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Sample records for monterey formation kerogen

  1. Biological marker distribution in coexisting kerogen, bitumen and asphaltenes in Monterey Formation diatomite, California

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    Tannenbaum, E.; Ruth, E.; Huizinga, B.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1986-01-01

    Organic-rich (18.2%) Monterey Formation diatomite from California was studied. The organic matter consist of 94% bitumen and 6% kerogen. Biological markers from the bitumen and from pyrolysates of the coexisting asphaltenes and kerogen were analyzed in order to elucidate the relationship between the various fractions of the organic matter. While 17..cap alpha.. (H), 18..cap alpha.. (H), 21..cap alpha.. (H)-28,30-bisnorhopane was present in the bitumen and in the pyrolysate of the asphaltenes, it was not detected in the pyrolysates of the kerogen. A C/sub 40/-isoprenoid with head to head linkage, however, was present in pyrolysates of both kerogen and asphaltenes, but not in the bitumen from the diatomite. The maturation level of the bitumen, based on the extent of isomerization of steranes and hopanes, was that of a mature oil, whereas the pyrolysate from the kerogen showed a considerably lower maturation level. These relationships indicate that the bitumen may not be indigenous to the diatomite and that it is a mature oil that migrated into the rock. They consider the possibility, however, that some of the 28,30-bisnorhopane-rich Monterey Formation oils have not been generated through thermal degradation of kerogen, but have been expelled from the source rock at an early stage of diagenesis.

  2. Biological marker distribution in coexisting kerogen, bitumen and asphaltenes in Monterey Formation diatomite, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, E.; Ruth, E.; Huizinga, B. J.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1986-01-01

    Organic-rich (18.2%) Monterey Formation diatomite from California was studied. The organic matter consist of 94% bitumen and 6% kerogen. Biological markers from the bitumen and from pyrolysates of the coexisting asphaltenes and kerogen were analyzed in order to elucidate the relationship between the various fractions of the organic matter. While 17 alpha(H), 18 alpha(H), 21 alpha(H)-28,30-bisnorhopane was present in the bitumen and in the pryolysate of the asphaltenes, it was not detected in the pyrolysates of the kerogen. A C40-isoprenoid with "head to head" linkage, however, was present in pyrolysates of both kerogen and asphaltenes, but not in the bitumen from the diatomite. The maturation level of the bitumen, based on the extent of isomerization of steranes and hopanes, was that of a mature oil, whereas the pyrolysate from the kerogen showed a considerably lower maturation level. These relationships indicate that the bitumen may not be indigenous to the diatomite and that it is a mature oil that migrated into the rock. We consider the possibility, however, that some of the 28,30-bisnorhopane-rich Monterey Formation oils have not been generated through thermal degradation of kerogen, but have been expelled from the source rock at an early stage of diagenesis.

  3. Biological marker distribution in coexisting kerogen, bitumen and asphaltenes in Monterey Formation diatomite, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, E.; Ruth, E.; Huizinga, B. J.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1986-01-01

    Organic-rich (18.2%) Monterey Formation diatomite from California was studied. The organic matter consist of 94% bitumen and 6% kerogen. Biological markers from the bitumen and from pyrolysates of the coexisting asphaltenes and kerogen were analyzed in order to elucidate the relationship between the various fractions of the organic matter. While 17 alpha(H), 18 alpha(H), 21 alpha(H)-28,30-bisnorhopane was present in the bitumen and in the pryolysate of the asphaltenes, it was not detected in the pyrolysates of the kerogen. A C40-isoprenoid with "head to head" linkage, however, was present in pyrolysates of both kerogen and asphaltenes, but not in the bitumen from the diatomite. The maturation level of the bitumen, based on the extent of isomerization of steranes and hopanes, was that of a mature oil, whereas the pyrolysate from the kerogen showed a considerably lower maturation level. These relationships indicate that the bitumen may not be indigenous to the diatomite and that it is a mature oil that migrated into the rock. We consider the possibility, however, that some of the 28,30-bisnorhopane-rich Monterey Formation oils have not been generated through thermal degradation of kerogen, but have been expelled from the source rock at an early stage of diagenesis.

  4. Kinetic principles of the formation of oil shale kerogen in an aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilov, V.A.; Yakovlev, V.I.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1975-01-01

    The kinetics of oxidizing shale kerogen in aqueous medium with oxygen containing air was investigated. The oxidation is of the first order with respect to kerogen, and the effective activation energy was 15.6 kcal/mole. Kinetics of the accumulation of intermediate products were studied, and a scheme of their formation is proposed. A gas-liquid chromatographic method was used to determine the effect of the temperature and the duration of the experiment on the yield and composition of dicarboxylic acids, which constitute the most valuable part of the oxidation products. Under selected oxidation conditions, the yield of crude dicarboxylic acids is 25-30%, based on the oxidized kerogen.

  5. Electron microscopy and pyrolysis of kerogens from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, UK: Source organisms, preservation processes, and origin of microcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussafir, M.; Gelin, F.; Lallier-Vergès, E.; Derenne, S.; Bertrand, P.; Largeau, C.

    1995-09-01

    Recent studies revealed short-term cyclic variations (microcycles) in total organic carbon (TOC) and the hydrogen index (HI) in the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, an organic-rich deposit considered to be a lateral equivalent of the main source rocks of the North Sea. In addition, three different types of organic matter that all appear to be amorphous when observed by light microscopy (AOM) were recognized. Together, these AOM types account for over 80% of total kerogen and their relative abundances show large variations along each microcycle. In the present work, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations were carried out on samples (whole kerogens, kerogen subfractions only comprising a single type of AOM, selected rock fragments) corresponding to typical points within a microcycle and obtained via high resolution sampling. The nature and the relative abundances of the products generated by Curie-point Py-GC-MS and off-line pyrolyses of isolated kerogens were also determined for two selected samples corresponding to the beginning and the top of the microcycle. Combination of such ultrastructural observations, including some semiquantitative studies, and the analysis of pyrolysis products allowed (1) determination of the ultrastructural features of the three AOM types thus providing what we believe to be the first example of correlations between light microscopy (palynofacies, in situ maceral analysis) and TEM observations on "amorphous" fossil materials; (2) identification of the source organisms and elucidation of the mode of formation of the different AOM types in the Kimmeridge Clay; (3) explanation of the variations in their relative abundances taking place along a microcycle and establishment of tight correlations with TOC and HI changes; and (4) explanation of the origin of the microcyclic variations in kerogen quantity (TOC) and quality (III) occurring in the Kimmeridge Clay Formation. Interrelationships between primary productivity, sulphate reduction

  6. Paleoceanographic and tectonic controls on deposition of the Monterey formation and related siliceous rocks in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The timing of paleoceanographic and tectonic events that shaped the deposition of the Monterey Formation of California and related siliceous rocks has been determined by application of a refined biochronology. The base of the Monterey at 17.5 Ma coincides with rising global sea level and a switch in biogenous silica deposition from the Caribbean and low-latitude North Atlantic to the North Pacific. Major polar cooling, which began at 15 Ma, postdates the base of the Monterey by more than 2 Ma and cannot be invoked to cause the deposition of diatomaceous sediments occurring in the lowermost Monterey. Later polar cooling in the early late Miocene, however, apparently caused increased upwelling and deposition of purer diatomites in the upper Monterey. The top of the Monterey at about 6 Ma coincides with a major sea level drop and is commonly marked by an unconformity. Equivalent unconformities are widespread around the rim of the North Pacific and typically separate more pelagic sediments from overlying sediments with a greater terrigenous component. Above the Monterey, diatoms persist in California sediments to 4.5-4.0 m.y., where their decline coincides with increased deposition of diatoms in the Antarctic. Carbon isotope records in the Pacific and Indian Oceans record storage of 12C in the Monterey Formation and equivalent organic-rich sediments around the rim of the North Pacific. A +1.0??? excursion in ?? 13C beginning at 17.5 Ma coincides with rising sea level and probably reflects storage of organic material in Monterey-like marginal reservoirs. A reverse -1.0??? shift at 6.2 Ma closely approximates the top of the Monterey and may represent erosion of these marginal reservoirs and reintroduction of stored organic carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. Initiation of transform faulting and extension in the California margin in the latest Oligocene and early Miocene caused the subsidence of basins which later received Monterey sediments. A major tectonic event

  7. Chemical evidence of kerogen formation in source rocks and oil shales via selective preservation of thin resistant outer walls of microalgae: Origin of ultralaminae

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    Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Casadevall, E.; Berkaloff, C.; Rousseau, B.

    1991-04-01

    New structures, termed ultralaminae, were recently observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy, usually in high amounts, in a number of kerogens from oil shales and source rocks. Morphological similarities were noted between ultralaminae and the thin (ca. 15 nm) resistant outer walls, composed of non-hydrolyzable macromolecules (algaenans), commonly occurring in extant Chlorophyceae, especially in the cosmopolitan genus Scenedesmus. Identification of the pyrolysis products of S. quadricauda algaenan showed (i) a highly aliphatic structure based on a macromolecular network of long (up to C 32) polymethylenic chains probably cross-linked by ether bridges, and (ii) a close correlation based on the formation of n- alkylnitriles, between this algaenan and two ultralaminar kerogens, the Rundle Oil Shale (mainly composed of ultralamina accumulations) and the Green River Shale (ultralaminae dispersed within an amorphous matrix). These fossil ultralaminae, therefore, likely originated from the selective preservation of the thin, algaenan-containing, outer walls of Scenedesmus and/or of other Chlorophyceae containing outer walls of a similar morphology and composition. Relative distributions of n- alkylnitriles and of n- alkanoic acids, in the pyrolysates of S. quadricauda algaenan and of the Rundle Oil Shale, indicated that nitriles are not derived from secondary reactions of carboxylic acids but originate from preexisting nitrogen functions, likely amides. Previous evidence of kerogen formation via selective preservation of algaenans was restricted to rather uncommon kerogens; the present results, added to ultralamina common occurrence and abundance, point to a wide involvement and to a large contribution of the selective preservation of algaenan-containing thin outer walls of Chlorophyceae in the formation of kerogens in a number of lacustrine source rocks and oil shales. All the available information suggest that the three-way correlation (selective preservation of

  8. Characterization of kerogens from Ishikari-group coal-bearing formations by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; Ishikari sogun kyutanso kerojien no netsubunkai GC/MS ni yoru kyarakutarizeshon

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    Tsuzuki, N.; Takano, O. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-30

    In order to construct a model on expulsion of hydrocarbons from kerogen, it is necessary to have knowledge on composition of generated hydrocarbons. Characterization of the hydrocarbons from kerogens of Eocene Ishikari-group coal-bearing formations was carried out by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GCMS). Kerogen type classification by microscopic method was also carried out. Aliphatic hydrocarbons contents by Py-GCMS correlates to herbaceous kerogen contents by the microscopic method. Both of phenols content and aromatics content correlate to woody kerogen content. Therefore, coals and coaly shales deposited in transgression periods, which were recognized by depositional phase analysis, are richer in aliphatic-hydrocarbons content than those in regression period. This may be a reflection of environmental changes in paleoclimate and paleobotany. (author)

  9. Biological marker distribution and significance in oils and rocks of the Monterey Formation, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiale, Joseph A.; Cameron, Douglas; Davis, Dean V.

    1985-01-01

    The biological marker distributions of several oils, core extracts and solid bitumens of the Monterey Formation of California have been studied. Sterane, terpane and monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons were analyzed in samples from the San Joaquin, Los Angeles, Ventura and Santa Maria Basins. The sterane patterns of both oils and extracts are characterized by (a) low relative concentrations of diasteranes, (b) low 20S/20R-5α,14α,17α-ethylcholestane ratios, (c) relatively high concentrations of cholestane ( vs. methyl- and ethylcholestane) isomers. San Joaquin Basin samples contain significant amounts of the 5β isomer, which is generally absent in samples from other basins. The carbon number distribution of 5α,14α,17α,20R steranes is similar for all oils, regardless of API gravity, depth or basin location, and is suggestive of open marine depositional conditions for the source material involved. 17α(H),l8α(H),21β(H)-28,30-Bisnorhopane is present in almost all samples. Certain San Joaquin Basin oils and extracts contain (a) a series of 25-nor hopanes, including 25,28,30-trisnorhopane, (b) a distinctive monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbon distribution, (c) an aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction devoid of n-paraffins. Biological marker characteristics suggest that the Monterey oils examined originated early in the maturational sequence, from elastics-poor source material. API gravities of the Monterey Formation oils examined vary monotonically with (a) bisnorhopane/hopane ratios, (b) aromatized/regular sterane ratios and (c) the concentration of monoaromatized steranes relative to terpanes and regular steranes. These oil gravity correlations exist regardless of sample depth or basin location.

  10. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Monterey Formation, Los Angeles Basin Province, California, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Le, Phuong A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed technically recoverable mean resources of 13 million barrels of oil, 22 billion cubic feet of gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Monterey Formation of the Los Angeles Basin Province, California.

  11. Organic richness, kerogen types and maturity in the shales of the Dakhla and Duwi formations in Abu Tartur area, Western Desert, Egypt: Implication of Rock–Eval pyrolysis

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    Mohamed M. El Nady

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the organic material for petroleum potential and characterize the relationships between organic material, thermal maturity, and the depositional environments. This is done using “14” samples from the shales of the Dakhla and Duwi formations in Abu Tartur area. The samples have been analyzed using the geochemical method of Rock–Eval pyrolysis. The analysis shows that the total organic carbon content lies between 0.56 and 1.96 wt%. It also shows that kerogen is a mixture of type II and III that is dominant, and is deposited in the shallow and restricted marine environment under prevailing reducing conditions. This type of kerogen is prone to oil and oil/gas production. The geochemical diagrams show that all the studied samples have good thermal maturation. The Dakhla and Duwi formations which have been divided into all zones are mature (have Tmax over 435 °C, and have organic carbon content located at the oil window (Tmax between 435 and 443 °C.

  12. Isotopic evidence for complex microbial ecosystems in the phosphate-rich interval of the Miocene Monterey Formation

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    Theiling, B. P.; Coleman, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The middle Miocene Monterey Formation has long been debated as a crucial global sink for organic carbon that led to global cooling. We evaluate proxies for the microbial ecosystem to investigate organic carbon burial within the phosphate-rich interval of the Monterey Formation at Naples Beach, California by combining mineralogical evidence with δ34S analyses of carbonate associated sulfate (CAS). All δ34S are below Miocene seawater values (~22‰, VCDT) and range from +12.2‰ to +18.5‰. δ34SCAS Sulfate reducing bacteria then consume the excess, residual sulfate, generating free H2S in the absence of available iron. H2S diffuses upward towards the sediment-water interface (an oxic-suboxic mixing zone) where H2S is oxidized to 34S-depleted sulfate either aerobically or coupled to nitrate reduction, and lowers seawater pH. The high phosphate content and low carbonate content of this interval of the Monterey Formation supports a model of precipitation in lower pH waters. Assuming a -40‰ fractionation of δ34S due to microbial sulfate reduction, we estimate at least a 10%-20% contribution of sulfate from sulfide oxidation to marine porewater sulfate. These results suggest that the phosphate-rich interval of the Monterey Formation housed a complex suite of iron and sulfate reducing bacteria as well as sulfide oxidizing bacteria, suggesting that significant organic carbon was consumed during early diagenesis and may account for low organic carbon content described in previous studies.

  13. Geochemistry of phosphatic-shales and associated authigenic minerals of the Miocene Monterey Formation: Implications for paragenetic evolution

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    Sandoval, A.; Loyd, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Monterey Formation is a petroleum source and reservoir rock in California that was deposited in several basins during the tectonically-active Middle Miocene. The middle carbonaceous marl member of the Monterey Formation contains intervals of phosphatic-shales that are rhythmically cemented by dolomite as layers and concretions. Diagenetic minerals can form as the result of organic matter remineralization facilitated by microbes utilizing oxygen, nitrate, iron (III), sulfate and fermentation products as electron acceptors. Precipitation of phosphate and carbonate minerals tends to occur in suboxic-anoxic sediments, generally experiencing sulfate reduction, where degradation of organic matter yields alkalinity, sulfide and phosphate ions. Here, we present sulfur and carbon geochemical data in order to better characterize the conditions that led to the precipitation of phosphorous-rich minerals (e.g., carbonate-fluorapatite (CFA)) and dolomite that occur in close stratigraphic proximity. These data include concentration of CFA-associated sulfate, carbonate associated sulfate (CAS) and the respective δ°S values. The concentration of inorganic/organic carbon and associated δC values have been determined for CFA, dolomite and the host-shale, in order to further characterize the diagenetic environment of precipitation. These data indicate that authigenesis occurred in pore waters influenced by multiple microbial reactions, including respiration and methanogenesis reactions, and ultimately highlight the complexity of the Monterey diagenetic environment.

  14. Monterey Pop

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Der ästhetisch ambitionierte und kommerziell erfolgreiche Dylanfilm DONT LOOK BACK, den Pennebaker 1967 produziert hatte, machte die Produzenten des First International Monterey Pop Festivals auf den Dokumentaristen aus der Direct-Cinema-Gruppe um Robert Drew aufmerksam. Allerdings hatte er noch nie einen wirklichen Konzertfilm gemacht – in DONT LOOK BACK lag der thematische Schwerpunkt auf Dylan und nicht auf seiner Musik –, geschweige denn ein ganzes Festival verfilmt. In MONTEREY POP lässt...

  15. Structural characterization of the fracture systems in the porcelanites: Comparing data from the Monterey Formation in California USA and the Sap Bon Formation in Central Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanapayont, Pitsanupong; Aydin, Atilla; Wongseekaew, Kanitsorn; Maneelok, Wichanee

    2016-09-01

    The fractures in the porcelanites from the Monterey Formation in California USA and the Sap Bon Formation in Central Thailand were documented for a comparative study of their modes, distribution, and their relationship to other structures such as folds and bedding planes. Both formations consist in thinly bedded stiff units that are prone to folding, flexural slip, and cross-bedding brittle fracturing under compression. There are two assemblages in the porcelanites. The first assemblage includes commonly vertical high-angle opening mode fractures, left-lateral strike-slip faults, normal faults, and thrust faults. The second one is sub-horizontal fractures which are associated with folds, bedding slip, and thrusts faults in both Monterey and Sap Bon formations. The structural architectures of these rocks and the associated groups of structures are remarkably similar in terms of both opening and shearing modes and their relationships with the bedding due to their depositional architecture and the compressional tectonic regimes, in spite of the fact that the two locations are more than ten thousand kilometers apart and have very different ages of deformation.

  16. Compound Specific Hydrogen Isotope Composition of Type II and III Kerogen Extracted by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-IRMS

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    Socki, Richard A.; Pernia, Denet; Evans, Michael; Fu, Qi; Bissada, Kadry K.; Curiale, Joseph A.; Niles, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    The use of Hydrogen (H) isotopes in understanding oil and gas resource plays is in its infancy. Described here is a technique for H isotope analysis of organic compounds pyrolyzed from oil and gas shale-derived kerogen. Application of this technique will progress our understanding. This work complements that of Pernia et al. (2013, this meeting) by providing a novel method for the H isotope analysis of specific compounds in the characterization of kerogen extracted by analytically diverse techniques. Hydrogen isotope analyses were carried out entirely "on-line" utilizing a CDS 5000 Pyroprobe connected to a Thermo Trace GC Ultra interfaced with a Thermo MAT 253 IRMS. Also, a split of GC-separated products was sent to a DSQ II quadrupole MS to make semi-quantitative compositional measurements of the extracted compounds. Kerogen samples from five different basins (type II and III) were dehydrated (heated to 80 C overnight in vacuum) and analyzed for their H isotope compositions by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS. This technique takes pyrolysis products separated via GC and reacts them in a high temperature conversion furnace (1450 C) which quantitatively forms H2, following a modified method of Burgoyne and Hayes, (1998, Anal. Chem., 70, 5136-5141). Samples ranging from approximately 0.5 to 1.0mg in size, were pyrolyzed at 800 C for 30s. Compounds were separated on a Poraplot Q GC column. Hydrogen isotope data from all kerogen samples typically show enrichment in D from low to high molecular weight compounds. Water (H2O) average deltaD = -215.2 (V-SMOW), ranging from -271.8 for the Marcellus Shale to -51.9 for the Polish Shale. Higher molecular weight compounds like toluene (C7H8) have an average deltaD of -89.7 0/00, ranging from -156.0 for the Barnett Shale to -50.0 for the Monterey Shale. We interpret these data as representative of potential H isotope exchange between hydrocarbons and sediment pore water during formation within each basin. Since hydrocarbon H isotopes

  17. Diagenetic Microcrystalline Opal Varieties from the Monterey Formation, CA: HRTEM Study of Structures and Phase Transformation Mechanisms

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    Cady, Sherry L.; Wenk, H.-R.; DeVincenzi, Don (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Microcrystalline opal varieties form as intermediary precipitates during the diagenetic transformation of biogenically precipitated non-crystalline opal (opal-A) to microquartz. With regard to the Monterey Formation of California, X-ray powder diffraction studies have shown that a decrease in the primary d-spacing of opal-CT toward that of cristobalite occurs with increasing diagenesis. The initial timing of opal-CT/quartz formation and the value of the primary opal-CT d-spacing, are influenced by the sediment. lithology. Transmission electron microscopy methods (CTEM/HRTEM) were used to investigate the structure of the diagenetic phases and establish transformation mechanisms between the varieties of microcrystalline opals in charts and porcelanites from the Monterey Formation. HRTEM images revealed that the most common fibrous varieties of microcrystalline opals contain varying amounts of structural disorder. Finite lamellar units of cristobalite-and tridymite-type. layer sequences were found to be randomly stacked in a direction perpendicular to the fiber axis. Disordered and ordered fibers were found to have coprecipitated within the same radial fiber bundles that formed within the matrix of the Most siliceous samples. HRTEM images, which reveal that the fibers within radial and lepispheric fiber bundles branch non-crystallographically, support an earlier proposal that microspheres in chert grow via a spherulitic growth mechanism. A less common variety of opal-CT was found to be characterized by non-parallel (low-angle) stacking sequences that often contain twinned lamellae. Tabular-shaped crystals of orthorhombic tridymite (PO-2) were also identified in the porcelanite samples. A shift in the primary d-spacing of opal-CT has been interpreted as an indication of solid-state ordering g toward a predominantly cristobalite structure, (opal-C). Domains of opal-C were identified as topotactically-oriented overgrowths on discrete Sections of opal-CT fibers and as

  18. Hydrogen (H) Isotope Composition of Type II Kerogen Extracted by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-IRMS: Terrestrial Shale Deposits as Martian Analogs

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    Socki, Richard A.; Pernia, Denet; Evans, Michael; Fu, Qi; Bissada, Kadry K.; Curiale, Joseph A.; Niles, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Described here is a technique for H isotope analysis of organic compounds pyrolyzed from kerogens isolated from gas- and liquids-rich shales. Application of this technique will progress the understanding of the use of H isotopes not only in potential kerogen occurrences on Mars, but also in terrestrial oil and gas resource plays. H isotope extraction and analyses were carried out utilizing a CDS 5000 Pyroprobe connected to a Thermo Trace GC interfaced with a Thermo MAT 253 IRMS. Also, a split of GC-separated products was sent to a DSQ II quadrupole MS to make qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of these products. Kerogen samples from five different basins (type II and II-S) were dehydrated (heated to 80 C overnight under vacuum) and analyzed for their H isotope compositions by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS. This technique takes pyrolysis products separated via GC and reacts them in a high temperature conversion furnace (1450 C), which quantitatively forms H2. Samples ranging from 0.5 to 1.0mg in size, were pyrolyzed at 800 C for 30s. and separated on a Poraplot Q GC column. H isotope data from all kerogen samples typically show enrichment in D from low to high molecular weight. H2O average delta D = -215.2 per mille (V-SMOW), ranging from - 271.8 per mille for the Marcellus Shale to -51.9 per mille for a Polish shale. Higher molecular weight compounds like toluene (C7H8) have an average delta D of -89.7 per mille, ranging from -156.0 per mille for the Barnett Shale to -50.0 per mille for the Monterey Shale. We interpret these data as representative of potential H isotope exchange between hydrocarbons and sediment pore water during basin formation. Since hydrocarbon H isotopes readily exchange with water, these data may provide some useful information on gas-water or oil-water interaction in resource plays, and further as a possible indicator of paleoenvironmental conditions. Alternatively, our data may be an indication of H isotope exchange with

  19. Role of minerals in formation of hydrocarbons during pyrolysis of organic matter - a material balance approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannenbaum, E.; Huizinga, B.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1985-02-01

    Monterey Formation and Green River Formation kerogens (types II and I, respectively) were isolated, mixed with common sedimentary minerals, and pyrolyzed under dry and hydrous conditions for various times and temperatures. Analysis of all the pyrolyses products were conducted to perform a material balance and to infer reaction kinetics and mechanisms. Material balance of the pyrolyses products, in the presence and absence of minerals, reveals that the kerogen degradation results in the formation of bitumen rich in high molecular weight compounds in the initial stages, followed by additional cracking of kerogen and bitumen. However, amount and type of hydrocarbons in the pyrolyses products of kerogen in the presence of montmorillonite are markedly different from those produced by heating kerogen alone or with other minerals. The initial amounts of products in the presence of montmorillonite, and in particular the quantities of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, are higher than those in the presence of illite, calcite, and kerogen alone. The composition of these low molecular weight compounds is dominated by branched hydrocarbons, indicating catalytic cracking via carbonium ion mechanism, which is initiated on acidic sites of the clay. Composition differences are evident also in the distribution of n-alkanes and in the pristane/phytane ratio. The catalytic effect of montmorillonite, however, disappears in the presence of excess water. These differences may have important implications for the composition and quantities of petroleum generated from source rocks with different mineralogies.

  20. Constraining pathways of microbial mediation for carbonate concretions of the Miocene Monterey Formation using carbonate-associated sulfate

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    Loyd, Sean J.; Berelson, William M.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Hammond, Douglas E.; Corsetti, Frank A.

    2012-02-01

    Carbonate concretions can form as a result of organic matter degradation within sediments. However, the ability to determine specific processes and timing relationships to particular concretions has remained elusive. Previously employed proxies (e.g., carbon and oxygen isotopes) cannot uniquely distinguish among diagenetic alkalinity sources generated by microbial oxidation of organic matter using oxygen, nitrate, metal oxides, and sulfate as electron acceptors, in addition to degradation by thermal decarboxylation. Here, we employ concentrations of carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) and δ 34S CAS (along with more traditional approaches) to determine the specific nature of concretion authigenesis within the Miocene Monterey Formation. Integrated geochemical analyses reveal that at least three specific organo-diagenetic reaction pathways can be tied to concretion formation and that these reactions are largely sample-site specific. One calcitic concretion from the Phosphatic Shale Member at Naples Beach yields δ 34S CAS values near Miocene seawater sulfate (˜+22‰ VCDT), abundant CAS (ca. 1000 ppm), depleted δ 13C carb (˜-11‰ VPDB), and very low concentrations of Fe (ca. 700 ppm) and Mn (ca. 15 ppm)—characteristics most consistent with shallow formation in association with organic matter degradation by nitrate, iron-oxides and/or minor sulfate reduction. Cemented concretionary layers of the Phosphatic Shale Member at Shell Beach display elevated δ 34S CAS (up to ˜+37‰), CAS concentrations of ˜600 ppm, mildly depleted δ 13C carb (˜-6‰), moderate amounts of Mn (ca. 250 ppm), and relatively low Fe (ca. 1700 ppm), indicative of formation in sediments dominated by sulfate reduction. Finally, concretions within a siliceous host at Montaña de Oro and Naples Beach show minimal CAS concentrations, positive δ 13C values, and the highest concentrations of Fe (ca. 11,300 ppm) and Mn (ca. 440 ppm), consistent with formation in sediments experiencing

  1. Realistic molecular model of kerogen's nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousige, Colin; Ghimbeu, Camélia Matei; Vix-Guterl, Cathie; Pomerantz, Andrew E.; Suleimenova, Assiya; Vaughan, Gavin; Garbarino, Gaston; Feygenson, Mikhail; Wildgruber, Christoph; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Pellenq, Roland J.-M.; Coasne, Benoit

    2016-05-01

    Despite kerogen's importance as the organic backbone for hydrocarbon production from source rocks such as gas shale, the interplay between kerogen's chemistry, morphology and mechanics remains unexplored. As the environmental impact of shale gas rises, identifying functional relations between its geochemical, transport, elastic and fracture properties from realistic molecular models of kerogens becomes all the more important. Here, by using a hybrid experimental-simulation method, we propose a panel of realistic molecular models of mature and immature kerogens that provide a detailed picture of kerogen's nanostructure without considering the presence of clays and other minerals in shales. We probe the models' strengths and limitations, and show that they predict essential features amenable to experimental validation, including pore distribution, vibrational density of states and stiffness. We also show that kerogen's maturation, which manifests itself as an increase in the sp2/sp3 hybridization ratio, entails a crossover from plastic-to-brittle rupture mechanisms.

  2. Realistic molecular model of kerogen's nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousige, Colin; Ghimbeu, Camélia Matei; Vix-Guterl, Cathie; Pomerantz, Andrew E; Suleimenova, Assiya; Vaughan, Gavin; Garbarino, Gaston; Feygenson, Mikhail; Wildgruber, Christoph; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Pellenq, Roland J-M; Coasne, Benoit

    2016-05-01

    Despite kerogen's importance as the organic backbone for hydrocarbon production from source rocks such as gas shale, the interplay between kerogen's chemistry, morphology and mechanics remains unexplored. As the environmental impact of shale gas rises, identifying functional relations between its geochemical, transport, elastic and fracture properties from realistic molecular models of kerogens becomes all the more important. Here, by using a hybrid experimental-simulation method, we propose a panel of realistic molecular models of mature and immature kerogens that provide a detailed picture of kerogen's nanostructure without considering the presence of clays and other minerals in shales. We probe the models' strengths and limitations, and show that they predict essential features amenable to experimental validation, including pore distribution, vibrational density of states and stiffness. We also show that kerogen's maturation, which manifests itself as an increase in the sp(2)/sp(3) hybridization ratio, entails a crossover from plastic-to-brittle rupture mechanisms.

  3. Paleoceanographic influences on compositional trends in the Monterey Formation, western Santa Barbara coastal area, California: Contrasts between banktop and distal slope settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.R. (Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States). Program in Geosciences)

    1992-01-01

    The modern ocean-atmosphere system, consisting of cold polar regions, strong latitudinal temperature gradient, and strong thermocline, evolved as a consequence of Miocene paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic transitions, which were contemporaneous with deposition of the organic-rich Monterey Formation. Deep sea records show mid-Miocene enrichment shifts in C-13 (ca17.5 to ca13.5 Ma), lagged by C-18 (beginning around 15 Ma), suggesting that reverse greenhouse cooling led to intensified cryosphere development. Graphic correlation of Sr isotope and biostratigraphic data indicates that the South Ellwood section contains a more continuous record of organic accumulation. At Naples, highest organic contents are associated with the hardground-bearing carbonaceous marl member, which is condensed between strata bearing Luisian and Early Mohnian benthic foraminifera. Duration of the condensed interval is unresolved by biostratigraphy and Sr isotope estimates over a wide time range (7.5 to 15.7 Ma), but ages younger than 13 Ma are generally inferred for timing of maximum organic carbon accumulation. In contrast, richest organic facies at South Ellwood occur within a 300 to 400 foot interval containing Relizian and Luisian fauna, spanning the 18 to 13 Ma interval. Stable isotope data from the South Ellwood section document a trend of C-13 enrichment on the order of 1% which closely follows, but slightly lags, deposition of richest organic strata. Distinct enrichment in [delta]O-18 begins near the peak of maximum carbon enrichment, and continues into the upper siliceous facies. Thus, the Monterey Hypothesis is supported by the more basinal South Ellwood record, while rejected in the Naples Beach banktop record.

  4. Structural studies on Miocene kerogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almendros, G.; Gonzalez-Vila, F.J.; Martin, F.; Alvarez-Ramis, C.

    1988-04-01

    The different characteristics of organic matter in Miocene sediment from Portazgo (Madrid, Spain) were studied by several physicochemical techniques. Then g.c.-m.s. was applied to bitumen and to oxidation degradation products of the insoluble organic residue. Both the palaeobotanic study and the composition of the bitumen fraction suggest an important contribution of vascular plants in the sediment; a predominance of odd-numbered alkanes, of straight-chain aliphatic compounds, and of high molecular weight homologues of the series were observed. The degradation methods employed yielded large proportions of aliphatic chains, but aromatic compounds amounted to approx. 25 wt% of the degradation products, suggesting a significant contribution of lignin. In addition to the degradation with potassium persulphate followed by alkaline permanganate oxidation, by depolymerization perborate was also applied. The latter degradation method yielded aromatic acids and polymethylene compounds, and residual kerogen was transformed into an alkali-soluble polymer, which can be studied by the usual techniques for humic acids. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Monterey MRWPCA Interceptor Pipeline 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Monterey Interceptor between Seaside Pump Station and Monterey Beach Resort is buried in the dunes, approximately 100 to 175 feet from the dune bluff. Between...

  6. Monterey MRWPCA Interceptor Pipeline 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Monterey Interceptor between Seaside Pump Station and Monterey Beach Resort is buried in the dunes, approximately 100 to 175 feet from the dune bluff. Between...

  7. Fourier transform infrared and electron spin resonance examinations of kerogen from the Gunflint stromatolitic cherts (Middle Precambrian, Ontario, Canada and related materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA R. TONSA

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Kerogen occurrences in stromatolitic cherts from the Middle Precambrian Gunflint Formation and related rocks have been investigated by the use of elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared and electron spin reconance spectroscopies. Particular attention was paid to the structural properties of the Schreiber kerogen to allow comparison with biologically controlled kerogens from Paleozoic carbonaceous rocks. The low atomic H/C ratios (0.5 of the Schreiber kerogen indicates that this material has reached a high level of maturity. The Fourier transform infrared/electron spin resonance examinations revealed that the Schreiber kerogen contains predominantly aromatic/polyaromatic structures similar to those found in mature kerogens from Paleozoic carbonaceous rocks. The evidence from this organogeochemical comparison indicates that the Schrei-ber kerogen and mature kerogens from Paleozoic/Mesozoic carbonaceous rocks have sufficient similarity to suggest a similar origin. Consequently, this work gives strong support to the hypothesis that if the Schreiber kerogen is of biotic origin than it is derived from the remnants of various microbial organisms (mainly phytoplanktons including a minor contribution of subtidal (stromatolite-building cyanobacteria.

  8. D/H isotope ratios of kerogen, bitumen, oil, and water in hydrous pyrolysis of source rocks containing kerogen types-I,-II,IIS, and -III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Lewan, Michael D.; Wintsch, Robert P.

    1999-11-01

    Immature source rock chips containing different types of kerogen (I, II, IIS, III) were artificially matured in isotopically distinct waters by hydrous pyrolysis and by pyrolysis in supercritical water. Converging isotopic trends of inorganic (water) and organic (kerogen, bitumen, oil) hydrogen with increasing time and temperature document that water-derived hydrogen is added to or exchanged with organic hydrogen, or both, during chemical reactions that take place during thermal maturation. Isotopic mass-balance calculations show that, depending on temperature (310-381°C), time (12-144 h), and source rock type, between ca. 45 and 79% of carbon-bound hydrogen in kerogen is derived from water. Estimates for bitumen and oil range slightly lower, with oil-hydrogen being least affected by water-derived hydrogen. Comparative hydrous pyrolyses of immature source rocks at 330°C for 72 h show that hydrogen in kerogen, bitumen, and expelled oil/wax ranks from most to least isotopically influenced by water-derived hydrogen in the order IIS > II ≈ III > I. Pyrolysis of source rock containing type II kerogen in supercritical water at 381°C for 12 h yields isotopic results that are similar to those from hydrous pyrolysis at 350°C for 72 h, or 330°C for 144 h. Bulk hydrogen in kerogen contains several percent of isotopically labile hydrogen that exchanges fast and reversibly with hydrogen in water vapor at 115°C. The isotopic equilibration of labile hydrogen in kerogen with isotopic standard water vapors significantly reduces the analytical uncertainty of D/H ratios when compared with simple D/H determination of bulk hydrogen in kerogen. If extrapolation of our results from hydrous pyrolysis is permitted to natural thermal maturation at lower temperatures, we suggest that organic D/H ratios of fossil fuels in contact with formation waters are typically altered during chemical reactions, but that D/H ratios of generated hydrocarbons are subsequently little or not affected

  9. D/H isotope ratios of kerogen, bitumen, oil, and water in hydrous pyrolysis of source rocks containing kerogen types I, II, IIS, and III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, A.; Lewan, M.D.; Wintsch, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    Immature source rock chips containing different types of kerogen (I, II, IIS, III) were artificially matured in isotopically distinct waters by hydrous pyrolysis and by pyrolysis in supercritical water. Converging isotopic trends of inorganic (water) and organic (kerogen, bitumen, oil) hydrogen with increasing time and temperature document that water-derived hydrogen is added to or exchanged with organic hydrogen, or both, during chemical reactions that take place during thermal maturation. Isotopic mass-balance calculations show that, depending on temperature (310-381??C), time (12-144 h), and source rock type, between ca. 45 and 79% of carbon-bound hydrogen in kerogen is derived from water. Estimates for bitumen and oil range slightly lower, with oil-hydrogen being least affected by water-derived hydrogen. Comparative hydrous pyrolyses of immature source rocks at 330??C for 72 h show that hydrogen in kerogen, bitumen, and expelled oil/wax ranks from most to least isotopically influenced by water-derived hydrogen in the order IIS > II ~ III > I. Pyrolysis of source rock containing type II kerogen in supercritical water at 381 ??C for 12 h yields isotopic results that are similar to those from hydrous pyrolysis at 350??C for 72 h, or 330??C for 144 h. Bulk hydrogen in kerogen contains several percent of isotopically labile hydrogen that exchanges fast and reversibly with hydrogen in water vapor at 115??C. The isotopic equilibration of labile hydrogen in kerogen with isotopic standard water vapors significantly reduces the analytical uncertainty of D/H ratios when compared with simple D/H determination of bulk hydrogen in kerogen. If extrapolation of our results from hydrous pyrolysis is permitted to natural thermal maturation at lower temperatures, we suggest that organic D/H ratios of fossil fuels in contact with formation waters are typically altered during chemical reactions, but that D/H ratios of generated hydrocarbons are subsequently little or not affected

  10. Structural and isotopic analysis of kerogens in sediments rich in free sulfurised Botryococcus braunii biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Grice, K.; Schouten, S.; Blokker, P.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Nissenbaum, A.

    2003-01-01

    Type I kerogens of two relatively immature, unusual hypersaline sediments [with extracts rich in sulfurised Botryococcus braunii (B. braunii) biomarkers] of Miocene/Pliocene age from the Sdom Formation (Dead Sea, Israel), have been investigated using a variety of organic geochemical techniques. Py G

  11. Habitat--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  12. Contours--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  13. Habitat--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  14. Contours--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  15. Composition of Kerogen in Kupferschiefer from Southwest Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yuzhuang (孙玉壮); Wilhelm P(U)TTMANN

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-seven Kupferschiefer samples from southwestern Poland were analyzed by microscopy, Rock-Eval approach and instrumental neutron activation analysis to understand the geochemical and morphological characteristics of kerogen present in the samples. The analytical results indicate that there are two different types of kerogens. One type was only subjected to thermal alteration processes, and the other was further oxidized after deposition of the sediment. In the oxidized samples migrabitumen was transformed into pyrobitumen. Rock-Eval analyses show a significant decrease in HI values in the oxidized samples and an increase in OI values in relation to the samples that were not influenced by oxidation. Variations in S2 versus Corg contents indicate a change in kerogen from Type II to Type III with progressing oxidation. The presence of pyrobitumen and the depletion of hydrogen in the altered kerogen allow one to conclude that the kerogen was used as hydrogen donor for thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR).

  16. The composition of acids in bitumen and in products from saponification of kerogen: Investigation of their role as connecting kerogen and mineral matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razvigorova, M.; Budinova, T.; Tsyntsarski, B.; Petrova, B. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Organic Chemistry, 1113 Sofia, Acad. Bonchev Str., bl. 9 (Bulgaria); Ekinci, E. [ISIK University, Kumbaba Mevkii, 34980 Istanbul (Turkey); Atakul, H. [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-11-03

    In order to obtain more information and to understand the nature of relation between organic and mineral matter in oil shales, the compositions of soluble bitumen fractions obtained by extraction from Bulgarian oil shales before and after demineralization with 10% HCl, concentrated HF, and a HF/HCl mixture were investigated. The four extracts were quantitatively examined by IR and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The investigation of isolated acidic material of the bitumen fractions showed that the fatty acids are present in bitumen fractions as free acids, esters and salts. The amount of free acids in bitumen is very small. The dominant part of bitumen acids is associated with mineral components of the oil shales as well as part of them is included in the mineral matrix, and can be separated only after deep demineralization. The kerogen of the oil shales, obtained after separation of the bitumen fractions and mineral components, was subjected to saponification in order to determine the amount of acids, bound as esters to the kerogen matrix. The major components found were n-carboxylic, {alpha},{omega}-di-carboxylic, and aromatic acids. The connection of kerogen with mineral components is accomplished by the participation of carboxylic and complicated ester bonds. Experimental data for the composition of bitumen acids give evidence that algae and terrestrial materials are initial sources in the formation of soluble organic matter of Bulgarian oil shale. (author)

  17. Closed pyrolyses of the isoprenoid algaenan of Botryococcus braunii, L race: geochemical implications for derived kerogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, F.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.

    1995-07-01

    Algaenans, i.e., highly aliphatic, nonhydrolysable, insoluble macromolecular constituents, have been identified in a number of microalga cell walls and their selective preservation shown to play a major role in the formation of numerous kerogens. All the algaenans so far examined comprise a network of long polymethylenic chains, except for the L race of Botryococcus braunii. The resistant macromolecular material isolated from the latter, termed PRB L, is based on C 40 isoprenoid chains with a lycopane-type skeleton. Recent comparative studies of PRB L and of Botryococcus-derived sediments provided the first example of kerogen formation via the selective preservation of an "isoprenoid" algaenan. The present study is concerned with PRB L pyrolyses in sealed gold tubes under various temperature/time conditions (260-350°C, 0.5-69 h). For the conversion rates thus obtained, ranging from 30 to 100%, a complete mass balance of the different families of pyrolysis products was established; most of the C 1 to C 40 pyrolysate constituents were identified and the abundances of the above compounds and their variations with conversion progress were determined. This study thus allowed us (1) to derive further information about PRB L chemical structure (location of the ether bridges, contribution of linear chains and their relationships with the C 40 isoprenoid ones), (2) to determine the behaviour of this isoprenoid algaenan to thermal stress (timing of the formation of the different groups of products then released, nature of the primary cleavages, origin and mode of formation of the secondary products, and further degradations), and (3) to show, in connection with previous studies, that PRB L-derived kerogens should exhibit pronounced differences relative to standard type I kerogens, the latter being based on polymethylenic chains, regarding not only the structure of the generated products but also the timing of oil generation (upward shift of the catagenesis zone).

  18. Characterization and Thermal/Catalytic Upgrading of Kerogen in a Green River Oil Shale

    OpenAIRE

    Yeboah, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive structural characterization of oil shale (kerogen) and subsequent upgrading to fuels are of paramount scientific and industrial importance, calling for a better understanding. In this work, an oil shale from Green River formation was employed and characterized by multiple techniques such as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, TOC, XRD, FTIR and TGA-MS. It is found that the inorganic matter were mainly calcite, dolomite and Fe-doped quartz, while the organic matter consists of soluble bitumen a...

  19. Kinetic simulating experiment on the secondary hydrocarbon generation of kerogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG; Yongqiang

    2002-01-01

    [1]Magoon, L. B., Dow, W. G., The petroleum system, in The Petroleum System--from Source to Trap (eds., Magoon, L. B., Dow, W. G..), AAPG Memoir 60, 1994, 3-24.[2]Ungerer, P., Pelet, R., Extrapolation of oil and gas formation kinetics from laboratory experiments to sedimentary basins, Nature, 1987, 327: 52-54.[3]Behar, F., Kressmann, S., Vandenbroucke, M. et al., Experimental simulation in a confined system and kinetic modelling of kerogen and oil cracking, Org. Geochem., 1991, 19: 173-189.[4]Behar, F., Vandenbroucke, M., Tang, Y. et al., Thermal cracking of kerogen in open and closed systems: determination of kinetic parameters and stoichiometric coefficients for oil and gas generation, Org. Geochem, 1997, 26(5/6): 321-339.[5]Waples, D. W., Time and temperture in petroleum exploration: application of Lopatin's method to petroleum exploration, AAPG Bulletin, 1980, 64: 916-926.[6]Dai, H. M., Wang, S. Y., Wang, H. Q. et al., Formation characteristics of natural gas reservoirs and favorable exploration areas in Sinian-Cambrian, Petroleum Exploration and Development (in Chinese), 1999, 26(5): 16-20.[7]Editorial Committee of Petroleum Geology of China Petroleum, Petroleum Geology of China, Beijing: Petroleum Industry Press, 1989.[8]Liu, J. Z., Tang, Y. C., One example of predicting methane generation yield by hydrocarbon generating kinetics, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1998, 43(11): 1187-1191.[9]Wang, J., Huang, S. Y., Huang, G. S. et al., Basic Characteristics of the Earth's Temperature Distribution in China (in Chinese), Beijing: Seismological Press, 1990.[10]Wang, Y. G., Yu X. F., Yang Y. et al., Applications of fluid inclusions in the study of paleogeotemperature in Sichuan Basin, Earth Science--Journal of China University of Geosciences (in Chinese), 1998, 23(3): 285-288.[11]Wu, D. M., Wu, N. L., Gao, J. J., The study of paleogeotemperature in Shichuan Basin and their geological significance, Acta Petroleum Sinica (in

  20. 78 FR 45964 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Monterey Museum of Art, Monterey, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Monterey Museum of Art, Monterey, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Monterey Museum of Art, in... cultural items listed in this notice meet the definition of objects of cultural patrimony....

  1. Role of NSO compounds during primary cracking of a Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, F.; Lorant, F.; Lewan, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to follow the generation of NSO compounds during the artificial maturation of an immature Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite in order to determine the different sources of the petroleum potential during primary cracking. Experiments were carried out in closed system pyrolysis in the temperature range from 225 to 350 ??C. Two types of NSOs were recovered: one is soluble in n-pentane and the second in dichloromethane. A kinetic scheme was optimised including both kerogen and NSO cracking. It was validated by complementary experiments carried out on isolated asphaltenes generated from the Type II kerogen and on the total n-pentane and DCM extracts generated from the Type III lignite. Results show that kerogen and lignite first decompose into DCM NSOs with minor generation of hydrocarbons. Then, the main source of petroleum potential originates from secondary cracking of both DCM and n-pentane NSOs through successive decomposition reactions. These results confirm the model proposed by Tissot [Tissot, B., 1969. Premie??res donne??es sur les me??canismes et la cine??tique de la formation du pe??trole dans les bassins se??dimentaires. Simulation d'un sche??ma re??actionnel sur ordinateur. Oil and Gas Science and Technology 24, 470-501] in which the main source of hydrocarbons is not the insoluble organic matter, but the NSO fraction. As secondary cracking of the NSOs largely overlaps that of the kerogen, it was demonstrated that bulk kinetics in open system is a result of both kerogen and NSO cracking. Thus, another kinetic scheme for primary cracking in open system was built as a combination of kerogen and NSO cracking. This new kinetic scheme accounts for both the rate and amounts of hydrocarbons generated in a closed pyrolysis system. Thus, the concept of successive steps for hydrocarbon generation is valid for the two types of pyrolysis system and, for the first time, a common kinetic scheme is available for extrapolating results to natural

  2. Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Annual report, February 12, 1996--February 11, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toronyi, R.M.

    1997-12-01

    The Buena Vista Hills field is located about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield, in Kern County, California, about two miles north of the city of Taft, and five miles south of the Elk Hills field. The Antelope Shale zone was discovered at the Buena Vista Hills field in 1952, and has since been under primary production. Little research was done to improve the completion techniques during the development phase in the 1950s, so most of the wells are completed with about 1000 ft of slotted liner. The proposed pilot consists of four existing producers on 20 acre spacing with a new 10 acre infill well drilled as the pilot CO{sub 2} injector. Most of the reservoir characterization of the first phase of the project will be performed using data collected in the pilot pattern wells. This is the first annual report of the project. It covers the period February 12, 1996 to February 11, 1997. During this period the Chevron Murvale 653Z-26B well was drilled in Section 26-T31S/R23E in the Buena Vista Hills field, Kern County, California. The Monterey Formation equivalent Brown and Antelope Shales were continuously cored, the zone was logged with several different kinds of wireline logs, and the well was cased to a total depth of 4907 ft. Core recovery was 99.5%. Core analyses that have been performed include Dean Stark porosity, permeability and fluid saturations, field wettability, anelastic strain recovery, spectral core gamma, profile permeametry, and photographic imaging. Wireline log analysis includes mineral-based error minimization (ELAN), NMR T2 processing, and dipole shear wave anisotropy. A shear wave vertical seismic profile was acquired after casing was set and processing is nearly complete.

  3. Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Annual report, February 12, 1996--February 11, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toronyi, R.M.

    1997-12-01

    The Buena Vista Hills field is located about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield, in Kern County, California, about two miles north of the city of Taft, and five miles south of the Elk Hills field. The Antelope Shale zone was discovered at the Buena Vista Hills field in 1952, and has since been under primary production. Little research was done to improve the completion techniques during the development phase in the 1950s, so most of the wells are completed with about 1000 ft of slotted liner. The proposed pilot consists of four existing producers on 20 acre spacing with a new 10 acre infill well drilled as the pilot CO{sub 2} injector. Most of the reservoir characterization of the first phase of the project will be performed using data collected in the pilot pattern wells. This is the first annual report of the project. It covers the period February 12, 1996 to February 11, 1997. During this period the Chevron Murvale 653Z-26B well was drilled in Section 26-T31S/R23E in the Buena Vista Hills field, Kern County, California. The Monterey Formation equivalent Brown and Antelope Shales were continuously cored, the zone was logged with several different kinds of wireline logs, and the well was cased to a total depth of 4907 ft. Core recovery was 99.5%. Core analyses that have been performed include Dean Stark porosity, permeability and fluid saturations, field wettability, anelastic strain recovery, spectral core gamma, profile permeametry, and photographic imaging. Wireline log analysis includes mineral-based error minimization (ELAN), NMR T2 processing, and dipole shear wave anisotropy. A shear wave vertical seismic profile was acquired after casing was set and processing is nearly complete.

  4. Structural analysis of some marine kerogens through a combined chemical and thermal degradation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höld, I.M.

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 95% of the sedimentary organic matter in the geosphere exists in the form of kerogen, a macromolecular substance that is insoluble in water and normal organic solvents. There have been numerous attempts to elucidate the chemical structure of kerogens since kerogen is the main precursor

  5. Selective preservation and origin of petroleum-forming aquatic kerogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Spiker, E. C.; Szeverenyi, N.M.; Maciel, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of a marine algal sapropel from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda, by 13C NMR and stable carbon isotopic methods show that precursors of aquatic kerogen (insoluble, macromolecular, paraffinic humic substances) are primary components of algae and possibly associated bacteria and that these substances survive microbial decomposition and are selectively preserved during early diagenesis. ?? 1983 Nature Publishing Group.

  6. ROV observation of fluid expulsion in Monterey Bay, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orange, D.L.; Barry, J.; Maher, N. [Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute., Pacific Grove, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    ROV dives in Monterey Bay have been used to examine the relationship of fluid flow to tectonic and stratigraphic conduits along an active transpressional continental margin. We used side-scan sonar to identify dive targets for the ROV, since anomalous reflectivity can be caused by the presence of biological {open_quote}cold seep{close_quotes} communities or authigenic carbonate. On a compressional ridge west of the San Gregorio Fault, cold seep clams are found along with extensive fields of authigenic carbonate in an elliptical region of anomalous reflectivity {approximately}400m in diameter. The reflectivity and fluid expulsion suggest that this feature is an active mud volcano. Analyses of push cores from the ridge site indicate high concentrations of both methane and sulfide and the presence of higher-order hydrocarbons. Many carbon isotopic ratios of the carbonate crusts indicate a methane carbon source; some values represent a mixture of methane carbon and normal marine carbon. Fluids charging the seeps west of the San Gregorio Fault may originate in tectonically-compacted sediments affected by residual Pacific-North America plate convergence, and may have an additional component of hydrocarbon charging from the underlying Monterey Formation. At the intersection of the Monterey Fault Zone and the Monterey Canyon a number of cold seeps occur in headless side canyons characterized by intense fracturing. This supports the hypothesis that submarine canyons act as hydrologic sinks for any overpressured fluid flowing toward the surface. On the San Gregorio Fault itself we have found in echelon ridges of carbonate. The fluids seeping out along fault zones may originate deep in the section and utilize the deformation-induced fracture permeability of the fault zone. Alternatively, aquifer-forcing from the uplifted Santa Cruz Mountains may provide a source of fluids venting along these fault zones (aquicludes?) and at seeps east of the fault zones.

  7. ROV observation of fluid expulsion in Monterey Bay, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orange, D.L.; Barry, J.; Maher, N. (Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute., Pacific Grove, CA (United States)) (and others)

    1996-01-01

    ROV dives in Monterey Bay have been used to examine the relationship of fluid flow to tectonic and stratigraphic conduits along an active transpressional continental margin. We used side-scan sonar to identify dive targets for the ROV, since anomalous reflectivity can be caused by the presence of biological [open quote]cold seep[close quotes] communities or authigenic carbonate. On a compressional ridge west of the San Gregorio Fault, cold seep clams are found along with extensive fields of authigenic carbonate in an elliptical region of anomalous reflectivity [approximately]400m in diameter. The reflectivity and fluid expulsion suggest that this feature is an active mud volcano. Analyses of push cores from the ridge site indicate high concentrations of both methane and sulfide and the presence of higher-order hydrocarbons. Many carbon isotopic ratios of the carbonate crusts indicate a methane carbon source; some values represent a mixture of methane carbon and normal marine carbon. Fluids charging the seeps west of the San Gregorio Fault may originate in tectonically-compacted sediments affected by residual Pacific-North America plate convergence, and may have an additional component of hydrocarbon charging from the underlying Monterey Formation. At the intersection of the Monterey Fault Zone and the Monterey Canyon a number of cold seeps occur in headless side canyons characterized by intense fracturing. This supports the hypothesis that submarine canyons act as hydrologic sinks for any overpressured fluid flowing toward the surface. On the San Gregorio Fault itself we have found in echelon ridges of carbonate. The fluids seeping out along fault zones may originate deep in the section and utilize the deformation-induced fracture permeability of the fault zone. Alternatively, aquifer-forcing from the uplifted Santa Cruz Mountains may provide a source of fluids venting along these fault zones (aquicludes ) and at seeps east of the fault zones.

