012-11-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is responsible for developing fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. The fiscal year 2012 (FY 2012) accomplishments are highlighted below. Kemal Pasamehmetoglu is the National Technical Director for AFC.

  6. Keep Your Campaign Aim True

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Asking constituents to rally around a cause and make stretch gifts when they're already suffering unprecedented hits to their personal finances sounds more like a fool's errand than a best practice in fundraising. The economic crisis has added a tricky new aspect to operating in campaign mode, but savvy fundraisers haven't given up, scaled back,…

  7. Best Practices for Suicide Prevention Messaging and Evaluating California's "Know the Signs" Media Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Joie; Ramchand, Rajeev; Becker, Amariah

    2017-02-23

    Although communication is a key component of US strategies to prevent suicide and there are a number of marketing campaigns promoting messages that suicide is a preventable public health problem, there has been little evaluation of these campaigns. The study describes the development of a checklist of best practices for suicide prevention communication campaigns and the use of the checklist to evaluate California's investment in "Know the Signs" (KTS-M), a suicide prevention mass media campaign. We conducted a literature review and solicited expert feedback to identify best practices and then used the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method to assess whether KTS-M was consistent with the identified best practices. Overall, experts agreed that KTS-M adhered to most of the 46 checklist items and suggested that the campaign was among the best suicide prevention media campaigns they had observed. The checklist was developed through expert input and literature review and focuses only on media campaigns. Given the nascent state of the evidence about what makes an effective suicide prevention message and the growing number of campaigns, the checklist of best practices reflects one way of promoting quality in this evolving field. The consistency between the experts' comments and their ratings of KTS-M suggests that the checklist may provide important guidance to inform the development of future campaigns and the evaluation of ongoing campaigns.

  8. Reprieve for Thailand's AIDS campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, A

    1992-07-25

    A promilitary coalition began to govern Thailand in March 1992. It reduced the budget for the original proposed national AIDS awareness campaign from 30 million British pounds to almost 15 million British pounds. The Ministry of Health professed that the campaign had exaggerated the problem of AIDS in Thailand and had damaged tourism. Yet prodemocracy demonstrations in Bangkok in which troops killed many protesters restored the politicians who started the AIDS campaign to power in May 1992. There were to remain in power until new elections in September 1992. In July, the Minister of Health, Mechai Viravaidya, said he would step down if the government did not completely restore the 30 million British pounds for the AIDS campaign. It then increased the budget to almost that amount. Mr. Viravaidya initiated Thailand's open policy on the AIDS crisis and was known as Mr. Condom. He claimed that at the present HIV prevalence rate, Thailand may have between 2-4 million HIV infected people by 2000. If the country would take on anti-AIDS efforts now, however, they could cut the spread of HIV by 75%. As of mid-1992, about 400,000 people living in Thailand were HIV positive. The AIDS campaign planned to sue the mass media to inform people about AIDS especially those in universities and schools and high risk occupational groups. The increasing number of construction workers in Bangkok and existing sex workers were a high risk occupational group. At the 2nd national seminar of AIDS, the Minister of Health reproached tourists who come to Thailand for its sex industry. He said that Thailand does not need the 1 billion British pounds they bring to Thailand annually, and Thais do not want their homeland to be referred to as the sex capital.

  9. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Tate [Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact (BBCSI) Study was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in Barrow, AK. The carbonaceous component was characterized via measurement of the organic and black carbon (OC and BC) components of the total PM. To facilitate complete characterization of the particulate matter, filter-based collections were used, including a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and a high volume PM10 sampler. Thirty-eight fine (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) particulate matter fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. The PM2.5 sampler operated with minimal maintenance during the 12 month campaign. The PM10 sampler used for the BBCSI used standard Tisch hi-vol motors which have a known lifetime of ~1 month under constant use; this necessitated monthly maintenance and it is suggested that the motors be upgraded to industrial blowers for future deployment in the Arctic. The BBCSI sampling campaign successfully collected and archived 87 ambient atmospheric particulate matter samples from Barrow, AK from July 2012 to June 2013. Preliminary analysis of the organic and black carbon concentrations has been completed. This campaign confirmed known trends of high BC lasting from the winter through to spring haze periods and low BC concentrations in the summer.

