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Sample records for montessori observer volume

  1. Clear Direction. The Montessori Observer. Volume 32, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Montessori Society (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    "The Montessori Observer" is mailed four times each year, in March, May, September and November, to Society members throughout the world. The purpose is to provide news and information about the Society's work in Montessori education, and to extend awareness of Montessori principles throughout the world. This issue contains a feature…

  2. Perceptual Mistakes. The Montessori Observer. Volume 31, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Montessori Society (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    "The Montessori Observer" is mailed four times each year, in March, May, September and November, to Society members throughout the world. The purpose is to provide news and information about the Society's work in Montessori education, and to extend awareness of Montessori principles throughout the world. This issue contains a feature…

  3. Personality Projections. The Montessori Observer. Volume 32, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Montessori Society (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    "The Montessori Observer" is mailed four times each year, in March, May, September and November, to Society members throughout the world. The purpose is to provide news and information about the Society's work in Montessori education, and to extend awareness of Montessori principles throughout the world. This issue contains a feature…

  4. Context and Content. The Montessori Observer. Volume 30, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Montessori Society (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "The Montessori Observer" is mailed four times each year, in March, May, September and November, to Society members throughout the world. The purpose is to provide news and information about the Society's work in Montessori education, and to extend awareness of Montessori principles throughout the world. This issue contains a feature…

  5. Scientific Education. The Montessori Observer. Volume 29, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Montessori Society (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "The Montessori Observer" is mailed four times each year, in March, May, September and November, to Society members throughout the world. The purpose is to provide news and information about the Society's work in Montessori education, and to extend awareness of Montessori principles throughout the world. This issue contains a feature article,…

  6. Nomenclature. The Montessori Observer. Volume 31, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Montessori Society (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    "The Montessori Observer" is mailed four times each year, in March, May, September and November, to Society members throughout the world. The purpose is to provide news and information about the Society's work in Montessori education, and to extend awareness of Montessori principles throughout the world. This issue contains a feature article,…

  7. Power Struggles. The Montessori Observer. Volume 31, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Montessori Society (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    "The Montessori Observer" is mailed four times each year, in March, May, September and November, to Society members throughout the world. The purpose is to provide news and information about the Society's work in Montessori education, and to extend awareness of Montessori principles throughout the world. This issue contains a feature…

  8. Distraction. The Montessori Observer. Volume 31, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Montessori Society (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    "The Montessori Observer" is mailed four times each year, in March, May, September and November, to Society members throughout the world. The purpose is to provide news and information about the Society's work in Montessori education, and to extend awareness of Montessori principles throughout the world. This issue contains a feature…

  9. Home-School Relations. The Montessori Observer. Volume 30, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Montessori Society (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "The Montessori Observer" is mailed four times each year, in March, May, September and November, to Society members throughout the world. The purpose is to provide news and information about the Society's work in Montessori education, and to extend awareness. This issue contains a feature article, "Home-School Relations," by…

  10. Observation and Development: From Dr. Montessori's 1946 London Training Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This article exhorts the observer to take notice of the unconscious and conscious levels of the young child's absorbent mind (infant stare). Montessori notes the social awareness of young children and suggests that their amazing awareness of people, not merely their activities, is integral to observation. [Reprinted with permission from "AMI…

  11. Montessori for All: Magnolia Montessori

    Science.gov (United States)

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The founders of Montessori For All, which opened Magnolia Montessori--a PK-8 public charter school in Austin, Texas--created a new school model that blends the best of authentic Montessori schooling (hands-on and self-directed learning) with best practices from high-performing charter schools (basic skills mastery to excel on standardized tests…

  12. Best Practices in Montessori Secondary Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoe, Marta

    2013-01-01

    This article is the result of years of study, both formal and informal; hundreds of hours of traditional and Montessori classroom observations; reading and digesting articles and books on secondary education, Montessori education, adolescent brain research, leadership, and best practices in education; and most enlightening of all, 20 years of…

  13. Montessori Grows in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Betsy

    2014-01-01

    Imagine going back in time and being the guiding spirit in Montessori's first "Casa dei Bambini" but with all the knowledge and skills developed as a Montessori teacher today. That is precisely the privilege this author has had as, over the past 2 years, she has worked to establish an Early Childhood Montessori program in Usa River,…

  14. Montessori Method and ICTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Drigas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article bridges the gap between the Montessori Method and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in contemporary education. It reviews recent research works which recall the Montessori philosophy, principles and didactical tools applying to today’s computers and supporting technologies in children’s learning process. This article reviews how important the stimulation of human senses in the learning process is, as well as the development of Montessori materials using the body and the hand in particular, all according to the Montessori Method along with recent researches over ICTs. Montessori Method within information society age acquires new perspectives, new functionality and new efficacy.

  15. Public Knowledge of Montessori Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The American public generally recognizes the name "Montessori" because so many schools across the country and around the world use the Montessori name. However, the Montessori community has long believed that misunderstandings abound. A recent dissertation study quantified Montessori awareness and identified misconceptions in particular for those…

  16. Montessori and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Elise Braun

    1999-01-01

    Discusses principles of Montessori music education, examining the fundamental characteristics of childhood and the role that music plays in development. Explores the inner satisfaction that comes from experiencing movement with music through compositions and folk music. Emphasizes the Montessori practices of meeting sensorimotor needs of children…

  17. Characteristics of Montessori educators in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Uštević, Maja

    2016-01-01

    This diploma thesis presents the Montessori pedagogy with a focus on the characteristics of Montessori educators and Montessori education in Slovenia. It presents the development of the Montessori pedagogy and life of Maria Montessori, related to education and institutions which operate on the principle of Montessori pedagogy worldwide and in Slovenia. It describes the role of the Montessori educator, his/her duties and responsibilities in the process of education according to the Montessori ...

  18. Playful Learning and Montessori Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S.

    2013-01-01

    Although Montessori education is often considered a form of playful learning, Maria Montessori herself spoke negatively about a major component of playful learning--pretend play, or fantasy--for young children. In this essay, the author discusses this apparent contradiction: how and why Montessori education includes elements of playful learning…

  19. Montessori All Day, All Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Connie; Davis, Liza

    2015-01-01

    Introducing real community into the Children's House goes back to the roots of Montessori education through all-day Montessori. The all-day environment is a house where children live with a "developmental room" of Montessori materials including a living room, kitchen, dining area, bedroom, bathroom, greeting rooms, and outdoor spaces.…

  20. Montessori Transformation at Computer Associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Describes the growth of the all-day Montessori program for children ages 6 weeks to 6 years at Computer Associates' corporate headquarters and multiple sites worldwide. Focuses on placement of AMI Montessori-trained teachers, refurbishing of the child development centers to fit Montessori specifications, and the Nido--the children's community--and…

  1. Authentic Montessori: The Teacher Makes the Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxel, Alexa C.

    2013-01-01

    What are the elements that make up authentic Montessori? Is Montessori something concrete or abstract? Are there intangibles that make Montessori what it is? Many classrooms today have Montessori materials and small tables and chairs. Are they authentic Montessori? When examining areas that traditionally make defining authentic Montessori…

  2. The Montessori Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathleen HASKINS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Maria Montessori provided the world with a powerful philosophy and practice for the advancement of humanity: change how we educate children and we change the world. She understood two things very clearly: One, that we can build a better world, a more just and peaceful place, when we educate for the realization of the individual and collective human potential; and two, that the only way to create an educational system that will that will serve this end is to scrap the current system entirely and replace it with a completely new system. She gave us a system through which to accomplish that goal: The Montessori Method. The following is a personal and professional account of the Montessori Method of educating children.

  3. Origins of Montessori Programming for Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Cameron J

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the evolution of the use of Montessori educational methods as the basis for creating interventions for persons with dementia. The account of this evolution is autobiographical, as the development of Montessori Programming for Dementia (MPD) initially was through the efforts of myself and my research associates. My initial exposure to Maria Montessori's work came as a result of my involvement with my own children's education. This exposure influenced ongoing research on development of cognitive interventions for persons with dementia. A brief description of Montessori's work with children and the educational methods she developed is followed by a description of how this approach can be translated into development of activities for persons with dementia. Assessment tools to document effects of MPD were created, focusing on observational tools to measure engagement and affect during individual and group activities programming for persons with dementia. Examples of the use of MPD by researchers, staff members, and family members are given, as well as examples of how persons with dementia can provide MPD to other persons with dementia or to children. Finally, examples of MPD's dissemination internationally and future directions for research are presented.

  4. Montessori and Brain Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hranitz, John R.

    Researchers in medicine, education, and related fields continue to make new discoveries about how the brain functions or malfunctions. The implications of studies of how young children learn compare favorably with those of educators such as Maria Montessori, Jerome Bruner, and Jean Piaget. These researchers saw growth and development as a series…

  5. The effects of Montessori education: Evidence from admission lotteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, N.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the causal effects of Montessori secondary education by exploiting admission lotteries in Dutch Montessori schools. Results from 308 to 625 students indicate that Montessori education provides an alternative way to attain similar outcomes. Montessori students obtain their

  6. The Impact of Montessori Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushamba, Ashley; Burney, Sonya Franklin; Kent, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the impact of School Y's Montessori approach on their students' academic achievement, perceptions of executive functioning skills, and the school's culture. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of length of enrollment on academic achievement in a Montessori upper elementary and middle school…

  7. Značilnosti pedagogov montessori v Sloveniji

    OpenAIRE

    Uštević, Maja

    2016-01-01

    V diplomskem delu je predstavljena pedagogika montessori, s poudarkom na značilnostih pedagogov montessori in izobraževanjih montessori v Sloveniji. Predstavljen je razvoj pedagogike montessori in življenje Marie Montessori, povezano z vzgojo in izobraževanjem ter razvoj ustanov, ki delujejo po principu pedagogike montessori, po svetu in v Sloveniji. Opisana je vloga pedagoga montessori ter njegove obveznosti in dolžnosti v procesu vzgoje in izobraževanja po metodi pedagogike montessori. Pred...

  8. The Kodaikanal Experience: Chapter II. Kahn-Montessori Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAMTA Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an interview transcript between David Kahn and Mario Montessori (1898-1982), son of Dr. Maria Montessori. Mario Montessori dedicated his life to the preservation, dissemination and application of Montessori's works. Herein Kahn asks Montessori about his time living in the hills of Kodaikanal, India. Montessori touches upon…

  9. Work in Society and in Montessori Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    2013-01-01

    Montessori educators follow Montessori's lead and use the word "work" to describe the child's concentrated attention with a hands-on material. But this word may lead to communication problems with parents and those in the non-Montessori world: educators, administrators, accreditors, and so on. These communication problems are…

  10. Montessori-based dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Janet

    2006-10-01

    Montessori-based Dementia Care is an approach used in Alzheimer's care that does not involve chemical or physical restraints. This program works by giving the elder with Alzheimer/Dementia a purpose by getting them involved. When staff/families care for a confused Alzheimer/Dementia patient, who is having behaviors, the Montessori program teaches them to look at what is causing the behavior. When assessing the elder to determine what is causing the behavior, the goal is to find the answer, but the answer cannot be dementia. The goal of the program is to bring meaning to the life of an Alzheimer/Dementia elder.

  11. Montessori and Non-Montessori Early Childhood Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Inclusion and Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Danner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Montessori and non-Montessori general education early childhood teachers were surveyed about their attitudes towards including children with disabilities and providing access in their classrooms.  Both groups reported similar and positive supports for inclusion within their schools. Montessori teachers reported having less knowledge about inclusion and less special education professional development than their non-Montessori counterparts.   Implications for professional development and teacher preparation are described.

  12. Preschool Children's Development in Classic Montessori, Supplemented Montessori, and Conventional Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the outcomes of Montessori education is scarce and results are inconsistent. One possible reason for the inconsistency is variations in Montessori implementation fidelity. To test whether outcomes vary according to implementation fidelity, we examined preschool children enrolled in high fidelity classic Montessori programs, lower…

  13. Views on Montessori Approach by Teachers Serving at Schools Applying the Montessori Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atli, Sibel; Korkmaz, A. Merve; Tastepe, Taskin; Koksal Akyol, Aysel

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Further studies on Montessori teachers are required on the grounds that the Montessori approach, which, having been applied throughout the world, holds an important place in the alternative education field. Yet it is novel for Turkey, and there are only a limited number of studies on Montessori teachers in Turkey. Purpose of…

  14. Providing Montessori: Identity and Dilemmas in a Montessori Teacher's Lived Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    This phenomenological case study was conducted to better understand the experience of a Montessori teacher in a leadership role. A veteran Montessori teacher, newly hired by an established Montessori preschool, was interviewed over the course of her first year in the position. A critical discourse analysis revealed multiple social identities that…

  15. Montessori and Non-Montessori Early Childhood Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion and Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Natalie; Fowler, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Montessori and non-Montessori general education early childhood teachers were surveyed about their attitudes toward including children with disabilities and providing these students access to the curriculum. Both groups reported similar and positive system-wide supports for inclusion within their schools. Montessori teachers reported having less…

  16. Proving Montessori: Identity and Dilemmas in a Montessori Teacher’s Lived Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Christensen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This phenomenological case study was conducted to better understand the experience of a Montessori teacher in a leadership role. A veteran Montessori teacher, newly hired by an established Montessori preschool, was interviewed over the course of her first year in the position. A critical discourse analysis revealed multiple social identities that contributed to her desire, and ability, to be what she felt was an authentic Montessori educator. While some of these discourses and social identities aligned, some did not, creating ideational dilemmas that affected her work, relationships, and personal identity. The findings suggest that current Montessori discourse excludes important characteristics of the teacher-lived experience. Acknowledging and discussing the social challenges Montessori teachers face is a necessary addition to teacher preparation, teacher support systems, and Montessori leadership decisions.

  17. The Scientist in the Classroom: The Montessori Teacher as Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Ginni

    2016-01-01

    Ginni Sackett shares insights ignited by a presentation given by Professori Raniero Regni in Rome at an AMI International Trainers Meeting. Dr. Regni stated that, "To go beyond Montessori is to rediscover Montessori. Montessori is waiting for us in the future." By re-examining Montessori's writings, Sackett traces the subtle ways in…

  18. The effects of Montessori education: evidence from admission lotteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, N.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of Montessori education, even though many students in many countries are educated in Montessori classrooms. This study investigates the causal effects of Montessori secondary education by exploiting admission lotteries in Dutch Montessori schools. The results

  19. Removing Supplementary Materials from Montessori Classrooms Changed Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S.; Heise, Megan J.

    2016-01-01

    Montessori classrooms vary in the degree to which they adhere to Maria Montessori's model, including in the provision of materials. Specifically, some classrooms use only Montessori materials, whereas others supplement the Montessori materials with commercially available materials like puzzles and games. A prior study suggested such…

  20. Montessori Parenting: An Idea Whose Time Has Come

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Sonnie; McFarland, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Since Dr. Maria Montessori's discovery of the true nature of childhood over a century ago, children around the globe have benefited from Montessori education. However, even parents who have children enrolled in Montessori schools could derive further benefits through the implementation of Montessori principles and practices in the home. Helping…

  1. Creating an Amazing Montessori Toddler Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The author states that raising her twins the Montessori way has made her life easy. Imagine two 1-year-olds eating entire meals on their own, setting their own tables by 20 months, and becoming potty-trained before 2. These are not statistics found in just one household. Children raised the Montessori way can take care of themselves and their…

  2. Montessori Practices: Options for a Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Mark Powell's plea for an open-minded view on the full scope of technology that is compatible with Montessori education enriches Maria Montessori's clear modernism of welcoming science into her educational vision. Growing up digital can be intelligently managed so that "technology may offer an effective, adaptable, and easily available means…

  3. The Value of Regional Montessori Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichucki, Penny HildeBrandt

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author explains how administrators who have feelings about isolation and disconnection from other Montessori schools may find support and networking through a variety of ways. Administrators may connect with others through the AMS (American Montessori Society) Heads of Schools ListServer, a forum for discussion of topics…

  4. Montessori, Maslow, and Self-Actualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, David R.

    2011-01-01

    What must never be forgotten by the Montessori teacher, or by any teacher of young children, is that his or her "primary" task, his or her "primary" obligation, his or her "primary" sacred duty is not the teaching of the "three Rs" but that of nurturing the psychological health of the child. Every element of Montessori methodology is designed for…

  5. Montessori-based activities for long-term care residents with advanced dementia: effects on engagement and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsulic-Jeras, S; Judge, K S; Camp, C J

    2000-02-01

    Sixteen residents in long-term care with advanced dementia (14 women; average age = 88) showed significantly more constructive engagement (defined as motor or verbal behaviors in response to an activity), less passive engagement (defined as passively observing an activity), and more pleasure while participating in Montessori-based programming than in regularly scheduled activities programming. Principles of Montessori-based programming, along with examples of such programming, are presented. Implications of the study and methods for expanding the use of Montessori-based dementia programming are discussed.

  6. Science and culture around the Montessori's first "Children's Houses" in Rome (1907-1915).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschi, Renato

    2008-01-01

    Between 1907 and 1908, Maria Montessori's (1870-1952) educational method was elaborated at the Children's Houses of the San Lorenzo district in Rome. This pioneering experience was the basis for the international fame that came to Montessori after the publication of her 1909 volume dedicated to her "Method." The "Montessori Method" was considered by some to be scientific, liberal, and revolutionary. The present article focuses upon the complex contexts of the method's elaboration. It shows how the Children's Houses developed in relation to a particular scientific and cultural eclecticism. It describes the factors that both favored and hindered the method's elaboration, by paying attention to the complex network of social, institutional, and scientific relationships revolving around the figure of Maria Montessori. A number of "contradictory" dimensions of Montessori's experience are also examined with a view to helping to revise her myth and offering the image of a scholar who was a real early-twentieth-century prototype of a "multiple" behavioral scientist. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Montessori education: a review of the evidence base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloë

    2017-10-01

    The Montessori educational method has existed for over 100 years, but evaluations of its effectiveness are scarce. This review paper has three aims, namely to (1) identify some key elements of the method, (2) review existing evaluations of Montessori education, and (3) review studies that do not explicitly evaluate Montessori education but which evaluate the key elements identified in (1). The goal of the paper is therefore to provide a review of the evidence base for Montessori education, with the dual aspirations of stimulating future research and helping teachers to better understand whether and why Montessori education might be effective.

  8. The Application of Montessori Method in Learning Mathematics: An Experimental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2017-01-01

    The prime objective of this research was to investigate whether the Montessori method of learning helped kindergarten pupils improve their mathematical proficiency, critical thinking and problem-solving skills, besides training them to be responsible learners. Quantitative, qualitative, and observational methods were employed in the investigation.…

  9. [Montessori method applied to dementia - literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Daniela Filipa Soares; Martín, José Ignacio

    2012-06-01

    The Montessori method was initially applied to children, but now it has also been applied to people with dementia. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the research on the effectiveness of this method using Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline) with the keywords dementia and Montessori method. We selected lo studies, in which there were significant improvements in participation and constructive engagement, and reduction of negative affects and passive engagement. Nevertheless, systematic reviews about this non-pharmacological intervention in dementia rate this method as weak in terms of effectiveness. This apparent discrepancy can be explained because the Montessori method may have, in fact, a small influence on dimensions such as behavioral problems, or because there is no research about this method with high levels of control, such as the presence of several control groups or a double-blind study.

  10. Pedagogika a škola Marie Montessori v České republice

    OpenAIRE

    Glaserová, Barbora

    2012-01-01

    This thesis "Pedagogy and Maria Montessori School in the Czech Republic" in the theoretical part describes the life of Maria Montessori, Montessori principles of education and development of Montessori schools with a focus on their development in the Czech Republic. The practical part deals with a case study of a Prague school with Montessori principles and a questionnaire survey with the headmaster of Montessori schools.

  11. Il periodo indiano di Maria Montessori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Cives

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available On Maria Montessori (1870-1952, Italian educator of the twentieth century the most successful in the world, there is, also a growing if belated, interest in more recent times also in Italy. So to confine ourselves to two thousand years, studies have appeared on his life and works of great interest, finally showing that its value is recognized beyond resistance of the idealistic and Catholic area survived for a long time. The author investigates these new frontiers of research on the Montessori starting from a new biography dedicated to her which gives attention also to the Indian period.

  12. Methods Evolved by Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Montessori's idea of the child's nature and the teacher's perceptiveness begins with amazing simplicity, and when she speaks of "methods evolved," she is unveiling a methodological system for observation. She begins with the early childhood explosion into writing, which is a familiar child phenomenon that Montessori has written about…

  13. Using the Montessori approach for a clientele with cognitive impairments: a quasi-experimental study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Dominique; Robichaud, Line; Paradis, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The choice of activities responding to the needs of people with moderate to severe dementia is a growing concern for care providers trying to target the need for a feeling of self-accomplishment by adapting activities to the abilities of elderly patients. The activities created by Maria Montessori seem to be adaptable to this clientele. This study evaluates the short-term effects, as compared to regular activities offered in the milieu. This is a quasi-experimental study where each of the 14 participants was observed and filmed in two conditions: during Montessori activities, during regular activities, and one control condition (no activity). The results show that Montessori activities have a significant effect on affect and on participation in the activity. They support the hypothesis that when activities correspond to the needs and abilities of a person with dementia, these positive effects are also observed on behaviours. This study enabled its authors to corroborate the findings presented in the literature and to contribute additional elements on the positive effects of the use of Montessori activities and philosophy. Used with people with moderate to severe dementia these allow the satisfaction of their basic psychological needs, their well being, and hence, on their quality of life.

  14. Why Montessori? Answers from a Parent's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karna, Anu

    2013-01-01

    The author knew she would be picky about where her child started his schooling. After calling over 30 public and private schools within a 50-mile radius of her home, and then visiting more than 15 of them, the author chose Lexington Montessori School (LMS). However, when she tells friends and acquaintances about her son's fantastic school, she…

  15. [Cognitive disorders and the Montessori method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembach, Marie; Agret, Annie; Rochat, Armelle; Thomas, Stéphanie; Jeandel, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Trained in the Montessori method, a team takes a very positive approach to their patients. The nurses base their practice on patients' remaining capacities, helping them work around their impairments. They seek to offer each person the possibility to pursue a social life through individualised treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Montessori Elementary Philosophy Reflects Current Motivation Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Montessori's theories, developed more than 100 years ago, certainly resonate with current psychological research on improving education. Autonomy, interest, competence, and relatedness form the foundation for three contemporary efforts to organize the vast literature on motivation into a parsimonious theory. These four elements also comprise…

  17. The American Odyssey of Maria Montessori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornegay, William

    Dr. Maria Montessori's 1913 visit and lecture tour to the United SLates is described in detail with numerous citations from newspaper coverage of the event. The enthusiastic reception extended to the European physician and educator is reviewed, and her meetings, notably with Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Graham Bell, President and Mrs. Woodrow Wilson,…

  18. MATERIALS AND (LANGUAGE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT BASED ON MONTESSORI CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Kristiyani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Montessori Education is widely spread in almost all countries in the world. Even though this school is meant for all kinds of learners including “normal” learners, the Montessori education concepts used in Montessori schools will be very supportive education for children with special needs. Therefore, the schools which adopt Montessori education concepts can facilitate inclusion, especially with the concepts of ‘I can do it myself.’ Inclusive education needs to be carefully prepared and implemented by schools. The movement brings about some challenges for teachers. This paper explores the environment and materials based on Montessori education concepts. The environment and materials are suitable for all types of learners and thus can be an option to be implemented in the inclusive education setting. Teaching materials rooted in Montessori education concepts indeed cater all ages and embrace the needs of all students.

  19. ICTs and Montessori for Learning Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Drigas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the Montessori philosophy and examines how this learning theory currently gives credence to cognitive processes of the mind, as suitable intervention used to the training of children with learning disabilities. Furthermore, Montessori’s system and materials in combination with the support of new technologies as well as their implementation on various kinds of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs have great successes regarding the support of disability and the enhancement of learning process.

  20. Montessori-skole: die ander kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Viljoen

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Na aanleiding van die artikel “Die invloed van die New Age-beweging op die onderwysagenda van die toekoms” deur Lien van Niekerk en Corinne Meier van die Departement Historiese Opvoedkunde van Unisa (vgl. Koers, 59 (1 1994:69-84 wil ek graag ’n ander sy van Montessori-skole onder die aandag van Koers lesers bring.

  1. Maria Montessori, John Dewey, and William H. Kilpatrick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer-Bacon, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    I explore Montessori's story in terms of her initial warm reception by America to her educational research, and her later cooling off, once Dewey's student, Kilpatrick, published The Montessori System Examined and declared her work to be based on psychological theory that was fifty years behind the times. I argue that there is a troubling gendered…

  2. The Social Relevance of Montessori in the First Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sarah Werner

    2015-01-01

    This article represents an amazing reversal of linguistic analysis. Usually Montessori language is translated into "state" terminology. In this case, Sarah Werner Andrews puts state quality assessment terms into Montessori language. For example, domains for school readiness include 1) physical wellbeing and motor development, 2) social…

  3. Leaving a Legacy: Passing Montessori to the Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    For each of the past 19 years, the American Montessori Society has chosen to recognize one Montessorian as an AMS Living Legacy. Recipients are honored at the AMS annual conference for their salient work or volunteerism in the Montessori field and their dedication and leadership that has made an impact on the AMS community. It seems fitting that…

  4. Understanding Optimal School Experience: Contributions from Montessori Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathunde, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    After summarizing the results from two studies the author conducted in Montessori middle schools, the chapter discusses nine characteristics of Montessori education in relation to various theoretical perspectives on education and development. [This article originally appeared as NSSE Yearbook Vol. 113, No. 1.

  5. Principle Elements of Curriculum in the Preschool Pattern of Montessori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmaee, Azizollah Baboli; Saadatmand, Zohreh; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Montessori the physician and educational philosopher was probably one of the most prominent and famous education theorizer in the field of preschool education. Current research attempts to extract and clarify the major elements of curriculum by reliance on Montessori viewpoints. In this paper first the philosophical basics of preschool education…

  6. Further Fostering Intrinsic Motivation in the Montessori Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Victoria A.

    2013-01-01

    The Montessori classroom appears to be the ideal learning environment for children throughout elementary and middle school. It is based on the philosophy of Dr. Maria Montessori which describes an environment tailored to the Sensitive Periods of children, prepared with materials appropriate for the age and abilities of the children in a particular…

  7. International Education: The International Baccalaureate, Montessori and Global Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunold-Conesa, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) programs and Montessori education both claim to promote values associated with global citizenship in order to help prepare students for new challenges presented by an increasingly globalized world. While the IB's secondary programs are widespread in international schools, Montessori programs at that level are…

  8. The effect of Montessori Method on teaching cultural and creative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of the Montessori Method on teaching was investigated among children to discover their artistic development in Zaria, Kaduna State. The problem of the study is that the Montessori Method on teaching cultural and creative arts is not adequately explored in the primary schools, while other teaching methods used, ...

  9. The Power of Montessori's Positive Psychology in an Expanding Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Annette

    1999-01-01

    Relates Montessori theory of development with the concept of connection to the universe and natural world, noting Montessori education's role in nurturing reestablished connection with the natural world. Describes events leading to a fulfilled life as part of psychological normalization, noting the importance of identifying positive tendencies of…

  10. Perpaduan Konsep Islam dengan Metode Montessori dalam Membangun Karakter Anak

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    Aprilian Ria Adisti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Studi ini menguraikan perpaduan antara konsep Islam dan metode Montessori terutama untuk membangun karakter yang baik bagi anak-anak. Metode pendidikan Montessori adalah salah satu metode yang populer sebagai salah satu metode terbaik di Barat, terutama untuk mengajar anak-anak. Dalam al-Quran, sebagai sumber kehidupan masyarakat muslim, telah disebutkan semua laporan Montessori. Ada lima konsep dalam metode pendidikan Montessori yang bisa dipadukan dengan teori mengajar anak-anak dalam al-Quran dan al-Hadits; Konsep Kebebasan dengan konsep "Fitrah", Struktur dengan konsep Langkah demi langkah, Realitas dan Alam dengan konsep Mencintai Alam dan Makhluk Hidup, Keindahan dan Nuansa sejalan dengan konsep Kebersihan dan Keindahan Islam, dan Materi Montessori dengan Proses Konsep Pembelajaran Hidup. Hasil perpaduan nilai-nilai tersebut dapat membangun karakter yang baik untuk anak-anak, terutama menjadikan mereka orang beragama dengan sikap yang baik untuk masa depan mereka.   This study simply reveals about the assimilation of Islamic education values and Montessori education method especially to build the good character for children. Montessori education method is one of the method which really popular as one of the best method in Western, especially for teaching children. In al-Quran, as the source of Moslem people’s life, has mentioned all the statements of Montessori. There are five aspects in Montessori education methods that we collaborate with the theory of teaching children in al-Quran and al-Hadits; Concept of Freedom with Concept of “Fitrah”, Structure and Order with Concept of Step by Step, Reality and Nature with Concept of Loving the Nature and Living Being, Beauty and Nuance in line with Concept of Cleanness and Beauty of Islam, and Montessori Materials with Concept Process of Life Learning. The result of collaboration those methods can build the good character for children, especially create them to be religious person with the

  11. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S; Heise, Megan J; Richey, Eve M; Tong, Xin; Hart, Alyssa; Bray, Paige M

    2017-01-01

    Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3-6), on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children's outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking) significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori preschools is warranted.

  12. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study

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    Angeline S. Lillard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3–6, on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children’s outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori

  13. Maria Montessori a different children glance

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    Vittoria Bosna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Maria Montessori was  one of the most important female figures in the 20th-century Italian pedagogical overview. She deeply examined the child and his/her “absorbing” mind in a way that clarified the significant role played by the environment in cognitive and emotional education. Il metodo della pedagogia scientifica (1909 was her first study where she pointed out that science should analyse how the child’s personality develops in social interaction. Maria Montessori claimed children’s rights with respect to the adults’ world by underlining the traditional error -in psychological and educational terms-which used to compel the child to act not complying with his/her own nature. To this end, she organized the child’s educational context-that is the kindergarten- like an ideal place where the child could live his/her educational experiences by freely acting and by being appropriately stimulated. Montessori’s thought has led to fruitful implications related to such pedagogical topics as those currently tackled in contemporary pedagogy: i.e.: the relation between environment and education, the  organization of the teaching and  learning process, the use of procedures, methodologies and materials designed for a relevant pedagogical intervention.How to reference this articleBosna, V. (2015. Maria Montessori uno sguardo diverso sull’infanzia. Foro de Educación, 13(18, pp. 37-50. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2015.013.018.002 

  14. Study protocol: A Montessori approach to dementia-related, non-residential respite services in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Andrew; Donnelly, James; Aggar, Christina

    2018-03-27

    Given the social burden and significant cost of dementia care in Australia, finding evidence-based approaches that improve outcomes, maintain independence, and reduce the impact on patients and families is essential. Finding effective ways to train and assist the healthcare staff who support these individuals is also critical, as they are considered to be at risk of workplace stress, burnout, and other psychological disturbances which negatively affects standards of care. The current paper describes a protocol for evaluating the effects of a Montessori-based approach to dementia care, in non-residential respite centres. An 18 month prospective observational, cohort controlled design is suggested that will compare participants from a community respite service that has undergone a Montessori-based workplace culture change and those from a service that provides a person-centred 'care as usual' approach. To achieve this, the protocol includes the assessment of participants across multiple variables on a monthly basis including the cognitive, behavioural, and emotional functioning of clients with dementia, levels of caregiver burden experienced by informal carers, and burnout, compassion satisfaction and workplace engagement among respite staff. The protocol also employs a qualitative evaluation of program fidelity. This approach will provide further insight into the potential benefits of early intervention with Montessori approaches for persons living with dementia in the community, their caregivers, and the staff and volunteers who assist them. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of intergenerational Montessori-based activities programming on engagement of nursing home residents with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Lee

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Michelle M Lee1, Cameron J Camp2, Megan L Malone21Midwestern University, Department of Behavioral Medicine, Downers Grove, IL , USA; 2Myers Research Institute of Menorah Park Center for Senior Living, Beachwood, OH, USA Abstract: Fourteen nursing home residents on a dementia special care unit at a skilled nursing facility took part in one-to-one intergenerational programming (IGP with 15 preschool children from the facility’s on-site child care center. Montessori-based activities served as the interface for interactions between dyads. The amount of time residents demonstrated positive and negative forms of engagement during IGP and standard activities programming was assessed through direct observation using a tool developed for this purpose – the Myers Research Institute Engagement Scale (MRI-ES. These residents with dementia displayed the ability to successfully take part in IGP. Most successfully presented “lessons” to the children in their dyads, similar to the way that Montessori teachers present lessons to children, while persons with more severe cognitive impairment took part in IGP through other methods such as parallel play. Taking part in IGP was consistently related with higher levels of positive engagement and lower levels of negative forms of engagement in these residents with dementia than levels seen in standard activities programming on the unit. Implications of using this form of IGP, and directions for future research, are discussed.Keywords: Montessori-based activities, intergenerational programming, engagement, dementia

  16. Racial and Economic Diversity in U.S. Public Montessori Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Catherine Debs

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As public Montessori schools rapidly expand through the United States, the question then arises: What population of students do the schools serve? This study presents a new empirical data set examining the racial and economic diversity of 300 whole-school, public Montessori programs open in 2012–2013, where the entire school uses the Montessori Method. While school-choice scholars are concerned that choice programs like Montessori lead to greater student segregation by race and social class, this study finds a variety of outcomes for public Montessori. Public Montessori as a sector has strengths in student racial and socioeconomic diversity, but it also has diversity challenges, particularly among Montessori charters. The study concludes with recommended strategies for public Montessori schools to enroll a racially and economically diverse student body.

  17. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry…

  18. Predominantly Black Institutions and Public Montessori Schools: Reclaiming the "Genius" in African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jor'dan, Jamilah R.

    2018-01-01

    There are more than 22,000 Montessori schools in over 100 countries worldwide. Beginning in the 1950s the American Montessori movement was primarily a private pre-school movement. There are more than 5,000 schools in the United States; over 500 of these are public. Montessori schools are an increasingly popular choice in the U.S. for public school…

  19. Students of Color and Public Montessori Schools: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debs, Mira C.; Brown, Katie E.

    2017-01-01

    Students of color comprise a majority in public Montessori school enrollments around the United States, and practitioners are often asked for evidence of the Montessori Method's benefits for these students. This article examines the relevant literature related to the experiences of students of color in public Montessori schools. Research finds…

  20. Square Pegs in Round Holes: Montessori Principals' Perceptions of Science Education in Texas Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the perceptions of Texas public Montessori school principals as instructional leaders in science. Twelve public Montessori school principals were interviewed for this study. Two research questions were used: How do public Montessori principals perceive Texas science standards in public…

  1. The effect of three different educational approaches on children's drawing ability: Steiner, Montessori and traditional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, M V; Rowlands, A

    2000-12-01

    Although there is a national curriculum for art education in the UK there are also alternative approaches in the private sector. This paper addresses the issue of the effect of these approaches on children's drawing ability. To compare the drawing ability in three drawing tasks of children in Steiner, Montessori and traditional schools. The participants were 60 school children between the ages of 5;11 and 7;2. Twenty children were tested in each type of school. Each child completed three drawings: a free drawing, a scene and an observational drawing. As predicted, the free and scene drawings of children in the Steiner school were rated more highly than those of children in Montessori and traditional schools. Steiner children's use of colour was also rated more highly, although they did not use more colours than the other children. Steiner children used significantly more fantasy topics in their free drawings. Further observation indicated that the Steiner children were better at using the whole page and organising their drawings into a scene; their drawings were also more detailed. Contrary to previous research Montessori children did not draw more inanimate objects and geometrical shapes or fewer people than other children. Also, contrary to the prediction, Steiner children were significantly better rather than worse than other children at observational drawing. The results suggest that the approach to art education in Steiner schools is conducive not only to more highly rated imaginative drawings in terms of general drawing ability and use of colour but also to more accurate and detailed observational drawings.

  2. Prednosti metode Montessori pri obravnavi oseb z demenco

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    Andreja Ljubič

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Uvod: Demenca je kronično obolenje s tendenco upadanja kognitivnih sposobnosti obolelega. Uporaba metod za obvladovanje in trening osnovnih življenjskih aktivnosti, ki omogočajo daljše obdobje samostojnega življenja pacienta z demenco, je v tujini uveljavljena z različnimi novejšimi koomplementarnimi pristopi. Ena izmed uveljavljenih metod je pristop Marie Montessori, prilagojen odraslim pacientom z demenco. V članku je predstavljena metoda montessori pri obravnavi pacienta z demenco in njeni učinki na kakovost življenja pacienta z demenco. Metode: Uporabljena je bila deskriptivna raziskovalna metodologija s pregledom domače in tuje literature. Za prikaz pregleda petih preko spleta dostopnih podatkovnih baz in odločanja o uporabnosti pregledanih virov je bila uporabljena metoda PRISMA. V končni pregled literature je bilo ključenih 19 člankov, objavljenih do maja 2016. Za obdelavo podatkov je bil uporabljen model analize konceptov. Večina zajetih raziskav je bila izvedena v Združenih državah Amerike. Rezultati: Po pregledu raziskav so bila identificirana tri tematska področja: (1 vpliv metode montessori na sodelovanje in prizadevanje, (2 vpliv metode montessori na vedenje, povezano s hranjenjem, in (3 vpliv metode montessori na širšo skupino kognitivnih sposobnosti. Diskusija in zaključek: Kljub majhnemu številu člankov, ki opisujejo uporabo metode montessori pri obravnavi pacientov z demenco, metodo lahko predstavimo kot učinkovito. Avtorji raziskav ugotavljajo, da pristop ne le omogoča ohranjanje kognitivnih sposobnosti, temveč le-te celo izboljšuje.

  3. Retrieving mesospheric water vapour from observations of volume scattering radiances

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    P. Vergados

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the possibility for a theoretical approach in the estimation of water vapour mixing ratios in the vicinity of polar mesospheric clouds (PMC using satellite observations of Volume Scattering Radiances (VSR obtained at the wavelength of 553 nm. The PMC scattering properties perturb the underlying molecular Rayleigh scattered solar radiance of the background atmosphere. As a result, the presence of PMC leads to an enhancement in the observed VSR at the altitude of the layer; the PMC VSRs are superimposed on the exponentially decreasing with height Rayleigh VSR, of the PMC-free atmosphere. The ratio between the observed and the Rayleigh VSR of the background atmosphere is used to simulate the environment in which the cloud layer is formed. In addition, a microphysical model of ice particle formation is employed to predict the PMC VSRs. The initial water vapour profile is perturbed until the modelled VSRs match the observed, at which point the corresponding temperature and water vapour profiles can be considered as a first approximation of those describing the atmosphere at the time of the observations. The role of temperature and water vapour in the cloud formation is examined by a number of sensitivity tests suggesting that the water vapour plays a dominant role in the cloud formation in agreement with experimental results. The estimated water vapour profiles are compared with independent observations to examine the model capability in the context of this study. The results obtained are in a good agreement at the peak of the PMC layer although the radiance rapidly decreases with height below the peak. This simplified scenario indicates that the technique employed can give a first approximation estimate of the water vapour mixing ratio, giving rise to the VSR observed in the presence of PMC.

  4. Successful applications of montessori methods with children at risk for learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, J S

    1992-12-01

    The critical elements in the Montessori philosophy are respect for the child, individualization of the program to that child, and the fostering of independence. With her research background, Maria Montessori devised a multisensory developmental method and designed materials which isolate each concept the teacher presents to the child.In presenting these materials the teacher observes the concept and skill development level of the child, ascertaining areas of strength and weakness and matching the next presentation to the child's level of development. Using small sequential steps, the teacher works to ameliorate weakness and guide the student to maximize his strengths. These presentations, usually initiated by the child, enhance cognitive growth using a process which integrates his physical, social, and emotional development.The curriculum contains four major content areas: Practical Life; Sensorial; Oral and Written Language; and Mathematics. Geography, History, Science, Art, Music, Literature, and Motor Skills are also included. In all of these the Montessori presentations build from the simple to the complex, from the concrete to the abstract, and from percept to concept. Vocabulary and language usage are integral to each presentation.The procedures introduced through these presentations are designed to enhance attention, increase self-discipline and self-direction, and to promote order, organization, and the development of a work cycle. At-risk children benefit from the structure, the procedures, and the curriculum. Applications of this method require more teacher selection of materials and direct teaching, particularly of language and math symbols and their manipulations.This early childhood intervention provides an individualized program which allows the at-risk child a successful experience at the preschool level. The program includes a strong conceptual preparation for later academic learning and it promotes the development of a healthy self-concept.

  5. Think Big: Leadership Projects for AMS and Montessori Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    2014-01-01

    The American Montessori Society's (AMS) 2014 Living Legacy recipient, John Chattin-McNichols, delivered the keynote address at the Annual Conference in Dallas, TX, on March 27, 2014, In his speech, he described three overall highlights of AMS: (1) AMS is now a world-leading organization; (2) It must become a learning organization; and (3)…

  6. Montessori Early Childhood Teacher Perceptions of Family Priorities and Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Teachers of young children work closely with families. One component of teacher-family partnerships is teachers' understanding of family priorities and stressors. This study examines Montessori Early Childhood (ages three through six) teacher perceptions of family priorities and stressors through an analysis of responses to two parallel surveys.…

  7. Implementing a Robotics Curriculum in an Early Childhood Montessori Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Mollie; Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how robotics can be used as a new educational tool in a Montessori early education classroom. It presents a case study of one early educator's experience of designing and implementing a robotics curriculum integrated with a social science unit in her mixed-age classroom. This teacher had no prior experience using robotics in…

  8. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Carolyn Pope

    2002-01-01

    Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia are three progressive approaches to early childhood education that appear to be growing in influence in North America and to have many points in common. This article provides a brief comparative introduction of these models and highlights several key areas of similarity and contrast. All three approaches…

  9. Montessori and Steiner: A Pattern of Reverse Symmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Dee Joy

    2003-01-01

    Explains the educational movements precipitated by Maria Montessori and Rudolf Steiner as comprising a pattern of reverse symmetries. Notes the influence of war on their philosophies. Discusses reverse symmetries in curriculum related to mathematics, geography, and history. Maintains that each of these two movements holds the other at its core,…

  10. Montessori Botany Studies: Why It Is Time for a Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Elisabeth; Spears, Priscilla

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need to change the Montessori botany nomenclature cards to reflect the progress of the field over the past 55 years. Maintains that the materials used should reflect the goals of botany study for children. Provides a sample outline of lessons and nomenclature for the flowering plants. Discusses the need to use available reference…

  11. Opportunities for Inquiry Science in Montessori Classrooms: Learning from a Culture of Interest, Communication, and Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinke, Carol R.; Gimbel, Steven J.; Haskell, Sophie

    2013-08-01

    Although classroom inquiry is the primary pedagogy of science education, it has often been difficult to implement within conventional classroom cultures. This study turned to the alternatively structured Montessori learning environment to better understand the ways in which it fosters the essential elements of classroom inquiry, as defined by prominent policy documents. Specifically, we examined the opportunities present in Montessori classrooms for students to develop an interest in the natural world, generate explanations in science, and communicate about science. Using ethnographic research methods in four Montessori classrooms at the primary and elementary levels, this research captured a range of scientific learning opportunities. The study found that the Montessori learning environment provided opportunities for students to develop enduring interests in scientific topics and communicate about science in various ways. The data also indicated that explanation was largely teacher-driven in the Montessori classroom culture. This study offers lessons for both conventional and Montessori classrooms and suggests further research that bridges educational contexts.