  8. Contours--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  9. Backscatter [5m]--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  10. Paleoshorelines--Offshore Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the paleoshorelines for the geologic and geomorphic map of Offshore Monterey, California. The vector data file is included in...

  11. Habitat--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  12. Habitat--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  13. Backscatter [5m]--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  14. Contours--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  15. Kinetic simulating experiment on the secondary hydrocarbon generation of kerogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of generation have been obtained for different hydrocarbon classes, including methane, C2-C5 gas hydrocarbons, C6-C13 light hydrocarbons and C13+ heavy hydrocarbons, and vitrinite reflectance (Ro) by the kinetic simulating experiment of kerogen cracking. Then, combined with the detailed geology of Sichuan Basin, the effective gas-generating intensity of the Lower Cambrian source rock is approximately estimated by applying these parameters.

  16. Paleovegetation changes recorded by n-alkyl lipids bound in macromolecules of plant fossils and kerogens from the Cretaceous sediments in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Y.; Sawada, K.; Nakamura, H.; Takashima, R.; Takahashi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Resistant macromolecules composing living plant tissues tend to be preserved through degradation and diagenesis, hence constituate major parts of sedimentary plant-derived organic matter (kerogen), and their monomer compositions vary widely among different plant taxa, organs and growth stages. Thus, analysis of such macromolecule may serve as new technique for paleobotanical evaluation distinctive from classical paleobotnical studies depends on morphological preservation of fossils. In the present study, we analyzed plant fossils and kerogens in sediments from the Cretaceous strata in Japan to examine chemotaxonomic characteristics of fossil macromolecules and to reconstruct paleovegetation change by kerogen analysis. The kerogens were separated from the powdered sediments of Cretaceous Yezo Group, Hokkaido, Japan. All kerogens have been confirmed to be mostly originated from land plant tissues by microscopic observation. Mummified angiosperm and gymnosperm fossil leaves were separated from carbonaceous sandstone of the Cretaceous Ashizawa Formation, Futaba Group. The kerogens and plant fossils were extracted with methanol and dichloromethane, and were subsequently refluxed under 110°C to remove free compounds completely. The residues are hydrolyzed by KOH/methanol under 110°C. These released compounds are analyzed by GC-MS. As main hydrolyzed products (ester-bound molecular units) from all kerogens, C10-C28 n-alkanoic acids and C10-C30 n-alkanols were detected. Recent studies on the hydrolysis products of plant tissues suggested the long chain (>C20) n-alkanols were predominantly abundant in deciduous broadleaved angiosperms. Correspondingly, the stratigraphic variation of the ratios of long chain (>C20) n-alkanols to fatty acids was concordant with the variation of angiosperm/gymnosperm ratios recorded by land plant-derived terpenoid biomarkers. In addition, we found that the long chain n-alkanols/fatty acids ratio in the angiosperm fossil leaf was

  17. Characterization of Clay Minerals and Kerogen in Alberta Oil Sands Geological End Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Limin

    The high degree of variability of oil sands ores can be attributed to a mixture of different geological end members, i.e., estuarine sand, estuarine clay, marine sand and marine clay. This study focused on the mineralogy, especially of clay minerals, and toluene insoluble organic matter, referred to as kerogen, in different oil sands end members. Clays and kerogens will likely have a significant impact on solvent recovery from the gangue following non-aqueous bitumen extraction. The bitumen-free solids were subjected to mineralogical and geochemical analysis. Kerogens were isolated and analyzed by various characterization methods. The types of clays were identified in oriented samples by X-ray diffraction analysis. The nitrogen to carbon ratio in the isolated kerogens is found to be higher than in bitumen. There are more type III kerogens in estuarine samples and more type II kerogens in marine samples.

  18. An in situ FTIR step-scan photoacoustic investigation of kerogen and minerals in oil shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstadt, Kristin N; Katti, Dinesh R; Katti, Kalpana S

    2012-04-01

    Step-scan photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy experiments were performed on Green River oil shale samples obtained from the Piceance Basin located in Colorado, USA. We have investigated the molecular nature of light and dark colored areas of the oil shale core using FTIR photoacoustic step-scan spectroscopy. This technique provided us with the means to analyze the oil shale in its original in situ form with the kerogen-mineral interactions intact. All vibrational bands characteristic of kerogen were found in the dark and light colored oil shale samples confirming that kerogen is present throughout the depth of the core. Depth profiling experiments indicated that there are changes between layers in the oil shale molecular structure at a length scale of micron. Comparisons of spectra from the light and dark colored oil shale core samples suggest that the light colored regions have high kerogen content, with spectra similar to that from isolated kerogen, whereas, the dark colored areas contain more mineral components which include clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, and pyrite. The mineral components of the oil shale are important in understanding how the kerogen is "trapped" in the oil shale. Comparing in situ kerogen spectra with spectra from isolated kerogen indicate significant band shifts suggesting important nonbonded molecular interactions between the kerogen and minerals.

  19. Effect of biological markers and kerogens in geochemical exploration for oil and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Song Nian; Li Wei Min; Gu Hui Min; Gao Pin Wen

    1985-02-01

    The aliphatic hydrocarbons of 29 Tertiary argillaceous rock samples from eastern China have been examined by computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The steroid and triterpenoid components provide new information for the characterization of depositional environments, organic matter, and maturation of the source rocks. These samples contain gamaceranes, 8,14-open-hopanes, diterpenoid hydrocarbons, and diasteranes. The abundant gamaceranes correspond to the preference of even carbon atoms. The highest gamacerane occurs in the strongly reducing environment. The abundant diterpenoid hydrocarbons relate with the type III kerogen. These diterpenoid hydrocarbons are derived from higher plant forms. The threshold of oil formation can be correlated with the ratio of 20S (22S) and 20R (22R).

  20. Geology of the Monterey Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, H. Gary

    1977-01-01

    Geophysical data and sea floor samples collected from the continental shelf and slope between Ano Nuevo Point and Point Sur, California indicate that the Monterey Bay region has had a complex late Cenozoic tectonic history. Uplift and depression have produced a succession of regressive and transgressive sedimentary units, while contemporaneous right-slip along faults of the San Andreas system have offset major structural and lithologic elements. This deformation produced three regional and several local unconformities within upper Tertiary rocks and initiated development of a canyon system that today includes the Monterey, Ascension, Carmel, and other large submarine canyons. The Tertiary stratigraphy of the offshore Monterey Bay area is divided into two provinces by a major structural boundary, the north-trending Palo Colorado-San Gregorio fault zone. East of this zone in the offshore are four seismically distinct sequences that can be correlated with major sequences onshore. These sequences comprise (1) pre-Tertiary basement, and (2) middle Miocene, (3) upper Miocene to Pliocene, and (4) upper Pliocene to Holocene sedimentary intervals. Each of the latter three sequences is bounded by unconformities, as is its counterpart on land. Only Neogene sedimentary rocks are present offshore; Paleogene units, if originally present, have been removed completely by pre-middle Miocene erosion. An extensive erosional surface was cut during Zemorrian time into the late Mesozoic granitic basement rocks. Incised into this surface are the ancestral Monterey Canyon and an unnamed canyon. Marine sedimentary rocks of upper Miocene and Pliocene age overlie this unconformably and fill the unnamed canyon. Similar rocks also may have once filled Monterey Canyon. Near shore these strata are covered by terrestrial alluvial and eolian deposits, deltaic deposits, marine canyon fill, landslide and slump deposits, and unconsolidated sediments that range in age from upper Pliocene to Holocene

  1. Proceedings of the Monterey Containment Symposium, Monterey, California, August 26-28, 1981. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, B.C. [comp.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Jones, E.M. [comp.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Keller, C.E. [comp.] [Field Command (DNA), Kirtland Air Force Base, NM (United States); Smith, C.W. [comp.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1983-02-01

    Since the Atmospheric Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1963, the United States has conducted all nuclear weapons tests underground. To meet US treaty responsibilities and to ensure public safety, the containment community must prevent any release of radioactive gases to the atmosphere. In the past two decades we have gained considerable insight into the scientific and engineering requirements for complete containment, but the papers and discussions at the Monterey Symposium indicate that a great deal remains to be done. Among papers included here, those dealing with mature topics will serve as reviews and introductions for new workers in the field. Others, representing first looks at new areas, contain more speculative material. Active research topics include propagation of stress waves in rocks, formation and decay of residual hoop stresses around a cavity, hydrofracture out of a cavity, formation of chimneys, and geologic and geophysical investigations of the Nevada Test Site. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Sorption of phenanthrene and benzene on differently structural kerogen: important role of micropore-filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong

    2014-02-01

    Shale was thermally treated to obtain a series of kerogen with varied maturation. Their chemical, structural and porous properties were related to the sorption and/or desorption behaviors of phenanthrene and benzene. As the treatment temperature increases, aliphatic and carbonyl carbon of the kerogen samples decrease, while their aromaticity and maturation increase. Meanwhile, the isothermal nonlinearity of phenanthrene and benzene increases whereas the sorption capacity and micropore adsorption volumes (Vo,d) initially increase and then decrease. The Vo,d of benzene is significantly correlated with, but higher than that of phenanthrene, suggesting similar micropore filling mechanism and molecular sieve effect. The benzene desorption exhibits hysteresis, which is related to the pore deformation of the kerogen and the entrapment of solute in the kerogen matrix. The Vo,d of phenanthrene and benzene on the kerogen samples accounts for 23-46% and 36-65% of the maximum sorption volumes, respectively, displaying the importance of the micropore filling.

  3. Programmed pyrolysis-gas chromatography of artificially matured Green River kerogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizinga, B.J.; Aizenshtat, Z.A.; Peters, K.E.

    Compositional changes in Green River kerogen during laboratory-simulated maturation by hydrous pyrolysis were studied by using programmed pyrolysis-gas chromatography (PP-GC) and Rock-Eval II pyrolysis. Hydrous pyrolysis of Green River marl up to 330/sup 0/C results in the thermal degradation of kerogen to form bitumen that is enriched in asphaltenes and resins. During this main stage of bitumen generation, the hydrogen index of the kerogen decreases slightly, n-alkane precursors are concentrated in the kerogen, and acyclic isoprenoids (especially prist-1-ene) are preferentially lost. At hydrous-pyrolysis temperatures above 330/sup 0/C, the hydrogen index and concentration of n-alkane precursors within the kerogen decrease. Several PP-GC parameters from the kerogens, such as the prist-1-ene(n-heptadecane + n-heptadec-1-ene) ratio, the phytane(n-octadecane + n-octadec-1-ene) ratio, and the odd-even predominance (OEP) of n-alkanes or n-alk-1-enes, show systematic changes with increasing maturity. However, the T/sub max/ of the Green River kerogen does not change significantly during thermal maturation.

  4. Monterey Bay Aquarium Volunteer Guide Scheduling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    wetlands/aviary 1 24 splash zone—rocky shore, coral reef kingdom 8 play your part 25 sandy seafloor 9 wetlands/aviary 2 26 octopus/deep reef 10...The mission of the Monterey Bay Aquarium is to inspire conservation of the oceans. It does this through education outreach, exhibits, research and... conservation , and by rehabilitating injured ocean wildlife. The Aquarium has a large and diverse staff that includes aquarists, scientific divers

  5. Development of a closed water supply system for the production of shale kerogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopachenok, L.V.; Ivanova, Ye.N.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Results of development of closed water supply system for production of shale kerogen are presented. The studies were carried out under laboratory conditions. The possibility of excluding industrial runoff into open water collectors and limiting the collection of fresh water to the production of kerogen-70 by using clarified runoff for ash hydraulic removal system of shale central heating plants during grinding and flotation of shale is indicated. A system for producing kerogen-70 which is rational for this situation was developed. A technical and economic analysis of the measures related to preliminary treatment of thermal electric power plant runoff prior to their use in the production of kerogen was conducted on the basis of experimentally derived results.

  6. Long-chain carboxylic acids in pyrolysates of Green River kerogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, K.; Tannenbaum, E.; Huizinga, B. J.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1986-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acids (C10-C32), as well as C14-C21 isoprenoid acids (except for C18), have been identified in anhydrous and hydrous pyrolyses products of Green River kerogen (200-400 degrees C, 2-1000 hr). These kerogen-released fatty acids are characterized by a strong even/odd predominance (CPI: 4.8-10.2) with a maximum at C16 followed by lesser amounts of C18 and C22 acids. This distribution is different from that of unbound and bound geolipids extracted from Green River shale. The unbound fatty acids show a weak even/odd predominance (CPI: 1.64) with a maximum at C14, and bound fatty acids display an even/odd predominance (CPI: 2.8) with maxima at C18 and C30. These results suggest that fatty acids were incorporated into kerogen during sedimentation and early diagenesis and were protected from microbial and chemical changes over geological periods of time. Total quantities of fatty acids produced during heating of the kerogen ranged from 0.71 to 3.2 mg/g kerogen. Highest concentrations were obtained when kerogen was heated with water for 100 hr at 300 degrees C. Generally, their amounts did not decrease under hydrous conditions with increase in temperature or heating time, suggesting that significant decarboxylation did not occur under the pyrolysis conditions used, although hydrocarbons were extensively generated.

  7. Long-chain carboxylic acids in pyrolysates of Green River kerogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, K.; Tannenbaum, E.; Huizinga, B. J.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1986-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acids (C10-C32), as well as C14-C21 isoprenoid acids (except for C18), have been identified in anhydrous and hydrous pyrolyses products of Green River kerogen (200-400 degrees C, 2-1000 hr). These kerogen-released fatty acids are characterized by a strong even/odd predominance (CPI: 4.8-10.2) with a maximum at C16 followed by lesser amounts of C18 and C22 acids. This distribution is different from that of unbound and bound geolipids extracted from Green River shale. The unbound fatty acids show a weak even/odd predominance (CPI: 1.64) with a maximum at C14, and bound fatty acids display an even/odd predominance (CPI: 2.8) with maxima at C18 and C30. These results suggest that fatty acids were incorporated into kerogen during sedimentation and early diagenesis and were protected from microbial and chemical changes over geological periods of time. Total quantities of fatty acids produced during heating of the kerogen ranged from 0.71 to 3.2 mg/g kerogen. Highest concentrations were obtained when kerogen was heated with water for 100 hr at 300 degrees C. Generally, their amounts did not decrease under hydrous conditions with increase in temperature or heating time, suggesting that significant decarboxylation did not occur under the pyrolysis conditions used, although hydrocarbons were extensively generated.

  8. Preservation of peptide moieties in three Spanish sulfur-rich Tertiary kerogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, J.C. del [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Seville (Spain). Inst. de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia; Olivella, M.A.; Heras, F.X.D. de las [Escola Universitaria Politecnica de Manresa, Catalonia (Spain); Knicker, H. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bodenkunde

    2004-09-01

    Thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and solid-state {sup 15}N NMR were utilized for the characterization of refractory organic nitrogen in Tertiary Spanish kerogens. The samples included sulfur-rich oil shales from the Ribesalbes (Serravallian), Libros (Tortonian) and Cerdanya (Tortonian) basins. Analysis using solid state {sup 15}N NMR showed that part of the refractory nitrogen in the kerogens corresponds to amide groups. Moreover, the release of amino acid derivatives after pyrolysis in the presence of TMAH indicated that this amide-N arose from peptide moieties. The amino acids released from the kerogens were dominated by high amounts of glycine and alanine. Minor amounts of aspartic acid, serine, {alpha}-aminobutyric acid and other unidentified amino acids were also detected. Because proteinaceous structures, including small peptides, are generally considered as being highly sensitive to diagenetic degradation, encapsulation of labile peptide material into aliphatic structures in S-rich kerogens (probably via lipid sulfurization) has been proposed to explain the survival of these moieties. Substantial amounts of fatty acids (as methyl esters) were also released from all the kerogens after pyrolysis/TMAH, indicating their highly aliphatic character. The production of both fatty acids and amino acids from the kerogens supports the encapsulation process. (author)

  9. Kinetic studies on the pyrolysis of asphaltenes from differenttypes of kerogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The pyrolysis kinetics of a series of asphaltenes, from different types of kerogens, are studied in this work. The results indicate that the distributions of activation energy are over a wide range for the asphaltenes from type I kerogens. There is still a large potential of hydrocarbon generation in case the activation energy is above 350 kJ·mol-1. While the distributions of activation energy are comparatively over a narrow range for the asphaltenes from type II and II kerogens,there is a little or almost no potential of hydrocarbon generation with the activation energy above 350 kJ·mol-1 respectively. For the asphaltenes from some specific type of kerogens, the pyrolysis kinetics can be applied to marking their maturity. Furthermore, based on detailed discussions of the kinetics parameter frequency factor, the asphaltenes from type I kerogens are considered to be of great potential to regenerate oils, while the asphaltenes' potential for oil-to-gas conversion tends to go down in order of primitive kerogen types of Ⅲ II and I.

  10. Organism relics or kerogens in oils as oil-source rock correlation indicator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚素平; 张景荣; 金奎励

    1997-01-01

    Organism relies or kerogens in oils are first observed by a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The complexes of kerogens in oils are characterized by the presence of a great variety of microfossils or macerals. These kerogens in oils are mainly the residues of the original organic substances from which oil formed, and minor kerogens from enclosing rocks enter the oils, therefore, the components and types of the kerogens in crude oils can serve as an indirect indicator of oil-source rock correlation. This method was applied to Jurassic oils in the Junggar Basin and the Turpan-Hami Basin, and there are two types of the kerogens in oils: one containing a lot of macerals from terrestrial plants may derive from coals, and the other, characterized by a high content of microscopic algae, fungus spores and Acritarch, may originate from Permian organic matter. In addition, the reflectance of the vitrodetrinites in oils can be used as an indicator of oil-source

  11. Groundwater quality in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley groundwater basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Monterey-Salinas study unit is nearly 1,000 square miles and consists of the Santa Cruz Purisima Formation Highlands, Felton Area, Scotts Valley, Soquel Valley, West Santa Cruz Terrace, Salinas Valley, Pajaro Valley, and Carmel Valley groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Kulongski and Belitz, 2011). These basins were grouped into four study areas based primarily on geography. Groundwater basins in the north were grouped into the Santa Cruz study area, and those to the south were grouped into the Monterey Bay, the Salinas Valley, and the Paso Robles study areas (Kulongoski and others, 2007). The study unit has warm, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 31 inches in Santa Cruz in the north to 13 inches in Paso Robles in the south. The study areas are drained by several rivers and their principal tributaries: the Salinas, Pajaro, and Carmel Rivers, and San Lorenzo Creek. The Salinas Valley is a large intermontane valley that extends southeastward from Monterey Bay to Paso Robles. It has been filled, up to a thickness of 2,000 feet, with Tertiary and Quaternary marine and terrestrial sediments that overlie granitic basement. The Miocene-age Monterey Formation and Pliocene- to Pleistocene-age Paso Robles Formation, and Pleistocene to Holocene-age alluvium contain freshwater used for supply. The primary aquifers in the study unit are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells are typically drilled to depths of 200 to 650 feet, consist of solid casing from the land surface to depths of about 175 to 500 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing. Water quality in the primary aquifers may differ from that in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer system. Groundwater movement is generally from the southern part of the Salinas Valley north towards the Monterey Bay

  12. 33 CFR 80.1134 - Monterey Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monterey Harbor, CA. 80.1134 Section 80.1134 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1134 Monterey Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  13. Oxygen groups in coals and alginite-rich kerogen revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Henrik I.; Rosenberg, Per; Nytoft, Hans P. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oester Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2008-04-03

    Detailed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), chemical oxidation and reduction, and multivariate regression analysis have been applied to gain insight into the relative proportions and types of oxygen functional groups in coals of varying rank and in alginite-rich organic matter in oil shales and marine shale. FTIR spectra of demineralised and non-demineralised coals with a vitrinite reflectance below {proportional_to} 0.4%R{sub o} revealed that the spectra are significantly different in the carbonyl region, probably due to the configuration of weak conjugated oxygen bonds into a more rigid form during demineralisation. In coals and lignin, the relative FTIR response from oxygen groups occurs in the order hydroxyl {>=} ether > ketone/ester > carboxyl > quinone, where ester groups are related to cutinite and sporinite. A pronounced decrease in oxygen content occurs from {proportional_to} 0.43-0.50%R{sub o}, but the oxygen groups show different evolutionary trends during initial thermal maturation: (i) carboxyl group absorption increases significantly up to lignite/subbituminous C rank, followed by a rapid decrease and disappearance at {proportional_to} 0.45%R{sub o}, (ii) ketone (carbonyl) group absorption is prominent at maturities < 0.45%R{sub o}, but at higher maturities the response declines gradually, (iii) ether group absorption increases to a maximum at {proportional_to} 0.45-0.50%R{sub o}, from where it decreases gradually, (iv) at atomic O/C ratios > 0.2 (approximately < 0.45%R{sub o}) hydroxyl group (principally phenolic) absorption is highly variable, but at increasing thermal maturity significant dehydroxylation occurs. Elimination of oxygen groups in the coaly organic matter thus occurs in the order quinone, carboxyl, ketone/ester, hydroxyl and ether. Both ether and hydroxyl are still present at an O/C ratio of 0.05. Oxygen in the alginite-dominated kerogen of the shales is entirely bound as ether, carbonyl (mainly ester) and hydroxyl. The

  14. Long-chain carboxylic acids in pyrolysates of Green River kerogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, K.; Tannenbaum, E.; Huizinga, B.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1986-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acids (C/sub 10/-C/sub 32/), as well as C/sub 14/-C/sub 21/ isoprenoid acids (except for C/sub 18/), have been identified in anhydrous and hydrous pyrolyses products of Green River kerogen (200-400/sup 0/C, 2-1000 hr). These kerogen-released fatty acids are characterized by a strong even/odd predominance (CPI: 4.8-10.2) with a maximum at C/sub 16/ followed by lesser amounts of C/sub 18/ and C/sub 22/ acids. This distribution is different from that of unbound and bound geolipids extracted from Green River shale. The unbound fatty acids show a weak even/odd predominance (CPI: 1.64) with a maximum at C/sub 14/, and bound fatty acids display an even/odd predominance (CPI: 2.8) with maxima at C/sub 18/ and C/sub 30/. These results suggest that fatty acids were incorporated into kerogen during sedimentation and early diagenesis and were protected from microbial and chemical changes over geological periods of time. Total quantities of fatty acids produced during heating of the kerogen ranged from 0.71 to 3.2 mg/g kerogen. Highest concentrations were obtained when kerogen was heated with water for 100 hr at 300/sup 0/C. Generally, their amounts did not decrease under hydrous conditions with increase in temperature or heating time, suggesting that significant decarboxylation did not occur under the pyrolysis conditions used, although hydrocarbons were extensively generated.

  15. Families of miocene monterey crude oil, seep, and tarball samples, coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.E.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were used to infer the age, lithology, organic matter input, and depositional environment of the source rocks for 388 samples of produced crude oil, seep oil, and tarballs to better assess their origins and distributions in coastal California. These samples were used to construct a chemometric (multivariate statistical) decision tree to classify 288 additional samples. The results identify three tribes of 13C-rich oil samples inferred to originate from thermally mature equivalents of the clayey-siliceous, carbonaceous marl and lower calcareous-siliceous members of the Monterey Formation at Naples Beach near Santa Barbara. An attempt to correlate these families to rock extracts from these members in the nearby COST (continental offshore stratigraphic test) (OCS-Cal 78-164) well failed, at least in part because the rocks are thermally immature. Geochemical similarities among the oil tribes and their widespread distribution support the prograding margin model or the banktop-slope-basin model instead of the ridge-and-basin model for the deposition of the Monterey Formation. Tribe 1 contains four oil families having geochemical traits of clay-rich marine shale source rock deposited under suboxic conditions with substantial higher plant input. Tribe 2 contains four oil families with traits intermediate between tribes 1 and 3, except for abundant 28,30-bisnorhopane, indicating suboxic to anoxic marine marl source rock with hemipelagic input. Tribe 3 contains five oil families with traits of distal marine carbonate source rock deposited under anoxic conditions with pelagic but little or no higher plant input. Tribes 1 and 2 occur mainly south of Point Conception in paleogeographic settings where deep burial of the Monterey source rock favored petroleum generation from all three members or their equivalents. In this area, oil from the clayey-siliceous and carbonaceous marl members (tribes 1 and 2) may overwhelm that from the lower

  16. Faults--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included in...

  17. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  18. Faults--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included in...

  19. Folds--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included in...

  20. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — One of the most important functions of the southern Monterey Bay coastal system is its role as a habitat for a unique flora and fauna. The beaches are habitat for...

  1. Backscatter [7125]-- Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents 2-m-resolution Reson 7125 data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. These metadata describe...

  2. Backscatter [Swath]-- Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents 2-m-resolution SWATHPlus data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. These metadata describe...

  3. Isopachs--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the isopachs for the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The vector data file is included in...

  4. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  5. Folds--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Monterey map area, California. The vector data file is included...

  6. Faults--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The vector data file is...

  7. Monterey Strategy Seminar: Day 1: Capabilities Based Planning.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, James A; Pulsipher, Lashley; Zellen, Barry; Lavoy, Peter R.; Clary, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Monterey Strategy Seminar: Day 1: Capabilities Based Planning. Day 2: Dissuasion in the U.S. Defense Strategy. Day 3: Global Strike Warfare Naval Postgraduate School Center for Contemporary Conflict (CCC)

  8. Paleoshorelines--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the paleoshorelines for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is...

  9. Transgressive Contours--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the transgressive contours for the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The vector file is included in...

  10. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  11. Faults--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The vector data file is...

  12. Folds--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Monterey map area, California. The vector data file is included...

  13. Sediment Thickness--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the sediment-thickness map of the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The raster data file is included in...

  14. Backscatter [8101]--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents 2-m-resolution Reson 8101 data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. These metadata...

  15. Monterey, California Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Monterey, California Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  16. Backscatter [Swath]-- Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents 2-m-resolution SWATHPlus data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. These metadata describe...

  17. BackscatterC [7125]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  18. Backscatter [7125]-- Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents 2-m-resolution Reson 7125 data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. These metadata describe...

  19. Isopachs--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the isopachs for the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The vector data file is included in...

  20. Transgressive Contours--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the transgressive contours for the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The vector file is included in...

  1. Sediment Thickness--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the sediment-thickness map of the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The raster data file is included in...

  2. Paleoshorelines--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the paleoshorelines for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is...

  3. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  4. BackscatterB [EM300]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  5. Faults--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included...

  6. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Critical Erosion Sites 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — PWA and Griggs (2004) defined three risk categories to Monterey Regional Water Pollution Control Agency (MRWPCA) facilities between Marina and Wharf II. These risk...

  7. Folds--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included in...

  8. Backscatter [8101]--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents 2-m-resolution Reson 8101 data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. These metadata...

  9. BackscatterC [7125]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  10. BackscatterB [EM300]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  11. Battle of Midway Memorial Dinner, Monterey Bay Commandery, NOUS tickets

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.)

    2015-01-01

    Web page capture of tickets to the Battle of Midway Memorial Dinner through Eventbrite. The Monterey Bay Commandery of the Naval Order of the United States will host the 73 Battle of Midway Dining-Out on Saturday 6 June at the Naval Support Activity, Monterey, Herrmann Hall, Naval Postgraduate School. This black-tie event is open to the all active and retired service members, military faculty, and civilians. Guests holding confirmed reservations will have gate access the evenin...

  12. MONT95C - Bathymetry contours of the southern Monterey Bay area between Moss Landing and Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The bathymetric grids and derived contours are from data collected by the USGS with a multibeam (Simrad EM1000) sidescan sonar system in the southern Monterey Bay...

  13. MONT95C - Bathymetry contours of the southern Monterey Bay area between Moss Landing and Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The bathymetric grids and derived contours are from data collected by the USGS with a multibeam (Simrad EM1000) sidescan sonar system in the southern Monterey Bay...

  14. The influence of mineral matter on the separation of amorphous marine kerogens using density gradient centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hartgers, W.A.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Ling, Y.; Crelling, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Three relatively immature amorphous marine kerogens were subjected to density gradient centrifugation (DGC). The density fractions obtained were analyzed by Curie-point pyrolysis in combination with gas chromatography (Py-GC) and with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). Despite the

  15. Petrographic and geochemical composition of kerogen in the Furongian (U. Cambrian) Alum Shale, central Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanei, H.; Petersen, H. I.; Schovsbo, N. H.

    2014-01-01

    that organic-rich Alum Shale (TOC: 8.9-28.0. wt.%) contains mainly immature, predominantly algal-derived kerogen with unusually reduced hydrocarbon generation potential as suggested by relatively low Hydrogen Index (HI) values (HI: 251-471. mg HC/g TOC) and high degree of aromaticity. In the absence of thermal...

  16. Air oxidation of the kerogen/asphaltene vanadyl porphyrins: an electron spin resonance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRJANA S. PAVLOVIC

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of vanadyl porphyrins was studied by electron spin resonance during heating of kerogens, isolated from the La Luna (Venezuela and Serpiano (Switzerland bituminous rocks, at 25°C for 1 to 20 days in the presence of air. During the thermal treatment of the kerogens, the vanadyl porphyrins resonance signals decrease monotonically and become quite small after 6 days of heating. Concomitantly, new vanadyl signals appear and, at longer heating times, dominate the spectrum. It is suggested that the secondary vanadyl species must have been formed from vanadyl porphyrins. Similar conversions of vanadyl porphyrins are observed under the same experimental conditions for asphaltenes extracted from the La Luna and Serpiano rocks, and floating asphalt from the Dead Sea (Israel. A comparison of the spin-Hamiltonian parameters for vanadyl porphyrins and the vanadyl compounds obtained during pyrolysis of the kerogens/asphaltenes suggests that the latter are of a non-porphyrin type. For comparison a study was conducted on Western Kentucky No. 9 coal enriched with vanadium (>>400 ppm from six mines. All the coal samples show only the presence of predominant by non-porphyrin vanadyl compounds, similar to those generated through laboratory heating of the kerogens/asphaltenes in air. In addition, some samples also contain a minor amount of vanadyl porphyrins.

  17. Amount of aliphatic double carbon-carbon bonds in the kerogen of the Baltic shale kuckersite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheshko, I.D.; Kutuev, R.Kh.; Yakovlev, V.I.; Sendyurev, M.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    In conclusion, among the questions of the chemical structure of the kerogen of combustible shales, one of the most important is that of the presence of multiple carbon-carbon bonds in the organic matter of these combustible minerals. In spite of a series of studies that have been performed this question has long remained open because of the contradictory opinions expressed. In the present paper, in order to evaluate the quantitative content of aliphatic bonds C-C in kerogen the authors analyze the results obtained by previous researchers in the study of the ozonization and chlorination of kuckersite, figures from balance experiments on chlorination, and the results of the use of ESR spectroscopy for these purposes and certain literature information on the halogenation of kuckersite kerogen. The presence in the kerogen of the Baltic combustible shale kuckersite of from 6 to 8 aliphatic double carbon-carbon bonds per 100 C atoms has been shown by the methods of chlorination, ozonization, and ESR spectroscopy, and this agrees with the figures calculated from certain results on the bromination of kuckersite. 18 refs.

  18. Alternative biological sources for 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene in flash pyrolysates of kerogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hoefs, M.J.L.; Heemst, J.D.H. van; Gelin, F.; Koopmans, M.P.; Kaam-Peters, H.M.E. van; Schouten, S.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1995-01-01

    Pyrolysates of kerogens isolated from Indian Ocean surface sediments and from Black Sea Unit II contain abundant 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene (1,2,3,4-TMB) suggesting the presence of macromolecularly-bound isorenieratane skeletons derived from isorenieratene biosynthesized by green sulphur bacteria

  19. Chemical characterization of insoluble macromolecules (kerogen) from marine and lacustrine sediments. Molecular distribution of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids in alkaline KMnO4 oxidation products; Kaiyo oyobi konuma taisekibutsuchu no fuyosei yukibutsu (kerogen) no characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morinaga, S.; Ishiwatari, R.; Machihara, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1996-04-15

    The insoluble macromolecules (kerogen) in marine and lacustrine sediments was oxidated by alkaline KMnO4, and the kerogen was characterized by molecular distribution of produced aliphatic dicarboxylic acids. Seven seas and ten lakes in the world are used as a sample. The oxidation products consist of n-C4-C15 {alpha}, {omega}-dicarboxylic acids, n-C7-C28 mono-carboxylic acids, and benzene carboxylic acids. The dicarboxylic acid decreases from C4 to C15 for the marine kerogen and has a maximum at C8 to C9 for the lacustrine kerogen. The method for representing the molecular distribution by two mathematical expressions was proposed. The marine and lacustrine kerogens are classified into different groups, and the sample of an eruption bay is located between the two kerogens. The polymerized structure of polyhydoroxy acids in these kerogens is assumed to have been transformed into aliphatic dicarboxylic acids by oxidation. This is also backed up by the result of cutin oxidation. 38 refs., 4 figs., 4 tags.

  20. Propriétés optiques de résidus de la pyrolyse kérogènes Optical Properties of Kerogen Pyrolysis Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpern B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On étudie l'évolution des propriétés optiques de trois kérogènes peu évolués au cours de leur pyrolyse sous azote en programmation de température. Le premier appartient à une série lacustre (Green River Shales, le second à une série marine (Toarcien du bassin de Paris, le troisième à une série deltaïque (Crétacé du Cameroun. On constate la ressemblance de l'évolution artificielle avec la catagenèse (évolution accompagnant l'enfouissement des sédiments. On observe dans les deux premiers kérogènes l'existence de particules ressemblant à de la vitrinite, mais dont les propriétés optiques évoluent différemment. On incite en conséquence à une grande prudence dans l'utilisati n du pouvoir réflecteur de telles particules pour localiser dans les séries lacustres et marines la zone de formation du pétrole. On note l'intérêt de mesurer le pour réflecteur de la grande masse du kérogène et de mettre son évolution en relation avec celle des autres propriétés physiques. This article examines the evolution of the optical properties of three immature kerogens during their pyrolysis in nitrogen ut programmed temperature. The first kerogen comes from a lacustrine series (Green River Shales, the second from a marine series (Tourcian from the Paris Basin, and the third from a deltaic series (Cretaceous from Cameroon. There is a resemblance in their artificial evolution with catagenesis (evolution accompanying the burial of the sédiments. The first two kerogens cari be seen to contain particles resembling vitrinite, although with optical properties which evolve differently. Therefore, great cure must be taken in using the reflecting power of such particules ta situate the petroleum forming zone in lacustrine and marines séries. It is important ta measure the reflecting power of the general mass of the kerogen and to compare its evolution with that of the other physical properties.

  1. Biomarker distributions in asphaltenes and kerogens analyzed by flash pyrolysis-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Graas, G.

    1986-01-01

    Biomarker distributions in a suite of asphaltenes and kerogens have been analyzed by flash pyrolysis directly coupled to a GCMS system. Attention has been focussed on biomarkers of the sterane and triterpane types. The sample suite under investigation consists of sediments with different kerogen types and some crude oils. Biomarker distributions in the pyrolysates have been compared with the free biomarkers in the corresponding saturated hydrocarbon fractions. The analyses show significant differences between the distributions of the free biomarkers and those in the pyrolysates. The latter have lower amounts of steranes while diasteranes are absent or present at low concentrations only. In the triterpane traces a shift of maximum intensity from C/sub 30/ (free compounds) to C/sub 27//C/sub 29/ is observed. Furthermore, the pyrolysates contain a set of triterpanes that are present in the saturated hydrocarbon fractions. The observed differences between pyrolysates and free hydrocarbons can be explained partly by the processes occurring during pyrolysis such as bond rupture and subsequent stabilization of primary pyrolysis products. To a certain extent these differences also show that maturation processes occurring in sediments have effects on free biomarker molecules different from those on molecules that are enclosed in a macromolecular matrix (kerogen or asphaltenes). Differences between biomarker distributions of asphaltene and kerogen pyrolysates are relatively small. A comparison with the pyrolysates from extracted whole sediments suggests that these differences are mainly caused by interactions between the organic material and the mineral matrix during pyrolysis. Oil asphaltenes behave differently from sediment asphaltenes as their pyrolysates are more similar to the corresponding saturated hydrocarbon fractions, i.e. the differences described above are observed to a much smaller extent.

  2. Impact of Glider Data Assimilation on the Monterey Bay Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Assimilation on the Monterey Bay Model 6. AUTHOR(S) Igor Shulman, Clark Rowley, Stephanie Anderson, Sergio DeRada, John Kindle, Paul Martin, James...Impact of glider data assimilation on the Monterey Bay model Igor Shulman3*, Clark Rowley3, Stephanie Andersona, Sergio DeRadaa, John Kindlea, Paul ...support of the AOSN-II field campaign. Deep-Sea Research II, this issue |doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008 08.009). Kundu. P.K.. 1976. Ekman veering observed

  3. Source Rock Classification and the Basic Structure of Coal and Kerogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金奎励; 杨陆武

    2002-01-01

    In accordance with the confusion on classification of source rocks, the authors raised a source rock classification for its enriched and dispersed organic matter types based on both Alpern's idea[1] and maceral genesis/composition. The determined rock type is roughly similar to palynofacies of Combaz[2], whereas it is "rock-maceral facies (for coal viz. coal facies)" in strictly speaking. Therefore, it is necessary to use the organic ingredients classification proposed by the authors so that it can be used for both maceral analysis and environment research[3]. This source rock classification not only shows sedimentology and diagenetic changes but also acquires organic matter type even if hydrocarbon potential derived from maceral's geochemical parameters. So, it is considered as genetic classification. The "rock-maceral facies" may be transformed to sedimentary organic facies[3], which is used as quantitative evaluation means if research being perfect.Now, there are many models in terms of structure either for coal or for kerogen. In our opinion, whatever coal or kerogen ought be polymer, then we follow Combaz's thought[2] and study structure of amorphous kerogens which are accordance with genetic mechanism showing biochemical and geochemical process perfectly. Here, we use the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOFSIMS) to expand Combaz's models from three to five. They are also models for coal.

  4. Bathymetry [5m]--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The raster data file is included in...

  5. Bathymetry [2m]--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The raster data file is included in...

  6. The influence of the San Gregorio fault on the morphology of Monterey Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, C.M.G.; Ryan, William B. F.; Eittreim, S.; Donald, Reed

    1998-01-01

    A side-scan sonar survey was conducted of Monterey Canyon and the San Gregorio fault zone, off shore of Monterey Bay. The acoustic character and morphology of the sonar images, enhanced by SeaBeam bathymetry, show the path of the San Gregorio fault zone across the shelf, upper slope, and Monterey Canyon. High backscatter linear features a few kilometers long and 100 to 200 m wide delineate the sea-floor expression of the fault zone on the shelf. Previous studies have shown that brachiopod pavements and carbonate crusts are the source of the lineations backscatter. In Monterey Canyon, the fault zone occurs where the path of the canyon makes a sharp bend from WNW to SSW (1800 m). Here, the fault is marked by NW-SE-trending, high reflectivity lineations that cross the canyon floor between 1850 m and 1900 m. The lineations can be traced to ridges on the northwestern canyon wall where they have ~ 15 m of relief. Above the low-relief ridges, bowl-shaped features have been excavated on the canyon wall contributing to the widening of the canyon. We suggest that shear along the San Gregorio fault has led to the formation of the low-relief ridges near the canyon wall and that carbonate crusts, as along the shelf, may be the source of the high backscatter features on the canyon floor. The path of the fault zone across the upper slope is marked by elongated tributary canyons with high backscatter floors and 'U'-shaped cross-sectional profiles. Linear features and stepped scarps suggestive of recent crustal movement and mass-wasting, occur on the walls and floors of these canyons. Three magnitude-4 earthquakes have occurred within the last 30 years in the vicinity of the canyons that may have contributed to the observed features. As shown by others, motion along the fault zone has juxtaposed diverse lithologies that outcrop on the canyon walls. Gully morphology and the canyon's drainage patterns have been influenced by the substrate into which the gullies have formed.

  7. Direct Characterization of Kerogen By X-Ray And Solid-State **13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keleman, S.R.; Afeworki, M.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Sansone, M.; Kwiatek, P.J.; Walters, C.C.; Freund, H.; Siskin, M.; Bence, A.E.; Curry, D.J.; Solum, M.; Pugmire, R.J.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Leblond, M.; Behar, F.

    2007-07-09

    A combination of solid-state {sup 13}C NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and sulfur X-ray absorption near edge structure (S-XANES) techniques are used to characterize organic oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur species and carbon chemical/structural features in kerogens. The kerogens studied represent a wide range of organic matter types and maturities. A van Krevelen plot based on elemental H/C data and XPS derived O/C data shows the well established pattern for type I, type II, and type III kerogens. The anticipated relationship between the Rock-Eval hydrogen index and H/C is independent of organic matter type. Carbon structural and lattice parameters are derived from solid-state 13C NMR analysis. As expected, the amount of aromatic carbon, measured by both {sup 13}C NMR and XPS, increases with decreasing H/C. The correlation between aromatic carbon and Rock-Eval Tmax, an indicator of maturity, is linear for types II and IIIC kerogens, but each organic matter type follows a different relationship. The average aliphatic carbon chain length (Cn') decreases with an increasing amount of aromatic carbon in a similar manner across all organic matter types. The fraction of aromatic carbons with attachments (FAA) decreases, while the average number of aromatic carbons per cluster (C) increases with an increasing amount of aromatic carbon. FAA values range from 0.2 to 0.4, and C values range from 12 to 20 indicating that kerogens possess on average 2- to 5-ring aromatic carbon units that are highly substituted. There is basic agreement between XPS and 13C NMR results for the amount and speciation of organic oxygen. XPS results show that the amount of carbon oxygen single bonded species increases and carbonyl-carboxyl species decrease with an increasing amount of aromatic carbon. Patterns for the relative abundances of nitrogen and sulfur species exist regardless of the large differences in the total amount of organic nitrogen and sulfur seen in the kerogens. XPS

  8. Direct Characterization of Kerogen by X-ray and Solid-State [superscript 13]C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelemen, S. R.; Afeworki, M.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Sansone, M.; Kwiatek, P.J.; Walters, C.C.; Freund, H.; Siskin, M.; Bence, A.E.; Curry, D.J.; Solum, M.; Pugmire, R.J.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Leblond, M.; Behar, F. (ExxonMobil); (ExxonMobil); (IFP); (Utah)

    2008-06-12

    A combination of solid-state {sup 13}C NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and sulfur X-ray absorption near edge structure (S-XANES) techniques are used to characterize organic oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur species and carbon chemical/structural features in kerogens. The kerogens studied represent a wide range of organic matter types and maturities. A van Krevelen plot based on elemental H/C data and XPS derived O/C data shows the well established pattern for type I, type II, and type III kerogens. The anticipated relationship between the Rock-Eval hydrogen index and H/C is independent of organic matter type. Carbon structural and lattice parameters are derived from solid-state {sup 13}C NMR analysis. As expected, the amount of aromatic carbon, measured by both {sup 13}C NMR and XPS, increases with decreasing H/C. The correlation between aromatic carbon and Rock-Eval T{sub max}, an indicator of maturity, is linear for types II and IIIC kerogens, but each organic matter type follows a different relationship. The average aliphatic carbon chain length (Cn) decreases with an increasing amount of aromatic carbon in a similar manner across all organic matter types. The fraction of aromatic carbons with attachments (FAA) decreases, while the average number of aromatic carbons per cluster (C) increases with an increasing amount of aromatic carbon. FAA values range from 0.2 to 0.4, and C values range from 12 to 20 indicating that kerogens possess on average 2- to 5-ring aromatic carbon units that are highly substituted. There is basic agreement between XPS and {sup 13}C NMR results for the amount and speciation of organic oxygen. XPS results show that the amount of carbon oxygen single bonded species increases and carbonyl-carboxyl species decrease with an increasing amount of aromatic carbon. Patterns for the relative abundances of nitrogen and sulfur species exist regardless of the large differences in the total amount of organic nitrogen and sulfur seen in the

  9. Evidence for porphyrins bound, via ester bonds, to the Messel oil shale kerogen by selective chemical degradation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseby, B.; Ocampo, R.

    1997-09-01

    High amounts of nickel mono- and di-acid porphyrins were released from Messel oil shale kerogen (Eocene, Germany) by selective chemical degradation (acid and base hydrolysis). The released porphyrin fractions were quantified (UV-vis) and their constituents isolated and characterized at the molecular level (UV-vis, MS, NMR). The mono-acid porphyrin fraction released contained four compounds of similar abundance which arise from an obvious chlorophyll or bacteriochlorophyll precursor. The di-acid porphyrin fraction was, however, dominated by far by one compound, mesoporphyrin IX, which must have originated from heme-like precursors (heme, cytochromes, etc.). These results show unambigously that the released mono- and di-acid porphyrins were linked to the macromolecular kerogen network via ester bonds and suggest that precursor heme-like pigments could be selectively and/or more readily incorporated into the macromolecular kerogen network than precursor chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls.

  10. THE HISTORY OF EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION OF BITUMINOUS AND KEROGENOUS DEPOSITS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Šebečić

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed thal the first known sedimens of natural bitumen or asphalt in coastal Croatia were exploited as the early moddle ages. Yet authenticated written documents about Vinišće near Trogir derive from no earlier than 1628, about Vrgorac/Paklina from only 1753. By the end of the 18th century, many deposits were discovered in Dalmatia, but it was Škrip on the Island of Brač and Suhi Dolac that were important. The earliest known deposits and occurrences of kerogenous rocks, or bituminous or oil shales, are mentioned as stone or fossil coal in Sovinjak, in the upper course of the River Mirna, and in Rebići in Istria; near Sinj, Slivno not far from the River Neretva, Mirta and near Nerežišće on the Island uf Brač. All if these were well known and described in 1804, while Sovinjak was mentioned in the 16th century. In the article, some of new information derived from mining and geological research into bituminous and kerogenous sediments and deposits are provided (the paper is published in Croatian.

  11. THE RESPONSE OF MONTEREY BAY TO THE 2010 CHILEAN EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence C. Breaker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary frequencies contained in the arrival sequence produced by the tsunami from the Chilean earthquake of 2010 in Monterey Bay were extracted to determine the seiche modes that were produced. Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA and Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD were employed to extract the primary frequencies of interest. The wave train from the Chilean tsunami lasted for at least four days due to multipath arrivals that may not have included reflections from outside the bay but most likely did include secondary undulations, and energy trapping in the form of edge waves, inside the bay. The SSA decomposition resolved oscillations with periods of 52-57, 34-35, 26-27, and 21-22 minutes, all frequencies that have been predicted and/or observed in previous studies. The EEMD decomposition detected oscillations with periods of 50-55 and 21-22 minutes. Periods in the range of 50-57 minutes varied due to measurement uncertainties but almost certainly correspond to the first longitudinal mode of oscillation for Monterey Bay, periods of 34-35 minutes correspond to the first transverse mode of oscillation that assumes a nodal line across the entrance of the bay, a period of 26- 27 minutes, although previously observed, may not represent a fundamental oscillation, and a period of 21-22 minutes has been predicted and observed previously. A period of ~37 minutes, close to the period of 34-35 minutes, was generated by the Great Alaskan Earthquake of 1964 in Monterey Bay and most likely represents the same mode of oscillation. The tsunamis associated with the Great Alaskan Earthquake and the Chilean Earthquake both entered Monterey Bay but initially arrived outside the bay from opposite directions. Unlike the Great Alaskan Earthquake, however, which excited only one resonant mode inside the bay, the Chilean Earthquake excited several modes suggesting that the asymmetric shape of the entrance to Monterey Bay was an important factor and that the

  12. Metals in Devonian kerogenous marine strata at Gibellini and Bisoni properties in southern Fish Creek Range, Eureka County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desborough, George A.; Poole, F.G.; Hose, R.K.; Radtke, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    A kerogen-rich sequence of siliceous mudstone, siltstone, and chert as much as 60 m thick on ridge 7129 in the southern Fish Creek Range, referred to as Gibellini facies of the Woodruff Formation, has been evaluated on the surface and in drill holes principally for its potential resources of vanadium, zinc, selenium, molybdenum, and syncrude oil content. The strata are part of a strongly deformed allochthonous mass of eugeosynclinal Devonian marine rocks that overlie deformed allochthonous Mississippian siliceous rocks and relatively undeformed autochthonous Mississippian Antler flysch at this locality. The vanadium in fresh black rocks obtained from drill holes and fresh exposures in trenches and roadcuts occurs chiefly in organic matter. Concentrations of vanadium oxide (V2O5) in unoxidized samples range from 3,000 to 7,000 ppm. In oxidized and bleached rock that is prevalent at the surface, concentrations of vanadium oxide range from 6,000 to 8,000 ppm, suggesting a tendency toward enrichment due to surficial weathering and ground-water movement. Zinc occurs in sphalerite, and selenium occurs in organic matter; molybdenum appears to occur both in molybdenite and in organic matter. Concentrations of zinc in unoxidized rock range from 4,000 to 18,000 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 30 to 100 ppm, showing strong depletion due to weathering. Concentrations of selenium in unoxidized rock range from 30 to 200 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 200 to 400 ppm, indicating some enrichment upon weathering. Concentrations of molybdenum in unoxidized rock range from 70 to 960 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 30 to 80 ppm, indicating strong depletion upon weathering. Most fresh black rock is low-grade oil shale, and yields as much as 12 gallons/short ton of syncrude oil. Metahewettite is the principal vanadium mineral in the oxidized zone, but it also occurs sparsely as small nodules and fillings of microfractures in unweathered strata

  13. Orbitally paced phosphogenesis in Mediterranean shallow marine carbonates during the middle Miocene Monterey event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Gerald; Hauzenberger, Christoph A.; Reuter, Markus; Piller, Werner E.

    2016-04-01

    During the Oligo-Miocene, major phases of phosphogenesis occurred in the Earth's oceans. However, most phosphate deposits represent condensed or allochthonous hemipelagic deposits, formed by complex physical and chemical enrichment processes, limiting their applicability for the study regarding the temporal pacing of Miocene phosphogenesis. The Oligo-Miocene Decontra section located on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy) is a widely continuous carbonate succession deposited in a mostly middle to outer neritic setting. Of particular interest are the well-winnowed grain to packstones of the middle Miocene Bryozoan Limestone, where occurrences of authigenic phosphate grains coincide with the prominent carbon isotope excursion of the Monterey event. This unique setting allows the analysis of orbital forcing on phosphogenesis, within a bio, chemo, and cyclostratigraphically constrained age-model. LA-ICP-MS analyses revealed a significant enrichment of uranium in the studied authigenic phosphates compared to the surrounding carbonates, allowing natural gamma-radiation (GR) to be used as a qualitative proxy for autochthonous phosphate content. Time series analyses indicate a strong 405 kyr eccentricity forcing of GR in the Bryozoan Limestone. These results link maxima in the GR record and thus phosphate content to orbitally paced increases in the burial of organic carbon, particularly during the carbon isotope maxima of the Monterey event. Thus, phosphogenesis during the middle Miocene in the Mediterranean was controlled by the 405 kyr eccentricity and its influence on large-scale paleoproductivity patterns. Rare earth element data were used as a tool to reconstruct the formation conditions of the investigated phosphates, indicating generally oxic formation conditions, which are consistent with microbially mediated phosphogenesis.

  14. Biomarker generation from Type II-S kerogens in claystone and limestone during hydrous and anhydrous pyrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Koopmans, M.P.; Carson, F.C.; Lewan, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    A claystone and a limestone containing immature Type II-S kerogen were thermally matured in the presence and absence of water, to study the influence of water and clay minerals on the generation of biomarkers. In contrast to hydrous pyrolysis, anhydrous pyrolysis of the claystone did not generate bi

  15. Geochemistry of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (Fish Clay at Stevns Klint (Denmark: Ir, Ni and Zn in kerogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVLE I. PREMOVIC

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical analyses of trace metals (Ir, Ni and Zn in the kerogen of the black marl of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary succession (Fish Clay at Stevns Klint (Hjerup Church were undertaken. The data for this kerogen were in accordance with a previous hypothesis that this (insoluble geoorganic polymer was derived from humic substances (mainly humic acids of a nearshore soil. Substantial proportions of Ir, Ni and Zn within the kerogen structure were probably contained in these substances arriving at the sedimentary site. It is proposed that these humics were probably transported by acid surface waters (induced by the KT asteroid impact into the shallow marine basin of Stevns Klint. It is also suggested that local leaching/weathering of the asteroidal impact fallout on the land near these waters played an important role in providing Ir, Ni and Zn for these substances. Apparently, Ir, Ni and Zn of the kerogen were created by the chondritic component of the impact ejecta fallout.

  16. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-08-18

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath bathymetry data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Offshore of Monterey map area in central California is located on the Pacific Coast, about 120 km south of San Francisco. Incorporated cities in the map area include Seaside, Monterey, Marina, Pacific Grove, Carmel-by-the-Sea, and Sand City. The local economy receives significant resources from tourism, as well as from the Federal Government. Tourist attractions include the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Cannery Row, Fisherman’s Wharf, and the many golf courses near Pebble Beach, and the area serves as a gateway to the spectacular scenery and outdoor activities along the Big Sur coast to the south. Federal facilities include the Army’s Defense Language Institute, the Naval Postgraduate School, and the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (operated by the Navy). In 1994, Fort Ord army base, located between Seaside and Marina, was closed; much of former army base land now makes up the Fort Ord National Monument, managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. In addition, part of the old Fort Ord is now occupied by California State University, Monterey Bay.The offshore part of the map area lies entirely within the Monterey Bay National

  17. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-08-18

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath bathymetry data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Offshore of Monterey map area in central California is located on the Pacific Coast, about 120 km south of San Francisco. Incorporated cities in the map area include Seaside, Monterey, Marina, Pacific Grove, Carmel-by-the-Sea, and Sand City. The local economy receives significant resources from tourism, as well as from the Federal Government. Tourist attractions include the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Cannery Row, Fisherman’s Wharf, and the many golf courses near Pebble Beach, and the area serves as a gateway to the spectacular scenery and outdoor activities along the Big Sur coast to the south. Federal facilities include the Army’s Defense Language Institute, the Naval Postgraduate School, and the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (operated by the Navy). In 1994, Fort Ord army base, located between Seaside and Marina, was closed; much of former army base land now makes up the Fort Ord National Monument, managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. In addition, part of the old Fort Ord is now occupied by California State University, Monterey Bay.The offshore part of the map area lies entirely within the Monterey Bay National

  18. The Discovery of Retene in Precambrian and Lower Paleozoic Marine Formations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜乃煌; 诸长鼎; 等

    1995-01-01

    Microscopic and SEM observations of thin sections and kerogens and GC-MS analyses of aromatic fractions in sediment extracts and pyrolysis products of kerogens provide strong evidence suggesting that in the Lower Yangtze Valley area the Sinian and Lower Paleozoic carbonate formations of marine facies received no higher plant input,but there was produced abundant retene during diagenesis and abietic acid substances are still its precursors.