  10. Campaign for vicarious calibration of SumbandilaSat in Argentina

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vhengani, LM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available to estimate Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) spectral radiance. A vicarious calibration field campaign was executed in Argentina to support monitoring of the radiometric response of the multispectral imager aboard SumbandilaSat. Results obtained using two Radiative...

  11. Social marketing campaigns and children's media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Media-related commercial marketing aimed at promoting the purchase of products and services by children, and by adults for children, is ubiquitous and has been associated with negative health consequences such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity. But, as Douglas Evans points out, not all marketing in the electronic media is confined to the sale of products. Increasingly savvy social marketers have begun to make extensive use of the same techniques and strategies used by commercial marketers to promote healthful behaviors and to counter some of the negative effects of conventional media marketing to children and adolescents. Evans points out that social marketing campaigns have been effective in helping to prevent and control tobacco use, increase physical activity, improve nutrition, and promote condom use, as well as other positive health behaviors. He reviews the evidence from a number of major recent campaigns and programming in the United States and overseas and describes the evaluation and research methods used to determine their effectiveness. He begins his review of the field of social marketing by describing how it uses many of the strategies practiced so successfully in commercial marketing. He notes the recent development of public health brands and the use of branding as a health promotion strategy. He then goes on to show how social marketing can promote healthful behavior, how it can counter media messages about unhealthful behavior, and how it can encourage discussions between parents and children. Evans concludes by noting some potential future applications to promote healthful media use by children and adolescents and to mitigate the effects of exposure to commercial marketing. These include adapting lessons learned from previous successful campaigns, such as delivering branded messages that promote healthful alternative behaviors. Evans also outlines a message strategy to promote "smart media use" to parents, children, and adolescents and

  12. Forecasting for a Lagrangian aircraft campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A forecast system has been developed in preparation for an upcoming aircraft measurement campaign, where the same air parcels polluted by emissions over North America shall be sampled repeatedly as they leave the continent, during transport over the Atlantic, and upon their arrival over Europe. This paper describes the model system in advance of the campaign, in order to make the flight planners familiar with the novel model output. The aim of a Lagrangian strategy is to infer changes in the chemical composition and aerosol distribution occurring en route by measured upwind/downwind differences. However, guiding aircraft repeatedly into the same polluted air parcels requires careful forecasting, for which no suitable model system exists to date. This paper describes a procedure using both Eulerian-type (i.e. concentration fields and Lagrangian-type (i.e. trajectories model output from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART to predict the best opportunities for a Lagrangian experiment. The best opportunities are defined as being highly polluted air parcels which receive little or no emission input after the first measurement, which experience relatively little mixing, and which are reachable by as many aircraft as possible. For validation the system was applied to the period of the NARE 97 campaign where approximately the same air masses were sampled on different flights. Measured upwind/downwind differences in carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3 decreased significantly as the threshold values used for accepting cases as Lagrangian were tightened. This proves that the model system can successfully identify Lagrangian opportunities.

  13. Forecasting for a Lagrangian aircraft campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A forecast system has been developed in preparation for an upcoming aircraft measurement campaign, where the same air parcels polluted by emissions over North America shall be sampled repeatedly as they leave the continent, during transport over the Atlantic, and upon their arrival over Europe. This paper describes the model system in advance of the campaign, in order to make the flight planners familiar with the novel model output. The aim of a Lagrangian strategy is to infer changes in the chemical composition and aerosol distribution occurring en route by measured upwind/downwind differences. However, guiding aircraft repeatedly into the same polluted air parcels requires careful forecasting, for which no suitable model system exists to date. This paper describes a procedure using both Eulerian-type (i.e. concentration fields and Lagrangian-type (i.e. trajectories model output from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART to predict the best opportunities for a Lagrangian experiment. The best opportunities are defined as being highly polluted air parcels which receive little or no emission input after the first measurement, which experience relatively little mixing, and which are reachable by as many aircraft as possible. For validation the system was applied to the period of the NARE 97 campaign where approximately the same air masses were sampled on different flights. Measured upwind/downwind differences in carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3 decreased significantly as the threshold values used for accepting cases as Lagrangian were tightened. This proves that the model system can successfully identify Lagrangian opportunities.