  12. Effects of intergenerational Montessori-based activities programming on engagement of nursing home residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle M; Camp, Cameron J; Malone, Megan L

    2007-01-01

    Fourteen nursing home residents on a dementia special care unit at a skilled nursing facility took part in one-to-one intergenerational programming (IGP) with 15 preschool children from the facility's on-site child care center. Montessori-based activities served as the interface for interactions between dyads. The amount of time residents demonstrated positive and negative forms of engagement during IGP and standard activities programming was assessed through direct observation using a tool developed for this purpose--the Myers Research Institute Engagement Scale (MRI-ES). These residents with dementia displayed the ability to successfully take part in IGP. Most successfully presented "lessons" to the children in their dyads, similar to the way that Montessori teachers present lessons to children, while persons with more severe cognitive impairment took part in IGP through other methods such as parallel play. Taking part in IGP was consistently related with higher levels of positive engagement and lower levels of negative forms of engagement in these residents with dementia than levels seen in standard activities programming on the unit. Implications of using this form of IGP, and directions for future research, are discussed.

  13. Examining a Public Montessori School's Response to the Pressures of High-Stakes Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Corrie Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    A public Montessori school is expected to demonstrate high student scores on standardized assessments to succeed in the current school accountability era. A problem for a public Montessori elementary school is how to make sense of the school's high-stakes assessment scores in terms of Montessori's unique educational approach. This case study…

  14. From Boutique to Big Box: A Case Study Concerning Teacher Change Transitioning to a Public Montessori Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Teresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Public Montessori schools have grown in number significantly in the United States. This case study chronicles the journey of teachers as they navigate the tension of balancing the Montessori approach with an accountability Standards model. Although Montessori may be in demand among parents in the nation, exhibited by the increase in public…

  15. An intergenerational program for persons with dementia using Montessori methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, C J; Judge, K S; Bye, C A; Fox, K M; Bowden, J; Bell, M; Valencic, K; Mattern, J M

    1997-10-01

    An intergenerational program bringing together older adults with dementia and preschool children in one-on-one interactions is described. Montessori activities, which have strong ties to physical and occupational therapy, as well as to theories of developmental and cognitive psychology, are used as the context for these interactions. Our experience indicates that older adults with dementia can still serve as effective mentors and teachers to children in an appropriately structured setting.

  16. 19th International Montessori Training Course, London Lecture 29 17 November 1933

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Followers of Maria Montessori become accustomed to the oft-repeated stories that drive home a point, but here is a new treasure. This lecture tells of an experiment that Montessori began with 12- to 14-year-old children and then with 10-year-olds. When the poetry of Dante was introduced to these students, they became passionate and grew to love…

  17. Determining the Measurement Quality of a Montessori High School Teacher Evaluation Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setari, Anthony Philip; Bradley, Kelly D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a psychometric validation of a course evaluation instrument, known as a student evaluation of teaching (SET), implemented in a Montessori high school. The authors demonstrate to the Montessori community how to rigorously examine the measurement and assessment quality of instruments used within Montessori…

  18. Music Education in Montessori Schools: An Exploratory Study of School Directors' Perceptions in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Rekha S.

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the changing role of music education and the availability of musical experiences for students attending Montessori schools in the Midwestern United States. On a survey instrument designed by the researcher, Montessori school directors (N = 36) from eight states shared descriptions of the current role of music at…

  19. Determining the Measurement Quality of a Montessori High School Teacher Evaluation Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Philip Setari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct a psychometric validation of a course evaluation instrument, known as a student evaluation of teaching (SET, implemented in a Montessori high school. The authors demonstrate to the Montessori community how to rigorously examine the measurement and assessment quality of instruments used within Montessori schools. The Montessori high school community needs an SET that has been rigorously examined for measurement issues. The examined SET was developed by a Montessori high school, and the sample data were collected from Montessori high school students. Using a Rasch partial credit model, the results of the analysis identified several measurement issues, including multidimensionality, misfit items, and inappropriate item difficulty levels. A revised version of the SET underwent the same analysis procedure, and the results indicated that measurement issues persisted. The authors suggest several ways to improve the overall measurement quality of the instrument while keeping the Montessori foundation. Additional validation studies with a revised version of the SET will be needed before the instrument can be endorsed for full implementation in a Montessori setting.

  20. Racial and Economic Diversity in U.S. Public Montessori Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debs, Mira C.

    2016-01-01

    As public Montessori schools rapidly expand through the United States, the question then arises: What population of students do the schools serve? This study presents a new empirical data set examining the racial and economic diversity of 300 whole-school, public Montessori programs open in 2012-2013, where the entire school uses the Montessori…

  1. Do Children in Montessori Schools Perform Better in the Achievement Test? A Taiwanese Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hsin-Hui; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah

    2014-01-01

    The study examines whether elementary school students in Taiwan who had received Montessori education achieved significantly higher scores on tests of language arts, math, and social studies than students who attended non-Montessori elementary programs. One hundred ninety six children in first, second, and third grade participated in the study.…

  2. Technology in the Montessori Classroom: Teachers' Beliefs and Technology Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sara J.

    2017-01-01

    As technology becomes ubiquitous in society, there is increasing momentum to incorporate it into education. Montessori education is not immune to this push for technology integration. This qualitative study investigates four Upper Elementary Montessori teachers' attitudes toward technology and technology integration in a public school setting.…

  3. Educational Gymnastics: The Effectiveness of Montessori Practical Life Activities in Developing Fine Motor Skills in Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Punum; Davis, Alan; Shamas-Brandt, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: A quasi-experiment was undertaken to test the effect of Montessori practical life activities on kindergarten children's fine motor development and hand dominance over an 8-month period. Participants were 50 children age 5 in 4 Montessori schools and 50 students age 5 in a kindergarten program in a high-performing suburban…

  4. "Do You Teach Them Anything?" What Really Happens in a Montessori Toddler Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Heather S.

    2014-01-01

    The greatest sign of success for a teacher is to be able to say, "The children are now working as if I did not exist" (Montessori, 1967, p. 283). Montessori Toddler teachers spend a great amount of time preparing and perfecting their environments to allow and to encourage learning to happen. The teachers are constantly adjusting and…

  5. Best Practice Guidelines for Computer Technology in the Montessori Early Childhood Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montminy, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Presents a draft for a principle-centered position statement of a Montessori early childhood program in central Pennsylvania, on the pros and cons of computer use in a Montessori 3-6 classroom. Includes computer software rating form. (Author/KB)

  6. Social Justice Education in an Urban Charter Montessori School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Banks

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the Montessori Method continues its expansion in public education, a social justice lens is needed to analyze its contributions and limitations, given the increase in racial and socioeconomic diversity in the United States. Furthermore, much of the work in Social Justice Education (SJE focuses on classroom techniques and curriculum, overlooking the essential work of school administrators and parents, whose work significantly influences the school community. The current study applied an SJE framework to the efforts of one urban, socioeconomically and racially integrated Montessori charter school. We examined the extent to which SJE principles were incorporated across the school community, using an inductive, qualitative, case-study approach that included meetings, surveys, focus groups, and interviews. Administrators quickly adopted a system-wide approach, but parents—often color-blind or minimizing of the relevance of race—consistently resisted. Study results imply a continued need for an institutional approach, not solely a classroom or curricular focus, when integrating social justice into Montessori schools.

  7. Montessori Early Childhood Teacher Perceptions of Family Priorities and Stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Epstein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Teachers of young children work closely with families. One component of teacher-family partnerships is teachers’ understanding of family priorities and stressors. This study examines Montessori early childhood (ages three through six teacher perceptions of family priorities and stressors through an analysis of responses to two parallel surveys.  Eighty teachers (37% of those who received the survey and forty-nine family members (representing a 55% response rate completed the survey.  Significant differences were found between teachers’ perceptions of four (of seven family priorities and families’ actual responses. Teachers ranked “making academic progress” as the most important of seven possible family priorities. However, families stated that “developing kindness” is the most important priority for their young children. No significant differences were found when comparing teacher rankings of family stressors with actual family responses. Montessori early childhood teachers ranked “not having enough time” as the most stressful of six possible stressors. Families confirmed that time pressures cause them the most stress. Maria Montessori’s recommendations for teachers and families are summarized. Recommendations for building stronger family partnerships in the context of Montessori’s philosophy, for example on-going self-reflection, are provided.             Keywords: Montessori, teacher-family partnerships, early childhood teacher perceptions

  8. Students of Color and Public Montessori Schools: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Debs

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Students of color comprise a majority in public Montessori school enrollments around the United States, and practitioners are often asked for evidence of the Montessori Method’s benefits for these students. This article examines the relevant literature related to the experiences of students of color in public Montessori schools. Research finds Montessori education offers both opportunities and limitations for students of color in attending diverse schools, developing executive functions, achieving academically, accessing early childhood education and culturally responsive education, minimizing racially disproportionate discipline, and limiting overidentification for special education. Public Montessori education’s efficacy with students of color may be limited by several factors: the lack of diversity of the teaching staff and culturally responsive teacher education, schools that struggle to maintain racially diverse enrollments, and the challenge of communicating Montessori’s benefits to families with alternative views of education. The review concludes with directions for future research.

  9. Differences in Mathematics Scores Between Students Who Receive Traditional Montessori Instruction and Students Who Receive Music Enriched Montessori Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Maureen Ann

    2007-01-01

    While a growing body of research reveals the beneficial effects of music on education performance the value of music in educating the young child is not being recognized. If research of students in the school system indicates that learning through the arts can benefit the ‘whole’ child, that math achievement scores are significantly higher for those students studying music, and if Montessori education produces a more academically accomplished child, then what is the potential for the child wh...

  10. A Systematic Review of Montessori-Based Activities for Persons With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Christine L; McArthur, Caitlin; Hitzig, Sander L

    2016-02-01

    Montessori-based activities are becoming a popular approach for the care of older adults living with dementia. The aim of this study was to systematically assess the quality of the research examining the benefits of Montessori-based activities for persons with dementia. Six peer-reviewed databases were systematically searched for all relevant articles published until April 2015. Included articles were peer-reviewed studies published in English that employed Montessori-based activities with persons with dementia. Methodological quality was assessed by 2 independent raters using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale or the Downs and Black evaluation tool. Levels of evidence were assigned to the study design using a modified Sackett scale. One hundred fifty articles were identified, and 14 were selected for inclusion. Level-2 evidence examining the impact of Montessori-based activities on eating behaviors suggested that difficulties with eating could be reduced with Montessori training. There was limited level-4 evidence for the benefits of Montessori-based activities on cognition, wherein benefits appeared to be specific to lower-level cognitive abilities including memory and attention. Finally, there is level-1 (n = 1), level-2 (n = 3), and level-4 (n = 6) evidence for the benefits of Montessori-based activities on engagement and affect, whereby constructive engagement and positive affect were heightened. Overall, there is a strong level of evidence for the benefits of Montessori-based activities on eating behaviors and weak evidence for the benefits on cognition. Evidence for the benefits of Montessori-based activities on engagement and affect are mixed. Future research is needed to examine the long-term benefits of Montessori-based activities. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Using a Montessori method to increase eating ability for institutionalised residents with dementia: a crossover design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Chan; Huang, Ya-Ju; Watson, Roger; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Lee, Yue-Chune

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the efficacy of applying a Montessori intervention to improve the eating ability and nutritional status of residents with dementia in long-term care facilities. An early intervention for eating difficulties in patients with dementia can give them a better chance of maintaining independence and reduce the risk of malnutrition. An experimental crossover design was employed. Twenty-nine residents were chosen from two dementia special care units in metropolitan Taipei. To avoid contamination between participants in units using both Montessori and control interventions, two dementia special care units were randomly assigned into Montessori intervention (I1) and routine activities (I2) sequence groups. A two-period crossover design was used, with 15 residents assigned to Montessori intervention sequence I (I1, I2) and 14 residents assigned to Montessori intervention sequence II (I2, I1). On each intervention day, residents were given their assigned intervention. Montessori intervention was provided in 30-min sessions once every day, three days per week, for eight weeks. There was a two-week washout period between each intervention. There was a significant reduction in the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia score for the Montessori intervention period but not for the routine activities period, while the mean differences for the Eating Behavior Scale score, self-feeding frequency and self-feeding time were significantly higher than those of the routine activities period. Except for the Mini-Nutritional Assessment score post-test being significantly less than the pre-test for the routine activities period, no significant differences for any other variables were found for the routine activities period. This study confirms the efficacy of a Montessori intervention protocol on eating ability of residents with dementia. Adopting Montessori intervention protocols to maintain residents' self-feeding ability in clinical practice is recommended. Montessori

  12. Montessori-based activities among persons with late-stage dementia: Evaluation of mental and behavioral health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Boyd, P August; Bates, Samantha M; Cain, Daphne S; Geiger, Jennifer R

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Literature regarding Montessori-based activities with older adults with dementia is fairly common with early stages of dementia. Conversely, research on said activities with individuals experiencing late-stage dementia is limited because of logistical difficulties in sampling and data collection. Given the need to understand risks and benefits of treatments for individuals with late-stage dementia, specifically regarding their mental and behavioral health, this study sought to evaluate the effects of a Montessori-based activity program implemented in a long-term care facility. Method Utilizing an interrupted time series design, trained staff completed observation-based measures for 43 residents with late-stage dementia at three intervals over six months. Empirical measures assessed mental health (anxiety, psychological well-being, quality of life) and behavioral health (problem behaviors, social engagement, capacity for activities of daily living). Results Group differences were observed via repeated measures ANOVA and paired-samples t-tests. The aggregate, longitudinal results-from baseline to final data interval-for the psychological and behavioral health measures were as follows: problem behaviors diminished though not significantly; social engagement decreased significantly; capacities for activities of daily living decreased significantly; quality of life increased slightly but not significantly; anxiety decreased slightly but not significantly; and psychological well-being significantly decreased. Conclusion Improvements observed for quality of life and problem behaviors may yield promise for Montessori-based activities and related health care practices. The rapid physiological and cognitive deterioration from late-stage dementia should be considered when interpreting these results.

  13. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Wonwoo; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  14. "It's What We Use as a Community": Exploring Students' STEM Characterizations In Two Montessori Elementary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostkowski, Alaina Hopkins

    Integrated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education promises to enhance elementary students' engagement in science and related fields and to cultivate their problem-solving abilities. While STEM has become an increasingly popular reform initiative, it is still developing within the Montessori education community. There is limited research on STEM teaching and learning in Montessori classrooms, particularly from student perspectives. Previous studies suggest productive connections between reform-based pedagogies in mainstream science education and the Montessori method. Greater knowledge of this complementarity, and student perspectives on STEM, may benefit both Montessori and non-Montessori educators. This instrumental case study of two elementary classrooms documented student characterizations of aspects of STEM in the context of integrated STEM instruction over three months in the 2016-2017 school year. Findings show that the Montessori environment played an important role, and that students characterized STEM in inclusive, agentive, connected, helpful, creative, and increasingly critical ways. Implications for teaching and future research offer avenues to envision STEM education more holistically by leveraging the moral and humanistic aspects of Montessori philosophy.

  15. [Effects of Montessori education on the intellectual development in children aged 2 to 4 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong-Ling; Yan, Hong; Zuo, Ling; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Xi-Ping

    2009-12-01

    To compare the effects of Montessori education and traditional education on the intellectual development in children aged 2 to 4 years. Children aged between 2 to 3 years who were enrolled in a kindergarten in September 2006 were randomly assigned to the Montessori education and the traditional education groups. In addition to receiving the traditional education, the Montessori education group participated in the two-hour Montessori pedagogical activities every day. The intellectual development was evaluated by the Neuropsychological Development Examination Format for Children Aged 0~6 years published by Capital Pediatrics Research Institute at enrollment and one year after the trial. There were no significant differences in the intelligence growth level between the Montessori education and the traditional education groups at enrollment. After one year, the levels of fine movements, adaptation ability, language, and social behavior developments in the Montessori education group were significantly higher than those in the traditional education group (pdevelopment quotient in the Montessori education group were also higher than those in the traditional education group (peducation can promote the development of large motor ability, fine movements, language, and social behavior in children.

  16. Measurement of transplanted pancreatic volume using computed tomography: reliability by intra- and inter-observer variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundqvist, Eva; Segelsjoe, Monica; Magnusson, Anders; Andersson, Anna; Biglarnia, Ali-Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background Unlike other solid organ transplants, pancreas allografts can undergo a substantial decrease in baseline volume after transplantation. This phenomenon has not been well characterized, as there are insufficient data on reliable and reproducible volume assessments. We hypothesized that characterization of pancreatic volume by means of computed tomography (CT) could be a useful method for clinical follow-up in pancreas transplant patients. Purpose To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of pancreatic volume assessment using CT scan in transplanted patients. Material and Methods CT examinations were performed on 21 consecutive patients undergoing pancreas transplantation. Volume measurements were carried out by two observers tracing the pancreatic contours in all slices. The observers performed the measurements twice for each patient. Differences in volume measurement were used to evaluate intra- and inter-observer variability. Results The intra-observer variability for the pancreatic volume measurements of Observers 1 and 2 was found to be in almost perfect agreement, with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.90 (0.77-0.96) and 0.99 (0.98-1.0), respectively. Regarding inter-observer validity, the ICCs for the first and second measurements were 0.90 (range, 0.77-0.96) and 0.95 (range, 0.85-0.98), respectively. Conclusion CT volumetry is a reliable and reproducible method for measurement of transplanted pancreatic volume

  17. Measurement of transplanted pancreatic volume using computed tomography: reliability by intra- and inter-observer variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Eva; Segelsjoe, Monica; Magnusson, Anders [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Section of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: eva.lundqvist.8954@student.uu.se; Andersson, Anna; Biglarnia, Ali-Reza [Dept. of Surgical Sciences, Section of Transplantation Surgery, Uppsala Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-11-15

    Background Unlike other solid organ transplants, pancreas allografts can undergo a substantial decrease in baseline volume after transplantation. This phenomenon has not been well characterized, as there are insufficient data on reliable and reproducible volume assessments. We hypothesized that characterization of pancreatic volume by means of computed tomography (CT) could be a useful method for clinical follow-up in pancreas transplant patients. Purpose To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of pancreatic volume assessment using CT scan in transplanted patients. Material and Methods CT examinations were performed on 21 consecutive patients undergoing pancreas transplantation. Volume measurements were carried out by two observers tracing the pancreatic contours in all slices. The observers performed the measurements twice for each patient. Differences in volume measurement were used to evaluate intra- and inter-observer variability. Results The intra-observer variability for the pancreatic volume measurements of Observers 1 and 2 was found to be in almost perfect agreement, with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.90 (0.77-0.96) and 0.99 (0.98-1.0), respectively. Regarding inter-observer validity, the ICCs for the first and second measurements were 0.90 (range, 0.77-0.96) and 0.95 (range, 0.85-0.98), respectively. Conclusion CT volumetry is a reliable and reproducible method for measurement of transplanted pancreatic volume.

  18. La Società Umanitaria e la diffusione del Metodo Montessori (1908-1923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Pozzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Società Umanitaria ofMilan, between 1918 and 1923, played an essential role in spreading and developing the Montessori Method. Studying in the Historical Archive of Società Umanitaria the numerous documents there collected, the author reconstructed the crucial moments of the extremely significant collaboration between Maria Montessori and Augusto Osimo, General Secretary of the Società Umanitaria.This complex and in-depth investigation was guided by the analysis, in specific, of the training courses for Montessori teachers organised by Società Umanitaria, essentially unexamined before this study, that allowed the researcher to have a deep insight into the action of Società Umanitaria aimed to promote and implement the Montessori Method in Italy and all around the world.

  19. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byun Wonwoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03, after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04, and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009 periods. School type (Montessori or traditional, preschool setting (private or public, socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  20. Examining a Public Montessori School’s Response to the Pressures of High-Stakes Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrie Rebecca Block

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to succeed in the current school assessment and accountability era, a public Montessori school is expected to achieve high student scores on standardized assessments. A problem for a public Montessori elementary school is how to make sense of the school’s high-stakes assessment scores in terms of its unique educational approach. This case study examined a public Montessori elementary school’s efforts as the school implemented the Montessori Method within the accountability era. The research revealed the ways the principal, teachers, and parents on the school council modified Montessori practices, curriculum, and assessment procedures based on test scores. A quality Montessori education is designed to offer children opportunities to develop both cognitive skills and affective components such as student motivation and socio-emotional skills that will serve them beyond their public school experiences. Sadly, the high-stakes testing environment influences so much of public education today. When quality education was measured through only one narrow measure of success the result in this school was clearly a restriction of priorities to areas that were easily assessed.

  1. A randomized crossover trial to study the effect of personalized, one-to-one interaction using Montessori-based activities on agitation, affect, and engagement in nursing home residents with Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Eva S; Eppingstall, Barbara; Camp, Cameron J; Runci, Susannah J; Taffe, John; O'Connor, Daniel W

    2013-04-01

    Increasingly more attention has been paid to non-pharmacological interventions as treatment of agitated behaviors that accompany dementia. The aim of the current study is to test if personalized one-to-one interaction activities based on Montessori principles will improve agitation, affect, and engagement more than a relevant control condition. We conducted a randomized crossover trial in nine residential facilities in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia (n = 44). Personalized one-to-one activities that were delivered using Montessori principles were compared with a non-personalized activity to control for the non-specific benefits of one-to-one interaction. Participants were observed 30 minutes before, during, and after the sessions. The presence or absence of a selected physically non-aggressive behavior was noted in every minute, together with the predominant type of affect and engagement. Behavior counts fell considerably during both the Montessori and control sessions relative to beforehand. During Montessori activities, the amount of time spend actively engaged was double compared to during the control condition and participants displayed more positive affect and interest as well. Participants with no fluency in English (all from non-English speaking backgrounds) showed a significantly larger reduction in agitation during the Montessori than control sessions. Our results show that even non-personalized social contact can assist in settling agitated residents. Tailoring activities to residents' needs and capabilities elicit more positive interactions and are especially suitable for people who have lost fluency in the language spoken predominantly in their residential facility. Future studies could explore implementation by family members and volunteers to avoid demands on facilities' resources. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry - ACTRN12609000564257.

  2. Maria Montessori e seu método

    OpenAIRE

    Suelu Pereira Costa, Magda

    2012-01-01

    Neste artigo, a autora desenvolve reflexões sobre o Método Montessori, que há um século, por volta de 1907, já propunha uma educação libertadora para a criança, valorizando-a como um ser pensante e capaz de responder aos apelos do real, visando a formação de uma personalidade autônoma e do Homem Consciente. Esse método, além de adotar uma perpectiva filosófica e metodológica para atender a criança, construindo materiais pedagógicos específicos e estratégias pcdagógicas. introduz a a "Linh...

  3. Using spaced retrieval and Montessori-based activities in improving eating ability for residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Chan; Huang, Ya-Ju; Su, Su-Gen; Watson, Roger; Tsai, Belina W-J; Wu, Shiao-Chi

    2010-10-01

    To construct a training protocol for spaced retrieval (SR) and to investigate the effectiveness of SR and Montessori-based activities in decreasing eating difficulty in older residents with dementia. A single evaluator, blind, and randomized control trial was used. Eighty-five residents with dementia were chosen from three special care units for residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan. To avoid any confounding of subjects, the three institutions were randomized into three groups: spaced retrieval, Montessori-based activities, and a control group. The invention consisted of three 30-40 min sessions per week, for 8 weeks. After receiving the intervention, the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia (EdFED) scores and assisted feeding scores for the SR and Montessori-based activity groups were significantly lower than that of the control group. However, the frequencies of physical assistance and verbal assistance for the Montessori-based activity group after intervention were significantly higher than that of the control group, which suggests that residents who received Montessori-based activity need more physical and verbal assistance during mealtimes. In terms of the effects of nutritional status after intervention, Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) in the SR group was significantly higher than that of the control group. This study confirms the efficacy of SR and Montessori-based activities for eating difficulty and eating ability. A longitudinal study to follow the long-term effects of SR and Montessori-based activities on eating ability and nutritional status is recommended. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Racial Discipline Disproportionality in Montessori and Traditional Public Schools: A Comparative Study Using the Relative Rate Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie E. Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research from the past 40 years indicates that African American students are subjected to exclusionary discipline, including suspension and expulsion, at rates two to three times higher than their White peers (Children’s Defense Fund, 1975; Skiba, Michael, Nardo, & Peterson, 2002. Although this phenomenon has been studied extensively in traditional public schools, rates of racially disproportionate discipline in public Montessori schools have not been examined. The purpose of this study is to examine racial discipline disproportionality in Montessori public elementary schools as compared to traditional elementary schools. The Relative Rate Index (RRI is used as a measure of racially disproportionate use of out-of-school suspensions (Tobin & Vincent, 2011. Suspension data from the Office of Civil Rights Data Collection was used to generate RRIs for Montessori and traditional elementary schools in a large urban district in the Southeast. While statistically significant levels of racial discipline disproportionality are found in both the Montessori and traditional schools, the effect is substantially less pronounced in Montessori settings. These findings suggest that Montessori schools are not immune to racially disproportionate discipline and should work to incorporate more culturally responsive classroom management techniques. Conversely, the lower levels of racially disproportionate discipline in the Montessori schools suggests that further study of discipline in Montessori environments may provide lessons for traditional schools to promote equitable discipline.

  5. Aspects That Arise in the Transition from the Montessori Method to a Traditional Method: A Fourth Grade Mathematics View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdle, Zachariah B.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the dissertation is to investigate three particular aspects that may affect the transition between a third grade Montessori system and a fourth grade non-Montessori system, specifically within the context of teaching and learning mathematics. These aspects are 1) the change in pacing and structure of the classroom, 2) the removal of…

  6. Earth observation space programmes, SAFISY activities, strategies of international organisations, legal aspects. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This volume is separated in four sessions. First part is on earth observation space programmes (international earth observation projects and international collaboration, the ERS-1, SPOT and PRIRODA programmes, the first ESA earth observation polar platform and its payload, the future earth observation remote sensing techniques and concepts). The second part is on SAFISY activities (ISY programmes, education and applications, demonstrations and outreach projects). The third part is on programme and strategies of international organisations with respect to earth observation from space. The fourth part is on legal aspects of the use of satellite remote sensing data in Europe. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  7. Assessment of capabilities in persons with advanced stage of dementia: Validation of The Montessori Assessment System (MAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkes, Jérôme; Camp, Cameron J; Raffard, Stéphane; Gély-Nargeot And, Marie-Christine; Bayard, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity and reliability of the Montessori Assessment System. The Montessori Assessment System assesses preserved abilities in persons with moderate to severe dementia. In this respect, this instrument provides crucial information for the development of effective person-centered care plans. A total of 196 persons with a diagnosis of dementia in the moderate to severe stages of dementia were recruited in 10 long-term care facilities in France. All participants completed the Montessori Assessment System, the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale and/or the Mini Mental State Examination and the Severe Impairment Battery-short form. The internal consistency and temporal stability of the Montessori Assessment System were high. Additionally, good construct and divergent validity were demonstrated. Factor analysis showed a one-factor structure. The Montessori Assessment System demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties while being a useful instrument to assess capabilities in persons with advanced stages of dementia and hence to develop person-centered plans of care.

  8. Método de Montessori aplicado à demência: revisão da literatura Método Montessori aplicado a la demencia: revisión de la literatura Montessori Method applied to dementia: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Filipa Soares Brandão

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O método de Montessori foi aplicado inicialmente às crianças, mas atualmente aplica-se a pessoas com demência. O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer uma revisão sistemática da investigação sobre a eficácia desse método, utilizando a Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline com as palavras-chave demência e método de Montessori. Foram selecionados 10 estudos, onde se verificam melhorias significativas na participação e no envolvimento construtivo e diminuição dos afectos negativos e do envolvimento passivo. Não obstante, as revisões da literatura acerca desta intervenção não farmacológica em demência classificam esse método como fraco, em termos de eficácia. Essa aparente discrepância pode explicar-se porque o método de Montessori pode ter, de fato, uma influência pouco significativa em dimensões como a dos problemas comportamentais ou porque não existe investigação acerca desse método com elevados níveis de controle como são a presença de vários grupos de controle ou o duplo-cego.El método Montessori se aplicó inicialmente a los niños, pero ahora se aplica a las personas con demencia. El propósito de este estudio es revisar de forma sistemática la investigación sobre la eficacia de este método, utilizando Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline con las palabras clave demencia y método Montessori. Se seleccionaron 10 estudios, que tienen mejoras significativas en la participación y en el compromiso constructivo, y la reducción de efectos negativos y de la participación pasiva. Sin embargo, la revisión de la literatura sobre esta intervención no farmacológica en la demencia clasifica este método como débil en términos de eficacia. Esta aparente discrepancia puede explicarse porque el método Montessori puede tener una influencia poco significativa en los problemas de conducta, o porque no hay investigación sobre este método con altos niveles de

  9. La evaluación docente en la pedagogía Montessori: propuesta de un instrumento A avaliação docente na pedagogia Montessori: proposta de um instrumento Teacher Evaluation in Montessori Education: A Proposed Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Mendoza-Páez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue el diseño, la construcción y la validación del contenido de un instrumento que permita evaluar el desempeño docente en un colegio con metodología Montessori. Dicho instrumento se validó a través del método de jueces expertos en relación con la pertinencia, coherencia y redacción de cada ítem (participaron tres jueces; la fiabilidad de los jueces se obtuvo a través del coeficiente de concordancia o índice kappa, el cual puntuó alto (total acuerdo. Conforme a los resultados se eliminaron 27 ítems de los 102 propuestos, y quedaron 75 en el instrumento de aplicación. El instrumento contiene las dimensiones del ser, saber, saber hacer y saber comprender del docente. Posteriormente se hizo una aplicación piloto a los 30 participantes, los cuales pertenecen al colegio Montessori British School, institución que utiliza como pedagogía el método Montessori. En el análisis de la consistencia interna, obtenida por los índices alfa de Cronbach, estos fueron altos en todas las dimensiones evaluadas (promedio .88.Neste artigo, o objetivo foi desenhar, construir e validar o contido de um instrumento que permita avaliar o desempenho docente em uma escola com pedagogia Montessori. Esse instrumento foi validado pelo método de juízes expertos em quanto pertinência, coerência e redação de cada item (participaram três juízes. A fiabilidade dos juízes foi lograda mediante o coeficiente de concordância ou índice de kappa, o qual pontuou alto (acordo total. Seguindo os resultados, foram eliminados 27 itens dos 102 propostos. Os outros 75 permaneceram no instrumento de aplicação. O instrumento contem as dimensões do ser, saber, saber fazer e saber compreender do docente. Depois foi feita uma aplicação piloto aos 30 participantes, pertencentes à escola Montessori British School, instituição que emprega o método Montessori. Na análise da consistência interna, obtida mediante os índices alfa

  10. Definition of gross tumor volume in lung cancer: inter-observer variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Steene, Jan; Linthout, Nadine; de Mey, Johan; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Claassens, Cornelia; Noppen, Marc; Bel, Arjan; Storme, Guy

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To determine the inter-observer variation in gross tumor volume (GTV) definition in lung cancer, and its clinical relevance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five clinicians involved in lung cancer were asked to define GTV on the planning CT scan of eight patients. Resulting GTVs were

  11. What Makes Mathematics Manipulatives Effective? Lessons From Cognitive Science and Montessori Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elida V. Laski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Manipulatives are ubiquitous in early childhood classrooms; yet, findings regarding their efficacy for learning mathematics concepts are inconsistent. In this article, we present four general principles that have emerged from cognitive science about ways to ensure that manipulatives promote learning when used with young children. We also describe how Montessori instruction offers a concrete example of the application of these principles in practice, which may, in turn, explain the high levels of mathematics achievement among children who attend Montessori programs during early childhood. The general principles and concrete examples presented in this article should help early childhood programs maximize the benefits of using manipulatives for developmentally appropriate mathematics instruction.

  12. Maria Montessori (1870-1952): Women's emancipation, pedagogy and extra verbal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascella, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Maria Montessori is one of the most well-known women in Italian history. Although she was the first woman who graduated in medicine in Italy, she is mostly known as an educator. Her teaching method--the Montessori Method- is still used worldwide--Because she could not speak English during the imprisonment in India, there was a big obstacle for her communication with children. However, the need to adopt a non-verbal communication, led her to a sensational discovery: children use an innate and universal language. This language, made of gestures and mimic, is called extra verbal communication.

  13. La progettazione di nuovi spazi educativi per l’infanzia: da Ellen Key a Maria Montessori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Pironi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The essay presents a comparison between the thought of Ellen Key and that of Maria Montessori. Changes that involved the role of women, caught in its interdependence with the development of new educational practices, were the center of the theoretical contribution of Ellen Key. Maria Montessori believed that only women work outside the home would guarantee the economic independence necessary to form a union on sentiment rather than on utilitarian calculations and therefore she did not seem to share the concerns of the Key on an increasingly massive female entry into the world of work. The paper offers an updated reflection on the work of two scholars of education.

  14. Escuela integral de desarrollo de liderazgo (EIDL) para el colegio Montessori

    OpenAIRE

    Velasquez Zapata, Margarita Maria

    2013-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es plantear el desarrollo de una escuela de liderazgo para jóvenes preadolescentes y adolescentes del Colegio Montessori, institución de carácter privado, con sede en Medellín. El colegio está centrado en el planteamiento de un proyecto en la temática del liderazgo escolar, a partir del diseño de un programa de desarrollo de liderazgo para jóvenes del Colegio Montessori de Medellín, teniendo en cuenta los elementos conceptuales, procedimentales y estratégicos ...

  15. Using acupressure and Montessori-based activities to decrease agitation for residents with dementia: a cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Chan; Yang, Man-Hua; Kao, Chieh-Chun; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Tang, Sai-Hung; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2009-06-01

    To explore the effectiveness of acupressure and Montessori-based activities in decreasing the agitated behaviors of residents with dementia. A double-blinded, randomized (two treatments and one control; three time periods) cross-over design was used. Six special care units for residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan were the sites for the study. One hundred thirty-three institutionalized residents with dementia. Subjects were randomized into three treatment sequences: acupressure-presence-Montessori methods, Montessori methods-acupressure-presence and presence-Montessori methods-acupressure. All treatments were done once a day, 6 days per week, for a 4-week period. The Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, Ease-of-Care, and the Apparent Affect Rating Scale. After receiving the intervention, the acupressure and Montessori-based-activities groups saw a significant decrease in agitated behaviors, aggressive behaviors, and physically nonaggressive behaviors than the presence group. Additionally, the ease-of-care ratings for the acupressure and Montessori-based-activities groups were significantly better than for the presence group. In terms of apparent affect, positive affect in the Montessori-based-activities group was significantly better than in the presence group. This study confirms that a blending of traditional Chinese medicine and a Western activities program would be useful in elderly care and that in-service training for formal caregivers in the use of these interventions would be beneficial for patients

  16. Implementing Montessori Methods for Dementia: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzig, Sander L; Sheppard, Christine L

    2017-10-01

    A scoping review was conducted to develop an understanding of Montessori-based programing (MBP) approaches used in dementia care and to identify optimal ways to implement these programs across various settings. Six peer-reviewed databases were searched for relevant abstracts by 2 independent reviewers. Included articles and book chapters were those available in English and published by the end of January 2016. Twenty-three articles and 2 book chapters met the inclusion criteria. Four approaches to implementing MBP were identified: (a) staff assisted (n = 14); (b) intergenerational (n = 5); (c) resident assisted (n = 4); and (d) volunteer or family assisted (n = 2). There is a high degree of variability with how MBP was delivered and no clearly established "best practices" or standardized protocol emerged across approaches except for resident-assisted MBP. The findings from this scoping review provide an initial road map on suggestions for implementing MBP across dementia care settings. Irrespective of implementation approach, there are several pragmatic and logistical issues that need to be taken into account for optimal implementation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Volume overload and adverse outcomes in chronic kidney disease: clinical observational and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Szu-Chun; Lai, Yi-Shin; Kuo, Ko-Lin; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2015-05-05

    Volume overload is frequently encountered and is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the relationship between volume overload and adverse outcomes in CKD is not fully understood. A prospective cohort of 338 patients with stage 3 to 5 CKD was followed for a median of 2.1 years. The study participants were stratified by the presence or absence of volume overload, defined as an overhydration index assessed by bioimpedance spectroscopy exceeding 7%, the 90th percentile for the healthy population. The primary outcome was the composite of estimated glomerular filtration rate decline ≥50% or end-stage renal disease. The secondary outcome included a composite of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes. Animal models were used to simulate fluid retention observed in human CKD. We found that patients with volume overload were at a higher risk of the primary and secondary end points in the adjusted Cox models. Furthermore, overhydration appears to be more important than hypertension in predicting an elevated risk. In rats subjected to unilateral nephrectomy and a high-salt diet, the extracellular water significantly increased. This fluid retention was associated with an increase in blood pressure, proteinuria, renal inflammation with macrophage infiltration and tumor necrosis factor-α overexpression, glomerular sclerosis, and cardiac fibrosis. Diuretic treatment with indapamide attenuated these changes, suggesting that fluid retention might play a role in the development of adverse outcomes. Volume overload contributes to CKD progression and cardiovascular diseases. Further research is warranted to clarify whether the correction of volume overload would improve outcomes for CKD patients. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  18. Precise determination of universal finite volume observables in the Gross-Neveu model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzec, T.

    2007-01-26

    The Gross-Neveu model is a quantum field theory in two space time dimensions that shares many features with quantum chromo dynamics. In this thesis the continuum model and its discretized versions are reviewed and a finite volume renormalization scheme is introduced and tested. Calculations in the limit of infinitely many fermion flavors as well as perturbative computations are carried out. In extensive Monte-Carlo simulations of the one flavor and the four flavor lattice models with Wilson fermions a set of universal finite volume observables is calculated to a high precision. In the one flavor model which is equivalent to the massless Thirring model the continuum extrapolated Monte-Carlo results are confronted with an exact solution of the model. (orig.)

  19. Precise determination of universal finite volume observables in the Gross-Neveu model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzec, T.

    2007-01-01

    The Gross-Neveu model is a quantum field theory in two space time dimensions that shares many features with quantum chromo dynamics. In this thesis the continuum model and its discretized versions are reviewed and a finite volume renormalization scheme is introduced and tested. Calculations in the limit of infinitely many fermion flavors as well as perturbative computations are carried out. In extensive Monte-Carlo simulations of the one flavor and the four flavor lattice models with Wilson fermions a set of universal finite volume observables is calculated to a high precision. In the one flavor model which is equivalent to the massless Thirring model the continuum extrapolated Monte-Carlo results are confronted with an exact solution of the model. (orig.)

  20. Longitudinal Academic Achievement Outcomes: Modeling the Growth Trajectories of Montessori Elementary Public School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Jan Davis

    2014-01-01

    Elementary education has theoretical underpinnings based on cognitive psychology. Ideas from cognitive psychologists such as James, Dewey, Piaget, and Vygotsky coalesce to form constructivism (Cooper, 1993; Yager, 2000; Yilmaz, 2011). Among others, the Montessori Method (1912/1964) is an exemplar of constructivism. Currently, public education in…

  1. Helping Children with Attentional Challenges in a Montessori Classroom: The Role of the Occupational Therapist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luborsky, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Barbabra Luborsky links the medical field and Montessori pedagogy to address atypical attention in children through the lens of the occupational therapist. She provides an overview of attention and sensory processing disorders and then informs about particular diagnoses, particularly ADHD and its comorbidity with other diagnoses. Her specific…

  2. Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Mathematics Instruction in Montessori and Traditional Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofa, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Students in grades 3 and 4 attending a traditional public elementary school in a northeastern state did not meet proficiency levels in mathematics as measured by the state's assessment system. Published reports indicated that students attending the Montessori programs were more proficient in solving math problems compared to students in…

  3. Homework Policy and Student Choice: Findings from a Montessori Charter School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Catherine M.; Glaze, Nelda

    2017-01-01

    The use of homework has been a controversial topic in education for many years: what types of homework to give, how much, and how often. In previous years, Ocean Montessori School (a pseudonym), the site of this study, offered homework like that of traditional public schools, such as worksheets and rote skill practice. Feeling conflicted about the…

  4. Un-"Chartered" Waters: Balancing Montessori Curriculum and Accountability Measures in a Charter School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    More than 6,000 charter schools exist in the United States, and of these 120 are Montessori charter schools. When studying charter school practices, researchers often examine issues such as performance accountability measures and effectiveness of charter school curricula. In doing so, the outcomes often overlook the challenges for teachers as they…

  5. María Montessori y la educación cósmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Morales Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La etapa de Montessori en la India fue uno de los periodos más enriquecedores en la vida de MariaMontessori. Allí escribió y publicó La Mente Absorbente del niño, y una serie de libros fundamentales. En suobra La educación de las potencialidades humanas desarrolló los principios de la “Educación Cósmica” queadaptó para el currículo de Primaria. Invitada en 1939 a dar unas conferencias en la India por el Presidente dela Sociedad Teosófica, Montessori y su hijo, se vieron atrapados por el estallido de la Segunda GuerraMundial, y su posterior desarrollo. Tenía 69 años cuando llegó a Madrás. Permaneció diez años. Pero nadasería igual que antes. Había una Montessori antes de la India, y otra mucho más profunda después. Cuandoregresaba a Europa declaró, a los que le preguntaban qué había hecho en la India: “creo que he aprendido aaprender, como el Niño”.