  19. Organic geochemical studies on kerogen precursors in recently deposited algal mats and oozes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, R. P.; Calvin, M.; Brown, S.; Yang, E.

    1978-01-01

    The same kerogen-like residue from the algal mats and oozes at Laguna Mormona, Baja California, is examined following degradation by saponification, alkaline KMnO4 oxidation, and HBr treatment. For comparison, pyrolytic degradation is performed for the residue and five others, two of which are obtained from algal mats at Baffin Bay, Texas. Major conclusions are that (1) Saponification of a residue specimen from the algal-ooze residue results in minor amounts of components bonded to it as esters; (2) Alkaline KMnO4 oxidation reveals that the same residue consists of a cross-linked aliphatic nucleus with additional components attached to it as esters; (3) the major products from pyrolysis of the residue include phytenes, pristenes, sterenes, and triterpenes; and (4) the HBr treatment yielded only one product, indicating the absence of a large number of ether-linkages readily cleaved by HBr.

  20. Testing the preservation of biomarkers during experimental maturation of an immature kerogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mißbach, H.; Duda, J.-P.; Lünsdorf, N. K.; Schmidt, B. C.; Thiel, V.

    2016-07-01

    Lipid biomarkers have been extensively applied for tracing organisms and evolutionary processes through Earth's history. They have become especially important for the reconstruction of early life on Earth and, potentially, for the detection of life in the extraterrestrial realm. However, it is not always clear how exactly biomarkers reflect a paleoecosystem as their preservation may be influenced by increasing temperatures (T) and pressures (P) during burial. While a number of biomarker indices reflecting thermal maturity have been established, it is often less well constrained to which extent biomarker ratios used for paleoreconstruction are compromised by T and P processes. In this study we conducted hydrous pyrolysis of Green River Shale (GRS) kerogen in gold capsules for 2-2400 h at 300°C to assess the maturation behaviour of several compounds used as life tracers and for the reconstruction of paleoenvironments (n-alkanes, pristane, phytane, gammacerane, steranes, hopanes and cheilanthanes). Lignite samples were maturated in parallel with the GRS kerogen to obtain exact vitrinite reflectance data at every sampling point. Our experiment confirms the applicability of biomarker-based indices and ratios as maturity indicators (e.g. total cheilanthanes/hopanes ratio; sterane and hopane isomerization indices). However, several biomarker ratios that are commonly used for paleoreconstructions (e.g. pristane/phytane, pristane/n-C17, phytane/n-C18 and total steranes/hopanes) were considerably affected by differences in the thermal degradation behaviour of the respective compounds. Short-term experiments (48 h) performed at 400°C also revealed that biomarkers >C15 (especially steranes and hopanes) and `biological' chain length preferences for n-alkanes are vanished at a vitrinite reflectance between 1.38 and 1.83% R O. Our data highlight that `thermal taphonomy' effects have to be carefully considered in the interpretation of biomarkers in ancient rocks and, potentially

  1. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart M of... - Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates A Appendix A to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating...—Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates Point ID No. Latitude Longitude...

  2. Large wave-shaped bedforms in the axial channel of Monterey Submarine Canyon: Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C. K.; Normark, W. R.; Ussler, W.; Caress, D. W.; Keaten, R.; Barry, J.; Xu, J.; Smith, D.; Covault, J. A.; Maier, K. L.

    2007-12-01

    Multibeam bathymetric data show that large wave-shaped bedforms exist on the seafloor within the axial channel of Monterey Submarine Canyon offshore northern California (Smith et al., 2006). These features have wavelengths up to 70 m, amplitudes up to 2 m, and distinct asymmetrical crests that are roughly perpendicular to the channel. Comparisons of repetitive multibeam surveys since 2004 shows that the bedforms are active features because their positions change between surveys. Three complementary studies are underway to understand the origin of these features: (1) Vibracoring - In June 2007, the ROV Ventana collected 18 vibracores up to 2 m in length along a 130-m transect in ~285 m water depth that spanned the crests of two and the flanks of three waves. Sediment in these cores is composed of one or more sequences of coarse gravel or multicolored clay-clasts that fine upward into sand. Sometimes individual gravel-clasts or clay-chips occur within sand. The internal stratigraphy of these waves shows they resemble classic gravity-flow deposits. (2) Sediment Movement - A pilot study was conducted to assess whether sediment within the canyon floor moves by traction from currents or mass transport. On February 8, 2007, three acoustic beacons were deployed in ~290 m water depth within the canyon axis using Ventana. The beacons were placed within recesses in 50-cm-high ~45 kg poured-concrete monuments. These boulder-sized monuments were buried leaving only the top of the beacon standing ~6 cm above the sediment surface. Thus, the monuments were largely entombed within the seafloor. We also placed 3 acoustic beacons mounted on trapezoidal frames at the edge of a terrace on the canyon's lower flank. On February 12th, we returned to the area and determined that all three monuments had moved ~150 m down canyon. Two trapezoidal frames were found on their sides entwined with each other 50 and 75 m down canyon from their deployment site. The third frame was never located. A

  3. Molecular structure of kerogens from source rocks of the Tarim Basin: A study by Py-GC-MS and methylation-Py-GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA; Wanglu; PENG; Ping'an

    2005-01-01

    Flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) and in situ methylation-pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (methylation-Py-GC-MS) have been employed for a study of molecular structure of kerogens from source rocks of the Tarim Basin. The main products from Py-GC-MS of the Ordovician and Triassic kerogens from the Tarim Basin are n-alkanes and n-alk-1-enes which decrease in relative abundance with increased carbon number. The major products from methylation-Py-GC-MS are normal saturated fatty acid methyl esters which show maxima at C16 and C18. These aliphatic compounds are mainly from lipids of planktonic algae. Moreover, there are more abundant long-chain fatty acids (C20-C26) and normal n-alkanes and n-alk-1-enes (C15-C25) in pyrolysates of Triassic kerogens than that of Ordovician kerogens, reflecting the discrepancies in sources of the Triassic kerogens and the Ordovician kerogens. Besides these aliphatic compounds, methoxyl benzoic acid methyl esters were detected only in products from methylation-Py-GC-MS of late Ordovician kerogen TAC1-1, which possibly was the first molecular evidence for the appearance of moss or other terrestrial plants in the Tarim Basin. In addition, the relative intensity of 17β(H)-trisnorhopane17 β(H),21 α(H)-30-normoretane and 17 β(H)-moretane is lower, but 17α(H)-trisnorhopane and17 α(H)-30-norhopane is higher in the pyrolysates of the Ordovician kerogens in comparison with the pyrolysates of the Triassic kerogens. Moreover, Pr-1-ene has been detected in pyrolysates of Triassic kerogens. These differences in pyrolysates consist with maturity of kerogens. In conclusion, combination of methylation-Py-GC-MS and Py-GC-MS are useful tools to investigate the molecular structure of geomacromolecules and can be subject to type the organic matter, compare the maturity of kerogens and carry out the oil-source correlation.

  4. Thermal maturity of type II kerogen from the New Albany Shale assessed by13C CP/MAS NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Zwanziger, U.; Lis, G.; Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, A.

    2005-01-01

    Thermal maturity of oil and gas source rocks is typically quantified in terms of vitrinite reflectance, which is based on optical properties of terrestrial woody remains. This study evaluates 13C CP/MAS NMR parameters in kerogen (i.e., the insoluble fraction of organic matter in sediments and sedimentary rocks) as proxies for thermal maturity in marine-derived source rocks where terrestrially derived vitrinite is often absent or sparse. In a suite of samples from the New Albany Shale (Middle Devonian to the Early Mississippian, Illinois Basin) the abundance of aromatic carbon in kerogen determined by 13C CP/MAS NMR correlates linearly well with vitrinite reflectance. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chitin: 'Forgotten' Source of Nitrogen: From Modern Chitin to Thermally Mature Kerogen: Lessons from Nitrogen Isotope Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, A.; Wintsch, R.P.; Lewan, M.D.; DeNiro, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Chitinous biomass represents a major pool of organic nitrogen in living biota and is likely to have contributed some of the fossil organic nitrogen in kerogen. We review the nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry of chitin and present preliminary results suggesting interaction between kerogen and ammonium during thermal maturation. Modern arthropod chitin may shift its nitrogen isotope ratio by a few per mil depending on the chemical method of chitin preparation, mostly because N-containing non-amino-sugar components in chemically complex chitin cannot be removed quantitatively. Acid hydrolysis of chemically complex chitin and subsequent ion-chromatographic purification of the "deacetylated chitin-monomer" D-glucosamine (in hydrochloride form) provides a chemically well-defined, pure amino-sugar substrate for reproducible, high-precision determination of ??15N values in chitin. ??15N values of chitin exhibited a variability of about one per mil within an individual's exoskeleton. The nitrogen isotope ratio differed between old and new exoskeletons by up to 4 per mil. A strong dietary influence on the ??15N value of chitin is indicated by the observation of increasing ??15N values of chitin from marine crustaceans with increasing trophic level. Partial biodegradation of exoskeletons does not significantly influence ??15N values of remaining, chemically preserved amino sugar in chitin. Diagenesis and increasing thermal maturity of sedimentary organic matter, including chitin-derived nitrogen-rich moieties, result in humic compounds much different from chitin and may significantly change bulk ??15N values. Hydrous pyrolysis of immature source rocks at 330??C in contact with 15N-enriched NH4Cl, under conditions of artificial oil generation, demonstrates the abiogenic incorporation of inorganic nitrogen into carbon-bound nitrogen in kerogen. Not all organic nitrogen in natural, thermally mature kerogen is therefore necessarily derived from original organic matter, but may

  6. Earthquake and bay: Response of Monterey Bay to the Loma Prieta Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Franklin B.; Norton, Jerrold G.; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.

    The magnitude-7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake, which ruptured a segment of the San Andreas fault on October 17, 1989, and caused extensive damage over a large area of central California, also produced substantial motions in nearby Monterey Bay (Figure 1). Earthquake effects included a tsunami, or seismic sea wave, and subsequent surface water oscillations that were detected for about 24 hours following the main shock and widespread, substantial slumping of sediments on the Monterey Bay continental shelf and along the walls of Monterey Submarine Canyon.

  7. Cretaceous – Paleogene boundary Fish Clay at Højerup (Stevns Klint, Denmark: Zn, Pb and REE in kerogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILOS G. DJORDJEVIC

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical analyses of Zn, Pb and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu in the kerogen of the black marl at the Cretaceous – Paleogene boundary Fish Clay at Højerup were performed. Substantial proportions of the Zn, Pb and rare earths were probably contained in terrestrial humic substances (the kerogen precursor arriving at the marine sedimentary site. This is in accord with a previous hypothesis that kerogen is mainly derived from humic acids of an oxic soil in of the adjacent coastal areas of eastern Denmark. It is also suggested that humics enriched in Zn, Pb and rare earth elements were transported mainly through fluvial transport into the deposition site of the Fish Clay. Local weathering/leaching of the impact–eject fallout on the land surface and local terrestrial rocks by impact-induced? acid surface waters perhaps played an important role in providing Zn, Pb and rare earths to these humic substances. Apparently, chondritic and non-chondritic Zn originated from the impact fallout; Pb and rare earth elements were most likely sourced by exposed rocks in the coastal areas of eastern Denmark.

  8. California State Waters Map Series—Monterey Canyon and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Maier, Katherine L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Golden, Nadine E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Greene, H. Gary; Davenport, Clifton W.; Endris, Charles A.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-06-10

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath bathymetry data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area lies within Monterey Bay in central California. Monterey Bay is one of the largest embayments along the west coast of the United States, spanning 36 km from its northern to southern tips (in Santa Cruz and Monterey, respectively) and 20 km along its central axis. Not only does it contain one of the broadest sections of continental shelf along California’s coast, it also contains Monterey Canyon, one of the largest and deepest submarine canyons in the world. Note that the California’s State Waters limit extends farther offshore between Santa Cruz and Monterey so that it encompasses all of Monterey Bay.The coastal area within the map area is lightly populated. The community of Moss Landing (population, 204) hosts the largest commercial fishing fleet in Monterey Bay in its harbor. The map area also includes parts of the cities of Marina (population, about 20,000) and Castroville (population, about 6,500). Fertile lowlands of the Salinas River and Pajaro River valleys largely occupy the inland part of the map area, and land use is primarily agricultural.The offshore part of the map area lies completely within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The

  9. Water level oscillations in Monterey Bay and Harbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seiches are normal modes of water bodies responding to geophysical forcings with potential to significantly impact ecology and maritime operations. Analysis of high-frequency (1 Hz water level data in Monterey, California, identifies harbor modes between 10 and 120 s that are attributed to specific geographic features. It is found that modal amplitude modulation arises from cross-modal interaction and that offshore wave energy is a primary driver of these modes. Synchronous coupling between modes is observed to significantly impact dynamic water levels. At lower frequencies with periods between 15 and 60 min, modes are independent of offshore wave energy, yet are continuously present. This is unexpected since seiches normally dissipate after cessation of the driving force, indicating an unknown forcing. Spectral and kinematic estimates of these low-frequency oscillations support the idea that a persistent anticyclonic mesoscale gyre adjacent to the bay is a potential mode driver, while discounting other sources.

  10. Water level oscillations in Monterey Bay and Harbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Seiches are normal modes of water bodies responding to geophysical forcings with potential to significantly impact ecology and maritime operations. Analysis of high-frequency (1 Hz water level data in Monterey California identifies Harbor modes between 10 and 120 s that are attributed with specific geographic features. It found that modal amplitude modulation arises from cross-modal interaction and that offshore wave energy is a primary driver of these modes. Synchronous coupling between modes is observed to significantly impact dynamic water levels. At lower frequencies between 15 and 60 min modes are independent of offshore wave energy, yet are continuously present. This is unexpected since seiches normally dissipate after cessation of the driving force, indicating an unknown forcing. Spectral and kinematic estimates of these low frequency oscillations supports the idea that a persistent anticyclonic mesoscale gyre adjacent to the Bay is a potential mode driver, while discounting other sources.

  11. The monterey bay broadband ocean bottom seismic observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uhrhammer

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on the installation of a long-term buried ocean-floor broadband seismic station (MOBB in Monterey Bay, California (USA, 40km off-shore, at a water depth of 1000 m. The station was installed in April 2002 using a ship and ROV, in a collaborative effort between the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI and the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL. The station is located on the western side of the San Gregorio Fault, a major fault in the San Andreas plate boundary fault system. In addition to a 3-component CMG-1T seismometer package, the station comprises a current meter and Differential Pressure Gauge, both sampled at high-enough frequency (1 Hz to allow the study of relations between background noise on the seismometers and ocean waves and currents. The proximity of several land-based broadband seismic stations of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network allows insightful comparisons of land/ocean background seismic noise at periods relevant to regional and teleseismic studies. The station is currently autonomous. Recording and battery packages are exchanged every 3 months during scheduled one day dives. Ultimately, this station will be linked to shore using continuous telemetry (cable and/or buoy and will contribute to the earthquake notification system in Northern California. We present examples of earthquake and noise data recorded during the first 6 months of operation of MOBB. Lessons learned from these and continued recordings will help understand the nature and character of background noise in regional off-shore environments and provide a reference for the installation of future off-shore temporary and permanent broadband seismic stations.

  12. Summer Internship Program at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, G. I.

    2009-12-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute formally started the Internship Program in 1997. The program is open to undergraduate and graduate students and educators. The purpose of the Program is to provide an opportunity for talented students and teachers to come to MBARI for a certain period of time and to work on a research project under MBARI staff supervision. The interns are selected following a rigorous application procedure, merit review and, in some cases, an interview process. They are from around the world and represent a variety of different backgrounds, experience, and education. They all share a common desire to learn more about the marine environment and to work with MBARI staff. The mission of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute is to serve as a world center for advanced research and education in ocean science and technology. MBARI strives to achieve this mission through the development of better instruments, systems, and methods for scientific research in the deep ocean. MBARI emphasizes peer relationships between engineers and scientists as a basic principle of its operation. Teams at MBARI use cutting-edge technology to develop equipment, software, and research methods to meet the specific needs of deep-sea research. The focus of the MBARI internship is on the intern’s professional development—learning research techniques and improving communication and collaboration skills. Each intern has an MBARI mentor who will supervise a specific project. Interns will also serve as peer-mentors to other interns. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the history of the program as well as lessons learned. 2009 MBARI SUMMER INTERNS WITH PRESIDENT AND CEO MARCIA MCNUTT

  13. Monterey Strategy Seminar: Day 2: Dissuasion in the U.S. Defense Strategy.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, James A; Pulsipher, Lashley; Zellen, Barry; Lavoy, Peter R.; Clary, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Monterey Strategy Seminar: Day 1: Capabilities Based Planning. Day 2: Dissuasion in the U.S. Defense Strategy. Day 3: Global Strike Warfare Naval Postgraduate School Center for Contemporary Conflict (CCC)

  14. 75 FR 13468 - Disapproval of California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to disapprove a revision to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen...

  15. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP CEMEX Mine Dredge Pond 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Location of the CEMEX mine dredge pond at Lapis Sand Plant, Marina, CA. Southern Monterey Bay has been the most intensively mined shoreline in the U.S. Sand mining...

  16. Sediment core data from the northern flank of Monterey Canyon, offshore California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — he five files included in this U.S. Geological Survey data release are data from a set of sediment cores acquired from the continental slope, north of Monterey...

  17. Geology and geomorphology--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included in...

  18. BackscatterA [USGS SWATH]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  19. BackscatterD [CSUMB Swath]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  20. Sediment core data from the northern flank of Monterey Canyon, offshore California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The five files included in this U.S. Geological Survey data release are data from a set of sediment cores acquired from the continental slope, north of Monterey...

  1. 76 FR 20324 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Diving, Education (alternate), Research... professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly...'') chaired by the Research Representative, the Sanctuary Education Panel (``SEP'') chaired by the Education...

  2. Geology and geomorphology--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included in...

  3. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP CEMEX Mine Dredge Pond 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Location of the CEMEX mine dredge pond at Lapis Sand Plant, Marina, CA. Southern Monterey Bay has been the most intensively mined shoreline in the U.S. Sand mining...

  4. BackscatterD [CSUMB Swath]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  5. BackscatterA [USGS SWATH]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  6. Re-Engineering the Enrollment Management System at the Monterey Peninsula Unified School District (MPUSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Terrace Manzanita La Mesa Highland Foothills Del Rey Woods King Middle Marina Vista Olson Marina Del Mar Crumpton Los Arboles Seaside High Ord Terrace...Le Mesa Larkin Manzanita Marina Del Mar Marina Vista Marshall Monte Vista Olson Ord Terrace Colton Fitch King Los Arboles Monterey High Seaside...196 183 583 583 King 163 163 228 553 552 Los Arboles 236 210 227 672 672 Total Middle 823 812 886 2521 2520 Monterey 417 362 375 317 1471 1474 Seaside

  7. Atomistic modeling of oil shale kerogens and asphaltenes along with their interactions with the inorganic mineral matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facelli, Julio [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pugmire, Ronald [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pimienta, Ian [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-03-31

    The goal of this project is to obtain and validate three dimensional atomistic models for the organic matter in both oil shales and oil sands. In the case of oil shales the modeling was completed for kerogen, the insoluble portion of the organic matter; for oil sands it was for asphaltenes, a class of molecules found in crude oil. The three dimensional models discussed in this report were developed starting from existing literature two dimensional models. The models developed included one kerogen, based on experimental data on a kerogen isolated from a Green River oil shale, and a set of six representative asphaltenes. Subsequently, the interactions between these organic models and an inorganic matrix was explored in order to gain insight into the chemical nature of this interaction, which could provide vital information in developing efficient methods to remove the organic material from inorganic mineral substrate. The inorganic substrate used to model the interaction was illite, an aluminum silicate oxide clay. In order to obtain the feedback necessary to validate the models, it is necessary to be able to calculate different observable quantities and to show that these observables both reproduce the results of experimental measurements on actual samples as well as that the observables are sensitive to structural differences between models. The observables that were calculated using the models include 13C NMR spectra, the IR vibrational spectra, and the atomic pair wise distribution function; these were chosen as they are among the methods for which both experimental and calculated values can be readily obtained. Where available, comparison was made to experiment results. Finally, molecular dynamic simulations of pyrolysis were completed on the models to gain an understanding into the nature of the decomposition of these materials when heated.

  8. Cost Analysis of a Transition to Green Vehicle Technology for Light Duty Fleet Vehicles in Public Works Department Naval Support Activity Monterey (PWD Monterey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    replacing ICEs with green technologies on the federal fleet level. The current leader in this research is the AVTA, a subcomponent of the Idaho...the market that may provide additional benefits. C. FOLLOW-ON RESEARCH Possibilities for future research are as follows: 1. Determine the...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT COST ANALYSIS OF A TRANSITION TO GREEN VEHICLE

  9. Views of the Sea Floor in Northern Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Finlayson, David P.

    2008-01-01

    A sonar survey that produced unprecedented high-resolution images of the sea floor in northern Monterey Bay was conducted in 2005 and 2006. The survey, performed over 14 days by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consisted of 172 tracklines and over 300 million soundings and covered an area of 12.2 km2 (4.7 mi2). The goals of this survey were to collect high-resolution bathymetry (depth to the sea floor) and acoustic backscatter data (amount of sound energy bounced back from the sea floor, which provides information on sea-floor hardness and texture) from the inner continental shelf. These data will provide a baseline for future change analyses, geologic mapping, sediment- and contaminant-transport studies, benthic-habitat delineation, and numerical modeling efforts. The survey shows that the inner shelf in this area is extremely varied in nature, encompassing flat sandy areas, faults, boulder fields, and complex bedrock ridges that support rich marine ecosystems. Furthermore, many of these complex bedrock ridges form the ?reefs? that result in a number of California?s classic surf breaks.

  10. Differences in bitumen and kerogen-bound fatty acid fractions during diagenesis and early catagenesis in a maturity series of New Zealand coals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glombitza, Clemens; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Horsfield, Brian

    2016-01-01

    differences in the fatty acid composition between bitumen and kerogen-bound acids, both in the short (fatty acid range. The compositions of these two acid fractions changed independently as a function of maturation. This points to the long and short chain fatty acids in bitumen......Oxygen-bearing functional groups, in particular the carboxylic groups of acids and esters, are mainly responsible for the chemical reactivity of sedimentary organic matter. We have studied kerogen and bitumen fractions from a coalification series from the New Zealand Coal Band covering the rank...... range from 0.28% to 0.80% vitrinite reflectance. We investigated the composition of fatty acids separated from the bitumen, and compared this to the distribution of kerogen-bound fatty acids (esters) obtained after selective chemical degradation of the macromolecular organic matter. We found remarkable...

  11. Re-Os geochronology and Os isotope fingerprinting of petroleum sourced from a Type I lacustrine kerogen: insights from the natural Green River petroleum system in the Uinta Basin and hydrous pyrolysis experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Vivien M.; Selby, David; Lillis, Paul G.; Lewan, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Rhenium–osmium (Re–Os) geochronology of marine petroleum systems has allowed the determination of the depositional age of source rocks as well as the timing of petroleum generation. In addition, Os isotopes have been applied as a fingerprinting tool to correlate oil to its source unit. To date, only classic marine petroleum systems have been studied. Here we present Re–Os geochronology and Os isotope fingerprinting of different petroleum phases (oils, tar sands and gilsonite) derived from the lacustrine Green River petroleum system in the Uinta Basin, USA. In addition we use an experimental approach, hydrous pyrolysis experiments, to compare to the Re–Os data of naturally generated petroleum in order to further understand the mechanisms of Re and Os transfer to petroleum. The Re–Os geochronology of petroleum from the lacustrine Green River petroleum system (19 ± 14 Ma – all petroleum phases) broadly agrees with previous petroleum generation basin models (∼25 Ma) suggesting that Re–Os geochronology of variable petroleum phases derived from lacustrine Type I kerogen has similar systematics to Type II kerogen (e.g., Selby and Creaser, 2005a, Selby and Creaser, 2005b and Finlay et al., 2010). However, the large uncertainties (over 100% in some cases) produced for the petroleum Re–Os geochronology are a result of multiple generation events occurring through a ∼3000-m thick source unit that creates a mixture of initial Os isotope compositions in the produced petroleum phases. The 187Os/188Os values for the petroleum and source rocks at the time of oil generation vary from 1.4 to 1.9, with the mode at ∼1.6. Oil-to-source correlation using Os isotopes is consistent with previous correlation studies in the Green River petroleum system, and illustrates the potential utility of Os isotopes to characterize the spatial variations within a petroleum system. Hydrous pyrolysis experiments on the Green River Formation source rocks show that Re and Os transfer

  12. Quantification, morphology and source of humic acid, kerogen and black carbon in offshore marine sediments from Xiamen Gulf, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanting Chen; Jinping Zhao; Li qianYin; Jinsheng Chen; Dongxing Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Three types of macromolecular organic matters (MOMs),i.e.humic acid (HA),kerogen+black carbon (KB),and black carbon (BC)were extracted from marine sediments of Xiamen Gulf,southeast of China.The chemical composition,morphological property and source of the three extractions were characterized by elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM).The results showed that KB was the predominant fraction in MOMs,which accounted for 61.79%-89.15% of the total organic content (TOC),while HA consisted less than 5%.The relative high contents of kerogen and BC,and low contents of HA in the samples indicated that anthropogenic input might be the major source of organic matter in marine sediments near the industrial regions.The characterization of SEM,not only revealed morphological properties of the three fractions,but also allowed a better understanding of the source of MOMs.The δ13C values of the three fractions suggested that materials from terrestrial C3 plants were predominant.Furthermore,the anthropogenic activities,such as the discharge of sewage,coal and biomass combustion from industry nearby and agricultural practices within drainage basin of the Jiulong River,were remarkably contributed to the variations in δ13C values of MOMs in the offshore marine sediments.

  13. Coast of California Storm and Tidal Waves Study. Geomorphology Framework Report Monterey Bay,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    oi 5-9 Composite stratIgraphic se-ction Of the northern part of Monterey Ila . east of the Palo Colorado-Sati Gregorio fault zone...exposujre oif thte Monterey, Paso Robles . and Aro- ina forinattoits are- ii’gltgibhe. P- rter and tithers (1979) also tletorinite that i-le tlites wi re the...Colorado-San Gregorio Fault Zone (fig. 5-t). The block extends from the Transverse Ranges to Cape Mendocino, a distance of approximately 800 km (Page, 1970

  14. California State Waters Map Series—Monterey Canyon and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Maier, Katherine L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Golden, Nadine E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Greene, H. Gary; Davenport, Clifton W.; Endris, Charles A.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-06-10

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath bathymetry data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area lies within Monterey Bay in central California. Monterey Bay is one of the largest embayments along the west coast of the United States, spanning 36 km from its northern to southern tips (in Santa Cruz and Monterey, respectively) and 20 km along its central axis. Not only does it contain one of the broadest sections of continental shelf along California’s coast, it also contains Monterey Canyon, one of the largest and deepest submarine canyons in the world. Note that the California’s State Waters limit extends farther offshore between Santa Cruz and Monterey so that it encompasses all of Monterey Bay.The coastal area within the map area is lightly populated. The community of Moss Landing (population, 204) hosts the largest commercial fishing fleet in Monterey Bay in its harbor. The map area also includes parts of the cities of Marina (population, about 20,000) and Castroville (population, about 6,500). Fertile lowlands of the Salinas River and Pajaro River valleys largely occupy the inland part of the map area, and land use is primarily agricultural.The offshore part of the map area lies completely within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The

  15. The evolving fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tourte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties has contributed significantly to the agricultural vibrancy of the two counties and the state of California. Dramatic growth in strawberry, raspberry and blackberry production has been documented over the last 50 years, and most notably since the 1980s. Factors influencing this growth include innovations in agricultural practices and heightened consumer demand. Here, we review the historical context for the berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. Organic production, production economics and challenges for the future are also discussed.

  16. Processing, mosaicking and management of the Monterey Bay digital sidescan-sonar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, P.S.; Isbrecht, J.; Galanis, P.; Gabel, G.L.; Sides, S.C.; Soltesz, D.L.; Ross, S.L.; Velasco, M.G.

    2002-01-01

    Sidescan-sonar imaging systems with digital capabilities have now been available for approximately 20 years. In this paper we present several of the various digital image processing techniques developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and used to apply intensity/radiometric and geometric corrections, as well as enhance and digitally mosaic, sidescan-sonar images of the Monterey Bay region. New software run by a WWW server was designed and implemented to allow very large image data sets, such as the digital mosaic, to be easily viewed interactively, including the ability to roam throughout the digital mosaic at the web site in either compressed or full 1-m resolution. The processing is separated into the two different stages: preprocessing and information extraction. In the preprocessing stage, sensor-specific algorithms are applied to correct for both geometric and intensity/radiometric distortions introduced by the sensor. This is followed by digital mosaicking of the track-line strips into quadrangle format which can be used as input to either visual or digital image analysis and interpretation. An automatic seam removal procedure was used in combination with an interactive digital feathering/stenciling procedure to help minimize tone or seam matching problems between image strips from adjacent track-lines. The sidescan-sonar image processing package is part of the USGS Mini Image Processing System (MIPS) and has been designed to process data collected by any 'generic' digital sidescan-sonar imaging system. The USGS MIPS software, developed over the last 20 years as a public domain package, is available on the WWW at: http://terraweb.wr.usgs.gov/trs/software.html.

  17. Recognition of n-alkyl and isoprenoid biopolymers in marine sediments by stable carbon isotopic analysis of pyrolysis products of kerogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hold, I.M.; Schouten, S.; Kaam-Peters, H.M.E. van

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the pyrolysis products of several marine kerogens revealed that the stable carbon isotopic composition of the n-alkanes (C10-C25) are quite similar to those of the n-alkenes. This suggests that they have a common origin such as algal biopolymers. The isoprenoid alkanes (C13-C20) also hav

  18. Origin of low-molecular-weight alkylthiophenes in pyrolysates of sulfur-rich kerogens as revealed by micro-scale sealed vessel pyrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kohnen, M.E.L.; Horsfield, B.

    1998-01-01

    Micro-scale sealed vessel (MSSV) pyrolysis experiments have been conducted at temperatures of 150, 200, 250, 300, 330 and 350¡ãC for various times on a thermally immature Type II-S kerogen from the Maastrichtian Jurf ed Darawish Oil Shale (Jordan) in order to study the origin of low-molecular-weight

  19. Extensive Sorption of Organic Compounds to Black Carbon, Coal and Kerogen in Sediments and Soils: Mechanisms and Consequences for Distribution, Bioaccumulation and Biodegradation (Critical Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, G.; Gustafsson, O.; Bucheli, T.D.; Jonker, M.T.O.; Koelmans, A.A.; Noort, van P.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that sorption of organic chemicals to soils and sediments can be described by "dual-mode sorption": absorption in amorphous organic matter (AOM) and adsorption to carbonaceous materials such as black carbon (BC), coal, and kerogen, collectively termed "carbonaceous geosorben

  20. Extensive Sorption of Organic Compounds to Black Carbon, Coal and Kerogen in Sediments and Soils: Mechanisms and Consequences for Distribution, Bioaccumulation and Biodegradation (Critical Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, G.; Gustafsson, O.; Bucheli, T.D.; Jonker, M.T.O.; Koelmans, A.A.; Noort, van P.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that sorption of organic chemicals to soils and sediments can be described by "dual-mode sorption": absorption in amorphous organic matter (AOM) and adsorption to carbonaceous materials such as black carbon (BC), coal, and kerogen, collectively termed "carbonaceous

  1. Extensive Sorption of Organic Compounds to Black Carbon, Coal and Kerogen in Sediments and Soils: Mechanisms and Consequences for Distribution, Bioaccumulation and Biodegradation (Critical Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, G.; Gustafsson, O.; Bucheli, T.D.; Jonker, M.T.O.; Koelmans, A.A.; Noort, van P.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that sorption of organic chemicals to soils and sediments can be described by "dual-mode sorption": absorption in amorphous organic matter (AOM) and adsorption to carbonaceous materials such as black carbon (BC), coal, and kerogen, collectively termed "carbonaceous geosorben

  2. Sand Wave Migrations Within Monterey Submarine Canyon, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Wong, F. L.

    2006-12-01

    Repeated high-resolution multi-beam surveys revealed the existence of a sand wave field along the axis of the Monterey submarine canyon between 20 and 300 m water depth. These sand waves range in wave length from 20 to 70 m and 2 to 5 m in height. Comparison of sequential multi-beam grid data (months apart) indicates that the sand waves apparently migrate upcanyon at some places while the same data clearly show that the sand waves migrate downcanyon at other locations. One hypothesis is that strong internal tidal flows, whose upcanyon component is intensified by the narrow canyon, are responsible for forming the sand wave field and for migrating the sand waves upcanyon. Another hypothesis is that the sand wave field is formed by creeping (analogous to the movement within glaciers), and in general they move in the downcanyon direction. A field experiment was conducted in 2005-06 to measure the driving forces (in hypothesis #1) that form and move the sand waves, and to collect the internal sedimentological structure within the sand waves that could reveal information on hypothesis #2. A mooring designed to measure near-floor velocity profiles, temperature, salinity, and sediment concentration in the water column was deployed for one year (June 2005 -July 2006) at 250 m water depth, slightly downcanyon of the sand wave field. In addition, a mapping survey was conducted in February, 2006 for collecting multi-beam and chirp profiles in the canyon head area of the sand wave field. Preliminary examination of the ADCP (downward looking) showed some very interesting features - the near- floor current dramatically changes with the spring-neap cycle of the surface tide. The time variation of the along-canyon current during neap tides - a sudden jump of upcanyon velocity before gradually tapering down, is typical of internal tides (internal bores). The time variation during spring tides when along canyon velocities reverse directions from upcanyon to downcanyon and gradually

  3. Experimental controls on D/H and 13C/12C ratios of kerogen, bitumen and oil during hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, A.; Boudou, J.-P.; Lewan, M.D.; Wintsch, R.P.

    2001-01-01

    Large isotopic transfers between water-derived hydrogen and organic hydrogen occurred during hydrous pyrolysis experiments of immature source rocks, in spite of only small changes in organic 13C/12C. Experiments at 330 ??C over 72 h using chips or powder containing kerogen types I and III identify the rock/water ratio as a main factor affecting ????D for water and organic hydrogen. Our data suggest that larger rock permeability and smaller rock grain size increase the H-isotopic transfer between water-derived hydrogen and thermally maturing organic matter. Increasing hydrostatic pressure may have a similar effect, but the evidence remains inconclusive. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of minerals in thermal alteration of organic matter. II - A material balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Eli; Huizinga, Bradley J.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1986-09-01

    The paper presents the results of pyrolysis experiments which were carried out on Green River and Monterey Formation kerogens with and without calcite, illite, or montmorillonite at 300 C for 2 to 1,000 hours under dry and hydrous conditions. The data reveal significant differences in the products generated by pyrolysis of kerogens with and without minerals. Both illite and montmorillonite adsorb a considerable portion of the generated bitumen. In the case of calcite, the pyrolysis products are similar to those from kerogen heated alone, and bitumen adsorption is negligible.

  5. Role of minerals in thermal alteration of organic matter. II - A material balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Eli; Huizinga, Bradley J.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1986-01-01

    The paper presents the results of pyrolysis experiments which were carried out on Green River and Monterey Formation kerogens with and without calcite, illite, or montmorillonite at 300 C for 2 to 1,000 hours under dry and hydrous conditions. The data reveal significant differences in the products generated by pyrolysis of kerogens with and without minerals. Both illite and montmorillonite adsorb a considerable portion of the generated bitumen. In the case of calcite, the pyrolysis products are similar to those from kerogen heated alone, and bitumen adsorption is negligible.

  6. THE RESPONSE OF MONTEREY BAY TO THE GREAT TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE OF 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Carroll

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of Monterey Bay to the Great Tohoku earthquake of 2011 is examined in this study. From a practical standpoint, although the resulting tsunami did not cause any damage to the open harbors at Monterey and Moss Landing, it caused extensive damage to boats and infrastructure in Santa Cruz Harbor, which is closed to surrounding waters. From a scientific standpoint, the observed and predicted amplitudes of the tsunami at 1 km from the source were 21.3 and 22.5 m based on the primary arrival from one DART bottom pressure recorder located 986 km ENE of the epicenter. The predicted and observed travel times for the tsunami to reach Monterey Bay agreed within 3%. The predicted and observed periods of the tsunami-generated wave before it entered the bay yielded periods that approached 2 hours. Once the tsunami entered Monterey Bay it was transformed into a seiche with a primary period of 36-37 minutes, corresponding to quarter-wave resonance within the bay. Finally, from a predictive standpoint, major tsunamis that enter the bay from the northwest, as in the present case, are the ones most likely to cause damage to Santa Cruz harbor.

  7. 77 FR 73322 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution... several different types of sources, ranging from fugitive dust to gas turbines. We are approving a local...

  8. 77 FR 73392 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District... types of sources, ranging from fugitive dust to gas turbines. We are proposing to approve a local rule...

  9. Depth to Transition--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the depth-to-transition map of the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The raster data file is included in...

  10. 75 FR 37727 - Disapproval of California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing disapproval of a revision to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  11. Oceanographic and Atmospheric Conditions on the Continental Shelf North of the Monterey Bay During August 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    the Alan Robinson Special Issue Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans September 17, 2010 ____________________________ 1Monterey Bay...JPL/ROMS) [Schepetkin and McWilliams , 2004], and the Navy Coastal Ocean Model / Innovative Coastal-Ocean Observing Network (NCOM/ICON) model [Shulman

  12. BathymetryA Hillshade [2m]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The raster data file is included in...

  13. BathymetryB [5m]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The raster data file is included in...

  14. BathymetryA [2m]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The raster data file is included in...

  15. Monterey Institute Makes Language Fluency a Key Part of Its International Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Peter

    1992-01-01

    The Monterey Institute's International Studies curriculum is described in terms of its foreign language fluency requirements for business master's degree candidates and the school's use of language in international business negotiation training and other exercises involving foreign affairs. Illustrations reveal the school's success in educating…

  16. 76 FR 47237 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Monterey County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Monterey County, CA... normal business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following public land is proposed for direct sale... appraised fair market value of $25,000. DATES: Written comments regarding the proposed sale must be...

  17. Depth to Transition--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the depth-to-transition map of the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The raster data file is included in...

  18. BathymetryB Hillshade [5m]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The raster data file is included in...

  19. Sand Mining Impacts on Long-Term Dune Erosion in Southern Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    estimated to have condominium and hotel in Monterey, as well as 100 m extended 13 km seaward of the present day shoreline of rock rubble and a 200 in...OrthoBase software employed in the overlapping pair, but whose coordinates are unknown. stereo-photogrammetry calculated total horizontal rms The GCPs

  20. Bathymetry Hillshade [5m]--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The raster data file is included in...

  1. BathymetryA Hillshade [2m]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The raster data file is included in...

  2. BathymetryB [5m]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The raster data file is included in...

  3. BathymetryB Hillshade [5m]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The raster data file is included in...

  4. BathymetryA [2m]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The raster data file is included in...

  5. [Comment to “Response of Monterey Bay to the Loma Prieta Earthquake of October 17, 1989”] Montery Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Franklin B.; Norton, Jerrold G.; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.

    Observations of liquefaction and slumping in Monterey Bay, Calif., described in “Response of Monterey Bay to the Loma Prieta Earthquake of October 17, 1989,” (Eos, February [6], 1990, p. 250), were based on the ongoing work of a team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories (MLML), Hopkins Marine Station, and Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), who are continuing to investigate the causes and effects of slumping and other processes that occurred in association with the earthquake.

  6. Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehmann, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the following, a new conceptual framework for investigating nowadays’ “technical” phenomena shall be introduced, that of formats. The thesis is that processes of formatting account for our recent conditions of life, and will do so in the very next future. It are processes whose foundations have been laid in modernity and which will further unfold for the time being. These processes are embedded in the format of the value chain, a circumstance making them resilient to change. In addition, they are resilient in themselves since forming interconnected systems of reciprocal causal circuits.Which leads to an overall situation that our entire “Lebenswelt” became formatted to an extent we don’t fully realize, even influencing our very percep-tion of it.

  7. Représentation chimique de la structure des kérogènes et des asphaltènes en fonction de leur origine et de leur degré d'évolution Chemical Modeling of the Structure of Kerogens and Asphaltenes As a Function of Their Origin and Evolution Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article nous proposons des modèles de structures chimiques de kérogènes et d'asphaltènes de roche. Nous avons choisi de représenter les kérogènes appartenant aux trois types classiques de matières organiques aux stades d'évolution suivants : - début de la diagenèse sensu-stricto; - début de la catagenèse (formation de l'huile; - fin de la catagenèse (formation du gaz. Les asphaltènes représentés correspondent à la phase de formation de l'huile. Nous avons tenu compte des données d'analyse obtenues sur des échantillons naturels : analyse élémentaire, microscopie électronique, RMN 13C, thermogravimétrie, analyse fonctionnelle, dégradation par pyrolyse. Afin d'obtenir une représentation chimique ayant une valeur statistique suffisante, nous avons choisi une masse moléculaire de 25 000 environ, identique pour les trois kérogènes au début de la diagenèse, et une masse de 8000 environ pour les asphaltènes associés. Nous avons ensuite dessiné à l'échelle moléculaire les structures correspondantes. This paper proposes models for the chemical structures of kerogens and asphaltenes from rocks. The kerogens belonging to the three conventional types of organic matter are represented in the following stages of evolution: (1 beginning of diagenesis sensu stricto,(2 beginning of catagenesis (formation of oil, and (3 end of catagenesis (formation of gas. The asphaltenes represented here correspond to the phase of oil formation. Models are based on analytical data obtained on natural samples, i. e. elemental analysis, electron microscopy, 13C NMR, thermogravimetry, functional analysis and pyrolysis. To get enough statistical value for the chemical modelling, a same molecular mass of about 25 000 was chosen for the three kerogens at the beginning of diagenesis. A molecular mass of about 8000 was chosen for the related asphaltenes. The chemical structures were then constructed at the molecular scale.

  8. Compositional variability of crude oils and source kerogen in the Silurian carbonate-evaporite sequences of the eastern Michigan Basin, Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obermajer, M.; Fowler, M.G.; Snowdon, L.R.; Macqueen, R.W. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-12-01

    A suite of oil and rock samples from the Middle Silurian Guelph-Salina interval in the south of Ontario was selected to perform biomarker analyses. The results of the analysis indicated that the oils present in the Guelph reef reservoirs belong to the same family and they seem to show a carbonate source rock deposited in a hypersaline, strongly reducing environment. The biomarkers possessed high concentrations of acyclic isoprenoids with pristane lower than phytane, gammacerane in large quantities, prominent C{sub 34} and C{sub 35} homohopanes. Brown, laminated dolostone lithofacies rock samples, found in the stratigraphical strata next to the Guelph-Salina interval, displayed similarities in composition with the reef-hosted oils. Good source potential was detected during the analysis of the rock samples, and significant quantities of marine Type II kerogen were found. A structured, identifiable algal component was common, even if most of the organic matter is amorphous. A contribution from microbial organisms was suspected, since a broad distribution of n-paraffins, containing a somewhat high concentration of C{sub 21+} members and large quantities of acyclic isoprenoids was present in the samples. Pristane lower than phytane suggested highly anoxic bottom waters, possibly combined with hypersaline conditions. Broad C{sub 31}-C{sub 35} extended hopane profile with prominent C{sub 34} homohopane and high concentration of gammacerane seem to indicate reducing conditions. Periods of recurrence of back-reef lagoonal and inter-biothermal paleodepositional conditions during the deposition of both the Guelph Platform and Salina Group carbonates is explained by the geochemical similarities among the samples. A genetic relationship is indicated by the geochemical correlation of extracts and oils. An early generation of hydrocarbons took place in this interval, as demonstrated by the presence of bitumen and hydrocarbon fluid inclusions in the Guelph samples. A close

  9. A review of marine zones in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jennifer A.

    2001-01-01

    This report reviews marine zoning in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS). The 72 zoned areas in the MBNMS are of 13 different zone types. Each marine zone type has associated regulations that restrict or promote specific activities. For example, recreational activities such as boating, fishing, tidepooling, snorkeling, and SCUBA diving are limited in some zones. Scientific research is allowed at all sites, with appropriate permits, and is specifically promoted in a few sites...

  10. Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project. Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Report/Statement II. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    sanderlings, long-billed dowitchers, and I western, California and Heermann’s gulls. Brown pelicans, double-crested cormorants, and surf scooters are typical...sediment carried in suspension above the stream bed (see suspended load). Board: The Monterey Peninsula Water Management District’s seven-member Board...silt and fine sand, which is carried in suspension above the bottom of a stream by moving water, as contrasted with the bed load rolled along the

  11. A kinetic study of the depyritization of oil shale HCl-kerogen concentrate by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLGA CVETKOVIC

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The results of kinetic studies of bacterial depyritization of HCl-kerogen concentrate of Aleksinac (Serbia oil shale by the chemolithoautotrophic thionic bacteria Thiobacillus ferrooxidans under discontinuous laboratory conditions at various temperatures (0, 20, 28 and 37°C at a pH of ca. 1.5 are presented in this paper. Low pH prevents the occurrence of the precipitation of iron(III-ion hydrolysis products on the substrate particles and thereby reduces the process efficiency. Bacterial depyritization is developed as per kinetics of the first order. The activation energy which points to a successive mechanism of pyrite biooxidation, was computed from the Arrhenius plot. The biochemical kinetics indicators point to a high affinity of the bacteria toward pyrite but small values of Vmax, which are probably the result of decelerated metabolic processes due to the low pH value of the environment resp. the large difference of the pH between the external medium and the cell interior.

  12. Employing LIDAR and Rtk GPS to Evaluate a Small Beach Nourishment in Southern Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, A. G.; Smith, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    An increasing number of coastal communities are considering opportunistic beach nourishment as a coastal erosion mitigation method, particularly as erosion rates are quantified with increasing accuracy and consequences of sea level rise are realized. The southernmost region of Monterey Bay is eroding at rates of 0-0.8 m/year and small scale beach nourishment has been recommended as a possible mitigation technique. However, the absence of monitored pilot studies and calibrated models has prevented stakeholders from confidently predicting the lifetime or cost-benefit of the project. During the winter of 2012 - 2013, approximately 7,500 m3 of Monterey Harbor dredge material was used to nourish a section of beach identified as a critical erosion area. To determine whether this method is feasible as A long term mitigation strategy, we have collected topographic survey data of the nourishment area and control sites. Baseline beach profile data were collected using vessel based light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and real time kinematic (RTK) GPS prior to nourishment and periodically following completion of the nourishment project. Swell height and period were also monitored immediately offshore of the nourishment region. Morphologic change based on topographic survey data is combined with wave data to calibrate a beach morphology model to the Southern Monterey Bay region for use in future coastal erosion decisions as well as establish a nourishment evaluation method that could be applied to other critical erosion areas.

  13. A discussion on the upper limit of maturity for gas generation by marine kerogens and the utmost of gas generative potential: Taking the study on the Tarim Basin as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The experimental data yielded by Rock-Eval pyrolysis, kerogen atomic H/C, Py-GC and gold-tube sealing thermal simulation on the marine Cambrian-Ordovician source rock from the Tarim Basin revealed that the upper limit of maturity for natural gas generation or the "deadline of gas generation" for marine types Ⅰ and Ⅱ kerogens is equal to 3.0% of vitrinite reflectance (Ro); while the "deadline of gas generation" for type Ⅲ kerogens typically like coals is as high as 10% Ro. Thus, different organic matter has obviously different utmost maturities for gas generation. The mass-balance calculation by kerogen elements showed that when Ro>1.5%, the utmost amount of gas generation for the marine type Ⅱ kerogen is less than 185 m3/t TOC, accounting for less than 30% of its total hydrocarbon generative potential; when Ro>2.0%, it becomes 110 m3/t TOC, less than 20% of the total hydrocarbon generative potential. The amount of the gas generative potential obtained by Rock-Eval is only around one tenth of the calculated value by the mass balance of kerogen elements at the same thermal evolutionary stage,while those by Py-GC and gold-tube sealing simulation are intervenient between the above two. The utmost of gas generative potential at the over 1.3% Ro stage is around 60-90 m3/t TOC, therefore, the amount of gas generation obtained by Rock-Eval is the minimum of gas generative potential, while that by the mass-balance calculation of kerogen elements is the maximum that the actual amount of gas generation should not exceed.

  14. Currents, temperature, attenuation, and conductivity data collected during the Monterey Canyon Experiment from moorings deployed from platforms ROBERT GORDON SPROUL and NOAA Ship McARTHUR from 1993-08-03 to 1995-05-15 (NCEI Accession 0067570)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Monterey Canyon experiment studied the mechanisms that govern the circulation within and the transport of sediment and water through Monterey Submarine Canyon....

  15. Evaluation of oil shale from Eastern Canada by retorting and by concentration of a kerogen-rich fraction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.W.; Abbott, D.

    1981-12-16

    An apparatus was developed for testing the retorting behaviour of oil shales under pressures up to 500 psi hydrogen and 700/sup 0/C. Equipment was also constructed and brought into service for the determination of oil yields by the Fischer assay method. Six samples of Albert shale of varying oil content (<10 to 40-50 gals/ton) were tested by the Fischer method and by hydrogen retorting to determine yields of liquid distillate under different conditions of retorting. The Fischer assays gave oil yields of 2.9 to 47.5 gals/ton which corresponded to carbon conversion of 50.5 to 87.8 per cent. The hydrogen retorting tests at 700/sup 0/C and 500/sup 0/C gave carbon conversion rates of 53 to 87 per cent which are comparable to that for the Fischer retorting. Retorting at 500/sup 0/C gave oil yields similar to the Fischer assay but at 700/sup 0/C oil yields were reduced, 4 to 30 gals/ton, although gas yields increased. In the retorting tests performed, the use of hydrogen at 500 psi did not increase yields. More work is needed to understand the retorting behaviour of New Brunswick and other Canadian oil shales. Retorting tests for resource assessment purposes are also needed. These should be coupled to determining the rate of carbon conversion and hence the effectiveness of the retorting technique. Petrographic, chemical and thermogravimetric analyses of the oil shales were undertaken to characterize the materials for retorting tests. The second part of the project involved producing a kerogen concentrate by standard beneficiation methods, spherical agglomeration, gravity methods and by flotation. Only gravity separation showed promise of being a viable industrial process. Fine grinding and gravity separation gave high concetrations up to 70 gals/ton but yields were low. 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Composition, peat-forming vegetation and kerogen paraffinicity of Cenozoic coals: Relationship to variations in the petroleum generation potential (Hydrogen Index)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, H.I.; Lindstroem, S.; Nytoft, H.P.; Rosenberg, P. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oester Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2009-04-01

    Coals with similar thermal maturity and from the same deposit normally show a considerable range in petroleum generation potential as measured by the Hydrogen Index (HI). This variation may partly be related to variations in plant input to the precursor mires and organic matter preservation. It is widely accepted that some Cenozoic coals and coaly sediments have the potential to generate oil, which is related to the coal's paraffinicity. Coal paraffinicity is not readily reflected in the bulk HI. In this paper, the relationships between measured HI and coal composition, coal kerogen paraffinicity and floral input have been investigated in detail for three sets of coals from Colombia/Venezuela, Indonesia, and Vietnam. The samples in each coal set are largely of iso-rank. The petroleum generation potential was determined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis. Reflected light microscopy was used to analyse the organic matter (maceral) composition and the thermal maturity was determined by vitrinite reflectance (VR) measurements. The botanical affinity of pollen and spores was analysed by palynology. Coal kerogen paraffinicity was determined by ruthenium tetroxide-catalysed oxidation (RTCO) followed by chain length analysis and quantification (mg/g TOC) of the liberated aliphatic chains. The coals are dominated by huminite, in particular detrohuminite. Only the Vietnamese coals are rich in microscopically visible liptinite. The pollen and spores suggest that the coals were derived principally from complex angiosperm mire vegetations, with subordinate proportions of ferns that generally grew in a subtropical to tropical climate. Measured HI values vary considerably, but for the majority of the coals the values lie between approximately 200 mg HC/g TOC and 300 mg HC/g TOC. Aliphatics yielding monocarboxylic acids dominate in the coal kerogen, whereas aliphatics yielding dicarboxylic acids are secondary. However, the dicarboxylic acids show that cross-linking long-chain aliphatics

  17. Geochemical evaluation of Pabdeh Formation in Nosrat field, southeast Persian Gulf using Rock- Eval VI pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad sadeghi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed on 59 drillhole cuttings from Pabdeh Formation in Nosrat oil field using Rock- Eval VI pryrolysis. Geochemical analysis indicated that Pabdeh Formation possesses poor to good hydrocarbon potential. Plotting S1 against TOC suggests that samples were not affected by polluting substances such as crude oil and lubricants while drilling operation. Jones organic fancies diagram shows B-BC area indicating that Pabdeh Formation was deposited in marine anoxic to oxic environments. HI vesus Tmax shows that most samples initially have had type II kerogen and now reflecting a mixture of type II to III kerogen (capable of generating oil that have already entered oil generation window. In addition, S1+S2 versus TOC plot also suggests that Pabdeh Formation can be considered as a capable hydrocarbon generating source rock in the study area.

  18. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide During The Monterey Cooling Event Inferred From Fossil Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuerschner, W. M.