  14. Recall campaign for gas bottles and banks

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The previous contract with gas supplier Carbagas ended on 31 March 2015. Gas bottles and banks are not a property of CERN. According to the contract terms, they can remain on CERN sites without any extra costs until 30 September 2015.    If you are using Carbagas containers (bottles and/or banks) for gas purchased between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2015, multiple options exist: Return them to the closest gas point. Purchase them on the following basis:     Rent them on the following basis: 12 CHF/month for bottles, 144 CHF/month for banks. The recall campaign has been going on for several months already: we would like to thank everyone who has already replied to it. If you haven’t answered yet, there is still time. If you know of unused or abandoned Carbagas containers, please don’t hesitate to contact us. Thank you i...

  15. Adapting the Get Yourself Tested Campaign to Reach Black and Latino Sexual-Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbers, Samantha; Friedman, Allison; Martinez, Omar; Scheinmann, Roberta; Bermudez, Dayana; Silva, Manel; Silverman, Jen; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2016-09-01

    Culturally appropriate efforts are needed to increase sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing and care among Black and Latino sexual-minority youth, who are at high risk for STDs. Get Yourself Tested, a national testing campaign, has demonstrated success among youth, but it has yet to be assessed for relevance or impact among this population. This effort included (1) formative and materials-testing research through focus groups; (2) adaptation of existing Get Yourself Tested campaign materials to be more inclusive of Black and Latino sexual-minority youth; (3) a 3-month campaign in four venues of New York City, promoting STD testing at events and through mobile testing and online and social media platforms; (4) process evaluation of outreach activities; and (5) an outcome evaluation of testing at select campaign venues, using a preexperimental design. During the 3-month campaign period, the number of STD tests conducted at select campaign venues increased from a comparable 3-month baseline period. Although testing uptake through mobile vans remained low in absolute numbers, the van drew a high-prevalence sample, with positivity rates of 26.9% for chlamydia and 11.5% for gonorrhea. This article documents the process and lessons learned from adapting and implementing a local campaign for Black and Latino sexual-minority youth. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  16. Heart Health: The Heart Truth Campaign 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of ... of the celebrities supporting this year's The Heart Truth campaign. Both R&B singer Ashanti (center) and ...

  17. Long Campaign of BF with Overheating-Free Cooling Stave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Su-sen; YANG Tian-jun; CANG Da-qiang

    2003-01-01

    A basic idea of permanent lining in designing long campaign of BF was put forward. BF designer should follow a chain of thinking procedure: Cooling water-Cooling system-Refractory lining. The temperature field of BF wall and cooling stave was calculated using heat transfer model and the results were proved by a 1 000-1 200 ℃ test rig. The overheating-free cooling stave with different parameters was designed, and such a long campaign of BF (15 years) was going to put into construction.

  18. Abortion Rights: Anatomy of a Negative Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasky, Marvin N.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes a highly successful negative public relations campaign carried on by major pro-choice organizations from October 1985 through March 1987. Explores the effectiveness of this campaign (much of it carried on in the media), and questions the ethics of such a campaign. (NKA)

  19. Weaving the Web into Your Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Like anything else, there are good fundraising campaign Web sites and bad fundraising campaign Web sites. The author took a closer look at fundraising campaign sites to see if her intuitive judgments about these could be translated into a logical, research-supported set of best practices. She set up a study that gauged the ease of use and…