  6. The Montessori Experiment in Rhode Island (1913-1940): Tracing Theory to Implementation over 25 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoll, Susan

    2017-01-01

    This article highlights archived documents pertaining to a 25-year experimental classroom implemented by Clara Craig, then supervisor of training at the Rhode Island Normal School. Craig is notable as she was the only participant in the first International Montessori Training Course in Rome, Italy, in 1913, to gain approval from the Rhode Island…

  7. Opportunities for Inquiry Science in Montessori Classrooms: Learning from a Culture of Interest, Communication, and Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinke, Carol R.; Gimbel, Steven J.; Haskell, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Although classroom inquiry is the primary pedagogy of science education, it has often been difficult to implement within conventional classroom cultures. This study turned to the alternatively structured Montessori learning environment to better understand the ways in which it fosters the essential elements of classroom inquiry, as defined by…

  8. John McDermott and the Road to Montessori Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povell, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author states that, for over 45 years, she has explored the issues of leadership and change, and, along the way, she has examined how diversity fits in with these ideas. She states that she found all three of these concepts embodied in the person of John McDermott, a leader in the American Montessori movement in the United…

  9. The Epistemology behind the Educational Philosophy of Montessori: Senses, Concepts, and Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to re-introduce Dr. Maria Montessori's educational philosophy, which has been absent from modern philosophy of education literature. It describes and analyzes crucial aspects of her epistemology, as best known through her "Method." Discussed are the need for early education, the development of the senses, and the…

  10. Perceptions of High School Seniors' Montessori Experiences and Academic Self-Efficacy Beliefs: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Molly McHugh

    2010-01-01

    More than twenty-five years after the release of "A Nation at Risk," our federal government continues to explore innovative ways to close the achievement gap. The goal of this phenomenological study was to describe four students' experiences with one school choice option in South Carolina, public Montessori. The purpose of the study was…

  11. Theories of Childhood: An Introduction to Dewey, Montessori, Erikson, Piaget & Vygotsky, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Carol Garhart

    2013-01-01

    This best-selling resource provides clear, straightforward introductions to the foundational theories of John Dewey, Maria Montessori, Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget, and Lev Vygotsky. Each chapter highlights a theorist's work and includes insight on how the theory impacts teaching young children today. Discussion questions and suggested readings are…

  12. The Effect of Montessori Method on Cognitive Tempo of Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayili, Gökhan

    2018-01-01

    This study was undertaken to discover the effect of the Montessori Method on the cognitive tempo of 4-5-year-old children. Using an experimental pre-test-post-test paired control group design, the study sample included 60 children attending Ihsan Dogramaci Applied Nursery School (affiliated to Selcuk University, Department of Health Sciences) in…

  13. Mind over Matter: Contributing Factors to Self-Efficacy in Montessori Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Punum

    2012-01-01

    Interpreting Albert Bandura's term "self-efficacy" as the individual's belief in his own abilities to succeed in spite of the given circumstances, this study seeks to identify the influences which lead to self-efficacy in Montessori teachers. In order to evaluate perceptions of self-efficacy, 35 pre-service teachers in the…

  14. How the Montessori Upper Elementary and Adolescent Environment Naturally Integrates Science, Mathematics, Technology, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, John

    2016-01-01

    John McNamara shares his wisdom and humbly credits Camillo Grazzini, Jenny Höglund, and David Kahn for his growth in Montessori. Recognizing more than what he has learned from his mentors, he shares the lessons he has learned from his students themselves. Math, science, history, and language are so integrated in the curriculum that students…

  15. The Mathematical Intelligence Seen through the Lens of the Montessori Theory of the Human Tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kay M.

    1996-01-01

    Contextualizes the mathematical intelligence as revealed in the human tendencies, as supported by the extended family, and facilitated by choice within a responsive environment. Reviews the function of Montessori materials, including mathematical materials, and emphasizes that the personal intelligences are integral to all activities simply…

  16. The Effect of Steiner, Montessori, and National Curriculum Education upon Children's Pretence and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Julie Ann; Kidd, Evan

    2017-01-01

    Pretence and creativity are often regarded as ubiquitous characteristics of childhood, yet not all education systems value or promote these attributes to the same extent. Different pedagogies and practices are evident within the UK National Curriculum, Steiner and Montessori schools. In this study, 20 children participated from each of these…

  17. The Effects of Music Instruction on Learning in the Montessori Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    The value of music in educating the young child is not being recognized, particularly in the area of mathematics. Despite the amount of literature available regarding the effects of music instruction on academic achievement, little has been written on different Montessori music pedagogies and their effects on students' math scores. This article…

  18. Construction and Validation of a Holistic Education School Evaluation Tool Using Montessori Erdkinder Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setari, Anthony Philip

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct a holistic education school evaluation tool using Montessori Erdkinder principles, and begin the validation process of examining the proposed tool. This study addresses a vital need in the holistic education community for a school evaluation tool. The tool construction process included using Erdkinder…

  19. The Montessori Method and the Kindergarten. Bulletin, 1914, No. 28. Whole Number 602

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Elizabeth

    1914-01-01

    Recently an earnest, brilliant, and learned Italian woman, Dr. Maria Montessori, has become famous, probably beyond her desire, for her contribution to the knowledge of little children and for the embodiment of her own and the discoveries of others in what she likes to call "a method of a new science of education." Her scientific investigations as…

  20. Social Work in Family Life Enrichment: The Children of Alcoholics--A Montessori Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald-Jay, Celynn

    1978-01-01

    If the children of alcoholics are to break the alcoholic life style cycle, they must develop their potential for creativity, initiative, independence, inner discipline, and self confidence. The Montessori approach is particularly successful in achieving these qualities in children and in promoting parenting skills in alcoholic parents. (Author/GC)

  1. Definition of gross tumor volume in lung cancer: inter-observer variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Steene, Jan; Linthout, Nadine; Mey, Johan de; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Claassens, Cornelia; Noppen, Marc; Bel, Arjan; Storme, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine the inter-observer variation in gross tumor volume (GTV) definition in lung cancer, and its clinical relevance. Material and methods: Five clinicians involved in lung cancer were asked to define GTV on the planning CT scan of eight patients. Resulting GTVs were compared on the base of geometric volume, dimensions and extensions. Judgement of invasion of lymph node (LN) regions was evaluated using the ATS/LCSG classification of LN. Clinical relevance of the variation was studied through 3D-dosimetry of standard conformal plans: volume of critical organs (heart, lungs, esophagus, spinal cord) irradiated at toxic doses, 95% isodose volumes of GTVs, normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) and tumor control probabilities (TCP) were compared for evaluation of observer variability. Results: Before evaluation of observer variability, critical review of planning CT scan led to up- (two cases) and downstaging (one case) of patients as compared to the respective diagnostic scans. The defined GTVs showed an inter-observer variation with a ratio up to more than 7 between maximum and minimum geometric content. The dimensions of the primary tumor had inter-observer ranges of 4.2 (transversal), 7.9 (cranio-caudal) and 5.4 (antero-posterior) cm. Extreme extensions of the GTVs (left, right, cranial, caudal, anterior and posterior) varied with ranges of 2.8-7.3 cm due to inter-observer variation. After common review, only 63% of involved lymph node regions were delineated by the clinicians (i.e. 37% are false negative). Twenty-two percent of drawn in lymph node regions were accepted to be false positive after review. In the conformal plans, inter-observer ranges of irradiated normal tissue volume were on average 12%, with a maximum of 66%. The probability (in the population of all conformal plans) of irradiating at least 95% of the GTV with at least 95% of the nominal treatment dose decreased from 96 to 88% when swapping the matched GTV

  2. [The significance of the Montessori method and phenomenon with a particular view to the therapy of the aphasics (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchmeier-Nussbaumer, A K

    1980-05-01

    The methods of the Italian physician Maria Montessori influenced the development of modern learning practices. There is general agreement that the Montessori phenomenon is personality forming. Aspects of this method, which are relevant for the rehabilitation of the brain-damaged and, in particular, the aphasics are presented. Possible shifts of emphasis within the relationship therapist - method - patient are analysed. Examples are used to outline in how far an increasingly patient-oriented therapy can influence the development of the aphasic patient.

  3. Target volume delineation in external beam partial breast irradiation: Less inter-observer variation with preoperative- compared to postoperative delineation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leij, Femke van der; Elkhuizen, Paula H.M.; Janssen, Tomas M.; Poortmans, Philip; Sangen, Maurice van der; Scholten, Astrid N.; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Boersma, Liesbeth J.

    2014-01-01

    The challenge of adequate target volume definition in external beam partial breast irradiation (PBI) could be overcome with preoperative irradiation, due to less inter-observer variation. We compared the target volume delineation for external beam PBI on preoperative versus postoperative CT scans of twenty-four breast cancer patients

  4. Target volume delineation in external beam partial breast irradiation: less inter-observer variation with preoperative- compared to postoperative delineation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leij, F. van der; Elkhuizen, P.H.M.; Janssen, T.M.; Poortmans, P.M.P.; Sangen, M. van der; Scholten, A.N.; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, C. van; Boersma, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The challenge of adequate target volume definition in external beam partial breast irradiation (PBI) could be overcome with preoperative irradiation, due to less inter-observer variation. We compared the target volume delineation for external beam PBI on preoperative versus postoperative CT scans of

  5. Does ultrasonographic volume of the thyroid gland correlate with difficult intubation? An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Ceyda Meco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Preoperative ultrasonographic evaluation of the thyroid gland done by surgeons could let us foresee airway management challenges. The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the effects of thyroid-related parameters assessed preoperatively by surgeons via ultrasonography and chest X-ray on intubation conditions. METHODS: Fifty patients undergoing thyroid surgery were enrolled. Thyromental distance, Mallampati score, neck circumference and range of neck movement were evaluated before the operation. Thyroid volume, signs of invasion or compression and tracheal deviation on chest X-ray were also noted. The intubation conditions were assessed with Cormack and Lehane score and the intubation difficulty scale. Statistical analyses were done with SPSS 15.0 software. RESULTS: The mean thyroid volume of the patients was 26.38 ± 14 mL. The median intubation difficulty scale was 1 (0-2. Thyromental distance (p = 0.011; r = 0.36; 95% CI 0.582-0.088, Mallampati score (p = 0.041; r = 0.29; 95% CI 0.013-0.526, compression or invasion signs (p = 0.041; r = 0.28; 95% CI 0.006-0.521 and tracheal deviation on chest X-ray (p = 0.041; r = 0.52; 95% CI 0.268-0.702 were correlated with intubation difficulty scale. Also patients were classified into two groups related to their intubation difficulty scale (Group I, n = 19: intubation difficulty scale = 0; Group II, n = 31: 1 < intubation difficulty scale ≤ 5 and difficult intubation predictors and thyroid-related parameters were compared. Only Mallampati score was significantly different between groups (p = 0.025. CONCLUSION: The thyroid volume is not associated with difficult intubation. However clinical assessment parameters may predict difficult intubation.

  6. Children’s stories in the educational theories of Ellen Key, Rudolf Steiner and Maria Montessori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Grandi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the educational value that Ellen Key (1849-1926, Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925 and Maria Montessori (1870-1952 attributed to children's stories. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century these three important authors contributed to the renewal of the educational theories and practices. They dedicated a part of their pedagogical reflections to the educational meanings of children's stories; consider, e.g., the many pages of Ellen Key on children's literature, the recommendations of Rudolf Steiner on the educational relevance of fairy tales and mythology or, finally, Maria Montessori's reflections on fairy tales. The article examines these ideas from a historical and pedagogical point of view.

  7. ERASMO PILOTTO AND THE USE OF MONTESSORI METHOD IN THE LITERACY IN PARANÁ

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Simone Ballmann

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the accomplished use of Montessori literacy by Erasmo Pilotto in the programs for primary education in Paraná. In addition, some of the specificities of Montessor appropriation by him in regard to Early Childhood Education are also presented. Through a historiographic narrative (MAGALHÃES, 2004), composed of advances and remissions in the work with the presented and interpreted materialities, we present a new scene of the History of the Brazilian Education with regard to ...

  8. The profile of the Montessori assistant: historical paths and new education projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara De Serio

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the professional profile of the Montessori-trained teacher, as educated at the college devised by Maria Montessori and founded in the 1950s by one of her closest pupils, Adele Costa Gnocchi. The Montessori assistant was a professional figure specially trained to aid the birth process and the “mental” needs of the protagonists involved, referring specifically to the child. In this respect, the paper also looks at the subject of education from birth, starting with Montessori’s earliest ideas on new-born children and their creative capabilities. The purpose is to recover the scientific foundations on which the pedagogical practices usually applied by childhood services are based, with the awareness that these consolidated practices need strengthening and a scientific foundation – including on an historical level – in order to contribute to qualifying services for early childhood. Through specific methodological qualification, above all with regard to Montessori’s methods, as well as by placing more valid historical importance on the paths they began, early childhood services may even be able to move in the direction of possible institutionalised training.

  9. Noninvasive in vivo plasma volume and hematocrit in humans: observing long-term baseline behavior to establish homeostasis for intravascular volume and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Paul; Deng, Bin; Goodisman, Jerry; Peterson, Charles M.; Narsipur, Sriram; Chaiken, J.

    2016-04-01

    A new device incorporating a new algorithm and measurement process allows simultaneous noninvasive in vivo monitoring of intravascular plasma volume and red blood cell volume. The purely optical technique involves probing fingertip skin with near infrared laser light and collecting the wavelength shifted light, that is, the inelastic emission (IE) which includes the unresolved Raman and fluorescence, and the un-shifted emission, that is, the elastic emission (EE) which includes both the Rayleigh and Mie scattered light. Our excitation and detection geometry is designed so that from these two simultaneous measurements we can calculate two parameters within the single scattering regime using radiation transfer theory, the intravascular plasma volume fraction and the red blood cell volume fraction. Previously calibrated against a gold standard FDA approved device, 2 hour monitoring sessions on three separate occasions over a three week span for a specific, motionless, and mostly sleeping individual produced 3 records containing a total of 5706 paired measurements of hematocrit and plasma volume. The average over the three runs, relative to the initial plasma volume taken as 100%, of the plasma volume±1σ was 97.56+/-0.55 or 0.56%.For the same three runs, the average relative hematocrit (Hct), referenced to an assumed initial value of 28.35 was 29.37+/-0.12 or stable to +/-0.4%.We observe local deterministic circulation effects apparently associated with the pressure applied by the finger probe as well as longer timescale behavior due to normal ebb and flow of internal fluids due to posture changes and tilt table induced gravity gradients.

  10. Tidal volume and mortality in mechanically ventilated children: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Pauline; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; van Heerde, Marc; Albers, Marcel J I J; Markhorst, Dick G; Kneyber, Martin C J

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether tidal volume is associated with mortality in critically ill, mechanically ventilated children. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases from inception until July 2013 and bibliographies of included studies without language restrictions. Randomized clinical trials and observational studies reporting mortality in mechanically ventilated PICU patients. Two authors independently selected studies and extracted data on study methodology, quality, and patient outcomes. Meta-analyses were performed using the Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model. Heterogeneity was quantified using I. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Score for cohort studies. Out of 142 citations, seven studies met the inclusion criteria, and additional two articles were identified from references of the found articles. One was excluded. These eight studies included 1,756 patients. Mortality rates ranged from 13% to 42%. There was no association between tidal volume and mortality when tidal volume was dichotomized at 7, 8, 10, or 12 mL/kg. Comparing patients ventilated with tidal volume less than 7 mL/kg and greater than 10 mL/kg or greater than 12 mL/kg and tidal volume less than 8 mL/kg and greater than 10 mL/kg or greater than 12 mL/kg also showed no association between tidal volume and mortality. Limiting the analysis to patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome did not change these results. Heterogeneity was observed in all pooled analyses. A relationship between tidal volume and mortality in mechanically ventilated children could not be identified, irrespective of the severity of disease. The significant heterogeneity observed in the pooled analyses necessitates future studies in well-defined patient populations to understand the effects of tidal volume on patient outcome.

  11. PROSES PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS METODE MONTESSORI DALAM MENGEMBANGKAN KETERAMPILAN SOSIAL ANAK USIA DINI (Penelitian Deskriptif Di PAUD Assya’idiyah Kab. Bandung Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Sumitra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini, penulis mengidentifikasi masalah sebagai berikut: 1. Perencanaan pembelajaran, pengembangan dan proses kegiatan pembelajaran belum mengacu betul terhadap tahap-tahap perkembangan anak, 2. Keterampilan sosial belum tertampilkan secara optimal mengingat sarana dan prasarana yang menunjang pengembangan keterampilan sosial belum memadai, 3. Pembelajaran anak usia dini masih terfokus pada peningkatan kemampuan akademik (hapalan dan calistung, 4. Rasa egois pada diri anak masih tinggi disebabkan cakrawala sosial anak terbatas dirumah, peserta didik seringkali memikirkan diri sendiri. Kemudian penulis merumuskan masalah sebagai berikut: Bagaimana proses pembelajaran metode montessori terhadap keterampilan sosial anak?Berdasarkan pada rumusan masalah di atas, tujuan yang ingin dicapai dalam penelitian ini adalah : 1. Rencana pembelajaran dengan metode montessori dalam upaya meningkatkan keterampilan sosial anak usia dini dengan bermacam aktifitas di PAUD, 2. Pelaksanaan pembelajaran dengan menggunakan metode montessori dalam mengembangkan keterampilan sosial anak usia dini, 3. Evaluasi proses pembelajaran dengan menggunakan metode montessori untuk meningkatkan keterampilan sosiak anak usia dini, 4. Untuk mengembangkan keterampilan sosial anak yang tertampilkan sebagai hasil pembelajaran dengan menggunakan metode montessori pada anak usia dini.Metode yang digunakan oleh penulis dalam penelitian ini adalah metode penelitian deskriptif dengan pendekatan kualitatif untuk mengetahui seberapa besar proses pembelajaran peserta didik dengan menggunakan metode montessori dalam mengembangkan keterampilan sosial anak. Data diperoleh dari hasil observasi, wawancara dan studi dokumentasi terhadap sumber data, objek penelitian yaitu PAUD Assya’idiyah, Kecamatan. Cipongkor, Kabupaten. Bandung Barat.Dari hasil penganalisisan data di peroleh sebagai berikut: 1. Perencanaan pembelajaran di PAUD Assya’idiyah sesuai dengan metode Montessori dimulai

  12. The Mystery of Pleasure: Thoughts on Teaching and learning Sex and Gender Relations in a Democratic Montessori Elementary Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Henry R. RICH

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Dr Maria Montessori (1870-1952, saw the child as a 'spiritual embryo' naturally gravitating towards a state of 'normalization' through the evolving discovery of a 'cosmic task' that emerged from inquiring into one's identity and role in the universe. Although she laid a philosophical framework for this 'educating of the human potential'; she never openly discussed sexuality and sexual knowledge as a necessary part of this development. Dr Riane Eisler is a contemporary feminist systems theorist whose 'partnership model' of sexual politics embraces (and, in fact, openly endorses the tenets of the Montessori approach.

  13. Montessori-based training makes a difference for home health workers & their clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelle, Gregg J; Kaiser, Kathy; Camp, Cameron J

    2003-01-01

    Home care visits can last several hours. Home care workers are often at a loss on how to fill time spent in homes of clients. The challenge is how to use this time in ways that are productive and engaging for both clients and home health workers. The authors trained home health aides to implement Montessori-based activities while interacting with clients who have dementia. The results were amazing. Among other positive results, the authors found a statistically significant increase in the amount of pleasure displayed by clients after health workers received training.

  14. Actividade e redenção: a criança nova em Maria Montessori

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Filipe Araújo, Alessandra Avanzini; Joaquim Machado de Araújo

    2011-01-01

    Resumo A ideia de Criança Nova em Maria Montessori (1870-1952) resulta da confluência de duas perspectivas, a da pedagogia que se pretende afirmar como ciência e a do humanismo cristão. Neste artigo, os autores procuram, numa primeira parte, especificar o que vem a ser para a pedagoga italiana a liberdade e a actividade da criança e o papel do adulto, principalmente do educador da criança que se auto-educa e, numa segunda parte, debruçam-se sobre o fundo religioso e humanista da obra montesso...

  15. Playing to Learn: An Overview of the Montessori Approach with Pre-School Children with Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores some of the literature concerning the effectiveness of the Montessori educational approach for children with ASC within an English school context. Firstly, there is a discussion, including a short historical review, regarding the ideology of inclusion and how it has impacted upon mainstream education. Also, how this can be…

  16. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Montessori Reading and Math Instruction for Third Grade African American Students in Urban Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katherine Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Improving academic achievement for students of color has long been the subject of debate among advocates of education reform (Anyon, 2013; Breitborde & Swiniarski, 2006; Payne, 2008). Some scholars have advocated for the Montessori method as an alternative educational approach to address some chronic problems in public education (Lillard,…

  17. Making Room for Children's Autonomy: Maria Montessori's Case for Seeing Children's Incapacity for Autonomy as an External Failing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierson, Patrick R.

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on Martha Nussbaum's distinction between basic, internal, and external (or combined) capacities to better specify possible locations for children's "incapacity" for autonomy. I then examine Maria Montessori's work on what she calls "normalization", which involves a release of children's capacities for…

  18. Montessori and Jerome W. Berryman: Work, Play, Religious Education and the Art of Using the Christian Language System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the thinking and writing of Jerome W. Berryman has made a significant and unique contribution to the religious education of children and adults in faith-based contexts. Claiming to be influenced primarily by the work of Maria Montessori, his writings reveal the purpose of religious education to be teaching children the art…

  19. Improving Outcomes for Refugee Children: A Case Study on the Impact of Montessori Education along the Thai-Burma Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Tierney; Boulmier, Prairie; Zhu, Wenyi; Hancock, Paul; Muennig, Peter

    2015-01-01

    There are 25 million displaced children worldwide, and those receiving schooling are often educated in overcrowded classrooms. Montessori is a child-centred educational method that provides an alternative model to traditional educational approaches. In this model, students are able to direct their own learning and develop at their own pace,…

  20. Task-based Language Learning in Bilingual Montessori Elementary Schools: Customizing Foreign Language Learning and Promoting L2 Speaking Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Winnefeld

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign language learning has been a part of German elementary schools for several years now. Montessori schools focusing on individual learning, i.e. mostly independent from the teacher and based on auto-education, interest, and free choice, are also asked to teach an L2. The original lack of a concept of L2 learning for this environment has brought forth different approaches. Bilingual education seems to be feasible and applicable in Montessori education. The downside to this is that even in a bilingual classroom the Montessori way of learning may not allow for very much oral production of the foreign language. The role of L2 production (cf. Swain 1985, 1995, 2005 for language acquisition has been theoretically claimed and empirically investigated. Output can have a positive influence on L2 learning (cf. e.g. Izumi 2002, Keck et al. 2006. This also applies to interaction (cf. Long 1996, where negotiation of meaning and modified output are factors supporting L2 development (cf. e.g. de la Fuente 2002, McDonough 2005. Task-based Language Learning (TBLL presents itself as one way to promote oral language production and to provide opportunities for meaning-negotiation. Especially tasks with required information exchange and a closed outcome have been shown to be beneficial for the elicitation of negotiation of meaning and modified output. This paper argues that TBLL is a promising approach for the facilitation of L2 production and thus the development of speaking skills in a Montessori context. It also hypothesizes that TBLL can be implemented in a bilingual Montessori environment while still making the Montessori way of learning possible. Different tasks on various topics, examples of which are presented in this article, can lay the foundation for this. Offering such tasks in a bilingual Montessori elementary classroom promises to foster language production and the use of communication strategies like negotiation of meaning, both being

  1. Making limb and nadir measurements comparable: A common volume study of PMC brightness observed by Odin OSIRIS and AIM CIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benze, Susanne; Gumbel, Jörg; Randall, Cora E.; Karlsson, Bodil; Hultgren, Kristoffer; Lumpe, Jerry D.; Baumgarten, Gerd

    2018-01-01

    Combining limb and nadir satellite observations of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) has long been recognized as problematic due to differences in observation geometry, scattering conditions, and retrieval approaches. This study offers a method of comparing PMC brightness observations from the nadir-viewing Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument and the limb-viewing Odin Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS). OSIRIS and CIPS measurements are made comparable by defining a common volume for overlapping OSIRIS and CIPS observations for two northern hemisphere (NH) PMC seasons: NH08 and NH09. We define a scattering intensity quantity that is suitable for either nadir or limb observations and for different scattering conditions. A known CIPS bias is applied, differences in instrument sensitivity are analyzed and taken into account, and effects of cloud inhomogeneity and common volume definition on the comparison are discussed. Not accounting for instrument sensitivity differences or inhomogeneities in the PMC field, the mean relative difference in cloud brightness (CIPS - OSIRIS) is -102 ± 55%. The differences are largest for coincidences with very inhomogeneous clouds that are dominated by pixels that CIPS reports as non-cloud points. Removing these coincidences, the mean relative difference in cloud brightness reduces to -6 ± 14%. The correlation coefficient between the CIPS and OSIRIS measurements of PMC brightness variations in space and time is remarkably high, at 0.94. Overall, the comparison shows excellent agreement despite different retrieval approaches and observation geometries.

  2. Observation of Multiple Volume Reflection of Ultrarelativistic Protons by a Sequence of Several Bent Silicon Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter; Baricordi, S; Dalpiaz, P; Fiorini, M; Guidi, V; Mazzolari, A; Della Mea, G; Milan, R; Ambrosi, G; Zuccon, P; Bertucci, B; Bürger, W; Duranti, M; Cavoto, G; Santacesaria, R; Valente, P; Luci, C; Iacoangeli, F; Vallazza, E; Afonin, A G; Chesnokov, Yu A; Kotov, V I; Maisheev, V A; Yazynin, I A; Kovalenko, A D; Taratin, A M; Denisov, A S; Gavrikov, Y A; Ivanov, Yu M; Lapina, L P; Malyarenko, L G; Skorogobogatov, V V; Suvorov, V M; Vavilov, S A; Bolognini, D; Hasan, S; Mozzanica, A; Prest, M

    2009-01-01

    The interactions of 400 GeV protons with different sequences of bent silicon crystals have been investigated at the H8 beam line of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The multiple volume reflection of the proton beam has been studied in detail on a five-crystal reflector measuring an angular beam deflection =52.96±0.14 µrad. The efficiency was found larger than 80% for an angular acceptance at the reflector entrance of 70 µrad, with a maximal efficiency value of =0.90±0.01±0.03.

  3. CADDIS Volume 4. Data Analysis: Predicting Environmental Conditions from Biological Observations (PECBO Appendix)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of PECBO Module, using scripts to infer environmental conditions from biological observations, statistically estimating species-environment relationships, methods for inferring environmental conditions, statistical scripts in module.

  4. Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning Instructional Tools With Predict-Observe-Explain Strategy on the Topic of Cuboid and Cube Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhuda; Lukito, A.; Masriyah

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to develop instructional tools and implement it to see the effectiveness. The method used in this research referred to Designing Effective Instruction. Experimental research with two-group pretest-posttest design method was conducted. The instructional tools have been developed is cooperative learning model with predict-observe-explain strategy on the topic of cuboid and cube volume which consist of lesson plans, POE tasks, and Tests. Instructional tools were of good quality by criteria of validity, practicality, and effectiveness. These instructional tools was very effective for teaching the volume of cuboid and cube. Cooperative instructional tool with predict-observe-explain (POE) strategy was good of quality because the teacher was easy to implement the steps of learning, students easy to understand the material and students’ learning outcomes completed classically. Learning by using this instructional tool was effective because learning activities were appropriate and students were very active. Students’ learning outcomes were completed classically and better than conventional learning. This study produced a good instructional tool and effectively used in learning. Therefore, these instructional tools can be used as an alternative to teach volume of cuboid and cube topics.

  5. Common volume coherent and incoherent scatter radar observations of mid-latitude sporadic E-layers and QP echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Common-volume observations of sporadic E-layers made on 14-15 June 2002 with the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar and a 30MHz coherent scatter radar imager located on St. Croix are described. Operating in dual-beam mode, the Arecibo radar detected a slowly descending sporadic E-layer accompanied by a series of dense E-region plasma clouds at a time when the coherent scatter radar was detecting quasi-periodic (QP echoes. Using coherent radar imaging, we collocate the sources of the coherent scatter with the plasma clouds observed by Arecibo. In addition to patchy, polarized scattering regions drifting through the radar illuminated volume, which have been observed in previous imaging experiments, the 30MHz radar also detected large-scale electrostatic waves in the E-region over Puerto Rico, with a wavelength of about 30km and a period of about 10min, propagating to the southwest. Both the intensity and the Doppler shifts of the coherent echoes were modulated by the wave.

  6. La función y el papel desempeñado por la maestra en la obra de Montessori - The role and the function of the teacher in Montessori works

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Avanzini

    2011-01-01

    A FUNÇÃO  E O PAPEL DESEMPENHADO PELA PROFESSORA NA OBRA DE MONTESSORI Resumo A função da professora constitui um aspecto fundamental dentro do sistema  teórico  montessoriano.   De   fato,   Montessori  atribui   à professora um papel muito  delicado: facilitar o correto crescimento da criança “pai  do homem”. É  por isto que o papel e a função da professora montessoriana devem responder aos pontos  fortes de sua teoria educativa: a necessidade de que haja uma forte idéia de escola, a necess...

  7. Il Centro Nascita Montessori. Dal neonato in famiglia al bambino e alla famiglia nel servizio educativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Franceschini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Intervento al Workshop Internazionale “Infanzie e Famiglie in Europa”, del 16 ottobre 2009, presso la Facoltà di Scienze della Formazione, Via Filippo Re, 6 Bologna (Aula Magna. L’intervento illustra i valori fondativi del Centro Nascita Montessori dalle sue origini ai giorni nostri attraverso un percorso che si è allargato nel tempo: dalla focalizzata attenzione e cura al neonato in famiglia o nel brefotrofio fino agli anni ’60 alla cura della crescita del bambino nei servizi educativi e alla cura della relazione con le famiglie dagli anni ‘70 in poi. Tale espansione del campo di interesse e d’indagine operativa ha arricchito il patrimonio di competenze e di conoscenze del C.N.M..

  8. Observations of Recent Arctic Sea Ice Volume Loss and Its Impact on Ocean-Atmosphere Energy Exchange and Ice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, N. T.; Markus, T.; Farrell, S. L.; Worthen, D. L.; Boisvert, L. N.

    2011-01-01

    Using recently developed techniques we estimate snow and sea ice thickness distributions for the Arctic basin through the combination of freeboard data from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and a snow depth model. These data are used with meteorological data and a thermodynamic sea ice model to calculate ocean-atmosphere heat exchange and ice volume production during the 2003-2008 fall and winter seasons. The calculated heat fluxes and ice growth rates are in agreement with previous observations over multiyear ice. In this study, we calculate heat fluxes and ice growth rates for the full distribution of ice thicknesses covering the Arctic basin and determine the impact of ice thickness change on the calculated values. Thinning of the sea ice is observed which greatly increases the 2005-2007 fall period ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes compared to those observed in 2003. Although there was also a decline in sea ice thickness for the winter periods, the winter time heat flux was found to be less impacted by the observed changes in ice thickness. A large increase in the net Arctic ocean-atmosphere heat output is also observed in the fall periods due to changes in the areal coverage of sea ice. The anomalously low sea ice coverage in 2007 led to a net ocean-atmosphere heat output approximately 3 times greater than was observed in previous years and suggests that sea ice losses are now playing a role in increasing surface air temperatures in the Arctic.

  9. Montessori Public School Pre-K Programs and the School Readiness of Low-Income Black and Latino Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Arya; Winsler, Adam

    2014-11-01

    Within the United States, there are a variety of early education models and curricula aimed at promoting young children's pre-academic, social, and behavioral skills. This study, using data from the Miami School Readiness Project (MSRP; Winsler et al., 2008, 2012), examined the school readiness gains of low-income Latino ( n = 7,045) and Black children ( n = 6,700) enrolled in two different types of Title-1 public school pre-K programs: those in programs using the Montessori curricula and those in more conventional programs using the High/Scope curricula with a literacy supplement. Parents and teachers reported on children's socio-emotional and behavioral skills with the Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA), while children's pre-academic skills (cognitive, motor, and language) were assessed directly with the Learning Accomplishment Profile Diagnostic (LAP-D) at the beginning and end of their four-year-old pre-K year. All children, regardless of curricula, demonstrated gains across pre-academic, socio-emotional, and behavioral skills throughout the pre-K year; however, all children did not benefit equally from Montessori programs. Latino children in Montessori programs began the year at most risk in pre-academic and behavioral skills, yet exhibited the greatest gains across these domains and ended the year scoring above national averages. Conversely, Black children exhibited healthy gains in Montessori, but demonstrated slightly greater gains when attending more conventional pre-K programs. Findings have implications for tailoring early childhood education programs for Latino and Black children from low-income communities.

  10. Does Learning the Alphabet in Kindergarten Give Children a Head Start in the First Year of School? A Comparison of Children's Reading Progress in Two First Grade Classes in State and Montessori Schools in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elben, Judy; Nicholson, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine whether the age at which children start to learn to read affects their later progress. The study was conducted in Zürich, Switzerland, and compared a first grade class in a local school with two first grade classes in a Montessori school. It was found that although the Montessori children had an…

  11. Trends in Personal Belief Exemption Rates Among Alternative Private Schools: Waldorf, Montessori, and Holistic Kindergartens in California, 2000–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Robert A.; Richards, Jennifer L.; Allen, Kristen E.; Warraich, Gohar J.; Omer, Saad B.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate trends in rates of personal belief exemptions (PBEs) to immunization requirements for private kindergartens in California that practice alternative educational methods. Methods. We used California Department of Public Health data on kindergarten PBE rates from 2000 to 2014 to compare annual average increases in PBE rates between schools. Results. Alternative schools had an average PBE rate of 8.7%, compared with 2.1% among public schools. Waldorf schools had the highest average PBE rate of 45.1%, which was 19 times higher than in public schools (incidence rate ratio = 19.1; 95% confidence interval = 16.4, 22.2). Montessori and holistic schools had the highest average annual increases in PBE rates, slightly higher than Waldorf schools (Montessori: 8.8%; holistic: 7.1%; Waldorf: 3.6%). Conclusions. Waldorf schools had exceptionally high average PBE rates, and Montessori and holistic schools had higher annual increases in PBE rates. Children in these schools may be at higher risk for spreading vaccine-preventable diseases if trends are not reversed. PMID:27854520

  12. Trends in Personal Belief Exemption Rates Among Alternative Private Schools: Waldorf, Montessori, and Holistic Kindergartens in California, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Julia M; Bednarczyk, Robert A; Richards, Jennifer L; Allen, Kristen E; Warraich, Gohar J; Omer, Saad B

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate trends in rates of personal belief exemptions (PBEs) to immunization requirements for private kindergartens in California that practice alternative educational methods. We used California Department of Public Health data on kindergarten PBE rates from 2000 to 2014 to compare annual average increases in PBE rates between schools. Alternative schools had an average PBE rate of 8.7%, compared with 2.1% among public schools. Waldorf schools had the highest average PBE rate of 45.1%, which was 19 times higher than in public schools (incidence rate ratio = 19.1; 95% confidence interval = 16.4, 22.2). Montessori and holistic schools had the highest average annual increases in PBE rates, slightly higher than Waldorf schools (Montessori: 8.8%; holistic: 7.1%; Waldorf: 3.6%). Waldorf schools had exceptionally high average PBE rates, and Montessori and holistic schools had higher annual increases in PBE rates. Children in these schools may be at higher risk for spreading vaccine-preventable diseases if trends are not reversed.

  13. Observer variation in target volume delineation of lung cancer related to radiation oncologist-computer interaction: A 'Big Brother' evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenbakkers, Roel J.H.M.; Duppen, Joop C.; Fitton, Isabelle; Deurloo, Kirsten E.I.; Zijp, Lambert; Uitterhoeve, Apollonia L.J.; Rodrigus, Patrick T.R.; Kramer, Gijsbert W.P.; Bussink, Johan; Jaeger, Katrien De; Belderbos, Jose S.A.; Hart, Augustinus A.M.; Nowak, Peter J.C.M.; Herk, Marcel van; Rasch, Coen R.N.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the process of target volume delineation in lung cancer for optimization of imaging, delineation protocol and delineation software. Patients and methods: Eleven radiation oncologists (observers) from five different institutions delineated the Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) including positive lymph nodes of 22 lung cancer patients (stages I-IIIB) on CT only. All radiation oncologist-computer interactions were recorded with a tool called 'Big Brother'. For each radiation oncologist and patient the following issues were analyzed: delineation time, number of delineated points and corrections, zoom levels, level and window (L/W) settings, CT slice changes, use of side windows (coronal and sagittal) and software button use. Results: The mean delineation time per GTV was 16 min (SD 10 min). The mean delineation time for lymph node positive patients was on average 3 min larger (P=0.02) than for lymph node negative patients. Many corrections (55%) were due to L/W change (e.g. delineating in mediastinum L/W and then correcting in lung L/W). For the lymph node region, a relatively large number of corrections was found (3.7 corr/cm 2 ), indicating that it was difficult to delineate lymph nodes. For the tumor-atelectasis region, a relative small number of corrections was found (1.0 corr/cm 2 ), indicating that including or excluding atelectasis into the GTV was a clinical decision. Inappropriate use of L/W settings was frequently found (e.g. 46% of all delineated points in the tumor-lung region were delineated in mediastinum L/W settings). Despite a large observer variation in cranial and caudal direction of 0.72 cm (1 SD), the coronal and sagittal side windows were not used in 45 and 60% of the cases, respectively. For the more difficult cases, observer variation was smaller when the coronal and sagittal side windows were used. Conclusions: With the 'Big Brother' tool a method was developed to trace the delineation process. The differences between

  14. Central venous pressure and shock index predict lack of hemodynamic response to volume expansion in septic shock: a prospective, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanspa, Michael J; Brown, Samuel M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Jones, Jason P; Grissom, Colin K

    2012-12-01

    Volume expansion is a common therapeutic intervention in septic shock, although patient response to the intervention is difficult to predict. Central venous pressure (CVP) and shock index have been used independently to guide volume expansion, although their use is questionable. We hypothesize that a combination of these measurements will be useful. In a prospective, observational study, patients with early septic shock received 10-mL/kg volume expansion at their treating physician's discretion after brief initial resuscitation in the emergency department. Central venous pressure and shock index were measured before volume expansion interventions. Cardiac index was measured immediately before and after the volume expansion using transthoracic echocardiography. Hemodynamic response was defined as an increase in a cardiac index of 15% or greater. Thirty-four volume expansions were observed in 25 patients. A CVP of 8 mm Hg or greater and a shock index of 1 beat min(-1) mm Hg(-1) or less individually had a good negative predictive value (83% and 88%, respectively). Of 34 volume expansions, the combination of both a high CVP and a low shock index was extremely unlikely to elicit hemodynamic response (negative predictive value, 93%; P = .02). Volume expansion in patients with early septic shock with a CVP of 8 mm Hg or greater and a shock index of 1 beat min(-1) mm Hg(-1) or less is unlikely to lead to an increase in cardiac index. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. La función y el papel desempeñado por la maestra en la obra de Montessori - The role and the function of the teacher in Montessori works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Avanzini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A FUNÇÃO  E O PAPEL DESEMPENHADO PELA PROFESSORA NA OBRA DE MONTESSORI Resumo A função da professora constitui um aspecto fundamental dentro do sistema  teórico  montessoriano.   De   fato,   Montessori  atribui   à professora um papel muito  delicado: facilitar o correto crescimento da criança “pai  do homem”. É  por isto que o papel e a função da professora montessoriana devem responder aos pontos  fortes de sua teoria educativa: a necessidade de que haja uma forte idéia de escola, a necessidade de diferenciar o momento teórico do momento prático e o papel desempenhado pelo desempenho científico da professora; o respeito que ambos devem ter com a criança (nem a professora nem a ciência  podem  fixar  a   priori   os   resultados  de  cada  criança: potencialmente  a   excelência é  para  todos;  o  xeque  a  qualquer pretensão de neutralidade/objetividade: quando a relação é com seres humanos  é  sem  sentido  pensar  que  existam  técnicos  capazes de transmitir conceitos de maneira asséptica. Como dito anteriormente, a professora em  Montessori se pode definir como um  técnico, no sentido de que não é o científico a que lê corresponde a  elaboração teórica  senão  técnico.  Um  técnico  que  não  é  nem  neutro  nem asséptico e cuja humanidade se colocará em um primeiro plano para que possa levar a cabo seu próprio trabalho o melhor possível. Palavras-chave: Montessori; didática; professora.   THE ROLE AND THE FUNCTION  OF THE TEACHER IN MONTESSORI WORKS Abstract The function of the teacher constitutes a fundamental aspect inside Montessori's system of thought. She offers to teacher a very delicate role, that of helping the right growth of child as "man's father". For this reason the  role and the function  of Montessori teacher must correspond to the principle points of her educative theory, that is to say: the necessity to have a

  16. First Simultaneous and Common-Volume Lidar Observations of Na and Fe Metals, Temperatures, and Vertical Winds in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, X.

    2017-12-01

    A new STAR Na Doppler lidar will be installed to Arrival Heights near McMurdo Station, Antarctica in October 2017. This new lidar will be operated next to an existing Fe Boltzmann lidar to make simultaneous and common-volume measurements of metal Na and Fe layers, neutral temperatures, and vertical winds in the mesosphere and thermosphere, up to nearly 200 km. These measurements will be used to study a variety of science topics, e.g., the meteoric metal layers, wave dynamics, polar mesospheric clouds, constituent and heat fluxes, and cosmic dust. The discoveries of thermospheric neutral Fe layers and persistent gravity waves by the Fe Boltzmann lidar observations has opened a new door to explore the space-atmosphere interactions with ground-based instruments, especially in the least understood but crucially important altitude range of 100-200 km. These neutral metal layers provide excellent tracers for modern resonance lidars to measure the neutral wind and temperature directly. Even more exciting, the neutral metal layers in the thermosphere provide a natural laboratory to test our fundamental understandings of the atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling and processes. This paper will report the first summer results from the simultaneous Na and Fe lidar observations from Antarctica, and highlight important discoveries made by the Fe lidar during its first seven years of campaign at McMurdo. A thermosphere-ionosphere Fe/Fe+ (TIFe) model will be introduced to explain the TIFe layers in Antarctica.