    2001-05-01

    The Middle Miocene is a period of transition from the late Early Miocene climatic optimum to the modern Late Neogene climate mode. Major changes in East Antarctic Ice Sheet volume, sea level, deep ocean circulation and global carbon cycle took place. In the marine record a marked d13C excursion between about 17.5 Ma and 13.5 Ma indicates enhanced biological productivity and burial of organic carbon, which in turn may have resulted into a drastic depletion in atmospheric CO2 concentration and finally into global cooling (Monterey hypothesis). Well preserved fossil laurel leaves (Laurus abchasica) were studied from several Early and Middle Miocene brown coal deposits in Germany and Czech Republic. Applying the inverse relationship between the number of pores (stomata) on leaves and the ambient CO2 concentration, stomatal frequency analysis reveals changes in paleoatmospheric CO2 during the Monterey cooling event. Preliminary results indicate a doubling of stomatal density and stomatal index during the middle Miocene. The increase coincides with the beginning of the δ 13C excursion at about 17.5 Ma in the marine record. Maximum values occur around 14 Ma but decline again around 12 Ma. The comparison with the response rates of the modern Laurus indicates a drawdown of about 100 - 200 ppmv as a first order approximation. During the middle Miocene climatic optimum atmospheric CO2 concentrations may have been significantly higher than during the post-Monterey period. In contrast to Middle Miocene CO2 reconstructions based on marine proxies the present data suggest, that massive oceanic C burial depleted the atmospheric C reservoir. This depletion may have resulted into the global cooling through a reversed greenhouse effect.

  19. Insights into Seasonal Variations in Phosphorus Concentrations and Cycling in Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M.; Defforey, D.; Paytan, A.; Roberts, K.

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for life as it is a structural constituent in many cell components and a key player in cellular energy metabolism. Therefore, P availability can impact primary productivity. Here we quantify dissolved and particulate P compounds and trace P sources and cycling in Monterey Bay over the course of a year. This time series gives insights into monthly and seasonal variations in the surface water chemistry of this region. Preliminary characterization of seawater samples involves measuring total P and soluble reactive P (SRP) concentrations. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P NMR) is used to determine the chemical structure of organic phosphorus compounds present in surface seawater. The isotopic signature of phosphatic oxygen (δ18Op) is used as a proxy for studying P cycling and sources. Oxygen isotope ratios in phosphate are determined by continuous-flow isotope mass ratio spectrometry (CF-IRMS) following purification of dissolved P from seawater samples and precipitation as silver phosphate. We expect to observe seasonal changes in P concentrations, as well as differences in organic P composition and P sources. The chemical structure of organic P compounds will affect their bioavailability and thus the extent to which they can fuel primary productivity in Monterey Bay. δ18Op will reflect source signatures and provide information on turnover rates of P in surface waters. Results from this work will provide valuable insights into seasonal changes in P cycling in surface waters and have important implications for understanding primary productivity in the Monterey Bay ecosystem.

  20. Anchovies to Whales: tracking vertebrate biodiversity in Monterey Bay by metabarcoding environmental DNA (eDNA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closek, C. J.; Starks, H.; Walz, K.; Boehm, A. B.; Chavez, F.

    2016-12-01

    The oscillation between the dominance of Sardinops sagax (pacific sardine) and Engraulis mordax (northern anchovy) has been documented in the California Coastal Ecosystem for more than 100 years. These two species are strong drivers of trophic interactions in the region. As part of the Marine Biodiversity Observational Network (MBON) initiative, we used archived filtered seawater samples collected late-summer to mid-fall over a span of 8 years from Monterey Bay, CA to examine the change in marine vertebrate environmental DNA (eDNA). Water samples were collected from a nearshore location in Monterey Bay (C1) during the years of 2008-15. The water was then filtered, and the filter was archived at -80°C. DNA was extracted from the filters, and the 12S rRNA gene present in mitochondrial DNA was PCR amplification using primers designed to amplify 12s rRNA genes from marine vertebrates. The amplicons were subsequently sequenced with an Illumina MiSeq and the data processed using an analysis pipeline for sequence annotation. More than 20 fish genera were noted in the sequences from 2008-12, with Engraulis the dominant fish genus from 2013-15. Anchovy and Megaptera novaeangliae (humpback whale) were present in temporal patterns similar to those noted during visual observations where anchovy and humpback whale were more abundant during the years of 2013-2015 than the other years. This study demonstrates our ability to detect megafauna and fish species that are important to the Monterey Bay ecosystem from coastal water samples and determine community structural differences over time.

  1. Characterization of oil shale, isolated kerogen, and post-pyrolysis residues using advanced 13 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Birdwell, Justin E.; Chappell, Mark A.; Li, Yuan; Pignatello, Joseph J.; Mao, Jingdong

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of oil shale kerogen and organic residues remaining in postpyrolysis spent shale is critical to the understanding of the oil generation process and approaches to dealing with issues related to spent shale. The chemical structure of organic matter in raw oil shale and spent shale samples was examined in this study using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Oil shale was collected from Mahogany zone outcrops in the Piceance Basin. Five samples were analyzed: (1) raw oil shale, (2) isolated kerogen, (3) oil shale extracted with chloroform, (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C to mimic surface retorting, and (5) oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C to simulate in-situ retorting. The NMR methods applied included quantitative direct polarization with magic-angle spinning at 13 kHz, cross polarization with total sideband suppression, dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, 13C chemical shift anisotropy filtering, and 1H-13C long-range recoupled dipolar dephasing. The NMR results showed that, relative to the raw oil shale, (1) bitumen extraction and kerogen isolation by demineralization removed some oxygen-containing and alkyl moieties; (2) unpyrolyzed samples had low aromatic condensation; (3) oil shale pyrolysis removed aliphatic moieties, leaving behind residues enriched in aromatic carbon; and (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C contained larger aromatic clusters and more protonated aromatic moieties than oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C, which contained more total aromatic carbon with a wide range of cluster sizes.

  2. Deployment of a Long-Term Broadband Seafloor Observatory in Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, P.; Neuhauser, D.; Stakes, D.; Romanowicz, B.; Ramirez, T.; Uhrhammer, R.

    2002-12-01

    MOBB (Monterey bay Ocean floor Broad Band project) is a collaborative project between the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) and the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL). Its goal is to install and operate a permanent seafloor broadband seismic station as a first step towards extending the on-shore broadband seismic network in northern California to the seaside of the North-America/Pacific plate boundary, providing better azimuthal coverage for regional earthquake and structure studies. The successful MOBB deployment took place 40km off shore at a water depth of 1000m during three dives on April 9-11, 2002. The seismometer was buried in a 60-cm deep caisson, which was later back filled with glass beads to stabilize the instrument. New tools, including a high-pressure water-jet excavator, were developed for the ROV Ventana to accomplish these tasks. The ocean-bottom MOBB station currently comprises a three-component seismometer package, a current-meter, and a recording and battery package. Data recovery dives, during which the recording and battery package will be exchanged, are planned every three months for the next three years. A differential pressure gauge (DPG) (Cox et al., 1984) will be deployed as part of the recording package during the next data recovery dive in September 2002. The station is currently recording data autonomously. Eventually, it will be linked to the planned (and recently funded) MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research System; rl {http://www.mbari.org/mars/}) cable and provide real-time, continuous seismic data to be merged with the rest of the northern California real-time seismic system. The data are archived at the NCEDC for on-line availability, as part of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN). This project follows the 1997 MOISE experiment, in which a three-component broadband system was deployed for a period of three months, 40km off shore in Monterey Bay. MOISE was a cooperative program sponsored by MBARI, UC

  3. Numerical Simulation of Recent Turbidity Currents in the Monterey Canyon System, Offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimsund, S.; Xu, J.; Nemec, W.

    2007-12-01

    The method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used, in the form of a 3D numerical model (Flow- 3D®), to perform a full-scale simulation of turbidity currents measured in December 2002 by three moorings in the Soquel and Monterey canyons. The model was verified by simulation of laboratory flows, and was upscaled to the Monterey Canyon system on the basis of high-resolution bathymetric data and flow measurements. The measured velocity profiles were sufficient to assess the flow thickness, initial velocity and duration in the canyon head zone. A computational grid with a highest feasible resolution was used, and both bathymetry and hydrostatic pressure were accounted for. The volumetric sediment concentration and exact grain- size composition of the flows were unknown, and thus a range of values for the initial concentration and bed roughness were assumed and assessed on a trial-and-error basis. The simulations reveal the behavior of a turbidity current along its descent path, including its local hydraulic characteristics (the 3D field of velocity, sediment concentration, shear stress, strain rate, and dynamic viscosity, as well as the magnitude of velocity and turbulent shear). The results confirm that the velocity structure of turbidity current is highly sensitive to variation in seafloor topography. The December 17th flow in the Soquel Canyon appears to have lost capacity by dilution over a relatively short distance and shown significant velocity fluctuations, which is attributed to the rugged topography of the canyon floor. A major loss of momentum occurred when the flow plunged at high angle into the Monterey Canyon, crashing against its bend's southern wall. The December 20th flow in the Monterey Canyon, in contrast, developed a considerably longer body and strongly accelerated towards the canyon's sharp second bend before crashing against its western wall. The mooring data show a down-canyon decline of velocity and suggest gradual waning, but the

  4. Modeling and Field Study of Coupled Bio-Optical Physical Processes in the Monterey Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, I.; Arnone, R.; Teague, W.; Chavez, F.; Schofield, O.; Moline, M.; Penta, B.; Ryan, J.; Gould, R.; Anderson, S.; Jolliff, J. K.; Book, J. W.; Derada, S.; Paduan, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Scientists from government, academia and non-profit organizations participated in an interdisciplinary field program in the Monterey Bay from during May-June of 2008. The experiment was a collaboration between the NRL project "Bio-Optical Studies of Predictability and Assimilation for the Coastal Environment (BIOSPACE)", Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) project "Rapid Environmental Assessment Using an Integrated Coastal Ocean Observation-Modeling System (ESPRESSO)", the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), the NRL project "Unattended Sea-bed Power for In-water Operations", and the U.S. Geological Survey. Objectives of the NRL BIOSPACE and MURI ESPRESSO projects are centered around developing an understanding of coupled bio-optical and physical processes in the coastal zone and improvements of predictability of coastal ocean optical properties on time scales of 1-5 days. MBARI has long-term objectives of monitoring, studying and managing the Monterey Bay ecosystem dynamics and health. The goals for the 2008 field program were to create a synoptic view of the coupled bio- optical physical conditions in the Monterey Bay and to relate satellite observed properties to their subsurface structure. The program was focused on the so-called "upwelling shadow area"(northern part of the bay), where biological processes are enhanced as a result of the slower physical dynamics. The field program deployed a wide range of assets: gliders, AUVs, ScanFish (a ship-towed platform), SEPTR, etc. This deployment was supplemented with intensive station sampling from the R/V Point Sur and satellite ocean color imagery (MODIS, MERIS). The field program was supported by a real-time modeling effort consisting of a hierarchy of different resolution, nested, data assimilating, coupled bio-optical physical models. Development of a pair of cyclonic (in the bay) and anticyclonic (outside of the bay) eddies was observed and predicted by the model during an

  5. Franciscan-type rocks off Monterey Bay, California: Implications for western boundary of Salinian Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Henry T.; Nagel, David K.

    1981-07-01

    Serpentinites and spilitic basalts recovered at depths of 1000 m from Ascension Submarine Canyon northwest of Monterey Bay, California indicate that Franciscan basement is present immediately to the west of the San Gregorio Fault. This new information, together with published geological/geophysical data, support previous suggestions that the offshore western boundary of the Salinian block (Sur-Nacimiento Fault) has been tectonically truncated by the San Gregorio Fault and has been displaced by as much as 90 km to the northwest since the mid-late Miocene.

  6. Sedimentary processes of the lower Monterey Fan channel and channel-mouth lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaucke, I.; Masson, D.G.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Gardner, J.V.

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of deposits, sediment transport pathways and processes on the lower Monterey Fan channel and channel-mouth lobe (CML) are studied through the integration of GLORIA and TOBI sidescan sonar data with 7-kHz subbottom profiler records and sediment cores for ground-truthing. The lower Monterey channel is characterised by an up to 30-m-deep channel with poorly developed levees and alternating muddy and silty muddy overbank deposits. The channel is discontinuous, disappearing where gradients are less than about 1:350. Ground-truthing of the large CML shows that the entire CML is characterised by widespread deposits of generally fine sand, with coarser sand at the base of turbidites. Sand is particularly concentrated in finger-like areas of low-backscatter intensity and is interpreted as the result of non-turbulent sediment-gravity flows depositing metres thick massive, fine sand. TOBI sidescan sonar data reveal recent erosional features in the form of scours, secondary channels, large flow slides, and trains of blocks at the distal end of the CML. Erosion is probably related to increasing gradient as the CML approaches Murray Fracture zone and to differential loading of sandy submarine fan deposits onto pelagic clays. Reworking of older flow slides by sediment transport processes on the lobe produces trains of blocks that are several metres in diameter and aligned parallel to the flow direction. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Demonstration of surgical telerobotics and virtual telepresence by Internet + ISDN from Monterey (USA) to Milan (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovetta, A; Sala, R; Bressanelli, M; Garavaldi, M E; Lorini, F; Pegoraro, R; Canina, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with the connection which has been held on 8th July 1997 in collaboration with the JPL of the NASA, Pasadena, California, between the Eighth International Conference on the Advanced Robotics (ICAR '97) in course at Monterey, California and the Telerobotics Laboratory of Politecnico di Milano connected in a multipoint teleconference through the MCU of Rome with the Aula Magna of the same Politecnico and the Palace Business of the Giureconsulti of the Chamber of Commerce of Milan. The demonstration has allowed to telecontrol a scara robot of the Sankyo and an ABB robot, which have affected simulations of operations of biopsy to the prostate, to the liver and to the breast, a mechanical hand and a model of a car, disposed in a space destined to reproduce the Martian ground, from Monterey to Milan by means of the INTERNET+ISDN connection from. In fact the event has taken place four days after the landing on Mars happily successful of the spatial probe Pathfinder from which it has gone out the "Sojourner" robot, telecontrolled from the JPL of the NASA, which has begun to take photos of the Martian ground and also some of these images have been transmitted in the course of the connection.

  8. Prevalence of epidermal conditions in California coastal bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Monterey Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldini, Daniela; Riggin, Jessica; Cecchetti, Arianna; Cotter, Mark P

    2010-11-01

    The prevalence of epidermal conditions in a small population of coastal bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Monterey Bay was evaluated between 2006 and 2008. Five different skin condition categories were considered, including Pox-Like Lesions, Discoloration, Orange Film, Polygon Lesions, and Miscellaneous Markings. Of 147 adults and 42 calves photographically examined, at least 90 and 71%, respectively, were affected by at least one or multiple conditions. Pox-Like Lesions were the most prevalent, affecting 80% of the population, including adults and calves. This condition warrants the most urgent investigation being possibly indicative of the widespread presence of poxvirus or a similar pathogen in the population. In view of the high number of individuals affected, standard monitoring of the health status of Monterey Bay bottlenose dolphins is considered imperative. Discoloration was strongly associated with Pox-Like lesions. Orange Films were likely an epifaunal infestation caused by diatoms, which have been documented in other cetacean species. Polygon Lesions, a newly described category, could be the result of infestation by barnacles of the genus Cryptolepas. Miscellaneous Markings were variable in appearance and may not have the same causative factor. Although none of the proposed etiologies can be confirmed without appropriate clinical tests, recognizing common visible characteristics of the conditions could aid in preliminary comparisons across populations and individuals.

  9. Acoustic mapping of squid egg clusters and their bottom habitat in Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Kenneth G.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Iampietro, Pat J.; Kvitek, Rikk G.

    2004-10-01

    Clusters of gelatinous egg capsules, known as mops or beds, of the market squid (Loligo opalescens) were mapped in a shallow-water, sandy habitat of Monterey Bay, California. The benthic egg clusters were imaged using an EdgeTech 272-TD dual-frequency sidescan sonar towed from R/V MACGINITIE, an 8-m-long survey vessel, with data recorded on a Triton Elics International Isis digital data acquisition system. Verification of target identity was accomplished independently by video photography from a remotely operated vehicle. The survey area included a 4-km stretch of sandy seafloor between Lover's Point and Cannery Row in Monterey at depths of 15-30 m. The study area had previously been mapped using the RESON SeaBat 8101 240-kHz multibeam sonar. Resulting high-resolution bathymetric data, with 1-m resolution, were used during the survey planning and execution. Squid egg clusters were clearly visible in the very-high-resolution, 400-kHz backscatter imagery, with pixel size 10-20 cm, recorded from the towed sidescan sonar. The concentration of egg clusters was greatest along a sloping feature believed to be a submarine fault. Egg mops with diameter as small as 0.5 m were distinguishable. [Support by Sea Grant is acknowledged.

  10. EXPLOITING REAL TIME DATA FROM THE MONTEREY OCEAN FLOOR BROADBAND OBSERVATORY (MOBB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowicz, B. A.; Taira, T.; Dolenc, D.; McGill, P. R.; Neuhauser, D. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Monterey Ocean Bottom Broadband (MOBB) observatory has been acquiring broadband seismic data and auxiliary channels (differential pressure and current meter) since its installation on the ocean floor in Monterey Bay, at 1000 m water depth and 40 km off-shore. Operating autonomously for almost 7 years, the system was successfully connected to the MARS cable (www.mbari.org/mars) on February 26th, 2009, via a 3.6 km extension cable from the MARS science node. The system works as designed and is currently streaming data from seismic, pressure, and water-current sensors to the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, where it joins data from other broadband stations on land and is archived at the Northern California Earthquake Data Center. The availability of real-time MOBB broadband seismic data provides an opportunity for improving earthquake-monitoring capability in central California, particularly near the Santa Cruz Mountains segment of the San Andreas fault, and the San Gregorio fault. While buried in the mud, MOBB is affected by oceanic sources of noise, which are particularly strong in the infragravity wave band, and care must be taken to reduce this background noise in post-processing. We present examples of data analysis and illustrate how MOBB contributes to the determination of source parameters and regional structure.

  11. Late Quaternary relative sea level in Southern California and Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Laura C.; Simms, Alexander R.

    2015-10-01

    Few records of late Quaternary relative sea level (RSL) are available for the Pacific coast of North America south of San Francisco Bay, a region where RSL data would be particularly useful for constraining vertical rates of tectonic motion. This paper provides the first regional, uplift-corrected late Quaternary RSL history for southern California derived from a compilation of 132 previously published and unpublished radiocarbon ages from nearshore, estuarine, and freshwater deposits in sediment cores from coastal southern California. We also provide a local, uplift-corrected RSL history for Monterey Bay, central California, generated from 48 radiocarbon ages from Elkhorn Slough and surrounding environments. Our resulting compilations show rapid sea-level rise from 15 ka which begins to decelerate to present mean sea level (PMSL) between 6 and 8 ka. Late Holocene (Bay in central California. Both rates of late Holocene RSL rise calculated are lower than recent RSL rates from southern California (˜1.61 ± 0.34 to 2.4 ± 1.04 mm a-1) and Monterey Bay (1.49 ± 0.95 mm a-1), derived from uplift-corrected, 20th century tide gauge data. This new RSL data fills geographical gaps in relative sea-level histories, as well as provides important datums for local tectonic processes.

  12. Solid-state NMR characterization of Mowry Formation shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miknis, F.P.

    1992-04-01

    Solid-state [sup 13]C and [sup 29]Si NMR measurements were carried out on a series of petroleum source rocks from the Mowry Formation of the Powder River Basin in Wyoming. The objectives of this study wereto use CP/MAS [sup 13]C NMR measurements to monitor changes in the carbon structure of the kerogen that result from depth of burial, and to examine the feasibility of [sup 29]Si NMR for studying the thermal alteration of clay minerals during diagenesis. Carbon and silicon NMR measurements were made on a suite of samples covering a present-day depth interval of 3,000 to 11,500 ft.In general, the NMR results endorsed other geochemical analyses that were performed on the source rocks as part of another study to examine pressure compartmentalization in the Mowry Formation. The carbon aromaticity of the kerogen increased with depth of burial, and at depths greater that approximately 10,000 ft the kerogen showed little capacity to generate additional oil because of the small fraction of residual aliphatic carbon. By combining NMR and Rock-Eval measurements, an estimate of the hydrogen budget was obtained. The calculations indicated that approximately 20% of the kerogen was converted to hydrocarbons, and that sufficient hydrogen was liberated from aromatization and condensation reactions to stabilize the generated products. The [sup 29]Si NMR spectra were characterized by a relatively sharp quartz resonance and a broad resonance from the clay minerals. With increasing depth of burial, the clay resonance became broader and shifted slightly downfield. These changes qualitatively support X-ray analysis that shows progressive alteration of illite to smectite with depth of burial.

  13. Solid-state NMR characterization of Mowry Formation shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miknis, F.P.

    1992-04-01

    Solid-state {sup 13}C and {sup 29}Si NMR measurements were carried out on a series of petroleum source rocks from the Mowry Formation of the Powder River Basin in Wyoming. The objectives of this study wereto use CP/MAS {sup 13}C NMR measurements to monitor changes in the carbon structure of the kerogen that result from depth of burial, and to examine the feasibility of {sup 29}Si NMR for studying the thermal alteration of clay minerals during diagenesis. Carbon and silicon NMR measurements were made on a suite of samples covering a present-day depth interval of 3,000 to 11,500 ft.In general, the NMR results endorsed other geochemical analyses that were performed on the source rocks as part of another study to examine pressure compartmentalization in the Mowry Formation. The carbon aromaticity of the kerogen increased with depth of burial, and at depths greater that approximately 10,000 ft the kerogen showed little capacity to generate additional oil because of the small fraction of residual aliphatic carbon. By combining NMR and Rock-Eval measurements, an estimate of the hydrogen budget was obtained. The calculations indicated that approximately 20% of the kerogen was converted to hydrocarbons, and that sufficient hydrogen was liberated from aromatization and condensation reactions to stabilize the generated products. The {sup 29}Si NMR spectra were characterized by a relatively sharp quartz resonance and a broad resonance from the clay minerals. With increasing depth of burial, the clay resonance became broader and shifted slightly downfield. These changes qualitatively support X-ray analysis that shows progressive alteration of illite to smectite with depth of burial.

  14. Preliminary report on geology and ground water of the Pajaro Valley area, Santa Cruz and Monterey counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, K.S.

    1972-01-01

    The Pajaro Valley area, California, covering about 120 square miles, extends from the southern part of Santa Cruz County to several miles south of the county line into Monterey County. It borders the Pacific Ocean on the west and the Santa Cruz Mountains on the east. The city of Watsonville is the largest center of population. Deposits that range in age from Pliocene to Holocene make up the ground-water reservoir. These include, from oldest to youngest, the Purisima Formation, Aromas Red Sands of Allen (1946), terrace deposits, alluvium, and dune sand. These deposits underlie an area of about 80 square miles and have a maximum thickness of about 4,000 feet. The alluvium yields most of the water pumped from wells in the area. Pre-Pliocene rocks underlie and form the boundaries of the ground-water reservoir. These rocks contain ground water in fractures and in sandstone beds. However, they are not an important source of ground water. There is close continuity between the geology of the Pajaro Valley area and that of the Soquel-Aptos area, which is contiguous on the north. Ground water in the Pajaro Valley area is derived from three sources: (1) Precipitation within the Pajaro Valley area that reaches the ground-water body by direct infiltration or by seepage from streams, (2) seepage from the Pajaro River as it crosses the Pajaro Valley carrying runoff which originates upstream from the valley, and (3) precipitation in the Soquel-Aptos area that infiltrates and then moves southeastward at depth into the Pajaro Valley area. Ground water in most wells in the Pajaro Valley area occurs under confined (artesian) conditions; the only exception is ground water in the upper, near-surface part of the alluvium and that in the dune sand. It moves south from the north part of the area and southwest away from the San Andreas fault toward and out under Monterey Bay. In the south part of the area, ground-water movement is almost due west. The San Andreas fault probably is the only

  15. MOBB: a permanent ocean floor broadband seismic observatory in Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrhammer, R.; Romanowicz, B.; Stakes, D.; Neuhauser, D.; McGill, P.; Ramirez, T.

    2003-04-01

    The Monterey ocean bottom broadband station (MOBB) was installed on the seafloor in Monterey Bay, 40 km offshore, and at a depth of 1000m from the sea surface, on April 9-11, 2002. Its success capitalizes on the experience gained in the 1997 International MOISE experiment, conducted under similar conditions. The deployment took place during 3 dives on consecutive days and made use of MBARI's Point Lobos ship and ROV Ventana. The station is currently recording data autonomously. Eventually, it will be linked to the planned (and recently funded) MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research System; \\url {http://www.mbari.org/mars/}) cable and provide real-time, continuous seismic data to be merged with the rest of the northern California real-time seismic system. The data are archived at the NCEDC for on-line availability, as part of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN). The ocean-bottom MOBB station currently comprises a three-component seismometer package, a current-meter, a DPG, and recording and battery packages. The seismic package contains a low-power (2.2W), three-component CMG-1T broadband seismometer system, built by Guralp, Inc., with a three-component 24-bit digitizer, a leveling system, and a precision clock. The seismometer package is mounted on a cylindrical titanium pressure vessel 54cm in height and 41 cm in diameter, custom built by the MBARI team and outfitted for underwater connection. Data recovery dives, during which the recording and battery package will be exchanged are planned every three months for the next 3 years. Three such dives have already taken place, on 06/27/02, 09/20/02 and on 01/07/03. Due to a software problem, data were lost during the time period 07/01/02 and 09/20/02. Many regional and teleseismic earthquakes have been well recorded and the mass position signals indicate that the instruments have progressively settled. Preliminary analysis of data retrieved during the 2002 summer and winter dives will be presented. In particular

  16. CCN Properties of Organic Aerosol Collected Below and within Marine Stratocumulus Clouds near Monterey, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akua Asa-Awuku

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The composition of aerosol from cloud droplets differs from that below cloud. Its implications for the Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN activity are the focus of this study. Water-soluble organic matter from below cloud, and cloud droplet residuals off the coast of Monterey, California were collected; offline chemical composition, CCN activity and surface tension measurements coupled with Köhler Theory Analysis are used to infer the molar volume and surfactant characteristics of organics in both samples. Based on the surface tension depression of the samples, it is unlikely that the aerosol contains strong surfactants. The activation kinetics for all samples examined are consistent with rapid (NH42SO4 calibration aerosol. This is consistent with our current understanding of droplet kinetics for ambient CCN. However, the carbonaceous material in cloud drop residuals is far more hygroscopic than in sub-cloud aerosol, suggestive of the impact of cloud chemistry on the hygroscopic properties of organic matter.

  17. Prey and plastic ingestion of Pacific Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis rogersii) from Monterey Bay, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly-Greenan, Erica L; Harvey, James T; Nevins, Hannahrose M; Hester, Michelle M; Walker, William A

    2014-08-15

    Marine plastic pollution affects seabirds, including Pacific Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis rodgersii), that feed at the surface and mistake plastic for prey or incidentally ingest it. Direct and indirect health issues can result, including satiety and possibly leading to inefficient foraging. Our objective was to examine fulmar body condition, identify cephalopod diet to species, enumerate and weigh ingested plastic, and determine if prey number and size were correlated with ingested plastics in beach-cast fulmars wintering in Monterey Bay California (2003, n=178: 2007, n=185). Fulmars consumed mostly Gonatus pyros, G. onyx, and G. californiensis of similar size for both years. We found a significant negative correlation between pectoral muscle index and average size of cephalopod beaks per stomach; a significant increase in plastic categories between 2003 and 2007; and no significant correlation between number and mass of plastic compared with number and size of prey for either year.

  18. Marine debris in central California: quantifying type and abundance of beach litter in Monterey Bay, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosevelt, C; Los Huertos, M; Garza, C; Nevins, H M

    2013-06-15

    Monitoring beach litter is essential for reducing ecological threats towards humans and wildlife. In Monterey Bay, CA information on seasonal and spatial patterns is understudied. Central California's coastal managers require reliable information on debris abundance, distribution, and type, to support policy aimed at reducing litter. We developed a survey method that allowed for trained citizen scientists to quantify the types and abundance of beach litter. Sampling occurred from July 2009-June 2010. Litter abundance ranged from 0.03 to 17.1 items m(-2). Using a mixed model approach, we found season and location have the greatest effect on litter abundance. Styrofoam, the most numerically abundant item, made up 41% of the total amount of litter. Unexpected items included fertilizer pellets. The results of this study provide a baseline on the types and abundance of litter on the central coast and have directly supported policy banning Styrofoam take out containers from local municipalities.

  19. Hydrocarbon geochemistry of cold seeps in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Orange, D.L.; Martin, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Samples from four geographically and tectonically discrete cold seeps named Clam Flat, Clamfield, Horseshoe Scarp South, and Tubeworm City, within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary were analyzed for their hydrocarbon content. The sediment contains gaseous hydrocarbons and CO2, as well as high molecular weight aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons with various combinations of thermogenic and biogenic contributions from petroleum, marine, and terrigenous sources. Of particular interest is the cold seep site at Clamfield which is characterized by the presence of thermogenic hydrocarbons including oil that can likely be correlated with oil-saturated strata at Majors Creek near Davenport, CA, USA. At Clam Flat, the evidence for thermogenic hydrocarbons is equivocal. At Horseshoe Scarp South and Tubeworm City, hydrocarbon gases, mainly methane, are likely microbial in origin. These varied sources of hydrocarbon gases highlight the diverse chemical systems that appear at cold seep communities. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biological markers in bitumens and pyrolyzates of Upper Cretaceous bituminous chalks from the Ghareb Formation (Israel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rullkötter, Jürgen; Aizenshtat, Zeev; Spiro, Baruch

    1984-01-01

    The sterane and triterpane distributions of three bituminous chalks from the Upper Cretaceous Ghareb Formation (Israel) were investigated both in the original extractable bitumens and in extracts obtained after pyrolysis of whole rock and isolated kerogen samples at 450°C. Pyrolysis was performed in a closed system under hydrous (whole rock) and anhydrous conditions (isolated kerogens). The carbon number distributions of steranes and triterpanes differ significantly between original bitumen and pyrolyzates. Unlike the bitumens in which diasteranes were not detected, the anhydrous pyrolyzates contain small amounts of diasteranes. The presence of water during pyrolysis leads to an increase of sterane isomerization, the abundant formation of diasteranes and an increase of the 18α( H)- trisnorneohopane/17α( H)- trisnorhopane ratio. Sterane isomerization maturation parameters show a closer match between original bitumen and pyrolyzates after pyrolysis in a closed system when compared with an open system.

  1. Cold seeps in Monterey Bay, California: Geochemistry of pore waters and relationship to benthic foraminiferal calcite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieskes, Joris, E-mail: jgieskes@ucsd.edu [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, IOD-0208, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0208 (United States); Rathburn, Anthony E. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, IOD-0208, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0208 (United States)] [Indiana State University, Department of Earth and Environmental Systems, Terre Haute, IN 47809 (United States); Martin, Jonathan B. [University of Florida, Department of Geological Sciences, Gainesville, FL 32611-2120 (United States); Perez, M. Elena [Indiana State University, Department of Earth and Environmental Systems, Terre Haute, IN 47809 (United States)] [The Natural History Museum, Department of Palaeontology, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Mahn, Chris [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, IOD-0208, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0208 (United States); Bernhard, Joan M. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Geology and Geophysics Department, MS52, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Day, Shelley [University of Florida, Department of Geological Sciences, Gainesville, FL 32611-2120 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > We describe the geochemistry of pore waters in the Clam Flats area of Monterey Bay. > The geochemical data are compared with the {delta}{sup 13}C chemistry of benthic foraminifera. > Living foraminifera indicate little effects of pore water low {delta}{sup 13}C (DIC) in the clam bed. > This phenomenon and its implications are discussed in detail. > Implications with regards to paleo-methane seepage are discussed. - Abstract: An extensive geochemical and biogeochemical examination of CH{sub 4} seeps in the Clam Flats area of Monterey Bay provides insight into the character of relationships between seep geochemistry and benthic foraminiferal geochemistry. The area is characterized by sulfide-rich fluids. Sulfide increases are associated with large increases in alkalinity, as well as small decreases in dissolved Ca and Mg. In addition, only small increases in NH{sub 4} are observed, but values of {delta}{sup 13}C of dissolved inorganic C are as low as -60 per mille at shallow depths (<3 cm). These observations indicate that all these processes are related to the bacterial oxidation of CH{sub 4}, which is transported upward by slow seepage of pore fluids. The geochemistry of the pore fluids should be relevant to the geochemistry of the carbonate tests of living and dead foraminifera. However, a profound disequilibrium of approximately an order of magnitude occurs between the {delta}{sup 13}C values of stained (cytoplasm-containing) foraminiferal carbonate and the C isotope values of ambient pore water dissolved inorganic C. Reasons are unclear for this isotopic disequilibrium, but have important implications for interpretations of foraminiferal carbonate as a paleoenvironmental proxy. Much fine scale work is needed to fully understand the relationships between the biogeochemistry of benthic foraminifera and the geochemistry of the pore waters where they live.

  2. Evaluating the Addition of a Dinoflagellate Phytoplankton Functional Type Using Radiance Anomalies for Monterey Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houskeeper, H. F.; Kudela, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Ocean color sensors have enabled daily, global monitoring of phytoplankton productivity in the world's oceans. However, to observe key structures such as food webs, or to identify regime shifts of dominant species, tools capable of distinguishing between phytoplankton functional types using satellite remote sensing reflectance are necessary. One such tool developed by Alvain et al. (2005), PHYSAT, successfully linked four phytoplankton functional types to chlorophyll-normalized remote sensing spectra, or radiance anomalies, in case-1 waters. Yet this tool was unable to characterize dinoflagellates because of their ubiquitous background presence in the open ocean. We employ a radiance anomaly technique based on PHYSAT to target phytoplankton functional types in Monterey Bay, a region where dinoflagellate populations are larger and more variable than in open ocean waters, and thus where they may be viable targets for satellite remote sensing characterization. We compare with an existing Santa Cruz Wharf photo-pigment time series spanning from 2006 to the present to regionally ground-truth the method's predictions, and we assess its accuracy in characterizing dinoflagellates, a phytoplankton group that impacts the region's fish stocks and water quality. For example, an increase in dinoflagellate abundance beginning in 2005 led to declines in commercially important fish stocks that persisted throughout the following year. Certain species of dinoflagellates in Monterey Bay are also responsible for some of the harmful algal bloom events that negatively impact the shellfish industry. Moving toward better tools to characterize phytoplankton blooms is important for understanding ecosystem shifts, as well as protecting human health in the surrounding areas.

  3. Stable carbon isotope distribution patterns of kerogen and its derived hydrocarbons constrained by primary biomass%受生烃母质控制的干酪根及其热解产物稳定碳同位素分布模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘虎; 廖泽文; 戚明辉; 张海祖; 杜军艳; 杨珊

    2016-01-01

    There exists a stable carbon isotope reversal between crude oils and kerogens from the Cambrian-Lower Ordovician source rocks of the Tarim Basin, NW China. To verify the inverse carbon isotopic pattern and probe the possible mechanism, three shale samples with low thermal maturity were used for thermal simulation experiments, two of which were taken from the Neoproterozoic Xiamaling Formation in Xiahuayuan region, North China (one from argil⁃laceous shale and the other from calcareous shale) and the third one was from the Permian Lucaogou Formation in Santanghu Basin, Northwest China ( argillaceous shale ). A reversed carbon isotope distribution pattern between kerogen residue and its pyrolysates was observed for the Xiamaling calcareous shale, which was not found for the Xiamaling argillaceous shale or Lucaogou argillaceous shale. A stronger carbon isotope fractionation was found for the pyrolysates from Xiamaling calcareous shale kerogen than those from argillaceous shale kerogens, and then accordingly a weaker carbon isotope fractionation was determined for the pyrolyzed residues from Xiamaling calcareous shale kerogen. Combined with organic petrology and thermal simulation experiments, the “Xiahuayuan algal relic” from Xiamaling calcareous shale was supposed to have a lower hydrocarbon generation capacity than the mineral bituminous matrix from Xiamaling argillaceous shale and the laminated algae from Lucaogou argillaceous shale. Combined with biomarker distribution features, it was suggested that the reversed carbon isotope pattern, between kerogen residue and its pyrolysates, may be ascribed to the contribution of some special biomass (primarily constituted by n⁃alkanes) of early life, or the isoprenoid compounds were less preserved in the process of biomass sedimentation.%塔里木盆地来源于寒武系—下奥陶统烃源岩的原油与其母质干酪根的稳定碳同位素存在倒转现象,为验证这种同位素倒转并探讨其可能原

  4. NOSBATC - bathymetric contour data for the Monterey Bay region from Point Ano Nuevo to Point Sur, California based on NOAA/NOS data (UTM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains bathymetric data as contours for the the greater Monterey Bay area between Point Ano Nuevo to the north and Point Sur to the south. NOSBATC are...

  5. NOSBATC - bathymetric contour data for the Monterey Bay region from Point Ano Nuevo to Point Sur, California based on NOAA/NOS data (UTM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains bathymetric data as contours for the the greater Monterey Bay area between Point Ano Nuevo to the north and Point Sur to the south. NOSBATC are...

  6. High-Resolution Multibeam, Sidescan, and Subbottom Surveys in and Around Monterey Canyon Using the MBARI Mapping AUV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H.; McEwen, R.; Henthorn, R.; Kirkwood, W. J.; Thompson, D.; Paull, C. K.; McGill, P.

    2005-12-01

    During 2004 and 2005, MBARI has conducted several high-resolution bathymetry, sidescan, and subbottom profiler surveys in and around Monterey Canyon, Monterey Bay, California. These surveys were conducted using the new MBARI Mapping Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). This torpedo-shaped, 6000 m deep rated vehicle is equipped with a 200 kHz multibeam sonar, 110 kHz and 410 kHz chirp sidescan sonar, and a 2-16 kHz sweep subbottom profiler. The sonar package can also be mounted on ROV Ventana, allowing near-bottom bathymetric surveys of sites where extreme topography (e.g. the Monterey Canyon axis) preclude safe autonomous operation. The Mapping AUV is being used to monitor sediment transport through Monterey Canyon by conducting repeated high-resolution bathymetric surveys in the upper canyon. Upper Monterey Canyon is known to have frequent sediment transport events. Four sites have been selected with canyon axis depths of 300 m, 520 m, 1000 m, and 1400 m, respectively. Each survey nominally covers a 600 m by 600 m area with a 35 m line spacing and a 20 m altitude. We are achieving sub-meter lateral resolution and a vertical precision of 0.3 m. The combined bathymetry and backscatter successfully image fine scale channel features, including bedforms, small scarps and plunge pools, and undercutting of the inner canyon walls. All four sites have been surveyed at least once, and we will revisit these sites three times annually for the foreseeable future. We have also collected in excess of 170 km of subbottom profiles around and across the upper canyon. The subbottom profiler successfully images sediment structure to subsurface depths of as much as 50 m. These profiles demonstrate that the upper canyon walls are draped with sediment rather than exposing an erosional surface. Another Mapping AUV survey target is Smooth Ridge, located immediately north of Monterey Canyon and west of Soquel canyon. The upper reaches of Smooth Ridge are connected to the shelf across a

  7. Water mass bio-optical properties in the Monterey Bay region: Fluorescence-based inference of shifts in phytoplankton photophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, J. K.; Gould, R. W., Jr.; Penta, B.; Teague, W. J.; DeRada, S.; Chavez, F. P.; Arnone, R. A.

    2012-07-01

    A physical and bio-optical field survey of the Monterey Bay area was conducted during May-June 2008. The combined bio-optical and physical data may be summarized as a transition between two end-member states during the late spring to summer upwelling season: (1) the mesotrophic, nanoflagellate-dominated, low-salinity surface waters (chlorophyll-a ˜ 0.5-2 mg m-3; S 2 mg m-3; S > 33.8) of Monterey Bay and adjacent continental shelf areas. High-resolution and collocated spectrophotometric, fluorometric and CTD data obtained from a towed platform indicated low-salinity subarctic-origin surface waters intruded into Monterey Bay on 4 June. The dark in vivo fluorometry (IVF) phytoplankton response normalized to particle absorption at 676 nm (the apparent fluorescence efficiency, AFE) was nearly fourfold larger in this water mass type compared to higher salinity surface waters more typical of Monterey Bay. The collocated fluorescence and optical data were then used to estimate in situ irradiance values and determine apparent light saturation intensities (I'k) based on the remarkably consistent AFE water column inflection points. I'kvalues retrieved from the low-salinity surface waters were approximately half those obtained over the continental shelf. An analysis of concomitant HPLC data, in addition to historical data for the region, suggest these observed fluorescence trends may be indicative of taxon-specific variation in photophysiology. Specifically, the subarctic water mass-associated pelagic nanoflagellate group likely possesses a fundamentally different photosynthetic architecture than large diatoms prototypical of coastal upwelling regimes.

  8. COMPARING SEA LEVEL RESPONSE AT MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA FROM THE 1989 LOMA PRIETA EARTHQUAKE AND THE 1964 GREAT ALASKAN EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Breaker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two of the largest earthquakes to affect water levels in Monterey Bay in recent years were the Loma Prieta Earthquake (LPE of 1989 with a moment magnitude of 6.9, and the Great Alaskan Earthquake (GAE of 1964 with a moment magnitude of 9.2. In this study, we compare the sea level response of these events with a primary focus on their frequency content and how the bay affected it, itself. Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA was employed to extract the primary frequencies associated with each event. It is not clear how or exactly where the tsunami associated with the LPE was generated, but it occurred inside the bay and most likely began to take on the characteristics of a seiche by the time it reached the tide gauge in Monterey Harbor. Results of the SSA decomposition revealed two primary periods of oscillation, 9-10 minutes, and 31-32 minutes. The first oscillation is in agreement with the range of periods for the expected natural oscillations of Monterey Harbor, and the second oscillation is consistent with a bay-wide oscillation or seiche mode. SSA decomposition of the GAE revealed several sequences of oscillations all with a period of approximately 37 minutes, which corresponds to the predicted, and previously observed, transverse mode of oscillation for Monterey Bay. In this case, it appears that this tsunami produced quarter-wave resonance within the bay consistent with its seiche-like response. Overall, the sea level responses to the LPE and GAE differed greatly, not only because of the large difference in their magnitudes but also because the driving force in one case occurred inside the bay (LPE, and in the second, outside the bay (GAE. As a result, different modes of oscillation were excited.

  9. Marine neotectonic investigation of the San Gregorio Fault Zone on the northern flank of Monterey Canyon, offshore central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, K. L.; Paull, C. K.; Brothers, D. S.; McGann, M.; Caress, D. W.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Gwiazda, R.

    2014-12-01

    The San Gregorio Fault Zone (SGFZ) is part of the North American-Pacific plate boundary and is thought to accommodate right-lateral offset up to 10 mm/yr. Because much of the SGFZ in Monterey Bay, central California, lies offshore in steep submarine canyon bathymetry, little is known of its recent activity. We provide initial direct evidence for faulting where the SGFZ has been interpreted based on canyon morphology to cross the northern flank of Monterey Canyon. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and chirp subbottom profiles were acquired during 13 dives with the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) from 2009-2014 on the northern flank of Monterey Canyon, extending from the shelf edge ~15 km offshore Santa Cruz to ~1850 m water depth. Chirp profiles resolve layered sediments up to ~40 m subsurface in this region, and no fault scarps or seafloor lineaments are visible in the 1-m resolution multibeam bathymetry. At least one subsurface fault is identified within the SGFZ by offset reflections across a discrete, nearly vertical fault. However, this fault is only imaged where mass wasting has exhumed older strata to within ~25 m of the seafloor. Numerous slumps scars on the seafloor and packages of chaotic internal reflectivity in chirp profiles suggest that submarine landslide processes dominate the study area. To constrain the age of reflections offset by the fault, MBARI's Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Doc Ricketts, sampled faces of slump scars where the offset reflections crop out using vibracores and horizontal push cores. Radiocarbon dating of foraminifera within these core samples is being used to constrain the last recorded movement on the fault. Application of AUV and ROV methods allows detailed neotectonic investigation of significant offshore structures, like the SGFZ, that contribute to hazard assessment.

  10. An Analysis of the Proposed Land Lease Agreement Between the Naval Postgraduate School and the City of Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    of outgrants to the City of Monterey, in January 2001. The proposal covered three distinct areas of NPS and three different real estate agreements...the Navy and a local government, particularly, the exchange of Navy properties ( real estate ) and/or services for moneys and/or services. Stakeholder...and SWOT analysis are used as methodologies and tools to study the land lease process. The objective is to describe the public-public partnership

  11. Can Vertical Migrations of Dinoflagellates Explain Observed Bioluminescence Patterns During an Upwelling Event in Monterey Bay, California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    transect (Figure 1). The REMUS transect began near Santa Cruz in the SA, ran out to the buoy Ml (Figure 1), and then returned back to shore. Inshore...Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo , California, USA. ’Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California...University, San Luis Obispo , CA 93407, USA. M. J. Oliver, College of Earth, Ocean and Environment, University of Delaware, 700 Pilottown Rd., Lewes, DE 19958, USA. 10 of 10

  12. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-09-29

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  13. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2006-06-30

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  14. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-09-29

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  15. USE OF CUTTING-EDGE HORIZONTAL AND UNDERBALANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES AND SUBSURFACE SEISMIC TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE, DRILL AND PRODUCE RESERVOIRED OIL AND GAS FROM THE FRACTURED MONTEREY BELOW 10,000 FT IN THE SANTA MARIA BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-02-01

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area by Temblor Petroleum with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper

  16. USE OF CUTTING-EDGE HORIZONTAL AND UNDERBALANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES AND SUBSURFACE SEISMIC TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE, DRILL AND PRODUCE RESERVOIRED OIL AND GAS FROM THE FRACTURED MONTEREY BELOW 10,000 FT IN THE SANTA MARIA BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-02-01

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area by Temblor Petroleum with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper

  17. Globalization, binational communities, and imported food risks: results of an outbreak investigation of lead poisoning in Monterey County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Margaret A; Hall, Celeste; Sanford, Eric; Diaz, Evie; Gonzalez-Mendez, Enrique; Drace, Kaitie; Wilson, Robert; Villalobos, Mario; Croughan, Mary

    2007-05-01

    Although the burden of lead poisoning has decreased across developed countries, it remains the most prevalent environmental poison worldwide. Our objective was to investigate the sources of an outbreak of lead poisoning in Monterey County, California. An investigation in 3 county health department clinics in Monterey County, California, was conducted between 2001 and 2003 to identify risk factors for elevated blood lead levels (> or = 10 microg/dL) among children and pregnant women. The prevalence of elevated blood lead levels was significantly higher in 1 of the 3 clinics (6% among screened children and 13% among prenatal patients). Risk factors included eating imported foods (relative risk [RR]=3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.2, 9.5) and having originated from the Zimatlan area of Oaxaca, Mexico, compared with other areas of Oaxaca (RR=4.0; 95% CI=1.7, 9.5). Home-prepared dried grasshoppers (chapulines) sent from Oaxaca were found to contain significant amounts of lead. Consumption of foods imported from Oaxaca was identified as a risk factor for elevated blood lead levels in Monterey County, California. Lead-contaminated imported chapulines were identified as 1 source of lead poisoning, although other sources may also contribute to the observed findings. Food transport between binational communities presents a unique risk for the importation of environmental hazards [corrected

  18. Five Years of Data at the Monterey Ocean Bottom Broadband Seismic Station (MOBB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, D.; Romanowicz, B.; McGill, P.; Neuhauser, D.; Uhrhammer, R.

    2007-12-01

    We present an overview of the results obtained at MOBB in the past 5.5 years of its continuous operation. In particular we focus on the observations of the long-period ocean surface gravity waves (infragravity waves; 0.002 to 0.05 Hz) and different methods to remove the long-period background and signal-generated noise from the seismic observations. MOBB was installed 40 km offshore in the Monterey Bay at a water depth of 1000 m in April 2002 in collaboration between Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI). It is located west of the San Gregorio Fault and represents the first step towards extending the onshore broadband seismic network in northern California westward of the Pacific-North America plate boundary. MOBB comprises a three- component broadband seismometer Guralp CMG-1T, sensitive over a wide frequency range, from 50 Hz to 2.8 mHz (360 s), a water current meter measuring current speed and direction, and a differential pressure gauge. At present, the station is autonomous and the data are on average retrieved every 4 months using MBARI's remotely operated vehicle Ventana. Work is under way to connect it to the MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research System) cable so that it will contribute continuous real time data to the northern California earthquake monitoring system. Lessons learned from the MOBB deployment as well as noise removal techniques that are specific to the ocean bottom installation will provide us reference for future installations of broadband seismic stations in the oceans. When compared to the quiet land stations, ocean bottom seismic station MOBB shows increased background noise in the band pass of interest for the study of regional and teleseismic signals. This is mainly due to deformation of the seafloor under the pressure forcing by infragravity waves. Also observed is additional signal- generated noise which is due to the reverberations in the shallow sedimentary layers as well as in the

  19. The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. IV - Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, Isaac R.

    1987-05-01

    The effect of common sedimentary minerals (illite, Na-montmorillonite, or calcite) under different water concentrations on the generation and release of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and select alkenes from oil-prone kerogens was investigated. Matrices containing Green River Formation kerogen or Monterey Formation kerogen, alone or in the presence of minerals, were heated at 200 or 300 C for periods of up to 1000 hours, and the pyrolysis products were analyzed. The influence of the first two clay minerals was found to be critically dependent on the water content. Under the dry pyrolysis conditions, both minerals significantly reduced alkene formation; the C12+ n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids were mostly destroyed by montmorillonite, but underwent only minor alteration with illite. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water of 2/1), the effects of both minerals were substantially reduced. Calcite had no significant effect on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons.

  20. Seasonal Dynamics of Particle-Associated Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea in Monterey Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D. R.; Tolar, B. B.; Francis, C.

    2016-12-01

    Within the past decade, significant research has shed light on key players within the nitrogen cycle. Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) were discovered and found to be more abundant than ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria in marine systems, and therefore play a vital role in ammonia oxidation, the rate-limiting step in nitrification that converts NH3 to NO2-. Here we investigated seasonal dynamics of particle-associated (> 10 µm) AOA within Monterey Bay at Station M1 over a year-long sampling period from May 2015 to February 2016. We used quantitative PCR to amplify the archaeal amoA gene and collect data on the abundance of this gene at various depths (5-500 m). Our results indicate that particle-associated AOA are found throughout the upper water column in Monterey Bay, with archaeal amoA gene abundances ranging from 3.9 x 101 to 1.0 x 104 copies/L, with an average of 1.7 x 103 copies/L. Seasonal trends indicate that gene abundance is higher during the winter than in summer. We also quantified `shallow' versus `deep' ecotypes of water column AOA (WCA and WCB, respectively. These data will be compared to environmental data (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a, etc.) collected during sampling. In comparison to the 0.2µm samples analyzed (mean = 2.2 x 107 copies/L; range = 2.4 x 104 to 1.1 x 108 copies/L), particle-associated archaeal amoA genes were on average 0.01% of the 0.2-10 µm size fraction. Although relatively small, the combined total abundance between the two size fractions may lead to additional correlations. Overall, particle-associated AOA may be important indicators of changing environmental conditions and provide seasonal context into abundance and distribution of these AOA. We also suggest that it may be a useful practice to analyze prefilters for AOA, as particle-associated AOA may contribute significantly to gene abundance estimates and possibly correlations with nitrification rates.

  1. Linking Planktonic Larval Abundance to Internal Bores at the Head of the Monterey Submarine Canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, J.; Walter, R. K.; Steinbeck, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Variability in the physical coastal environment can play an important role in determining the spatio-temporal variation in abundance of planktonic organisms. Combining planktonic larval abundance estimates over the course of a year with concurrent temperature and current data, this study provides empirical data linking a locally predominant internal tidal feature to patterns of biological abundance in the very nearshore environment at the head of Monterey Submarine Canyon. The physical observations indicate the presence of seasonally-variable semidiurnal internal bores that result in the pumping of cold (subthermocline) waters onto the adjacent shelf. Analysis of the larval abundance data indicates an assemblage shift from a relatively abundant shelf assemblage of larval fishes to a reduced abundance assemblage that is concurrent with the semidiurnal cold water intrusions driven by the tidal pumping. Results suggest that the tidal period pumping of subthermocline waters by internal bores dilutes or displaces shelf waters and their associated planktonic larval community. This could have important ecological implications at these scales and may also be of interest when siting industrial facilities that require seawater for cooling or desalination, as it would potentially reduce their impact on regional planktonic communities by diluting their rates of entrainment.

  2. Electrical Resistivity Imaging of Seawater Intrusion into the Monterey Bay Aquifer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidlisecky, A; Moran, T; Hansen, B; Knight, R

    2016-03-01

    We use electrical resistivity tomography to obtain a 6.8-km electrical resistivity image to a depth of approximately 150 m.b.s.l. along the coast of Monterey Bay. The resulting image is used to determine the subsurface distribution of saltwater- and freshwater-saturated sediments and the geologic controls on fluid distributions in the region. Data acquisition took place over two field seasons in 2011 and 2012. To maximize our ability to image both vertical and horizontal variations in the subsurface, a combination of dipole-dipole, Wenner, Wenner-gamma, and gradient measurements were made, resulting in a large final dataset of approximately 139,000 data points. The resulting resistivity section extends to a depth of 150 m.b.s.l., and is used, in conjunction with the gamma logs from four coastal monitoring wells to identify four dominant lithologic units. From these data, we are able to infer the existence of a contiguous clay layer in the southern portion of our transect, which prevents downward migration of the saltwater observed in the upper 25 m of the subsurface to the underlying freshwater aquifer. The saltwater and brackish water in the northern portion of the transect introduce the potential for seawater intrusion into the hydraulically connected freshwater aquifer to the south, not just from the ocean, but also laterally from north to south.