  20. K2 Microlensing and Campaign 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Campaign 9 of K2 will observe a contiguous 3.7 deg^2 region of the Galactic bulge in order to search for microlensing events and measure microlens parallaxes. It will also perform targeted follow-up of approximately 50 microlensing events spread throughout the Kepler focal plane. Parallax measurements are a critical ingredient for measurements of both the lens mass and distance, which contribute to our understanding of the formation of cold exoplanets, and the formation of planets as a function of Galactic environment. Additionally, as the first un-targeted, space-based microlensing survey, K2C9 offers us the first chance to measure the masses and kinematics of a large population of free-floating planet candidates, whose large abundance has been a puzzle since their discovery.I will review the scientific goals of the K2C9 survey, which will be well underway, and report on the ongoing activity of the K2 Campaign 9 Microlensing Science Team and the wider microlensing community, with a focus on the progress that has been made towards analyzing K2 data in crowded fields.

  1. Korea-United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Patricia; Da Silva, Arlindo; Longo-De Freitas, Karla

    2017-01-01

    The Korea-United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) campaign was an international cooperative field study based out of Osan Air Base, Songtan, South Korea (about 60 kilometers south of Seoul) in April-June 2016. A comprehensive suite of instruments capable of measuring atmospheric composition was deployed around the Korean peninsula on aircrafts, ships, and at ground sites in order to characterize local and transboundary pollution. The NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 (GEOS-5) forecast model was used for near real time meteorological and aerosol forecasting and flight planning during the KORUS-AQ campaign. Evaluation of GEOS-5 against observations from the campaign will help to identify inaccuracies in the models physical and chemical processes in this region within East Asia and lead to further developments of the modeling system.

  2. Subpolitics and the Campaign against Barclays' Involvement in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    by multinational corporations may have unintended political consequences and, furthermore, that the awareness of this phenomenon has contributed to the development of corporate social responsibility. Finally, I suggest that the campaign against Barclays generated public attentiveness towards the social...... at the time and the fourth largest foreign-owned corporation – points to significant developments within the fields of corporate social responsibility and the potential influence of social movements on multinational corporations. Applying the theoretical approach of subpolitics as developed by Ulrich Beck......In this article I examine the context for the British bank Barclays’ decision to disinvest from South Africa in 1986, with special attention to the impact of the Anti-Apartheid Movement’s campaign against the bank. The 18-year long campaign against Barclays – the largest bank in South Africa...

  3. Clean Air for London (CLEARFLO) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsnop, D. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Williams, L. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Herndon, S. C. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dubey, M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ng, N. L. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Thornton, J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Knighton, B. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Coulter, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Prévôt, Ash [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-03-01

    This field campaign funded the participation of scientists from seven different research groups and operated over thirty instruments during the Winter Intensive Operating Period (January-February 2012) of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign. The campaign took place at a rural site in Detling, UK, 45 kilometers southeast of central London. The primary science questions for the ClearfLo winter IOP (intensive operational periods) were: 1) “what is the urban increment of particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants in the greater London area?” and 2) “what is the contribution of solid fuel use for home heating to wintertime PM?” An additional motivation for the Detling measurements was the question of whether coatings on black carbon particles enhance absorption.

  4. Shortwave Hyperspectral Observations During MAGIC Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, P. J. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States); Marshak, A. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States); Yang, W. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Marine ARM GPCI1 Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign was initiated to improve our understanding of low-level marine clouds that have a significant influence on the Earth’s climate. The campaign was conducted using an ARM mobile facility deployed on a commercial ship traveling between Honolulu, Hawaii, and Los Angeles, California, from October 2012 to September 2013. The solar spectral flux radiometer (SSFR) was deployed on July 6, 2013, through the end of the campaign. The SSFR was calibrated and installed by Warren Gore of NASA Ames Research Center, and the data is and will be analyzed by Drs. Alexander Marshak and Weidong Yang of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Dr. Samuel LeBlanc of NASA Ames Research Center, Dr. Sebastian Schmidt of the University of Colorado-Boulder, and Dr. Patrick McBride of Atmospheric & Space Technology Research Associates in Boulder, Colorado.