  17. Visibility of microcalcification clusters and masses in breast tomosynthesis image volumes and digital mammography: A 4AFC human observer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timberg, P.; Baath, M.; Andersson, I.; Mattsson, S.; Tingberg, A.; Ruschin, M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the visibility of simulated lesions in digital breast tomosynthesis (BT) image volumes compared with 2D digital mammography (DM). Methods: Simulated lesions (masses and microcalcifications) were added to images of the same women acquired on a DM system (Mammomat Novation, Siemens) and a BT prototype. The same beam quality was used for the DM and BT acquisitions. The total absorbed dose resulting from a 25-projection BT acquisition and reconstruction (BT 25 ) was approximately twice that of a single DM view. By excluding every other projection image from the reconstruction (BT 13 ), approximately the same dose as in DM was effected. Simulated microcalcifications were digitally added with varying contrast to the DM and BT images. Simulated masses with 8 mm diameter were also added to BT images. A series of 4-alternative forced choice (4AFC) human observer experiments were conducted. Four medical physicists participated in all experiments, each consisting of 60 trials per experimental condition. The observers interpreted the BT image volumes in cine-mode at a fixed image sequence speed. The required threshold contrast (S t ) to achieve a detectability index (d') of 2.5 (i.e., 92.5% correct decisions) was determined. Results: The S t for mass detection in DM was approximately a factor of 2 higher than required in BT indicating that the detection of masses was improved under BT conditions compared to DM. S t for microcalcification detection was higher for BT than for DM at both BT dose levels (BT 25 and BT 13 ), with a statistically significant difference in S t between DM and BT 13 . These results indicate a dose-dependent decrease in detection performance in BT for detection of microcalcifications. Conclusions: In agreement with previous investigations, masses of size 8 mm can be detected with less contrast in BT than in DM indicating improved detection performance for BT. However, for the investigated microcalcifications, the results of this

  18. Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP): training persons with dementia to serve as group activity leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Cameron J; Skrajner, Michael J

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an activity implemented by means of Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP). Four persons with early-stage dementia were trained to serve as leaders for a small-group activity played by nine persons with more advanced dementia. Assessments of leaders' ability to learn the procedures of leading a group, as well as their satisfaction with this role, were taken, as were measures of players' engagement and affect during standard activities programming and RAMP activities. Leaders demonstrated the potential to fill the role of group activity leader effectively, and they expressed a high level of satisfaction with this role. Players' levels of positive engagement and pleasure during the RAMP activity were higher than during standard group activities. This study suggests that to the extent that procedural learning is available to persons with early-stage dementia, especially when they are assisted with external cueing, these individuals can successfully fill the role of volunteers when working with persons with more advanced dementia. This can provide a meaningful social role for leaders and increase access to high quality activities programming for large numbers of persons with dementia. Copyright 2004 The Gerontological Society of America

  19. Join the Revolution: How Montessori for Aging and Dementia can Change Long-Term Care Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Michelle S; Brush, Jennifer; Elliot, Gail; Kelly, Anne

    2015-08-01

    Efforts to improve the quality of life of persons with dementia in long-term care through the implementation of various approaches to person-centered care have been underway for the past two decades. Studies have yielded conflicting reports evaluating the evidence for these approaches. The purpose of this article is to outline the findings of several systematic reviews of this literature, highlighting the areas of improvement needs, and to describe a new person-centered care model, DementiAbility Methods: The Montessori Way. This model focuses on the abilities, needs, interests, and strengths of the person and creating worthwhile and meaningful roles, routines, and activities for the person within a supportive physical environment. This is accomplished through gaining the commitment of the facility's leaders, training staff, and monitoring program implementation. The potential for a culture change in long-term care environments is dependent on the development and rigorous evaluation of person-centered care approaches. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Actividade e redenção: a criança nova em Maria Montessori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Filipe Araújo, Alessandra Avanzini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A ideia de Criança Nova em Maria Montessori (1870-1952 resulta da confluência de duas perspectivas, a da pedagogia que se pretende afirmar como ciência e a do humanismo cristão. Neste artigo, os autores procuram, numa primeira parte, especificar o que vem a ser para a pedagoga italiana a liberdade e a actividade da criança e o papel do adulto, principalmente do educador da criança que se auto-educa e, numa segunda parte, debruçam-se sobre o fundo religioso e humanista da obra montessoriana que consagra a criança como um ser espiritual e de natureza divina. Palavras-chave: actividade; activismo; criança nova; redenção.   Abstract The idea of the New Child in Maria Montesori (1870-1952 is the result of the combination of two perspectives: a pedagogical one, directed at affirming its own scientific status, and one based on Christian Humanism. In this paper the authors try to specify what the Italian pedagogue considered as freedom and activity on the part of the child and the role of the adult, most particularly the role of the educator who also ends up educating himself. At a secondary stage they concentrate on the religious background and the humanism of the Montesorian working method which consecrated the child as a spiritual being who shared the divine nature. Keywords: activity; new child; redemption

  1. Montessori-Based Activities as a Trans-Generational Interface for Persons with Dementia and Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Cameron J; Lee, Michelle M

    2011-12-12

    Montessori-based activities for persons with dementia have been used to successfully provide opportunities for programming between older adults and preschool children in shared site. intergenerational care programs. Such intergenerational programming allows older adults with dementia to fulfill roles of teacher or mentor to younger children or as collaborative workmates for persons with more advanced dementia while providing children with positive one-on-one interactions with older adults. We review several studies using this approach, describe characteristics of the programs, participants and results obtained and provide recommendations for those interested in extending this line of work.

  2. Montessori-Based Activities as a Trans-Generational Interface for Persons with Dementia and Preschool Children*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Cameron J.; Lee, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    Montessori-based activities for persons with dementia have been used to successfully provide opportunities for programming between older adults and preschool children in shared site. intergenerational care programs. Such intergenerational programming allows older adults with dementia to fulfill roles of teacher or mentor to younger children or as collaborative workmates for persons with more advanced dementia while providing children with positive one-on-one interactions with older adults. We review several studies using this approach, describe characteristics of the programs, participants and results obtained and provide recommendations for those interested in extending this line of work. PMID:22423215

  3. The Effect of Montessori Method Supported by Social Skills Training Program on Turkish Kindergarten Children's Skills of Understanding Feelings and Social Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayili, Gökhan; Ari, Ramazan

    2016-01-01

    The current research was conducted with the purpose of analyzing the effect of Montessori method supported by Social Skills Training Program on kindergarten children's skills of understanding feelings and social problem solving. 53 children attending Ihsan Dogramaci Applied Nursery School affiliated to Selcuk University, Faculty of Health Sciences…

  4. Implementing Montessori Methods for Dementia™ in Ontario long-term care homes: Recreation staff and multidisciplinary consultants' perceptions of policy and practice issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducak, Kate; Denton, Margaret; Elliot, Gail

    2018-01-01

    Montessori-based activities use a person-centred approach to benefit persons living with dementia by increasing their participation in, and enjoyment of, daily life. This study investigated recreation staff and multidisciplinary consultants' perceptions of factors that affected implementing Montessori Methods for Dementia™ in long-term care homes in Ontario, Canada. Qualitative data were obtained during semi-structured telephone interviews with 17 participants who worked in these homes. A political economy of aging perspective guided thematic data analysis. Barriers such as insufficient funding and negative attitudes towards activities reinforced a task-oriented biomedical model of care. Various forms of support and understanding helped put Montessori Methods for Dementia™ into practice as a person-centred care program, thus reportedly improving the quality of life of residents living with dementia, staff and family members. These results demonstrate that when Montessori Methods for Dementia™ approaches are learned and understood by staff they can be used as practical interventions for long-term care residents living with dementia.

  5. Increased Severe Trauma Patient Volume is Associated With Survival Benefit and Reduced Total Health Care Costs: A Retrospective Observational Study Using a Japanese Nationwide Administrative Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akira; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Murata, Kiyoshi; Otomo, Yasuhiro

    2017-06-07

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of severe trauma patient volume with survival benefit and health care costs. The effect of trauma patient volume on survival benefit is inconclusive, and reports on its effects on health care costs are scarce. We conducted a retrospective observational study, including trauma patients who were transferred to government-approved tertiary emergency hospitals, or hospitals with an intensive care unit that provided an equivalent quality of care, using a Japanese nationwide administrative database. We categorized hospitals according to their annual severe trauma patient volumes [1 to 50 (reference), 51 to 100, 101 to 150, 151 to 200, and ≥201]. We evaluated the associations of volume categories with in-hospital survival and total cost per admission using a mixed-effects model adjusting for patient severity and hospital characteristics. A total of 116,329 patients from 559 hospitals were analyzed. Significantly increased in-hospital survival rates were observed in the second, third, fourth, and highest volume categories compared with the reference category [94.2% in the highest volume category vs 88.8% in the reference category, adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval, 95% CI) = 1.75 (1.49-2.07)]. Furthermore, significantly lower costs (in US dollars) were observed in the second and fourth categories [mean (standard deviation) for fourth vs reference = $17,800 ($17,378) vs $20,540 ($32,412), adjusted difference (95% CI) = -$2559 (-$3896 to -$1221)]. Hospitals with high volumes of severe trauma patients were significantly associated with a survival benefit and lower total cost per admission.

  6. Volume changes and electrostriction in the primary photoreactions of various photosynthetic systems: estimation of dielectric coefficient in bacterial reaction centers and of the observed volume changes with the Drude-Nernst equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauzerall, David; Hou, Jian-Min; Boichenko, Vladimir A

    2002-01-01

    Photoacoustics (PA) allows the determination of enthalpy and volume changes of photoreactions in photosynthetic reaction centers on the 0.1-10 mus time scale. These include the bacterial centers from Rb. sphaeroides, PS I and PS II centers from Synechocystis and in whole cells. In vitro and in vivo PA data on PS I and PS II revealed that both the volume change (-26 A(3)) and reaction enthalpy (-0.4 eV) in PS I are the same as those in the bacterial centers. However the volume change in PS II is small and the enthalpy far larger, -1 eV. Assigning the volume changes to electrostriction allows a coherent explanation of these observations. One can explain the large volume decrease in the bacterial centers with an effective dielectric coefficient of approximately 4. This is a unique approach to this parameter so important in estimation of protein energetics. The value of the volume contraction for PS I can only be explained if the acceptor is the super- cluster (Fe(4)S(4))(Cys(4)) with charge change from -1 to -2. The small volume change in PS II is explained by sub-mus electron transfer from Y(Z) anion to P(680) cation, in which charge is only moved from the Y(Z) anion to the Q(A) with no charge separation or with rapid proton transfer from oxidized Y(Z) to a polar region and thus very little change in electrostriction. At more acid pH equally rapid proton transfer from a neighboring histidine to a polar region may be caused by the electric field of the P(680) cation.

  7. Burnham's celestial handbook. An observer's guide to the universe beyond the solar system. Volume 3. Pavo through Vulpecula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This volume of the Celestial Handbook treats the constellations alphabetically from Pavo through Vulpecula. For each it lists double and multiple stars, variable stars, and star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies with positions, magnitudes, etc. It also presents descriptive notes concerning some of the objects; these include history, mythology, and poetical allusions, as well as scientific information

  8. Noninvasive pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation to predict fluid responsiveness at multiple thresholds : a prospective observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Jaap Jan; Poterman, Marieke; Papineau Salm, Pieternel; Van Amsterdam, Kai; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Kalmar, Alain F.

    2015-01-01

    Pulse pressure variation (PPV) and stroke volume variation (SVV) are dynamic preload variables that can be measured noninvasively to assess fluid responsiveness (FR) in anesthetized patients with mechanical ventilation. Few studies have examined the effectiveness of predicting FR according to the

  9. A glimpse beneath Antarctic sea ice: observation of platelet-layer thickness and ice-volume fraction with multifrequency EM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Mario; Hunkeler, Priska A.; Hendricks, Stefan; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Gerdes, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    In Antarctica, ice crystals (platelets) form and grow in supercooled waters below ice shelves. These platelets rise, accumulate beneath nearby sea ice, and subsequently form a several meter thick, porous sub-ice platelet layer. This special ice type is a unique habitat, influences sea-ice mass and energy balance, and its volume can be interpreted as an indicator of the health of an ice shelf. Although progress has been made in determining and understanding its spatio-temporal variability based on point measurements, an investigation of this phenomenon on a larger scale remains a challenge due to logistical constraints and a lack of suitable methodology. In the present study, we applied a lateral constrained Marquardt-Levenberg inversion to a unique multi-frequency electromagnetic (EM) induction sounding dataset obtained on the ice-shelf influenced fast-ice regime of Atka Bay, eastern Weddell Sea. We adapted the inversion algorithm to incorporate a sensor specific signal bias, and confirmed the reliability of the algorithm by performing a sensitivity study using synthetic data. We inverted the field data for sea-ice and platelet-layer thickness and electrical conductivity, and calculated ice-volume fractions within the platelet layer using Archie's Law. The thickness results agreed well with drillhole validation datasets within the uncertainty range, and the ice-volume fraction yielded results comparable to other studies. Both parameters together enable an estimation of the total ice volume within the platelet layer, which was found to be comparable to the volume of landfast sea ice in this region, and corresponded to more than a quarter of the annual basal melt volume of the nearby Ekström Ice Shelf. Our findings show that multi-frequency EM induction sounding is a suitable approach to efficiently map sea-ice and platelet-layer properties, with important implications for research into ocean/ice-shelf/sea-ice interactions. However, a successful application of this

  10. HISTORIANDO A MONTESSORI: DESDE EL FEMINISMO Y SOCIALISMO UTÓPICO HACIA SU COMPROMISO COMO PIONERA DEL HOLISMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celina Chavarría González

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo indaga acerca de las raíces de la educación montessoriana, pionera de concepciones holistas. Como resultado, se evidencia que únicamente puede ser abordada desde un paradigma de la complejidad y del compromiso con el destino de la humanidad. Solo una comprensión más amplia de su teleología, antropología y epistemología, nos proporcionará la perspectiva que permita integrar estas dimensiones. Con una introducción que parte de la primera costarricense en poner en práctica su filosofía, la preclara Carmen Lyra, se aborda la multi-texualidad, complejidad y trasdisciplinareidad de Montessori, así como sus contingencias y su época, indagación necesaria para sopesar su necesidad hoy.

  11. Historiando a Montessori: Desde el feminismo y socialismo utópico hacia su compromiso como pionera del holismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavarría González, María Celina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente ensayo indaga acerca de las raíces de la educación montessoriana, pionera de concepciones holistas. Como resultado, se evidencia que únicamente puede ser abordada desde un paradigma de la complejidad y del compromiso con el destino de la humanidad. Solo una comprensión más amplia de su teleología, antropología y epistemología, nos proporcionará la perspectiva que permita integrar estas dimensiones. Con una introducción que parte de la primera costarricense en poner en práctica su filosofía, la preclara Carmen Lyra, se aborda la multi-texualidad, complejidad y trasdisciplinareidad de Montessori, así como sus contingencias y su época, indagación necesaria para sopesar su necesidad hoy.Abstract: A search for Montessori’s roots concludes that an authentic Montessori education, pioneer in holistic conceptions, can only be addressed from a paradigm of complexity, a Transdisciplinary perspective, and an attitude of compromise with the destiny of humanity. Only an all-encompassing understanding of her teleology, anthropology, and epistemology will provide a perspective to integrate these dimensions. In relating Montessori’s circumstances and life-experiences, a parallel is made to the challenges faced by the first practicing Montessorian in Costa Rica, Carmen Lyra, educator, writer, activist, and founding-member of the Costa Rican Communist Party. Montessori’s multi-texuality, contingencies and the quotidien are addressed in an effort to outline her relevance today.

  12. The effectiveness of spaced retrieval combined with Montessori-based activities in improving the eating ability of residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua Shan; Lin, Li Chan; Wu, Shiao Chi; Lin, Ke Neng; Liu, Hsiu Chih

    2014-08-01

    To explore the long-term effects of standardized and individualized spaced retrieval combined with Montessori-based activities on the eating ability of residents with dementia. Eating difficulty is common in residents with dementia, resulting in low food intake, followed by eating dependence, weight loss and malnutrition. A single-blinded and quasi-experimental design with repeated measures. Ninety residents with dementia from four veterans' homes in Taiwan took part in this study. The intervention consisted of spaced retrieval combined with Montessori-based activities. Twenty-five participants in the standardized group received 24 intervention sessions over 8 weeks. Thirty-eight participants in the individualized group received tailored intervention sessions. The number of intervention sessions was adjusted according to the participant's recall responses in spaced retrieval. Twenty-seven participants in the control group received no treatment. The Chinese version of the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia was used, and eating amounts and body weight were measured pre-test, posttest and at 1-, 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Data were collected between July 2008-February 2010. Repeated measures of all dependent variables for the three groups were analysed by the linear mixed model. The standardized and individualized interventions could significantly decrease the scores for the Chinese version of the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia and increase the eating amount and body weight over time. Trained nurses in institutions can schedule the standardized or individualized intervention in usual activity time to ameliorate eating difficulty and its sequels. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. NO TODO LO QUE SE DICE MONTESSORI LO ES: DECODIFICACIÓN DE ELEMENTOS ESENCIALES EN UN MUNDO GLOBALIZADO (ARE WE BEING MONTESSORIANS? DECODING ESSENTIALS IN A GLOBALIZAD WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavarría González, María Celina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Algunas prácticas montessorianas parecen pasar por alto y ser contradictorias con el sentido original de sus escritos. El presente artículo se pregunta sobre principios esenciales de la educación montessoriana, tomando como perspectiva sus propios escritos, a la luz del paradigma de la Complejidad. Los resultados de la indagación se organizan desde una perspectiva sistémica: (1 descubrimientos sobre la niñez en los contextos propiciados; (2 la relevancia de la educación como diseño cultural; (3 una formación de educadores y educadoras que enfatiza tanto la complejidad como una disposición a la comprensión empática de la niñez, la auto-observación y una perspectiva evolutiva planetaria y de la especie. Se vinculan los conceptos con las corrientes de pensamiento histórico-cultural y desde el paradigma de la complejidad. Como resultados, destacan como actuales los ideales de solidaridad y comunidad de aprendices, el papel de la observación y el respeto por los ciclos de actividad o flujo propuestos por Montessori, así como su convicción de que la evolución de la humanidad, aún incompleta, ha de ser conducida, transdisciplinariamente, en la línea de una evolución cultural consciente, particularmente urgente ante el mundo de las tecnologías de información y comunicación (TICs hoy.Abstract: The present article involves an inquiry into essential conditions for a Montessori education, in three realms: (1 evolutionary characteristics of childhood-in-context; (2 a “scientifically” prepared existential environment, to act interactively towards the learning-education-development of potentialities; (3 a system for the transformation of educators, with emphasis on a disposition towards the empathic apprehension of childhood, a complexity approach, self-observation and a planetary and species evolutionary perspective. In order to relate her concepts with mainstream educational theory, links are made to cultural

  14. Metabolic evaluation and measurement of ovarian volume in polycystic ovary sydrome: a cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Evran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Polycystic ovary sydrome is a disease of women in reproductive period, with hirsutism or hyperandrogenic signs in laboratory evaluation, causing infertility due to dysmenorrhea and unovulation. Accompanying insulin resistance and adiposity may increase cardiometabolic risk. In our study, we planned to represent the physical examination and laboratory findings of the patients diagnosed as polycystic ovary sydrome, together with andominal ultrasonographic evaluation of the ovaries. Material-methods: Twenty-two patients who admitted the endocrinology department with the complaints of hirsutism and dysmenorrhea were included in the study. Purpose: Polycystic ovary sydrome is a disease of women in reproductive period, with hirsutism or hyperandrogenic signs in laboratory evaluation, causing infertility due to dysmenorrhea and unovulation. Accompanying insulin resistance and adiposity may increase cardiometabolic risk. In our study, we planned to represent the physical examination and laboratory findings of the patients diagnosed as polycystic ovary sydrome, together with andominal ultrasonographic evaluation of the ovaries. Material and Methods: Twenty-two patients who admitted the endocrinology department with the complaints of hirsutism and dysmenorrhea were included in the study. Their ages, family histories, polycystic ovary sydrome phenotypes, first menstrual age, length of cyclus and physical examination findings were recorded. Ferriman and Gallwey score was used for hirsutism. Insulin resistance was calculated via HOMA-IR method by making the biochemical and hormonal tests. Ovarian volumes were measured by abdominal ultrasonography. SPSS-16 was used for the statistical analysis of the findings. Results: Mean age was 21.41+/-0.88. Polycystic ovary sydrome phenotypes were B in 40.9%, C in 31.8% and A in 27.3%. Cyclus length was normal in 31.8% (27-34 days. Ferriman and Gallwey score was and #8805;7 in all of the patients. Although

  15. TU-A-12A-06: Intra-Observer Variability in Delineation of Target Volumes in Breast Radiotherapy and Its Effect On Accuracy of Deformation Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juneja, P; Harris, E [The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom); Bonora, M [University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Evans, P [University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In breast radiotherapy, the target volume may change during treatment and need adaptation of the treatment plan. This is possible for both tumour bed (TB) and whole breast (WB) target volumes. Delineation of the target (to detect changes) is also subject to uncertainty due to intra- and inter-observer variability. This work measured the uncertainty, due to intraobserver variability, in the quantification of tissue deformation. Methods: Datasets consisting of paired prone and supine CT scans of three patients were used. Significant deformation in target volumes is expected between prone and supine patient positions. The selected cases had 1) no seroma, 2) some seroma, and 3) large seroma. The TB and WB were outlined on each dataset three times by one clinician. Delineation variability was defined as the standard deviations of the distances between observer outlines. For each target volume and each case, tissue deformation between prone and supine delineations was quantified using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the average surface distance (ASD). The uncertainty in the tissue deformation (due to delineation variability) was quantified by measuring the ranges of DSC and ASD using all combinations of pairs of outlines (9 pairs). Results: For the TB, the range of delineation variability was 0.44-1.16 mm. The deformation, DSC and ASD, (and uncertainty in measurement) of the TB between prone and supine position of the cases were: 1) 0.21 (0.17-0.28) and 12.4 mm (11.8-13 mm); 2) 0.54 (0.51-0.57) and 3.3 mm (3.1-3.5 mm); 3) 0.62 (0.61-0.64) and 4.9 mm (4.6-5.2 mm). WB deformation measurements were subject to less uncertainty due to delineation variability than TB deformation measurements. Conclusion: For the first time, the uncertainty, due to observer variability, in the measurement of the deformation of breast target volumes was investigated. Deformations in these ranges would be difficult to detect. This work was supported in part by Cancer Research

  16. Rain Characteristics and Large-Scale Environments of Precipitation Objects with Extreme Rain Volumes from TRMM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yaping; Lau, William K M.; Liu, Chuntao

    2013-01-01

    This study adopts a "precipitation object" approach by using 14 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data to study rainfall structure and environmental factors associated with extreme heavy rain events. Characteristics of instantaneous extreme volumetric PFs are examined and compared to those of intermediate and small systems. It is found that instantaneous PFs exhibit a much wider scale range compared to the daily gridded precipitation accumulation range. The top 1% of the rainiest PFs contribute over 55% of total rainfall and have 2 orders of rain volume magnitude greater than those of the median PFs. We find a threshold near the top 10% beyond which the PFs grow exponentially into larger, deeper, and colder rain systems. NCEP reanalyses show that midlevel relative humidity and total precipitable water increase steadily with increasingly larger PFs, along with a rapid increase of 500 hPa upward vertical velocity beyond the top 10%. This provides the necessary moisture convergence to amplify and sustain the extreme events. The rapid increase in vertical motion is associated with the release of convective available potential energy (CAPE) in mature systems, as is evident in the increase in CAPE of PFs up to 10% and the subsequent dropoff. The study illustrates distinct stages in the development of an extreme rainfall event including: (1) a systematic buildup in large-scale temperature and moisture, (2) a rapid change in rain structure, (3) explosive growth of the PF size, and (4) a release of CAPE before the demise of the event.

  17. Quantitative assessment of inter-observer variability in target volume delineation on stereotactic radiotherapy treatment for pituitary adenoma and meningioma near optic tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Ogita, Mikio; Yamashita, Koichi; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Shiomi, Hiroya; Tsubokura, Takuji; Kodani, Naohiro; Nishimura, Takuya; Aibe, Norihiro; Udono, Hiroki; Nishikata, Manabu; Baba, Yoshimi

    2011-01-01

    To assess inter-observer variability in delineating target volume and organs at risk in benign tumor adjacent to optic tract as a quality assurance exercise. We quantitatively analyzed 21 plans made by 11 clinicians in seven CyberKnife centers. The clinicians were provided with a raw data set (pituitary adenoma and meningioma) including clinical information, and were asked to delineate the lesions and create a treatment plan. Their contouring and plans (10 adenoma and 11 meningioma plans), were then compared. In addition, we estimated the influence of differences in contouring by superimposing the respective contours onto a default plan. The median planning target volume (PTV) and the ratio of the largest to the smallest contoured volume were 9.22 cm 3 (range, 7.17 - 14.3 cm 3 ) and 1.99 for pituitary adenoma, and 6.86 cm 3 (range 6.05 - 14.6 cm 3 ) and 2.41 for meningioma. PTV volume was 10.1 ± 1.74 cm 3 for group 1 with a margin of 1 -2 mm around the CTV (n = 3) and 9.28 ± 1.8 cm 3 (p = 0.51) for group 2 with no margin (n = 7) in pituitary adenoma. In meningioma, group 1 showed larger PTV volume (10.1 ± 3.26 cm 3 ) than group 2 (6.91 ± 0.7 cm 3 , p = 0.03). All submitted plan keep the irradiated dose to optic tract within the range of 50 Gy (equivalent total doses in 2 Gy fractionation). However, contours superimposed onto the dose distribution of the default plan indicated that an excessive dose 23.64 Gy (up to 268% of the default plan) in pituitary adenoma and 24.84 Gy (131% of the default plan) in meningioma to the optic nerve in the contours from different contouring. Quality assurance revealed inter-observer variability in contour delineation and their influences on planning for pituitary adenoma and meningioma near optic tract

  18. Observation of Hydrological Processes Using Remote Sensing. Chapter 2.14; Volume 2: The Science of Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Peter (Editor); Su, Z.; Robeling, R. A.; Schulz, J.; Holleman, I.; Levizzani, V.; Timmermans, W. J.; Rott, H.; Mognard-Campbell, N.; de Jeu, R.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Improving water management can make a significant contribution to achieving most of the Millennium Development Goals established by the UN General Assembly in 2000, especially those related to poverty, hunger, and major diseases. The World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in 2002 recognized this need. Water and sanitation in particular received great attention from the Summit. The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation recommended to improve water resources management and scientific understanding of the water cycle through joint cooperation and research. For this purpose, it is recommended to promote knowledge sharing, provide capacity building, and facilitate the transfer of technology including remote-sensing (RS) and satellite technologies, especially to developing countries and countries with economies in transition, and to support these countries in their efforts to monitor and assess the quantity and quality of water resources, for example, by establishing and/or further developing national monitoring networks and water resources databases and by developing relevant national indicators. The Johannesburg Plan also adopted integrated water resources management as the overarching concept in addressing and solving water-related issues. As a result of the commitments made in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, several global and regional initiatives have emerged. Current international initiatives such as the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) program of the European Commission and the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) 10-Year Implementation Plan, have all identified Earth observation (EO) of the water cycle as the key in helping to solve the world s water problems. The availability of spatial information on water quantity and quality will also enable closure of the water budget at river basin and continental scales to the point where effective water management is essential (e.g., as

  19. Educación ambiental y participación ciudadana en la Escuela Normal Superior Distrital María Montessori (Environmental education and citizen participation at Escuela Normal Superior Distrital María Montessori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Stella Manosalva Corredor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Frente al deterioro de las condiciones ambientales, el equipo ambiental de la Escuela Normal Superior Distrital María Montessori de Bogotá y el “Colectivo Acción Ciudadana” convocan a instituciones gubernamentales locales y “ciudadanos habitantes de calle” a un diálogo de saberes para encontrar soluciones concertadas a la problemática ambiental. En el mismo sentido, el proyecto Educación ambiental y participación ciudadana: estrategias de una política de desarrollo sustentable de la ENSDMM trabaja en la propuesta del Plan Institucional de Gestión Ambiental, por lo que realiza una evaluación estratégica ambiental y señala que la educación ambiental y la participación ciudadana son posibles si logran vincular educación y gestión en la definición de los procesos, actividades y actuaciones, con principios de una ética de responsabilidad social, para alcanzar las metas ambientales sustentables.Abstract: With the aim of facing up to the deterioration of the environmental condition, the environmental team of Escuela Normal Superior Distrital María Montessori and “the Collective Citizen Action” convoke the local government institutions and “the citizen street inhabitants” to have a dialogue of knowledge to find concerted solutions for the current environmental problems. In the same sense, the project Environmental Education and Citizen Participation: Strategies for a policy of sustainable development at ENSDMM works on the proposal of the Environmental Management Institutional Plan. It helps to develop a strategic environmental evaluation and points out that the environmental education and citizen participation are possible if education and management are involved in the processes, activities and actions based on principles of social responsibility ethics to achieve the sustainable environmental goals.

  20. Data quality and practical challenges of thyroid volume assessment by ultrasound under field conditions - observer errors may affect prevalence estimates of goitre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torheim Liv E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ultrasonographic estimation of thyroid size has been advocated as being more precise than palpation to diagnose goitre. However, ultrasound also requires technical proficiency. This study was conducted among Saharawi refugees, where goitre is highly prevalent. The objectives were to assess the overall data quality of ultrasound measurements of thyroid volume (Tvol, including the intra- and inter-observer agreement, under field conditions, and to describe some of the practical challenges encountered. Methods In 2007 a cross-sectional study of 419 children (6-14 years old and 405 women (15-45 years old was performed on a population of Saharawi refugees with prevalent goitre, who reside in the Algerian desert. Tvol was measured by two trained fieldworkers using portable ultrasound equipment (examiner 1 measured 406 individuals, and examiner 2, 418 individuals. Intra- and inter-observer agreement was estimated in 12 children selected from the study population but not part of the main study. In the main study, an observer error was found in one examiner whose ultrasound images were corrected by linear regression after printing and remeasuring a sample of 272 images. Results The intra-observer agreement in Tvol was higher in examiner 1, with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.99 compared to 0.86 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.96 in examiner 2. The ICC for inter-observer agreement in Tvol was 0.38 (95% CI: -0.20, 0.77. Linear regression coefficients indicated a significant scaling bias in the original measurements of the AP and ML diameter and a systematic underestimation of Tvol (a product of AP, ML, CC and a constant. The agreement between re-measured and original Tvol measured by ICC (95% CI was 0.76 (0.71, 0.81. The agreement between re-measured and corrected Tvol measured by ICC (95% CI was 0.97 (0.96, 0.97. Conclusions An important challenge when using ultrasound to assess thyroid volume under field

  1. Nisaidie Nif Anye Mwenyewe, Pomogi Mne Eto Sdelat' Samomu: A Comparative Case Study of the Implementation of Montessori Pedagogy in the United Republic of Tanzania and the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Candy A.

    2010-01-01

    The system of education developed by Maria Montessori, noted Italian feminist, anthropologist and physician, is the single largest pedagogy in the world with over 22,000 public, private, parochial, and charter schools on six continents, enduring even as other teaching methods have waxed and waned. Despite its international diffusion and longevity,…

  2. NO TODO LO QUE SE DICE MONTESSORI LO ES: DECODIFICACIÓN DE ELEMENTOS ESENCIALES EN UN MUNDO GLOBALIZADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celina Chavarría González

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Algunas prácticas montessorianas parecen pasar por alto y ser contradictorias con el sentido original de sus escritos. El presente artículo se pregunta sobre principios esenciales de la educación montessoriana, tomando como perspectiva sus propios escritos, a la luz del paradigma de la Complejidad. Los resultados de la indagación se organizan desde una perspectiva sistémica: (1 descubrimientos sobre la niñez en los contextos propiciados; (2 la relevancia de la educación como diseño cultural; (3 una formación de educadores y educadoras que enfatiza tanto la complejidad como una disposición a la comprensión empática de la niñez, la auto-observación y una perspectiva evolutiva planetaria y de la especie. Se vinculan los conceptos con las corrientes de pensamiento histórico-cultural y desde el paradigma de la complejidad. Como resultados, destacan como actuales los ideales de solidaridad y comunidad de aprendices, el papel de la observación y el respeto por los ciclos de actividad o flujo propuestos por Montessori, así como su convicción de que la evolución de la humanidad, aún incompleta, ha de ser conducida, transdisciplinariamente, en la línea de una evolución cultural consciente, particularmente urgente ante el mundo de las tecnologías de información y comunicación (TICs hoy.

  3. Evaluation of personalised, one-to-one interaction using Montessori-type activities as a treatment of challenging behaviours in people with dementia: the study protocol of a crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Eva S; O'Connor, Daniel W

    2010-01-24

    The agitated behaviours that accompany dementia (e.g. pacing, aggression, calling out) are stressful to both nursing home residents and their carers and are difficult to treat. Behaviours stemming from pain, major depression or psychosis benefit from treatment with analgesics, antidepressants or antipsychotics. In other cases, psychotropic medications have limited efficacy but are used very widely. Therefore, increasingly more attention has been paid to nonpharmacological interventions which are associated with fewer risks. The aim of the current study is to test if personalised one-to-one interaction activities based on Montessori principles will reduce the frequency of behavioural symptoms of dementia significantly more than a relevant control condition. We will conduct a controlled trial with randomised cross-over between conditions. Persons with moderate to severe dementia and associated behavioural problems living in aged care facilities will be included in the study. Consented, willing participants will be assigned in random order to Montessori or control blocks for two weeks then switched to the other condition. Montessori activities derive from the principles espoused by Maria Montessori and subsequent educational theorists to promote engagement in learning, namely task breakdown, guided repetition, progression in difficulty from simple to complex, and the careful matching of demands to levels of competence. The control intervention consists of conversation or reading from and looking at pictures in a newspaper to control for non-specific benefits of one-to-one interaction. Presence of target behaviour will be noted as well as level of engagement and type of affect displayed. Secondary measures also include the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory and information on time and funds spend to prepare the activities. If our results show that use of Montessori activities is effective in treating challenging behaviours in individuals with dementia, it will

  4. Effect of steroid on brain tumors and surround edemas : observation with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps of perfusion MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ju Youl; Sun, Joo Sung; Kim, Sun Yong; Kim, Ji Hyung; Suh, Jung Ho; Cho, Kyung Gi; Kim, Jang Sung

    2000-01-01

    To observe the hemodynamic change in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas after steroid treatment, and then investigate the clinical usefulness of perfusion MRI. We acquired conventional and perfusion MR images in 15 patients with various intracranial tumors (4 glioblastoma multiformes, 4 meningiomas, 3 metastatic tumors, 1 anaplastic ependymoma, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 hemangioblastoma, and 1 pilocytic astrocytoma). For perfusion MR imaging, a 1.5T unit employing the gradient-echo EPI technique was used, and further perfusion MR images were obtained 2-10 days after intravenous steroid therapy. After processing of the raw data, regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps were reconstructed. The maps were visually evaluated by comparing relative perfusion in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas with that in contralateral white matter. Objective evaluations were performed by comparing the perfusion ratios of brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Visual evaluations of rCBV maps, showed that in most brain tumors (67%, 10/15), perfusion was high before steroid treatment and showed in (80%, 12/15) decreased afterwards. Objective evaluation, showed that in all brain tumors, perfusion decreased. Visual evaluation of perfusion change in peritumoral edemas revealed change in only one case, but objective evaluation indicated that perfusion decreased significantly in all seven cases. rCBV maps acquired by perfusion MR imaging can provide hemodynamic information about brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Such maps could prove helpful in the preoperative planning of brain tumor surgery and the monitoring of steroid effects during conservative treatment. (author)

  5. Weekly Volume and Dosimetric Changes During Chemoradiotherapy With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer: A Prospective Observational Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhide, Shreerang A [Institute of Cancer Research, 237 Fulham Road, London SW6 6JB (United Kingdom); Head and Neck Unit, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London SW3 6JJ (United Kingdom); Davies, Mark; Burke, Kevin; McNair, Helen A; Hansen, Vibeke [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom); Barbachano, Y [Department of Statistics, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom); El-Hariry, I A [Head and Neck Unit, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London SW3 6JJ (United Kingdom); Newbold, Kate [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom); Harrington, Kevin J [Institute of Cancer Research, 237 Fulham Road, London SW6 6JB (United Kingdom); Head and Neck Unit, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London SW3 6JJ (United Kingdom); Nutting, Christopher M., E-mail: chris.nutting@rmh.nhs.u [Head and Neck Unit, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London SW3 6JJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate prospectively the weekly volume changes in the target volumes and organs at risk and the resulting dosimetric changes during induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (C-IMRT) for head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Patients receiving C-IMRT for head-and-neck cancer had repeat CT scans at weeks 2, 3, 4, and 5 during radiotherapy. The volume changes of clinical target volume 1 (CTV1) and CTV2 and the resulting dosimetric changes to planning target volume 1 (PTV1) and PTV2 and the organs at risk were measured. Results: The most significant volume differences were seen at week 2 for CTV1 and CTV2. The reductions in the volumes of CTV1 and CTV2 at week 2 were 3.2% and 10%, respectively (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001). The volume changes resulted in a significant reduction in the minimum dose to PTV1 and PTV2 (2 Gy, p = 0.002, and 3.9 Gy, p = 0.03, respectively) and an increased dose range across PTV1 and PTV2 (2.5 Gy, p < 0.001, and 5.1 Gy, p = 0.008, respectively). There was a 15% reduction in the parotid volumes by week 2 (p < 0.001) and 31% by week 4 (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant increase in the mean dose to the ipsilateral parotid only at week 4 (2.7 Gy, p = 0.006). The parotid glands shifted medially by an average of 2.3 mm (p < 0.001) by week 4. Conclusion: The most significant volumetric changes and dosimetric alterations in the tumor volumes and organs at risk during a course of C-IMRT occur by week 2 of radiotherapy. Further adaptive radiotherapy with replanning, if appropriate, is recommended.

  6. SU-E-J-266: Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Inter-Scan and Inter-Observer Tumor Volume Variability Assessment in Patients Treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Y; Aileen, C; Kozono, D; Killoran, J; Wagar, M; Lee, S; Hacker, F; Aerts, H; Lewis, J; Mak, R [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Quantification of volume changes on CBCT during SBRT for NSCLC may provide a useful radiological marker for radiation response and adaptive treatment planning, but the reproducibility of CBCT volume delineation is a concern. This study is to quantify inter-scan/inter-observer variability in tumor volume delineation on CBCT. Methods: Twenty earlystage (stage I and II) NSCLC patients were included in this analysis. All patients were treated with SBRT with a median dose of 54 Gy in 3 to 5 fractions. Two physicians independently manually contoured the primary gross tumor volume on CBCTs taken immediately before SBRT treatment (Pre) and after the same SBRT treatment (Post). Absolute volume differences (AVD) were calculated between the Pre and Post CBCTs for a given treatment to quantify inter-scan variability, and then between the two observers for a given CBCT to quantify inter-observer variability. AVD was also normalized with respect to average volume to obtain relative volume differences (RVD). Bland-Altman approach was used to evaluate variability. All statistics were calculated with SAS version 9.4. Results: The 95% limit of agreement (mean ± 2SD) on AVD and RVD measurements between Pre and Post scans were −0.32cc to 0.32cc and −0.5% to 0.5% versus −1.9 cc to 1.8 cc and −15.9% to 15.3% for the two observers respectively. The 95% limit of agreement of AVD and RVD between the two observers were −3.3 cc to 2.3 cc and −42.4% to 28.2% respectively. The greatest variability in inter-scan RVD was observed with very small tumors (< 5 cc). Conclusion: Inter-scan variability in RVD is greatest with small tumors. Inter-observer variability was larger than inter-scan variability. The 95% limit of agreement for inter-observer and inter-scan variability (∼15–30%) helps define a threshold for clinically meaningful change in tumor volume to assess SBRT response, with larger thresholds needed for very small tumors. Part of the work was funded by a Kaye

  7. SU-E-J-266: Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Inter-Scan and Inter-Observer Tumor Volume Variability Assessment in Patients Treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Y; Aileen, C; Kozono, D; Killoran, J; Wagar, M; Lee, S; Hacker, F; Aerts, H; Lewis, J; Mak, R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of volume changes on CBCT during SBRT for NSCLC may provide a useful radiological marker for radiation response and adaptive treatment planning, but the reproducibility of CBCT volume delineation is a concern. This study is to quantify inter-scan/inter-observer variability in tumor volume delineation on CBCT. Methods: Twenty earlystage (stage I and II) NSCLC patients were included in this analysis. All patients were treated with SBRT with a median dose of 54 Gy in 3 to 5 fractions. Two physicians independently manually contoured the primary gross tumor volume on CBCTs taken immediately before SBRT treatment (Pre) and after the same SBRT treatment (Post). Absolute volume differences (AVD) were calculated between the Pre and Post CBCTs for a given treatment to quantify inter-scan variability, and then between the two observers for a given CBCT to quantify inter-observer variability. AVD was also normalized with respect to average volume to obtain relative volume differences (RVD). Bland-Altman approach was used to evaluate variability. All statistics were calculated with SAS version 9.4. Results: The 95% limit of agreement (mean ± 2SD) on AVD and RVD measurements between Pre and Post scans were −0.32cc to 0.32cc and −0.5% to 0.5% versus −1.9 cc to 1.8 cc and −15.9% to 15.3% for the two observers respectively. The 95% limit of agreement of AVD and RVD between the two observers were −3.3 cc to 2.3 cc and −42.4% to 28.2% respectively. The greatest variability in inter-scan RVD was observed with very small tumors (< 5 cc). Conclusion: Inter-scan variability in RVD is greatest with small tumors. Inter-observer variability was larger than inter-scan variability. The 95% limit of agreement for inter-observer and inter-scan variability (∼15–30%) helps define a threshold for clinically meaningful change in tumor volume to assess SBRT response, with larger thresholds needed for very small tumors. Part of the work was funded by a Kaye

  8. Hospital volume and the risk of revision in Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in the Nordic countries -an observational study of 14,496 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badawy, Mona; Fenstad, Anne M.; Bartz-Johannessen, Christoffer A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: High procedure volume and dedication to unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has been suggested to improve revision rates. This study aimed to quantify the annual hospital volume effect on revision risk in Oxfordu? nicompartmental knee arthroplasty in the Nordic countries. Methods......). The outcome was revision risk after 2 and 10 years calculated using Kaplan Meier method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to assess the Hazard Ratio (HR) of any revision due to specific reasons with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: The implant survival was 80% at 10 years in the volume...

  9. Utility of Volume Assessment Using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hyun Park

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Fluid overload prior to continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT is an important prognostic factor. Thus, precise evaluation of fluid status is necessary to treat such patients. In this study, we investigated whether fluid assessment using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA can predict outcomes in critically ill patients requiring CRRT. Methods A prospective observational study was performed in patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit and who required CRRT. BIA was conducted before CRRT; then, the ratio of extracellular water to total body water (ECW/TBW was derived to estimate volume status. Results A total of 31 patients treated with CRRT were included. There were 18 men (58.1%, and the median age was 67 years (interquartile range, 51 to 78 years. Fourteen patients (45.2% died within 28 days after CRRT initiation. Patients were divided into 16 with ECW/TBW ≥0.41 and 15 with ECW/TBW <0.41. Survival rate within 28 days was different between the two groups (P = 0.044. Cox regression analysis revealed a relationship between ECW/TBW ≥0.41 and 28-day mortality, but it was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 9.8; P = 0.061. Lastly, the area under the curve of ECW/TBW for 28-day mortality was analyzed. The area under the curve of ECW/TBW was 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.54 to 0.92, and this was significant (P = 0.037. Conclusions Fluid status can be assessed using BIA in critically ill patients requiring CRRT, and BIA can predict mortality. Further large trials are needed to confirm the usefulness of BIA in critically ill patients.