  3. Resistivity imaging reveals complex pattern of saltwater intrusion along Monterey coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Meredith; Pidlisecky, Adam; Knight, Rosemary

    2017-08-01

    Electrical Resistivity Tomography data were acquired along 40 km of the Monterey Bay coast in central California. These data resulted in electrical resistivity images to depths of approximately 280 m.b.s.l., which were used to understand the distribution of freshwater and saltwater in the subsurface, and factors controlling this distribution. The resulting resistivity sections were interpreted in conjunction with existing data sets, including well logs, seismic reflection data, geologic reports, hydrologic reports, and land use maps from the region. Interpretation of these data shows a complex pattern of saltwater intrusion resulting from geology, pumping, and recharge. The resistivity profiles were used to identify geological flow conduits and barriers such as palaeo-channels and faults, localized saltwater intrusion from individual pumping wells, infiltration zones of surface fresh and brackish water, and regions showing improvements in water quality due to management actions. The use of ERT data for characterizing the subsurface in this region has led to an understanding of the spatial distribution of freshwater and saltwater at a level of detail unattainable with the previously deployed traditional well based salinity mapping and monitoring techniques alone. Significant spatial variability in the extent and geometry of intrusion observed in the acquired data highlights the importance of adopting continuous subsurface characterization methods such as this one.

  4. Moisture Adsorption and Thermodynamic Properties of California Grown Almonds (Varieties: Nonpareil and Monterey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zuo Taitano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moisture adsorption characteristics of California grown almonds (Nonpareil: pasteurized and unpasteurized almonds; Monterey: pasteurized, unpasteurized and blanched almonds were obtained using the gravimetric method over a range of water activities from 0.11 to 0.98 at 7-50ºC. The weights of almonds were measured until samples reached a constant weight. The relationship between equilibrium moisture content and water activity was established using the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer model. The diffusion coefficient of water in almond kernels was calculated based on Ficks second law. The monolayer moisture value of almonds ranged from 0.020 to 0.035 kg H2O kg-1 solids. The diffusion coefficient increased with temperature at a constant water activity, and decreased with water activity at a constant temperature. The thermodynamic properties (net isosteric heat, differential enthalpy and entropy were also determined. The net isosteric heat of adsorption decreased with the increasing moisture content, and the plot of differential enthalpy versus entropy satisfied the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory. The adsorption process of almond samples was enthalpy driven over the range of studied moisture contents.

  5. Biomonitoring of marine vertebrates in Monterey Bay using eDNA metabarcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruszkiewicz, Elizabeth A; Starks, Hilary A; Chavez, Francisco P; Sassoubre, Lauren M; Block, Barbara A; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2017-01-01

    Molecular analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA) can be used to assess vertebrate biodiversity in aquatic systems, but limited work has applied eDNA technologies to marine waters. Further, there is limited understanding of the spatial distribution of vertebrate eDNA in marine waters. Here, we use an eDNA metabarcoding approach to target and amplify a hypervariable region of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene to characterize vertebrate communities at 10 oceanographic stations spanning 45 km within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS). In this study, we collected three biological replicates of small volume water samples (1 L) at 2 depths at each of the 10 stations. We amplified fish mitochondrial DNA using a universal primer set. We obtained 5,644,299 high quality Illumina sequence reads from the environmental samples. The sequence reads were annotated to the lowest taxonomic assignment using a bioinformatics pipeline. The eDNA survey identified, to the lowest taxonomic rank, 7 families, 3 subfamilies, 10 genera, and 72 species of vertebrates at the study sites. These 92 distinct taxa come from 33 unique marine vertebrate families. We observed significantly different vertebrate community composition between sampling depths (0 m and 20/40 m deep) across all stations and significantly different communities at stations located on the continental shelf (200 m bottom depth). All but 1 family identified using eDNA metabarcoding is known to occur in MBNMS. The study informs the implementation of eDNA metabarcoding for vertebrate biomonitoring.

  6. Effects of pruning in Monterey pine plantations affected by Fusarium circinatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezos, D.; Lomba, J. M.; Martinez-Alvarez, P.; Fernandez, M.; Diez, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg and O'Donnell (1998) is the causal agent of Pitch Canker Disease (PCD) in Pinus species, producing damage to the main trunk and lateral branches as well as causing branch dieback. The disease has been detected recently in northern Spain in Pinus spp. seedlings at nurseries and in Pinus radiata D. Don adult trees in plantations. Fusarium circinatum seems to require a wound to enter the tree, not only that as caused by insects but also that resulting from damage by humans, i.e. mechanical wounds. However, the effects of pruning on the infection process have yet to be studied. The aim of the present study was to know how the presence of mechanical damage caused by pruning affects PCD occurrence and severity in P. radiata plantations. Fifty P. radiata plots (pruned and unpruned) distributed throughout 16 sites affected by F. circinatum in the Cantabria region (northern Spain) were studied. Symptoms of PCD presence, such as dieback, oozing cankers and trunk deformation were evaluated in 25 trees per plot and related to pruning effect. A significant relationship between pruning and the number of cankers per tree was observed, concluding that wounds caused by pruning increase the chance of pathogen infection. Other trunk symptoms, such as the presence of resin outside the cankers, were also higher in pruned plots. These results should be taken into account for future management of Monterey Pine plantations. (Author) 36 refs.

  7. Etude par Spectrométrie de masse de la décomposition thermique sous vide de kérogènes appartenant à deux lignées évolutives distinctes Mass Spectrometry Investigation of the Vaccum Thermal Decomposition of Kerogens from Two Distinct Evolutive Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souron C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cette étude est la connaissance qualitative et quantitative des composés dégagés lors de la décomposition thermique sous vide de quelques échantillons de kérogènes appartenant à deux lignées différentes. La principale technique utilisée est la spectrométrie de masse, appuyée sur des études préliminaires par thermogravi métrie et analyse élémentaire. Une adaptation particulière de l'appareillage et une mise au point de la méthode d'étalonnage permettent de doser les quatre composés minéraux les plus abondants et de donner une représentation des composés organiques. Cette étude montre que les composés formés au cours du chauffage comprennent, pour tous les kérogènes étudiés, des composés oxygénés et soufrés (CO, H2O, SH2, SOJ libérés principalement dans l'intervalle de température 200-400° C, et des composés hydrocarbonés, plus abondants, dans l'intervalle 300-500° C. On commente dans cet article l'origine supposée de ces composés; la formation de S02 au cours de la pyrolyse est particulièrement mal connue. On remarque que le rapport H2O/C02 peut être un critère de distinction des deux lignées de kérogènes étudiés. La distinction observée sur les produits hydrocarbonés nécessitera des recherches complémentaires pour être utilisée avec plus de sûreté. The aim of this investigation is to obtain a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the compounds given off during the vacuum thermal decomposition of several kerogen samples from two different lines. The main technique used is mass spectrometry, based on prior investigations by thermogravimetry and element onalysis. The equipment was specially adapted and a calibration method was developed for titrating the four most abundant minerai compounds and for representing the organic compounds. This investigation shows that the compounds formed during heating include, for oil the kerogens examined, oxygen-and sulfur

  8. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner

    2004-04-29

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  9. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner

    2005-08-01

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  10. An Advanced Fracture Characterization and Well Path Navigation System for Effective Re-Development and Enhancement of Ultimate Recovery from the Complex Monterey Reservoir of South Ellwood Field, Offshore California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner

    2006-01-31

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  11. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner; Iraj Ershaghi

    2002-04-30

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful redevelopment and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  12. An Advanced Fracture Characterization and Well Path Navigation System for Effective Re-Development and Enhancement of Ultimate Recovery from the Complex Monterey Reservoir of South Ellwood Field, Offshore California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, Steve; Ershaghi, Iraj

    2006-06-30

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to over 10,000,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intended to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. In the first phase of the project, state of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic, interference tests and production logs were employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database were used in the construction of a new geologic model of the fracture network. An innovative fracture network reservoir simulator was developed to better understand and manage the aquifer’s role in pressure maintenance and water production. In the second phase of this project, simulation models were used to plan the redevelopment of the field using high angle wells. Correct placement of the wells is critical to intersect the best-developed fracture zones and to avoid producing large volumes of water from the water leg. Particula r attention was paid to those areas of the field that have not been adequately developed with the existing producers. In cooperation with the DOE and the PTTC, the new data and the new fracture simulation model were shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the methodologies developed in this project. This report presents a summary of all technical work conducted during Budget Periods I

  13. Phosphorus cycling in the red tide incubator region of Monterey Bay in response to upwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rose Marie Mackey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the cycling of phosphorus (P in the euphotic zone following upwelling in northeastern Monterey Bay (the Red Tide Incubator region of coastal California, with particular emphasis on how phytoplankton and bacteria mediate and respond to changes in P availability. In situ measurements of nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton community composition, and cell-specific alkaline phosphatase (AP activity (determined via enzyme labeled fluorescence assay were measured during 3 cruises. Upwelling led to a 10-fold increase in dissolved inorganic (DIP in surface waters, reaching ~0.5 mol L-1. This DIP was drawn down rapidly as upwelling relaxed over a period of 1 week. Relatively low ratios of nitrate to DIP uptake (~5:1 suggest that luxury P uptake was occurring as phytoplankton bloomed. Dissolved organic (DOP remained relatively constant (~0.3mol L-1 before and immediately following upwelling, but doubled as upwelling relaxed, likely due to phytoplankton excretion and release during grazing. This transition from a relatively high DIP:DOP ratio to lower DIP:DOP ratio was accompanied by a decline in the abundance of diatoms, which had low AP activity, toward localized, spatially-heterogeneous blooms of dinoflagellates in the genera Prorocentrum, Ceratium, Dinophysis, Alexandrium, and Scrippsiella that showed high AP activity regardless of ambient DIP levels. A nutrient addition incubation experiment showed that phytoplankton growth was primarily limited by nitrate, followed by DIP and then DOP, suggesting that P is a regulating, rather than limiting, nutrient in this region. AP activity was observed in bacteria associated with lysed cell debris and aggregates of particulate organic material, where it may serve to facilitate P regeneration, as well as affixed to the surfaces of intact phytoplankton cells, possibly indicative of close, beneficial phytoplankton-bacteria interactions.

  14. Imaging Saltwater Intrusion Along the Coast of Monterey Bay Using Long-Offset Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, M.; Knight, R. J.; Pidlisecky, A.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal regions represent a complex dynamic interface where saltwater intrusion moves seawater landward and groundwater discharge moves freshwater seaward. These processes can have a dramatic impact on water quality, affecting both humans and coastal ecosystems. The ability to map the subsurface distribution of fresh and salt water is a critical step in predicting and managing water quality in coastal regions. This is commonly accomplished using wells, which are expensive and provide point information, which may fail to capture the spatial complexity in subsurface conditions. We present an alternate method for acquiring data, long-offset Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), which is non-invasive, cost effective, and can address the problem of poor spatial sampling. This geophysical method can produce continuous profiles of subsurface electrical resistivity to a depth of 300 m, with spatial resolution on the order of tens of meters. Our research focuses on the Monterey Bay region, where sustained groundwater extraction over the past century has led to significant saltwater intrusion. ERT was acquired along 40 kilometers of the coast using the roll along method, allowing for continuous overlap in data acquisition. Electrodes were spaced every 22.2 m, with a total of 81 electrodes along the 1.8 km active cable length. The data show a complex distribution of fresh and salt water, influenced by geology, groundwater pumping, recharge, and land-use. While the inverted ERT resistivity profiles correspond well with existing data sets and geologic interpretations in the region, the spatial complexity revealed through the ERT data goes beyond what is known from traditional data sources alone. This leads us to conclude that this form of data can be extremely useful in informing and calibrating groundwater flow models, making targeted management decisions, and monitoring changes in subsurface salinities over time.

  15. Hydrocarbon source potential of the Tanezzuft Formation, Murzuq Basin, south-west Libya: An organic geochemical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Diasty, W. Sh.; El Beialy, S. Y.; Anwari, T. A.; Batten, D. J.

    2017-06-01

    A detailed organic geochemical study of 20 core and cuttings samples collected from the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation, Murzuq Basin, in the south-western part of Libya has demonstrated the advantages of pyrolysis geochemical methods for evaluating the source-rock potential of this geological unit. Rock-Eval pyrolysis results indicate a wide variation in source richness and quality. The basal Hot Shale samples proved to contain abundant immature to early mature kerogen type II/III (oil-gas prone) that had been deposited in a marine environment under terrigenous influence, implying good to excellent source rocks. Strata above the Hot Shale yielded a mixture of terrigenous and marine type III/II kerogen (gas-oil prone) at the same maturity level as the Hot Shale, indicating the presence of only poor to fair source rocks.

  16. Chemical and nanometer-scale structure of kerogen and its change during thermal maturation investigated by advanced solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Fang, X.; Lan, Y.; Schimmelmann, A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Xu, L.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2010-01-01

    We have used advanced and quantitative solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to investigate structural changes in a series of type II kerogen samples from the New Albany Shale across a range of maturity (vitrinite reflectance R0 from 0.29% to 1.27%). Specific functional groups such as CH3, CH2, alkyl CH, aromatic CH, aromatic C-O, and other nonprotonated aromatics, as well as "oil prone" and "gas prone" carbons, have been quantified by 13C NMR; atomic H/C and O/C ratios calculated from the NMR data agree with elemental analysis. Relationships between NMR structural parameters and vitrinite reflectance, a proxy for thermal maturity, were evaluated. The aromatic cluster size is probed in terms of the fraction of aromatic carbons that are protonated (???30%) and the average distance of aromatic C from the nearest protons in long-range H-C dephasing, both of which do not increase much with maturation, in spite of a great increase in aromaticity. The aromatic clusters in the most mature sample consist of ???30 carbons, and of ???20 carbons in the least mature samples. Proof of many links between alkyl chains and aromatic rings is provided by short-range and long-range 1H-13C correlation NMR. The alkyl segments provide most H in the samples; even at a carbon aromaticity of 83%, the fraction of aromatic H is only 38%. While aromaticity increases with thermal maturity, most other NMR structural parameters, including the aromatic C-O fractions, decrease. Aromaticity is confirmed as an excellent NMR structural parameter for assessing thermal maturity. In this series of samples, thermal maturation mostly increases aromaticity by reducing the length of the alkyl chains attached to the aromatic cores, not by pronounced growth of the size of the fused aromatic ring clusters. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean to Phytoplankton Ecology Studies in Monterey Bay, CA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a demonstrator for technologies for the next generation of ocean color sensors, the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO provides enhanced spatial and spectral resolution that is required to understand optically complex aquatic environments. In this study we apply HICO, along with satellite remote sensing and in situ observations, to studies of phytoplankton ecology in a dynamic coastal upwelling environment—Monterey Bay, CA, USA. From a spring 2011 study, we examine HICO-detected spatial patterns in phytoplankton optical properties along an environmental gradient defined by upwelling flow patterns and along a temporal gradient of upwelling intensification. From a fall 2011 study, we use HICO’s enhanced spatial and spectral resolution to distinguish a small-scale “red tide” bloom, and we examine bloom expansion and its supporting processes using other remote sensing and in situ data. From a spectacular HICO image of the Monterey Bay region acquired during fall of 2012, we present a suite of algorithm results for characterization of phytoplankton, and we examine the strengths, limitations, and distinctions of each algorithm in the context of the enhanced spatial and spectral resolution.

  18. Continuous and Episodic Modern Sediment Accumulation on Monterey Fan: Evidence from Ddt, 137Cs and Excess 210Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwiazda, R.; Paull, C. K.; Alexander, C. R.; Ussler, W.

    2012-12-01

    The mode and magnitude of fine-grained sediment accumulation on the Monterey Fan off the California central coast was investigated using pesticide concentrations and radioactive tracer profiles in sediment cores. DDT is a man-made pesticide that was used extensively in central California between 1945 and 1970. As such, its presence in marine sediments is a telltale sign of a modern sedimentation age. DDT and its metabolites, DDE and DDD, (collectively referred to as DDTr) were measured in fifty-five ~20cm-long sediment cores collected from the surface of the Monterey Fan up to 250 km to the south and 210 km to the west of the Monterey Canyon head, and in four transects across the Monterey Canyon channel at maximum water depths of 3160, 3380, 3580, and 3880 meters. Profiles of excess 210Pb (210Pbxs) and 137Cs were measured in 5 cores from the Fan to estimate recent sedimentation rates. Detectable levels of DDTr were observed in all but one of these cores, with DDTr concentrations characteristically highest at the surface and decreasing with depth. The area-normalized and depth-integrated DDTr content measured in all the cores in the Fan and in the deepest two channel transects was geographically fairly homogenous, with no statistical relationship between DDTr inventory and distance from the main channel crossing the Fan. The total sediment mass deposited on the Fan over the last 60 years, inferred from the total inventory of DDTr present in the area surveyed, is consistent with the amount of sediment delivered by the Salinas River over the same time period. 210Pbxs activities are fairly homogeneous within an uppermost layer of variable thickness (4.6-8cm) and decrease exponentially below it, but these exponential decreases are often interrupted by horizons with constant or increased 210Pbxs activity. Moreover, the coexistence of variable DDTr concentrations with homogeneous 210Pbxs activities in the top sediment indicates that the uniformity of 210Pbxs is not due

  19. The timing of sediment transport down Monterey Submarine Canyon, offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Thomas; Paull, Charles K.; Ussler, William III; McGann, Mary; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Lundsten, Eve M

    2013-01-01

    While submarine canyons are the major conduits through which sediments are transported from the continents out into the deep sea, the time it takes for sediment to pass down through a submarine canyon system is poorly constrained. Here we report on the first study to couple optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of quartz sand deposits and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C ages measured on benthic foraminifera to examine the timing of sediment transport through the axial channel of Monterey Submarine Canyon and Fan, offshore California. The OSL ages date the timing of sediment entry into the canyon head while the 14C ages of benthic foraminifera record the deposition of hemipelagic sediments that bound the sand horizons. We use both single-grain and small (∼2 mm area) single-aliquot regeneration approaches on vibracore samples from fining-upward sequences at various water depths to demonstrate relatively rapid, decadal-scale sand transport to at least 1.1 km depth and more variable decadal- to millennial-scale transport to a least 3.5 km depth on the fan. Significant differences between the time sand was last exposed at the canyon head (OSL age) and the timing of deposition of the sand (from 14C ages of benthic foraminifera in bracketing hemipelagic sediments) are interpreted as indicating that the sand does not pass through the entire canyon instantly in large individual events, but rather moves multiple times before emerging onto the fan. The increased spread in single-grain OSL dates with water depth provides evidence of mixing and temporary storage of sediment as it moves through the canyon system. The ages also indicate that the frequency of sediment transport events decreases with distance down the canyon channel system. The amalgamated sands near the canyon head yield OSL ages that are consistent with a sub-decadal recurrence frequency while the fining-upward sand sequences on the fan indicate that the channel is still experiencing events with a 150

  20. Breschini and Haversat, eds.: Analysis of South-Central California Shell Artifacts: Studies from Santa Cruz, Monterey, San Luis Obispo, and Santa Barbara Counties

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Richard E.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of South-Central Californian Shell Artifacts: Studies from Santa Cruz, Monterey, San Luis Obispo, and Santa Barbara Counties. Gary S. Breschmi and Trudy Haversat, eds. Salinas: Coyote Press Archives of California Prehistory No. 23, 1988, xiv + 105 pp., 21 figs., 28 tables, $8.70, (paper).

  1. Core descriptions, core photographs, physical property logs and surface textural data of sediment cores recovered from the continental shelf of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary during the research cruises M-1-95-MB, P-2-95-MB, and P-1-97-MB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzech, Kevin M.; Dahl, Wendy E.; Edwards, Brian D.

    2001-01-01

    In response to the 1992 creation of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS), the United States Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a multiyear investigation of the Sanctuary continental margin. As part of the investigative effort, this report summarizes the shipboard procedures, subsequent laboratory analyses, and data results from three seafloor sampling cruises conducted on the continental shelf between Monterey peninsula, CA and San Francisco, CA. The cruises were conducted in 1995 aboard the NOAA Ship McArthur (M-1-95-MB) and in 1995 and 1997 aboard the R/V Point Sur (P-2-95-MB and P-1-97-MB). Scientists and representatives from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC), and the San Jose State University Moss Landing Marine Laboratory (SJSU-MLML) supported the research effort. In this report we present sediment descriptions, sediment textural data, physical property logs, station metadata, and photographs of subcores from a total of three hundred and eighty four sample stations. At these sites either a box corer, MultiCore™r, grab sampler or a combination of these sampling devices were used to collect the sea floor sediments. The report is presented in an interactive web-based format with each mapped core station linked to the corresponding description and photo, and to a spreadsheet of surface texture and other sampling data.

  2. The elements of a consumer-based initiative in contributing to positive environmental change: Monterey Bay Aquarium's Seafood Watch program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerly, Jennifer Dianto; Macfarlane, Victoria

    2009-09-01

    Monterey Bay Aquarium launched the Seafood Watch program in 2000. The program's Seafood Watch pocket guide is a simple tool that visitors can use to identify seafood from environmentally responsible sources. Since its inception, more than 2 million pocket guides have been distributed to Monterey Bay Aquarium visitors and 20 million have been distributed through partnerships across the United States. Partner institutions such as aquariums, conservation organizations, and businesses also conduct outreach and are working to influence their local seafood purveyors. An evaluation conducted in 2003 and 2004 assessed the program's strategies for increasing awareness and shifting consumer buying habits as they relate to sustainable seafood, including use of the pocket guide. Visitors who picked up pocket guides were surveyed immediately after their aquarium visit, and again four months later. The evaluation found that most visitors continued to use the guides and had changed their seafood buying habits in several respects. Those interviewed also reported some barriers to using the guides. The elements that appear to be critical to the success of the strategy with respect to changing consumer purchasing habits include: a focused distribution approach; providing credible and specific information on problems and solutions to increase action-related knowledge; providing a trigger or prompt that is available at the time of purchase; and reducing barriers to action, at the point of action, by working with seafood purveyors and the broader sustainable seafood movement to increase knowledge and available options. In response to the evaluation, Seafood Watch has strengthened these elements and expanded to help meet the needs of the broader sustainable seafood movement. A process of strategic planning, evaluation, cooperation among partners, and adaptability to the movement's natural evolution has proven to be critical to the program's success in contributing to the development of a

  3. c180nc.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity C-1-80-NC in Monterey Bay, Northern California from 05/21/1980 to 05/22/1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with transit satellite navigation data was collected as part of field activity C-1-80-NC in Monterey Bay, Northern California from...

  4. Oceanographic data collected during the Davidson Seamount 2002 expedition on the RV Western Flyer, in the North Pacific Ocean, southwest of Monterey, California from May 17, 2002 - May 24, 2002 (NODC Accession 0072306)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This spring, scientists explored the first "undersea island" to be called a seamount. Davidson seamount, located 120 km Southwest of Monterey, California, is one of...

  5. c180nc.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity C-1-80-NC in Monterey Bay, Northern California from 05/21/1980 to 05/22/1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with transit satellite navigation data was collected as part of field activity C-1-80-NC in Monterey Bay, Northern California from...

  6. Measurement of near-surface seismic compressional wave velocities using refraction tomography at a proposed construction site on the Presidio of Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is determining the feasibility of constructing a new barracks building on the U.S. Army Presidio of Monterey in Monterey, California. Due to the presence of an endangered orchid in the proposed area, invasive techniques such as exploratory drill holes are prohibited. To aid in determining the feasibility, budget, and design of this building, a compressional-wave seismic refraction survey was proposed by the U.S. Geological Survey as an alternative means of investigating the depth to competent bedrock. Two sub-parallel profiles were acquired along an existing foot path and a fence line to minimize impacts on the endangered flora. The compressional-wave seismic refraction tomography data for both profiles indicate that no competent rock classified as non-rippable or marginally rippable exists within the top 30 feet beneath the ground surface.

  7. Separation of Kerogen and Inorganic Mineral in Oil Shale by Ultrasonic Method%超声波法分离油页岩中油母质与无机矿物质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋微娜; 董永利; 周国江

    2011-01-01

    The effect of ultrasonic vibration treatment for 5 hours under low temperature 60 °C water-bath conditions on the separation of kerogen and inorganic mineral in China Yilan oil shale was studied in demineralization reagent of different concentration hydrofluoric acid and samples were analyzed by using technology of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer, X-Ray Diffractometer, Fourier Transform IR Spectrometer and Scanning Electron Microscope. The results show that after being treated by ultrasonic in 40% HF acid, the kerogen and the inorganic mineral in the oil shale can be separated; the kerogen mainly consists of chainlike and cyclic saturated materials whereas the inorganic mineral mainly consists of quartz, kaolinite ,a little of illite, siderite and pyrite. These materials integrate into uniform rock structure by way of hydrogen bond and intermolecular forces. After treating with ultrasonic vibration in mild condition, the kaolinite and siderite were removed in low acid concentration, illite and quartz have dissolution reaction in high concentration of hydrofluoric acid, and then the kerogen with loose and pore construction was obtained.%采用不同浓度氢氟酸为去岩溶剂,研究了低温60℃水浴条件下超声波振荡5h处理方法对中国依兰油页岩中油母质与无机矿物质的分离影响,利用X射线荧光光谱,X射线衍射,傅里叶变换红外光谱及扫描电子显微镜对各阶段实验样品进行了分析.结果表明,油页岩在浓度为40%氢氟酸中经过超声波处理可实现油母质与无机矿物质分离;油页岩中油母质主要为链状和环状饱和物质,无机矿物质主要有石英和高岭土及少量的伊利石、菱铁矿和黄铁矿,这些物质通过氢键或分子间力结合成均匀的岩层状结构;经过温和条件下的超声波处理,低酸度条件下高岭土和菱铁矿可被脱除,HF酸浓度较高时,伊利石和石英发生溶出反应,并得到疏松的、孔状结构的油母质.

  8. Quantitative analysis of long chain fatty acids present in a Type I kerogen using electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: compared with BF₃/MeOH methylation/GC-FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamga, Albert W; Behar, Fancoise; Hatcher, Patrick G

    2014-05-01

    Long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are present in various natural samples and are easily detectable using electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR-MS) in negative ion mode. The capability of the ESI-FT-ICR-MS for quantifying LCFAs was evaluated by performing a standard addition followed by an internal standard methodology to several kerogen extracts using n-C₂₀ fatty acid as standard. As the concentration of the standard increased, the magnitude of its peak (m/z 311.29525) increased linearly but with two separate slopes, leaving the entire mass spectra relatively unchanged, which shows evidence of reproducibility. Response factors of other LCFAs are obtained using a standard addition approach. We employed five LCFA standards (n-C₁₅, n-C₁₉, n-C₂₄, n-C₂₆, and n-C₃₀) with different carbon numbers. This allowed us to determine the response factor of all fatty acids (with carbon number between 15 and 30) by plotting the slope of each standard versus its carbon number. With the observed response factors and use of the internal standard, the concentrations of LCFAs in four kerogen extracts were measured by ESI-FT-ICR-MS and compared with those from GC-FID. The carbon number distribution obtained by ESI-FT-ICR-MS matched well the GC-FID distribution (5%–50%) with the exception of C₁₆ and C₁₈, considering that ESI-FT-ICR-MS does not differentiate between normal and branched LCFAs, whereas GC-FID does. This allows one to quantitatively compare samples with a relatively similar matrix for specific compounds such as LCFAs with no need of time-consuming derivatization procedures. Moreover, the calibration can be extended to higher carbon numbers with ESI-FT-ICR-MS, beyond the capabilities of GC/MS.

  9. Plankton in Monterey Bay: Optimization of optical sensor data from autonomous underwater vehicles with applications in plankton community composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Diane E.

    Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) equipped with oceanographic sensors demonstrate the capability to describe plankton communities in the marine environment. The vehicles collect data from the surface through the mixed layer for a variety of oceanographic parameters. The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute operates the Dorado upper-water-column AUV. The Dorado AUV collects data for 32 size-classes, from 1.25 to 250 mum, using a laser in-situ scattering and transmissometry (LISST-100X) instrument. The objective of this study is to analyze data from AUVs and laboratory work to inform sampling methods with applications in targeting specific classes of plankton, particularly harmful algal bloom species. The results of this study show that specific combinations of LISST-100X size class channels can be combined to reconstruct fluorescence data. This project includes laboratory tests with monocultures of phytoplankton on both a backscattering sensor that detects chlorophyll at 695 nm and on the forward scattering LISST-100X sensor. The results show a linear relationship between backscattered chlorophyll concentration and cell density for four monocultures of phytoplankton. The forward scattering lab experiments show distinct organism signatures for three genera of phytoplankton tested as monocultures.

  10. Suspended particulate layers and internal waves over the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf: an important control on shelf mud belts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia M.; McPhee-Shaw, Erika E.; Shaw, William J.; Stanton, Timothy P.; Bellingham, James G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and optical measurements taken over the mud belt on the southern continental shelf of Monterey Bay, California documented the frequent occurrence of suspended particulate matter features, the majority of which were detached from the seafloor, centered 9–33 m above the bed. In fall 2011, an automated profiling mooring and fixed instrumentation, including a thermistor chain and upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler, were deployed at 70 m depth for 5 weeks, and from 12 to 16 October a long-range autonomous underwater vehicle performed across-shelf transects. Individual SPM events were uncorrelated with local bed shear stress caused by surface waves and bottom currents. Nearly half of all observed SPM layers occurred during 1 week of the study, 9–16 October 2011, and were advected past the fixed profiling mooring by the onshore phase of semidiurnal internal tide bottom currents. At the start of the 9–16 October period, we observed intense near-bed vertical velocities capable of lifting particulates into the middle of the water column. This “updraft” event appears to have been associated with nonlinear adjustment of high-amplitude internal tides over the mid and outer shelf. These findings suggest that nonlinear internal tidal motions can erode material over the outer shelf and that, once suspended, this SPM can then be transported shoreward to the middle and shallow sections of the mud belt. This represents a fundamental broadening of our understanding of how shelf mud belts may be built up and sustained.

  11. Multi-scale gas flow in Bazhen formation shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, R.; Gerke, K.; Korost, D. V.; Karsanina, M.; Balushkina, N. S.; Kalmikov, G. A.; Mallants, D.

    2013-12-01

    To perform geological surveys, estimate gas/oil productivity and create large-scale reservoir models, detailed information on reservoir rock properties is needed. Such information typically includes main reservoir properties such as absolute and relative permeability, formation factor, residual oil/water content, etc. The only available method to study all these properties directly is based on laboratory analysis of core material. Usually, only porosity measurements using such techniques as NMR and mercury porosimetry are applicable to study the structure of porous spaces filled with kerogen and bitumen. To measure porosity these organic materials should be extracted (usually by dissolution), a process which can result in sample destruction as some part of the organics is the part of the matrix (and also non-extractable during production). Thus, a pore-scale modelling approach in many cases is not only a valuable alternative, but also the only way to assess physical properties. Unlike core material, drilling cuts are almost always available for analysis and can be used for processing in the laboratory. The main aim of this work is to develop a framework for accessing unconventional reservoir rock properties using pore-scale modeling on 3D models of porous structure of cores or drilling cuts. To do so we combine detailed laboratory measurements on more than 20 samples of shales with X-ray micro-tomography and SEM to study micro and nano-porosity (including kerogen porosity). First, we show that in many cases it is not possible to measure petrophysical properties (e.g., gas permeability) in the laboratory, as dissolution procedures usually result in non-realistic values. Next samples with measurable properties were chosen and micro-tomography 3D structure data combined with SEM images was used to create representative network models. Macroporosity and distribution of different non-porosity domains (kerogen, pyrite, quartz, etc.) is extracted from X-ray tomography

  12. Organic facies characteristics of the Carboniferous Pamucakyayla Formation, western Taurus, Antalya Nappes, Kemer (Antalya/Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertan Gulludag, Cevdet; Altunsoy, Mehmet; Ozcelik, Orhan

    2015-04-01

    The study area is located in the western part of the Taurus Belt (SW Turkey). This region exhibits a complex structure involving two autochthonous units surrounded and imbricated with three allochthonous complexes. Antalya Nappes is a complex tectonic imbricate structure including sedimantary and ultrabasic rocks. In this study, organic facies characteristics of Carboniferous coaly units in the Pamucakyayla region (Kemer, Antalya-Turkey) were examined. The Carboniferous Pamucakyayla Formation, which is characterized by sandstone, claystone, marl and coaly units. This units includes different levels of coal seams in different thicknesses. Organic matter is composed predominantly of woody and amorphous material, with a minor contribution of planty and coaly material. Kerogen in the deposits is type II/III, as indicated by organic petrographic observations and Rock-Eval data. Total organic carbon (TOC) values are generally between 0.01 and 1.44 %, but reach 5.81 % in the formation. Tmax values vary between 446 and 451 °C and indicate mature zone (Based on the value of 0.25 % TOC). Organic facies type BC, C and CD were identified in the investigated units. Organic facies BC is related sandstoneand marl lithofacies. This facis is deposited under an anoxic water column in a fine grained clastics, where rapid deposition creates anoxia in the sediments after deposition. This facies is characterized by average values of HI around 317 (equivalent to type II kerogene), TOC around 0.02 %, and an average of S2 of 0.04 mg HC/g of rock. Organic facies C is related to sandstone, marl and coal lithofacies. This facies is characterized by average values of HI around 176 (equivalent to type III kerogene), TOC around 0.19 %, and an average of S2 of 0.03 mg HC/g of rock. The organic matter is partly oxidized, and terrestrial. Organic facies C is the "gas-prone" facies. Organic facies CD is related to limestone, marl and coal lithofacies. This facies is characterized by average values

  13. Data Base Management: Proceedings of a Conference, November 1-2, 1984 Held at Monterey, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-31

    written under UNIX (4.1 BSD) and is running on a VAX 11/780. It is written in C and uses the Curses screen management package. Data entry from the...e.g., awk or sed under Unix ) can easily perform conversions between different input and output formats. Recursive Reference and Expressions Certain...designed and written in accordance with prin- ciples outlined by Kernighan and Plauger [ Kernighan and Plauger 1976]. They are modular; each tool performs a

  14. Organic geochemical characterisation of shallow marine Cretaceous formations from Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarki Yandoka, Babangida M.; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Abubakar, M. B.; Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Jauro, Aliyu; Adegoke, Adebanji Kayode

    2016-05-01

    The shallow marine shales of the Cretaceous formations namely Yolde, Dukul, Jessu, Sekuliye and Numanha ranging in age from Cenomanian to Coniacian within the Yola Sub-basin in the Northern Benue Trough, northeastern Nigeria were analysed to provide an overview on their hydrocarbon generation potential. This study is based on pyrolysis analysis, total organic carbon content (TOC), extractable organic matter (EOM), biomarker distributions and measured vitrinite reflectance. The present-day TOC contents range between 0.24 and 0.71 wt. % and Hydrogen Index (HI) values between 8.7 and 113 mg HC/g TOC with Type III/IV kerogens. Based on the present-day kerogen typing, the shale sediments are expected to generate mainly gas. Biomarker compositions indicates deposition in a marine environment under suboxic conditions with prevalent contribution of aquatic organic matter and a significant amount of terrigenous organic matter input. Organic matter that is dominated by marine components contains kerogens of Type II and Type II-III. This study shows that the organic matter has been affected by volcanic intrusion and consequently, have reached post-mature stage of oil generation. These higher thermal maturities levels are consistent with the vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.85 to 2.35 Ro % and high Tmax (440-508 °C) values as supported by biomarker maturity ratios. Based on this study, a high prospect for major gas and minor oil generation potential is anticipated from the shallow marine Cretaceous formations from Yola Sub-basin.

  15. Differences between Kerogen-and Oil-cracked Gases in Sinian Re servoirs of Weiyuan and Ziyang Area%威远、资阳震旦系干酪根与油裂解气的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹长河; 王廷栋; 王顺玉; 林峰

    2001-01-01

    根据威远、资阳震旦系气藏天然气组成、天然气碳同位素特征、储层包裹体的对比研究认为威远气田震旦系气藏的天然气主要来源于下寒武统泥岩。由于威远、资阳构造形成时间差异,威远为燕山期形成的构造,资阳为印支期形成,燕山消失,因此天然气的捕获时期不同,导致威远天然气主要是干酪根裂解气,次为油裂解气;而资阳主要是油裂解气。%By comparing nonhydrocarbon compositions,carbon isotope ratios of natural gases and reservoir inclusions in Weiyuan Area(W) and Ziyang Area(Z) and lower C ambrian black shale is the main sources of natural gas.Time of structure formati on is different between W and Z. The former is during Yanshanian orogeny and th e latter Indosinian Orogeny,but Z structure disappeared in Yanshanian Orogen y. So,natural gases for W are made up of oil and kerogen-cracked gases,but the latter is important. However,natural gases in Z are mainly made from oil- cracked gases.   C1/C+1 ratios of natural gases in W and Z are more than 99.62%,therefore ,natural gases are high and over-matured gases,and hydrocarbon gases of natu ral gases in Z are more abundant in high-yield wells than in low-yield ones.Contents of nitrogen gas in W Area is higher than 6% ,and less than 1.22% in hi gh-yield wells and higher than 4.17% in low-yield well in Z Area. C1/C1+ ,contents of hydrocarbon gases and nitrogen hold out that natural gases in W are high and over-matured,and nitrogen gas originate from high and over-m atured lower Cambrian black shale. Natural gases with high content of nitrogen a nd helium gases in W are mainly kerogen-cracked. Natural gases in high-yield wells in Z are oil-cracked. Because content of radioactive element and nitrogen in oil are much lower than in source rock, oil-cracked gases must contain low con tent of helium and nitrogen gases. Natural gases in low-yield wells interfused by kerogen

  16. Quantifying the Impacts of Systemic Acquired Resistance to Pitch Canker on Monterey Pine Growth Rate and Hyperspectral Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Reynolds

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pitch canker, caused by Fusarium circinatum, is a disease affecting Monterey pine (Pinus radiata and many other pine species throughout the world. The impact of pitch canker on Pinus radiata may be limited by systemic acquired resistance (SAR, a phenomenon that elevates resistance to a pathogen after initial challenge by that pathogen or another microorganism. Allocation of resources to defense, as a consequence of SAR, is presumed to reduce resources available to support growth and reproduction, but specific fitness consequences associated with SAR in P. radiata have not been measured. To quantify impacts of SAR on growth rate, a 2 × 2 factorial experiment was established in which trees were either primed for SAR or unprimed, with half the trees in each of those two groups being inoculated with the pitch canker pathogen and the other half not inoculated. Priming for SAR was accomplished by inoculating one branch with F. circinatum and removing inoculated branches prior to subsequent challenge inoculations (= disease treatments. Disease treatments included three inoculations that were removed for measurement of lesion length, and three additional inoculations that remained on the tree as a representation of persistent disease. Control trees were mock inoculated with water. Main effects of priming and disease did not result in significant effects on growth rate. Based on hyperspectral canopy reflectance data, diseased trees were associated with higher difference vegetation index values and biomass. The absence of a negative impact on growth rate associated with SAR suggests that induction of resistance may have utility as a tool for management of pitch canker in plantations.

  17. Role of minerals in thermal alteration of organic matter. II. A material balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannenbaum, E.; Huizinga, B.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1986-09-01

    Pyrolysis experiments were performed on Green River and Monterey Formation kerogens (Types I and II, respectively) with and without calcite, illite, or montmorillonite at 300/sup 0/C for 2 to 1000 hours under dry and hydrous conditions. Pyrolysis products were identified and quantified, and a material balance of product and reactants resulted. Applying the results to maturation of organic matter in natural environments, they suggest that a given type of organic matter associated with different minerals in source rocks will yield different products. Furthermore, the different adsorption capacities of minerals exert a significant influence on the migration of polar and high molecular weight compounds generated from the breakdown of kerogen. Therefore, the overall accumulated products from carbonate source rocks are mainly heavy oils with some gas, whereas light oils and gases are the main products from source rocks that contain expandable clays with catalytic and adsorptive properties. 8 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Geochemical evaluation of upper cretaceous fruitland formation coals, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, G.E.; Anders, D.E.; Law, B.E.

    1993-01-01

    Geochemical analyses of coal samples from the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado were used to determine thermal maturity, type of kerogen, and hydrocarbon generation potential. Mean random vitrinite reflectance (%Rm) of the Fruitland coal ranges from 0.42 to 1.54%. Rock-Eval pyrolysis data and saturated to aromatic hydrocarbon ratio indicate that the onset of thermal hydrocarbon generation begins at about 0.60% Rm and peak generation occurs at about 0.85% Rm. Several samples have hydrogen index values between 200 and 400, indicating some potential for liquid hydrocarbon generation and a mixed Type III and II kerogen. Pentacyclic and tricyclic terpanes, steranes, aromatic steroids and methylphenanthrene maturity parameters were observed through the complete range of thermal maturity in the Fruitland coals. Aromatic pentacyclic terpanes, similar to those found in brown coals of Australia, were observed in low maturity samples, but not found above 0.80% Rm. N-alkane depleted coal samples, which occur at a thermal maturity of approx. 0.90% Rm, paralleling peak hydrocarbon generation, are fairly widespread throughout the basin. Depletion of n-alkanes in these samples may be due to gas solution stripping and migration fromthe coal seams coincident with the development of pressure induced fracturing due to hydrocarbon generation; however, biodegradation may also effect these samples. ?? 1993.

  19. Characteristics of the Triassic Source Rocks of the Aitutu Formation in the (West Timor Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Kurnia Permana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.v1i3.192The Triassic rocks of the (West Timor Basin have been identified that was mainly deposited in the  marine environment. The fine grained clastics and carbonate  rocks of this Triassic marine  facies are considered to be the most promising source rocks potential in this basin. In this paper we present geochemical and petrographic data from outcrop samples of the Triassic carbonate Aitutu Formation, due to emphasized the organic maturation, kerogen type of the organic matter and the origin of the organic matter.  A representative of selected sample were subjected to the Rock-Eval Pyrolisis, vitrinite reflectance and thermal alteration index, bitumen extraction, were analyzed on the GC-MS. The samples were collected from marine deposit of the Triassic Sequence. The TOC values of the analyzed sample range between rich and rich organic richness (0.51% - 9.16%, wt.%, TOC, which consists mainly of type II and III kerogen and the organic matter consider to be predominantly oil/gas prone and gas prone potential. The thermal maturity assessed from Tmax, TAI, and vitrinite reflectance shows an immature to early peak mature stage of the organic matter. The GC-MS analyses of the biomarkers indicate mainly the organic matter derived from mixed source rocks facies containing alga debris and higher plant terrestrial origin.

  20. Impact of Diagenesis on Biosignature Preservation Potential in Playa Lake Evaporites in Verde Formation, Arizona: Implications for Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolyar, S.; Farmer, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Major priorities for Mars science include assessing the preservation potential and impact of diagenesis on biosignature preservation in aqueous sedimentary environments. We address these priorities with field and lab studies of playa evaporites of the Verde Formation (upper Pliocene) in Arizona. Evaporites studied include bottom-nucleated halite and displacive growth gypsum in magnesite-rich mudstone. These lithotypes are potential analogs for ancient lacustrine habitable environments on Mars. This study aimed to understand organic matter preservation potential under different diagenetic histories. Methods combined outcrop-scale field observations and lab analyses, including: (1) thin-section petrography to understand diagenetic processes and paragenesis; (2) X-ray powder diffraction to obtain bulk mineralogy; (3) Raman spectroscopy to identify and place phases (and kerogenous fossil remains) within a microtextural context; (4) Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analyses to estimate weight percentages of preserved organic carbon for each subfacies endmember; and (5) electron microprobe to create 2D kerogen maps semi-quantifying kerogen preservation in each subfacies. Results revealed complex diagenetic histories for each evaporite subfacies and pathways for organic matter preservation. Secondary gypsum grew displacively within primary playa lake mudstones during early diagenesis. Mudstones then experienced cementation by Mg-carbonates. Displacive-growth gypsum was sometimes dissolved, forming crystal molds. These molds were later either infilled by secondary sulfates or recrystallized to gypsum pseudomorphs with minor phases present (i.e., glauberite). These observations helped define taphonomic models for organic matter preservation in each subfacies. This work has the potential to inform in situ target identification, sampling strategies, and data interpretations for future Mars Sample Return missions (e.g., sample caching strategies for NASA's Mars 2020 mission).

  1. Analysis of a viral metagenomic library from 200 m depth in Monterey Bay, California constructed by direct shotgun cloning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Christina M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viruses have a profound influence on both the ecology and evolution of marine plankton, but the genetic diversity of viral assemblages, particularly those in deeper ocean waters, remains poorly described. Here we report on the construction and analysis of a viral metagenome prepared from below the euphotic zone in a temperate, eutrophic bay of coastal California. Methods We purified viruses from approximately one cubic meter of seawater collected from 200m depth in Monterey Bay, CA. DNA was extracted from the virus fraction, sheared, and cloned with no prior amplification into a plasmid vector and propagated in E. coli to produce the MBv200m library. Random clones were sequenced by the Sanger method. Sequences were assembled then compared to sequences in GenBank and to other viral metagenomic libraries using BLAST analyses. Results Only 26% of the 881 sequences remaining after assembly had significant (E ≤ 0.001 BLAST hits to sequences in the GenBank nr database, with most being matches to bacteria (15% and viruses (8%. When BLAST analysis included environmental sequences, 74% of sequences in the MBv200m library had a significant match. Most of these hits (70% were to microbial metagenome sequences and only 0.7% were to sequences from viral metagenomes. Of the 121 sequences with a significant hit to a known virus, 94% matched bacteriophages (Families Podo-, Sipho-, and Myoviridae and 6% matched viruses of eukaryotes in the Family Phycodnaviridae (5 sequences or the Mimivirus (2 sequences. The largest percentages of hits to viral genes of known function were to those involved in DNA modification (25% or structural genes (17%. Based on reciprocal BLAST analyses, the MBv200m library appeared to be most similar to viral metagenomes from two other bays and least similar to a viral metagenome from the Arctic Ocean. Conclusions Direct cloning of DNA from diverse marine viruses was feasible and resulted in a distribution of virus

  2. Across-shore variability in plankton layering and abundance associated with physical forcing in Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevadjian, J. C.; McManus, M. A.; Ryan, J.; Greer, A. T.; Cowen, R. K.; Woodson, C. B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further our understanding of the role of the coastal physical oceanographic environment as a dynamic and constantly evolving habitat for plankton. Over a 3-week period in the summer of 2010, an array of moorings were deployed and shipboard and autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) surveys were conducted to investigate the association between physical processes and plankton distributions over the Monterey Bay, California inner shelf. Acoustic backscatter, chlorophyll-a fluorescence, and high-resolution zooplankton imagery data collected during the shipboard surveys were used to map the distributions of phytoplankton and zooplankton; and profiles of temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nitrate from the AUV characterized the physical and chemical environment. A synthesis of underway and moored time series data provided insight into the histories of water masses in the area, and facilitated tracking of internal wave groups as they propagated towards shore. A near-bottom intrusion of recently-upwelled water was found to be strongly influenced by the diurnal tide, resulting in daily across-shelf excursions past the mooring array at the 20-m isobath. Behind the leading edge of the intrusion, the water column was highly stratified in temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nitrate; and thin layers of phytoplankton and zooplankton persisted at the upper boundary of the intrusion. In ambient waters shoreward of the intrusion, stratification was weak; copepod, appendicularian, and gelatinous zooplankton abundances were relatively low; and phytoplankton and acoustic backscatter were broadly distributed throughout the lower half of the water column. The arrival of two shoreward-propagating internal wave groups observed during the shipboard survey corresponded with disparate responses in plankton distribution. In the wake of the first wave group, phytoplankton and zooplankton layers thinned or converged; in the wake of the second wave group, an eight

  3. Variability of the internal tide on the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf and associated bottom boundary layer sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Cheriton, Olivia M.

    2016-06-01

    A 6-month deployment of instrumentation from April to October 2012 in 90 m water depth near the outer edge of the mid-shelf mud belt in southern Monterey Bay, California, reveals the importance regional upwelling on water column density structure, potentially accounting for the majority of the variability in internal tidal energy flux across the shelf. Observations consisted of time-series measurements of water-column currents, temperature and salinity, and near-bed currents and suspended matter. The internal tide accounted for 15-25% of the water-column current variance and the barotropic tide accounted for up to 35%. The subtidal flow showed remarkably little shear and was dominated by the 7-14 day band, which is associated with relaxations in the dominant equatorward winds typical of coastal California in the spring and summer. Upwelling and relaxation events resulted in strong near-bed flows and accounted for almost half of the current stress on the seafloor (not accounting for wave orbital velocities), and may have driven along-shelf geostrophic flow during steady state conditions. Several elevated suspended particulate matter (SPM) events occurred within 3 m of the bed and were generally associated with higher, long-period surface waves. However, these peaks in SPM did not coincide with the predicted resuspension events from the modeled combined wave-current shear stress, indicating that the observed SPM at our site was most likely resuspended elsewhere and advected along-isobath. Sediment flux was almost equal in magnitude in the alongshore and cross-shore directions. Instances of wave-current shear stress that exceeded the threshold of resuspension for the silty-clays common at these water depths only occurred when near-bed orbital velocities due to long-period surface waves coincided with vigorous near-bed currents associated with the internal tide or upwelling/relaxation events. Thus upwelling/relaxation dynamics are primarily responsible for variability

  4. Variability of the internal tide on the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf and associated bottom boundary layer sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Kurt; Storlazzi, Curt; Cheriton, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    A 6-month deployment of instrumentation from April to October 2012 in 90 m water depth near the outer edge of the mid-shelf mud belt in southern Monterey Bay, California, reveals the importance regional upwelling on water column density structure, potentially accounting for the majority of the variability in internal tidal energy flux across the shelf. Observations consisted of time-series measurements of water-column currents, temperature and salinity, and near-bed currents and suspended matter. The internal tide accounted for 15–25% of the water-column current variance and the barotropic tide accounted for up to 35%. The subtidal flow showed remarkably little shear and was dominated by the 7–14 day band, which is associated with relaxations in the dominant equatorward winds typical of coastal California in the spring and summer. Upwelling and relaxation events resulted in strong near-bed flows and accounted for almost half of the current stress on the seafloor (not accounting for wave orbital velocities), and may have driven along-shelf geostrophic flow during steady state conditions. Several elevated suspended particulate matter (SPM) events occurred within 3 m of the bed and were generally associated with higher, long-period surface waves. However, these peaks in SPM did not coincide with the predicted resuspension events from the modeled combined wave–current shear stress, indicating that the observed SPM at our site was most likely resuspended elsewhere and advected along-isobath. Sediment flux was almost equal in magnitude in the alongshore and cross-shore directions. Instances of wave–current shear stress that exceeded the threshold of resuspension for the silty-clays common at these water depths only occurred when near-bed orbital velocities due to long-period surface waves coincided with vigorous near-bed currents associated with the internal tide or upwelling/relaxation events. Thus upwelling/relaxation dynamics are primarily responsible for

  5. Source-rock evaluation of the Dakhla Formation black shale in Gebel Duwi, Quseir area, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kammar, M. M.

    2015-04-01

    A relatively thick Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary sedimentary succession is exposed in Gebel Duwi, Red Sea area, through an almost horizontal tunnel cutting the NE dipping strata from Quseir to Thebes formations. The black shale belonging to Dakhla Formation represents a real potential for future energy resource for Egypt. Dakhla Formation consists mainly of organic-rich calcareous shale to argillaceous limestone that can be considered as a good to excellent source rock potential. The total organic carbon (TOC) content ranges from 2.04% to 12.08%, and the Hydrogen Index (HI) values range from 382 to 1024 mg HC/g TOC. Samples of the Dakhla Formation contain mostly kerogen of types I and II that prone oil and oil-gas, indicating marine organic matter derived mainly from algae and phytoplankton organisms and proposing typical oil source kerogen. The average of the potential index (PI) value is 0.02 mg HC/g rock, which indicates the beginning of a considerable amount of oil generation from the Dakhla Formation. The Tmax values range from 427 to 435 °C. Based on the Tmax data and PI values, the studied black shale samples are immature to early mature for hydrocarbon generation in the Duwi area. The data reduction suggests four main factors covering about 91% of the total variances. The average of the calorific value (459 kcal/kg) indicates unworkable efficiency of such black shale for direct combustion use in power stations. However, selective operation of specific horizons having the highest calorific values may provide viable resources.

  6. Chemical structure of the organic matter in a Pliocene maar-type shale: Implicated Botryococcus race strains and formation pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Sylvie; Largeau, Claude; Hetényi, Magdolna; Brukner-Wein, Alice; Connan, Jacques; Lugardon, Bernard

    1997-05-01

    A maar-type Pliocene oil shale from Pula (Hungary) was examined by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM, TEM) bitumen analysis, spectroscopic analyses (FTIR, solid state 13C NMR) and pyrolytic analyses of insoluble material. The investigated samples, corresponding to the "massive section" of Pula deposit, exhibit TOC values ranging from 18 to 42%, and Rock-Eval analysis indicated that such samples are comprised of low maturity type I kerogen. Electron Microscopy observations confirmed that recognizable microfossils in this organic matter-rich material almost exclusively correspond to Botryococcus braunii colonies, the morphology of which is perfectly retained. Identification of bitumen and pyrolysate constituents (hydrocarbons, ketones, fatty acids), along with morphological and spectroscopic features, indicate (1) that B. braunii provided a major input to the most organic matter-rich section of Pula oil shale; (2) that both the n-alkadienes-producing and the lycopadiene-producing strains ( A and L, respectively) were present; (3) that the selective preservation of the insoluble and non-hydrolysable macromolecules building up B. braunii outer walls was by far the main process in the formation of this material; (4) that such a process, along with B. braunii prolific growth in the favourable environment that occurred in the crater lake, accounts for the very high TOC and oil potential of Pula deposit; and (5) that the condensation of high molecular weight ether lipids from the A race and of some bacterial lipids also likely contributed to Pula kerogen formation.

  7. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, 2005-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,000 square mile (2,590 km2) Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (MS) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in central California in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA MS study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers). The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 by the USGS from 97 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifers were defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the MS study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the MS study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California regulatory or

  8. Spectroscopic studies of wood fossils from the Crato Formation, Cretaceous Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, J H; Freire, P T C; Abagaro, B T O; Silva, J A F; Saraiva, G D; de Lima, F J; Barros, O A; Bantim, R A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C

    2013-11-01

    In this work we study two types of wood fossils (Gymnosperms, Araucariaceae) from the Crato Formation of Araripe Basin in Brazil, from the Cretaceous Period. The samples were characterized by Raman and infrared spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained by different techniques showed that although the rocks surrounding the fossils have predominantly the same constitution - calcite - however, the formation processes of these types of wood fossils are quite different. One of the fossils, denominated as light wood, is predominantly composed of gypsum, while the other fossil, the dark wood, is rich in amorphous carbon, possibly the kerogen type. Implications relative to the environment where the plants lived millions years ago are also given. Finally, the results highlight the constitution of one of the most important paleontological sites of the Cretaceous Period in the South America.