  5. INFORMATION CAMPAIGNS – MEANS OF COMMUNICATION WITH CUSTOMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia-Nicoleta Dobrescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within a company’s activities, an important role is granted to the performance and implementation of information campaigns for the final consumers. The paper has the general objective to identify specific issues that constitute the premises for the preparation and conduct of such activities, and especially the expected results. The analysis is performed and based on a direct research among several companies, which operate in various fields, for the identification of a method of performance and implementation of information campaigns that are necessary for ensuring visibility on the reference market. The aim of the study was to identify the importance that the firms from Resita give to information campaigns addressed to a target audience. The study was carried from April to May 2013 on a sample of small, medium and large firms, which operate in trade, manufacturing and services. The questions and the discussions addressed to the public were meant to outline the specific aspects of the exact way in which the information campaigns were done for their clients, but also to underline the results obtained with the help of these campaigns.

  6. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Tate

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact campaign was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility site in Barrow, Alaska. The carbonaceous component was characterized by measuring the organic and black carbon (OC and BC) components of the total PM. To facilitate complete characterization of the PM, filter-based collections were used, including a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and a high volume PM10 sampler. Thirty-eight fine PM fractions (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) PM fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. The PM2.5 sampler operated with minimal maintenance during the 12 month campaign. The PM10 sampler used for the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact (BBCSI) study used standard Tisch “hi-vol” motors that have a known lifetime of approximately 1 month under constant use; this necessitated monthly maintenance, and it is suggested that, for future deployment in the Arctic, the motors be upgraded to industrial blowers. The BBCSI sampling campaign successfully collected and archived 87 ambient atmospheric PM samples from Barrow, Alaska, from July 2012 to June 2013. Preliminary analysis of the OC and BC concentrations has been completed. This campaign confirmed known trends of high BC lasting from the winter through to spring haze periods and low BC concentrations in the summer. However, the annual OC concentrations had a very different seasonal pattern with the highest concentrations during the summer, lowest concentrations during the fall, and increased concentrations during the winter and spring (Figure 1).

  7. Granny's Campaign for Safe Science

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    What is the thread tying together all of Jerry Fodor's vigorous and influential campaigns over the years? Consider the diversity of his btes noirs. In Chihara and Fodor, 1965, it was Wittgenstein and the "no private language" gang; in Psychological Explanation (1968) and The Language of Thought (1975), it was Ryle, Skinner and other behaviorists; in "Tom Swift and his Procedural Grandmother" (1978 reprinted in 1981) it was AI in general and procedural semantics in particular; in "Three Cheers...

  8. Cyber-campaigning in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Møller; Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    2014-01-01

    sites and Facebook sites are popular among candidates but other features such as blogs, feeds, newsletter, video uploads, SMS and twitter are used by less than half the candidates. Second, only age and possibly education seem to matter when explaining the uptake of cyber-campaigning. The prominent...... same-party candidates than between parties in an open list, multimember constituency electoral system as the Danish....