  10. Prospective observational study for perioperative volume replacement with 6% HES 130/0,42, 4% gelatin and 6% HES 200/0,5 in cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winterhalter M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The constantly growing amount of different kinds of colloid fluids necessitates comparative investigations with regards to the safety and effectivity in clinical use of these preparations. Hence we compared three colloid fluids in an observational study. The objective was the exploration of the influence of these three colloids on blood coagulation, hemodynamics and renal function of the cardiac surgical patient. Methods We included 90 patients undergoing an elective open-heart surgery with the use of the heart-lung machine and observed them consecutively. Group 1 [gelatin 4% (n = 30], Group 2 [HES 200/0,5 (n = 30] and Group 3 [HES 130/0,42 (n = 30]. We measured the perioperative volume replacement, the administration of blood- and coagulation-products, the application of catecholamines, the renal function, blood gas and the platelet aggregation using multiplate electrode analyzer (Multiplate®, Dynabyte medical, Munich, Germany. Results The gelatin-group needed significantly more norepinephrine than the HES 130/0.42 group. The responsible surgeon considered the blood coagulation in the HES 200/0.5 group most frequently as impaired. Furthermore we saw a significant decrease in platelet function in the HES 200/0.5 group when performing the multiplate®-analysis (ADP-and COL-test. HES 130/0.4 as well as gelatin 4% showed no significant change in platelet function. The gelatin-group and the HES 200/0.5 needed significantly more aprotinine than the HES 130/0.4 group. We saw no significant difference with regards to administration of blood and coagulation products between the three groups. The urinary excretion during the intervention was significantly higher in the HES 200/0.5 group and in the gelatin group than in the HES 130/0.4 group. Conclusions Our results confirm the lower stabilizing effect of gelatin on circulation during fluid resuscitation. The blood coagulation was mostly impaired due to HES 200/0.5 confirmed by the

  11. An Epistemological Glance at the Constructivist Approach: Constructivist Learning in Dewey, Piaget, and Montessori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultanir, Emel

    2012-01-01

    What people gain through sensation and cognition make up the individuals' experiences and knowledge. Individuals benefit from previous experiences when resolving problems. Knowledge is constructed from the meanings one attributes to nature and the environment. In theories, it means that constructers depend on observation and when directly…

  12. Evaluation of NO2 predictions by the plume volume molar ratio method (PVMRM) and ozone limiting method (OLM) in AERMOD using new field observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Elizabeth M; Tino, Vincent R; Hanna, Steven R; Egan, Bruce A

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) plume volume molar ratio method (PVMRM) and the ozone limiting method (OLM) are in the AERMOD model to predict the 1-hr average NO2/NO(x) concentration ratio. These ratios are multiplied by the AERMOD predicted NO(x) concentration to predict the 1-hr average NO2 concentration. This paper first briefly reviews PVMRM and OLM and points out some scientific parameterizations that could be improved (such as specification of relative dispersion coefficients) and then discusses an evaluation of the PVMRM and OLM methods as implemented in AERMOD using a new data set. While AERMOD has undergone many model evaluation studies in its default mode, PVMRM and OLM are nondefault options, and to date only three NO2 field data sets have been used in their evaluations. Here AERMOD/PVMRM and AERMOD/OLM codes are evaluated with a new data set from a northern Alaskan village with a small power plant. Hourly pollutant concentrations (NO, NO2, ozone) as well as meteorological variables were measured at a single monitor 500 m from the plant. Power plant operating parameters and emissions were calculated based on hourly operator logs. Hourly observations covering 1 yr were considered, but the evaluations only used hours when the wind was in a 60 degrees sector including the monitor and when concentrations were above a threshold. PVMRM is found to have little bias in predictions of the C(NO2)/C(NO(x)) ratio, which mostly ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 at this site. OLM overpredicted the ratio. AERMOD overpredicts the maximum NO(x) concentration but has an underprediction bias for lower concentrations. AERMOD/PVMRM overpredicts the maximum C(NO2) by about 50%, while AERMOD/OLM overpredicts by a factor of 2. For 381 hours evaluated, there is a relative mean bias in C(NO2) predictions of near zero for AERMOD/PVMRM, while the relative mean bias reflects a factor of 2 overprediction for AERMOD/OLM. This study was initiated because the new stringent 1-hr NO2

  13. The complex relationship between lung tumor volume and survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated by definitive radiotherapy: A prospective, observational prognostic factor study of the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG 99.05)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, David L.; Fisher, Richard J.; Burmeister, Bryan H.; Poulsen, Michael G.; Graham, Peter H.; Penniment, Michael G.; Vinod, Shalini K.; Krawitz, Hedley E.; Joseph, David J.; Wheeler, Greg C.; McClure, Bev E.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: To investigate the hypothesis that primary tumor volume is prognostic independent of T and N stages in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated by definitive radiotherapy. Materials and methods: Multicenter prospective observational study. Patient eligibility: pathologically proven stage I–III non-small cell lung cancer planned for definitive radiotherapy (minimum 50 Gy in 20 fractions) using CT-based contouring. Volumes of the primary tumor and enlarged nodes were measured according to a standardized protocol. Survival was adjusted for the effect of T and N stage. Results: There were 509 eligible patients. Five-year survival rates for tumor volume grouped by quartiles were, for increasing tumor volume, 22%, 14%, 15% and 21%. Larger primary tumor volume was associated with shorter survival (HR = 1.060 (per doubling); 95% CI 1.01–1.12; P = 0.029). However, after adjusting for the effects of T and N stage, there was no evidence for an association (HR = 1.029, 95% CI, 0.96–1.10, P = 0.39). There was evidence, however, that larger primary tumor volume was associated with an increased risk of dying, independently of T and N stage, in the first 18 months but not beyond. Conclusions: In patients treated by non-surgical means we were unable to show that lung tumor volume, overall, provides additional prognostic information beyond the T and N stage (TNM, 6th edition). There is evidence, however, that larger primary tumor volume adversely affects outcome only within the first 18 months. Larger tumor size alone should not by itself exclude patients from curative (chemo)radiotherapy

  14. Caring for people with dementia in residential aged care: successes with a composite person-centered care model featuring Montessori-based activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gail; Morley, Catherine; Walters, Wendy; Malta, Sue; Doyle, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Person-centered models of dementia care commonly merge aspects of existing models with additional influences from published and unpublished evidence and existing government policy. This study reports on the development and evaluation of one such composite model of person-centered dementia care, the ABLE model. The model was based on building the capacity and ability of residents living with dementia, using environmental changes, staff education and organizational and community engagement. Montessori principles were also used. The evaluation of the model employed mixed methods. Significant behavior changes were evident among residents of the dementia care Unit after the model was introduced, as were reductions in anti-psychotic and sedative medication. Staff reported increased knowledge about meeting the needs of people with dementia, and experienced organizational culture change that supported the ABLE model of care. Families were very satisfied with the changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The moderating effect of nutritional status on depressive symptoms in veteran elders with dementia: a spaced retrieval combined with Montessori-based activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua-Shan; Lin, Li-Chan

    2013-10-01

    To examine the long-term effects of fixed/individualized spaced retrieval combined with Montessori-based activities on nutritional status and body mass index and nutritional improvement's moderating effect on depressive symptoms for people with dementia during a specific follow-up period. The decrease in food intake, often combined with poor nutrition, may induce depressive symptoms in people with dementia. A single-blind, quasi-experimental study with repeated measures. Twenty-five fixed group participants received spaced retrieval combined with Montessori-based activities over 24 sessions. Thirty-eight individualized group participants received the same intervention with different sessions, which was adjusted according to each participant's learning response. Twenty-seven control group participants just received routine care. The Chinese version of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia scores and body mass index were recorded at pre-test, posttest and 1-, 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Data were collected between July 2008-February 2010. The Mini-Nutritional Assessment scores and body mass index of the fixed and individualized groups could be significantly increased over time. Additionally, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia scores could be significantly reduced as a result of the improvement of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment scores arising from the individualized intervention. The depressive symptoms of residents with dementia could be moderated by the individualized intervention through nutritional improvement. Trained clinical nurse specialists can use this individualized intervention for residents with dementia who also have poor nutrition and depressive symptoms. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. AN EPISTEMOLOGICAL GLANCE AT THE CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH: CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING IN DEWEY, PIAGET, AND MONTESSORI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Ültanır

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available What people gain through sensation and cognition make up the individuals’ experiences and knowledge. Individuals benefit from previous experiences when resolving problems. Knowledge is constructed from the meanings one attributes to nature and the environment. In theories, it means that constructers depend on observation and when directly translated, the theory has the meaning of observation. In other words, we construct our own reality with those belonging to our social circle. For us, there is the world and we can’t disregard that; however, the relationship between us and the outside world is a joining as materialistic and structural as in a social environment. In this article, while the foundation of constructivism is being thoroughly analysed, Vico’s ideas in the 18th century and the neurobiological studies of scientific knowledge have been utilized. In light of constructivist learning, Dewey’s opinion on “Experience and Education”, Piaget’s cognitive schema theory in “cognitive development”, and Montessori’s ideas on “Decentring the Teacher” have been examined. Finally, the ideas of the three names on constructivist learning have been interpreted.

  17. Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    "The Advanced Montessori Method, Volume 1" was published in 1918 in English and is considered a seminal work along with "The Montessori Method." In the foreword to this book, Mario Montessori writes: "...the refulgent figure of the child, Dr. Montessori pointed out, who had found his own path to mental health, who…

  18. First-Trimester Crown-Rump Length and Embryonic Volume of Fetuses with Structural Congenital Abnormalities Measured in Virtual Reality: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Baken

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. With the introduction of three-dimensional (3D ultrasound it has become possible to measure volumes. The relative increase in embryonic volume (EV is much larger than that of the crown-rump length (CRL over the same time period. We examined whether EV is a better parameter to determine growth restriction in fetuses with structural congenital abnormalities. Study Design, Subjects, and Outcome Measures. CRL and EV were measured using a Virtual Reality (VR system in prospectively collected 3D ultrasound volumes of 56 fetuses diagnosed with structural congenital abnormalities in the first trimester of pregnancy (gestational age 7+5 to 14+5 weeks. Measured CRL and EV were converted to z-scores and to percentages of the expected mean using previously published reference curves of euploid fetuses. The one-sample t-test was performed to test significance. Results. The EV was smaller than expected for GA in fetuses with structural congenital abnormalities (−35%  p<0.001, z-score −1.44  p<0.001, whereas CRL was not (−6.43%  p=0.118, z-score −0.43  p=0.605. Conclusions. CRL is a less reliable parameter to determine growth restriction in fetuses with structural congenital abnormalities as compared with EV. By measuring EV, growth restriction in first-trimester fetuses with structural congenital abnormalities becomes more evident and enables an earlier detection of these cases.

  19. A glimpse beneath Antarctic sea ice: observation of platelet-layer thickness and ice-volume fraction with multi-frequency EM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, S.; Hoppmann, M.; Hunkeler, P. A.; Kalscheuer, T.; Gerdes, R.

    2015-12-01

    In Antarctica, ice crystals (platelets) form and grow in supercooled waters below ice shelves. These platelets rise and accumulate beneath nearby sea ice to form a several meter thick sub-ice platelet layer. This special ice type is a unique habitat, influences sea-ice mass and energy balance, and its volume can be interpreted as an indicator for ice - ocean interactions. Although progress has been made in determining and understanding its spatio-temporal variability based on point measurements, an investigation of this phenomenon on a larger scale remains a challenge due to logistical constraints and a lack of suitable methodology. In the present study, we applied a lateral constrained Marquardt-Levenberg inversion to a unique multi-frequency electromagnetic (EM) induction sounding dataset obtained on the ice-shelf influenced fast-ice regime of Atka Bay, eastern Weddell Sea. We adapted the inversion algorithm to incorporate a sensor specific signal bias, and confirmed the reliability of the algorithm by performing a sensitivity study using synthetic data. We inverted the field data for sea-ice and sub-ice platelet-layer thickness and electrical conductivity, and calculated ice-volume fractions from platelet-layer conductivities using Archie's Law. The thickness results agreed well with drill-hole validation datasets within the uncertainty range, and the ice-volume fraction also yielded plausible results. Our findings imply that multi-frequency EM induction sounding is a suitable approach to efficiently map sea-ice and platelet-layer properties. However, we emphasize that the successful application of this technique requires a break with traditional EM sensor calibration strategies due to the need of absolute calibration with respect to a physical forward model.

  20. That's Not Montessori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Dane L.

    2009-01-01

    The author could not contain herself one day at school recently when a parent of three children shared something she had heard from her eldest daughter. That morning, the eldest daughter was grumbling about the fact that she and her Lower Elementary brother had to go to school while her Preschool brother did not, and she announced to her mother,…

  1. Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42/6:1 for perioperative plasma volume replacement in 1130 children: results of an European prospective multicenter observational postauthorization safety study (PASS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sümpelmann, Robert; Kretz, Franz-Josef; Luntzer, Robert; de Leeuw, Thomas G.; Mixa, Vladimir; Gäbler, Ralf; Eich, Christoph; Hollmann, Markus W.; Osthaus, Wilhelm A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Third-generation hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is now approved also for the use in children, but safety studies including large numbers of pediatric patients are still missing. Therefore, we performed an European multicentric prospective observational postauthorization safety study (PASS)

  2. Low-Volume Brachial Plexus Block Providing Surgical Anesthesia for Distal Arm Surgery Comparing Supraclavicular, Infraclavicular, and Axillary Approach: A Randomized Observer Blind Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Vazin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Distal arm surgery is widely performed under regional anesthesia with brachial plexus block. The preponderance of evidence for the efficacy relies upon injection of local anesthetic in excess of 30 mL. We aimed to compare three different ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block techniques restricting the total volume to 20 mL. Methods. 120 patients were prospectively randomized to ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block with 20 mL ropivacaine 0.75% at either the supraclavicular, infraclavicular, or axillary level. Multiinjection technique was performed with all three approaches. Primary outcome measure was performance time. Results. Performance time and procedural pain were similar between groups. Needle passes and injection numbers were significantly reduced in the infraclavicular group (P<0.01. Nerve visibility was significantly reduced in the axillary group (P=0.01. Success-rate was significantly increased in the supraclavicular versus the axillary group (P<0.025. Total anesthesia-related time was significantly reduced in the supraclavicular compared to the infraclavicular group (P<0.01. Block duration was significantly increased in the infraclavicular group (P<0.05. No early adverse effects occurred. Conclusion. Supraclavicular and infraclavicular blocks exhibited favorable characteristics compared to the axillary block. Supraclavicular brachial plexus block with the multiinjection intracluster technique exhibited significantly reduced total anesthesia-related time and higher success rate without any early adverse events.

  3. Classroom Observations: Documenting Shifts in Instruction for Districtwide Improvement. Formative Evaluation Cycle Report for the Math in Common Initiative, Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Rebecca R.; Seago, Nanette M.; Burr, Elizabeth; Broek, Marie; Finkelstein, Neal D.

    2015-01-01

    Math in Common® (MiC) is a five-year initiative that supports a formal network of 10 California school districts as they implement the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics (CCSS-M) across grades K-8. This research brief explores how best to select or develop and use classroom observation systems in order to document instructional shifts and…

  4. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    to amphibian skin and mammalian cortical collecting tubule of low and intermediate osmotic permeability. Crosstalk between entrance and exit mechanisms interferes with volume regulation both at aniso-osmotic and iso-osmotic volume perturbations. It has been proposed that cell volume regulation is an intrinsic...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...... volume regulation. In the same cell, these functions may be maintained by different ion pathways that are separately regulated. RVD is often preceded by increase in cytosolic free Ca2+, probably via influx through TRP channels, but Ca2+ release from intracellular stores has also been observed. Cell...

  5. Skylab experiments. Volume 5: Astronomy and space physics. [Skylab observations of galactic radiation, solar energy, and interplanetary composition for high school level education

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The astronomy and space physics investigations conducted in the Skylab program include over 20 experiments in four categories to explore space phenomena that cannot be observed from earth. The categories of space research are as follows: (1) phenomena within the solar system, such as the effect of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere, the composition of interplanetary space, the possibility of an inner planet, and the X-ray radiation from Jupiter, (2) analysis of energetic particles such as cosmic rays and neutrons in the near-earth space, (3) stellar and galactic astronomy, and (4) self-induced environment surrounding the Skylab spacecraft.

  6. Investigation, development, and application of optimal output feedback theory. Volume 3: The relationship between dynamic compensators and observers and Kalman filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Relationships between observers, Kalman Filters and dynamic compensators using feedforward control theory are investigated. In particular, the relationship, if any, between the dynamic compensator state and linear functions of a discrete plane state are investigated. It is shown that, in steady state, a dynamic compensator driven by the plant output can be expressed as the sum of two terms. The first term is a linear combination of the plant state. The second term depends on plant and measurement noise, and the plant control. Thus, the state of the dynamic compensator can be expressed as an estimator of the first term with additive error given by the second term. Conditions under which a dynamic compensator is a Kalman filter are presented, and reduced-order optimal estimaters are investigated.

  7. Factors that influence the outcome of open urethroplasty for pelvis fracture urethral defect (PFUD): an observational study from a single high-volume tertiary care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Yu-meng; Barbagli, Guido; Zhang, Jiong; Xie, Hong; Sa, Ying-long; Jin, San-bao; Xu, Yue-min

    2015-12-01

    To report the clinical features of pelvic fracture urethral injury (PFUI) and assess the real effect of factors that are believed to have adverse effects on delayed urethroplasty. An observational descriptive study in a single urological center examined 376 male patients diagnosed with PFUI who underwent open urethroplasty from 2009 to 2013. Analyzed factors included patient age at the time of injury, etiology of PFUI, type of emergency treatment, concomitant injuries, length and position of stricture, type of urethroplasty and the outcome of surgery. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied, together with analytical statistic methods such as t test and Chi-square test. The overall success rate of delayed urethroplasty was 80.6 %. Early realignment was associated with reduced stricture length and had beneficial effect on delayed surgery. Concomitant rectum rupture, strictures longer than 1.6 cm and strictures closer than 3 cm to the bladder neck were indicators of poor outcome. Age, type of injury, urethral fistula and bladder rupture were not significant predicators of surgery outcome. Failed direct vision internal urethrotomy and urethroplasty had no significant influence on salvage operation. The outcome of posterior urethroplasty is affected by multiple factors. Early realignment has beneficial effect; while the length and position of stricture and its distance to bladder neck plays the key role, rectum rupture at the time of injury is also an indicator of poor outcome. The effect of other factors seems insignificant.

  8. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...

  9. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...

  10. High-dose (70-78 GY) conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer; the relation between observed late bladder and rectum complications and parameters derived from the dose volume histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebesque, J.V.; Bruce, A.; Boersma, L.J.; Velde, A. te

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) complications after conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer, and to investigate the relation between these observed incidences and parameters derived from the Dose Volume Histograms (DVHs) of rectum and bladder wall. Patients and Methods: Hundred and thirty patients with T 2-4 G 1-3 N 0 M 0 prostate cancer were treated with conformal radiotherapy with the simultaneous boost technique in a dose-escalating protocol; 78 patients received a total dose of 70 Gy, 11 patients 74 - 76 Gy and 41 patients 78 Gy, each with a dose of 2 Gy per fraction. DVHs of the rectal wall were used to calculate NTCPs according to the model of Kutcher et al. with the estimated parameter values (n = 0.12, m = 0.15, TD 50 = 80 Gy) according to Burman et al. The median follow-up was 17 months (range 6 - 72 months). The crude and actuarial incidence of late (> 6 months) GI and GU complications were determined using the RTOG/EORTC morbidity scoring system (Grade I to IV). Results: Neither for late GI nor for GU complaints, a grade IV complication was observed. GU complaints occurred in 90 patients (69%): 54 patients (42%) only experienced grade I toxicity, 26 patients (20%) had grade II toxicity, and 10 patients (8%) had grade III complications, of which 8 patients (6%) developed a urethral (7 pts) or ureteric stenosis (1 pt). The actuarial incidence of grade III GU complications was 10% at 2 years. Since bladder wall DVHs are unreliable and most grade III complications were not related to the bladder, the grade II and/or III complications were analyzed in terms of the total prescribed dose only, but no correlation could be demonstrated. GI complications occurred in 71 patients (55%): 59 patients (45%) developed a grade I complication, 11 a grade II complication and only 1 patient required laser treatment twice and blood transfusion because of rectal bleeding (grade III). The actuarial incidence of GI

  11. Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP): use of a small group reading activity run by persons with dementia in adult day health care and long-term care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrajner, Michael J; Camp, Cameron J

    2007-01-01

    Six persons in the early to middle stages of dementia ("leaders") were trained in Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP) to lead a reading activity for 22 persons with more advanced dementia ("participants") in an adult day health center (ADHC) and a special care unit (SCU) in a skilled nursing facility. Researchers assessed the leaders' abilities to learn and follow the procedures of leading a group, as well as their satisfaction with their roles. In addition, participants' engagement and affect were measured, both during standard activities programming and during client-led activities. Results of this study suggest that persons with dementia can indeed successfully lead small group activities, if several important prerequisites are met. Furthermore, the engagement and affect of participants was more positive in client-led activities than in standard activities programming.

  12. For ignoring the moral rights of the photographer Marcus Igno Rudolf Loerbrocks the Dirección Nacional de Derecho de Autor condemned the Colegio Montessori Limitada of Cartagena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Andrea Triana Uribe

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Colombian Copyrights Office (dnda decided against the Colegio Montessori of Cartagena for infringing the moral rights of disclosure of Marcus Igno Rudolf Loerbroks. This case is important because it is one of the few decisions in which authors moral rights have been protected in Colombia. This ruling reveals the jurisprudential line that the dnda has gradually established for the protection of copyrights in our country, and especially for the moral rights enjoyed by the author of the art work as their owner. This is because, unlike the economic rights, moral rights are perpetual, inalienable and unassignable; as exposed in the case of the artist Gabriel Antonio Calle against the shopping mall San Diego and the case exposed in this review.

  13. Impact of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on computed tomography defined target volumes in radiation treatment planning of esophageal cancer : reduction in geographic misses with equal inter-observer variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, Liesbeth; Busz, D. M.; Paardekooper, G. M. R. M.; Beukema, J. C.; Jager, P. L.; Van der Jagt, E. J.; van Dam, G. M.; Groen, H.; Plukker, J. Th. M.; Langendijk, J. A.

    P>Target volume definition in modern radiotherapy is based on planning computed tomography (CT). So far, 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has not been included in planning modality in volume definition of esophageal cancer. This study evaluates fusion of FDG-PET and CT in

  14. Prehospital tidal volume influences hospital tidal volume: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltze, Andrew J; Wong, Terrence S; Harland, Karisa K; Ahmed, Azeemuddin; Fuller, Brian M; Mohr, Nicholas M

    2015-06-01

    The purposes of the study are to describe current practice of ventilation in a modern air medical system and to measure the association of ventilation strategy with subsequent ventilator care and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Retrospective observational cohort study of intubated adult patients (n = 235) transported by a university-affiliated air medical transport service to a 711-bed tertiary academic center between July 2011 and May 2013. Low tidal volume ventilation was defined as tidal volumes less than or equal to 8 mL/kg predicted body weight. Multivariable regression was used to measure the association between prehospital tidal volume, hospital ventilation strategy, and ARDS. Most patients (57%) were ventilated solely with bag valve ventilation during transport. Mean tidal volume of mechanically ventilated patients was 8.6 mL/kg predicted body weight (SD, 0.2 mL/kg). Low tidal volume ventilation was used in 13% of patients. Patients receiving low tidal volume ventilation during air medical transport were more likely to receive low tidal volume ventilation in the emergency department (P tidal volume (P = .840). Low tidal volume ventilation was rare during air medical transport. Air transport ventilation strategy influenced subsequent ventilation but was not associated with ARDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cross-correlations in volume space: Differences between buy and sell volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Young; Hwang, Dong Il; Kim, Min Jae; Koh, In Gyu; Kim, Soo Yong

    2011-03-01

    We study the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes on the Korean stock market in high frequency. We observe that the pulling effects of volumes are as small as that of returns. The properties of the correlations of buy and sell volumes differ. They are explained by the degree of synchronization of stock volumes. Further, the pulling effects on the minimal spanning tree are studied. In minimal spanning trees with directed links, the large pulling effects are clustered at the center, not uniformly distributed. The Epps effect of buy and sell volumes are observed. The reversal of the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes is also detected.

  16. Correlation of ultrasound estimated placental volume and umbilical cord blood volume in term pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannopnut, Papinwit; Kitporntheranunt, Maethaphan; Paritakul, Panwara; Kongsomboon, Kittipong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between ultrasound measured placental volume and collected umbilical cord blood (UCB) volume in term pregnancy. An observational cross-sectional study of term singleton pregnant women in the labor ward at Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center was conducted. Placental thickness, height, and width were measured using two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound and calculated for placental volume using the volumetric mathematic model. After the delivery of the baby, UCB was collected and measured for its volume immediately. Then, birth weight, placental weight, and the actual placental volume were analyzed. The Pearson's correlation was used to determine the correlation between each two variables. A total of 35 pregnant women were eligible for the study. The mean and standard deviation of estimated placental volume and actual placental volume were 534±180 mL and 575±118 mL, respectively. The median UCB volume was 140 mL (range 98-220 mL). The UCB volume did not have a statistically significant correlation with the estimated placental volume (correlation coefficient 0.15; p=0.37). However, the UCB volume was significantly correlated with the actual placental volume (correlation coefficient 0.62; pcorrelation coefficient 0.38; p=0.02). The estimated placental volume by 2D ultrasound was not significantly correlated with the UCB volume. Further studies to establish the correlation between the UCB volume and the estimated placental volume using other types of placental imaging may be needed.

  17. When high-volume PCI operators in high-volume hospitals move to lower volume hospitals-Do they still maintain high volume and quality of outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Li, Sheng-Tun; Liang, Fu-Wen; Lee, Jo-Chi; Yin, Wei-Hsian

    2017-10-31

    The aim of this quasi-experimental study was to examine whether high-volume percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) operators still maintain high volume and quality of outcomes when they moved to lower volume hospitals. Systematic reviews have indicated that high-volume PCI operators and hospitals have higher quality outcomes. However, little is known on whether high PCI volume and high quality outcomes are mainly due to operator characteristics (i.e., skill and experience) and is portable across organizations or whether it is due to hospital characteristics (i.e., equipment, team, and management system) and is less portable. We used Taiwan National Health Insurance claims data 2000-2012 to identify 98 high-volume PCI operators, 10 of whom moved from one hospital to another during the study period. We compared the PCI volume, risk-adjusted mortality ratio, and major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) ratio before and after moving. Of the 10 high-volume operators who moved, 6 moved from high- to moderate- or low-volume hospitals, with median annual PCI volumes (interquartile range) of 130 (117-165) in prior hospitals and 54 (46-84) in subsequent hospitals (the hospital the operator moved to), and the remaining 4 moved from high to high-volume hospitals, with median annual PCI volumes (interquartile range) of 151 (133-162) in prior hospitals and 193 (178-239) in subsequent hospitals. No significant differences were observed in the risk-adjusted mortality ratios and MACE ratios between high-volume operators and matched controls before and after moving. High-volume operators cannot maintain high volume when they moved from high to moderate or low-volume hospitals; however, the quality of care is maintained. High PCI volume and high-quality outcomes are less portable and more hospital bound. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Movement Matters: Observing the Benefits of Movement Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Melani Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Montessori's first premise is that movement and cognition are closely entwined, and movement can enhance thinking and learning (Lillard, 2005). Children must move, and practice moving, to develop strength, balance, and the stability needed to fully participate in the rigors of daily life. It is imperative for young children's motor…

  19. Shuttle user analysis (study 2.2). Volume 3: Business risk and value of operations in space (BRAVO). Part 5: Analysis of GSFC Earth Observation Satellite (EOS) system mission model using BRAVO techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Cost comparisons were made between three modes of operation (expend, ground refurbish, and space resupply) for the Earth Observation System (EOS-B) to furnish data to NASA on alternative ways to use the shuttle/EOS. Results of the analysis are presented in tabular form.

  20. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  1. Blood volume studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, S.M.; Yin, J.A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of dilution analysis with such radioisotopes as 51 Cr, 32 P, sup(99m)Tc and sup(113m)In for measuring red cell volume is reviewed briefly. The use of 125 I and 131 I for plasma volume studies is also considered and the subsequent determination of total blood volume discussed, together with the role of the splenic red cell volume. Substantial bibliography. (UK)

  2. Observing nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book enables anyone with suitable instruments to undertake an examination of nebulae and see or photograph them in detail. Nebulae, ethereal clouds of gas and dust, are among the most beautiful objects to view in the night sky. These star-forming regions are a common target for observers and photographers. Griffiths describes many of the brightest and best nebulae and includes some challenges for the more experienced observer. Readers learn the many interesting astrophysical properties of these clouds, which are an important subject of study in astronomy and astrobiology. Non-mathematical in approach, the text is easily accessible to anyone with an interest in the subject. A special feature is the inclusion of an observational guide to 70 objects personally observed or imaged by the author. The guide also includes photographs of each object for ease of identification along with their celestial coordinates, magnitudes and other pertinent information. Observing Nebulae provides a ready resource to allow an...

  3. Let Peter Rabbit Play in the Garden: Using Beatrix Potter's Work to Integrate Ecological Literacy into Montessori Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Kelly Johnson introduces a series of lessons that incorporate literacy, observation, botany, history, place studies, writing, and art, with a long-term eco-literacy goal of connectedness and a conservation ethic. Johnson's initial idea to use Beatrix Potter as a model in the Lower Elementary classroom came after extensively researching…

  4. Study of very heavy systems by means of INDRA: First evidence for a volume effect in the nuclear multifragmentation process; Etude de systemes tres lourds observes avec INDRA: Premiere mise en evidence d`un effet de volume dans le processus de multifragmentation nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankland, John David [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1998-12-10

    We present a study of Gd+U collisions at 36 AMeV measured with the INDRA multidetector, permitting almost complete detection (over 80%) of all the reaction products. We show that events exist which correspond to the multifragmentation of a single system comprising the majority of the nucleons for a cross-section of 2.6 mbarn, by isolating reactions for which the emitted fragments have lost all memory of the entrance channel. Such reactions correspond to neither the most central collisions nor the most isotropic events (in the fragments` momentum space), and therefore cannot be correctly distinguished from the dominant binary deeply-inelastic collisions using these criteria. An initial comparison of the selected data with a statistical code indicates that fragments are formed in a dilute, compact system, undergoing a self-similar expansion corresponding to a collective energy of between 1 and 1.5 MeV. Comparison with the same type of events observed in Xe+Sn collisions at 32 AMeV reveals the existence of a scaling law for the multifragmentation of systems of different mass at the same excitation energy per nucleon: fragment Z distributions are identical while their multiplicity increases proportionally to the mass of the multi-fragmenting system. This observation is interpreted as an experimental signal that this multifragmentation originates in a bulk instability of low-density nuclear matter (spinodal region). A complete semi-classical microscopic calculation for the two reactions, including the formation and multifragmentation by spinodal decomposition of very heavy, low-density systems, reproduces very well not only the experimental fragment multiplicities and Z distributions but also their mean kinetic energies, as well as the size distributions of the largest fragments. (author) 156 refs., 76 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. Observational astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Léna, Pierre; Lebrun, François; Mignard, François; Pelat, Didier

    2012-01-01

    This is the updated, widely revised, restructured and expanded third edition of Léna et al.'s successful work Observational Astrophysics. It presents a synthesis on tools and methods of observational astrophysics of the early 21st century. Written specifically for astrophysicists and graduate students, this textbook focuses on fundamental and sometimes practical limitations on the ultimate performance that an astronomical system may reach, rather than presenting particular systems in detail. In little more than a decade there has been extraordinary progress in imaging and detection technologies, in the fields of adaptive optics, optical interferometry, in the sub-millimetre waveband, observation of neutrinos, discovery of exoplanets, to name but a few examples. The work deals with ground-based and space-based astronomy and their respective fields. And it also presents the ambitious concepts behind space missions aimed for the next decades. Avoiding particulars, it covers the whole of the electromagnetic spec...

  6. Observable supertranslations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, Raphael; Porrati, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    We show that large gauge transformations in asymptotically flat spacetime can be implemented by sandwiching a shell containing the ingoing hard particles between two finite-width shells of soft gauge excitations. Integration of the graviton Dirac bracket implies that our observable soft degrees of freedom obey the algebra imposed by Strominger et al. on unobservable boundary degrees of freedom. Thus, we provide both a derivation and an observable realization of this algebra. We recently showed that soft charges fail to constrain the hard scattering problem, and so cannot be relevant to the black hole information paradox. By expressing the Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) algebra in terms of observable quantities, the present work shows that this conclusion was not an artifact of working with strictly zero frequency soft modes. The conservation laws associated with asymptotic symmetries are seen to arise physically from free propagation of infrared modes.

  7. Observational astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Robert C

    1995-01-01

    Combining a critical account of observational methods (telescopes and instrumentation) with a lucid description of the Universe, including stars, galaxies and cosmology, Smith provides a comprehensive introduction to the whole of modern astrophysics beyond the solar system. The first half describes the techniques used by astronomers to observe the Universe: optical telescopes and instruments are discussed in detail, but observations at all wavelengths are covered, from radio to gamma-rays. After a short interlude describing the appearance of the sky at all wavelengths, the role of positional astronomy is highlighted. In the second half, a clear description is given of the contents of the Universe, including accounts of stellar evolution and cosmological models. Fully illustrated throughout, with exercises given in each chapter, this textbook provides a thorough introduction to astrophysics for all physics undergraduates, and a valuable background for physics graduates turning to research in astronomy.

  8. Assessment of liver volume with spiral computerized tomography scanning: predicting liver volume by age and height

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu Sharma; Abhishek Singh; Shewtank Goel; Setu Satani; Kavita Mudgil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Estimation of liver size has critical clinical implication. Precise knowledge of liver dimensions and volume is prerequisite for clinical assessment of liver disorders. Liver span as measured by palpation and USG is prone to inter-observer variability and poor repeatability. The aim was to assess the normal liver volume of healthy adults using spiral computed tomography scans and to observe its relationship with various body indices. Methods: In this prospective study, all the...

  9. Variable volume combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  10. Postoperative volume balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, H; Mortensen, C.R.; Secher, Niels H.

    2017-01-01

    In healthy humans, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) do not increase with expansion of the central blood volume by head-down tilt or administration of fluid. Here, we exposed 85 patients to Trendelenburg's position about one hour after surgery while cardiovascular variables were determin...

  11. Natural Hazards Observer: Volume 26, Number 1, September 2001

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center was founded to strengthen communication among researchers and the individuals and organizations concerned with mitigating natural disasters...

  12. Natural Hazards Observer. Volume 32, Number 2, November 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    visits to many communities previously hit by disas- " small island developing states ters such as earthquakes, landslides , storms, and floods, " disabled...development and use of voluntary consensus volcanoes , and weather have now created a new way to standards." In addition, the department is to develop a work...areas to produce maps for emergency and then up the Atlantic Coast to North Carolina. The service personnel, longer term aid workers, and evacuees

  13. Natural Hazards Observer. Volume 17. Number 4, March 2003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    The NATURAL HAZARDS RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS INFORMATION CENTER was founded to strengthen communication among researchers and the individuals and organizations concerned with mitigating natural disasters...

  14. 4880 Volume 11 No. 3 May 2011 INSECTS OBSERVED ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-05-03

    May 3, 2011 ... Other important crops in the country are oil palm, coffee, citrus, cassava, rice, millet and ... legumes including cowpeas have mixed stories of pollination. While some ..... pollen movement. On the other hand, carpenter bees.

  15. Finite volume QCD at fixed topological charge

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Sinya; Fukaya, Hidenori; Hashimoto, Shoji; Onogi, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    In finite volume the partition function of QCD with a given $\\theta$ is a sum of different topological sectors with a weight primarily determined by the topological susceptibility. If a physical observable is evaluated only in a fixed topological sector, the result deviates from the true expectation value by an amount proportional to the inverse space-time volume 1/V. Using the saddle point expansion, we derive formulas to express the correction due to the fixed topological charge in terms of...

  16. Observational cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    Some sixty years after the development of relativistic cosmology by Einstein and his colleagues, observations are finally beginning to have an important impact on our views of the Universe. The available evidence seems to support one of the simplest cosmological models, the hot Big Bang model. The aim of this paper is to assess the observational support for certain assumptions underlying the hot Big Bang model. These are that the Universe is isobaric and homogeneous on a large scale; that it is expanding from an initial state of high density and temperature; and that the proper theory to describe the dynamics of the Universe is unmodified General Relativity. The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation and recent observations of the abundance of light elements, in particular, support these assumptions. Also examined here are the data bearing on the related questions of the geometry and the future of the Universe (is it ever-expanding, or fated to recollapse). Finally, some difficulties and faults of the standard model are discussed, particularly various aspects of the 'initial condition' problem. It appears that the simplest Big Bang cosmological model calls for a highly specific set of initial conditions to produce the presently observed properties of the Universe. (Auth.)

  17. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  18. Flare Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benz Arnold O.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays at 100 MeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, and SOHO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before the hard X-ray emission in chromospheric footpoints, major flare acceleration sites appear to be independent of coronal mass ejections (CMEs, electrons, and ions may be accelerated at different sites, there are at least 3 different magnetic topologies, and basic characteristics vary from small to large flares. Recent progress also includes improved insights into the flare energy partition, on the location(s of energy release, tests of energy release scenarios and particle acceleration. The interplay of observations with theory is important to deduce the geometry and to disentangle the various processes involved. There is increasing evidence supporting reconnection of magnetic field lines as the basic cause. While this process has become generally accepted as the trigger, it is still controversial how it converts a considerable fraction of the energy into non-thermal particles. Flare-like processes may be responsible for large-scale restructuring of the magnetic field in the corona as well as for its heating. Large flares influence interplanetary space and substantially affect the Earth’s lower ionosphere. While flare scenarios have slowly converged over the past decades, every new observation still reveals major unexpected results, demonstrating that solar flares, after 150 years since their discovery, remain a complex problem of astrophysics including major unsolved questions.

  19. Flare Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Arnold O.

    2017-12-01

    Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays beyond 1 GeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, SOHO, and more recently Hinode and SDO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before the hard X-ray emission in chromospheric footpoints, major flare acceleration sites appear to be independent of coronal mass ejections, electrons, and ions may be accelerated at different sites, there are at least 3 different magnetic topologies, and basic characteristics vary from small to large flares. Recent progress also includes improved insights into the flare energy partition, on the location(s) of energy release, tests of energy release scenarios and particle acceleration. The interplay of observations with theory is important to deduce the geometry and to disentangle the various processes involved. There is increasing evidence supporting magnetic reconnection as the basic cause. While this process has become generally accepted as the trigger, it is still controversial how it converts a considerable fraction of the energy into non-thermal particles. Flare-like processes may be responsible for large-scale restructuring of the magnetic field in the corona as well as for its heating. Large flares influence interplanetary space and substantially affect the Earth's ionosphere. Flare scenarios have slowly converged over the past decades, but every new observation still reveals major unexpected results, demonstrating that solar flares, after 150 years since their discovery, remain a complex problem of astrophysics including major unsolved questions.

  20. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliūnas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliūnas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight 358 Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  1. Delivered volumes of enteral nutrition exceed prescribed volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Renee Nichole; Utech, Anne; Velez, Maria Eugenia; Schwartz, Katie

    2014-10-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) provisions are typically calculated based on a 24-hour infusion period. However, feedings are often interrupted for daily activities, procedures, or gastrointestinal intolerance. The study's objective was to determine the delivered EN quantities provided to stable hospitalized patients, using cellular time and measured volumes to verify our EN calculation adjustment. A supply of consecutively numbered ready-to-hang (RTH) EN product was delivered to the bedside of 26 inpatients with established EN tolerance at goal rates on various types of nursing units. The dietitian weighed the volume remaining in the infusing product and recorded the measurement time. On the following days, the dietitian continued to weigh the infusing RTH product and the empty RTH bottles saved by nursing. The primary outcome was the difference between the prescribed and delivered EN provisions, which was calculated with a paired t test. Patients received significantly more calories in the delivered enteral feeding (mean [SD], 1678 [385] kcal) than prescribed calories in the EN order (1489 [246 kcal]; t = 3.736, P = .001), adjusting for observed time. No significant differences were found between nursing units, product, and rate. EN delivered may actually exceed ordered amounts by 5%–21% (mean, 12%) with feeding pump inaccuracy as the primary contributing factor. This differs from what others have found. Our findings support using a volume-based ordering system vs a rate-based ordering system for more accurate EN delivery.

  2. Insignificant change in Antarctic snowmelt volume since 1979

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers Munneke, P.; Picard, G.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van Meijgaard, E.

    2012-01-01

    Surface snowmelt is widespread in coastal Antarctica. Satellite-based microwave sensors have been observing melt area and duration for over three decades. However, these observations do not reveal the total volume of meltwater produced on the ice sheet. Here we present an Antarctic melt volume

  3. Practical Observations of the Transit of Venus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 5. Practical Observations of the Transit of Venus. B S Shyalaja. Classroom Volume 9 Issue 5 May 2004 pp 79-83. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/05/0079-0083 ...

  4. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera; Kruger, Jens; Moller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined

  5. Observational astrophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léna, P.; Lebrun, F.; Mignard, F.

    This book is the 2nd edition of an English translation published in 1988 (45.003.105) of the French original "Astrophysique: Méthodes physiques de l'observation" published in 1986 (42.003.048). Written specifically for physicists and graduate students in astronomy, this textbook focuses on astronomical observation and on the basic physical principles that astronomers use to conceive, build and exploit their instruments at their ultimate limits in sensitivity or resolution. This second edition has been entirely restructured and almost doubled in size, in order to improve its clarity and to account for the great progress achieved in the last 15 years. It deals with ground-based and space-based astronomy and their respective fields. It presents the new generation of giant ground-based telescopes, with the new methods of optical interferometry and adaptive optics, and also the ambitious concepts behind planned space missions for the next decades. Avoiding particulars, it covers the whole of the electromagnetic spectrum and touches upon the "new astronomies" becoming possible with gravitational waves and neutrinos.

  6. Integers annual volume 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Landman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    ""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.

  7. Volume 9 Number 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 9 Number 1 ... of persistent dumping of cheap subsidized food imports from developed ... independence of the inefficiency effects in the two estimation ...

  8. BP volume reduction equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yoshinori; Muroo, Yoji; Hamanaka, Isao

    2003-01-01

    A new type of burnable poison (BP) volume reduction system is currently being developed. Many BP rods, a subcomponent of spent fuel assemblies are discharged from nuclear power reactors. This new system reduces the overall volume of BP rods. The main system consists of BP rod cutting equipment, equipment for the recovery of BP cut pieces, and special transport equipment for the cut rods. The equipment is all operated by hydraulic press cylinders in water to reduce operator exposure to radioactivity. (author)

  9. Electroanalytical chemistry. Volume 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    This volume is part of a series aimed at authoritative reviews of electroanalytical techniques and related areas of investigation. Volume 14 clearly maintains the high standards and proven usefulness of the series. Topics covered include conformation change and isomerization associated with electrode reactions, infrared vibrational spectroscopy of the electrode-solution interface, and precision in linear sweep and cyclic voltametry. A short history of electrochemical techniques which include the term square wave is provided

  10. Reduced volume of Heschl's gyrus in tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Peter; Andermann, Martin; Wengenroth, Martina; Goebel, Rainer; Flor, Herta; Rupp, André; Diesch, Eugen

    2009-04-15

    The neural basis of tinnitus is unknown. Recent neuroimaging studies point towards involvement of several cortical and subcortical regions. Here we demonstrate that tinnitus may be associated with structural changes in the auditory cortex. Using individual morphological segmentation, the medial partition of Heschl's gyrus (mHG) was studied in individuals with and without chronic tinnitus using magnetic resonance imaging. Both the tinnitus and the non-tinnitus group included musicians and non-musicians. Patients exhibited significantly smaller mHG gray matter volumes than controls. In unilateral tinnitus, this effect was almost exclusively seen in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the affected ear. In bilateral tinnitus, mHG volume was substantially reduced in both hemispheres. The tinnitus-related volume reduction was found across the full extent of mHG, not only in the high-frequency part usually most affected by hearing loss-induced deafferentation. However, there was also evidence for a relationship between volume reduction and hearing loss. Correlations between volume and hearing level depended on the subject group as well as the asymmetry of the hearing loss. The volume changes observed may represent antecedents or consequences of tinnitus and tinnitus-associated hearing loss and also raise the possibility that small cortical volume constitutes a vulnerability factor.