  9. Spectroscopic studies of wood fossils from the Crato Formation, Cretaceous Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, J. H.; Freire, P. T. C.; Abagaro, B. T. O.; Silva, J. A. F.; Saraiva, G. D.; de Lima, F. J.; Barros, O. A.; Bantim, R. A.; Saraiva, A. A. F.; Viana, B. C.

    2013-11-01

    In this work we study two types of wood fossils (Gymnosperms, Araucariaceae) from the Crato Formation of Araripe Basin in Brazil, from the Cretaceous Period. The samples were characterized by Raman and infrared spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained by different techniques showed that although the rocks surrounding the fossils have predominantly the same constitution - calcite - however, the formation processes of these types of wood fossils are quite different. One of the fossils, denominated as light wood, is predominantly composed of gypsum, while the other fossil, the dark wood, is rich in amorphous carbon, possibly the kerogen type. Implications relative to the environment where the plants lived millions years ago are also given. Finally, the results highlight the constitution of one of the most important paleontological sites of the Cretaceous Period in the South America.

  10. Long-term, High Frequency, High Precision pH Measurements on the MBARI deep-water FOCE Experiment at the MARS Cabled Observatory in Monterey Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, E. T.; Maughan, T.; Barry, J. P.; Brewer, P. G.; Headley, K. L.; Herlien, R.; Kirkwood, W. J.; Matsumoto, G. I.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Salamy, K. A.; Scholfield, J.; Shane, F. F.; Walz, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The MBARI deep-water FOCE experiment was deployed on the MARS cabled observatory in Monterey Bay on May 4th, 2011. It has been in continuous operation (excluding a few minor shore based power outages) ever since. During the fifteen months of deployment, we have been able to observe both the daily variation in pH in response to water mass movements associated with the semi-diurnal tides, internal waves and longer-term trends as a function of the seasonal variations in the water masses within the Monterey Bay Canyon. Our experimental site is located at 890 meters, just below the oxygen minimum for Monterey Bay, and we clearly see the anticipated inverse correlation between seawater temperature and pH. Daily variation in pH is on the order of 0.020-0.030 pH units with longer term trends adding an additional variation of similar magnitude. Instrumentation on this experiment included two CTDs with oxygen sensors (Sea-Bird 52). One CTD is mounted on the external FOCE framework to measure the background conditions, and one CTD is installed within the FOCE pH control area to monitor the experimentally manipulated conditions. In addition, 6 MBARI modified Sea-Bird 18 pH sensors were mounted on the FOCE apparatus. Four of these pH sensors monitored pH inside the experimental chamber and two monitored the external background seawater conditions. Although we originally intended to conduct several in situ CO2 enrichment experiments to study the impact of ocean acidification on the benthic biology and then recover the apparatus after one year, unanticipated changes in the ship schedule have left the FOCE experiment in place for nearly fifteen months at the time of this writing. Throughout this time period, all sensor data has been logged by the MBARI Shore-Side Data System (SSDS) resulting in the longest continuous record of high precision pH measurements in the intermediate water column. We present an analysis of the data obtained from this unique data set, and discuss our in

  11. Repeated 1-cm Resolution Topographic and 2.5-mm Resolution Photomosiac Surveys of Benthic Communities and Fine Scale Bedforms in Monterey Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, D. W.; Hobson, B.; Thomas, H. J.; Henthorn, R.; Martin, E. J.; Bird, L.; Risi, M.; Troni, G.; Paull, C. K.; Rock, S.; Padial, J. A.; Hammond, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute has developed a low altitude, ROV-based seafloor mapping system that combines lidar laser ranging, multibeam sonar, and stereo photographic imagery. When operated at a 3-m altitude, this system maps seafloor topography with a 1-cm lateral resolution and simultaneously collects 2.5-mm resolution color photography. We have twice mapped an 80-m by 80-m area of a chemosynthetic clam community located at 2850-m depth in the Monterey Canyon axis. Both the topography and the photomosaics resolve changes in the clam community over a six-month interval. Many individual animals have moved, and tracks of those animals are visible in the lidar topography. No other changes in the seafloor at this site can be discerned. We have also performed single surveys of bedforms and scours at both 1850-m and 2850-m depths in Monterey Canyon. The highest resolution bathymetry data are collected using a 3DatDepth SL1 lidar laser scanner. This system has a 30° field of view and ranges continuously, achieving a 1 cm sounding spacing at a 3 m altitude and 0.3 m/s speed. Bathymetry data are also collected using a 400-kHz Reson 7125 multibeam sonar. This configuration produces 512 beams across a 135° wide swath; each beam has a 0.5° acrosstrack by 1.0° alongtrack angular width. At a 3-m altitude, the nadir beams have a 2.5 cm acrosstrack and 5 cm alongtrack footprint. Dual Prosilica GX1920 2.4 Mpixel color cameras provide color stereo photography of the seafloor. Illumination is provided by dual xenon strobes. The camera housings have been fitted with corrective optics achieving a 90° field of view with less than 1% distortion. At a 3-m altitude the raw image pixels have a 2.5 mm resolution. Position and attitude data are provided by a Kearfott SeaDevil Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated with a 300 kHz Teledyne RD Instruments Doppler velocity log (DVL). A separate Paroscientific pressure sensor is mounted adjacent to the INS. The INS

  12. monterey_ca.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  13. Monterey Bay Geoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    B.C. (Dragomir et al. 1982) It was from these early studies of the earth’s shape and size that the study of the earth’s gravity began. Galileo Galilei ...feel the earth’s gravitational acceleration but not the centrifugal acceleration. The traditional unit of gravity is the gal, from Galileo , 1 gal - 1

  14. Flow and Chemistry Pulsations, Monterey: Implications for Stress Transient Modulations of Hydrologic and Geochemical Systems in the Greater San Andreas Fault Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K. M.; Fueri, E.; Hilton, D. R.

    2005-12-01

    Submarine fluid venting at continental shelf and slope regions has been recognized over the past ten years as an important, yet under-studied process in marine science. Seeps are now known to be a general feature of the hydrogeology of many tectonically active continental margins. The eastern Pacific margin is characterized by a variety of tectonic settings (i.e. convergent and strike-slip) where active venting of fluids and gases has been documented. Reports include vents off Alaska, Costa Rica, Monterey Bay, Eel River basin, and Heceta Bay, OR. Indications of seismic tremor, linked to hydrologic transience in the offshore regions of subduction zones have recently been published elsewhere (see Brown et al, EPSL 2005). We now address here the varying nature of submarine fluid discharges in a San Andreas strike-slip setting. A key element of the proposed work is the combined multidisciplinary measurement of fluid flow, seep temperatures, and dissolved noble gases and chemistry of the Monterey seep sites at Extrovert Cliff. The seeps are situated close to several active strike-slip faults including the Monterey and San Gregorio fault zones. Initial results of 2 week deployments in 2004 of flow meters at Extravert Cliff indicated high flow rates and elevated seep temperatures that vary by as much as a factor of 2 on diurnal time scales with subtle changes over longer periods (>2 weeks). There are also indicative chemical signals of deeply sourced fluids that vary widely with time that show the following signals: 1) Elevated abundances of both mantle derived Helium (3He) as well as 4He and 40Ar of radiogenic crustal relevant trace element components; 2) Altered fluid chemistry (including, Ca Mg, Li and B); 3) The fluid temperature, flow rates, and gas chemistry, in particular, vary with time. We have both long-term and sub-diurnal variations in flow and temperature as well as the 3He/4He ratios, helium concentration, CO2 concentration and d13C values perhaps influenced

  15. Investigation of late Pleistocene and Holocene activity in the San Gregorio fault zone on the continental slope north of Monterey Canyon, offshore central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Katherine L.; Paull, Charles K.; Brothers, Daniel; Caress, David W.; McGann, Mary; Lundsten, Eve M.; Anderson, Krystle; Gwiazda, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    We provide an extensive high‐resolution geophysical, sediment core, and radiocarbon dataset to address late Pleistocene and Holocene fault activity of the San Gregorio fault zone (SGFZ), offshore central California. The SGFZ occurs primarily offshore in the San Andreas fault system and has been accommodating dextral strike‐slip motion between the Pacific and North American plates since the mid‐Miocene. Our study focuses on the SGFZ where it has been mapped through the continental slope north of Monterey Canyon. From 2009 to 2015, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute collected high‐resolution multibeam bathymetry and chirp sub‐bottom profiles using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). Targeted samples were collected using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to provide radiocarbon age constraints. We integrate the high‐resolution geophysical data with radiocarbon dates to reveal Pleistocene seismic horizons vertically offset less than 5 m on nearly vertical faults. These faults are buried by continuous reflections deposited after ∼17.5  ka and likely following erosion during the last sea‐level lowstand ∼21  ka, bracketing the age of faulting to ∼32–21  ka. Clearly faulted horizons are only detected in a small area where mass wasting exhumed older strata to within ∼25  m of the seafloor. The lack of clearly faulted Holocene deposits and possible highly distributed faulting in the study area are consistent with previous interpretations that late Pleistocene and Holocene activity along the SGFZ may decrease to the south. This study illustrates the complexity of the SGFZ, offshore central California, and demonstrates the utility of very high‐resolution data from combined AUV (geophysical)–ROV (seabed sampling) surveys in offshore studies of fault activity.

  16. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perri, Pasquale R.

    2001-04-04

    This report describes the evaluation, design, and implementation of a DOE funded CO2 pilot project in the Lost Hills Field, Kern County, California. The pilot consists of four inverted (injector-centered) 5-spot patterns covering approximately 10 acres, and is located in a portion of the field, which has been under waterflood since early 1992. The target reservoir for the CO2 pilot is the Belridge Diatomite. The pilot location was selected based on geology, reservoir quality and reservoir performance during the waterflood. A CO2 pilot was chosen, rather than full-field implementation, to investigate uncertainties associated with CO2 utilization rate and premature CO2 breakthrough, and overall uncertainty in the unproven CO2 flood process in the San Joaquin Valley.

  17. Formation of nanoporous pyrobitumen residues during maturation processes within the Barnett Shale (Fort Worth Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, S.; Wirth, R.; Schreiber, A.; Schulz, H.-M.; Horsfield, B.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrocarbon generation processes occur within organic-rich shales as a response to increases in thermal maturation. Shale gas reservoir quality is thought to be largely dependent on the extent to which solid organic material has been converted to pore space during catagenesis. Although pores may drastically vary in variety and abundance within differing shales, the occurrence of nanopores within organic particles has recently been documented for an important number of gas shale systems (i.e., Barnett, Haynesville, Utica, Eagle Ford, Woodford, Horn River, Marcellus, Posidonia …). However, despite their ubiquitous nature, the formation and the geochemical nature of these nanoporous organic compounds remain unclear. Here, we present the characterization of samples from the organic-rich Mississippian Barnett shale gas system (Fort Worth Basin, Texas, USA) at varying stages of thermal maturation. Using a combination of compositional organic geochemistry and spectromicroscopy techniques, including synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM - data collected using the CLS 10ID-1 STXM beamline) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we document a net increase in sample geochemical heterogeneity with increasing maturity. In addition to the presence of bitumen in samples of oil window maturity, very likely genetically derived from thermally degraded kerogen, the formation of nanoporous pyrobitumen has been inferred for samples of gas window maturity, likely resulting from the formation of gaseous hydrocarbons by secondary cracking of bitumen compounds. By providing in-situ insights into the fate of bitumen and pyrobitumen as a response to the thermal evolution of the macromolecular structure of kerogen, the present contribution constitutes an important step towards better constraining hydrocarbon generation processes occurring within unconventional gas shale systems.

  18. Currents, temperature, conductivity, pressure, sigma-theta, and attenuation data from moorings deployed in Monterey Bay from platforms WILLIAM A. MCGAW, NOAA Ship McARTHUR, and POINT SUR from 1995-05-16 to 1998-08-17 (NCEI Accession 0067571)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary data were part of a large, multi-disciplinary experiment to characterize the Sanctuary's geologic environment. These data...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THOMAS WASHINGTON in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1991-05-31 to 1991-07-11 (NODC Accession 0115000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115000 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS WASHINGTON in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary,...

  20. Effects of weathering of organic matter in the La Luna Formation, Maracaibo Basin, Western Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, N.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of weathering of organic matter in the La Luna Formation, the main source rock of Cretaceous oil in Western Venezuela was studied by means of organic petrography. Two outcrop samples from zero to about 10 cm depth were studied microscopically, both in whole rock and kerogen extract mode. This permitted recognizing some characteristics and consequences of weathering, such as: increased porosity of huminite and solid bitumens and the decrease of its reflectance (% anti Ro); disappearance of micrinite, presence of exudation substances and lower fluorescence emission of liptinite under blue light excitation. The mass reduction of the organic matter was determined by the difference of total organic carbon values, and by the weight reduction of the sample before and after extraction, in both weathered and unweathered samples. The loss of organic matter by weathering is considerable, as much as 87% in the first 0.5 cm of the weathering halo are lost.

  1. Hydrocarbon source potential of the Santiago Formation, Oriente Basin, SE of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaibor, J.; Hochuli, J. P. A.; Winkler, W.; Toro, J.

    2008-03-01

    The Santiago Formation (Late Hettangian-Sinemurian), described in the area of Santiago in the Oriente Basin of eastern Ecuador, consists of three distinct sedimentary members. The Santiago River Member is composed of limestones and calcareous sandstones. The Yuquianza Member is a monotonous sequence of black shales. The Patuca Member consists of a sequence of sandstones, greywackes, and shales, intercalated with lava flows and dikes. The fine-grained sediments of the three members are characterized by a high content of particulate organic matter (POM). Palynofacies and rock-eval analyses indicate the predominance of kerogen types II and III, with HI values that indicate a moderate to low source potential. At the type locality, the organic matter is thermally mature and locally overmatures.

  2. Application of well log analysis for source rock evaluation in the Duwi Formation, Southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sharawy, Mohamed S.; Gaafar, Gamal R.

    2012-05-01

    Several models were developed to use the conventional wireline logs for evaluating the thermal maturity of the source rock and calculating the total organic carbon (TOC) content. Application of these models for the Duwi Formation, southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt, is the main purpose of this paper. Gamma ray, density, sonic, resistivity and neutron are the commonly used wireline logs to identify and quantify source rock. The results, which compared with the results obtained from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis show that cautions must be taken into consideration when applied these models because most of the models are empirical and their validation takes place under certain conditions. It can be concluded that the Duwi Formation represents very good source rock capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbon of oil-prone type II. The kerogen is waxy sapropel related to marine plankton deposited under reduced condition.

  3. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley study unit was investigated from July through October 2005 as part of the California Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 94 public-supply wells and 3 monitoring wells in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. Ninety-one of the public-supply wells sampled were selected to provide a spatially distributed, randomized monitoring network for statistical representation of the study area. Six wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry: three wells along a ground-water flow path were sampled to evaluate lateral changes, and three wells at discrete depths from land surface were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry with depth from land surface. The ground-water samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, pesticide degradates, nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, radioactivity, microbial indicators, and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, helium-4, and the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. In total, 270 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated for this study. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. In addition, regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. In this study, only six constituents, alpha radioactivity, N

  4. 美国MARS海底观测网络中国节点试验%Test China Node on Monterey Accelerated Research System(MARS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭晓彤; 冯正平; 李德平; 周怀阳; 吴邦春; 吕枫; 吴正伟; 杨灿军; 李培良; 李德俊; 金波

    2011-01-01

    MARS海底观测网络是国际深海海底观测网络组网设备的主要试验场所。2011年4月21日,由接驳盒子系统、海底化学环境监测子系统和海底动力环境监测子系统等海底观测网络组网设备组成的中国节点与美国MARS海底观测网络主节点成功接并,检测和考验了我国深海海底观测网络组网关键设备的主要性能,中国成为第三个在MARS网上进行大规模组网设备测试的国家。到目前为止,中国节点在MARS网上的运行稳定,正源源不断从美国蒙特利湾海底传回各种观测数据,表明我国深海海底观测网络组网关键技术已取得了重要突破,基本达到了实际应用水平。实时、高分辨率和海量的数据特征为开展海洋科学研究提供了宝贵的资料,显示了利用海底观测网络开展海洋科学研究的巨大优势。%Monterey Accelerated Research System(MARS) is a main test bed for the deep-sea observatory instruments in the world.On April 14 th,2011,a China node,which consists of a junction box,a chemical environment system and a dynamical environment system,was installed on MARS successfully by R/V Western Flyer,R/V Point Lobos and ROV Ventana for long-term test at the seafloor of Monterey Bay.China became the third country who tested her deep-sea observatory instruments on MARS on a large scale.Up to date,China node works well on MARS.The instruments of China node are sending data back from the seafloor of Monterey Bay.China node test on MARS shows that Chinese observatory technologies have had great progresses in the recent four years,which can be applied to the construction of the deep-sea observatory in China.Real-time data from China node will benefit marine research and show great advantages of deep-sea observatory.

  5. Hydrocarbon potential evaluation of the source rocks from the Abu Gabra Formation in the Sufyan Sag, Muglad Basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jinqi; Liu, Luofu; An, Fuli; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Ying; Wu, Kangjun; Zhao, Yuanyuan

    2016-06-01

    The Sufyan Sag is one of the low-exploration areas in the Muglad Basin (Sudan), and hydrocarbon potential evaluation of source rocks is the basis for its further exploration. The Abu Gabra Formation consisting of three members (AG3, AG2 and AG1 from bottom to top) was thought to be the main source rock formation, but detailed studies on its petroleum geology and geochemical characteristics are still insufficient. Through systematic analysis on distribution, organic matter abundance, organic matter type, organic matter maturity and characteristics of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion of the source rocks from the Abu Gabra Formation, the main source rock members were determined and the petroleum resource extent was estimated in the study area. The results show that dark mudstones are the thickest in the AG2 member while the thinnest in the AG1 member, and the thickness of the AG3 dark mudstone is not small either. The AG3 member have developed good-excellent source rock mainly with Type I kerogen. In the Southern Sub-sag, the AG3 source rock began to generate hydrocarbons in the middle period of Bentiu. In the early period of Darfur, it reached the hydrocarbon generation and expulsion peak. It is in late mature stage currently. The AG2 member developed good-excellent source rock mainly with Types II1 and I kerogen, and has lower organic matter abundance than the AG3 member. In the Southern Sub-sag, the AG2 source rock began to generate hydrocarbons in the late period of Bentiu. In the late period of Darfur, it reached the peak of hydrocarbon generation and its expulsion. It is in middle mature stage currently. The AG1 member developed fair-good source rock mainly with Types II and III kerogen. Throughout the geological evolution history, the AG1 source rock has no effective hydrocarbon generation or expulsion processes. Combined with basin modeling results, we have concluded that the AG3 and AG2 members are the main source rock layers and the Southern Sub-sag is

  6. Resistant biomacromolecules as major contributors to kerogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Bergen, P.F. van; Aarssen, B.G.K. van; Gatellier, J-P.L.A.; Collinson, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Current research concerning the chemical characterization of organic macromolecules present in well-preserved fossilized materials with known morphologies revealed by (electron) microscopic studies results in the recognition of unknown, resistant biomacromolecules in a variety of organisms. It is sh

  7. 三塘湖盆地二叠系干酪根热模拟气体产物的地球化学特征%Geochemical characterization of gaseous pyrolysates from a Permian kerogen of Santanghu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜军艳; 程斌; 廖泽文

    2014-01-01

    针对三塘湖盆地的主力烃源岩二叠系芦草沟组泥质烃源岩开展封闭体系和半开放体系热模拟实验,前者将干酪根密封在金管中开展实验、后者直接对烃源岩样品进行压机半开放体系热解模拟,对实验中生成气体的组分和稳定碳同位素进行分析。实验结果显示,两种热解方法以无机气体生成为主,包括CO2、H2、H2S 和 N2等,其中 CO2含量最丰富,这与样品干酪根中丰富的氧含量一致。半开放体系模拟实验温度达到480℃时,气态烃的含量达40.64%,其中甲烷含量达到26.10%,封闭体系中随着模拟温度升高烃类气体产物的碳同位素呈现先变轻后变重的趋势,但同位素分馏程度不大, CH4气体的δ13C 值分布在-40.2‰~-46.6‰之间, C2H6分布在-34.3‰~-38.0‰之间, C3H8分布在-33.6‰~-36.0‰之间,而CO2气体δ13C值分布在-32.8‰~-28.8‰之间。三塘湖盆地针对气藏的勘探已经有所发现,但有关气藏的地球化学特征报道较少,该工作中的模拟实验结果可为三塘湖盆地深入的气藏地球化学勘探提供基础数据。%This work was carried out to study the geochemical characteristics of gaseous pyrolysates from Permian argillaceous source rocks of Santanghu Basin, from the closed and semi-open systems, respectively. Kerogens prepared from the source rocks were sealed into golden tubes for the closed-pyrolysis, while the source rocks were used directly for the semi-open system. The composition and stable carbon isotope of the gas generated were analyzed. The results show that, for both pyrolysis systems, inorganic gas were the main products including CO2, H2, H2S, N2. The proportion of CO2 was the highest due to the abundant oxygen content in the kerogens; for the semi-open system, the relative percentage of gaseous hydrocarbons can be up to 40.64%, and the relative percentage of methane is as high as 26.10% when the temperature reaches

  8. Geological and geochemical characterization of the Lower Cretaceous Pearsall Formation, Maverick Basin, south Texas: A future shale gas resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    As part of an assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the northern Gulf of Mexico onshore Mesozoic section, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) evaluated the Lower Cretaceous Pearsall Formation of the Maverick Basin, south Texas, as a potential shale gas resource. Wireline logs were used to determine the stratigraphic distribution of the Pearsall Formation and to select available core and cuttings samples for analytical investigation. Samples used for this study spanned updip to downdip environments in the Maverick Basin, including several from the current shale gas-producing area of the Pearsall Formation.The term shale does not adequately describe any of the Pearsall samples evaluated for this study, which included argillaceous lime wackestones from more proximal marine depositional environments in Maverick County and argillaceous lime mudstones from the distal Lower Cretaceous shelf edge in western Bee County. Most facies in the Pearsall Formation were deposited in oxygenated environments as evidenced by the presence of biota preserved as shell fragments and the near absence of sediment laminae, which is probably caused by bioturbation. Organic material is poorly preserved and primarily consists of type III kerogen (terrestrial) and type IV kerogen (inert solid bitumen), with a minor contribution from type II kerogen (marine) based on petrographic analysis and pyrolysis. Carbonate dominates the mineralogy followed by clays and quartz. The low abundance and broad size distribution of pyrite are consistent with the presence of oxic conditions during sediment deposition. The Pearsall Formation is in the dry gas window of hydrocarbon generation (mean random vitrinite reflectance values, Ro = 1.2–2.2%) and contains moderate levels of total organic carbon (average 0.86 wt. %), which primarily resides in the inert solid bitumen. Solid bitumen is interpreted to result from in-situ thermal cracking of liquid hydrocarbon generated from original type II kerogen

  9. Hydrocarbon Source Rock Potential of the Sinamar Formation, Muara Bungo, Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Heri Hermiyanto Zajuli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v1i1.175The Oligocene Sinamar Formation consists of shale, claystone, mudstone, sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, and intercalation of coal seams. The objective of study was to identify the hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Sinamar Formation based on geochemichal characteristics. The analyses were focused on fine sediments of the Sinamar Formation comprising shale, claystone, and mudstone. Primary data collected from the Sinamar Formation well and outcrops were analyzed according to TOC, pyrolisis analysis, and gas chromatography - mass spectometry of normal alkanes that include isoprenoids and sterane. The TOC value indicates a very well category. Based on TOC versus Pyrolysis Yields (PY diagram, the shales of Sinamar Formation are included into oil prone source rock potential with good to excellent categories. Fine sediments of the Sinamar Formation tend to produce oil and gas originated from kerogen types I and III. The shales tend to generate oil than claystone and mudstone and therefore they are included into a potential source rock. 

  10. Application of Thermal Modelling for Geochemical Characterization of Gadvan Formation, Persian Gulf, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Vaezian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the this research, the hydrocarbon generation potential of the Gadvan Formation as a probable source rock was investigated in the central part of the Persian Gulf at the borders of Iran. Type and maturity level of kerogen were investigated in six wells using the results of Rock-Eval pyrolysis and compared with results yielded by the modelling software program known as Pars Basin Modeler (PBM. The cross-plot of hydrogen index (HI versus maximum temperature suggests that the Gadvan Formation reached early to mid-maturity stages in the studied area, which means that it could act as a gas prone source rock. Furthermore, the burial and thermal history of the Gadvan Formation was determined in one well. Two methods, Easy %Ro and time-temperature index (TTI were used for the reconstruction of thermal modelling and studying the thermal maturity level in all of the drilled wells reaching the Gadvan Formation. The results of the TTI and Easy %Ro methods were in good agreement and both of confirmed the results of Rock Eval analysis. An integrated approach using different techniques showed that the Gadvan Formation can be classified as a poor gas bearing source rock in the studied area, while its maturity increases towards the southern parts of the Persian Gulf.

  11. Galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph; Dvorkin, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In Lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In Lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  12. Soil formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Buurman, P.

    1998-01-01

    Soil Formation deals with qualitative and quantitative aspects of soil formation (or pedogenesis) and the underlying chemical, biological, and physical processes. The starting point of the text is the process - and not soil classification. Effects of weathering and new formation of minerals, mobilis

  13. Relationships between the distribution and stable isotopic composition of living benthic foraminifera and cold methane seep biogeochemistry in Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathburn, Anthony E.; PéRez, M. Elena; Martin, Jonathan B.; Day, Shelley A.; Mahn, Chris; Gieskes, Joris; Ziebis, Wiebke; Williams, David; Bahls, Amanda

    2003-12-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to explore the use of foraminifera as a means to assess modern and ancient methane release, we compared ambient pore water chemistry with the distribution and stable isotopic composition of living (rose Bengal stained) foraminifera in MBARI ROV Ventana tube cores taken from modern seepage areas (about 1000 m water depth) in Monterey Bay, California. Benthic foraminiferal isotopic differences between sites clearly indicate that methane-influenced pore waters affect foraminiferal distributions and carbonate isotope geochemistry. Carbon isotope signatures of living benthic foraminifera did not conform to the very negative (-30 to -48‰), methane-influenced carbon isotope values of the pore waters they live in. Instead, the influence of methane seep pore waters was reflected in the greater range and carbon isotopic variability of living seep foraminifera compared with published δ13C values of foraminifera living in nonseep habitats. It is not clear what relative influences biological, ecological, and physical factors have on the carbon isotopic signatures observed in seep foraminifera. Substantial carbon isotope differences can exist between individuals of the same seep species. For instance, δ13C values of living Globobulimina pacifica varied by as much as 2.9‰ between seeps within 8 km of each other, whereas δ13C values of living Uvigerina peregrina varied by as much as 1.95‰ within the same seep. Provided there is no diagenetic alteration of the test carbonate, isotopic results of individual seep foraminifera support the hypothesis that foraminifera can be used to assess past and present methane seepage.

  14. Managing small-scale commercial fisheries for adaptive capacity: insights from dynamic social-ecological drivers of change in Monterey Bay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy E Aguilera

    Full Text Available Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax, northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax, and market squid (Loligo opalescens fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience.

  15. Managing small-scale commercial fisheries for adaptive capacity: insights from dynamic social-ecological drivers of change in Monterey Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Stacy E; Cole, Jennifer; Finkbeiner, Elena M; Le Cornu, Elodie; Ban, Natalie C; Carr, Mark H; Cinner, Joshua E; Crowder, Larry B; Gelcich, Stefan; Hicks, Christina C; Kittinger, John N; Martone, Rebecca; Malone, Daniel; Pomeroy, Carrie; Starr, Richard M; Seram, Sanah; Zuercher, Rachel; Broad, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and market squid (Loligo opalescens) fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings) by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience.

  16. Sediment Dynamics and the Burial and Exhumation of Bedrock Reefs as Elucidated by High-resolution Repetitive Sonar Surveys: Northern Monterey Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, C. D.; Fregoso, T. A.; Golden, N. E.; Finlayson, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    Two high-resolution bathymetric and acoustic backscatter sonar surveys were conducted along the energetic emergent inner shelf of northern Monterey Bay, CA, USA, in the fall of 2005 and the spring of 2006 to determine the impact of winter storm waves, beach erosion, and river floods on biologically-important bedrock reef habitats. The surveys extended from water depths of 4 m to 22 m and covered an area of 3.14 km2, of which 45.8% was bedrock, gravel, and coarse-grained sand and 54.2% was fine-grained sand. Our analysis of the bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data demonstrates that during the 6 months between surveys, 11.4% of the study area was buried by fine-grained sand while erosion exposed of bedrock or coarse-grained sand over 26.5% of the study area. The probability of burial decreased with increasing water depth and rugosity; the probability of exhumation increased with increasing seabed slope and rugosity. Much of the detected change was at the boundary between bedrock and unconsolidated sediment due to burial or exhumation of bedrock. In a number of cases, however, the change in seabed character was apparently due to fluctuations in sediment grain size, where scour exposed what appeared to be an underlying coarser-grained lag or fine-grained sand buried coarser-grained sand. These findings suggest that, in some places, (a) single acoustic surveys typically employed for geologic characterization and/or habitat mapping may not adequately characterize the geomorphology and sedimentologic nature of rocky, energetic inner shelves, and (b) burial and exhumation likely play a role in the life history of the numerous organisms that inhabit these reefs and thus information on the frequency and magnitude of such processes may better constrain our understanding of physical controls on benthic species' distribution patterns.

  17. Regional Analysis of Stormwater Runoff for the Placement of Managed Aquifer Recharge Sites in Santa Cruz and Northern Monterey Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Beganskas, S.; Fisher, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    We apply a USGS surface hydrology model, Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), to analyze stormwater runoff in Santa Cruz and Northern Monterey Counties, CA with the goal of supplying managed aquifer recharge (MAR) sites. Under the combined threats of multiyear drought and excess drawdown, this region's aquifers face numerous sustainability challenges, including seawater intrusion, chronic overdraft, increased contamination, and subsidence. This study addresses the supply side of this resource issue by increasing our knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of runoff that could provide water for MAR. Ensuring the effectiveness of MAR using stormwater requires a thorough understanding of runoff distribution and site-specific surface and subsurface aquifer conditions. In this study we use a geographic information system (GIS) and a 3-m digital elevation model (DEM) to divide the region's four primary watersheds into Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs), or topographic sub-basins, that serve as discretized input cells for PRMS. We then assign vegetation, soil, land use, slope, aspect, and other characteristics to these HRUs, from a variety of data sources, and analyze runoff spatially using PRMS under varying precipitation conditions. We are exploring methods of linking spatially continuous and high-temporal-resolution precipitation datasets to generate input precipitation catalogs, facilitating analyses of a variety of regimes. To gain an understanding of how surface hydrology has responded to land development, we will also modify our input data to represent pre-development conditions. Coupled with a concurrent MAR suitability analysis, our model results will help screen for locations of future MAR projects and will improve our understanding of how changes in land use and climate impact hydrologic runoff and aquifer recharge.

  18. Deposition and alteration of carbonaceous series within a Neotethyan rift at the western boundary of the Arabian plate: The late Permian Um Irna Formation, NW Jordan, a petroleum system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 51 01 53 D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Bechtel, A.; Gratzer, R. [Department of Applied Geosciences and Geophysics, University of Leoben, Peter Tunner Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Abu Hamad, A.M.B. [Geology Department, University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)

    2010-01-07

    During the late Permian (Kungurian to Kazanian) a Neotethyan rift basin evolved at the western boundary of the Arabian Plate, in what is called today the Dead Sea Valley of western Jordan. The break-up of Pangaea was accompanied by low-sinuosity sandy braided- to meandering-fluvial drainage systems which were fed by the uplift of the Arabian Shield and by poorly aerated swamps and ponds that concentrated plant debris of the Cathaysian floral province in the Um Irna Formation. These proximal wet fan sediments are overlain by a dry fan characterized by extensive reddish floodplain deposits, anastomosing channel systems and paleosols. The wet fan is underlain by Cambrian sandstones. These units serve as the top and bottom seals of the OM-bearing system of the Um Irna Formation. The sedimentary rocks of the OM-bearing Um Irna Formation underwent supergene, diagenetic and epigenetic hydrothermal alteration under an elevated geothermal gradient. The temperature increased from the time of deposition of the wet to the time of deposition of the dry fan and caused remobilization of manganese already pre-concentrated in the Cambrian footwall rocks of the rift basin. The anomalous heat regime may be accounted for as a predecessor stage of the Dead Sea Rift which is still active today. Oil seeps are found along faults and fractures near this deep-seated lineamentary fault zone. The deposition and alteration of the organic matter in this late Permian rift are of great consequence for oil generation in the region. Organic petrographic investigations revealed that organic-rich terrestrial carbonaceous and coal rich sediments of mainly of type III kerogen are dominant in the Um Irna Formation. In addition, aquatic liptinite rich sedimentary input (fresh water lake and/or lacustrine swamp) of type I kerogen is also noted. Coal derived organic matter occurs in the form of coaly particles with ranks from subbituminous A to high volatile bituminous C. Higher plant-derived macerals as

  19. Short-term variability of 7Be atmospheric deposition and watershed response in a Pacific coastal stream, Monterey Bay, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Christopher H; Storlazzi, Curt D; Draut, Amy E; Swarzenski, Peter W

    2013-06-01

    Beryllium-7 is a powerful and commonly used tracer for environmental processes such as watershed sediment provenance, soil erosion, fluvial and nearshore sediment cycling, and atmospheric fallout. However, few studies have quantified temporal or spatial variability of (7)Be accumulation from atmospheric fallout, and parameters that would better define the uses and limitations of this geochemical tracer. We investigated the abundance and variability of (7)Be in atmospheric deposition in both rain events and dry periods, and in stream surface-water samples collected over a ten-month interval at sites near northern Monterey Bay (37°N, 122°W) on the central California coast, a region characterized by a rainy winters, dry summers, and small mountainous streams with flashy hydrology. The range of (7)Be activity in rainwater samples from the main sampling site was 1.3-4.4 Bq L(-1), with a mean (±standard deviation) of 2.2 ± 0.9 Bq L(-1), and a volume-weighted average of 2.0 Bq L(-1). The range of wet atmospheric deposition was 18-188 Bq m(-2) per rain event, with a mean of 72 ± 53 Bq m(-2). Dry deposition fluxes of (7)Be ranged from less than 0.01 up to 0.45 Bq m(-2) d(-1), with an estimated dry season deposition of 7 Bq m(-2) month(-1). Annualized (7)Be atmospheric deposition was approximately 1900 Bq m(-2) yr(-1), with most deposition via rainwater (>95%) and little via dry deposition. Overall, these activities and deposition fluxes are similar to values found in other coastal locations with comparable latitude and Mediterranean-type climate. Particulate (7)Be values in the surface water of the San Lorenzo River in Santa Cruz, California, ranged from erosion in the watershed. There were too few particulate (7)Be data over the storm to accurately model a (7)Be load, but the results suggest enhanced watershed export of (7)Be from small, mountainous river systems compared to other watershed types.

  20. Sediment dynamics and the burial and exhumation of bedrock reefs along an emergent coastline as elucidated by repetitive sonar surveys: Northern Monterey Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, C.D.; Fregoso, T.A.; Golden, N.E.; Finlayson, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Two high-resolution bathymetric and acoustic backscatter sonar surveys were conducted along the energetic emergent inner shelf of northern Monterey Bay, CA, USA, in the fall of 2005 and the spring of 2006 to determine the impact of winter storm waves, beach erosion, and river floods on biologically-important siliclastic bedrock reef habitats. The surveys extended from water depths of 4 m to 22 m and covered an area of 3.14 km2, 45.8% of which was bedrock, gravel, and coarse-grained sand and 54.2% was fine-grained sand. Our analyses of the bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data demonstrates that during the 6 months between surveys, 11.4% of the study area was buried by fine-grained sand while erosion resulted in the exposure of bedrock or coarse-grained sand over 26.5% of the study area. The probability of burial decreased with increasing water depth and rugosity; the probability of exhumation increased with increasing wave-induced near-bed shear stress, seabed slope and rugosity. Much of the detected change was at the boundary between bedrock and unconsolidated sediment due to sedimentation and erosion burying or exhuming bedrock, respectively. In a number of cases, however, the change in seabed character was apparently due to changes in sediment grain size when scour exposed what appeared to be an underlying coarser-grained lag or the burial of coarser-grained sand and gravel by fine-grained sand. These findings suggest that, in some places, (a) burial and exhumation of nearshore bedrock reefs along rocky, energetic inner shelves occurs over seasonal timescales and appears related to intrinsic factors such as seabed morphology and extrinsic factors such as wave forces, and (b) single acoustic surveys typically employed for geologic characterization and/or habitat mapping may not adequately characterize the geomorphologic and sedimentologic nature of these types of environments that typify most of the Pacific Ocean and up to 50% of the world's coastlines.

  1. A 4D synchrotron X-ray tomography study of the formation of hydrocarbon migration pathways in heated organic-rich shale

    CERN Document Server

    Panahi, Hamed; Renard, Francois; Mazzini, Adriano; Scheibert, Julien; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Jamtveit, Bjorn; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Meakin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Recovery of oil from oil shales and the natural primary migration of hydrocarbons are closely related processes that have received renewed interests in recent years because of the ever tightening supply of conventional hydrocarbons and the growing production of hydrocarbons from low permeability tight rocks. Quantitative models for conversion of kerogen into oil and gas and the timing of hydrocarbon generation have been well documented. However, lack of consensus about the kinetics of hydrocarbon formation in source rocks, expulsion timing and how the resulting hydrocarbons escape from or are retained in the source rocks motivates further investigation. In particular, many mechanisms for the transport of hydrocarbons from the source rocks in which they are generated into adjacent rocks with higher permeabilities and smaller capillary entry pressures have been proposed, and a better understanding of this complex process (primary migration) is needed. To characterize these processes it is imperative to use the ...

  2. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof......-the-art cosmological simulation, Illustris, follow a tight relation between star formation rate and stellar mass. This relation agrees well with the observed relation at a redshift of z = 0 and z = 4, but at intermediate redshifts of z ' 2 the normalisation is lower than in real observations. This is highlighted...

  3. Biomineral formation as a biosignature for microbial activities Precambrian cherts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón Tomás, Blanca; Mühlen, Dominik; Hoppert, Michael; Reitner, Joachim

    2015-04-01

    In recent anoxic sediments manganese(II)carbonate minerals (e.g., rhodochrosite, kutnohorite) derive mainly from the reduction of manganese(IV) compounds by microbial anaerobic respiration. Small particles of rhodochrosite in stromatolite-like features in the Dresser chert Fm (Pilbara supergroup, W-Australia), associated with small flakes of kerogen, account for biogenic formation of the mineral in this early Archaean setting. Contrastingly, the formation of huge manganese-rich (carbonate) deposits requires effective manganese redox cycling, also conducted by various microbial processes, mainly requiring conditions of the early and late Proterozoic (Kirschvink et al., 2000; Nealson and Saffrani 1994). However, putative anaerobic pathways like microbial nitrate-dependent manganese oxidation (Hulth et al., 1999), anoxygenic photosynthesis (Johnson et al., 2013) and oxidation in UV light may facilitate manganese cycling even in a reducing atmosphere. Thus manganese redox cycling might have been possible even before the onset of oxygenic photosynthesis. Hence, there are several ways how manganese carbonates could have been formed biogenically and deposited in Precambrian sediments. Thus, the minerals may be suitable biosignatures for microbial redox processes in many respects. The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum islandicum produces rhodochrosite during growth on hydrogen and organic compounds and may be a putative model organism for the reduction of Mn(IV). References Hulth S, Aller RC, Gilbert F. (1999) Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 63, 49-66. Johnson JE, Webb SM, Thomas K, Ono S, Kirschvink JL, Fischer WW. (2013) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 110, 11238-11243. Kirschvink JL, Gaidos EJ, Bertani LE, Beukes NJ, Gutzmer J, Maepa LN, Steinberger LE. (2000) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 97, 1400-1405. Nealson KH, Saffarini D. (1994). Annu Rev Microbiol, 48, 311-343.

  4. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof......-the-art cosmological simulation, Illustris, follow a tight relation between star formation rate and stellar mass. This relation agrees well with the observed relation at a redshift of z = 0 and z = 4, but at intermediate redshifts of z ' 2 the normalisation is lower than in real observations. This is highlighted...... of GRB host galaxies is affected by the fact that GRBs appear mainly to happen in low-metallicity galaxies. Solving this problem will make it possible to derive the total cosmic star formation rate more reliably from number counts of GRBs....

  5. Morphological and chemical evidence of stromatolitic deposits in the 2.75 Ga Carajás banded iron formation, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro da Luz, Beatriz; Crowley, James K.

    2012-01-01

    We describe evidence of biogenicity in the morphology and carbon content of well-preserved, Neoarchean samples of banded iron formation (BIF) from Carajás, Brazil. Silica-rich BIF layers contain translucent ellipsoidal or trapezoidal structures (∼5–10 μm diameter) composed of silica, hematite, and kerogen, which are arranged in larger ring-like forms (rosettes). Stable carbon isotope analysis yields a δ13C value of −24.5‰ indicating that the contained carbon is likely biogenic. Raman and SEM analyses, as well as wavelength-dispersive X-ray elemental maps, show kerogen inside the rosette forms. Within the iron-rich BIF layers, tubular structures (0.5–5 μm) were observed between hematite granules and blades. Kerogen and kaolinite are present in these structures. Both the rosettes and the tubular structures resemble morphologies that are characteristic of some bacterial species.We hypothesize that the Carajás BIFs originated as biomats formed by one or more species that over time produced large stromatolitic structures. The rosettes and the tubular structures, associated with chert-rich and iron-rich BIF layers, respectively, may represent two different species, or perhaps, two phases of a bacterium life cycle. For example, some modern myxobacteria exhibit similar morphologies in their resting and vegetative stages.Fe(III) precipitation may have occurred by contact of Fe(II) with bacterial slime, leading to oxidation by chemical reactions with exposed polysaccharide hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. The Fe(III) would then have been available for use as a source of energy in a dissimilatory iron reduction type of metabolism. Organic carbon input presumably came from primary producers (not necessarily aerobic) within the local water column, perhaps in shallow-water communities. Alternatively, the carbon may have originated by Fischer–Tropsch synthesis at ocean hydrothermal vents. The observed lateral continuity of BIF layers may perhaps be explained by

  6. Deep-ocean field test of methane hydrate formation from a remotely operated vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Peter G.; Orr, Franklin M., Jr.; Friederich, Gernot; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Orange, Daniel L.; McFarlane, James; Kirkwood, William

    1997-05-01

    We have observed the process of formation of clathrate hydrates of methane in experiments conducted on the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Ventana in the deep waters of Monterey Bay. A tank of methane gas, acrylic tubes containing seawater, and seawater plus various types of sediment were carried down on Ventana to a depth of 910 m where methane gas was injected at the base of the acrylic tubes by bubble stream. Prior calculations had shown that the local hydrographic conditions gave an upper limit of 525 m for the P-T boundary defining methane hydrate formation or dissociation at this site, and thus our experiment took place well within the stability range for this reaction to occur. Hydrate formation in free seawater occurred within minutes as a buoyant mass of translucent hydrate formed at the gas-water interface. In a coarse sand matrix the filling of the pore spaces with hydrate turned the sand column into a solidified block, which gas pressure soon lifted and ruptured. In a fine-grained black mud the gas flow carved out flow channels, the walls of which became coated and then filled with hydrate in larger discrete masses. Our experiment shows that hydrate formation is rapid in natural seawater, that sediment type strongly influences the patterns of hydrate formation, and that the use of ROV technologies permits the synthesis of large amounts of hydrate material in natural systems under a variety of conditions so that fundamental research on the stability and growth of these substances is possible.

  7. Contribution des différentes fonctions chimiques dans les bandes d'absorption infrarouge des kérogènes situées à 1710, 1630 et 3430 cm -1 Contribution of Different Chemical Functions in the 1710, 1630 and 3430 Cm -1 Infrared Absoption Bands of Kerogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin P. L.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Afin d'estimer la contribution de divers groupes fonctionnels dans certaines bandes d'absorption infrarouge des kérogènes, on a mesuré les variations de coefficient d'absorption que provoquent des traitements chimiques affectant spécifiquement les groupements concernés. Les traitements visant à transformer les hydroxyles, responsables de labande à 3 430 cm-I, se sont révélés peu efficaces; par contre l'étude portant sur deux autres bandes a été plus fructueuse. On peut déterminer la contribution des groupements carbonyles, acides et esters dans la bande à 1710 cm-1. On peut également estimer la contribution de l'eau moléculaire, des carbonyles quinoniques, des insaturations oléfiniques et des vibrations de noyaux aromatiques dans la bande à 1630 cm-1. On dispose ainsi d'une méthode de caractérisation des kérogènes qui peut être mise en oeuvre pour affiner leur analyse chimique et fournir une sorte d'analyse fonctionnelle. La méthode présentée ne consomme que peu de produit; elle est directe, assez rapide et se prête bien à une étude comparative de séries d'échantillons. In order to estimate the contribution of various functional groups to certain infrared absorption bands of kerogen, measurements were made of the absorption coefficient variations, resulting from chemical treatments that specifically affect the groups concerned. The treatments used for transforming the hydroxyl groups, responsible for the band at 3 430 cm-1, were not very effective; however the study of two other bands was more successful. The respective contribution of carbonyl groups, acids and esters to the band at 1 710 cm-1 can be determined. It is also possible to estimate the contribution of molecular water, quinone carbonyl groups, olefin type unsaturations and vibrations of aromatic rings to the band at 1 630 cm-1. Kerogens can thus be characterized by a method that is complementary to elemental analysis by providing a sort of functional

  8. Hippocampal formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; van Strien, N.M.; Witter, M.P.; Paxinos, G.

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal formation and parahippocampal region are prominent components of the rat nervous system and play a crucial role in learning, memory, and spatial navigation. Many new details regarding the entorhinal cortex have been discovered since the previous edition, and the growing interest in t

  9. Palynology, palynofacies and petroleum potential of the Upper Cretaceous-Eocene Matulla, Brown Limestone and Thebes formations, Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Diasty, W. Sh.; El Beialy, S. Y.; Abo Ghonaim, A. A.; Mostafa, A. R.; El Atfy, H.

    2014-07-01

    Palynological, palynofacies and organic geochemical results of 46 samples retrieved from the Upper Cretaceous - Eocene Matulla, Brown Limestone and Thebes formations, Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt are presented. The two latter formations are not dated palynologically as their lithology is not promising for palynological yield. However the Matulla Formation is dated as Turonian-Santonian age, based on the combined evidence of pollen and dinocysts. Palynofacies analysis carried out under both transmitted and fluorescent microscopy indicated that both the Thebes and Brown Limestone formations are deposited under a distal suboxic-anoxic environment. On the other hand, the Turonian-Santonian Matulla Formation supported the existence of a marginal marine deposition under dysoxic-anoxic basin to proximal suboxic-anoxic shelf environments. Rock-Eval pyrolysis and TOC results indicated that most of the studied formations are thermally immature to marginally mature and have a good petroleum potential. They are organically-rich in both oil- and gas-prone kerogen Type-II and II/III, deposited under marine reducing conditions favorable for hydrocarbon generation and expulsion.

  10. An organic geochemical investigation on organic rich sediments from two Neogene formations in the Klias Peninsula area, West Sabah, Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amer M. Burgan; Che Aziz Ali

    2009-01-01

    Twenty organic rich outcrop samples from the Belait and Setap Shale formations in the Klias Peninsula area, West Sabah, were analysed by means of organic petrology and geochemical techniques. The aims of this study are to assess the type of organic matter, thermal maturity and established source rock characterization based primarily on Rock-Eval pyrolysis data. The shales of the Setap Shale Formation have TOC values varying from 0.6 wt%-1.54 wt% with a mean hydrogen index (HI) of 60.1 mg/g, whereas the shales of the Belait Formation have TOC values ranging from 0.36 wt%-0.61 wt% with a mean (HI) of 38.2 mg/g, indicating that both formations have TOC>0.5 wt% the minimum limit for hydrocarbon generation. The samples do not contain sufficient hydrogen-rich organic matter (types I, II and III) to be considered good quality source rocks. The kerogen of type II is predominantly of marine origin. This organic matter was deposited in clastic algal environments. Geochemical data (Rock-Eval, Tmax values ranging from 377-451℃ for shales of the Setap Shale Formation and ranging from 466-498℃ for shales of the Belait Formation, typical of high maturity), indicate variable maturation histories in both formations. The maturation level varied from the beginning to the peak stage of oil generation in the Setap Shale Formation and it has reached the over-mature level in the samples of the Belait Formation.

  11. Galaxy formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, P J

    1998-01-01

    It is argued that within the standard Big Bang cosmological model the bulk of the mass of the luminous parts of the large galaxies likely had been assembled by redshift z approximately 10. Galaxy assembly this early would be difficult to fit in the widely discussed adiabatic cold dark matter model for structure formation, but it could agree with an isocurvature version in which the cold dark matter is the remnant of a massive scalar field frozen (or squeezed) from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The squeezed field fluctuations would be Gaussian with zero mean, and the distribution of the field mass therefore would be the square of a random Gaussian process. This offers a possibly interesting new direction for the numerical exploration of models for cosmic structure formation.

  12. Cloud Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mark Talmage

    2004-05-01

    Cloud formation is crucial to the heritage of modern physics, and there is a rich literature on this important topic. In 1927, Charles T.R. Wilson was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for applications of the cloud chamber.2 Wilson was inspired to study cloud formation after working at a meteorological observatory on top of the highest mountain in Scotland, Ben Nevis, and testified near the end of his life, "The whole of my scientific work undoubtedly developed from the experiments I was led to make by what I saw during my fortnight on Ben Nevis in September 1894."3 To form clouds, Wilson used the sudden expansion of humid air.4 Any structure the cloud may have is spoiled by turbulence in the sudden expansion, but in 1912 Wilson got ion tracks to show up by using strobe photography of the chamber immediately upon expansion.5 In the interim, Millikan's study in 1909 of the formation of cloud droplets around individual ions was the first in which the electron charge was isolated. This study led to his famous oil drop experiment.6 To Millikan, as to Wilson, meteorology and physics were professionally indistinct. With his meteorological physics expertise, in WWI Millikan commanded perhaps the first meteorological observation and forecasting team essential to military operation in history.7 But even during peacetime meteorology is so much of a concern to everyone that a regular news segment is dedicated to it. Weather is the universal conversation topic, and life on land could not exist as we know it without clouds. One wonders then, why cloud formation is never covered in physics texts.

  13. Experiments on the role of water in petroleum formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    Pyrolysis experiments were conducted on immature petroleum source rocks under various conditions to evaluate the role of water in petroleum formation. At temperatures less than 330??C for 72 h, the thermal decomposition of kerogen to bitumen was not significantly affected by the presence or absence of liquid water in contact with heated gravel-sized source rock. However, at 330 and 350??C for 72 h, the thermal decomposition of generated bitumen was significantly affected by the presence or absence of liquid water. Carbon-carbon bond cross linking resulting in the formation of an insoluble bitumen (i.e., pyrobitumen) is the dominant reaction pathway in the absence of liquid water. Conversely, thermal cracking of carbon-carbon bonds resulting in the generation of saturate-enriched oil, which is similar to natural crude oils, is the dominant reaction pathway in the presence of liquid water. This difference in reaction pathways is explained by the availability of an exogenous source of hydrogen, which reduces the rate of thermal decomposition, promotes thermal cracking, and inhibits carbon-carbon bond cross linking. The distribution of generated n-alkanes is characteristic of a free radical mechanism, with a broad carbon-number distribution (i.e., C5 to C35) and only minor branched alkanes from known biological precursors (i.e., pristane and phytane). The generation of excess oxygen in the form of CO2 in hydrous experiments and the high degree of hydrocarbon deuteration in a D2O experiment indicate that water dissolved in the bitumen is an exogenous source of hydrogen. The lack of an effect on product composition and yield with an increase in H+ activity by five orders of magnitude in a hydrous experiment indicates that an ionic mechanism for water interactions with thermally decomposing bitumen is not likely. Several mechanistically simple and thermodynamically favorable reactions that are consistent with the available experimental data are envisaged for the

  14. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction based on palynofacies analyses of the Cansona Formation (Late Cretaceous), Sinú-San Jacinto Basin, northwest Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliao-Lemus, Tatiana; Carvalho, Marcelo de Araujo; Torres, Diego; Plata, Angelo; Parra, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    To reconstruct the paleoenvironments of the Cansona Formation, a Cretaceous succession in Colombia that has controversial paleoenvironmental interpretation, occasionally deep marine and occasionally shallow marine, palynofacies analyses were conducted on 93 samples from four sections of the Sinú San Jacinto Basin in the north, midwest, and southwest sectors. For the palynofacies analyses, the kerogen categories were counted and subjected to cluster analyses. Four palynofacies associations were revealed for the four sections: Palynofacies Association I (PA I), which consisted of microforaminiferal linings, scolecodonts, dinoflagellate cysts, pollen grains, and fungi hyphae; PA II, which consisted of phytoclast translucent non-biostructured and biostructured, opaque phytoclasts (equidimensional and lath shaped); PA III, which consisted of pseudoamorphous particles, cuticles, resin, and fungal spores; and PA IV, which consisted of fluorescent and non-fluorescent amorphous organic matter and the fresh-water algae Botryococcus. In contrast to early studies that suggested a generalization of the depositional environment for the Cansona Formation (deep or shallow conditions), this study suggests that the formation reflects conspicuous stratigraphic and lateral changes and hence different depositional environments. The Cerro Cansona (CC4 section) and Chalán (AP section) areas are a more marine proximal settings (Early Campanian-Maastrichtian), and there is an intermediate setting for the Lorica area (SC section) and deeper conditions for the Montería area (CP2 section).