  9. The EBM argument hygiene campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Peter

    2013-06-01

    The campaign promoting evidence-based medicine (EBM) shares similarities with Joseph Lister's 19th century campaign promoting surgical antisepsis. Both target medical practitioners as their primary clients, and both appeal to these clients in the manner of a public health programme, arguing that their standards are authoritative and relevant, that the clients fail to meet them, and that this failure is a problem that requires the clients to change. Both promote hygienic solutions to the problems that they identify, the problem of microbial pathogens in the case of Lister, and the process of clinical decision making in the case of EBM. Hygienic solutions aim to operationalize standards as case-independent procedures that can be performed as habits, and seek to identify instruments of purification against sources of contamination. EBM's solution is hygienic because it characterizes clinical decision-making behaviour as a source of contamination and because it promotes a general procedure designed to correct it. Comparing the EBM campaign to Lister's helps to explain why some clinicians have had trouble trying to implement EBM as a decision-making procedure in particular cases. EBM promotes a hygienic solution, but unlike Lister, does not confront a well-defined, empirically grounded problem. Some of the difficulties with EBM stem from a mismatch between its hygienic solution and the complexity and case-dependency of clinical decision making. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Characterizing tobacco control mass media campaigns in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Tessa; Lewis, Sarah; McNeill, Ann; Gilmore, Anna; Szatkowski, Lisa; West, Robert; Sims, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    To characterize publically funded tobacco control campaigns in England between 2004 and 2010 and to explore if they were in line with recommendations from the literature in terms of their content and intensity. International evidence suggests that campaigns which warn of the negative consequences of smoking and feature testimonials from real-life smokers are most effective, and that four exposures per head per month are required to reduce smoking prevalence. Characterization of tobacco control advertisements using a theoretically based framework designed to describe advertisement themes, informational and emotional content and style. Study of the intensity of advertising and exposure to different types of advertisement using data on population-level exposure to advertisements shown during the study period. England. Television Ratings (TVRs), a standard measure of advertising exposure, were used to calculate exposure to each different campaign type. A total of 89% of advertising was for smoking cessation; half of this advertising warned of the negative consequences of smoking, while half contained how-to-quit messages. Acted scenes featured in 72% of advertising, while only 17% featured real-life testimonials. Only 39% of months had at least four exposures to tobacco control campaigns per head. A theory-driven approach enabled a systematic characterization of tobacco control advertisements in England. Between 2004 and 2010 only a small proportion of tobacco control advertisements utilized the most effective strategies-negative health effects messages and testimonials from real-life smokers. The intensity of campaigns was lower than international recommendations. © 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. The Paris MEGAPOLI campaign to better quantify organic aerosol formation in a large agglomeration: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekmann, Matthias; Baltensperger, Urs; Sciare, Jean; Gros, Valérie; Borbon, Agnes; Baklanov, Alexander; Lawrence, Mark; Pandis, Spyros

    2010-05-01

    Within the FP7 MEGAPOLI project, two intensive field campaigns have been conducted in the Greater Paris region during July 2009 and January/February 2010. The major aim was to quantify sources of primary and secondary aerosol, and the interaction with gaseous precursors, within a large agglomeration, and in its plume. Greater Paris has been chosen for such a campaign because it is a major and dense pollution source (more than 10 million inhabitants), surrounded by rural areas and relatively flat terrain. A particular focus is put on organic carbon, for which secondary formation, but also primary emissions are still not well quantified. Detailed aerosol and gaseous precursor measurements have been conducted at an urban and two sub-urban sites, from five mobile platforms and from the French ATR-42 research aircraft (for plume characterisation). State of the art instrumentation has allowed determination of aerosol chemical composition, either with very high frequency (several minutes to half an hour), or with large chemical detail (several dozens of organic compounds from filter samples). In addition, the size distribution, optical and hygroscopic and mixing properties has been determined in order to relate the aerosol chemical composition to its potential radiative and climate impact in the urban region and its plume. Gas phase measurements have focussed especially on detailed VOC measurements in order to relate SOA build-up to gaseous precursor species abundance. A network of backscatter lidars at urban and rural sites and on a mobile platform gives the access to the aerosol vertical distribution in the region and to variations of the boundary layer height at the urban / rural interface. Meteorological parameters and especially wind profile measurements allow interpretation of transport processes in the region. In this paper, the campaign set-up and objectives, meteorological and general pollution conditions observed during the field experiments and a first overview

  12. Campaigning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-08-01

    to lower, in fact the command struc- ture is often more like a spider web: a tug at any point may have an impact throughout the structure...Strategy. the Argentine mainland or to overthrow its government in order to recover the disputed islands. In the area of operations, how- ever, the...British isolated and annihilated the Argentine forces. Strategies of annihilation have the virtue of conceptual sim- plicity. The focus of our