  11. Provider volume and outcomes for oncological procedures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, S D

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Oncological procedures may have better outcomes if performed by high-volume providers. METHODS: A review of the English language literature incorporating searches of the Medline, Embase and Cochrane collaboration databases was performed. Studies were included if they involved a patient cohort from 1984 onwards, were community or population based, and assessed health outcome as a dependent variable and volume as an independent variable. The studies were also scored quantifiably to assess generalizability with respect to any observed volume-outcome relationship and analysed according to organ system; numbers needed to treat were estimated where possible. RESULTS: Sixty-eight relevant studies were identified and a total of 41 were included, of which 13 were based on clinical data. All showed either an inverse relationship, of variable magnitude, between provider volume and mortality, or no volume-outcome effect. All but two clinical reports revealed a statistically significant positive relationship between volume and outcome; none demonstrated the opposite. CONCLUSION: High-volume providers have a significantly better outcome for complex cancer surgery, specifically for pancreatectomy, oesphagectomy, gastrectomy and rectal resection.

  12. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  13. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    conception to 82 years of age. This model shows that 69% of the variation in ovarian volume is due to age alone. We have shown that in the average case ovarian volume rises from 0.7 mL (95% CI 0.4-1.1 mL) at 2 years of age to a peak of 7.7 mL (95% CI 6.5-9.2 mL) at 20 years of age with a subsequent decline...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis......The measurement of ovarian volume has been shown to be a useful indirect indicator of the ovarian reserve in women of reproductive age, in the diagnosis and management of a number of disorders of puberty and adult reproductive function, and is under investigation as a screening tool for ovarian...

  14. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  15. Rocket observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) sounding rocket experiments were carried out during the periods of August to September, 1982, January to February and August to September, 1983 and January to February, 1984 with sounding rockets. Among 9 rockets, 3 were K-9M, 1 was S-210, 3 were S-310 and 2 were S-520. Two scientific satellites were launched on February 20, 1983 for solar physics and on February 14, 1984 for X-ray astronomy. These satellites were named as TENMA and OHZORA and designated as 1983-011A and 1984-015A, respectively. Their initial orbital elements are also described. A payload recovery was successfully carried out by S-520-6 rocket as a part of MINIX (Microwave Ionosphere Non-linear Interaction Experiment) which is a scientific study of nonlinear plasma phenomena in conjunction with the environmental assessment study for the future SPS project. Near IR observation of the background sky shows a more intense flux than expected possibly coming from some extragalactic origin and this may be related to the evolution of the universe. US-Japan cooperative program of Tether Experiment was done on board US rocket.

  16. Altitude Acclimatization and Blood Volume: Effects of Exogenous Erythrocyte Volume Expansion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sawka, M

    1996-01-01

    ...: (a) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume; (b) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations; (c...

  17. Three-dimensional reconstruction volume: a novel method for volume measurement in kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Timothy A; Carnell, Jonathan; Turk, Thomas T; Gupta, Gopal N

    2014-06-01

    The role of volumetric estimation is becoming increasingly important in the staging, management, and prognostication of benign and cancerous conditions of the kidney. We evaluated the use of three-dimensional reconstruction volume (3DV) in determining renal parenchymal volumes (RPV) and renal tumor volumes (RTV). We compared 3DV with the currently available methods of volume assessment and determined its interuser reliability. RPV and RTV were assessed in 28 patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for kidney cancer. Patients with a preoperative creatinine level of kidney pre- and postsurgery overestimated 3D reconstruction volumes by 15% to 102% and 12% to 101%, respectively. In addition, volumes obtained from 3DV displayed high interuser reliability regardless of experience. 3DV provides a highly reliable way of assessing kidney volumes. Given that 3DV takes into account visible anatomy, the differences observed using previously published methods can be attributed to the failure of geometry to accurately approximate kidney or tumor shape. 3DV provides a more accurate, reproducible, and clinically useful tool for urologists looking to improve patient care using analysis related to volume.

  18. Brain volume measurement using three-dimensional magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Yoshihiro

    1996-01-01

    This study was designed to validate accurate measurement method of human brain volume using three dimensional (3D) MRI data on a workstation, and to establish optimal correcting method of human brain volume on diagnosis of brain atrophy. 3D MRI data were acquired by fast SPGR sequence using 1.5 T MR imager. 3D MRI data were segmented by region growing method and 3D image was displayed by surface rendering method on the workstation. Brain volume was measured by the volume measurement function of the workstation. In order to validate the accurate measurement method, phantoms and a specimen of human brain were examined. Phantom volume was measured by changing the lower level of threshold value. At the appropriate threshold value, percentage of error of phantoms and the specimen were within 0.6% and 0.08%, respectively. To establish the optimal correcting method, 130 normal volunteers were examined. Brain volumes corrected with height weight, body surface area, and alternative skull volume were evaluated. Brain volume index, which is defined as dividing brain volume by alternative skull volume, had the best correlation with age (r=0.624, p<0.05). No gender differences was observed in brain volume index in contrast to in brain volume. The clinical usefulness of this correcting method for brain atrophy diagnosis was evaluated in 85 patients. Diagnosis by 2D spin echo MR images was compared with brain volume index. Diagnosis of brain atrophy by 2D MR image was concordant with the evaluation by brain volume index. These results indicated that this measurement method had high accuracy, and it was important to set the appropriate threshold value. Brain volume index was the appropriate indication for evaluation of human brain volume, and was considered to be useful for the diagnosis of brain atrophy. (author)

  19. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  20. Fluctuations of trading volume in a stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Byoung Hee; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Hwang, Jun Kyung; Lee, Jae Woo

    2009-03-01

    We consider the probability distribution function of the trading volume and the volume changes in the Korean stock market. The probability distribution function of the trading volume shows double peaks and follows a power law, P(V/)∼( at the tail part of the distribution with α=4.15(4) for the KOSPI (Korea composite Stock Price Index) and α=4.22(2) for the KOSDAQ (Korea Securities Dealers Automated Quotations), where V is the trading volume and is the monthly average value of the trading volume. The second peaks originate from the increasing trends of the average volume. The probability distribution function of the volume changes also follows a power law, P(Vr)∼Vr-β, where Vr=V(t)-V(t-T) and T is a time lag. The exponents β depend on the time lag T. We observe that the exponents β for the KOSDAQ are larger than those for the KOSPI.

  1. The volume of a soliton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, C.; Haberichter, M.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2016-01-01

    There exists, in general, no unique definition of the size (volume, area, etc., depending on dimension) of a soliton. Here we demonstrate that the geometric volume (area etc.) of a soliton is singled out in the sense that it exactly coincides with the thermodynamical or continuum-mechanical volume. In addition, this volume may be defined uniquely for rather arbitrary solitons in arbitrary dimensions.

  2. The volume of a soliton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, C., E-mail: adam@fpaxp1.usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela and Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Haberichter, M. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); Wereszczynski, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Lojasiewicza 11, Kraków (Poland)

    2016-03-10

    There exists, in general, no unique definition of the size (volume, area, etc., depending on dimension) of a soliton. Here we demonstrate that the geometric volume (area etc.) of a soliton is singled out in the sense that it exactly coincides with the thermodynamical or continuum-mechanical volume. In addition, this volume may be defined uniquely for rather arbitrary solitons in arbitrary dimensions.

  3. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  4. Volume holographic memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Denz

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Volume holography represents a promising alternative to existing storage technologies. Its parallel data storage leads to high capacities combined with short access times and high transfer rates. The design and realization of a compact volume holographic storage demonstrator is presented. The technique of phase-coded multiplexing implemented to superimpose many data pages in a single location enables to store up to 480 holograms per storage location without any moving parts. Results of analog and digital data storage are shown and real time optical image processing is demonstrated.

  5. Cosmological measure with volume averaging and the vacuum energy problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; del Popolo, Antonino

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we give a possible solution to the cosmological constant problem. It is shown that the traditional approach, based on volume weighting of probabilities, leads to an incoherent conclusion: the probability that a randomly chosen observer measures Λ = 0 is exactly equal to 1. Using an alternative, volume averaging measure, instead of volume weighting can explain why the cosmological constant is non-zero.

  6. Cosmological measure with volume averaging and the vacuum energy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astashenok, Artyom V; Del Popolo, Antonino

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a possible solution to the cosmological constant problem. It is shown that the traditional approach, based on volume weighting of probabilities, leads to an incoherent conclusion: the probability that a randomly chosen observer measures Λ = 0 is exactly equal to 1. Using an alternative, volume averaging measure, instead of volume weighting can explain why the cosmological constant is non-zero. (paper)

  7. Is Montessori Ready for the Obama Generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    When Barack Obama announced his run for the presidency, he seemed an unlikely candidate. Against all odds, he was able to defeat an apparently overwhelming opposition by relating to the electorate in a more horizontal, collaborative manner. What Obama did differently was to empower the new, digitally active, younger political class by involving…

  8. Design for volume reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally packaging design-for-sustainability (DfS) strongly focuses on resource conservation and material recycling. The type and amount of materials used has been the driver in design. For consumer electronics (CE) products this weight-based approach is too limited; a volume-based approach is

  9. Another year, another volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Block

    2012-01-01

    This issue represents the final one in volume 76 of Journal of Wildlife Management. As this one is pretty much in the books, one cannot help but wonder what the future holds for the journal. Lenny Brennan is putting together a piece for Wildlife Society Bulletin to examine how The Wildlife Society publications have changed through time. He solicited input from past and...

  10. THE PREDICTION OF VOID VOLUME IN SUBCOOLED NUCLEATE POOL BOILING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, E. E. [General Dynamics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1963-11-15

    A three- step equation was developed that adequately describes the average volume of vapor occurring on a horizontal surface due to nucleate pool boiling of subcooled water. Since extensive bubble frequency data are lacking, the data of others were combined with experimental observations to make predictions of void volume at ambient pressure with various degrees of subcooling. (auth)

  11. Quantum volume hologram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyev, Denis V.; Sokolov, Ivan V.; Polzik, Eugene S.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a scheme for parallel spatially multimode quantum memory for light. The scheme is based on a counterpropagating quantum signal wave and a strong classical reference wave as in a classical volume hologram and therefore can be called a quantum volume hologram. The medium for the hologram consists of a spatially extended ensemble of atoms placed in a magnetic field. The write-in and readout of this quantum hologram is as simple as that of its classical counterpart and consists of a single-pass illumination. In addition, we show that the present scheme for a quantum hologram is less sensitive to diffraction and therefore is capable of achieving a higher density of storage of spatial modes as compared to previous proposals. We present a feasibility study and show that experimental implementation is possible with available cold atomic samples. A quantum hologram capable of storing entangled images can become an important ingredient in quantum information processing and quantum imaging.

  12. Viability Assessment Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This volume describes the major design features of the Monitored Geologic Repository. This document is not intended to provide an exhaustive, detailed description of the repository design. Rather, this document summarizes the major systems and primary elements of the design that are radiologically significant, and references the specific technical documents and design analyses wherein the details can be found. Not all portions of the design are at the same level of completeness. Highest priority has been given to assigning resources to advance the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation and for which there is no NRC licensing precedent. Those features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation, but for which there is an NRC precedent, receive second priority. Systems and features that have no impact on radiological safety or waste isolation receive the lowest priority. This prioritization process, referred to as binning, is discussed in more detail in Section 2.3. Not every subject discussed in this volume is given equal treatment with regard to the level of detail provided. For example, less detail is provided for the surface facility design than for the subsurface and waste package designs. This different level of detail is intentional. Greater detail is provided for those functions, structures, systems, and components that play key roles with regard to protecting radiological health and safety and that are not common to existing nuclear facilities already licensed by NRC. A number of radiological subjects are not addressed in the VA, (e.g., environmental qualification of equipment). Environmental qualification of equipment and other radiological safety considerations will be addressed in the LA. Non-radiological safety considerations such as silica dust control and other occupational safety considerations are considered equally important but are not addressed in

  13. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  14. Volume-based characterization of postocclusion surge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Jaime; Zacharias, Sergio

    2005-10-01

    To propose an alternative method to characterize postocclusion surge using a collapsible artificial anterior chamber to replace the currently used rigid anterior chamber model. Fundación Oftamológica Los Andes, Santiago, Chile. The distal end of a phacoemulsification handpiece was placed inside a compliant artificial anterior chamber. Digital recordings of chamber pressure, chamber volume, inflow, and outflow were performed during occlusion break of the phacoemulsification tip. The occlusion break profile of 2 different consoles was compared. Occlusion break while using a rigid anterior chamber model produced a simultaneous increase of chamber inflow and outflow. In the rigid chamber model, pressure decreased sharply, reaching negative pressure values. Alternatively, with the collapsible chamber model, a delay was observed in the inflow that occurs to compensate the outflow surge. Also, the chamber pressure drop was smaller in magnitude, never undershooting below atmospheric pressure into negative values. Using 500 mm Hg as vacuum limit, the Infiniti System (Alcon) performed better that the Legacy (Alcon), showing an 18% reduction in peak volume variation. The collapsible anterior chamber model provides a more realistic representation of the postocclusion surge events that occur in the real eye during cataract surgery. Peak volume fluctuation (mL), half volume recovery time(s), and volume fluctuation integral value (mL x s) are proposed as realistic indicators to characterize the postocclusion surge performance. These indicators show that the Infiniti System has a better postocclusion surge behavior than the Legacy System.

  15. Sliding mode control and observation

    CERN Document Server

    Shtessel, Yuri; Fridman, Leonid; Levant, Arie

    2014-01-01

    The sliding mode control methodology has proven effective in dealing with complex dynamical systems affected by disturbances, uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics. Robust control technology based on this methodology has been applied to many real-world problems, especially in the areas of aerospace control, electric power systems, electromechanical systems, and robotics. Sliding Mode Control and Observation represents the first textbook that starts with classical sliding mode control techniques and progresses toward newly developed higher-order sliding mode control and observation algorithms and their applications. The present volume addresses a range of sliding mode control issues, including: *Conventional sliding mode controller and observer design *Second-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Frequency domain analysis of conventional and second-order sliding mode controllers *Higher-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Higher-order sliding mode observers *Sliding mode disturbanc...

  16. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  17. [Target volume margins for lung cancer: internal target volume/clinical target volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouin, A; Pourel, N

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a review of margins that should be used for the delineation of target volumes in lung cancer, with a focus on margins from gross tumour volume (GTV) to clinical target volume (CTV) and internal target volume (ITV) delineation. Our review was based on a PubMed literature search with, as a cornerstone, the 2010 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) recommandations by De Ruysscher et al. The keywords used for the search were: radiotherapy, lung cancer, clinical target volume, internal target volume. The relevant information was categorized under the following headings: gross tumour volume definition (GTV), CTV-GTV margin (first tumoural CTV then nodal CTV definition), in field versus elective nodal irradiation, metabolic imaging role through the input of the PET scanner for tumour target volume and limitations of PET-CT imaging for nodal target volume definition, postoperative radiotherapy target volume definition, delineation of target volumes after induction chemotherapy; then the internal target volume is specified as well as tumoural mobility for lung cancer and respiratory gating techniques. Finally, a chapter is dedicated to planning target volume definition and another to small cell lung cancer. For each heading, the most relevant and recent clinical trials and publications are mentioned. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  18. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  19. Strong volume, stable prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This article is the September-October 1993 market report, providing trading volume and prices in the Uranium market. Activity was brisk, with 15 deals concluded. Six were in the spot concentrates market, with four of the six deals involving U.S. utilities and approximately 1.8M pounds of U3O8 equivalent. There were five conversion deals announced, with four of the five deals involving U.S. utilities. Four deals were concluded in the enrichment market, and the deals involving U.S. utilities were approximately 327k SWUs. On the horizon, there are deals for approximately 4.1M SWU

  20. Volume of emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, P; Whimster, W F

    1981-01-01

    A method of determining the volume of emphysema in excised lungs is presented, with its validation. This method is based on macroscopic point counting using a perforated grid but only the holes (points) overlying emphysema need be counted to produce results within a percentage standard error of 5%. Application of the method shows that an adequate assessment of emphysema cannot be made from one lung slice alone, and that the amount of emphysema found in one lung cannot be used to predict the a...

  1. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret...... of view as well as w.r.t. computational complexity. Finally, we present algorithms for both approaches for NMI which is comparable in speed to Sum of Squared Differences (SSD), and we illustrate the differences between PW and GPV on a number of registration examples....

  2. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance

  3. Radwaste '86: proceedings volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainslie, L.C.

    1986-12-01

    The volume contains all the papers presented at the above Conference, which was held in Cape Town, South Africa from 7 to 12 September 1986. A total of 55 contributions cover the full spectrum of the theme of the Conference, which was subdivided into four sessions. Conditioning, treatment and management of radioactive waste: 12 papers reporting on experiences in various countries, as well as specialist topics such as the extraction of radioactive contaminants from reactor pool water. Containment, safe handling and long-term integrity of ILLW packages: 2 papers dealing with cask design. Transport and storage of radwaste and spent fuel: 7 papers ranging from broad overviews to specific operations in different parts of the world. Radioactive waste disposal and environmental impact: 32 papers covering topics from site selection, design and operation, to modelling and monitoring studies. South Africa's Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal facility is comprehensively described. The volume is a useful reference for anyone interested in the disposal of radioactive waste, especially in arid environments, as well as its treatment and management prior to disposal, and will appeal to a wide range of disciplines including engineers, geologists, geophysicists, life scientists and environmentalists. Of particular interest would be the intensive studies undertaken in South Africa prior to the establishment of a radioactive waste repository in that country

  4. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  5. Limiting volume with modern ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Thomas J; Haan, Lutana; Ashworth, Lonny J; Anderson, Jeff

    2015-06-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) network low tidal-volume study comparing tidal volumes of 12 ml/kg versus 6 ml/kg was published in 2000. The study was stopped early as data revealed a 22% relative reduction in mortality rate when using 6 ml/kg tidal volume. The current generation of critical care ventilators allows the tidal volume to be set during volume-targeted, assist/control (volume A/C); however, some ventilators include options that may prevent the tidal volume from being controlled. The purpose of this bench study was to evaluate the delivered tidal volume, when these options are active, in a spontaneously breathing lung model using an electronic breathing simulator. Four ventilators were evaluated: CareFusion AVEA (AVEA), Dräger Evita® XL (Evita XL), Covidien Puritan Bennett® 840(TM) (PB 840), and Maquet SERVO-i (SERVO-i). Each ventilator was connected to the Hans Rudolph Electronic Breathing Simulator at an amplitude of 0 cm H2O and then 10 cm H2O. All four ventilators were set to deliver volume A/C, tidal volume 400 ml, respiratory rate 20 bpm, positive end-expiratory pressure 5 cm H2O, peak flowrate 60 L/min. The displayed tidal volume was recorded for each ventilator at the above settings with additional options OFF and then ON. The AVEA has two options in volume A/C: demand breaths and V-sync. When activated, these options allow the patient to exceed the set tidal volume. When using the Evita XL, the option AutoFlow can be turned ON or OFF, and when this option is ON, the tidal volume may vary. The PB 840 does not have any additional options that affect volume delivery, and it maintains the set tidal volume regardless of patient effort. The SERVO-i's demand valve allows additional flow if the patient's inspiratory flowrate exceeds the set flowrate, increasing the delivered tidal volume; this option can be turned OFF with the latest software upgrade. Modern ventilators have an increasing number of optional settings. These settings may

  6. Viability Assessment Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Since May 1996, under its draft Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1996), DOE has been carrying out a 5-year program of work to support the decision in 2001 by the Secretary of Energy on whether or not to recommend the site to the President. Part of this program was to address major unresolved technical issues and to complete an assessment of the viability of the Yucca Mountain site by 1998. Affirming the DOE plans, Congress directed DOE in the 1997 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act to provide a viability assessment of the Yucca Mountain site to Congress and the President. This Viability Assessment (VA) document is the DOE report to Congress and the President. They are expected to use the VA to make an informed decision about program direction and funding. Drawing on 15 years of scientific investigation and design work at Yucca Mountain, the VA summarizes a large technical basis of field investigations, laboratory tests, models, analyses, and engineering, described in cited references. The VA identifies the major uncertainties relevant to the technical defensibility of DOE analyses and designs, the DOE approach to managing these uncertainties, and the status of work toward the site recommendation and LA. The VA also identifies DOE plans for the remaining work, and the estimated costs of completing an LA and constructing and operating a repository. The attention to uncertainties is important because DOE must evaluate how the repository will perform during the next 10,000 years or longer. Uncertainties exist because of variability in the natural (geologic and hydrologic) systems at Yucca Mountain and because of imperfect scientific understanding of the natural processes that might affect the repository system. This is Volume 1 and it covers, Introduction and Site Characteristics, includes a high-level summary of the results of the VA and some additional background information. (The overview is bound separately.) Section 1 of Volume

  7. Random volumes from matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sugishita, Sotaro; Umeda, Naoya [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2015-07-17

    We propose a class of models which generate three-dimensional random volumes, where each configuration consists of triangles glued together along multiple hinges. The models have matrices as the dynamical variables and are characterized by semisimple associative algebras A. Although most of the diagrams represent configurations which are not manifolds, we show that the set of possible diagrams can be drastically reduced such that only (and all of the) three-dimensional manifolds with tetrahedral decompositions appear, by introducing a color structure and taking an appropriate large N limit. We examine the analytic properties when A is a matrix ring or a group ring, and show that the models with matrix ring have a novel strong-weak duality which interchanges the roles of triangles and hinges. We also give a brief comment on the relationship of our models with the colored tensor models.

  8. BNL volume H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelec, K.; Alessi, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The volume H minus ion source under development at Brookhaven is unique in that it has a toroidal plasma region, which feeds ions into the central extraction region through a conically shaped filter field. In pulsed operation, it produced 25 mA of H minus in a 1 cm 2 aperture, with an electron-to-H minus ratio of ∼ 3. At 19 mA, a normalized, 90% emittance of 0.44 π mm-mrad has been measured. Up to 50 mA has been extracted through a 1.87 cm 2 aperture. Although not designed for steady state operation, up to 6 mA has been extracted d.c. The addition of xenon to the discharge was found to improve the source output by 20--70%. The circular magnetic cusp field geometry was found to be more favorable than radial cusp fields. 4 refs., 5 figs

  9. Waste volume reduction by spray drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscano, Rodrigo A.; Tello, Clédola C. O. de, E-mail: Rodrigotoscano1@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The operation of nuclear facilities generates liquid wastes which require treatment to control the chemical compounds and removal of radioactive contaminants. These wastes can come from the cooling of the primary reactor system, from the reactor pool decontamination, washing of contaminated clothing, among others. The ion exchange resin constitutes the largest fraction of this waste, classified as low and intermediate level of radiation. According to CNEN Standard 8.01, the minimization of the volume and activity of the radioactive waste generated in the operation of a nuclear installation, radiative installation, industrial mining installation or radioactive waste deposit should be ensured. In addition, one of the acceptance criteria for wastes in repositories required by CNEN NN 6.09 is that it be solid or solidified. Thus, these wastes must be reduced in volume and solidified to meet the standards and the safety of the population and the environment. The objective of this work is to find a solution that associates the least generation of packaged waste and the acceptance criteria of waste for the deposition in the national repository. This work presents a proposal of reduction of the volume of the liquid wastes generated by nuclear facilities by drying by for reduction of volume for a greater incorporation of wastes in cement. Using spray dryer, an 18% reduction in the production of cemented waste products was observed in relation to the method currently used with compressive strength measurement above the standard, and it is believed that this value may increase in future tests. (author)

  10. Waste volume reduction by spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toscano, Rodrigo A.; Tello, Clédola C. O. de

    2017-01-01

    The operation of nuclear facilities generates liquid wastes which require treatment to control the chemical compounds and removal of radioactive contaminants. These wastes can come from the cooling of the primary reactor system, from the reactor pool decontamination, washing of contaminated clothing, among others. The ion exchange resin constitutes the largest fraction of this waste, classified as low and intermediate level of radiation. According to CNEN Standard 8.01, the minimization of the volume and activity of the radioactive waste generated in the operation of a nuclear installation, radiative installation, industrial mining installation or radioactive waste deposit should be ensured. In addition, one of the acceptance criteria for wastes in repositories required by CNEN NN 6.09 is that it be solid or solidified. Thus, these wastes must be reduced in volume and solidified to meet the standards and the safety of the population and the environment. The objective of this work is to find a solution that associates the least generation of packaged waste and the acceptance criteria of waste for the deposition in the national repository. This work presents a proposal of reduction of the volume of the liquid wastes generated by nuclear facilities by drying by for reduction of volume for a greater incorporation of wastes in cement. Using spray dryer, an 18% reduction in the production of cemented waste products was observed in relation to the method currently used with compressive strength measurement above the standard, and it is believed that this value may increase in future tests. (author)

  11. The plant cytoskeleton controls regulatory volume increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiong; Qiao, Fei; Ismail, Ahmed; Chang, Xiaoli; Nick, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The ability to adjust cell volume is required for the adaptation to osmotic stress. Plant protoplasts can swell within seconds in response to hypoosmotic shock suggesting that membrane material is released from internal stores. Since the stability of plant membranes depends on submembraneous actin, we asked, whether this regulatory volume control depends on the cytoskeleton. As system we used two cell lines from grapevine which differ in their osmotic tolerance and observed that the cytoskeleton responded differently in these two cell lines. To quantify the ability for regulatory volume control, we used hydraulic conductivity (Lp) as readout and demonstrated a role of the cytoskeleton in protoplast swelling. Chelation of calcium, inhibition of calcium channels, or manipulation of membrane fluidity, did not significantly alter Lp, whereas direct manipulation of the cytoskeleton via specific chemical reagents, or indirectly, through the bacterial elicitor Harpin or activation of phospholipase D, was effective. By optochemical engineering of actin using a caged form of the phytohormone auxin we can break the symmetry of actin organisation resulting in a localised deformation of cell shape indicative of a locally increased Lp. We interpret our findings in terms of a model, where the submembraneous cytoskeleton controls the release of intracellular membrane stores during regulatory volume change. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Volume dependence of the melting temperature for alkali metals with Debye's model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, T.; Kagaya, H.M.; Nishigaki, M.

    1983-01-01

    Using the volume dependence of the Grueneisen constant at higher temperatures, the volume effect on the melting temperature of alkali metals is studied by Lindeman's melting law and Debye's model. The obtained melting curve increases as a function of the compressed volume and shows the maximum of the melting point at the characteristic volume. The resultant data are qualitatively in agreement with the observed tendency for alkali metals. (author)

  13. Volume and Surface-Enhanced Volume Negative Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, M P

    2013-01-01

    H - volume sources and, especially, caesiated H - volume sources are important ion sources for generating high-intensity proton beams, which then in turn generate large quantities of other particles. This chapter discusses the physics and technology of the volume production and the caesium-enhanced (surface) production of H - ions. Starting with Bacal's discovery of the H - volume production, the chapter briefly recounts the development of some H - sources, which capitalized on this process to significantly increase the production of H - beams. Another significant increase was achieved in the 1990s by adding caesiated surfaces to supplement the volume-produced ions with surface-produced ions, as illustrated with other H - sources. Finally, the focus turns to some of the experience gained when such a source was successfully ramped up in H - output and in duty factor to support the generation of 1 MW proton beams for the Spallation Neutron Source. (author)

  14. Longitudinal Comparison of Place-Value and Arithmetic Knowledge in Montessori and Non-Montessori Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laski, Elida V.; Vasilyeva, Marina; Schiffman, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of base 10 and place value are important foundational math concepts that are associated with higher use of decomposition strategies and higher accuracy on addition problems (Laski, Ermakova, & Vasilyeva, 2014; Fuson, 1990; Fuson & Briars, 1990; National Research Council, 2001). The current study examined base-10 knowledge,…

  15. A 3-Year Study of Self-Regulation in Montessori and Non-Montessori Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Barbara; Wash, Pamela D.; Mecca, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Albert Bandura, the leading pioneer in the study of self-regulation, has defined the term as the child's ability to self-educate, self-direct, regulate motivation, and learn to think about what she is learning (1994). Lev Vygotsky's theory that children can be taught to think independently about how to solve problems expands upon Bandura's work…

  16. Change in brain and lesion volumes after CEE therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeland, Mark A.; Hogan, Patricia E.; Resnick, Susan M.; Bryan, R. Nick; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Goveas, Joseph S.; Davatzikos, Christos; Kuller, Lewis H.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Bushnell, Cheryl D.; Shumaker, Sally A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether smaller brain volumes in older women who had completed Women's Health Initiative (WHI)-assigned conjugated equine estrogen–based hormone therapy (HT), reported by WHI Memory Study (WHIMS)-MRI, correspond to a continuing increased rate of atrophy an average of 6.1 to 7.7 years later in WHIMS-MRI2. Methods: A total of 1,230 WHI participants were contacted: 797 (64.8%) consented, and 729 (59%) were rescanned an average of 4.7 years after the initial MRI scan. Mean annual rates of change in total brain volume, the primary outcome, and rates of change in ischemic lesion volumes, the secondary outcome, were compared between treatment groups using mixed-effect models with adjustment for trial, clinical site, age, intracranial volumes, and time between MRI measures. Results: Total brain volume decreased an average of 3.22 cm3/y in the active arm and 3.07 cm3/y in the placebo arm (p = 0.53). Total ischemic lesion volumes increased in both arms at a rate of 0.12 cm3/y (p = 0.88). Conclusions: Conjugated equine estrogen–based postmenopausal HT, previously assigned at WHI baseline, did not affect rates of decline in brain volumes or increases in brain lesion volumes during the 4.7 years between the initial and follow-up WHIMS-MRI studies. Smaller frontal lobe volumes were observed as persistent group differences among women assigned to active HT compared with placebo. Women with a history of cardiovascular disease treated with active HT, compared with placebo, had higher rates of accumulation in white matter lesion volume and total brain lesion volume. Further study may elucidate mechanisms that explain these findings. PMID:24384646

  17. Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving ea...

  18. Pragmatics & Language Learning. Volume 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen, Ed.; Félix-Brasdefer, J. César, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 2014 International Conference of Pragmatics and Language Learning at Indiana University. It includes fourteen papers on a variety of topics, with a diversity of first and second languages, and a wide range of methods used to collect pragmatic data in L2 and FL settings. This volume is…

  19. Determination of clothing microclimate volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein; Hatcher, Kent; Havenith, George

    2005-01-01

    The average air layer thickness between human skin and clothing is an important factor in heat transfer. The trapped volume between skin and clothing is an estimator for everage air layer thickness. Several techniques are available to determine trapped volume. This study investigates the reliability

  20. ORGANIZATIONS AND STRATEGIES IN ASTRONOMY VOLUME 7

    CERN Document Server

    HECK, ANDRÉ

    2006-01-01

    This book is the seventh volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). The OSA series covers a large range of fields and themes: in practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. The chapters of this book are dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, strategies for development, operational techniques, observing practicalities, journal and magazine profiles, public outreach, publication studies, relationships with the media, research communication, series of conferences, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national specificities, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this volume have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detailed information and somet...

  1. Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy Volume 6

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, André

    2006-01-01

    This book is the sixth volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). The OSA series is intended to cover a large range of fields and themes. In practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. The chapters of this book are dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, strategies for development, legal issues, operational techniques, observing practicalities, educational policies, journal and magazine profiles, public outreach, publication studies, relationships with the media, research communication, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national specificities, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this volume have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detai...

  2. Volume-weighted measure for eternal inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winitzki, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    I propose a new volume-weighted probability measure for cosmological 'multiverse' scenarios involving eternal inflation. The 'reheating-volume (RV) cutoff' calculates the distribution of observable quantities on a portion of the reheating hypersurface that is conditioned to be finite. The RV measure is gauge-invariant, does not suffer from the 'youngness paradox', and is independent of initial conditions at the beginning of inflation. In slow-roll inflationary models with a scalar inflaton, the RV-regulated probability distributions can be obtained by solving nonlinear diffusion equations. I discuss possible applications of the new measure to 'landscape' scenarios with bubble nucleation. As an illustration, I compute the predictions of the RV measure in a simple toy landscape.

  3. Graphical User Interfaces for Volume Rendering Applications in Medical Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfors, Lisa; Lindmark, Hanna

    2002-01-01

    Volume rendering applications are used in medical imaging in order to facilitate the analysis of three-dimensional image data. This study focuses on how to improve the usability of graphical user interfaces of these systems, by gathering user requirements. This is achieved by evaluations of existing systems, together with interviews and observations at clinics in Sweden that use volume rendering to some extent. The usability of the applications of today is not sufficient, according to the use...

  4. Helium-induced blistering and volume swelling in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of helium-induced blistering are presented. The goal of the research was to examine the mechanisms involved in blistering by observing the microstructure of the implanted region using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In particular, the volume swelling was measured as a function of the implant depth, and compared to experimental skin thicknesses in order to determine if the skin separated at the maximum volume swelling, or at the end of the swelling profile

  5. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera

    2014-12-31

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  6. Heliophysics 3 Volume Paperback Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2013-03-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliunas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliunas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  7. Observational constraints on loop quantum cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojowald, Martin; Calcagni, Gianluca; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2011-11-18

    In the inflationary scenario of loop quantum cosmology in the presence of inverse-volume corrections, we give analytic formulas for the power spectra of scalar and tensor perturbations convenient to compare with observations. Since inverse-volume corrections can provide strong contributions to the running spectral indices, inclusion of terms higher than the second-order runnings in the power spectra is crucially important. Using the recent data of cosmic microwave background and other cosmological experiments, we place bounds on the quantum corrections.

  8. Approaching "The Civic Mission of Schools": Examining Adolescent Civic Engagement in an Alternative Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, John P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine students' expected and observable civic engagement in a Montessori Erdkinder-based middle school classroom. Research questions included: (a) In what ways is civic engagement addressed in the Montessori Erdkinder-based middle school explicit curriculum? (b) How does the expected civic engagement in the…

  9. Testicular Volume: Size Does Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Lobo, Alexander; Segovia Fuentes, Javier; Cerpa Reyes, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Testicular volume is critical for semen production and, consequently, for fertility. Hence the importance of knowing the normal size ranges and the different methods for calculating size, in order to classify patients at risk and refer them for appropriate management. Ultrasound is the first-line diagnostic method for the evaluation of testicular pathology, and it is also the best tool for estimating the volume of both testicles, bearing in mind that a testicular volume below 15 cc results in fertility problems. Although there are many causes of infertility, varicocele is undoubtedly the most important of all, because of its frequency and because it is amenable to curative surgical treatment.

  10. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate...... of albumin in arterial and venous blood in seven healthy subjects before and during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. In both vascular sites blood 51Cr content and the haematocrit increased, plasma volume and intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased during...

  11. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Christensen, N J

    1991-01-01

    -induced hypoglycaemia with total autonomic blockade (alpha-adrenoceptor blockade combined with beta-adrenoceptor blockade and atropine); and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia without any autonomic blockade. In the experiments without autonomic blockade the peripheral venous hematocrit increased, plasma volume decreased......, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased. In both experiments with autonomic blockade the increase in venous haematocrit was abolished, yet plasma volume decreased, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin...... increased in these experiments. Thus, the changes in plasma volume and composition in response to hypoglycaemia are due to the combined actions of adrenaline and of insulin....

  12. Statistical analysis of rockfall volume distributions: Implications for rockfall dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussauge, Carine; Grasso, Jean-Robert; Helmstetter, AgnèS.

    2003-06-01

    We analyze the volume distribution of natural rockfalls on different geological settings (i.e., calcareous cliffs in the French Alps, Grenoble area, and granite Yosemite cliffs, California Sierra) and different volume ranges (i.e., regional and worldwide catalogs). Contrary to previous studies that included several types of landslides, we restrict our analysis to rockfall sources which originated on subvertical cliffs. For the three data sets, we find that the rockfall volumes follow a power law distribution with a similar exponent value, within error bars. This power law distribution was also proposed for rockfall volumes that occurred along road cuts. All these results argue for a recurrent power law distribution of rockfall volumes on subvertical cliffs, for a large range of rockfall sizes (102-1010 m3), regardless of the geological settings and of the preexisting geometry of fracture patterns that are drastically different on the three studied areas. The power law distribution for rockfall volumes could emerge from two types of processes. First, the observed power law distribution of rockfall volumes is similar to the one reported for both fragmentation experiments and fragmentation models. This argues for the geometry of rock mass fragment sizes to possibly control the rockfall volumes. This way neither cascade nor avalanche processes would influence the rockfall volume distribution. Second, without any requirement of scale-invariant quenched heterogeneity patterns, the rock mass dynamics can arise from avalanche processes driven by fluctuations of the rock mass properties, e.g., cohesion or friction angle. This model may also explain the power law distribution reported for landslides involving unconsolidated materials. We find that the exponent values of rockfall volume on subvertical cliffs, 0.5 ± 0.2, is significantly smaller than the 1.2 ± 0.3 value reported for mixed landslide types. This change of exponents can be driven by the material strength, which

  13. Bare-Hand Volume Cracker for Raw Volume Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bireswar Laha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of raw volume data generated from different scanning technologies faces a variety of challenges, related to search, pattern recognition, spatial understanding, quantitative estimation, and shape description. In a previous study, we found that the Volume Cracker (VC 3D interaction (3DI technique mitigated some of these problems, but this result was from a tethered glove-based system with users analyzing simulated data. Here, we redesigned the VC by using untethered bare-hand interaction with real volume datasets, with a broader aim of adoption of this technique in research labs. We developed symmetric and asymmetric interfaces for the Bare-Hand Volume Cracker (BHVC through design iterations with a biomechanics scientist. We evaluated our asymmetric BHVC technique against standard 2D and widely used 3D interaction techniques with experts analyzing scanned beetle datasets. We found that our BHVC design significantly outperformed the other two techniques. This study contributes a practical 3DI design for scientists, documents lessons learned while redesigning for bare-hand trackers, and provides evidence suggesting that 3D interaction could improve volume data analysis for a variety of visual analysis tasks. Our contribution is in the realm of 3D user interfaces tightly integrated with visualization, for improving the effectiveness of visual analysis of volume datasets. Based on our experience, we also provide some insights into hardware-agnostic principles for design of effective interaction techniques.

  14. Volume measurement variability in three-dimensional high-frequency ultrasound images of murine liver metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtzfeld, L A; Graham, K C; Groom, A C; MacDonald, I C; Chambers, A F; Fenster, A; Lacefield, J C

    2006-01-01

    The identification and quantification of tumour volume measurement variability is imperative for proper study design of longitudinal non-invasive imaging of pre-clinical mouse models of cancer. Measurement variability will dictate the minimum detectable volume change, which in turn influences the scheduling of imaging sessions and the interpretation of observed changes in tumour volume. In this paper, variability is quantified for tumour volume measurements from 3D high-frequency ultrasound images of murine liver metastases. Experimental B16F1 liver metastases were analysed in different size ranges including less than 1 mm 3 , 1-4 mm 3 , 4-8 mm 3 and 8-70 mm 3 . The intra- and inter-observer repeatability was high over a large range of tumour volumes, but the coefficients of variation (COV) varied over the volume ranges. The minimum and maximum intra-observer COV were 4% and 14% for the 1-4 mm 3 and 3 tumours, respectively. For tumour volumes measured by segmenting parallel planes, the maximum inter-slice distance that maintained acceptable measurement variability increased from 100 to 600 μm as tumour volume increased. Comparison of free breathing versus ventilated animals demonstrated that respiratory motion did not significantly change the measured volume. These results enable design of more efficient imaging studies by using the measured variability to estimate the time required to observe a significant change in tumour volume

  15. Ada (Trade Name) Bibliography. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    GLENN DOCUMENT NUMBER: 3268 TYPE: JOURNAL ARTICLE .5-., SCIENCE VOL 215 ISSUE 34 PP. 775-779S In this article, two principal themes are observed in...AINST LANAN RD NAY 83 ND9S-8-C-936 UNCLASSIFIED F/6 12/5 ML -4.4 ’-4-4----" ’°p..l i . d N N L. 131 t ’ll /II~ Ada Bibliography Volume I 95 𔃾- This...BUDAPEST,HUNGARY 4102 -01 ON THE TYPE CONCEPT OF ADA 6224 -03 UNORTHOGONALITIES IN THE IDENTIFICATION RULES IN ADA BACON, GLENN , IBM SANTA TERESA LABS

  16. VOLUMNECT: measuring volumes with Kinect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintino Ferreira, Beatriz; Griné, Miguel; Gameiro, Duarte; Costeira, João. Paulo; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a solution to volume measurement object packing using 3D cameras (such as the Microsoft KinectTM). We target application scenarios, such as warehouses or distribution and logistics companies, where it is important to promptly compute package volumes, yet high accuracy is not pivotal. Our application auto- matically detects cuboid objects using the depth camera data and computes their volume and sorting it allowing space optimization. The proposed methodology applies to a point cloud simple computer vision and image processing methods, as connected components, morphological operations and Harris corner detector, producing encouraging results, namely an accuracy in volume measurement of 8mm. Aspects that can be further improved are identified; nevertheless, the current solution is already promising turning out to be cost effective for the envisaged scenarios.

  17. Organ volume estimation using SPECT

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. In order to improve single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) quantitation, attenuation correction was performed according to Chang's algorithm. The dual-window method was used for scatter subtraction. We used a Monte Carlo simulation of the SPECT system to accurately determine the scatter multiplier factor k. Volume estimation using SPECT was performed by summing up the volume elements (voxels) lying within the contour of the object, determined by a fixed threshold and the gray level histogram (GLH) method. Thyroid phantom and patient studies were performed and the influence of 1) fixed thresholding, 2) automatic thresholding, 3) attenuation, 4) scatter, and 5) reconstruction filter were investigated. This study shows that accurate volume estimation of the thyroid gland is feasible when accurate corrections are perform...

  18. Human gallbladder pressure and volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borly, L; Højgaard, L; Grønvall, S

    1996-01-01

    volume with only slight changes in intraluminal pressure (n = 4). Except for the zero drift, this piece of equipment seemed to fulfil the requirements of being able to measure pressure in the GB. In vivo measurements showed a good clinical reproducibility of the method, and also that respiration...... influenced by respiration (n = 8) and the pressure seems to be higher in the sitting position than in the supine position (n = 5). Cystic duct opening pressure was 10.4, 11.2 and 16.8 mmHg (n = 3). Pressure-volume responses showed that the GB up to a certain volume could accommodate increases in intraluminal...... and patient posture influenced the pressure measurements. Further, a GB pressure-volume relationship was demonstrated, and the possibility of a cystic duct opening pressure was described....

  19. Energy and Environment : volume 1

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRE, Michel; SAMARAS, Zissis; JACOB, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This book is part of a set of six books called the 'Research for Innovative Transports' set. This collection presents an update of the latest academic and applied research, case studies, best practices and user perspectives on transport carried out in Europe and worldwide. The volumes are made up of a selection of the best papers presented at TRA2014. In this volume 1, recent research works are reported around the triptych : 'transport, energy and environment', which demonstrates that vehicl...

  20. Note: Nonpolar solute partial molar volume response to attractive interactions with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Steven M; Ashbaugh, Henry S

    2014-01-07

    The impact of attractive interactions on the partial molar volumes of methane-like solutes in water is characterized using molecular simulations. Attractions account for a significant 20% volume drop between a repulsive Weeks-Chandler-Andersen and full Lennard-Jones description of methane interactions. The response of the volume to interaction perturbations is characterized by linear fits to our simulations and a rigorous statistical thermodynamic expression for the derivative of the volume to increasing attractions. While a weak non-linear response is observed, an average effective slope accurately captures the volume decrease. This response, however, is anticipated to become more non-linear with increasing solute size.