  15. Imbalanced nutrients as triggers for black shale formation in a shallow shelf setting during the OAE 2 (Wunstorf, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Blumenberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE 2 in the Mid-Cretaceous Period, widespread black shale (BS formation occurred, reflecting perturbations in major biogeochemical cycles. Here we present geochemical and biomarker data of the OAE 2 from a shelf setting situated at about 100–150 m water depth (Wunstorf, Germany. Our data support that processes inducing BS deposition were related to orbital cyclicity in Wunstorf and that they were not restricted to the time of the OAE 2 carbon isotope excursion. Correlations of total organic carbon (TOC and δ15N and high relative abundances of functionalized hopanoids (including 2-methylated structures suggest that BS were formed during times of imbalanced nutrients with high phosphorus inputs and increased cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation. Periods of BS formation were also characterized by enhanced growth of dinoflagellates and bacteriovorous ciliates, the latter supporting the presence of a stratified water body. The lack of biomarkers specific for green sulfur bacteria excludes photic zone euxinia during OAE 2 in Wunstorf. Conflicting maturities and biomarker distributions in kerogen and extractable organic matter and, interestingly, a negative correlation of the diagenetically resistant 2-methyl hopane hydrocarbons with TOC indicate a complex depositional setting at Wunstorf. This might have been induced by high continental runoff during BS formation and the accompanying mobilisation of refractory OM from the shelves and near shore areas.

  16. Imbalanced nutrients as triggers for black shale formation in a shallow shelf setting during the OAE 2 (Wunstorf, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Blumenberg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available During the oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE 2 in the mid-Cretaceous widespread black shale (BS formation occurred, reflecting perturbations in major biogeochemical cycles. Here we present geochemical and biomarker data of the OAE 2 from a shelf setting situated at about 100 to 150 water depth (Wunstorf, Germany. Our data support that processes inducing BS deposition were related to orbital cyclicity in Wunstorf and that they were not restricted to the time of the OAE 2 carbon isotope excursion. Correlations of total organic carbon (TOC and δ15N and high relative abundances of functionalized hopanoids (incl. 2-methylated structures suggest that BS were formed during times of imbalanced nutrients with high phosphorus inputs and increased (cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation. Periods of BS formation were also characterized by enhanced growth of dinoflagellates and bacteriovorous ciliates, the latter supporting the presence of a stratified water body. The lack of biomarkers specific for green-sulfur bacteria excludes photic zone euxinia during OAE 2 in Wunstorf. Conflicting maturities and biomarker distributions in kerogen and extractable organic matter and, interestingly, a negative correlation of the diagenetically resistant 2-methyl hopane hydrocarbons with TOC indicate a complex depositional setting at Wunstorf. In Wunstorf this might have been induced by high continental run-off during BS formation and the accompanying mobilisation of refractory OM from the shelfs and near shore areas.

  17. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including...... an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid...

  18. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S

    2008-01-01

    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  19. Shale gas reservoir characteristics of Ordovician-Silurian formations in the central Yangtze area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chang'an; Zhang, Tingshan; Wei, Yong; Zhang, Zhao

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of a shale gas reservoir and the potential of a shale gas resource of Ordovician-Silurian age in the north of the central Yangtze area were determined. Core samples from three wells in the study area were subjected to thin-section examination, scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance testing, X-ray diffraction mineral analysis, total organic carbon (TOC) testing, maturity testing, gas-bearing analysis, and gas component and isothermal adsorption experiments. A favorable segment of the gas shale reservoir was found in both the Wufeng Formation and the lower part of the Longmaxi Formation; these formations were formed from the late Katian to early Rhuddanian. The high-quality shale layers in wells J1, J2, and J3 featured thicknesses of 54.88 m, 48.49 m, and 52.00 m, respectively, and mainly comprised carbonaceous and siliceous shales. Clay and brittle minerals showed average contents of 37.5% and 62.5% (48.9% quartz), respectively. The shale exhibited type II1 kerogens with a vitrinite reflectance ranging from 1.94% to 3.51%. TOC contents of 0.22%-6.05% (average, 2.39%) were also observed. The reservoir spaces mainly included micropores and microfractures and were characterized by low porosity and permeability. Well J3 showed generally high gas contents, i.e., 1.12-3.16 m3/t (average 2.15 m3/t), and its gas was primarily methane. The relatively thick black shale reservoir featured high TOC content, high organic material maturity, high brittle mineral content, high gas content, low porosity, and low permeability. Shale gas adsorption was positively correlated with TOC content and organic maturity, weakly positive correlated with quartz content, and weakly negatively correlated with clay content. Therefore, the Wufeng and Longmaxi formations in the north of the central Yangtze area have a good potential for shale gas exploration.

  20. Shale gas reservoir characteristics of Ordovician-Silurian formations in the central Yangtze area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chang'an; Zhang, Tingshan; Wei, Yong; Zhang, Zhao

    2017-03-01

    The characteristics of a shale gas reservoir and the potential of a shale gas resource of Ordovician-Silurian age in the north of the central Yangtze area were determined. Core samples from three wells in the study area were subjected to thin-section examination, scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance testing, X-ray diffraction mineral analysis, total organic carbon (TOC) testing, maturity testing, gas-bearing analysis, and gas component and isothermal adsorption experiments. A favorable segment of the gas shale reservoir was found in both the Wufeng Formation and the lower part of the Longmaxi Formation; these formations were formed from the late Katian to early Rhuddanian. The high-quality shale layers in wells J1, J2, and J3 featured thicknesses of 54.88 m, 48.49 m, and 52.00 m, respectively, and mainly comprised carbonaceous and siliceous shales. Clay and brittle minerals showed average contents of 37.5% and 62.5% (48.9% quartz), respectively. The shale exhibited type II1 kerogens with a vitrinite reflectance ranging from 1.94% to 3.51%. TOC contents of 0.22%-6.05% (average, 2.39%) were also observed. The reservoir spaces mainly included micropores and microfractures and were characterized by low porosity and permeability. Well J3 showed generally high gas contents, i.e., 1.12-3.16 m3/t (average 2.15 m3/t), and its gas was primarily methane. The relatively thick black shale reservoir featured high TOC content, high organic material maturity, high brittle mineral content, high gas content, low porosity, and low permeability. Shale gas adsorption was positively correlated with TOC content and organic maturity, weakly positive correlated with quartz content, and weakly negatively correlated with clay content. Therefore, the Wufeng and Longmaxi formations in the north of the central Yangtze area have a good potential for shale gas exploration.

  1. Constitutive models for the Etchegoin Sands, Belridge Diatomite, and overburden formations at the Lost Hills oil field, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOSSUM,ARLO F.; FREDRICH,JOANNE T.

    2000-04-01

    This report documents the development of constitutive material models for the overburden formations, reservoir formations, and underlying strata at the Lost Hills oil field located about 45 miles northwest of Bakersfield in Kern County, California. Triaxial rock mechanics tests were performed on specimens prepared from cores recovered from the Lost Hills field, and included measurements of axial and radial stresses and strains under different load paths. The tested intervals comprise diatomaceous sands of the Etchegoin Formation and several diatomite types of the Belridge Diatomite Member of the Monterey Formation, including cycles both above and below the diagenetic phase boundary between opal-A and opal-CT. The laboratory data are used to drive constitutive parameters for the Extended Sandler-Rubin (ESR) cap model that is implemented in Sandia's structural mechanics finite element code JAS3D. Available data in the literature are also used to derive ESR shear failure parameters for overburden formations. The material models are being used in large-scale three-dimensional geomechanical simulations of the reservoir behavior during primary and secondary recovery.

  2. Pattern Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Rebecca

    2006-03-01

    From the stripes of a zebra and the spots on a leopard's back to the ripples on a sandy beach or desert dune, regular patterns arise everywhere in nature. The appearance and evolution of these phenomena has been a focus of recent research activity across several disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the range of mathematical theory and methods used to analyse and explain these often intricate and beautiful patterns. Bringing together several different approaches, from group theoretic methods to envelope equations and theory of patterns in large-aspect ratio-systems, the book also provides insight behind the selection of one pattern over another. Suitable as an upper-undergraduate textbook for mathematics students or as a fascinating, engaging, and fully illustrated resource for readers in physics and biology, Rebecca Hoyle's book, using a non-partisan approach, unifies a range of techniques used by active researchers in this growing field. Accessible description of the mathematical theory behind fascinating pattern formation in areas such as biology, physics and materials science Collects recent research for the first time in an upper level textbook Features a number of exercises - with solutions online - and worked examples

  3. Comparative microbial diversity and redox environments of black shale and stromatolite facies in the Mesoproterozoic Xiamaling Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Genming; Hallmann, Christian; Xie, Shucheng; Ruan, Xiaoyan; Summons, Roger E.

    2015-02-01

    The composition of microbial communities and their relationship to ocean redox structure in the Precambrian are topics of continuing interest in geobiology. Our knowledge of organismic diversity and environmental conditions during this time are mostly based on fragmentary paleontological and geochemical records and might be skewed accordingly. In North China the Xiamaling Formation (∼1.37 Ga) is characterized by black shales of relatively low thermal maturity (Tmax is ∼445 °C) and has been identified as a potential petroleum source rock. To date, however, the biological sources of the organic matter and the environmental conditions prevalent during the deposition of these sediments remain unclear. In this study we analyzed the hydrocarbon biomarker compositions of the Xiamaling Formation shales and a superjacent stromatolitic carbonate in order to shed light on the microbial diversity in the sedimentary environments they represent. The hydrocarbons extracted from both sediments are dominated by low-molecular-weight n-alkanes with a maximum at C15-18, suggesting that bacteria and/or algae were primary biotic precursors. Our inability to detect steranes in bitumen I, and only traces of rearranged steranes in bitumen II of black shales, indicates that modern eukaryotic algae were either ecologically insignificant or not preserved due to a taphonomic bias. The high relative concentration of hopanes and diahopanes ranging from C27 to C35, as well as monomethylalkanes, suggests that cyanobacteria may have been the dominant primary producers and could have contributed to the biologically available nitrogen pool through N2-fixation. This observation is supported by the low nitrogen isotopic composition of the kerogens. Even though all facies zones appear to have been anoxic but not sulfidic on the basis of biomarker ratios and trace metals, subtle but distinct molecular differences are observed between the stromatolite and the black shales, which can be attributed to

  4. Health assessment of pine forest as affected by geothermal activities: Presence of Monterey pine aphid, Essigella californica (Essig (Homoptera: Aphidae associated with higher concentrations of boron on pine needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Arturo Del Rio Mora

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on assessments of the air pollution and deposition caused by geothermal fields on the forest health and presence of pests have been few documented to date. In the geothermal field "Los Humeros", located between the borders of the states of Puebla and Veracruz, Mexico was realized a forest health monitoring to know the assessment could have these emissions of sulphur (S and other two chemical elements measured by their concentrations on leaf tissues in the surrounding forests. For it were evaluated the forest healthy and pest insects registered at 20 stands of which were chosen completely at random 40 trees in total/site of the species Pinus montezumae and P. teocotein natural stands and plantations and picked up leaf tissue samples representatives per stand to determine the contents of sulphur (S, boron (B and arsenic (As representing each forest stand. The results of the study revealed that the presence of forest pests are not related to the proximity of the sites to emissions from stationary sources of emissions and moreover the amount of these 3 chemical substances monitored do not have none influence on the forest healthy sites condition, except for the Monterey pine aphid Essigella californica Essig, which seems to be directly associated with higher Boron content in the needles (mean=167.47±32.15, and peak 635.46 ppm and proximity of emission sources geothermal vents or where it is believed all these chemical elements are carried down by air currents to specific points and deposited in the stands. The general model obtained and with significance of R2=56.6 and P value 0.0033 for the presence of Monterey Pine aphid and the three main pollutants released from smoke plumes in geothermal systems is [D: Essigella]= -0.2088 + 1.880E-0.5 (A:SO4+ 0.002245 (B:B + 1.248 (C:As. The results suggest the use of aphid species as bioindicators of polluted sites.

  5. Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO2 enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Annual report, February 7, 1997--February 6, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morea, M.F.

    1998-06-01

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery project in the antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The proposed pilot consists of four existing producers on 20 acre spacing with a new 10 acre infill well drilled as the pilot CO{sub 2} injector. Most of the reservoir characterization during Phase 1 of the project will be performed using data collected in the pilot pattern wells. During this period the following tasks have been completed: laboratory wettability; specific permeability; mercury porosimetry; acoustic anisotropy; rock mechanics analysis; core description; fracture analysis; digital image analysis; mineralogical analysis; hydraulic flow unit analysis; petrographic and confocal thin section analysis; oil geochemical fingerprinting; production logging; carbon/oxygen logging; complex lithologic log analysis; NMR T2 processing; dipole shear wave anisotropy logging; shear wave vertical seismic profile processing; structural mapping; and regional tectonic synthesis. Noteworthy technological successes for this reporting period include: (1) first (ever) high resolution, crosswell reflection images of SJV sediments; (2) first successful application of the TomoSeis acquisition system in siliceous shales; (3) first detailed reservoir characterization of SJV siliceous shales; (4) first mineral based saturation algorithm for SJV siliceous shales, and (5) first CO{sub 2} coreflood experiments for siliceous shale. Preliminary results from the CO{sub 2} coreflood experiments (2,500 psi) suggest that significant oil is being produced from the siliceous shale.

  6. Isotope Geochemistry of Natural Gas in Xujiahe Formation of the Upper Triassic in Sichuan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shizhen; Mi, Jingkui; Yang, Chun; Gao, Xiaohui; Wu, Songtao; Pang, Zhenglian; Fan, Jianwei

    2017-04-01

    Terrestrial tight sandstone gas is abundant Xujiahe(XJH) Formation in Sichuan Basin, China. Its reserve is over 0.6×1012m3. Though has such a huge reserve, origin and evolution of this tight sandstone gas haven't been studied thoroughly. This study is to clarify geochemical characteristics of gas formation and evolution in XJH Formation based on the comparative geochemical analysis of gas samples from fluid inclusions and gas fields. Experiments showed the great differences between gas in inclusions and from fields. There are low-medium maturity coal-derived tight sandstone gases in XJH Formation. Source rocks are mainly kerogen type-II2 and III, but coal series are type-III. The Ro is 0.8-1.4%. They are presently at post-mature to early high-mature stage, but the gas/oil ratio in present gas reservoirs is high. XJH reservoir rocks have large amount of gaseous hydrocarbon inclusions, few liquid hydrocarbon inclusions, indicating coal series type generates mainly gas (Dai et al., 1997; 2012). XJH natural gas is dominated by methane, with higher concentration of heavier C2+ hydrocarbons, belonging to kerogen-degraded gas. The gas dryness ratios are normally less than 0.95, mainly wet gas. The content of methane in the inclusions is low, rather lower for those of C2+ hydrocarbons, while that of non-hydrocarbons (CO2) is higher. Isotopic features show that tight sandstone gas of XJH Formation is typical coal-derived gas. The gas δ13C1 ranges from -45.5‰ to -36.5‰ and δ13C2 from -30‰ to -25‰.The δ13C1 and δ13C2 in fluid inclusions are similar, but mostly slightly heavier, with a δ13C1 of -36‰ -45‰ and δ13C2 of -24.8‰ -28.1‰, characterized as coal-type gas. The δ13CCO2 of gas from fields ranges from -15.6‰ to -5.6‰, and that of inclusions is lighter, ranging from -16.6‰ to -9‰, which is organic origin. The CO2 captured in the inclusions in a relatively closed system, characterizing as heavier carbon isotopic composition for alkane gas and

  7. The Late Palaeozoic Idusi Formation of southwest Tanzania: a record of change from glacial to postglacial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wopfner, H.; Diekmann, B.

    1996-05-01

    The Idusi Formation forms the basal depositional unit of Karoo basins of southwestern Tanzania. It is defined as the rock unit limited by the unconformable contact with underlying Precambrian metamorphics and the base of the overlying, fluviatile Mpera Sandstone Member of the Mchuchuma Formation. The Idusi Formation is subdivided into the Lisimba Member, comprising diamictities, lutites with dropstones, slump masses and laminites, and the overlying Lilangu Member, consisting of black, pyritic and kerogenous lutites. The type section is at Idusi Gorge, situated 6 km east of Lake Nyasa on 10°17'50″S. The thickness of the formation at the type section is 240 m, with the maximum observed thickness being 715 m. Plant fossils and palynological assemblages indicate an Asselian age, probably extending down into the Late Carboniferous. The basal diamictites contain striated and facetted clasts, which identify them as glacial deposits. They are mainly wash-out and slurried tillites and also, less frequently, lodgment tillites. These are overlain by proximal and distal deposits of proglacial lakes, which were laid down during the retreat of the glaciers. Laminates of the upper Lisimba Member demonstrate progressively stronger seasonal control. Further amelioration of the climate, with substantially increased biological production both on land and in the water, is demonstrated by the black lutites of the Lilangu Member. They represent euxinic lake sediments formed during the final deglaciation phase. Deposition of the over-lying, coal-bearing Mchuchuma Formation occurred under a temperate climate. The duration of the Late Palaeozoic glaciation is estimated at about 20 to 25 Ma. The last quarter of this time span was characterized by climatic amelioration. Global warming was accompanied by an eustatic rise in sea level and a marked decrease in atmospheric CO 2.

  8. Deep-ocean field test of methane hydrate formation from a remotely operated vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, P.G.; Orr, F.M.; Friederich, G.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Orange, D.L.; McFarlane, J.; Kirkwood, W.

    1997-01-01

    We have observed the process of formation of clathrate hydrates of methane in experiments conducted on the remotely operated vehicle (ROY) Ventana in the deep waters of Monterey Bay. A tank of methane gas, acrylic tubes containing seawater, and seawater plus various types of sediment were carried down on Ventana to a depth of 910 m where methane gas was injected at the base of the acrylic tubes by bubble stream. Prior calculations had shown that the local hydrographic conditions gave an upper limit of 525 m for the P-T boundary defining methane hydrate formation or dissociation at this site, and thus our experiment took place well within the stability range for this reaction to occur. Hydrate formation in free sea-water occurred within minutes as a buoyant mass of translucent hydrate formed at the gas-water interface. In a coarse sand matrix the Filling of the pore spaces with hydrate turned the sand column into a solidified block, which gas pressure soon lifted and ruptured. In a fine-grained black mud the gas flow carved out flow channels, the walls of which became coated and then filled with hydrate in larger discrete masses. Our experiment shows that hydrate formation is rapid in natural seawater, that sediment type strongly influences the patterns of hydrate formation, and that the use of ROV technologies permits the synthesis of large amounts of hydrate material in natural systems under a variety of conditions so that fundamental research on the stability and growth of these substances is possible.

  9. Hydrocarbon potential of Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments from Bima Formation, Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria: Insight from organic geochemistry and petrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarki Yandoka, Babangida M.; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Abubakar, M. B.; Adegoke, Adebanji Kayode; Maigari, A. S.; Haruna, A. I.; Yaro, Usman Y.

    2017-05-01

    The Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments from Bima Formation in the Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, northeastern Nigeria were studied based on organic geochemistry and petrology. This is in other to provide information on hydrocarbon generation potential; organic matter type (quality), richness (quantity), origin/source inputs, redox conditions (preservation) and thermal maturation in relation to thermal effect of Tertiary volcanics. The total organic carbon (TOC) contents ranges from 0.38 to 0.86 wt % with extractable organic matter (EOM) below 1000 ppm and pyrolysis S2 yield values from 0.16 to 0.68 mg/g, suggesting poor to fair source rock richness. Based on kerogen pyrolysis and microscopy coupled with biomarker parameters, the organic matters contain Type I (lacustrine algae), Type III (terrestrially derived land-plants) and Type IV kerogens deposited in a mixed lacustrine-terrestrial environment under suboxic to relatively anoxic conditions. This suggest potential occurrence of Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments (perhaps Lower Cretaceous petroleum system) in Yola Sub-basin of the Northern Benue Trough as present in the neighbouring basins of Chad, Niger and Sudan Republics that have both oil and gas generation potential within the same rift trend (WCARS). Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) and Tmax values of the lacustrine shales ranges from 1.12 to 2.32 VRo% and 448-501 °C, respectively, indicating peak-late to post-maturity stage. This is supported by the presence of dark brown palynomorphs, amorphous organic matter and phytoclasts as well as inertinite macerals. Consequently, the organic matters in the lacustrine shales of Bima Formation in the Yola Sub-basin appeared as a source of oil (most likely even waxy) and gas prone at a relatively deeper part of the basin. However, the high thermal maturity enhanced the organic matters and most of the hydrocarbons that formed in the course of thermal maturation were likely expelled to the reservoir rock units

  10. Common File Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  11. The Format Registry Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary McGath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available File format identification is an important issue in digital preservation. Several noteworthy attempts, including PRONOM, GDFR, and UDFR, have been made at creating a comprehensive repository of format information. The sheer amount of information to cover and the constant introduction of new formats and format versions has limited their success. Alternative approaches, such as Linked Data and offering limited per-format information with identifiers that can be used elsewhere, may lead to greater success.

  12. Depositional environment and source potential of Jurassic coal-bearing sediments (Gresten Formation, Hoflein gas/condensate field, Austria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Bechtel, A.; Kuffner, T.; Rainer, T.; Gratzer, R.; Sauer, R.; Sperl, H. [Mount University of Leoben, Leoben (Austria)

    2006-05-15

    Coal-bearing Jurassic sediments (Gresten Formation; Lower Quartzarenite Member) are discussed as source rocks for gas and minor oil in the basement of the Alpine-Carpathian frontal zone (e.g. Hoflein gas/condensate field). Core material has therefore been analysed to characterize depositional environment and source potential of the Lower Quartzarenite Member (LQM). Geochemical data from the Hoflein condensate are used to establish a Source-condensate correlation. The LQM was deposited in a flood basin with transitions to a delta-plain environment. Coal originated in frequently flooded mires and evolved within an oxygenated and acidic environment. It is inferred from geochemical data that organic matter from aquatic macrophytes and gymnosperms contributed to coal formation. Wildfires were abundant and oxidation of plant remains occurred frequently. This resulted in the formation of dull coal with very high inertinite contents. Bituminous shales were formed in deeper waters under dysoxic conditions. Apart from abundant algae and micro-organisms, it is concluded that there was an increased contribution of higher land plants relative to macrophytes to the biomass of the shales. Despite high inertinite contents, coal within the LQM has a significant oil potential. Bituminous shales contain a Type III-II kerogen. According to pyrolysis-gas chromatography data, coal and shale generate a high wax paraffinic oil. The organic matter is immature to marginal mature (0.55% Rr). Bituminous shales are considered a potential source for the Hoflein condensate. Coal may be the source for gas and minor oil in the Klement Field, but is not the source for the condensate.

  13. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Crable

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

  14. Simple Ontology Format (SOFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Simple Ontology Format (SOFT) library and file format specification provides a set of simple tools for developing and maintaining ontologies. The library, implemented as a perl module, supports parsing and verification of the files in SOFt format, operations with ontologies (adding, removing, or filtering of entities), and converting of ontologies into other formats. SOFT allows users to quickly create ontologies using only a basic text editor, verify it, and portray it in a graph layout system using customized styles.

  15. Evaluation of shale gas potential based on organic matter characteristics and gas concentration in the Devonian Horn River Formation, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiyoung; Hong, Sung Kyung; Lee, Hyun Suk

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we investigate organic matter characteristics from the analysis of Rock-Eval6 and biomarker, and estimate methane concentration from headspace method in the Devonian Horn River Formation, which is one of the largest shale reservoir in western Canada. The Horn River Formation consists of the Evie, Otterpark and Muskwa members in ascending stratigraphic order. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) ranges from 0.34 to 7.57 wt%, with an average of 2.78 wt%. The Evie, middle Otterpark and Muskwa members have an average TOC of more than 3%, whereas those of the lower and upper Otterpark Member are less than 2%. Based on Pristane/n-C17 (0.2 0.6) and Phytane/n-C18 (0.3 0.9) ratios, the organic matter in the Evie, middle Otterpark and Muskwa members mainly consists of type II kerogen which are formed in reducing marine environment. Thermal maturity were examined through the use of the distributions of Phenanthrene (P) and Methylphenantrenes (MP) based on m/z 178 and 192 mass chromatograms, respectively (Radke et al., 1982). The methylphenanthrene index (MPI-1) are calculated as follows : MPI-1 = 1.5 × (2MP+3MP)/(P+1MP+9MP), and Ro are calculated as follows : Ro = -0.6 × MPI-1 + 2.3. Estimated Ro ranges between 1.88 and 1.93%, which indicates the last stage of wet gas generation. The methane concentrations in headspace range from 15 to 914 ppmv, with an average of 73.5 ppmv. The methane concentrations in the Evie, middle Otterpark and Muskwa members (up to 914 ppmv) are higher than those of the lower and upper Otterpark Member (up to 75 ppmv). Considering the organic geochemical characteristics and gas concentrations, the shale gas potentials of the Evie, middle Otterpark and Muskwa members are higher than those of other members.

  16. Star Formation for Predictive Primordial Galaxy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljević, Miloš; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence

    The elegance of inflationary cosmology and cosmological perturbation theory ends with the formation of the first stars and galaxies, the initial sources of light that launched the phenomenologically rich process of cosmic reionization. Here we review the current understanding of early star formation, emphasizing unsolved problems and technical challenges. We begin with the first generation of stars to form after the Big Bang and trace how they influenced subsequent star formation. The onset of chemical enrichment coincided with a sharp increase in the overall physical complexity of star forming systems. Ab-initio computational treatments are just now entering the domain of the predictive and are establishing contact with local observations of the relics of this ancient epoch.

  17. The Oligocene-Miocene San Gregorio Formation of Baja California Sur, Mexico: An early record of coastal upwelling along the eastern Pacific margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, K.A.; Ledesma, M.; Garrison, R.E. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (United States)); Fonseca, C. (Univ. Autonoma de Baja California Sur, La Paz (Mexico))

    1991-02-01

    The Oligocene-Miocene San Gregorio Formation (Tsg) is a lithologically diverse package of siltstones, biosiliceous sediments, tuffs, and phosphorites. In the northern part of the study area (near La Purisima), the Tsg is richly biosiliceous, organic rich, and finely laminated; in many respects, the Tsg resembles the Hames member of the Monterey formation in the Salinas basin of California. In the south, the Tsg is thinner, detritus rich, and contains minable phosphorite reserves. Allochthonous phosphatic beds are prominent throughout the formation; many of these deposits apparently imported burrowing crustacea into anoxic paleoenvironments. The authors conclude that iterative episodes of turbulent transport of well-sorted (peloidal and coated grain) phosphatic sediment commonly resulted in depositional amalgamation of discrete event beds; varying degrees of postdepositional homogenization by infauna resulted in crudely stratified to massive (and economically minable) phosphorite beds. The authors regard the association of organic-rich and finely laminated biosiliceous sediments with phosphorites as a primary index of sedimentation in an upwelling environment. In addition, they observed thick, cross-stratified accumulations of barnacle conquina; they attribute this low diversity deposit to cool-water deposition on a carbonate shoal. The distinctive occurrence of cool water carbonates at near tropical paleolatitudes suggests the ecologically limiting effect of cold upwelled waters.

  18. Formation Flying Concept Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Palkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “formation flying” implies coordinated movement of at least two satellites on coplanar and non-coplanar orbits with a maximum distance between them being much less than the length of the orbit. Peculiarities of formation flying concept also include:- automatic coordination of satellites;- sub-group specialization of formation flying satellites;- equipment and data exchange technology unification in each specialized group or subgroup.Formation flying satellites can be classified according to the configuration stability level (order (array, cluster («swarm», intergroup specialization rules («central satellite», «leader», «slave», manoeuvrability («active» and «passive» satellites.Tasks of formation flying include:- experiments with payload, distributed in formation flying satellites;- various near-earth space and earth-surface research;- super-sized aperture antenna development;- land-based telescope calibration;- «space advertisement» (earth-surface observable satellite compositions of a logotype, word, etc.;- orbital satellite maintenance, etc.Main issues of formation flying satellite system design are:- development of an autonomous satellite group manoeuvring technology;- providing a sufficient characteristic velocity of formation flying satellites;- ballistic and navigation maintenance for satellite formation flying;- technical and economic assessment of formation flying orbital delivery and deployment;- standardization, unification, miniaturization and integration of equipment;- intergroup and intersatellite function redistribution.

  19. Programed oil generation of the Zubair Formation, Southern Iraq oil fields: Results from Petromod software modeling and geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ameri, T. K.; Pitman, J.; Naser, M.E.; Zumberge, J.; Al-Haydari, H. A.

    2011-01-01

    1D petroleum system modeling was performed on wells in each of four oil fields in South Iraq, Zubair (well Zb-47), Nahr Umr (well NR-9), West Qurna (well WQ-15 and 23), and Majnoon (well Mj-8). In each of these fields, deposition of the Zubair Formation was followed by continuous burial, reaching maximum temperatures of 100??C (equivalent to 0. 70%Ro) at depths of 3,344-3,750 m of well Zb-47 and 3,081. 5-3,420 m of well WQ-15, 120??C (equivalent to 0. 78%Ro) at depths of 3,353-3,645 m of well NR-9, and 3,391-3,691. 5 m of well Mj-8. Generation of petroleum in the Zubair Formation began in the late Tertiary, 10 million years ago. At present day, modeled transformation ratios (TR) indicate that 65% TR of its generation potential has been reached in well Zb-47, 75% TR in well NR-9 and 55-85% TR in West Qurna oil field (wells WQ-15 and WQ-23) and up to 95% TR in well Mj-8, In contrast, younger source rocks are immature to early mature (environment and consists of interbedded shales and porous and permeable sandstones. In Basrah region, the shales have total organic carbon of 0. 5-7. 0 wt%, Tmax 430-470??C and hydrogen indices of up to 466 with S2 = 0. 4-9. 4 of kerogen type II & III and petroleum potential of 0. 4-9. 98 of good hydrocarbon generation, which is consistent with 55-95% hydrocarbon efficiency. These generated hydrocarbons had charged (in part) the Cretaceous and Tertiary reservoirs, especially the Zubair Formation itself, in the traps formed by Alpine collision that closed the Tethys Ocean between Arabian and Euracian Plates and developed folds in Mesopotamian Basin 15-10 million years ago. These traps are mainly stratigraphic facies of sandstones with the shale that formed during the deposition of the Zubair Formation in transgression and regression phases within the main structural folds of the Zubair, Nahr Umr, West Qurna and Majnoon Oil fields. Oil biomarkers of the Zubair Formation Reservoirs are showing source affinity with mixed oil from the Upper

  20. The Discussion of the Era of the Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation in Songliao Basin%松辽盆地白垩纪青山口组地质时代探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩刚; 张文婧; 黄清华

    2011-01-01

    The Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation in Songliao Basin has abundant Songhuajiang biome fossils,study of biostratigraphy indicated that the age of Qingshankou Formation should be the Late Cretaceous.Dark mudstones and shales of the Qingshankou Formation were of high organic carbon and low diasteranes contents.Organic geochemical characteristics were illustrated by biomarkers and gammacerane , and positive excursion of kerogen isotopes.It was suggested that the dark mudstones and shales in Qingshankou Formation were products of lacustrine anoxic records in the extreme greenhouse climate period.Angiosperm farina at the bottom of Qingshankou Formation such as Cranwellia, Lythraites, Complexiopollis, Borealipollis, Buttinia, Areicipites, Sabalpollenites etc.has significant era significance , and ages of eruption zircon U-Pb has also proved that the age of the bottom of Qingshankou Formation in Songliao Basin should be Turonian and be not Cenomanian.%松辽盆地白垩纪青山口组赋存有丰富的松花江生物群化石,生物地层学研究表明其时代属晚白垩世.青山口组黑色泥岩、页岩具有有机碳含量高,干酪根碳同位素正偏、重排甾烷含量低、普遍存在伽玛蜡烷生物标志化合物,代表了温室气候时间窗内古湖泊贫氧-缺氧环境条件下的沉积产物.而青山口组底部出现的Cranwellia, Lythraites, Complexiopollis, Borealipollis, Buttinia, Areicipites, Sabalpollenites等一些具重要时代意义的被子植物花粉,以及锆石U-Pb年龄也证实了青山口组底界已属Turonian期,而非Cenomanian期.

  1. Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Boundary (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries manages a system of sanctuaries and other managed areas around the country. The legal boundaries of These sanctuaries are...

  2. Monterey, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Monterey, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  4. The Conic Benchmark Format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Henrik A.

    This document constitutes the technical reference manual of the Conic Benchmark Format with le extension: .cbf or .CBF. It unies linear, second-order cone (also known as conic quadratic) and semidenite optimization with mixed-integer variables. The format has been designed with benchmark libraries...... in mind, and therefore focuses on compact and easily parsable representations. The problem structure is separated from the problem data, and the format moreover facilitate benchmarking of hotstart capability through sequences of changes....

  5. Formative Assessment in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenford-O'Brian, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation responds to critical gaps in current research on formative assessment practice which could limit successful implementation of this practice within the K-12 classroom context. The study applies a socio cultural perspective of learning to interpret a cross-case analysis of formative assessment practice occurring during one…

  6. Formation of multiple networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    we introduce the first network formation model for multiple networks. Network formation models are among the most popular tools in traditional network studies, because of both their practical and theoretical impact. However, existing models are not sufficient to describe the generation of multiple...

  7. Isothermal Martensite Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo

    Isothermal (i.e. time dependent) martensite formation in steel was first observed in the 40ies of the XXth century and is still treated as an anomaly in the description of martensite formation which is considered as a-thermal (i.e. independent of time). Recently, the clarification of the mechanis...

  8. Effect of buffaloαs1-casein polymorphism on the quality of semi-hard Monterey Jack-type cheese%水牛乳αs1酪蛋白多态性对类蒙特利杰克半硬质干酪品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 唐艳; 黄丽; 农皓如; 曾庆坤; 任大喜; 杨攀; 冯玲

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo analyze the effect ofαs1-casein genotype of water buffalo on the quality of semi-hard Monterey Jack-type cheese.MethodsThe genotype ofαs1-casein was analyzed byphase reversal-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), Monterey Jack-type cheese was made according to theαs1-casein genotypes, and the differences in composition, texture and color of cheese were compared.ResultsTwo types ofαs1-casein (AB and BB) were found in water buffalo milk. After makingMonterey Jack-type cheese used mixed sample as control group, fat content of BB type was lower than that of AB type. Hardness and springiness of BB type cheese were 41.21 N and 6.31 mm, which were significantly higher than those of AB type (29.45 N, 5.56 mm) and control group (38.21 N, 5.25 mm), moreover, the gumminess and chewiness of BB type cheese were also higher. For the colour and lustre,B value of BB type cheese was lower than that of AB type, which meant more yellow colour was found in AB type cheese.Conclusionαs1-casein polymorphism is found in Chinese water buffalo, and the quality of semi-hard Monterey Jack-type cheese could be effected byαs1-casein polymorphism.%目的:分析水牛乳αs1酪蛋白(αs1-casein)多态性对类蒙特利杰克干酪品质的影响。方法采用反相高效液相色谱法分析不同水牛乳样品αs1-casein的多态性,依据αs1-casein多态性制成半硬质类蒙特利杰克干酪,比较其在组成、质构和色差等方面的差异。结果水牛乳αs1-casein存在AB和BB两种表型。以混合样品为对照制成类蒙特利杰克干酪后,在干酪成份上, BB型干酪中乳脂肪含量显著低于AB型;在质构方面,BB型干酪的硬度和弹性分别为41.21 N和6.31 mm,显著高于AB型(29.45 N,5.56 mm)和混合组(38.21 N,5.25 mm),此外BB型具有更高的胶粘性和咀嚼性;在色泽方面, BB型干酪的B值显著低于AB组,表明黄色程度低于AB型。结论水牛乳αs1-casein存在多态性,且αs1-casein的多

  9. Galaxy Formation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Andrew J

    2010-01-01

    We review the current theory of how galaxies form within the cosmological framework provided by the cold dark matter paradigm for structure formation. Beginning with the pre-galactic evolution of baryonic material we describe the analytical and numerical understanding of how baryons condense into galaxies, what determines the structure of those galaxies and how internal and external processes (including star formation, merging, active galactic nuclei etc.) determine their gross properties and evolution. Throughout, we highlight successes and failings of current galaxy formation theory. We include a review of computational implementations of galaxy formation theory and assess their ability to provide reliable modeling of this complex phenomenon. We finish with a discussion of several "hot topics" in contemporary galaxy formation theory and assess future directions for this field.

  10. Usage Record Format Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, J.K.; Muller-Pfeerkorn, R

    2013-01-01

    For resources to be shared, sites must be able to exchange basic accounting and usage data in a common format. This document describes a common format which enables the exchange of basic accounting and usage data from different resources. This record format is intended to facilitate the sharing of usage information, particularly in the area of the accounting of jobs, computing, memory, storage and cloud usage but with a structure that allows an easy extension to other resources. This document describes the Usage Record components both in natural language form and annotated XML. This document does not address how these records should be used, nor does it attempt to dictate the format in which the accounting records are stored. Instead, it denes a common exchange format. Furthermore, nothing is said regarding the communication mechanisms employed to exchange the records, i.e. transport layer, framing, authentication, integrity, etc.

  11. When efficient star formation drives cluster formation

    CERN Document Server

    Parmentier, G

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the star formation efficiency in cluster forming cores on the evolution of the mass in star clusters over the age range 1-100Myr, when star clusters undergo their infant weight-loss/mortality phase. Assuming a constant formation rate of gas-embedded clusters and a weak tidal field, we show that the ratio between the total mass in stars bound to the clusters over that age range and the total mass in stars initially formed in gas-embedded clusters is a strongly increasing function of the averaged local SFE, with little influence from any assumed core mass-radius relation. Our results suggest that, for young starbursts with estimated tidal field strength and known recent star formation history, observed cluster-to-star mass ratios, once corrected for the undetected clusters, constitute promising probes of the local SFE, without the need of resorting to gas mass estimates. Similarly, the mass ratio of stars which remain in bound clusters at the end of the infant mortality/weight-loss ...

  12. B, Sr, O and H Isotopic Compositions of Formation Waters from the Bachu Bulge in the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Chunfang; PENG Licai; MEI Bowen; XIAO Yingkai

    2006-01-01

    In order to elucidate the origin and migration of basinal brines in the Bachu Bulge, Tarim Basin, we have carried out analyses on chemical composition, and boron, hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of formation waters together with the XRD of clay minerals from the Paleozoic strata. The waters show Ca, B, Li and Sr enrichment and SO4 depletion in the Carboniferous and Ordovician and K enrichment in part of the Ordovician relative to seawater. The relationship between δD and δ18O shows that all the data of the waters decline towards the Global Meteoric Water Line with the intersection of them close to the present-day local meteoric water, suggesting that modern meteoric water has mixed with evaporated seawater. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7090 to 0.7011, significantly higher than those of the contemporary seawater. The δ11B values range from +19.7 to +32.3‰, showing a decrease with the depth and B concentrations. The results suggest that isotopically distinct B and Sr were derived from external sources. However, since the percentages of illite are shown to increase with depth among clay minerals in the study area, i.e., illite is due to precipitation rather than leaching during deeper burial, it is unlikely for illite to have contributed a significant amount of B to the waters. Thus, B with low δ11B values is interpreted to have been added mainly from thermal degradation of kerogen or the basalts in the Cambrian and Lower Ordovician.

  13. Methemoglobin formation by paraquat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Shinsaku

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat is a broad spectrum herbicide known to be highly lethal to man and animals. Its toxicity is characterized by acute lung injury. Paraquat produces such toxic effects through the generation of the superoxide anion according to one proposed mechanism. The present experiment, methemoglobin formation was demonstrated after incubation of oxyhemoglobin with paraquat. The generation of the superoxide anion through the interaction of oxyhemoglobin with paraquat was suggested by chemiluminescence of luminol. Superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalare inhibited methemoglobin formation. The generation of the superoxide anion is discussed in regard to methemoglobin formation by paraquat.

  14. Challenges in Planet Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, large strides have been made in the field of planet formation. Yet fundamental questions remain. Here we review our state of understanding of five fundamental bottlenecks in planet formation. These are: 1) the structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks; 2) the growth of the first planetesimals; 3) orbital migration driven by interactions between proto-planets and gaseous disk; 4) the origin of the Solar System's orbital architecture; and 5) the relationship between observed super-Earths and our own terrestrial planets. Given our lack of understanding of these issues, even the most successful formation models remain on shaky ground.

  15. Manuel UNIMARC format bibliographique

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    This manual is the French translation of the second edition of UNIMARC Manual: bibliographic format published in English in 1994 and completed by 5 updates published from 1996 to 2005. This 5th French edition is composite. It reproduces identically a part of the 4th edition published in 2002 and, for the fields of the format modified in the Update 5, it offers a new more structured presentation. This is a handbook dedicated to French-speaking users of the UNIMARC format for bibliographic descriptions.

  16. Pictorial Formats. Volume 1. Format Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    the pilot to help him evaluate when to change course to avoid objects in TF/TA modes. In addition to the projected flight path, there are commanded...TYPESFigMASTER5 Wepo Saus clr ase 00I 16I AI 󈧋TRA- X PI prI MEN p~ll It 62 AIR-TO-GROUND _ - PRGRAM ýRELEASE SELECTIONS _ZY - Figure 58 71T ý Weapon...development should always be done within the context oF a baseline aircraft weapon system. Further studies are needed to simulate and evaluate these formats

  17. The Petrology and Diagenetic History of the Phacoides Sandstone, Temblor Formation at the McKittrick Oil Field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaess, A. B.; Horton, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The McKittrick oil field is located near the western edge of the San Joaquin Basin, California. The oil field is currently in production with 480 wells producing from the Tulare, San Joaquin, Reef Ridge, Monterey, Temblor, Tumey, and Kreyenhagen formations. Within the Temblor Formation production is mainly from the Miocene Carneros and the Phacoides sandstones. Eighty-two samples from the Phacoides sandstone (2403 - 3045 m below surface) were obtained from the California Well Sample Repository to characterize and understand the diagenetic history and its influence on its reservoir properties. Petrographic thin sections were analyzed by quantitative optical petrography, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and imaging with back-scatter electron and cathodoluminescence. The Phacoides sandstone consists of fine to very coarse, poorly to well-sorted, arkosic arenites, and wackes with detrital framework grains including sub-angular quartz, K-feldspar (microcline and orthoclase), plagioclase, and lithic fragments. Ba-free, Ba-rich, and perthitic K-feldspars are present. Accessory minerals include glauconite, biotite, muscovite, magnetite, titanomagnetite, sphene, zircon, apatite, corundum, and rutile. Diagenetic alteration includes: (1) compaction, (2) mineral dissolution, (3) albitization of feldspars, alteration of biotite to pyrite and chlorite, replacement of framework grains by calcite, (4) alteration of volcanic rock fragments, (5) cementation by kaolinite, calcite and dolomite, and (6) precipitation of K-feldspar and quartz overgrowths. Early-formed fractures were healed by authigenic quartz, albite, and K-feldspars. Precipitation of carbonates and clays, rearranging of broken grains, and formation of pseudomatrix reduced primary porosity. Secondary porosity is common and formed initially by the dissolution of plagioclase (excluding albite) and volcanic fragments, and later by dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and detrital K-feldspars. Hydrocarbon emplacement was

  18. Notes on Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Krumholz, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the field of star formation at a level suitable for graduate students or advanced undergraduates in astronomy or physics. The structure of the book is as follows. The first two chapters begin with a discussion of observational techniques, and the basic phenomenology they reveal. The goal is to familiarize students with the basic techniques that will be used throughout, and to provide a common vocabulary for the rest of the book. The next five chapters provide a similar review of the basic physical processes that are important for star formation. Again, the goal is to provide a basis for what follows. The remaining chapters discuss star formation over a variety of scales, starting with the galactic scale and working down to the scales of individual stars and their disks. The book concludes with a brief discussion of the clearing of disks and the transition to planet formation. The book includes five problem sets, complete with solutions.

  19. FORMATION CONSTANTS AND THERMODYNAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    has been determined spectrophotometrically for 1:1 complex formation at ... DFT has been extensively used due to their accuracy and low computational cost .... Our input data for analysis of metal-ligand system were absorbance of 50 different.

  20. Collision Induced Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Balland, C; Schäffer, R

    1997-01-01

    We present a semi-analytical model in which galaxy collisions and strong tidal interactions, both in the field and during the collapse phase of groups and clusters help determine galaxy morphology. From a semi-analytical analysis based on simulation results of tidal collisions (Aguilar & White 1985), we propose simple rules for energy exchanges during collisions that allow to discriminate between different Hubble types: efficient collisions result in the disruption of disks and substantial star formation, leading to the formation of elliptical galaxies; inefficient collisions allow a large gas reservoir to survive and form disks. Assuming that galaxy formation proceeds in a Omega_0=1 Cold Dark Matter universe, the model both reproduces a number of observations and makes predictions, among which are the redshifts of formation of the different Hubble types in the field. When the model is normalized to the present day abundance of X-ray clusters, the amount of energy exchange needed to produce elliptical gal...

  1. Coalition Formation under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Unfortunately, many current approaches to coalition formation lack provi- sions for uncertainty. This prevents application of coalition formation techniques ...should also include mechanisms and processing techniques that provide stabil- ity, scalability, and, at a minimum, optimality relative to agent beliefs...relocate a piano . For the sake of simplicity, assume payment is divided evenly among the participants in the move (i.e., each mover has the same utility or

  2. PCF File Format.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoreson, Gregory G [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    PCF files are binary files designed to contain gamma spectra and neutron count rates from radiation sensors. It is the native format for the GAmma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) package [1]. It can contain multiple spectra and information about each spectrum such as energy calibration. This document outlines the format of the file that would allow one to write a computer program to parse and write such files.

  3. Densities and Kinematic Viscosities for the Systems Benzene + Methyl Formate, Benzene + Ethyl Formate, Benzene + Propyl Formate, and Benzene + Butyl Formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmerling, Uwe; Rasmussen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for the system benzene + methyl formate at 20°C and for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate from 20°C to 50°C. The results for the system benzene + methyl formate have been correlated usi...

  4. Organic geochemical characteristics of the Lower Cretaceous Abu Gabra Formation in the Great Moga oilfield, Muglad Basin, Sudan: Implications for depositional environment and oil-generation potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeen, Yousif M.; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Elhassan, Osman M. A.

    2015-03-01

    Organic-rich sediments within the Abu Gabra Formation from three wells in the Great Moga oilfield were analyzed using organic geochemistry and organic petrology. The analyzed samples generally contain more than 2.0 wt.% TOC and have a very good to excellent hydrocarbon generative potential. This is supported by high bitumen extract and hydrocarbon (HCs) yields with values exceeding 4000 and 2000 ppm, respectively. The Abu Gabra also have moderate to high hydrogen index (HI) values of 287-865 mg HC/g TOC and large amounts of amorphous organic matter and alginite, consistent with oil-prone Types I and Type II kerogen. Vitrinite reflectance (0.59-0.72) %Ro and pyrolysis Tmax (430-438 °C) indicate an early oil window stage. This is supported by bitumen/TOC ratios (0.04-0.09) and biomarker thermal maturity parameters with equilibrium C32 homohopane 22S/(22S + 22R) ratios (0.50-58), moretane/hopane (0.11-018) and C29ββ/(ββ + αα) (0.53-0.73) and 20S/(20S + 20R) ratios (0.26-0.48). The biomarkers are characterized by a dominance of low to medium molecular weight n-alkane compounds with significant waxy alkanes (n-C25-n-C34), moderately high Pr/Ph ratios (1.17-2.51), high abundance of C27 regular steranes, high C27/C29 regular sterane ratios, the presence of tricyclic terpanes and relatively low sterane/hopane ratios. These data indicate that the organic-rich sediments of the Abu Gabra Formation contain a mixture of aquatic (algal and bacterial) and terrigenous organic matter, deposited in a lacustrine environment and preserved under suboxic conditions.

  5. Formation peculiarities of tourism documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhezhnych, Pavlo; Soprunyuk, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    The article describes formation peculiarities of tourism documentation, the role of tourism data consolidation for unified format creation and the the need to use existing software tools to handle tourism information, formation process of tourism documentation is presented.

  6. Situated Formative Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Niels Bech; Wahl, Christian; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses the conceptual challenge of providing students with good quality feedback to enhance student learning in an online community of practice (COP). The aim of the study is to identify feedback mechanisms in a virtual learning environment (VLE) and to create a full formative...... feedback episode (FFE) through an online dialogue. The paper argues that dialogue is crucial for student learning and that feedback is not only something the teacher gives to the student. Viewing good quality feedback as social, situated, formative, emphasis is put on the establishment of dialogue. We...... refer to this type of feedback as, Situated Formative Feedback (SFF). As a basis for exploring, identifying and discussing relevant aspects of SFF the paper analyses qualitative data from a Moodle dialogue. Data are embedded in the qualitative analytic program Nvivo and are analysed with a system...

  7. Forces in strategy formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes that organizational strategy formation should be characterized theoretically as a process that is subject to several interacting forces, rather than represented by separate discrete decisionmodels or theoretic perspectives, as is commonly done in the strategic management...... literature. Based on an extensive review of relevant theory and empirical work in strategic decision-making, organizational change theory, cognitive and social psychology, and strategy processes, seven kinds of ''forces'' - rational, imposed, teleological, learning, political, heuristic, and social...... - are identified as interacting in and having significant influence on the strategy formation process. It is further argued that by applying a holistic ''forces-view'' of the significant and interacting influences on strategy formation, we can better understand the dynamics and challenges in managing the process...

  8. Meningococcal biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappann, M.; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Claus, H.

    2006-01-01

    We show that in a standardized in vitro flow system unencapsulated variants of genetically diverse lineages of Neisseria meningitidis formed biofilms, that could be maintained for more than 96 h. Biofilm cells were resistant to penicillin, but not to rifampin or ciprofloxacin. For some strains......, microcolony formation within biofilms was observed. Microcolony formation in strain MC58 depended on a functional copy of the pilE gene encoding the pilus subunit pilin, and was associated with twitching of cells. Nevertheless, unpiliated pilE mutants formed biofilms showing that attachment and accumulation......X alleles was identified among genetically diverse meningococcal strains. PilX alleles differed in their propensity to support autoaggregation of cells in suspension, but not in their ability to support microcolony formation within biofilms in the continuous flow system....

  9. Kuiper Binary Object Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Nazzario, R C; Covington, C; Kagan, D; Hyde, T W

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction between the KBOs and the third body causes one of four effects; scattering into the Oort cloud, collisions with the growing protoplanets, formation of binary pairs, or creation of a single Kuiper belt object. Additionally, the initial location of the progenitors of the Kuiper belt objects also has a significant effect on binary formation.

  10. Primordial Planet Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Schild, Rudolph E

    2010-01-01

    Recent spacecraft observations exploring solar system properties impact standard paradigms of the formation of stars, planets and comets. We stress the unexpected cloud of microscopic dust resulting from the DEEP IMPACT mission, and the existence of molten nodules in STARDUST samples. And the theory of star formation does not explain the common occurrence of binary and multiple star systems in the standard gas fragmentation scenario. No current theory of planet formation can explain the iron core of the earth, under oceans of water. These difficulties are avoided in a scenario where the planet mass objects form primordially and are today the baryonic dark matter. They have been detected in quasar microlensing and anomalous quasar radio brightening bursts. The primordial planets often concentrate together to form a star, with residual matter seen in pre-stellar accretion discs around the youngest stars. These primordial planet mass bodies were formed of hydrogen-helium, aggregated in dense clumps of a trillion...

  11. Meningococcal biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappann, M.; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Claus, H.

    2006-01-01

    We show that in a standardized in vitro flow system unencapsulated variants of genetically diverse lineages of Neisseria meningitidis formed biofilms, that could be maintained for more than 96 h. Biofilm cells were resistant to penicillin, but not to rifampin or ciprofloxacin. For some strains......, microcolony formation within biofilms was observed. Microcolony formation in strain MC58 depended on a functional copy of the pilE gene encoding the pilus subunit pilin, and was associated with twitching of cells. Nevertheless, unpiliated pilE mutants formed biofilms showing that attachment and accumulation......X alleles was identified among genetically diverse meningococcal strains. PilX alleles differed in their propensity to support autoaggregation of cells in suspension, but not in their ability to support microcolony formation within biofilms in the continuous flow system....

  12. Syntactic Formats for Free

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klin, Bartek; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    A framework of Plotkin and Turi’s, originally aimed at providing an abstract notion of bi-simulation, is modified to cover other operational equivalences and preorders. Combined with bi-algebraic methods, it yields a technique for the derivation of syntactic formats for transition system specific......A framework of Plotkin and Turi’s, originally aimed at providing an abstract notion of bi-simulation, is modified to cover other operational equivalences and preorders. Combined with bi-algebraic methods, it yields a technique for the derivation of syntactic formats for transition system...... specifications which guarantee operational preorders to be precongruences. The technique is applied to the trace preorder, the completed trace pre order and the failures preorder. In the latter two cases, new syntactic formats ensuring precongruence properties are introduced....

  13. The format of things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørnø, Rasmus Leth

    or surpasses speech and writing. The well from which we draw our design ideas for novel interfaces is therefore needlessly restricted by a format that has outlived its purpose. The objective of the thesis is to dismantle the format of things as well as to sketch out novel paths of inquiry for new interfaces...... ontological biases and epistemological assumptions which, to a great extent, delimit what can be thought about interfaces and shorten the imaginative horizon. The objective of this thesis is to break the hegemony of a particular type of understanding of the world and interfaces, and to make new approaches...

  14. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding

  15. Sensitivity Data File Formats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rearden, Bradley T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The format of the TSUNAMI-A sensitivity data file produced by SAMS for cases with deterministic transport solutions is given in Table 6.3.A.1. The occurrence of each entry in the data file is followed by an identification of the data contained on each line of the file and the FORTRAN edit descriptor denoting the format of each line. A brief description of each line is also presented. A sample of the TSUNAMI-A data file for the Flattop-25 sample problem is provided in Figure 6.3.A.1. Here, only two profiles out of the 130 computed are shown.

  16. Formation of Saturn's spokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    The theoretical requirements of the Goertz and Morfill (1983) model of the formation of spokes in the rings of Saturn are analyzed. Consideration is given to model predictions of dust particle size distribution, the optical depth of the spokes, and the radial speed of spoke evolution. It is shown that the electrostatic levitation of singly charged dust particles would be sufficient to cause the spokes to form. The maximum formation time for spokes of more than 10,000 km radial length is estimated to be less than five minutes. Observations of the scattering properties of the spokes showed general agreement with the theoretical calculations.

  17. The formation of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stahler, Steven W

    2008-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive treatment of star formation, one of the most active fields of modern astronomy. The reader is guided through the subject in a logically compelling manner. Starting from a general description of stars and interstellar clouds, the authors delineate the earliest phases of stellar evolution. They discuss formation activity not only in the Milky Way, but also in other galaxies, both now and in the remote past. Theory and observation are thoroughly integrated, with the aid of numerous figures and images. In summary, this volume is an invaluable resource, both as a text f

  18. Tea aroma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Tang Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds and aroma (volatile compounds. All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Maillard reaction. In the current review, we focus on the formation mechanism of main aromas during the tea manufacturing process.