  13. Evaluation of a Teen Dating Violence Social Marketing Campaign: Lessons Learned when the Null Hypothesis Was Accepted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Silverman, Jay G.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses a three-month statewide mass media campaign to prevent teen dating violence, "See It and Stop It." The Massachusetts campaign reached out--using television, radio, and print advertising--and also encouraged anti-violence activism in select high schools. The objective was to drive thirteen- to seventeen-year-olds to…

  14. Effect of public awareness campaigns on calls to ambulance across Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Janet E; Straney, Lahn; Barger, Bill; Finn, Judith

    2015-05-01

    The National Stroke Foundation of Australia has run 12 public awareness campaigns since 2004. Campaign exposure and funding has varied annually and regionally during this time. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of campaigns on calls to ambulance for stroke across Australia in exposed regions (paid or pro bono advertising). All ambulance services in Australia provided monthly ambulance dispatch data between January 2003 and June 2014. We performed multivariable regression to measure the effect of campaign exposure on the volume of stroke-related emergency calls, after controlling for confounders. The final model indicated that 11 of the 12 National Stroke Foundation campaigns were associated with increases in the volume of stroke-related calls (varying between 1% and 9.9%) in regions with exposure to advertising. This increase lasted ≈3 months, with an additional 10.2% relative increase in the volume of the calls in regions with paid advertising. We found no significant additional effect of the campaigns on stroke calls where ambulance services are publicly funded. The National Stroke Foundation stroke awareness campaigns are associated with increases to calls to ambulance for stroke in regions receiving advertising and promotion. Research is now required to examine whether this increased use in ambulance is for appropriate emergencies. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Highly time-resolved trace element concentrations in aerosols during the Megapoli Paris campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furger, Markus; Visser, Suzanne; Slowik, Jay G.; Crippa, Monica; Poulain, Laurent; Appel, Karen; Flechsig, Uwe; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements contribute typically only a few percent to the total mass of air pollutants, however, they can affect the environment in significant ways, especially those that are toxic. Furthermore, they are advantageous with respect to a refinement of source apportionment when measured with high time resolution and appropriate size segregation. This approach is especially advantageous in an urban environment with numerous time-variant emission sources distributed across a relatively narrow space, as is typically the setting of a megacity. Two 1-month long field campaigns took place in the framework of the Megapoli project in Paris, France, in the summer of 2009 and in the winter of 2010. Rotating drum impactors (RDI) were operated at two sites in each campaign, one urban, the other one suburban. The RDI segregated the aerosols into three size ranges (PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1 and PM1-0.1) and sampled with 2-hour time resolution. The samples were analyzed with synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF) at the synchrotron facilities of Paul Scherrer Institute (SLS) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (HASYLAB), where a broad range of elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Zr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Pb) was analyzed for each size range. Time series of the analyzed elements for the different sites and campaigns were prepared to characterize the aerosol trace element composition and temporal behavior for the different weather situations and urban environments. They allow for the distinction of regional vs. local sources and transport, and provide a basis for source apportionment calculations. Local and regional contributions of traffic, including re-suspension, break wear and exhaust, wood burning, marine and other sources will be discussed. Indications of long-range transport from Polish coal emissions in the city center of Paris were also found.

  16. Short, sharp shock public health campaign had limited impact on raising awareness of laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Neeraj; Rafferty, Amy; Rawnsley, Trisha; Jose, Jemy

    2016-09-01

    Laryngeal cancer has poorer outcomes if diagnosed at a later stage. Improving awareness could encourage earlier presentation and improve outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate a public engagement campaign targeted at raising awareness of laryngeal cancer. An epidemiological study identified high-risk populations in the region. A target population as well as a matched control population was selected. A cancer awareness survey combined with focus groups guided the design of a 3-month multimedia campaign. The survey was repeated post-campaign to evaluate the campaign effectiveness. The study identified populations with the highest rates of laryngeal cancer and late stage disease at presentation. The surveys performed revealed a limited effect of the multimedia campaign in raising awareness of the signs and symptoms of laryngeal cancer. Recall of the campaign also faded rapidly. This is the first public awareness campaign