  1. Note: Nonpolar solute partial molar volume response to attractive interactions with water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Steven M.; Ashbaugh, Henry S., E-mail: hanka@tulane.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States)

    2014-01-07

    The impact of attractive interactions on the partial molar volumes of methane-like solutes in water is characterized using molecular simulations. Attractions account for a significant 20% volume drop between a repulsive Weeks-Chandler-Andersen and full Lennard-Jones description of methane interactions. The response of the volume to interaction perturbations is characterized by linear fits to our simulations and a rigorous statistical thermodynamic expression for the derivative of the volume to increasing attractions. While a weak non-linear response is observed, an average effective slope accurately captures the volume decrease. This response, however, is anticipated to become more non-linear with increasing solute size.

  2. Drusen Volume and Retinal Pigment Epithelium Abnormal Thinning Volume Predict 2-Year Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folgar, Francisco A; Yuan, Eric L; Sevilla, Monica B; Chiu, Stephanie J; Farsiu, Sina; Chew, Emily Y; Toth, Cynthia A

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the value of novel measures of retinal pigment epithelium-drusen complex (RPEDC) volume to predict 2-year disease progression of intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Prospective, observational study. Three hundred forty-five AMD and 122 non-AMD participants enrolled in the Age Related Eye Disease Study 2 Ancillary Spectral-Domain (SD) Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) study. High-density SD OCT macular volumes were obtained at yearly study visits. The RPEDC abnormal thickening (henceforth, OCT drusen) and RPEDC abnormal thinning (RAT) volumes were generated by semiautomated segmentation of total RPEDC within a 5-mm-diameter macular field. Volume change and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for progression to advanced AMD with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) or central geographic atrophy (GA). Complete volumes were obtained in 265 and 266 AMD eyes and in 115 and 97 control eyes at baseline and at year 2, respectively. In AMD eyes, mean (standard deviation) OCT drusen volume increased from 0.08 mm(3) (0.16 mm(3)) to 0.10 mm(3) (0.23 mm(3); P < 0.001), and RAT volume increased from 8.3 × 10(-4) mm(3) (20.8 × 10(-4) mm(3)) to 18.4 × 10(-4) mm(3) (46.6 × 10(-4) mm(3); P < 0.001). Greater baseline OCT drusen volume was associated with 2-year progression to CNV (P = 0.002). Odds of developing CNV increased by 31% for every 0.1-mm(3) increase in baseline OCT drusen volume (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.06-1.63; P = 0.013). Greater baseline RAT volume was associated with significant 2-year increase in RAT volume (P < 0.001), noncentral GA (P < 0.001), and progression to central GA (P < 0.001). Odds of developing central GA increased by 32% for every 0.001-mm(3) increase in baseline RAT volume (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.14-1.53; P < 0.001). In non-AMD eyes, all volumes were significantly lower than AMD eyes and showed no significant 2-year change. Macular OCT drusen and RAT volumes increased significantly in AMD eyes over 2 years

  3. MANAJEMEN KULTUR ROTIFER DENGAN TANGKI VOLUME KECIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Teguh Imanto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Keberhasilan pembenihan ikan sangat dipengaruhi keberhasilan produksi jasad pakan rotifer secara tepat dan efisien. Penelitian kultur rotifer dengan tangki volume kecil bertujuan untuk mendapatkan efisiensi produksi yang paling optimal dan memenuhi prinsip dasar akuakultur low volume high density. Penelitian menggunakan tangki polyethylene dengan volume 500 L dan volume media awal 100 L, padat tebar awal 200 ind. rotifer per mL dengan sediaan pakan dasar fitoplankton Nannocloropsis occulata, ragi roti (0,05 g/mio.rot./feeding dan suplemen Scott emulsion (0,005 g/mio.rot./feeding. Penelitian dilakukan secara bertahap; tahap pertama (I tanpa penambahan air laut, peningkatan volume hanya dari penambahan 15 L Nannochloropsis tiap hari sampai hari kelima, tahap kedua (II dengan penambahan alga 40 L dan air laut 40 L; serta tahap ketiga (III dengan menggandakan pemberian ragi roti. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada percobaan tahap I: total produksi rata-rata 122,37 x 106 ind. rotifer, pada tahap II: 97,67 x 106 ind. rotifer, dan pada tahap III: dicapai rata-rata total produksi tertinggi dengan 187,17 x 106 ind. rotifer per tanki kultur 500 L. Pengelolaan kultur pada tahap III memberikan hasil terbaik dengan simpangan terkecil antar tangki kultur ulangan, dan membuktikan sebagai pengelolaan terbaik untuk kultur rotifer dengan tangki volume kecil.  Success of marine seed production is highly influenced by effective and efficient production performance of life food rotifer. Observation on rotifer culture using small volume tank was aimed to get the optimum production and efficiency, to fulfill the basic principle of aquaculture “low volume high density”. Polyethylene tanks of 500 L. were used as culture container, with initial 100 liter sea water as culture medium and initial density of 200 ind. rotifer per mL. N. occulata, baker yeast (0.05 g/mio.rotifer/feeding and Scott emulsion (0.005 g/mio.rotifer/feeding were used as basic feed, and

  4. Natural look in volume restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Mary P

    2008-09-01

    Filling and volumizing injection procedures are currently widely used for facial augmentation and re-establishing a youthful appearance. Aesthetic physicians have advanced from the practice of treating single lines and wrinkles towards filling large facial areas to globally restore natural facial contours and meet patient demand for nonsurgical rejuvenation. This review describes the different categories of fillers and volumizers based on their duration of action and ability to create a natural looking effect; they can be broadly classified as temporary or long-lasting biodegradable agents, or permanent nonbiodegradable agents. Temporary fillers are effective to correct lines and wrinkles, but may not adequately meet the need for global facial rejuvenation and volume replacement in a long-term, cost-efficient manner. Permanent fillers for global restoration pose the issue of long-term safety, and may not be compatible with changes in facial architecture with continued aging. Longer lasting volumizers provide patients with a durable, effective option for the restoration of facial volume and the re-establishment of youthful facial contours. Temporary fillers and volumizers may also be used in combination to provide a wide source of options for the global restoration and rejuvenation of the face.

  5. Correction volumes and densities in Vitrea Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrantes, Marcos E.S.; Oliveira, A.H. de

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: with the increased use of 3D reconstruction techniques to assist in diagnosis, Vitrea® program is widely used. To use this program you need to know the correction values to generate the volumes and number of real CT human tissues. Objective: provide correction values for volumes and number of CT, read the Vitrea program, of the tissues generated by DICOM images from CT. Methodology: this study used a PMMA chest phantom to generate the DICOM images on a scanner. To check the calibration of the scanner was used Catphan phantom and compared the manufacturer of the values associated with its straight linearity. Results: the volume of PMMA phantom was of 11166.58 cm³ and CT number (123.5 ± 33.4) UH. For the volume found in Vitrea program, according to the structures of interest, were 11897.29 cm 3 , 10901.65 cm³, 16906.49 cm 3 and 11848.34 cm³ and corrections values are -6.14%, + 2.43% -6.94% -5.75% respectively for the tissues: lung, bone, soft and full. For the CT numbers found in this program were (97.60 ± 58.9) UH, (72.00 ± 176.00) UH, (143.20 ± 19.50) UH and (31.90 ± 239,10) UH and corrections of + 26.54%, + 71.53%, -13.64% and 387.15% respectively for tissues: lung, bone, soft and full. Conclusion: the procedure performed can be used in other 3D reconstruction programs and where there are tools to reading CT number, observing the necessary corrections

  6. Mechanical homeostasis regulating adipose tissue volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svedman Paul

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The total body adipose tissue volume is regulated by hormonal, nutritional, paracrine, neuronal and genetic control signals, as well as components of cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. There are no known locally acting homeostatic mechanisms by which growing adipose tissue might adapt its volume. Presentation of the hypothesis Mechanosensitivity has been demonstrated by mesenchymal cells in tissue culture. Adipocyte differentiation has been shown to be inhibited by stretching in vitro, and a pathway for the response has been elucidated. In humans, intermittent stretching of skin for reconstructional purposes leads to thinning of adipose tissue and thickening of epidermis – findings matching those observed in vitro in response to mechanical stimuli. Furthermore, protracted suspension of one leg increases the intermuscular adipose tissue volume of the limb. These findings may indicate a local homeostatic adipose tissue volume-regulating mechanism based on movement-induced reduction of adipocyte differentiation. This function might, during evolution, have been of importance in confined spaces, where overgrowth of adipose tissue could lead to functional disturbance, as for instance in the turtle. In humans, adipose tissue near muscle might in particular be affected, for instance intermuscularly, extraperitoneally and epicardially. Mechanical homeostasis might also contribute to protracted maintainment of soft tissue shape in the face and neck region. Testing of the hypothesis Assessment of messenger RNA-expression of human adipocytes following activity in adjacent muscle is planned, and study of biochemical and volumetric adipose tissue changes in man are proposed. Implications of the hypothesis The interpretation of metabolic disturbances by means of adipose tissue might be influenced. Possible applications in the head and neck were discussed.

  7. Introduction to "Global Tsunami Science: Past and Future, Volume II"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Tanioka, Yuichiro; Geist, Eric L.

    2017-08-01

    Twenty-two papers on the study of tsunamis are included in Volume II of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Global Tsunami Science: Past and Future". Volume I of this topical issue was published as PAGEOPH, vol. 173, No. 12, 2016 (Eds., E. L. Geist, H. M. Fritz, A. B. Rabinovich, and Y. Tanioka). Three papers in Volume II focus on details of the 2011 and 2016 tsunami-generating earthquakes offshore of Tohoku, Japan. The next six papers describe important case studies and observations of recent and historical events. Four papers related to tsunami hazard assessment are followed by three papers on tsunami hydrodynamics and numerical modelling. Three papers discuss problems of tsunami warning and real-time forecasting. The final set of three papers importantly investigates tsunamis generated by non-seismic sources: volcanic explosions, landslides, and meteorological disturbances. Collectively, this volume highlights contemporary trends in global tsunami research, both fundamental and applied toward hazard assessment and mitigation.

  8. MRI Volume Fusion Based on 3D Shearlet Decompositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chang; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Xue Gang; Huang, Qi Hong

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays many MRI scans can give 3D volume data with different contrasts, but the observers may want to view various contrasts in the same 3D volume. The conventional 2D medical fusion methods can only fuse the 3D volume data layer by layer, which may lead to the loss of interframe correlative information. In this paper, a novel 3D medical volume fusion method based on 3D band limited shearlet transform (3D BLST) is proposed. And this method is evaluated upon MRI T2* and quantitative susceptibility mapping data of 4 human brains. Both the perspective impression and the quality indices indicate that the proposed method has a better performance than conventional 2D wavelet, DT CWT, and 3D wavelet, DT CWT based fusion methods.

  9. MRI Volume Fusion Based on 3D Shearlet Decompositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many MRI scans can give 3D volume data with different contrasts, but the observers may want to view various contrasts in the same 3D volume. The conventional 2D medical fusion methods can only fuse the 3D volume data layer by layer, which may lead to the loss of interframe correlative information. In this paper, a novel 3D medical volume fusion method based on 3D band limited shearlet transform (3D BLST is proposed. And this method is evaluated upon MRI T2* and quantitative susceptibility mapping data of 4 human brains. Both the perspective impression and the quality indices indicate that the proposed method has a better performance than conventional 2D wavelet, DT CWT, and 3D wavelet, DT CWT based fusion methods.

  10. MANAGING HIGH-END, HIGH-VOLUME INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gembong Baskoro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuses the concept of managing high-end, high-volume innovative products. High-end, high-volume consumer products are products that have considerable influence to the way of life. Characteristic of High-end, high-volume consumer products are (1 short cycle time, (2 quick obsolete time, and (3 rapid price erosion. Beside the disadvantages that they are high risk for manufacturers, if manufacturers are able to understand precisely the consumer needs then they have the potential benefit or success to be the market leader. High innovation implies to high utilization of the user, therefore these products can influence indirectly to the way of people life. The objective of managing them is to achieve sustainability of the products development and innovation. This paper observes the behavior of these products in companies operated in high-end, high-volume consumer product.

  11. SMM Observations of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnopper, Herbert; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    During the past year I have participated in a series of team telecons to I plan our observation of Saturn with SMM. The observation, scheduled for this month (September), was canceled and a new observation is being planned for 2002.

  12. Classroom observation and feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana GOREA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Classroom observation is a didactic activity from which both the observer and the observed teacher are to win. The present article comments on and discusses the aims of observation, the stages of observation, the methodological recommendations of offering feedback and the need to introduce a system of classroom observation at institutional or even national level, which would contribute to improving the teaching/learning process.

  13. Computed Tomography Colonography Technique: The Role of Intracolonic Gas Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. McLaughlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Poor distention decreases the sensitivity and specificity of CTC. The total volume of gas administered will vary according to many factors. We aim to determine the relationship between the volume of retained gas at the time of image acquisition and colonic distention and specifically the presence of collapsed bowel segments at CTC. Materials and Methods. All patients who underwent CTC over a 12-month period at a single institution were included in the study. Colonic luminal distention was objectively scored by 2 radiologists using an established 4-point scale. Quantitative analysis of the volume of retained gas at the time of image acquisition was conducted using the threshold 3D region growing function of OsiriX. Results. 108 patients were included for volumetric analysis. Mean retained gas volume was 3.3 L. 35% (38/108 of patients had at least one collapsed colonic segment. Significantly lower gas volumes were observed in the patients with collapsed colonic segments when compared with those with fully distended colons 2.6 L versus 3.5 L (P=0.031. Retained volumes were significantly higher for the 78% of patients with ileocecal reflux at 3.4 L versus 2.6 L without ileocecal reflux (P=0.014. Conclusion. Estimation of intraluminal gas volume at CTC is feasible using image segmentation and thresholding tools. An average of 3.5 L of retained gas was found in diagnostically adequate CTC studies with significantly lower mean gas volume observed in patients with collapsed colonic segments.

  14. Volume dose of organs at risk in the irradiated volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishikawa, Yoshio; Tanaka, Shinichi; Miura, Takashi

    1984-01-01

    Absorbed dose of organs at risk in the 50% irradiated volume needs to be carefully monitored because there is high risk of radiation injury. This paper reports on the histogram of threedimensional volume dose of organs at risk, which is obtained by computer calculation of CT scans. In order to obtain this histogram, CT is first performed in the irradiation field. The dose in each pixel is then examined by the computer as to each slice. After the pixels of all slices in the organ at risk of the irradiated field are classified according to the doses, the number of pixels in the same dose class is counted. The result is expressed in a histogram. The histogram can show the differences of influence to organs at risk given by various radiation treatment techniques. Total volume dose of organs at risk after radiotherapy can also be obtained by integration of each dose of different treatment techniques. (author)

  15. Odds of observing the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Eternal inflation predicts that our observable universe lies within a bubble (or pocket universe) embedded in a volume of inflating space. The interior of the bubble undergoes inflation and standard cosmology, while the bubble walls expand outward and collide with other neighboring bubbles. The collisions provide either an opportunity to make a direct observation of the multiverse or, if they produce unacceptable anisotropy, a threat to inflationary theory. The probability of an observer in our bubble detecting the effects of collisions has an absolute upper bound set by the odds of being in the part of our bubble that lies in the forward light cone of a collision; in the case of collisions with bubbles of identical vacua, this bound is given by the bubble nucleation rate times (H O /H I ) 2 , where H O is the Hubble scale outside the bubbles and H I is the scale of the second round of inflation that occurs inside our bubble. Similar results were obtained by Freigovel et al. using a different method for the case of collisions with bubbles of much larger cosmological constant; here, it is shown to hold in the case of collisions with identical bubbles as well.

  16. The estimation of bone cyst volume using the Cavalieri principle on computed tomography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Ferhat; Gölpınar, Murat; Kılınç, Cem Yalın; Şahin, Bünyamin

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the volume of bone cyst using the planimetry method of the Cavalieri principle. A retrospective analysis was carried out on data from 25 computed tomography (CT) images of patients with bone cyst. The volume of the cysts was calculated by two independent observers using the planimetry method. The procedures were repeated 1 month later by each observer. The overall mean volume of the bone cyst was 29.25 ± 25.86 cm 3 . The mean bone cyst volumes calculated by the first observer for the first and second sessions were 29.18 ± 26.14 and 29.27 ± 26.19 cm 3 , respectively. The mean bone cyst volumes calculated by the second observer for the first and second sessions were 29.32 ± 26.36 and 29.23 ± 26.36 cm 3 , respectively. Statistical analysis showed no difference and high agreement between the first and second measurements of both observers. The Bland-Altman plots showed strong intraobserver and interobserver concordance in the measurement of the bone cyst volume. The mean total time necessary to obtain the cyst volume by the two observers was 5.27 ± 2.30 min. The bone cyst of the patients can be objectively evaluated using the planimetry method of the Cavalieri principle on CT. This method showed high interobserver and intraobserver agreement. This volume measurement can be used to evaluate cyst remodeling, including complete healing and cyst recurrence.

  17. Control volume based hydrocephalus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Wei, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a disease involving excess amounts of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Recent research has shown correlations to pulsatility of blood flow through the brain. However, the problem to date has presented as too complex for much more than statistical analysis and understanding. This talk will highlight progress on developing a fundamental control volume approach to studying hydrocephalus. The specific goals are to select physiologically control volume(s), develop conservation equations along with the experimental capabilities to accurately quantify terms in those equations. To this end, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the human brain. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. The gel has a hollow spherical cavity representing a ventricle and a cylindrical passage representing the aquaducts. A computer controlled piston pump supplies pulsatile volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity, and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients.

  18. ALMA observing strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Biggs, Andy

    2018-01-01

    The ALMA Observing Tool (OT) is a Java-based tool used to prepare ALMA observations. In this talk, I highlight the particular features relevant to setting up single dish observations when these are needed to observe sources where the largest angular scale requires the addition of the total power antennas.

  19. ALMA Observing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Andy

    2018-03-01

    The ALMA Observing Tool (OT) is a Java-based tool used to prepare ALMA observations. In this talk, I highlight the particular features relevant to setting up single dish observations when these are needed to observe sources where the largest angular scale requires the addition of the total power antennas.

  20. 2009 Observer Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Lincicome, Alexis; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2010-01-01

    The USA‐National Phenology Network (USA‐NPN) seeks to engage volunteer observers in collecting phenological observations of plants and animals using consistent standards and to contribute their observations to a national data repository. In March 2009, the National Coordinating Office staff implemented an online monitoring program for 213 plant species. In this pilot year of the program, 547 observers reported phenology observations on one or more plants via the online interface.

  1. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for supervised volumetric segmentation based on a dictionary of small cubes composed of pairs of intensity and label cubes. Intensity cubes are small image volumes where each voxel contains an image intensity. Label cubes are volumes with voxelwise probabilities for a given...... label. The segmentation process is done by matching a cube from the volume, of the same size as the dictionary intensity cubes, to the most similar intensity dictionary cube, and from the associated label cube we get voxel-wise label probabilities. Probabilities from overlapping cubes are averaged...... and hereby we obtain a robust label probability encoding. The dictionary is computed from labeled volumetric image data based on weighted clustering. We experimentally demonstrate our method using two data sets from material science – a phantom data set of a solid oxide fuel cell simulation for detecting...

  2. Partial volume effect in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Munehiro; Yoshiya, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Eiji

    1989-01-01

    According to the direction and the thickness of the imaging slice in tomography, the border between the tissues becomes unclear (partial volume effect). In the present MRI experiment, we examined border area between fat and water components using phantom in order to investigate the partial volume effect in MRI. In spin echo sequences, the intensity of the border area showed a linear relationship with composition of fat and water. Whereas, in inversion recovery and field echo sequences, we found the parameters to produce an extremely low intensity area at the border region between fat and water. This low intensity area was explained by cancellation of NMR signals from fat and water due to the difference in the direction of magnetic vectors. Clinically, partial volume effect can cause of mis-evaluation of walls, small nodules, tumor capsules and the tumor invasion in the use of inversion recovery and field echo sequences. (author)

  3. Cell swelling and volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    1992-01-01

    The extracellular space in the brain is typically 20% of the tissue volume and is reduced to at least half its size under conditions of neural insult. Whether there is a minimum size to the extracellular space was discussed. A general model for cell volume regulation was presented, followed...... by a discussion on how many of the generally involved mechanisms are identified in neural cells and (or) in astrocytes. There seems to be clear evidence suggesting that parallel K+ and Cl- channels mediate regulatory volume decrease in primary cultures of astrocytes, and a stretch-activated cation channel has...... been reported. The role of the different channels was discussed. A taurine leak pathway is clearly activated after cell swelling both in astrocytes and in neurones. The relations between the effect of glutamate and cell swelling were discussed. Discussion on the clearance of potassium from...

  4. Radiographic determination of urinary bladder volume and residual urine volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumair, J.

    1977-01-01

    In the course of a long study the author has tested most of the methods for determination of urinary bladder volume. A radiographic method which can state bladder volume exactly in cc's is attainable only with great time and effort. In the author's experience, however, it is possible, by means of a pattern in connection with a IVP, to estimate residual urine volume from a post-void picture of the bladder with sufficient accuracy for practical purposes. An account is given of the production of this pattern and of two relatively simple calculations for residual volume based on AP and lateral views of circular- and ellipsoid-shaped bladders. Also discussed is the radiation exposure which varies with the radiographic methods used. In male patients, the radiation exposure appears to be negligible, especially when the testicles are protected by a radiation shield. In female patients - which make up only a small fraction of all patients -, radiation exposure is higher but must be accepted. (orig./MG) [de

  5. 36 CFR 223.36 - Volume determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volume determination. 223.36... Volume determination. (a) Timber sale contracts may provide for volume determination by scaling... the contract or permit provides for the determination of volume by tree measurement and the timber has...

  6. The relative volume growth of minimal submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, V.

    2002-01-01

    The volume growth of certain well-defined subsets of minimal submanifolds in riemannian spaces are compared with the volume growth of balls and spheres ill space forms of constant curvature.......The volume growth of certain well-defined subsets of minimal submanifolds in riemannian spaces are compared with the volume growth of balls and spheres ill space forms of constant curvature....

  7. Planimetric determination of lung volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, M.; Maurer, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    The total volume of the lungs was determined by digital planimetry in 102 patients with emphysema and 33 normal controls aged between 30 and 79 years. The results were compared with the findings obtained from spirometric measurements. Mean values showed a significant relationship to age, body size and body surface. Planimetrically determined lung volume did not show a linear relationship with age, but increased after 60 years. Beyong 60 years, spirometric findings were lower because of an increase in the number of patients with emphysema. The results have shown that digital planimetry is a useful addition to spirometry. (orig.) [de

  8. Large volume cryogenic silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braggio, C.; Boscardin, M.; Bressi, G.; Carugno, G.; Corti, D.; Galeazzi, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2009-01-01

    We present preliminary measurements for the development of a large volume silicon detector to detect low energy and low rate energy depositions. The tested detector is a one cm-thick silicon PIN diode with an active volume of 31 cm 3 , cooled to the liquid helium temperature to obtain depletion from thermally-generated free carriers. A thorough study has been done to show that effects of charge trapping during drift disappears at a bias field value of the order of 100V/cm.

  9. Large volume cryogenic silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braggio, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy); Bressi, G. [INFN sez. di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Carugno, G.; Corti, D. [INFN sez. di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Galeazzi, G. [INFN lab. naz. Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We present preliminary measurements for the development of a large volume silicon detector to detect low energy and low rate energy depositions. The tested detector is a one cm-thick silicon PIN diode with an active volume of 31 cm{sup 3}, cooled to the liquid helium temperature to obtain depletion from thermally-generated free carriers. A thorough study has been done to show that effects of charge trapping during drift disappears at a bias field value of the order of 100V/cm.

  10. MPCV Exercise Operational Volume Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, A.; Humphreys, B.; Funk, J.; Perusek, G.; Lewandowski, B. E.

    2017-01-01

    In order to minimize the loss of bone and muscle mass during spaceflight, the Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will include an exercise device and enough free space within the cabin for astronauts to use the device effectively. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has been tasked with using computational modeling to aid in determining whether or not the available operational volume is sufficient for in-flight exercise.Motion capture data was acquired using a 12-camera Smart DX system (BTS Bioengineering, Brooklyn, NY), while exercisers performed 9 resistive exercises without volume restrictions in a 1g environment. Data were collected from two male subjects, one being in the 99th percentile of height and the other in the 50th percentile of height, using between 25 and 60 motion capture markers. Motion capture data was also recorded as a third subject, also near the 50th percentile in height, performed aerobic rowing during a parabolic flight. A motion capture system and algorithms developed previously and presented at last years HRP-IWS were utilized to collect and process the data from the parabolic flight [1]. These motions were applied to a scaled version of a biomechanical model within the biomechanical modeling software OpenSim [2], and the volume sweeps of the motions were visually assessed against an imported CAD model of the operational volume. Further numerical analysis was performed using Matlab (Mathworks, Natick, MA) and the OpenSim API. This analysis determined the location of every marker in space over the duration of the exercise motion, and the distance of each marker to the nearest surface of the volume. Containment of the exercise motions within the operational volume was determined on a per-exercise and per-subject basis. The orientation of the exerciser and the angle of the footplate were two important factors upon which containment was dependent. Regions where the exercise motion exceeds the bounds of the operational volume have been

  11. A database of worldwide glacier thickness observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner-Roer, I.; Naegeli, K.; Huss, M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the grand challenges in glacier research is to assess the total ice volume and its global distribution. Over the past few decades the compilation of a world glacier inventory has been well-advanced both in institutional set-up and in spatial coverage. The inventory is restricted to glacier...... the different estimation approaches. This initial database of glacier and ice caps thickness will hopefully be further enlarged and intensively used for a better understanding of the global glacier ice volume and its distribution....... surface observations. However, although thickness has been observed on many glaciers and ice caps around the globe, it has not yet been published in the shape of a readily available database. Here, we present a standardized database of glacier thickness observations compiled by an extensive literature...... review and from airborne data extracted from NASA's Operation IceBridge. This database contains ice thickness observations from roughly 1100 glaciers and ice caps including 550 glacier-wide estimates and 750,000 point observations. A comparison of these observational ice thicknesses with results from...

  12. Connecting Participant Observation Positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCurdy, Patrick; Uldam, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we argue for the importance of considering participant observation roles in relation to both insider/outsider and overt/covert roles. Through combining key academic debates on participant observation, which have separately considered insider/outsider and overt/covert participant...... observation, we develop a reflexive framework to assist researchers in (1) locating the type of participant observation research; (2) identifying implications of participant observation for both the research and the subjects under study; and (3) reflecting on how one’s role as participant observer shifts over...

  13. Estimation of lung volumes from chest radiographs using shape information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.J.; Brown, D.J.; Holmes, M.; Cumming, G.; Denison, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The cross-sectional shapes of the chest and its contained structures were assessed in post-mortem anatomical sections and from computerised tomographic scans in living subjects. These shapes are described by simple equations that can be used to increase the accuracy of measuring lung volumes from chest radiographs. Radiographic estimates of total lung capacity, using the equations, were compared with plethysmographic and single-breath helium dilution measurements in 35 normal subjects. After correction for posture effects the radiographic estimates of TLC, which measure the displacement volume of the lung, exceeded the plethysmographic estimates of contained gas volume by a mean of 720 ml, which was taken as the volume of tissue, blood, and water in the lungs. The single-breath dilution estimates of TLC fell short of the plethysmographic values by a mean of 480 ml, taken as the volume of contained gas that was inaccessible to helium in 10 seconds. The tomographic studies suggested that the radiographic technique of measuring lung displacement volumes has an accuracy of +- 210 ml. The method is rapid and simple to use and the intra- and inter-observer variabilities of <1% and <5% respectively. (author)

  14. Against Better Knowledge: The Magical Force of Amodal Volume Completion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vebjørn Ekroll

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In a popular magic routine known as “multiplying billiard balls”, magicians fool their audience by using an empty shell that the audience believes to be a complete ball. Here, we present some observations suggesting that the spectators do not merely entertain the intellectual belief that the balls are all solid, but rather automatically and immediately perceive them as such. Our observations demonstrate the surprising potency and genuinely perceptual origin of amodal volume completion.

  15. Uruguay - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface weather observation forms for 26 stations in Uruguay. Period of record 1896-2005, with two to eight observations per day. Files created through a...

  16. Lightship Daily Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1936 - 1983. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...

  17. Bottomfish Observer Database - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data collected by at sea observers in the Bottomfish Observer Program in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands from October 2003 - April 2006.

  18. Surface Weather Observations Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...

  19. Radar Weather Observation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Weather Observation is a set of archived historical manuscripts stored on microfiche. The primary source of these radar weather observations manuscript records...

  20. OBSCAN Observer Scanning System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Paper logs are the primary data collection tool used by observers of the Northeast Fisheries Observer Program deployed on commercial fishing vessels. After the data...

  1. JAPANSE LONGLINE OBSERVER JPLL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data that were collected by trained observers aboard Japanese pelagic longline vessels operating in the US EEZ. Observers collected...

  2. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  3. Cloning of observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Alessandro; Galbiati, Matteo; Paris, Matteo G A

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the concept of cloning for classes of observables and classify cloning machines for qubit systems according to the number of parameters needed to describe the class under investigation. A no-cloning theorem for observables is derived and the connections between cloning of observables and joint measurements of noncommuting observables are elucidated. Relationships with cloning of states and non-demolition measurements are also analysed. (letter to the editor)

  4. Cloning of observables

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraro, Alessandro; Galbiati, Matteo; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the concept of cloning for classes of observables and classify cloning machines for qubit systems according to the number of parameters needed to describe the class under investigation. A no-cloning theorem for observables is derived and the connections between cloning of observables and joint measurements of noncommuting observables are elucidated. Relationships with cloning of states and non-demolition measurements are also analyzed.

  5. NJP VOLUME 41 NO 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-11-24

    Nov 24, 2013 ... nation and volume of urine voided; from1- 2 times to 10. -15 times during the day ... Serum electrolytes, urea and creatinine done on admis- sion showed ... cient synthesis and or release of AVP.7The clinical manifestation of ...

  6. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    Method for supervised segmentation of volumetric data. The method is trained from manual annotations, and these annotations make the method very flexible, which we demonstrate in our experiments. Our method infers label information locally by matching the pattern in a neighborhood around a voxel ...... to a dictionary, and hereby accounts for the volume texture....

  7. Spectrum '86: Proceedings: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, J.M.; Leonard, I.M.; Mayer, E.J.

    1987-07-01

    This document, Volume 2, contains 96 papers on various aspects of radioactive waste management. Session topics include decontamination and decommissioning/endash/industry experience, characterization and safety, techniques, facility and plant decontamination; TRU waste management; regulatory aspects; economics; environmental issues and impacts; construction, operation, and maintenance. Individual papers were processed separately for the data bases

  8. NJP VOLUME 39 No 4

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... Disorders affecting fluid volume and electrolyte compo- sition are common ... knowledge of the mechanism of action of diuretic drugs and appropriate ... Presence of non-permeable solute will oppose H2O ex- traction. NaCl is actively .... loop not affected. • In oral administration rate and extent of absorption.

  9. Volume tables for red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd A. Johnson; R. M. Kallander; Paul G. Lauterbach

    1949-01-01

    The increasing importance of red alder as a commercial species in the Pacific Northwest has prompted the three agencies listed above to pool their tree measurement data for the construction of standard regional red alder volume tables. The tables included here were based on trees from a variety of sites and form classes. Approximately one quarter of the total number of...

  10. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: Safeguards-Related Problems; Neutronics and Criticality; Operations and Systems Experience II; Plutonium Systems; Intermediate Storage in Casks; Operations and Systems Planning; Institutional Issues; Structural and Thermal Evaluation I; Poster Session B; Extended Testing I; Structural and Thermal Evaluation II; Extended Testing II; and Emergency Preparedness and Response. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  11. Volume 7 No. 2 2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ROP4

    communities in Butere, and three of the eight communities, in Khwisero. The ... 3. Volume 7 No. 2 2007. INTRODUCTION. Micronutrient malnutrition is recognized as a serious threat to the health and productivity of people. Deficiencies in three major ... They also have uncontested advantage of allowing for the natural.

  12. Editorial, Volume 5, Issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy L. Archuleta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to Volume 5, Issue 1 of the Journal of Financial Therapy! In this issue, four scholarly papers are presented along with two profiles and a book review. These four papers address very important issues, such as mental health therapists’ competency in working with financial issues, financial stress of college students, parental messages about money, and financial advice media.

  13. Plasma volume in acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T D; Klausen, T; Richalet, J P

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to acute hypoxia is associated with changes in body fluid homeostasis and plasma volume (PV). This study compared a dye dilution technique using Evans' blue (PV[Evans']) with a carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method (PV[CO]) for measurements of PV in ten normal subjects at sea level...

  14. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 contains papers from the following sessions: Plenary Session; Regulations, Licensing and Standards; LMFBR Systems Concepts; Risk/Safety Assessment I; Systems and Package Design; US Institutional Issues; Risk/Safety Assessment II; Leakage, Leak Rate and Seals; Poster Session A; Operations and Systems Experience I; Manufacturing Processes and Materials; and Quality Assurance and Maintenance. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  15. Volume 7 No. 2 2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ROP4

    (having been in operation for at least five years). ... rights of the child, the children were weighed in light clothing rather than in the nude. ..... 13. Volume 7 No. 2 2007. Table 1: Mean Z-scores by Area, Type of Farming, Income Level, Sex of ...

  16. Healing Magazine, Volume 8, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    This volume of "Healing Magazine" features practical, clinical information aimed at sharing current work in children's mental health. The first issue contains articles on intervention for self-injurious behavior, providing school-based grief groups, effectively using time-out as a parenting tool, and KidsPeace's suicide prevention…

  17. History of CERN. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krige, J.

    1996-01-01

    The present volume continues the story of the history of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, concentrating on the years between the mid 1960s and the late 1970s. Whereas the first two volumes were the product of a team of historians, this book is rather a collection of studies by authors with very different professional backgrounds and institutional locations. It also differs from the predecessor volumes in the fact that it consists of distinct case studies dealing with a number of issues deemed important. The first part of this volume, containing contributions by historians of science, perceives the laboratory as being at the node of a complex of interconnected relationships between scientists and science managers on the staff, the users in the member states, and the governments which were called upon to finance the laboratory. In part 2 the physical results, obtained at CERN, are surveyed, while in part 3 two chapters are presented, one on engineering and technology, and the other on the research and development of electronic position detectors

  18. Eddy current manual, volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecco, V.S.; Van Drunen, G.; Sharp, F.L.

    1984-09-01

    This report on eddy current testing is divided into three sections: (a) Demonstration of Basic Principles, (b) Practical (Laboratory) Tests and, (c) Typical Certification Questions. It is intended to be used as a supplement to ΣEddy Current Manual, Volume 1Σ (AECL-7523) during CSNDT Foundation Level II and III courses

  19. Radioactive sampler observation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Norihiko; Saito, Norihisa.

    1996-01-01

    When an object of observation is a fuel rod and if a specimen in a fuel pool is small, it takes much labor for the observation and micro-observation images at a high ratio can not be displayed. A pipe for containing an observing camera in a water-sealed state, a jack capable of adjusting the focus of the observation camera by remote control and a horizontal bed capable of controlling the position of the observation camera for observing the specimen are disposed on a rail formed on lead block shielding walls. The magnification ratio for the observation can be increased by exchanging a die for securing the specimen and a lens, and a transparent acrylic resin plate, or a transparent lead-incorporated glass plate is joined to the bottom of the pipe. Since the sampled specimen can be observed as it is irrespective of the shape or the size of the specimen to be observed, danger of radiation exposure caused such as upon cutting, transportation or fabrication of the radioactive specimen can be reduced. Further, observation underwater can be conducted by the water sealing treatment of the pipe for the observing camera. (N.H.)

  20. Being observed magnifies action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinmetz, J.; Xu, Q.; Fishbach, A.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that people, when observed, perceive their actions as more substantial because they add the audience’s perspective to their own perspective. We find that participants who were observed while eating (Study 1) or learned they were observed after eating (Study 2) recalled eating

  1. Observation of online communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Sladjana V.; Rask, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the application of observation to online settings with a special focus on observer roles. It draws on a study of online observation of a virtual community, i.e. an open source software (OSS) community. The paper examines general and specific advantages and disadvantages...... of the observer roles in online settings by relating these roles to the same roles assumed in offline settings. The study suggests that under the right circumstances online and offline observation may benefit from being combined as they complement each other well. Quality issues and factors important to elicit...... trustworthy observational data from online study settings, such as OSS communities, are discussed. A proposition is made concerning how threats to credibility and transferability in relation to online observation (i.e. lack of richness and detail, risk of misunderstandings) can be diminished, while...

  2. BOOK REVIEW: Observational Cosmology Observational Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Dale Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Observational Cosmology by Stephen Serjeant fills a niche that was underserved in the textbook market: an up-to-date, thorough cosmology textbook focused on observations, aimed at advanced undergraduates. Not everything about the book is perfect - some subjects get short shrift, in some cases jargon dominates, and there are too few exercises. Still, on the whole, the book is a welcome addition. For decades, the classic textbooks of cosmology have focused on theory. But for every Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect there is a Butcher-Oemler effect; there are as many cosmological phenomena established by observations, and only explained later by theory, as there were predicted by theory and confirmed by observations. In fact, in the last decade, there has been an explosion of new cosmological findings driven by observations. Some are so new that you won't find them mentioned in books just a few years old. So it is not just refreshing to see a book that reflects the new realities of cosmology, it is vital, if students are to truly stay up on a field that has widened in scope considerably. Observational Cosmology is filled with full-color images, and graphs from the latest experiments. How exciting it is that we live in an era where satellites and large experiments have gathered so much data to reveal astounding details about the origin of the universe and its evolution. To have all the latest data gathered together and explained in one book will be a revelation to students. In fact, at times it was to me. I've picked up modern cosmological knowledge through a patchwork of reading papers, going to colloquia, and serving on grant and telescope allocation panels. To go back and see them explained from square one, and summarized succinctly, filled in quite a few gaps in my own knowledge and corrected a few misconceptions I'd acquired along the way. To make room for all these graphs and observational details, a few things had to be left out. For one, there are few derivations

  3. Observations of joint persistence and connectivity across boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thapa, B.B.; Karasaki, K.

    1996-01-01

    Observations of joint persistence and connectivity are made by comparison of digital borehole wall images of fractures, fluid conductivity logs and hydraulic injections test results. The fractures were found to be generally impersistent across vertical boreholes about 8 m apart. Many hydraulic connections were found in the same volume of rock. Direct connections through single fractures seem to be rare and connectivity appears to be controlled by fracture networks, even over small volumes.

  4. Volume growth rate of acoustic neurinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laasonen, E.M.; Troupp, H.

    1986-01-01

    Of 79 acoustic neurinomas seen between June 1980 and June 1984, at least two CT scans were available for each of 23 tumours (21 patients); the scans were performed at intervals of at least 6 months. The volume growth rate of the tumours was either moderate, with a volume doubling time ranging from 205 to 545 days, or slow, with a doubling time ranging from 1090 days to no observable growth. No single clinical, radiological or histological feature correlated with any type of growth rate. However, some conclusions were drawn. If a primary CT scan is negative, at least 1 year should elapse before it is worthwhile taking another scan, even though audiological findings suggest growth; after an apparently radical removal, at least 3 years should elapse before a check CT scan is worthwhile; and if a small acoustic neurinoma is diagnosed, but for some reason not operated upon, a second CT scan should be carried out 1 year later in order to reassess the case. (orig.)

  5. Depth of Field Effects for Interactive Direct Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Mathias; Pascal Grosset, A.V.; Martin, Tobias; Pegoraro, Vincent; Smith, Sean T.; Hansen, Charles D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed for computing depth of field effects, which previously were shown to aid observers in depth and size perception of synthetically generated images. The presented technique extends those benefits to volume rendering visualizations of 3D scalar fields from CT/MRI scanners or numerical simulations. It is based on incremental filtering and as such does not depend on any precomputation, thus allowing interactive explorations of volumetric data sets via on-the-fly editing of the shading model parameters or (multi-dimensional) transfer functions. © 2011 The Author(s).

  6. Analysis of the chemical equilibrium of combustion at constant volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BREBENEL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining the composition of a mixture of combustion gases at a given temperature is based on chemical equilibrium, when the equilibrium constants are calculated on the assumption of constant pressure and temperature. In this paper, an analysis of changes occurring when combustion takes place at constant volume is presented, deriving a specific formula of the equilibrium constant. The simple reaction of carbon combustion in pure oxygen in both cases (constant pressure and constant volume is next considered as example of application, observing the changes occurring in the composition of the combustion gases depending on temperature.

  7. Clinical Relevance of Brain Volume Measures in Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Stefano, Nicola; Airas, Laura; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease with an inflammatory and neurodegenerative pathology. Axonal loss and neurodegeneration occurs early in the disease course and may lead to irreversible neurological impairment. Changes in brain volume, observed from the earliest stage of MS...... therefore have important clinical implications affecting treatment decisions, with several clinical trials now demonstrating an effect of disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) on reducing brain volume loss. In clinical practice, it may therefore be important to consider the potential impact of a therapy...

  8. Depth of Field Effects for Interactive Direct Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Mathias

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed for computing depth of field effects, which previously were shown to aid observers in depth and size perception of synthetically generated images. The presented technique extends those benefits to volume rendering visualizations of 3D scalar fields from CT/MRI scanners or numerical simulations. It is based on incremental filtering and as such does not depend on any precomputation, thus allowing interactive explorations of volumetric data sets via on-the-fly editing of the shading model parameters or (multi-dimensional) transfer functions. © 2011 The Author(s).

  9. A general methodology for three-dimensional analysis of variation in target volume delineation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remeijer, P.; Rasch, C.; Lebesque, J. V.; van Herk, M.

    1999-01-01

    A generic method for three-dimensional (3-D) evaluation of target volume delineation in multiple imaging modalities is presented. The evaluation includes geometrical and statistical methods to estimate observer differences and variability in defining the Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) in relation to the

  10. Applying ARIMA model for annual volume time series of the Magdalena River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Amaris

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: The simulated results obtained with the ARIMA model compared to the observed data showed a fairly good adjustment of the minimum and maximum magnitudes. This allows concluding that it is a good tool for estimating minimum and maximum volumes, even though this model is not capable of simulating the exact behaviour of an annual volume time series.

  11. Free volume changes in mechanically milled PS and PC studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Günther-Schade, K.; Castricum, H.L.; Ziegler, H.J.; Bakker, H.; Faupel, F.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of mechanical milling on free volume was studied by means of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) in polystyrene (PS) as a typical brittle polymer and in polycarbonate (PC) as a tough representative. Long-time milling increases the free volume, while a decrease is observed

  12. Observing Double Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  13. International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (Volumes 1 through 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison M.

    2013-03-27

    The design report consists of four volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary; Volume 2, Physics; Volume 3, Accelerator (Part I, R and D in the Technical Design Phase, and Part II, Baseline Design); and Volume 4, Detectors.