  19. Shape formation algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This project concerns the implementation of a decentralized algorithm for shape formation. The first idea was to test this algorithm with a swarm of autonomous drones but, due to the lack of time and the complexity of the project, the work was just developed in 2D and in simulation.

  20. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted

  1. PAHs and star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, AGGM; Peeters, E; Bakes, ELO; Spoon, HWW; Hony, S; Johnstone, D; Adams, FC; Lin, DNC; Neufeld, DA; Ostriker, EC

    2004-01-01

    Strong IR emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 mum are a common characteristic of regions of massive star formation. These features are carried by large (similar to 50 C-atom) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon molecules which are pumped by the strong FUV photon flux from these stars. Thes

  2. BISAC Variable Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Technology and Libraries, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents revision of Book Industry Systems Advisory Committee (BISAC) format designed specifically for electronic transmission of purchase orders for monograph or series titles combining fixed and variable length data fields which was approved in January 1983. Special characters, sample address descriptions, summary of fixed records, glossary, and…

  3. Kepler Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2015-01-01

    Kepler has vastly increased our knowledge of planets and planetary systems located close to stars. The new data shows surprising results for planetary abundances, planetary spacings and the distribution of planets on a mass-radius diagram. The implications of these results for theories of planet formation will be discussed.

  4. Determinants for gallstone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Monsted; Sorensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    associations were found for blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, HDL cholesterol, or triglycerides in meta-analyses. Conclusions: Age, female sex, BMI, non-HDL cholesterol, and polyps are independent determinants for gallstone formation. Incident gallstones and the metabolic syndrome share common risk...

  5. 21 CFR 133.153 - Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and curd. Part of the whey is drained off, and water or salt brine may be added. The curd is drained and placed in a muslin or sheeting cloth, formed into a ball, and pressed; or the curd is placed in a... ingredients may be used: (1) Dairy ingredients. Milk, nonfat milk, or cream, as defined in § 133.3, used...

  6. Ecology and Distribution of the Benthic Community on the Monterey Breakwater, Monterey, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    Numbers given in Appendix C P Present Numbers were impossible to determine 99 APPENDIX C SPECIES LIST ANIMALS PORIFERA DEMOSPONGIAE Halisarca §R. Found...muscosa (Gould, 1846). Mopalia porifera pilsbry, 1893. Placiphorella velata Dall, 1879. Common in the rubble, especially on vertical surfaces buried by one

  7. The Eocene Rusayl Formation, Oman, carbonaceous rocks in calcareous shelf sediments: Environment of deposition, alteration and hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Wehner, H.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 510163, D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Botz, R. [University Kiel, Geological-Paleontological Department, Olshausenstrasse 40-60, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Berner, Z.; Stueben, D. [Technical University Karlsruhe, Institute for Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Fritz-Haber-Weg 2, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Al-Sayigh, A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Geological Dept. PO Box 36, Al-Khod (Oman)

    2007-10-01

    incursions make up a greater deal of the sedimentary record than mangrove swamps. Terra rossa paleosols mark the end of accumulation of organic material (OM) and herald supratidal conditions at the passage of Rusayl Formation into the overlying Seeb Formation. In the subtidal-supratidal cycles of lithofacies unit VIII the terra rossa horizons are thining upwards and become gradually substituted for by deep-water middle ramp sediments of lithofacies unit IX. Framboidal pyrite, (ferroan) dolomite with very little siderite are indicative of an early diagenetic alteration stage I under rather moderate temperatures of formation. During a subsequent stage II, an increase in the temperature of alteration was partly induced by burial and a high heat flow from the underlying Semail Ophiolite. Type-III kerogen originating from higher plants and, in addition, some marine biota gave rise to the generation of small amounts of soluble organic matter during this stage of diagenesis. The average reflectance of humic particles marks the beginning of the oil window and the production index reveals the existence of free hydrocarbons. Further uplift of the Eocene strata and oxidation during stage IIII caused veins of satin spar to form from organic sulfur and pyrite in the carbonaceous material. Lowering of the pH value of the pore fluid led to the precipitation of jarosite and a set of hydrated aluminum sulfates dependant upon the cations present in the wall rocks. AMD minerals (= acid mine drainage) are not very widespread in this carbonaceous series intercalated among calcareous rocks owing to the buffering effect of carbonate minerals. These carbonate-hosted carbonaceous rocks are below an economic level as far as the mining of coal is concerned, but deserves particular attention as source rocks for hydrocarbons in the Middle East, provided a higher stage of maturity is reached. (author)

  8. 76 FR 72923 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco heading, the entry for American Start-Up Financial Institutions... Enforcement) 101 Market Street, San Francisco, California 94105-1579: 1. America Start-Up Financial Institutions Investments, I, L.P., and CKH Capital, Inc., both in Monterey Park, California; to become...

  9. Cosmic structure formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschinger, Edumund

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews the prevailing paradigm for how galaxies and larger structures formed in the universe: gravitational instability. Basic observational facts are summarized to motivate the standard cosmological framework underlying most detailed investigations of structure formation. The observed univers approaches spatial uniformity on scales larger than about 10(exp 26) cm. On these scales gravitational dynamics is almost linear and therefore relatively easy to relate to observations of large-scale structure. On smaller scales cosmic structure is complicated not only by nonlinear gravitational clustering but also by nonlinear nongravitational gas dynamical processes. The complexity of these phenomena makes galaxy formation one of the grand challenge problems of the physical sciences. No fully satisfactory theory can presently account in detail for the observed cosmic structure. However, as this article summarizes, significant progress has been made during the last few years.

  10. Formation of bacterial nanocells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainshtein, Mikhail; Kudryashova, Ekaterina; Suzina, Natalia; Ariskina, Elena; Voronkov, Vadim

    1998-07-01

    Existence of nanobacteria received increasing attention both in environmental microbiology/geomicro-biology and in medical microbiology. In order to study a production of nanoforms by typical bacterial cells. Effects of different physical factors were investigated. Treatment of bacterial cultures with microwave radiation, or culturing in field of electric current resulted in formation a few types of nanocells. The number and type of nanoforms were determined with type and dose of the treatment. The produced nanoforms were: i) globules, ii) clusters of the globules--probably produced by liaison, iii) nanocells coated with membrane. The viability of the globules is an object opened for doubts. The nanocells discovered multiplication and growth on solidified nutrient media. The authors suggest that formation of nanocells is a common response of bacteria to stress-actions produced by different agents.

  11. Un dilemme de formation

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, Marjorie; Marvel, David

    2013-01-01

    Le Master of Art in Teaching prépare à l’enseignement dans l’État de l’Alaska en un an. Les candidats doivent faire preuve d’un bon niveau dans leur discipline pour avoir accès à la formation qui comprend des études théoriques et des stages. Un système d’évaluation de l’enseignant stagiaire et de l’enseignant en fonction permet d’améliorer et de faire évoluer constamment cette formation. Les objectifs de compétence présentés étonneront plus d’un lecteur européen. The Master of Arts in Teac...

  12. Emptiness Formation Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Nicholas; Ng, Stephen; Starr, Shannon

    2016-08-01

    We present rigorous upper and lower bounds on the emptiness formation probability for the ground state of a spin-1/2 Heisenberg XXZ quantum spin system. For a d-dimensional system we find a rate of decay of the order {exp(-c L^{d+1})} where L is the sidelength of the box in which we ask for the emptiness formation event to occur. In the {d=1} case this confirms previous predictions made in the integrable systems community, though our bounds do not achieve the precision predicted by Bethe ansatz calculations. On the other hand, our bounds in the case {d ≥ 2} are new. The main tools we use are reflection positivity and a rigorous path integral expansion, which is a variation on those previously introduced by Toth, Aizenman-Nachtergaele and Ueltschi.

  13. Simulating Cosmic Structure Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, D H; Hernquist, L E; Weinberg, David H.; Katz, Neal; Hernquist, Lars

    1997-01-01

    We describe cosmological simulation techniques and their application to studies of cosmic structure formation, with particular attention to recent hydrodynamic simulations of structure in the high redshift universe. Collisionless N-body simulations with Gaussian initial conditions produce a pattern of sheets, filaments, tunnels, and voids that resembles the observed large scale galaxy distribution. Simulations that incorporate gas dynamics and dissipation form dense clumps of cold gas with sizes and masses similar to the luminous parts of galaxies. Models based on inflation and cold dark matter predict a healthy population of high redshift galaxies, including systems with star formation rates of 20 M_{\\sun}/year at z=6. At z~3, most of the baryons in these models reside in the low density intergalactic medium, which produces fluctuating Lyman-alpha absorption in the spectra of background quasars. The physical description of this ``Lyman-alpha forest'' is particularly simple if the absorption spectrum is viewe...

  14. Formatting Design Dialogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva; Binder, Thomas; Messeter, Jörn

    2008-01-01

    in collaborative settings and finally we examine the board game as a particularly interesting game format. In the second part of the article we present and discuss two board games: the User Game and the Landscape Game. We show how these games respond to particular challenges, and how they have interesting......This article discusses design games as a particular genre for formatting design dialogues. In the first part of the article we review the participatory design literature for game-oriented framings of co-design. We look at what constitutes game and play, we discuss other authors’ use of games...... characteristics in being both ‘as-if’ worlds to explore and shared representations of what the players accomplish. In the last section of the article we discuss how new games may be designed and played and what makes a good design game....

  15. Situated Formative Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Niels Bech; Wahl, Christian; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2016-01-01

    feedback episode (FFE) through an online dialogue. The paper argues that dialogue is crucial for student learning and that feedback is not only something the teacher gives to the student. Viewing good quality feedback as social, situated, formative, emphasis is put on the establishment of dialogue. We...... refer to this type of feedback as, Situated Formative Feedback (SFF). As a basis for exploring, identifying and discussing relevant aspects of SFF the paper analyses qualitative data from a Moodle dialogue. Data are embedded in the qualitative analytic program Nvivo and are analysed with a system...... theoretical textual analysis method. Asynchronous written dialogue from an online master’s course at Aalborg University forms the empirical basis of the study. The findings suggests in general that students play an essential role in SFF and that students and educators are equal in the COP, but holds different...

  16. Kuiper Binary Object Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Nazzario, R. C.; Orr, K.; Covington, C.; Kagan, D.; Hyde, T. W.

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction betw...

  17. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:

  18. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet

  19. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet

  20. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:

  1. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  2. Frost formation with salt

    OpenAIRE

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; Mongruel, A; González-Viñas, W; Beysens, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of frost in presence of salt (NaCl) crystal is experimentally investigated on a hydrophobic surface. It presents several remarkable features due to the interplay of salty-water saturation pressure evolution, initially lower than the saturation pressure of ice and water, and the percolating propagation of ice dendrites from defects throughout the supercooled water droplet pattern. In particular, it is remarkable that nucleation of supercooled water and/or ice is prevented around ...

  3. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  4. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows GB/T 7714—2005.The citation should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article Sun,Y.,Li,B.,&Qu,J.F.Design and implementation of library intelligent IM reference robot.New Technology of Library and Information Service(in Chinese),2011,205:88–92.

  5. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows GB/T 7714—2005.The citation should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article Sun,Y.,Li,B.,&Qu,J.F.Design and implementation of library intelligent IM reference robot.New Technology of Library and Information Service(in Chinese),

  6. Understanding Alliance Formation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    agreement to open international markets because trade produces security externalities.”131 Gowa explains the necessity to maintain trade among allies by...alone.”135 They present empirical evidence to “ indicate that allies conduct more trade than do non-allies and that the formation of alliances tends to...states to control their trade flows.”138 Morrow et al. indicate that “joint democracy and the 133

  7. Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, Kentaro; Reddy, Naveen; Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark T.

    2016-07-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the current status of observational and computational studies on galaxy formation and evolution. In particular, a joint analysis of star-formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, and metallicities of galaxies throughout cosmic time can shed light on the processes by which galaxies build up their stellar mass and enrich the environment with heavy elements. Comparison of such observations and the results of numerical simulations can give us insights on the physical importance of various feedback effects by supernovae and active galactic nuclei. In Sect. 1, we first discuss the primary methods used to deduce the SFRs, stellar masses, and (primarily) gas-phase metallicities in high-redshift galaxies. Then, we show how these quantities are related to each other and evolve with time. In Sect. 2, we further examine the distribution of SFRs in galaxies following the `Main Sequence' paradigm. We show how the so-called `starbursts' display higher specific SFRs and SF efficiencies by an order of magnitude. We use this to devise a simple description of the evolution of the star-forming galaxy population since z ˜3 that can successfully reproduce some of the observed statistics in the infrared (IR) wavelength. We also discuss the properties of molecular gas. In Sect. 3, we highlight some of the recent studies of high-redshift galaxy formation using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We discuss the physical properties of simulated galaxies such as luminosity function and escape fraction of ionizing photons, which are important statistics for reionization of the Universe. In particular the escape fraction of ionizing photons has large uncertainties, and studying gamma-ray bursts (which is the main topic of this conference) can also set observational constraints on this uncertain physical parameter as well as cosmic star formation rate density.

  8. Tritiated ammonia formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heung, L.K.

    1994-03-01

    A rate equation that closely simulates experimental data has been developed. this rate equation can be used to calculate the formation of tritiated ammonia from different concentrations of tritium and nitrogen. The reaction of T{sub 2} and N{sub 2} to form NT{sub 3} is a slow process, particularly when the tritium concentration is low. The reaction requires weeks or months to reach equilibrium dependent on the concentrations of the reactants.

  9. Formation of transient lamellipodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Zimmermann

    Full Text Available Cell motility driven by actin polymerization is pivotal to the development and survival of organisms and individual cells. Motile cells plated on flat substrates form membrane protrusions called lamellipodia. The protrusions repeatedly appear and retract in all directions. If a lamellipodium is stabilized and lasts for some time, it can take over the lead and determine the direction of cell motion. Protrusions traveling along the cell perimeter have also been observed. Their initiation is in some situations the effect of the dynamics of the pathway linking plasma membrane receptors to actin filament nucleation, e.g. in chemotaxis. However, lamellipodia are also formed in many cells incessantly during motion with a constant state of the signaling pathways upstream from nucleation promoting factors (NPFs, or spontaneously in resting cells. These observations strongly suggest protrusion formation can also be a consequence of the dynamics downstream from NPFs, with signaling setting the dynamic regime but not initiating the formation of individual protrusions. A quantitative mechanism for this kind of lamellipodium dynamics has not been suggested yet. Here, we present a model exhibiting excitable actin network dynamics. Individual lamellipodia form due to random supercritical filament nucleation events amplified by autocatalytic branching. They last for about 30 seconds to many minutes and are terminated by filament bundling, severing and capping. We show the relevance of the model mechanism for experimentally observed protrusion dynamics by reproducing in very good approximation the repetitive protrusion formation measured by Burnette et al. with respect to the velocities of leading edge protrusion and retrograde flow, oscillation amplitudes, periods and shape, as well as the phase relation between protrusion and retrograde flow. Our modeling results agree with the mechanism of actin bundle formation during lamellipodium retraction suggested by

  10. Formation of transient lamellipodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Juliane; Falcke, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Cell motility driven by actin polymerization is pivotal to the development and survival of organisms and individual cells. Motile cells plated on flat substrates form membrane protrusions called lamellipodia. The protrusions repeatedly appear and retract in all directions. If a lamellipodium is stabilized and lasts for some time, it can take over the lead and determine the direction of cell motion. Protrusions traveling along the cell perimeter have also been observed. Their initiation is in some situations the effect of the dynamics of the pathway linking plasma membrane receptors to actin filament nucleation, e.g. in chemotaxis. However, lamellipodia are also formed in many cells incessantly during motion with a constant state of the signaling pathways upstream from nucleation promoting factors (NPFs), or spontaneously in resting cells. These observations strongly suggest protrusion formation can also be a consequence of the dynamics downstream from NPFs, with signaling setting the dynamic regime but not initiating the formation of individual protrusions. A quantitative mechanism for this kind of lamellipodium dynamics has not been suggested yet. Here, we present a model exhibiting excitable actin network dynamics. Individual lamellipodia form due to random supercritical filament nucleation events amplified by autocatalytic branching. They last for about 30 seconds to many minutes and are terminated by filament bundling, severing and capping. We show the relevance of the model mechanism for experimentally observed protrusion dynamics by reproducing in very good approximation the repetitive protrusion formation measured by Burnette et al. with respect to the velocities of leading edge protrusion and retrograde flow, oscillation amplitudes, periods and shape, as well as the phase relation between protrusion and retrograde flow. Our modeling results agree with the mechanism of actin bundle formation during lamellipodium retraction suggested by Burnette et al. and

  11. Tea aroma formation

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Tang Ho; Xin Zheng; Shiming Li

    2015-01-01

    Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds) and aroma (volatile compounds). All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Ma...

  12. The Star Formation Camera

    CERN Document Server

    Scowen, Paul A; Beasley, Matthew; Calzetti, Daniela; Desch, Steven; Fullerton, Alex; Gallagher, John; Lisman, Doug; Macenka, Steve; Malhotra, Sangeeta; McCaughrean, Mark; Nikzad, Shouleh; O'Connell, Robert; Oey, Sally; Padgett, Deborah; Rhoads, James; Roberge, Aki; Siegmund, Oswald; Shaklan, Stuart; Smith, Nathan; Stern, Daniel; Tumlinson, Jason; Windhorst, Rogier; Woodruff, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The Star Formation Camera (SFC) is a wide-field (~15'x19, >280 arcmin^2), high-resolution (18x18 mas pixels) UV/optical dichroic camera designed for the Theia 4-m space-borne space telescope concept. SFC will deliver diffraction-limited images at lambda > 300 nm in both a blue (190-517nm) and a red (517-1075nm) channel simultaneously. Our aim is to conduct a comprehensive and systematic study of the astrophysical processes and environments relevant for the births and life cycles of stars and their planetary systems, and to investigate and understand the range of environments, feedback mechanisms, and other factors that most affect the outcome of the star and planet formation process. This program addresses the origins and evolution of stars, galaxies, and cosmic structure and has direct relevance for the formation and survival of planetary systems like our Solar System and planets like Earth. We present the design and performance specifications resulting from the implementation study of the camera, conducted ...

  13. Formation of Lunar Swirls

    CERN Document Server

    Bamford, R A; Cruz, F; Kellett, B J; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O; Trines, R M G M; Halekas, J S; Kramer, G; Harnett, E; Cairns, R A; Bingham, R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we show a plausible mechanism that could lead to the formation of the Dark Lanes in Lunar Swirls, and the electromagnetic shielding of the lunar surface that results in the preservation of the white colour of the lunar regolith. We present the results of a fully self-consistent 2 and 3 dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of mini-magnetospheres that form above the lunar surface and show that they are consistent with the formation of `lunar swirls' such as the archetypal formation Reiner Gamma. The simulations show how the microphysics of the deflection/shielding of plasma operates from a kinetic-scale cavity, and show that this interaction leads to a footprint with sharp features that could be the mechanism behind the generation of `dark lanes'. The physics of mini-magnetospheres is described and shown to be controlled by space-charge fields arising due to the magnetized electrons and unmagnetized ions. A comparison between model and observation is shown for a number of key plasma parameters...

  14. Bouyei word formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attasith Boonsawasd

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bouyei language is divided into three vernaculars, the southern vernacular, the central vernacular and the southwestern vernacular. This paper aims to describe the lexicology of the southern vernacular of the Bouyei language focusing on word formation process. Bouyei words are formed by affixing, compounding and reduplicating. First, the affixation consists of prefixing and suffixing. Infixing is not found in this language. Second, the compound is divided into the semantic and syntactic compound. Finally, the reduplication is divided into the simple and complex reduplication. The simple reduplication is normally used to emphasize the meaning of the root or to indicate plurality.

  15. Formation control of AAUSHIP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nick; Dam, Jeppe; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard

    2015-01-01

    Many maritime mapping tasks are today carried out by large research ships, which are very costly to operate. As a way to overcome this, a number of small surveying vessels have been developed called AAUSHIP. In order to efficiently map the an area with such smaller vessels, it is important that s...... that several vessels are able to corporate on the task at hand. In this paper, the developed formation control strategy for the AAUSHIP series of vessels is presented, along with simulation results, which confirms, that the algorithm works as intended....

  16. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Manage-

  17. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.2 Fernandez.M

  18. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5th Ed.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.

  19. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.2 Fernandez,M.,Kadiyska,Y.,&Suciu,D.,et al.SilkRoute:A framework for publishing

  20. Formation control of AAUSHIP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nick; Dam, Jeppe; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard

    2015-01-01

    Many maritime mapping tasks are today carried out by large research ships, which are very costly to operate. As a way to overcome this, a number of small surveying vessels have been developed called AAUSHIP. In order to efficiently map the an area with such smaller vessels, it is important that s...... that several vessels are able to corporate on the task at hand. In this paper, the developed formation control strategy for the AAUSHIP series of vessels is presented, along with simulation results, which confirms, that the algorithm works as intended....

  1. The formation of life

    CERN Document Server

    Kurucz, R L

    2000-01-01

    The formation of life is an automatic stage in the consolidation of rocky or "terrestrial" planets. The organic (=carbonaceous) matter, light elements, gases, and water must "float" toward the surface and the heavier metals must sink toward the center. Random processes in the molecular soup that fills microfractures in unmelted crust eventually produce self-replicating microtubules. In an appendix I suggest that some primordial crust remains because there is not enough consolidation energy to melt the whole planet. Energy is lost when iron planetesimals first partially melt and then coalesce to form the molten iron planetary core. Stony planetesimals accrete onto the surface of an already consolidated core.

  2. The Pismo Formation and evidence for Pliocene tectonic evolution of the San Luis Range, central coast California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, A. T.; Abramsonward, H.; Lettis, W. R.; Thompson, S.; Page, W. D.

    2011-12-01

    -W-oriented fold developed in the upper Pismo Formation. This fold is about 5 km long and trends 20 to 30 degrees oblique to the dominant structural grain of underlying lower Pismo and Monterey Formation strata (WNW-ESE). There is no clear evidence for syn-depositional deformation within the Gragg or Belleview Members of the upper Pismo, suggesting that N-S-directed compression probably initiated after deposition of the Belleview Member in the mid-Pliocene. Although the minimum age of this folding is not presently well-constrained, it may be coincident with vertical displacement along the San Miguelito fault recorded by the late Pliocene Squire Member of the upper Pismo Formation. Within the Pismo syncline the Squire Member overlies the Belleview Member shale along a disconformable contact, and between San Luis Bay and Pecho Creek the Squire Member overlies pre-Tertiary rock along wave-cut erosional surfaces. These relationships indicate that the San Miguelito fault was active by the time of Squire Member deposition, producing permissible post-Pliocene rates of differential uplift that broadly mimic published late Quaternary uplift rates recorded by marine terraces.

  3. Star Formation in Irregular Galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Deidre; Wolff, Sidney

    1985-01-01

    Examines mechanisms of how stars are formed in irregular galaxies. Formation in giant irregular galaxies, formation in dwarf irregular galaxies, and comparisons with larger star-forming regions found in spiral galaxies are considered separately. (JN)

  4. Parametrising Star Formation Histories

    CERN Document Server

    Simha, Vimal; Conroy, Charlie; Dave, Romeel; Fardal, Mark; Katz, Neal; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D

    2014-01-01

    We examine the star formation histories (SFHs) of galaxies in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, compare them to parametric models that are commonly used in fitting observed galaxy spectral energy distributions, and examine the efficacy of these parametric models as practical tools for recovering the physical parameters of galaxies. The commonly used tau-model, with SFR ~ exp(-t/tau), provides a poor match to the SFH of our SPH galaxies, with a mismatch between early and late star formation that leads to systematic errors in predicting colours and stellar mass-to-light ratios. A one-parameter lin-exp model, with SFR ~ t*exp(-t/tau), is much more successful on average, but it fails to match the late-time behavior of the bluest, most actively star-forming galaxies and the passive, "red and dead" galaxies. We introduce a 4-parameter model, which transitions from lin-exp to a linear ramp after a transition time, which describes our simulated galaxies very well. We test the ability of these paramet...

  5. Satellite formation. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A. W.

    1978-01-01

    A satellite formation model is extended to include evolution of planetary ring material and elliptic orbital motion. In this model the formation of the moon begins at a later time in the growth of the earth, and a significant fraction of the lunar material is processed through a circumterrestrial debris cloud where volatiles might have been lost. Thus, the chemical differences between the earth and moon are more plausibly accounted for. Satellites of the outer planets probably formed in large numbers throughout the growth of those planets. Because of rapid inward evolution of the orbits of small satellites, the present satellite systems represent only satellites formed in the last few percent of the growths of their primaries. The rings of Saturn and Uranus are most plausibly explained as the debris of satellites disrupted within the Roche limit. Because such a ring would collapse onto the planet in the course of any significant further accretion by the planet, the rings must have formed very near or even after the conclusion of accretion.

  6. Explosions during galaxy formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Martel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As an idealized model of the e ects of energy release by supernovae during galaxy formation, we consider an explosion at the center of a halo which forms at the intersection of laments in the plane of a cosmological pancake by gravitational instability during pancake collapse. Such halos resemble the virialized objects found in N{body simulations in a CDM universe and, therefore, serve as a convenient, scale{free test{bed model for galaxy formation. ASPH=P3M simulations reveal that such explosions are anisotropic. The energy and metals are channeled into the low density regions, away from the pancake plane. The pancake remains essentially undisturbed, even if the explosion is strong enough to blow away all the gas lo- cated inside the halo at the onset of the explosion and reheat the IGM surrounding the pancake. Infall quickly replenishes this ejected gas and gradually restores the gas fraction as the halo mass continues to grow. Estimates of the collapse epoch and SN energy{release for galaxies of di erent mass in the CDM model can re- late these results to scale{dependent questions of blow{out and blow{away and their implication for early IGM heating and metal enrichment and the creation of dark{matter{dominated dwarf galaxies.

  7. Formation of water bells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybert, Christophe; Clanet, Christophe; Bocquet, Lyderic; Duez, Cyril

    2007-11-01

    We study experimentally the situation that consist in a liquid jet impacting normally onto a fixed solid disk. Depending on the experimental conditions, the thin liquid film that spreads onto the solid surface can either pour along the surface, or detach form the disk and form a so-called water bell. The dynamics and the stability of such bells as a function of the hydrodynamic parameters such as the jet and disk diameters or the jet velocity, have already been the object of detailed characterization [1]. This experiment of bell formation appears as the symmetric situation compared to that of a solid body impacting a quiescent liquid. In the latter case, it was recently shown [2] that despite large Re and We numbers, the solid surface characteristics were dramatically influencing the impact scenario. In the present study, we consequently revisit this problem of water bell formation by systematically varying the solid surface characteristics (roughness, surface properties, etc.). It is shown here again that surface parameters strongly influence the domain of bell existence. Our measurements are rationalized by a subtle balance between inertia versus capillary forces and wetting contributions on the liquid film in the ejection region. [1] C. Clanet, J. Fluid Mech., 430, 111-147 (2001) [2] C. Duez et al., Nature Physics, 3, 180-183 (2007)

  8. Evaluation of Organic Porosity Based on Its Formation Mechanism:An Example from an Unconventional Marlstone Reservoir in the Shulu Sag,Jizhong Depression%基于成因机理的地层有机质孔隙度的计算--以冀中束鹿凹陷泥灰岩非常规储层为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆; 姜在兴; 由雪莲; 赵贤正; 张锐锋

    2016-01-01

    In recent years,organic matter pores have been identified in shale and marlstone tight reservoirs, and act as an important reservoir space type in unconventional reservoirs.Evaluation of organic porosity is an ur-gent problem that needs to be solved in unconventional petroleum evaluation and exploration.This study takes marlstone in the Shulu Sag as an example,providing a method to evaluate organic porosity from the aspect of formation mechanism of organic pores.The marlstone in the Shulu Sag acts as both a source rock and a reservoir for petroleum and organic pores have been identified.Organic porosity is produced as the result of evolution of organic matter from solid immature kerogen to less dense fluid hydrocarbons during thermal maturation.The fac-tors that control organic porosity include kerogen type,thermal maturity,initial total organic carbon,and source rock kinetics.The organic matter in the Shulu marlstone is predominantly Type Ⅰ and Type Ⅱ kerogen,and in a thermally mature zone.Test data show that the average present-day TOC is 1 .66% and the average hydrogen index (HI)is 451 mg/g.The average temperature of maximum yield of pyrolysis (Tmax )values is 444 ℃.Based on the test data,some other parameters were estimated.The average initial hydrogen index (HIo )is 561 mg/g.The initial total organic carbon (TOCo )is 1 .9%.The convertible carbon accounts for 48% of TOCo . The transformation ratio of convertible organic carbon is 31 %.Using a mass-balance relation,the organic poros-ity was estimated,which is approximately 0.68%.%近年来有机质孔隙在泥页岩及泥灰岩致密储层中被发现,成为非常规油气藏中一种重要的储集空间类型。有机质孔隙度的计算是非常规油气评价及勘探中极其重要且急需解决的问题。以冀中坳陷束鹿凹陷泥灰岩为例,从成因角度出发,提供了计算有机质孔隙度的方法。束鹿凹陷泥灰岩为自生自储型非常规油气藏,发育有机质孔

  9. On Formations with Shemetkov Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbin Guo; Lujin Zhu

    2002-01-01

    A subgroup-closed formation F is called a formation with Shemetkov condition if every minimal non-F-group is either a group of prime order or a Schmidt group. In this paper, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for formations with Shemetkov condition. From this, some known important results follow.

  10. Designing for informed group formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Juel Jacobsen, Alice; Riis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    A new design ―project preparation‖ preparing for the group formation in problem based project work is proposed and investigated. The main problem is to overcome group formation based on existing relations. The hypothesis is that theme development and group formation are somewhat counterproductive...

  11. Synapse formation and remodeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Synapses are specialized structures that mediate information flow between neurons and target cells,and thus are the basis for neuronal system to execute various functions,including learning and memory.There are around 1011 neurons in the human brain,with each neuron receiving thousands of synaptic inputs,either excitatory or inhibitory.A synapse is an asymmetric structure that is composed of pre-synaptic axon terminals,synaptic cleft,and postsynaptic compartments.Synapse formation involves a number of cell adhesion molecules,extracellular factors,and intracellular signaling or structural proteins.After the establishment of synaptic connections,synapses undergo structural or functional changes,known as synaptic plasticity which is believed to be regulated by neuronal activity and a variety of secreted factors.This review summarizes recent progress in the field of synapse development,with particular emphasis on the work carried out in China during the past 10 years(1999-2009).

  12. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.2 Fernandez,M.,Kadiyska,Y.,&Suciu,D.,et al.SilkRoute:A framework for publishing relational data in XML.ACM Transactions on Database Systems,2002,27(4):438-493.

  13. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.2 Fernandez,M.,Kadiyska,Y.,&Suciu,D.,et al.SilkRoute:A framework for publishing relational data in XML.ACM Transactions on Database Systems,2002,27(4):438-493.

  14. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.2 Fernandez,M.,Kadiyska,Y.,&Suciu,D.,et al.SilkRoute:A framework for publishing relational data in XML.ACM Transactions on Database Systems,2002,27(4):438-493.

  15. Myxobacteria Fruiting Body Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi

    2006-03-01

    Myxobacteria are social bacteria that swarm and glide on surfaces, and feed cooperatively. When starved, tens of thousands of cells change their movement pattern from outward spreading to inward concentration; they form aggregates that become fruiting bodies, inside which cells differentiate into nonmotile, environmentally resistant spores. Traditionally, cell aggregation has been considered to imply chemotaxis, a long-range cell interaction mediated by diffusing chemicals. However, myxobacteria aggregation is the consequence of direct cell-contact interactions. I will review our recent efforts in modeling the fruiting body formation of Myxobacteria, using lattice gas cellular automata models that are based on local cell-cell contact signaling. These models have reproduced the individual phases in Myxobacteria development such as the rippling, streaming, early aggregation and the final sporulation; the models can be unified to simulate the whole developmental process of Myxobacteria.

  16. Nuclear Pasta Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, A S; Hughto, J; Berry, D K

    2013-01-01

    The formation of complex nonuniform phases of nuclear matter, known as nuclear pasta, is studied with molecular dynamics simulations containing 51200 nucleons. A phenomenological nuclear interaction is used that reproduces the saturation binding energy and density of nuclear matter. Systems are prepared at an initial density of 0.10fm$^{-3}$ and then the density is decreased by expanding the simulation volume at different rates to densities of 0.01 fm$^{-3}$ or less. An originally uniform system of nuclear matter is observed to form spherical bubbles ("swiss cheese"), hollow tubes, flat plates ("lasagna"), thin rods ("spaghetti") and, finally, nearly spherical nuclei with decreasing density. We explicitly observe nucleation mechanisms, with decreasing density, for these different pasta phase transitions. Topological quantities known as Minkowski functionals are obtained to characterize the pasta shapes. Different pasta shapes are observed depending on the expansion rate. This indicates non equilibrium effects...

  17. Endogenous formation of dimethylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisel, S H; DaCosta, K A; Fox, J G

    1985-01-01

    An understanding of the biosynthesis and metabolism of dimethylamine (DMA) is important because it is a precursor of dimethylnitrosamine (nitroso-DMA). DMA is the major short-chain aliphatic amine in human and rat urine. DMA is formed from trimethylamine (TMA), which, in turn, is a breakdown product of dietary choline. Enzymes within gut bacteria catalyse both of these reactions; it is not known whether mammalian cells can form DMA. To determine the relative importance of dietary choline, bacteria and other mechanisms for the formation of DMA, we measured DMA excretion in the urine of rats fed on a diet devoid of choline, and in urine of rats with no bacterial colonization of the intestines. We also describe an improved gas-chromatographic method for the measurement of methylamines in biological fluids. In control rats there were significant amounts of DMA within several biological fluids [urine, 54.2 +/- 3.0 mumol/kg body wt. per 24 h (556.2 +/- 37.5 nmol/ml); blood, 18.8 +/- 1.9 nmol/ml; gastric juice, 33.5 +/- 10.5 nmol/ml; means +/- S.E.M.]. Animals eating a diet containing no choline excreted as much MMA and DMA as did choline-supplemented rats (25-35 mumol/kg per 24 h), and they excreted slightly less TMA (2 versus 2.5 mumol/kg per 24 h). Rats with no gut bacteria excreted the same amount of DMA in their urine as did the control animals (45-55 mumol/kg per 24 h). They excreted much less MMA (16.3 +/- 1.5 versus 40.3 +/- 2.6 mumol/kg per 24 h; mean +/- S.E.M.; P less than 0.01), TMA (0.7 +/- 0.2 versus 2.5 +/- 0.5 mumol/kg per 24 h; mean +/- S.E.M.; P less than 0.01) and piperidine (2.0 +/- 0.3 versus 6.3 +/- 0.6 mumol/kg per 24 h; mean +/- S.E.M.; P less than 0.01) in their urine. From our studies we conclude that DMA is present in significant amounts within gastric fluid, an environment that is ideal for nitrosamine formation (under acidic conditions, nitroso-DMA is chemically formed by the reaction of nitrite with DMA). Results also indicate that dietary

  18. Group Formation in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demange, Gabrielle; Wooders, Myrna

    2005-01-01

    Broad and diverse ranges of activities are conducted within and by organized groups of individuals, including political, economic and social activities. These activities have recently become a subject of intense interest in economics and game theory. Some of the topics investigated in this collection are models of networks of power and privilege, trade networks, co-authorship networks, buyer-seller networks with differentiated products, and networks of medical innovation and the adaptation of new information. Other topics are social norms on punctuality, clubs and the provision of club goods and public goods, research and development and collusive alliances among corporations, and international alliances and trading agreements. While relatively recent, the literature on game theoretic studies of group formation in economics is already vast. This volume provides an introduction to this important literature on game-theoretic treatments of situations with networks, clubs, and coalitions, including some applications.

  19. Symbol Formation Reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    Werner and Kaplan’s Symbol formation was published 50 years ago but its insights have yet to be adequately explored by psychology and other social sciences. This special issue aims to revisit this seminal work in search of concepts to work on key issues facing us today. This introductory article...... begins with a brief outline and contextualization of the book as well as of the articles that this special issue comprises. The first two articles were written by contributors who were part of the Werner era at Clark University. They explore the key concepts of the organismic and development, and situate...... them vis-à-vis other research at Clark and in American psychology more generally. The second two articles analyse Werner and Kaplan’s notions of ‘distancing’ and ‘physiognomic metaphor’, showing their roots in naturphilosophie and comparing them with contemporary theories. The last four articles apply...

  20. Symbol Formation Reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    them vis-à-vis other research at Clark and in American psychology more generally. The second two articles analyse Werner and Kaplan’s notions of ‘distancing’ and ‘physiognomic metaphor’, showing their roots in naturphilosophie and comparing them with contemporary theories. The last four articles apply......Werner and Kaplan’s Symbol formation was published 50 years ago but its insights have yet to be adequately explored by psychology and other social sciences. This special issue aims to revisit this seminal work in search of concepts to work on key issues facing us today. This introductory article...... begins with a brief outline and contextualization of the book as well as of the articles that this special issue comprises. The first two articles were written by contributors who were part of the Werner era at Clark University. They explore the key concepts of the organismic and development, and situate...

  1. Cosmological Structure Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Primack, Joel R

    2015-01-01

    LCDM is remarkably successful in predicting the cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure, and LCDM parameters have been determined with only mild tensions between different types of observations. Hydrodynamical simulations starting from cosmological initial conditions are increasingly able to capture the complex interactions between dark matter and baryonic matter in galaxy formation. Simulations with relatively low resolution now succeed in describing the overall galaxy population. For example, the EAGLE simulation in volumes up to 100 cubic Mpc reproduces the observed local galaxy mass function nearly as well as semi-analytic models. It once seemed that galaxies are pretty smooth, that they generally grow in size as they evolve, and that they are a combination of disks and spheroids. But recent HST observations combined with high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations are showing that most star-forming galaxies are very clumpy; that galaxies often undergo compaction which reduces their radius and ...

  2. Formation of Service Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonas, Julia M.; Sörhammar, David; Satzger, Gerhard

    Purpose: Researchers in several different academic disciplines (such as marketing, information systems, and organization) have focused on investigating service and business ecosystems (e.g. Lusch and Nambisan, 2015; Gawer and Cusumano, 2014; Kude et al. 2012). We reviewed 69 papers in service...... – i.e. the “birth phase” (Moore, 2009) of a service ecosystem. This paper, therefore, aims to explore how the somewhat “magic” processes of service ecosystem formation that are being taken for granted actually occur. Methodology/Approach: Building on a review of core elements in the definitions...... proposition; a value proposition (e.g., a business opportunity or a business idea) may form the starting point for actors to collaborate and integrate resources in order realize the value proposition. The initiator of a service ecosystem could for example be an actor (Mark Zuckerberg), resources (website...

  3. Frost formation with salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; Mongruel, A.; González-Viñas, W.; Beysens, D.

    2015-06-01

    The formation of frost in presence of salt (NaCl) crystal is experimentally investigated on a hydrophobic surface. It presents several remarkable features due to the interplay of salty-water saturation pressure evolution, initially lower than the saturation pressure of ice and water, and the percolating propagation of ice dendrites from defects throughout the supercooled water droplet pattern. In particular, it is remarkable that nucleation of supercooled water and/or ice is prevented around the salty drop in a region of inhibited condensation where the substrate remains dry. As condensation proceeds, salt concentration decreases to eventually become lower than ice's, allowing ice dendrites to hit the salty drop. Salty water then melts ice but eventually freezes as an effect of dilution.

  4. Sill intrusion driven fluid flow and vent formation in volcanic basins: Modeling rates of volatile release and paleoclimate effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Karthik; Schmid, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    main sill in the region. We use a 2D, hybrid FEM/FVM model that solves for fully compressible fluid flow to quantify the thermogenic release and transport of methane and to evaluate flow patterns within these systems. Additionally, vent formation in the model is implemented by simple fracture criteria that modify the permeability structure when the fluid pressure exceeds a threshold determined by the lithostatic pressure. The model with fracture formation is able to reproduce a single vent complex at the observed location above the main sill tip. This is very different from hydrothermal plume formation elsewhere in the region and occurs over short time scales (hundreds of years) and results in fluid focusing in that region. The rate of degassing and the resulting negative δ13C excursion from the vent model is then compared to models where only hydrothermal plume formation results in gas transportation. Lastly, variations in the amount of gas liberated in the system are investigated based on kerogen type and other mineral reactions such as limestone decarbonation and halite breakdown in the affected source rock.

  5. Role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. III. Generation of bitumen in laboratory experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizinga, B.J.; Tannenbaum, E.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1987-01-01

    A series of pyrolysis experiments, utilizing two different immature kerogens (from the Monterey and Green River Formations) mixed with common sedimentary minerals (calcite, illite, or Na-montmorillonite), was conducted to study the impact of the mineral matrix on the bitumen that was generated. Calcite has no significant influence on the thermal evolution of bitumen and also shows virtually no adsorption capacity for any of the pyrolysate. In contrast, montmorillonite and illite, to a lesser extent, alter bitumen during dry pyrolysis. Montmorillonite and illite also display strong adsorption capacities for the polar constituents of bitumen. By this process, hydrocarbons are substantially concentrated within the pyrolysate that is not strongly adsorbed on the clay matrices. The effects of the clay minerals are significantly reduced during hydrous pyrolysis. The strong adsorption capacities of montmorillonite and illite, as well as their thermocatalytic properties, may in part explain why light oils and gases are generated from certain argillaceous source-rock assemblages, whereas heavy immature oils are often derived from carbonate source rocks.

  6. The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. III - Generation of bitumen in laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, I. R.

    A series of pyrolysis experiments, utilizing two different immature kerogens (from the Monterey and Green River Formations) mixed with common sedimentary minerals (calcite, illite, or Na-montmorillonite), was conducted to study the impact of the mineral matrix on the bitumen that was generated. Calcite has no significant influence on the thermal evolution of bitumen and also shows virtually no adsorption capacity for any of the pyrolysate. In contrast, montmorillonite (M) and illite, to a lesser extent, alter bitumen during dry pyrolysis. M and illite also display strong adsorption capacities for the polar constituents of bitumen. By this process, hydrocarbons are substantially concentrated within the pyrolysate that is not strongly adsorbed on the clay matrices. The effects of the clay minerals are significantly reduced during hydrous pyrolysis. The strong adsorption capacities of M and illite, as well as their thermocatalytic properties, may in part explain why light oils and gases are generated from certain argillaceous source-rock assemblages, whereas heavy immature oils are often derived from carbonate source rocks.

  7. The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. III - Generation of bitumen in laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, I. R.

    1987-01-01

    A series of pyrolysis experiments, utilizing two different immature kerogens (from the Monterey and Green River Formations) mixed with common sedimentary minerals (calcite, illite, or Na-montmorillonite), was conducted to study the impact of the mineral matrix on the bitumen that was generated. Calcite has no significant influence on the thermal evolution of bitumen and also shows virtually no adsorption capacity for any of the pyrolysate. In contrast, montmorillonite (M) and illite, to a lesser extent, alter bitumen during dry pyrolysis. M and illite also display strong adsorption capacities for the polar constituents of bitumen. By this process, hydrocarbons are substantially concentrated within the pyrolysate that is not strongly adsorbed on the clay matrices. The effects of the clay minerals are significantly reduced during hydrous pyrolysis. The strong adsorption capacities of M and illite, as well as their thermocatalytic properties, may in part explain why light oils and gases are generated from certain argillaceous source-rock assemblages, whereas heavy immature oils are often derived from carbonate source rocks.

  8. Chinese Affixes and Word Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ruomei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese language is one of the typical isolated languages. It lacks morphological variation; part of speech has no morphological signs; the additional component of word formation is less; and the roots never change their forms. The major method of Chinese word formation is the combination of roots according to certain grammatical relations. Although the affix word formation is not part of mainstream Chinese word formation, affix-formation is still an integral part of the Chinese word-formation. Article used literature review, summarized the types and meanings of Chinese affixes. And meanwhile, article analyzed word formation function of Chinese Affixes and quasi-affixes. The Chinese quasi-affixes have stronger capabilities in forming new words, but development direction of Chinese quasi-affixes has to stand the test of time.

  9. Modeling Formation of Globular Clusters: Beacons of Galactic Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Gnedin, Oleg Y

    2010-01-01

    Modern hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation are able to predict accurately the rates and locations of the assembly of giant molecular clouds in early galaxies. These clouds could host star clusters with the masses and sizes of real globular clusters. I describe current state-of-the-art simulations aimed at understanding the origin of the cluster mass function and metallicity distribution. Metallicity bimodality of globular cluster systems appears to be a natural outcome of hierarchical formation and gradually declining fraction of cold gas in galaxies. Globular cluster formation was most prominent at redshifts z>3, when massive star clusters may have contributed as much as 20% of all galactic star formation.

  10. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, Elizabeth J; Zentner, Andrew R; Bullock, James S; Wechsler, Risa H

    2007-01-01

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to ``field'' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than ``field'' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N=2 halos) and a control sample of isolated galaxies (N=1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M_Bj ~ 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxi...

  11. Formation of "bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, K.; Kästner, M.; Miltner, A.

    2009-04-01

    During degradation of organic pollutants in soil, metabolites, microbial biomass, CO2and "bound" residues ("non-extractable" residues in soil organic matter) are formed. Enhanced transformation of these contaminants into "bound" residues has been proposed as an alternative remediation method for polluted soils. However, this kind of residues may pose a potential risk for the environment due to their chemical structure and possible remobilization under different conditions. Therefore particular attention is given actually to "bound" residues. Part of these non-extractable residues may be "biogenic," because microorganisms use the carbon from the pollutant to form their biomass components (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars), which subsequently may be incorporated into soil organic matter. Furthermore, the CO2 originating from mineralization of xenobiotics, can be re-assimilated by microorganisms and also incorporated into "biogenic residue". The hazard posed by "bound" residues may be overestimated because they are "biogenic" (contain microbial fatty acids and amino acids). The knowledge about the pathways of "biogenic residue" formation is necessary for a proper assessment of the fate of tested pollutants and their turnover in the soil environment. Moreover, these data are needed to establish the realistic degradation rates of the contaminants in soil. The main objectives of this study are: to quantify the extent of "biogenic residue" (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars) formation during the degradation of a model pollutant (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid = 2,4-D) and during CO2 assimilation by microorganisms and to evaluate which components are mainly incorporated into "bound" residues. To investigate the extent of "biogenic residue" formation in soil during the degradation of 2,4-D, experiments with either 14C-U-ring and 13C6-2,4-D or carboxyl-14C 2,4-D were performed. The incubation experiments were performed according to OECD test guideline 307, in the

  12. ISLET FORMATION AND REGENERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the mechanisms of differentiation and development of pancreatic endocrine cells as well as pancreatic regeneration. Methods Human embryonic pancreatic tissue at 7-14 weeks of gestation was collected. Diabetes mellitus rat model was induced with 65 mg/kg of streptozotocin. Insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, nestin, and cytokeratin 19 (CK19)of pancreatic tissues were observed by immunohistochemistry. Results At 9 weeks of gestation, pancreatic epithelial cells began to co-express insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and CK19 before migration. Islet cells gradually congregated along with the increase of aging, and at 14 weeks of gestation histological examination showed islet formation. At 12 weeks of gestation, nestin-positive cells could be seen in the pancreatic mesenchyme. During early embryogenesis, islet cells of pancreatic ducts co-expressed insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. During pancreatic regeneration after damage, nestin expression of islet cells increased. Conclusion In the early stage of embryogenesis, islet cells of primary pancreatic ducts can be differentiated to multipotential endocrine cells before migration. During tissue regeneration, pancreatic stem cells may differentiate and proliferate to form pancreatic islet.

  13. Planet Formation with Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, J E

    2006-01-01

    In the core-accretion model, gas-giant planets form solid cores which then accrete gaseous envelopes. Tidal interactions with disk gas cause a core to undergo inward type-I migration in 10^4 to 10^5 years. Cores must form faster than this to survive. Giant planets clear a gap in the disk and undergo inward type-II migration in <10^6 years if observed disk accretion rates apply to the disk as a whole. Type-II migration times exceed typical disk lifetimes if viscous accretion occurs mainly in the surface layers of disks. Low turbulent viscosities near the midplane may allow planetesimals to form by coagulation of dust grains. The radius r of such planetesimals is unknown. If r<0.5 km, the core formation time is shorter than the type-I migration timescale and cores will survive. Migration is substantial in most cases, leading to a wide range of planetary orbits, consistent with the observed variety of extrasolar systems. When r is of order 100m and midplane alpha is of order 3 times 10^-5, giant planets si...

  14. Designing for informed group formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Juel Jacobsen, Alice; Riis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    A new design ―project preparation‖ preparing for the group formation in problem based project work is proposed and investigated. The main problem is to overcome group formation based on existing relations. The hypothesis is that theme development and group formation are somewhat counterproductive....... Following research based design methodology an experiment separating the two was initiated.This was to provide for more openness and creativity in contrast to a design in which existing relations seem predominant.......A new design ―project preparation‖ preparing for the group formation in problem based project work is proposed and investigated. The main problem is to overcome group formation based on existing relations. The hypothesis is that theme development and group formation are somewhat counterproductive...

  15. Formation time of hadronic resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitev Ivan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In heavy-ion collisions, formation time of hadrons of high transverse momentum can play a pivotal role in determining the perturbative dynamics of the final-state parton and particle system. We present methods to evaluate the formation times of light hadrons, hadronic resonances, open heavy flavor and quarkonia. Experimental implications of the short formation times of heavy particles are discussed in light of recent RHIC and LHC data.

  16. Spray formation: an inverse cascade

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Yue; Tryggvason, Gretar; zaleski, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of droplet formation in a gas-liquid mixing layer using direct numerical simulation. It is seen that two mechanisms compete to generate the droplets: fingering at the tip of the waves and hole formation in the thin liquid sheet. The three dimensional liquid structures are much shorter than the longitudinal wavelength of the instability at the first instant of their formation. As time evolves, the structures evolves to larger and larger scales, in a way similar to the inverse cascade of length scales in droplet impact and impact crown formation.

  17. Glass formation - A contemporary view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    The process of glass formation is discussed from several perspectives. Particular attention is directed to kinetic treatments of glass formation and to the question of how fast a given liquid must be cooled in order to form a glass. Specific consideration is paid to the calculation of critical cooling rates for glass formation, to the effects of nucleating heterogeneities and transients in nucleation on the critical cooling rates, to crystallization on reheating a glass, to the experimental determination of nucleation rates and barriers to crystal nucleation, and to the characteristics of materials which are most conducive to glass formation.

  18. Plasmapause formation at Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Mitchell, D. G.; Jia, X.; Jackman, C. M.; Hospodarsky, G.; Coates, A. J.

    2015-04-01

    Cassini observations during a rapid, high-latitude, dawnside pass from Saturn's lobe to inner magnetosphere on 25 June 2009 provide strong evidence for the formation of a "plasmapause" at Saturn by Vasyliunas-type nightside reconnection of previously mass-loaded flux tubes. A population of hot, tenuous plasma that lies between the lobe and the dense inner magnetospheric plasma is consistent with a region formed by very recent injection from a reconnection region in the tail, including low density, high temperature, supercorotational flow, a significant O+ content, and the near-simultaneous observation of enhanced Saturn kilometric radiation emissions. The sharp boundary between that region and the cool dense inner magnetospheric plasma thus separates flux tubes that were involved in the reconnection from those that successfully traversed the nightside without mass loss. This event demonstrates that tail reconnection can strip off inner magnetospheric plasma in to at least dipole L = 8.6. Clear evidence of flux tube interchange driven by the sharp boundary is found, both inward moving flux tubes of hotter plasma and, for the first time, the outward moving cool population. The outward moving cool regions have azimuthal sizes less than 1 RS, were probably created within the past 1.2 h, and have outflow speeds greater than about 5 km/s. At the outer edge of the reconnected region, there is also a possible signature of Dungey-type lobe reconnection following the initial Vasyliunas-type reconnection. Observations from this event are entirely consistent with previously described global MHD simulations of tail reconnection, plasmoid departure, and Saturnward injection of reconnected flux.

  19. Formative Assessment Probes: Is It a Rock? Continuous Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Page

    2013-01-01

    A lesson plan is provided for a formative assessment probe entitled "Is It a Rock?" This probe is designed for teaching elementary school students about rocks through the use of a formative assessment classroom technique (FACT) known as the group Frayer Model. FACT activates students' thinking about a concept and can be used to…

  20. The formation of Pangea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampfli, G. M.; Hochard, C.; Vérard, C.; Wilhem, C.; vonRaumer, J.

    2013-05-01

    The making of Pangea is the result of large-scale amalgamation of continents and micro-continents, which started at the end of the Neoproterozoic with the formation of Gondwana. As pieces were added to Gondwana on its South-American, Antarctica and Australia side, ribbon-like micro-continents were detached from its African and South-Chinese side: Cadomia in the late Neoproterozoic, Avalonia and Hunia in the Ordovician, Galatia in the Devonian and Cimmeria in the Permian. Cadomia was re-accreted to Gondwana, but the other ribbon-continents were accreted to Baltica, North-China, Laurussia or Laurasia. Finding the origin of these numerous terranes is a major geological challenge. Recently, a global plate tectonic model was developed together with a large geological/geodynamic database, at the Lausanne University, covering the last 600 Ma of the Earth's history. Special attention was given to the placing of Gondwana derived terranes in their original position, using all possible constraints. We propose here a solution for the Variscan terranes, another paper deals with the Altaids. The Galatian super-terrane was detached from Gondwana in the Devonian, during the opening of Paleotethys, and was quickly separated into four sub-terranes that started to by-pass each other. The leading terranes collided at the end of the Devonian with the Hanseatic terrane detached from Laurussia. In the Carboniferous, Gondwana started to impinge onto the amalgamated terranes, creating the Variscan chain and the Pangean super-continent. East of Spain Paleotethys remained opened until the Triassic, subducting northward under Laurasia. Roll-back of the Paleotethyan slab triggered the collapse of most of the European Variscan orogen, which was replaced by series of Permian rifts, some of them becoming oceanized back-arc basins during the Triassic. Major force changes at the Pangean plate limits at the end of the Triassic provoked its break-up, through the opening of the proto