  14. Volcano morphometry and volume scaling on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, J. B.; Williams, R. S., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A broad variety of volcanic edifices have been observed on Venus. They ranged in size from the limits of resolution of the Magellan SAR (i.e., hundreds of meters) to landforms over 500 km in basal diameter. One of the key questions pertaining to volcanism on Venus concerns the volume eruption rate or VER, which is linked to crustal productivity over time. While less than 3 percent of the surface area of Venus is manifested as discrete edifices larger than 50 km in diameter, a substantial component of the total crustal volume of the planet over the past 0.5 Ga is related to isolated volcanoes, which are certainly more easily studied than the relatively diffusely defined plains volcanic flow units. Thus, we have focused our efforts on constraining the volume productivity of major volcanic edifices larger than 100 km in basal diameter. Our approach takes advantage of the topographic data returned by Magellan, as well as our database of morphometric statistics for the 20 best known lava shields of Iceland, plus Mauna Loa of Hawaii. As part of this investigation, we have quantified the detailed morphometry of nearly 50 intermediate to large scale edifices, with particular attention to their shape systematics. We found that a set of venusian edifices which include Maat, Sapas, Tepev, Sif, Gula, a feature at 46 deg S, 215 deg E, as well as the shield-like structure at 10 deg N, 275 deg E are broadly representative of the approx. 400 volcanic landforms larger than 50 km. The cross-sectional shapes of these 7 representative edifices range from flattened cones (i.e., Sif) similar to classic terrestrial lava shields such as Mauna Loa and Skjaldbreidur, to rather dome-like structures which include Maat and Sapas. The majority of these larger volcanoes surveyed as part of our study displayed cross-sectional topographies with paraboloidal shaped, in sharp contrast with the cone-like appearance of most simple terrestrial lava shields. In order to more fully explore the

  15. ALICE: Physics Performance Report, Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandro, B; Antinori, F; Belikov, J A

    2006-01-01

    of the subsystem designs, and a description of the offline framework and Monte Carlo event generators. The present volume, Volume II, contains the majority of the information relevant to the physics performance in proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions. Following an introductory overview, Chapter 5 describes the combined detector performance and the event reconstruction procedures, based on detailed simulations of the individual subsystems. Chapter 6 describes the analysis and physics reach for a representative sample of physics observables, from global event characteristics to hard processes

  16. Increased intracranial volume in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Katja; Karlsborg, Merete; Hansen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    segmentation and outlining of regions in order to identify regional volume changes that might be useful in the diagnosis of the two diseases. RESULTS: Patients with PD had significantly larger intracranial volumes (ICVs) and significantly smaller putaminal and sustantia nigra volumes than controls. MSA...... patients had significantly smaller substantia nigra and caudate volumes than controls but normal intracranial volume. In both patient groups there was a further trend towards smaller amygdala volumes. DISCUSSION: Increased ICV in PD patients is a new finding that may be explained by genetic factors...

  17. Geo-neutrino Observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, S. T.; Alderman, M.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Mahoney, J. M.; Pakvasa, S.; Rosen, M.; Smith, S.; Varner, G.; McDonough, W. F.

    2009-01-01

    Observations of geo-neutrinos measure radiogenic heat production within the earth, providing information on the thermal history and dynamic processes of the mantle. Two detectors currently observe geo-neutrinos from underground locations. Other detection projects in various stages of development include a deep ocean observatory. This paper presents the current status of geo-neutrino observation and describes the scientific capabilities of the deep ocean observatory, with emphasis on geology and neutrino physics.

  18. The Local Volume HI Survey (LVHIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koribalski, Bärbel S.; Wang, Jing; Kamphuis, P.; Westmeier, T.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Oh, S.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Wong, O. I.; Ott, J.; de Blok, W. J. G.; Shao, L.

    2018-02-01

    The `Local Volume HI Survey' (LVHIS) comprises deep H I spectral line and 20-cm radio continuum observations of 82 nearby, gas-rich galaxies, supplemented by multi-wavelength images. Our sample consists of all galaxies with Local Group velocities vLG atlas, including the overall gas distribution, mean velocity field, velocity dispersion and position-velocity diagrams, together with a homogeneous set of measured and derived galaxy properties. Our primary goal is to investigate the H I morphologies, kinematics and environment at high resolution and sensitivity. LVHIS galaxies represent a wide range of morphologies and sizes; our measured H I masses range from ˜107 to 1010 M⊙, based on independent distance estimates. The LVHIS galaxy atlas (incl. FITS files) is available on-line.

  19. MRI definition of target volumes using fuzzy logic method for three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudrelier, Jean-Michel; Vial, Stephane; Gibon, David; Kulik, Carine; Fournier, Charles; Castelain, Bernard; Coche-Dequeant, Bernard; Rousseau, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) volume determination is one of the most important problems in conformal radiation therapy. Techniques of volume determination from tomographic medical imaging are usually based on two-dimensional (2D) contour definition with the result dependent on the segmentation method used, as well as on the user's manual procedure. The goal of this work is to describe and evaluate a new method that reduces the inaccuracies generally observed in the 2D contour definition and 3D volume reconstruction process. Methods and Materials: This new method has been developed by integrating the fuzziness in the 3D volume definition. It first defines semiautomatically a minimal 2D contour on each slice that definitely contains the volume and a maximal 2D contour that definitely does not contain the volume. The fuzziness region in between is processed using possibility functions in possibility theory. A volume of voxels, including the membership degree to the target volume, is then created on each slice axis, taking into account the slice position and slice profile. A resulting fuzzy volume is obtained after data fusion between multiorientation slices. Different studies have been designed to evaluate and compare this new method of target volume reconstruction and a classical reconstruction method. First, target definition accuracy and robustness were studied on phantom targets. Second, intra- and interobserver variations were studied on radiosurgery clinical cases. Results: The absolute volume errors are less than or equal to 1.5% for phantom volumes calculated by the fuzzy logic method, whereas the values obtained with the classical method are much larger than the actual volumes (absolute volume errors up to 72%). With increasing MRI slice thickness (1 mm to 8 mm), the phantom volumes calculated by the classical method are increasing exponentially with a maximum absolute error up to 300%. In contrast, the absolute volume errors are less than 12% for phantom

  20. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility's life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996

  1. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  2. Sensors, Volume 4, Thermal Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Jorg; Ricolfi, Teresio

    1996-12-01

    'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This volume describes the construction and applicational aspects of thermal sensors while presenting a rigorous treatment of the underlying physical principles. It provides a unique overview of the various categories of sensors as well as of specific groups, e.g. temperature sensors (resistance thermometers, thermocouples, and radiation thermometers), noise and acoustic thermometers, heat-flow and mass-flow sensors. Specific facettes of applications are presented by specialists from different fields including process control, automotive technology and cryogenics. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialists and newcomers, researchers and developers.

  3. Basketball training increases striatum volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Kea Joo; Han, Jong Woo; Lee, Nam Joon; Lee, Won Teak; Park, Kyung Ah; Rhyu, Im Joo

    2011-02-01

    The striatum is associated with the learning and retention of motor skills. Several studies have shown that motor learning induces neuronal changes in the striatum. We investigated whether macroscopic change in striatum volume occurs in a segment of the human population who learned basketball-related motor skills and practiced them throughout their entire athletic life. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging volumetry was performed in basketball players and healthy controls, and striatum volumes were compared based on basketball proficiency, region and side. We identified morphological enlargement in the striatum of basketball players in comparison with controls. Our results suggest that continued practice and repetitive performance of basketball-related motor skills may induce plastic structural changes in the human striatum. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pressure Dependence of Molar Volume near the Melting Point in Benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The pressure dependence of the molar volume was at constant temperatures close to the melting point in benzene. The molar volume of benzene was calculated using experimental data for the thermal expansivity for constant temperatures of 25℃, 28.5℃, 40℃, and 51℃ at various pressures for both the solid and liquid phases. The predictions are in good agreement with the observed volumes in both the solid and liquid phases of benzene. The predicted values of the molar volume for a constant temperature of 28.5℃ in the liquid phase of benzene agree well with experimental data in the literature.

  5. Volume stumbles; prices hold steady

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is the July 1994 uranium market summary. During this period, spot market volume slid to just under 370,000 lbs U3O8 equivalent. In total, six deals took place; four in the spot market, none in the medium and long-term market, one in the conversion market, and one in the enrichment market, The low end of the unrestricted price range strengthened a bit. All other prices were unchanged

  6. Indigenous high volume air sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotrappa, P.; Setty, N.P.N.; Raghunath, B.; Sivasubrahmanyam, P.S.

    1978-01-01

    A high volume air sampler for use in assessing concentrations of low levels of air borne particulates has been fabricated. The sampler will be of use in radioactive installations, conventional industries and environmental pollution analysis. It is comparable in performance with the imported Staplex air samplers. A turbine and motor system similar to the one found in conventional vacuum cleaners is used in its design. The sampler units can be produced in large numbers. (M.G.B.)

  7. Free volume sizes in intercalated polyamide 6/clay nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiinberg, P.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Pedersen, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of incorporating modified clay into a polyamide 6 (PA6) matrix, on the free volume cavity sizes and the thermal and viscoelastic properties of the resulting nanocomposite, was studied with positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic...... response of PA6/clay nanocomposites, as compared to unfilled PA6, pointed towards a changed mobility in the non-crystalline regions. At high concentrations of clay (> 19 wt%) an increase of the free volume cavity diameter was observed, indicating a lower chain packing efficiency in the PA6/clay...... nanocomposites. The increased free volume sizes were present both above and below the glass transition temperature of PA6. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. A consensus-based dynamics for market volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatelli, Lorenzo; Richmond, Peter

    2004-12-01

    We develop a model of trading orders based on opinion dynamics. The agents may be thought as the share holders of a major mutual fund rather than as direct traders. The balance between their buy and sell orders determines the size of the fund order (volume) and has an impact on prices and indexes. We assume agents interact simultaneously to each other through a Sznajd-like interaction. Their degree of connection is determined by the probability of changing opinion independently of what their neighbours are doing. We assume that such a probability may change randomly, after each transaction, of an amount proportional to the relative difference between the volatility then measured and a benchmark that we assume to be an exponential moving average of the past volume values. We show how this simple model is compatible with some of the main statistical features observed for the asset volumes in financial markets.

  9. Radionuclide determined pulmonary blood volume in ischaemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannan, W.J.; Vojacek, J.; Connell, H.M. Dewhurst N.G.; Muir, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    Most measurements of pulmonary blood volume have been based on the Stewart-Hamilton dye dilution principle and have required direct catheterisation of the cardiac chambers. Alternatively a precordial counter may be used to detect the composite right and left heart curves after an intravenous injection of radionuclide. We investigated the use of a gamma camera/computer system to determine the radionuclide (sup(99m)Tc) dilution curves from individual cardiac chambers. Pulmonary transit time and pulmonary blood volume were measured in nine normal subjects, eight patients with angina pectoris but without heart failure, and 13 patients with ischaemic heart disease and left ventricular failure. Patients with heart failure had significantly greater (p 0 angle. A reduction in pulmonary blood volume in the tilted position was observed in each subject (p < 0.005). This simple non-invasive measurement should allow more detailed assessment of physiological or pharmacological changes of the pulmonary vascular bed. (author)

  10. Determination of adrenal volume by MRI in healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Annette; Johansen, Marie Lindhardt; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine

    2014-01-01

    , to estimate adrenal size in healthy children and to evaluate determinants of adrenal volume such as age, gender, body size, pubic hair stage and serum levels of adrenal androgens. DESIGN: Two hundred and thirty-five healthy children (116 girls and 119 boys) (age range 10.0-14.8 years) were examined by MRI......% of healthy children aged 10-15 years. Adrenal volume increased with age and Tanner stage of pubic hair. Future studies will unravel whether adrenal MRI is useful when evaluating children with adrenal diseases....... (estimate B = 0.34 ml/year, P = 0.03), age (estimate B = 0.05 ml/year, P = 0.021) and pubic hair stage (estimate B = 0.05 ml/stage, P = 0.075). No associations between adrenal size and serum levels of adrenal androgens were observed. CONCLUSION: It was possible to determine adrenal volume by MRI in only 50...

  11. Lung volume reduction for emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pallav L; Herth, Felix J; van Geffen, Wouter H; Deslee, Gaetan; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2017-02-01

    Advanced emphysema is a lung disease in which alveolar capillary units are destroyed and supporting tissue is lost. The combined effect of reduced gas exchange and changes in airway dynamics impairs expiratory airflow and leads to progressive air trapping. Pharmacological therapies have limited effects. Surgical resection of the most destroyed sections of the lung can improve pulmonary function and exercise capacity but its benefit is tempered by significant morbidity. This issue stimulated a search for novel approaches to lung volume reduction. Alternative minimally invasive approaches using bronchoscopic techniques including valves, coils, vapour thermal ablation, and sclerosant agents have been at the forefront of these developments. Insertion of endobronchial valves in selected patients could have benefits that are comparable with lung volume reduction surgery. Endobronchial coils might have a role in the treatment of patients with emphysema with severe hyperinflation and less parenchymal destruction. Use of vapour thermal energy or a sclerosant might allow focal treatment but the unpredictability of the inflammatory response limits their current use. In this Review, we aim to summarise clinical trial evidence on lung volume reduction and provide guidance on patient selection for available therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Memorial volume for Y. Nambu

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Lay Nam; Han, Moo-Young; Phua, Kok Khoo

    2016-01-01

    We have lost one of the giants of the twentieth century physics when Yoichiro Nambu passed away in July, 2015, at the age of 94. Today's Standard Model, though still incomplete in many respects, is the culmination of the most successful theory of the Universe to date, and it is built upon foundations provided by discoveries made by Nambu in the 1960s: the mechanism of spontaneously broken symmetry in Nature (with G Jona-Lasinio) and the hidden new SU(3) symmetry of quarks and gluons (with M-Y Han). In this volume honoring Nambu's memory, World Scientific Publishing presents a unique collection of papers written by his former colleagues, collaborating researchers and former students and associates, not only citing Nambu's great contributions in physics but also many personal and private reminiscences, some never told before. This volume also contains the very last scientific writing by Professor Nambu himself, discussing the development of particle physics. This book is a volume for all who benefited not on...

  13. The effect of minimally invasive surgical repair on the lung volumes of patients with pectus excavatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, Aysen Taslak; Sahin, Bunyamin; Celenk, Cetin; Basoglu, Ahmet; Sengul, Bilal

    2014-04-01

    To assess the increase in lung volume after Nuss surgery in patients with pectus excavatum (PE) by using stereological methods and to evaluate the correlation between the lung volume and spirometry findings. Twenty patients, treated for PE between 2008 and 2010, were evaluated prospectively. They underwent preoperative chest radiography, computed thorax tomography (CTT), and spirometry. Thereafter, the Haller index was calculated for each patient. In the third postoperative month, CTT and spirometry were repeated.Lung volumes and volume fractions were evaluated using CTT images, applying the Cavalieri principle for stereological methods. Then the correlation between the pre- and postoperative values of the lung volumes with spirometry findings was determined. Volumes of the right and left lungs were calculated stereologically, using CTT images. Postoperative volume increase of ∼417.6 ± 747.6 mL was detected. The maximum volume increase was observed in the left lung. In the postoperative period, the total volume increase and the volume increase detected in the left lung were found to be statistically significant (p volume in 1 second, and forced expiratory flow 25 to 75% were 0.67, 0.68, and 0.61, respectively; the postoperative r figures were 0.43, 0.42, and 0.35, respectively. Although there was a strong correlation between the preoperative lung volume and spirometry findings (p volume and spirometry findings (p > 0.05). Postoperative pulmonary volume increase occurs in patients with PE after Nuss surgery. However, postoperative spirometry findings may not reflect morphological improvement because pain restricts thoracic movements. Therefore, in patients with PE, quantitative evaluation of the results of surgical repair is possible using the CTT images through a combination of stereological methods. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Partial molar volumes of proteins: amino acid side-chain contributions derived from the partial molar volumes of some tripeptides over the temperature range 10-90 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häckel, M; Hinz, H J; Hedwig, G R

    1999-11-15

    The partial molar volumes of tripeptides of sequence glycyl-X-glycine, where X is one of the amino acids alanine, leucine, threonine, glutamine, phenylalanine, histidine, cysteine, proline, glutamic acid, and arginine, have been determined in aqueous solution over the temperature range 10-90 degrees C using differential scanning densitometry . These data, together with those reported previously, have been used to derive the partial molar volumes of the side-chains of all 20 amino acids. The side-chain volumes are critically compared with literature values derived using partial molar volumes for alternative model compounds. The new amino acid side-chain volumes, along with that for the backbone glycyl group, were used to calculate the partial specific volumes of several proteins in aqueous solution. The results obtained are compared with those observed experimentally. The new side-chain volumes have also been used to re-determine residue volume changes upon protein folding.

  15. Seasonal variations in the volume of the haemolymph and body weight of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas (Muller)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Rathod, V.; Parulekar, A.H.

    in sizes between 121-140 mm. An inverse relationship was observed between the volume of haemolymph and salinity of the environment. Maximum volume of haemolymph (57.3 ml) in females was observed when the salinity of the environment was low in October...

  16. Observing Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Classroom observation is a crucial aspect of any system of teacher evaluation. No matter how skilled a teacher is in other aspects of teaching--such as careful planning, working well with colleagues, and communicating with parents--if classroom practice is deficient, that individual cannot be considered a good teacher. Classroom observations can…

  17. The observer's sky atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Karkoschka, E

    2007-01-01

    This title includes a short introduction to observing, a thorough description of the star charts and tables, a glossary and much more. It is perfect for both the beginner and seasoned observer. It is fully revised edition of a best-selling and highly-praised sky atlas.

  18. Optimized tomography of observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ariano, G.M.; Paris, G. A.

    1998-01-01

    Tomographic measurement of observables is revisited and an adaptive optimization of the kernel functions suggested. The method is based on the existence of a class of null functions, which have zero tomographic average for any state of radiation. The general procedure is illustrated, and application to relevant observables analyzed in details for coherent, squeezed and 'cat' states.(author)

  19. Green Thunderstorms Observed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank W., III; Beasley, William H.; Bohren, Craig F.

    1996-12-01

    Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Often the green coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflections of light from green foliage on the ground. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm do not believe that green thunderstorms exist. They suggest that the green storms may be fabrications by excited observers. The authors have demonstrated the existence of green thunderstorms objectively using a spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 the authors observed numerous storms and recorded hundreds of spectra of the light emanating corn these storms. It was found that the subjective judgment of colors can vary somewhat between observers, but the variation is usually in the shade of green. The authors recorded spectra of green and nongreen thunderstorms and recorded spectral measurements as a storm changed its appearance from dark blue to a bluish green. The change in color is gradual when observed from a stationary position. Also, as the light from a storm becomes greener, the luminance decreases. The authors also observed and recorded the spectrum of a thunderstorm during a period of several hours as they flew in an aircraft close to a supercell that appeared somewhat green. The authors' observations refute the ground reflection hypothesis and raise questions about explanations that require the presence of hail.

  20. Does observability affect prosociality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Alex; Lawrence, Claire; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2018-03-28

    The observation of behaviour is a key theoretical parameter underlying a number of models of prosociality. However, the empirical findings showing the effect of observability on prosociality are mixed. In this meta-analysis, we explore the boundary conditions that may account for this variability, by exploring key theoretical and methodological moderators of this link. We identified 117 papers yielding 134 study level effects (total n = 788 164) and found a small but statistically significant, positive association between observability and prosociality ( r = 0.141, 95% confidence interval = 0.106, 0.175). Moderator analysis showed that observability produced stronger effects on prosociality: (i) in the presence of passive observers (i.e. people whose role was to only observe participants) versus perceptions of being watched, (ii) when participants' decisions were consequential (versus non-consequential), (iii) when the studies were performed in the laboratory (as opposed to in the field/online), (iv) when the studies used repeated measures (instead of single games), and (v) when the studies involved social dilemmas (instead of bargaining games). These effects show the conditions under which observability effects on prosociality will be maximally observed. We describe the theoretical and practical significance of these results. © 2018 The Authors.

  1. Extraterrestial radioastronomical observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screiber, R.

    1975-01-01

    The review is an attempt to describe the achievements of extraterrestrial radioastronomy during the last 10 years. Substantial progress, especially in the observations of the solar corona and the interplanetary space is reported. Observations of planets and Galaxy are also mentioned. Some remarks concerning the future experiments are briefly outlined. (author)

  2. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  3. Paying for observable luck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feriozzi, F.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines why CEOs are rewarded for luck, namely for observable shocks beyond their control. I propose a simple hidden action model where the agent has implicit incentives to avoid bankruptcy. After signing the contract, but before acting, the agent observes a signal on future luck.

  4. Working Group 1: Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenberth, K.; Angell, J.; Barry, R.; Bradley, R.; Diaz, H.; Elliott, W.; Etkins, R.; Folland, C.; Jenne, R.; Jones, P.; Karl, T.; Levitus, S.; Oort, A.; Parker, D.; Ropelewski, C.; Vinnikov, K.; Wigley, T.

    1991-01-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: the need for observations; issues in establishing global climate trends; climate variables such as surface air temperature over land, marine temperature, precipitation, circulation, upper air measurements, historical observations, subsurface ocean data, sea level, cryosphere, clouds, solar radiation, and aerosols; future considerations and recommendations which focuses on the establishment of a global benchmark climate monitoring network and data management

  5. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro; Ziman, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  6. Working Group 1: Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenberth, K.; Angell, J.; Barry, R.; Bradley, R.; Diaz, H.; Elliott, W.; Etkins, R.; Folland, C.; Jenne, R.; Jones, P.; Karl, T.; Levitus, S.; Oort, A.; Parker, D.; Ropelewski, C.; Vinnikov, K.; Wigley, T.

    1990-01-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: the need for observations; issues in establishing global climate trends; climate variables such as surface air temperature over land, marine temperature, precipitation, circulation, upper air measurements, historical observations, subsurface ocean data, sea level, cryosphere, clouds, solar radiation, and aerosols; future considerations and recommendations which focuses on the establishment of a global benchmark climate monitoring network and data management

  7. Disorganized Attachment in Infancy Predicts Greater Amygdala Volume in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons-Ruth, K.; Pechtel, P.; Yoon, S.A.; Anderson, C.M.; Teicher, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress in rodents is associated with increased amygdala volume in adulthood. In humans, the amygdala develops rapidly during the first two years of life. Thus, disturbed care during this period may be particularly important to amygdala development. In the context of a 30-year longitudinal study of impoverished, highly stressed families, we assessed whether disorganization of the attachment relationship in infancy was related to amygdala volume in adulthood. Amygdala volumes were assessed among 18 low-income young adults (8M/10F, 29.33±0.49 years) first observed in infancy (8.5±5.6 months) and followed longitudinally to age 29. In infancy (18.58±1.02 mos), both disorganized infant attachment behavior and disrupted maternal communication were assessed in the standard Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Increased left amygdala volume in adulthood was associated with both maternal and infant components of disorganized attachment interactions at 18 months of age (overall r = .679, p attachment disturbance in adolescence, were not significantly related to left amygdala volume. Left amygdala volume was further associated with dissociation and limbic irritability in adulthood. Finally, left amygdala volume mediated the prediction from attachment disturbance in infancy to limbic irritability in adulthood. Results point to the likely importance of quality of early care for amygdala development in human children as well as in rodents. The long-term prediction found here suggests that the first two years of life may be an early sensitive period for amygdala development during which clinical intervention could have particularly important consequences for later child outcomes. PMID:27060720

  8. Comparison of different volume markers in peritoneal dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Paepe, M.; Belpaire, F.; Schelstraete, K.; Lameire, N.

    1988-01-01

    Four peritoneal volume markers (carbon 14 -labeled dextran, dextran blue, radioactive albumin, and hemoglobin) were compared. In six rabbits 14 C-dextran was compared with dextran blue during a 4-hour dwell with a 4.25% dextrose solution. The recovery of 14 C-dextran at the end of the dwell was 71% +/- 3% vs. 92% +/- 1% for dextran blue (P less than 0.001). In six other rabbits, radioactive albumin (RISA) was compared with dextran blue. The recovery of RISA was 78% +/- 4%, compared with 85% +/- 2% for dextran blue (P less than 0.05). The calculated peritoneal volumes, uncorrected for disappearance of the markers, were consistently higher than when correction was made. After correction, the calculated end volumes were similar to actually measured end volumes. In six patients with chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, the intraperitoneal volume during a single dwell of 6 hours was estimated in paired observations with lactated Ringer's solution and 1.5% dextrose dialysate, using simultaneously autologous hemoglobin and RISA. In eight additional patients, a single dwell with 4.25% dextrose dialysate was studied. The recoveries of both markers were related to the osmotic strength of the dialysate. Recoveries were 66.7% +/- 2.3% and 69.6% +/- 0.9% in lactated Ringer's solution, and increased to 81% +/- 3% and 82% +/- 2% in 4.25% dextrose for hemoglobin and RISA, respectively. With each dialysate, after correction for disappearance of the marker, no differences in volume profiles or between calculated or measured end volumes could be found with either hemoglobin or RISA

  9. East African Journal of Sciences (2015) Volume 9 (1) 41-48 Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tosheba

    East African Journal of Sciences (2015). Volume 9 (1) 41-48 ... but no significant difference was observed amongst them. Queen .... used method of termite management in western. Ethiopia ..... Ethiopia. Working Document Series 68, ICRA,.

  10. Toward observational neutrino astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshiba, M.

    1988-01-01

    It is true that: (1) The first observation of the neutrino burst from the supernova SN1987a by Kamiokande-II which was immediately confirmed by IBM; and (2) the first real-time, directional, and spectral observation of solar 8 B neutrinos also by Kamiokande-II could perhaps be considered as signalling the birth of observational astrophysics. The field, however, is still in its infancy and is crying out for tender loving care. Namely, while the construction of astronomy requires the time and the direction of the signal and that of astrophysics requires, in addition to the spectral information, the observations of (1) could not give the directional information and the results of both (1) and (2) are still suffering from the meager statistics. How do we remedy this situation to let this new born science of observational neutrino astrophysics grow healthy. This is what the author addresses in this talk. 15 refs., 8 figs

  11. Case mix-adjusted cost of colectomy at low-, middle-, and high-volume academic centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex L; Kim, Young; Ertel, Audrey E; Hoehn, Richard S; Wima, Koffi; Abbott, Daniel E; Shah, Shimul A

    2017-05-01

    Efforts to regionalize surgery based on thresholds in procedure volume may have consequences on the cost of health care delivery. This study aims to delineate the relationship between hospital volume, case mix, and variability in the cost of operative intervention using colectomy as the model. All patients undergoing colectomy (n = 90,583) at 183 academic hospitals from 2009-2012 in The University HealthSystems Consortium Database were studied. Patient and procedure details were used to generate a case mix-adjusted predictive model of total direct costs. Observed to expected costs for each center were evaluated between centers based on overall procedure volume. Patient and procedure characteristics were significantly different between volume tertiles. Observed costs at high-volume centers were less than at middle- and low-volume centers. According to our predictive model, high-volume centers cared for a less expensive case mix than middle- and low-volume centers ($12,786 vs $13,236 and $14,497, P case mix at low-volume centers, which may lead to perceived poor performance at these centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Magmatic densities control erupted volumes in Icelandic volcanic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Margaret; Maclennan, John

    2018-04-01

    Magmatic density and viscosity exert fundamental controls on the eruptibility of magmas. In this study, we investigate the extent to which magmatic physical properties control the eruptibility of magmas from Iceland's Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ). By studying subaerial flows of known age and volume, we are able to directly relate erupted volumes to magmatic physical properties, a task that has been near-impossible when dealing with submarine samples dredged from mid-ocean ridges. We find a strong correlation between magmatic density and observed erupted volumes on the NVZ. Over 85% of the total volume of erupted material lies close to a density and viscosity minimum that corresponds to the composition of basalts at the arrival of plagioclase on the liquidus. These magmas are buoyant with respect to the Icelandic upper crust. However, a number of small-volume eruptions with densities greater than typical Icelandic upper crust are also found in Iceland's neovolcanic zones. We use a simple numerical model to demonstrate that the eruption of magmas with higher densities and viscosities is facilitated by the generation of overpressure in magma chambers in the lower crust and uppermost mantle. This conclusion is in agreement with petrological constraints on the depths of crystallisation under Iceland.

  13. Inner volume leakage during integrated leakage rate testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    During an integrated leak rate test (ILRT), the containment structure is maintained at test pressure with most penetrations isolated. Since penetrations typically employ dual isolation, the possibility exists for the inner isolation to leak while the outer holds. In this case, the ILRT instrumentation system would indicate containment out-leakage when, in fact, only the inner volume between closures is being pressurized. The problem is compounded because this false leakage is not readily observable outside of containment by standard leak inspection techniques. The inner volume leakage eventually subsides after the affected volumes reach test pressure. Depending on the magnitude of leakage and the size of the volumes, equalization could occur prior to the end of the pretest stabilization period, or significant false leakages may persist throughout the entire test. Two simple analyses were performed to quantify the effects of inside volume leakages. First, a lower bound for the equalization time was found. A second analysis was performed to find an approximate upper bound for the stabilization time. The results of both analyses are shown

  14. Control volume based hydrocephalus research; a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Madsen, Joseph; Wei, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a complex spectrum of neurophysiological disorders involving perturbation of the intracranial contents; primarily increased intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume and intracranial pressure are observed. CSF dynamics are highly coupled to the cerebral blood flows and pressures as well as the mechanical properties of the brain. Hydrocephalus, as such, is a very complex biological problem. We propose integral control volume analysis as a method of tracking these important interactions using mass and momentum conservation principles. As a first step in applying this methodology in humans, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the intracranial space. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. Within the gel a hollow spherical cavity represents the ventricular system and a cylindrical passage represents the spinal canal. A computer controlled piston pump supplies sinusoidal volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and momentum flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients and normal individuals. Flow and pressure measurements on the flow phantom will be presented through the control volume framework.

  15. Magmatic Densities Control Erupted Volumes in Icelandic Volcanic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Hartley

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Magmatic density and viscosity exert fundamental controls on the eruptibility of magmas. In this study, we investigate the extent to which magmatic physical properties control the eruptibility of magmas from Iceland's Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ. By studying subaerial flows of known age and volume, we are able to directly relate erupted volumes to magmatic physical properties, a task that has been near-impossible when dealing with submarine samples dredged from mid-ocean ridges. We find a strong correlation between magmatic density and observed erupted volumes on the NVZ. Over 85% of the total volume of erupted material lies close to a density and viscosity minimum that corresponds to the composition of basalts at the arrival of plagioclase on the liquidus. These magmas are buoyant with respect to the Icelandic upper crust. However, a number of small-volume eruptions with densities greater than typical Icelandic upper crust are also found in Iceland's neovolcanic zones. We use a simple numerical model to demonstrate that the eruption of magmas with higher densities and viscosities is facilitated by the generation of overpressure in magma chambers in the lower crust and uppermost mantle. This conclusion is in agreement with petrological constraints on the depths of crystallization under Iceland.

  16. Site Environmental Report for 2005 Volume I and Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, Michael

    2006-07-07

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, ''Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting''. The ''Site Environmental Report for 2005'' summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2005. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as ''Berkeley Lab'', ''the Laboratory'', ''Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory'', and ''LBNL''.) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains an overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. This year's Volume I text body is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters. The report's structure has been reorganized this year, and it now includes a chapter devoted to environmental management system topics. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities. The ''Site Environmental Report'' is distributed by releasing it on the Web from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request. The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are also reported using the more conventional (non-SI) system of measurements, because the non-SI system is referenced by several current

  17. The parallel volume at large distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen

    In this paper we examine the asymptotic behavior of the parallel volume of planar non-convex bodies as the distance tends to infinity. We show that the difference between the parallel volume of the convex hull of a body and the parallel volume of the body itself tends to . This yields a new proof...... for the fact that a planar body can only have polynomial parallel volume, if it is convex. Extensions to Minkowski spaces and random sets are also discussed....

  18. The parallel volume at large distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen

    In this paper we examine the asymptotic behavior of the parallel volume of planar non-convex bodies as the distance tends to infinity. We show that the difference between the parallel volume of the convex hull of a body and the parallel volume of the body itself tends to 0. This yields a new proof...... for the fact that a planar body can only have polynomial parallel volume, if it is convex. Extensions to Minkowski spaces and random sets are also discussed....

  19. On the volume of cremated remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvig, Lise Lock; Lynnerup, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Harvig, L., Lynnerup, N. 2013. On the effective volume of prehistoric cremains - a comparative study of cremated bone volume measured manually and assessed by Computed Tomography. Journal of Archaeological Science 40, p. 2713–2722.......Harvig, L., Lynnerup, N. 2013. On the effective volume of prehistoric cremains - a comparative study of cremated bone volume measured manually and assessed by Computed Tomography. Journal of Archaeological Science 40, p. 2713–2722....

  20. Adrenal gland volume measurement in septic shock and control patients: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nougaret, Stephanie; Aufort, S.; Gallix, B. [Hopital Saint Eloi, Department of Abdominal Imaging, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France); Jung, B.; Chanques, G.; Jaber, S. [Hopital Saint Eloi, Intensive Care Unit, Department of Critical Care and Anesthesiology: DAR B, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France)

    2010-10-15

    To compare adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients and control patients by using semi-automated volumetry. Adrenal gland volume and its inter-observer variability were measured with tomodensitometry using semi-automated software in 104 septic shock patients and in 40 control patients. The volumes of control and septic shock patients were compared and the relationship between volume and outcome in intensive care was studied. The mean total volume of both adrenal glands was 7.2 {+-} 2.0 cm{sup 3} in control subjects and 13.3 {+-} 4.7 cm{sup 3} for total adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients (p < 0.0001). Measurement reproducibility was excellent with a concordance correlation coefficient value of 0.87. The increasing adrenal gland volume was associated with a higher rate of survival in intensive care. The present study reports that with semi-automated software, adrenal gland volume can be measured easily and reproducibly. Adrenal gland volume was found to be nearly double in sepsis compared with control patients. The absence of increased volume during sepsis would appear to be associated with a higher rate of mortality and may represent a prognosis factor which may help the clinician to guide their strategy. (orig.)

  1. Adrenal gland volume measurement in septic shock and control patients: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nougaret, Stephanie; Aufort, S.; Gallix, B.; Jung, B.; Chanques, G.; Jaber, S.

    2010-01-01

    To compare adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients and control patients by using semi-automated volumetry. Adrenal gland volume and its inter-observer variability were measured with tomodensitometry using semi-automated software in 104 septic shock patients and in 40 control patients. The volumes of control and septic shock patients were compared and the relationship between volume and outcome in intensive care was studied. The mean total volume of both adrenal glands was 7.2 ± 2.0 cm 3 in control subjects and 13.3 ± 4.7 cm 3 for total adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients (p < 0.0001). Measurement reproducibility was excellent with a concordance correlation coefficient value of 0.87. The increasing adrenal gland volume was associated with a higher rate of survival in intensive care. The present study reports that with semi-automated software, adrenal gland volume can be measured easily and reproducibly. Adrenal gland volume was found to be nearly double in sepsis compared with control patients. The absence of increased volume during sepsis would appear to be associated with a higher rate of mortality and may represent a prognosis factor which may help the clinician to guide their strategy. (orig.)

  2. Observing Convective Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Christopher E.; Wing, Allison A.; Bony, Sandrine; Muller, Caroline; Masunaga, Hirohiko; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Turner, David D.; Zuidema, Paquita

    2017-11-01

    Convective self-aggregation, the spontaneous organization of initially scattered convection into isolated convective clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing, was first recognized and studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich history of observational work on convective clustering and organization, there have been only a few studies that have analyzed observations to look specifically for processes related to self-aggregation in models. Here we review observational work in both of these categories and motivate the need for more of this work. We acknowledge that self-aggregation may appear to be far-removed from observed convective organization in terms of time scales, initial conditions, initiation processes, and mean state extremes, but we argue that these differences vary greatly across the diverse range of model simulations in the literature and that these comparisons are already offering important insights into real tropical phenomena. Some preliminary new findings are presented, including results showing that a self-aggregation simulation with square geometry has too broad distribution of humidity and is too dry in the driest regions when compared with radiosonde records from Nauru, while an elongated channel simulation has realistic representations of atmospheric humidity and its variability. We discuss recent work increasing our understanding of how organized convection and climate change may interact, and how model discrepancies related to this question are prompting interest in observational comparisons. We also propose possible future directions for observational work related to convective aggregation, including novel satellite approaches and a ground-based observational network.

  3. Comparing Volumes of Prisms and Pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Natalya

    2012-01-01

    Students' experience in using formulas for volumes is often limited to substituting numbers into given formulas. An activity presented in this article may help students make connections between the formulas for volumes of prisms and volumes of pyramids. In addition, some interesting facts from number theory arise, demonstrating strong connections…

  4. Observation of Quasichanneling Oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wistisen, T. N.; Mikkelsen, R. E.; Uggerhoj, University I.; Wienands, University; Markiewicz, T. W.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report on the first experimental observations of quasichanneling oscillations, recently seen in simulations and described theoretically. Although above-barrier particles penetrating a single crystal are generally seen as behaving almost as in an amorphous substance, distinct oscillation peaks nevertheless appear for particles in that category. The quasichanneling oscillations were observed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory by aiming 20.35 GeV positrons and electrons at a thin silicon crystal bent to a radius of R = 0.15 m, exploiting the quasimosaic effect. For electrons, two relatively faint quasichanneling peaks were observed, while for positrons, seven quasichanneling peaks were clearly identified.

  5. XMM observations of Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, C.; McNutt, R.; Dennerl, K.

    2017-10-01

    We have used XMM to observe the Pluto system in late March 2017. Following up on the reported detection of 7 photons representing X-ray emission by Chandra (Lisse et al., Icarus 287, 103), XMM searched for emission from the system, expecting approximately 10 times as many photons in 1/3 the observing time. If the results of the XMM measurements are as expected, then detections of other large KBOs with lossy atmospheres should be possible, ushering in the era of XMM KBO X-ray astronomy. In this talk we describe the preliminary results of our March 2017 XMM Pluto observations.

  6. Assessment of tidal volume and thoracoabdominal motion using volume and flow-oriented incentive spirometers in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Parreira

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate incentive spirometers using volume- (Coach and Voldyne and flow-oriented (Triflo II and Respirex devices. Sixteen healthy subjects, 24 ± 4 years, 62 ± 12 kg, were studied. Respiratory variables were obtained by respiratory inductive plethysmography, with subjects in a semi-reclined position (45º. Tidal volume, respiratory frequency, minute ventilation, inspiratory duty cycle, mean inspiratory flow, and thoracoabdominal motion were measured. Statistical analysis was performed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, t-test and ANOVA. Comparison between the Coach and Voldyne devices showed that larger values of tidal volume (1035 ± 268 vs 947 ± 268 ml, P = 0.02 and minute ventilation (9.07 ± 3.61 vs 7.49 ± 2.58 l/min, P = 0.01 were reached with Voldyne, whereas no significant differences in respiratory frequency were observed (7.85 ± 1.24 vs 8.57 ± 1.89 bpm. Comparison between flow-oriented devices showed larger values of inspiratory duty cycle and lower mean inspiratory flow with Triflo II (0.35 ± 0.05 vs 0.32 ± 0.05 ml/s, P = 0.00, and 531 ± 137 vs 606 ± 167 ml/s, P = 0.00, respectively. Abdominal motion was larger (P < 0.05 during the use of volume-oriented devices compared to flow-oriented devices (52 ± 11% for Coach and 50 ± 9% for Voldyne; 43 ± 13% for Triflo II and 44 ± 14% for Respirex. We observed that significantly higher tidal volume associated with low respiratory frequency was reached with Voldyne, and that there was a larger abdominal displacement with volume-oriented devices.

  7. MRI volume measurement of the brain in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Someya, Yasuhiro; Abe, Tetsuo; Asai, Kunihiko; Okubo, Yoshirou; Toru, Michio.

    1996-01-01

    The T1-weighted images of whole-brain three-dimensional MRI (thickness, 3 mm; interval, 3 mm) were obtained from schizophrenic patients and 20 healthy volunteers. Detailed volumetric measurement of each part in the brain was carried out. As the result, the volume of both ventricles and third ventriculus cerebri in the schizophrenic group was significantly larger than that of the control group. No significant difference was observed in terms of the volume of the bilateral frontal lobe, bilateral body of caudate nucleus division and right temporal lobe. The volume of bilateral hippocampus and left temporal lobe of the schizophrenic group was significantly smaller than that of the control group. Negative correlation was observed between symptoms and the right temporal lobe volume (r=-0.41) in the schizophrenic group. In the schizophrenic group, morphological abnormality was admitted in the hippocampus, ventriculus cerebri and left temporal lobe. The morphological abnormality of the right temporal lobe seemed to involve the expression of negative symptoms. (S.Y.)

  8. Simultaneous Marine Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from Naval vessels, primarily American, taken once daily at Greenwich Noon time. Forms are monthly and were captured from records held at the National...

  9. Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Surface Weather Observation Collection consists primarily of hourly, synoptic, daily, and monthly forms submitted to the archive by the National Weather Service...

  10. Observation, innovation and triangulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetmar, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    on experiences from a pilot project in three different classrooms methodological possibilities and problems are presented and discussed: 1) educational criticism, including the concepts of positions, perspectives and connoisseurship, 2) classroom observations and 3) triangulation as a methodological tool....

  11. Observations of central stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Difficulties occurring in the observation of central stars of planetary nebulae are reviewed with emphasis on spectral classifications and population types, and temperature determination. Binary and peculiar central stars are discussed. (U.M.G.)

  12. NWS Corrections to Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Form B-14 is the National Weather Service form entitled 'Notice of Corrections to Weather Records.' The forms are used to make corrections to observations on forms...

  13. Oil Rig Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather observations taken at offshore platforms along the United States coastlines. The majority are located in oil-rich areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of...

  14. Longline Observer Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LODS, the Hawaii Longline Observer Data System, is a complete suite of tools designed to collect, process, and manage quality fisheries data and information. Guided...

  15. Land Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is the international standard code format for hourly surface weather observations. The acronym roughly translates from French as Aviation Routine Weather...

  16. Observer's Report - Okinawa Operation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Todd, W. N., Jr

    1945-01-01

    ... for temporary duty in connection with the Okinawa Operation. By verbal agreement between observers, it was decided that each officer would cover certain activities and thus have a complete coverage without duplication...

  17. The REM Observing Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Stefanon

    2010-01-01

    Together they grant the system safety, automatically schedule and perform observations with two simultaneous cameras of user-defined targets, and drive fast reaction to satellite alerts. Subsequent data reduction is left to pipelines managed by each camera.

  18. Mexico - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mexican Surface Daily Observations taken at 94 observatories located throughout Mexico, beginning in 1872 and going up through 1981. The data resided on paper...

  19. Cooperative Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly logs include a daily account of temperature extremes and precipitation, along with snow data at some locations. U.S. Cooperative Observer Program (COOP)...

  20. Surface Weather Observations Monthly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Weather Observation 1001 Forms is a set of historical manuscript records for the period 1893-1948. The collection includes two very similar form types: Form...