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  1. Biodiversity of Myxomycetes from the Monte Desert of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lado, C.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A biodiversity survey for myxomycetes was carried out in the Monte Desert (Argentina and surrounding areas in November 2006 and late February and March 2007. Specimens were collected in seven different provinces (Catamarca, Jujuy, La Rioja, Salta, San Juan, San Luis and Tucumán, between 23º and 33º S latitude, and a total of 105 localities were sampled. Cacti and succulent plants were the most common type of substrate investigated, but shrubs and herbs characteristic of this biome were also included in the survey. Almost six hundred specimens of myxomycetes from 72 different species in 22 genera were collected either in the field, or from moist chamber cultures prepared with samples of plant material obtained from the same collecting sites. The results include 1 species new to science, Macbrideola andina three more species recently described based on material from this survey, 5 species cited for the first time for the Neotropics, 11 new records for South America and 38 new records for Argentina. Taxonomic comments on rare or unusual species are included and illustrated with photographs by LM and SEM. Data are presented on the development of some species and microenvironmental factors are discussed. An analysis of the biodiversity of myxomycetes in this area, and a comparison with other desert areas, are included.

    Con el objetivo de estudiar la biodiversidad de Myxomycetes en el Desierto de Monte (Argentina y áreas circundantes, se realizó un muestreo en los meses de noviembre de 2006 y febrero y marzo de 2007. Se recolectaron especímenes en un total de 105 localidades pertenecientes a siete provincias (Catamarca, Jujuy, La Rioja, Salta, San Juan, San Luis y Tucumán, situadas entre los paralelos 23º y 33º de latitud sur. Los cactus y plantas suculentas fueron los tipos de sustratos más estudiados, pero también se analizaron arbustos y plantas herbáceas características de este bioma. Casi 600 especímenes de mixomicetes

  2. The effect of grazing on granivory patterns in the temperate Monte Desert, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Paola L.; Taraborelli, Paula A.; Borghi, Carlos E.; Ojeda, Ricardo A.

    2006-05-01

    Structural variations result in a marked heterogeneity of processes in arid environments. Disturbances have noticeable impacts on ecosystems, and a solid way of assessing their effect is to analyze how ecological processes operate. In deserts, granivory has been considered as a keystone process. The objective of our study was to determine the effect of domestic grazing on seed removal rates by birds, ants and rodents as an indirect measure of the process of granivory. This study was carried out in grazed and ungrazed habitats in the central Monte desert ecoregion in Argentina, during February and July 2002. We analyzed three major habitats: mesquite forest, creosotebush shrubland, and sand dunes under two different treatments (grazed, ungrazed). We found significant effects of grazing and non-grazing treatments on total seed removal rates, among granivorous taxa, as well as interactions with season and habitats. Ants and birds were the taxa that differed most under grazing pressure whereas seed removal by rodents showed no significant responses towards grazing. In conclusion, grazing affects plant structure and the assemblage of granivorous taxa, which in turn translates to the granivory process, adding another source of variation to the seed removal patterns reported for the temperate Monte desert.

  3. QWalk: A Quantum Monte Carlo Program for Electronic Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Lucas K; Mitas, Lubos

    2007-01-01

    We describe QWalk, a new computational package capable of performing Quantum Monte Carlo electronic structure calculations for molecules and solids with many electrons. We describe the structure of the program and its implementation of Quantum Monte Carlo methods. It is open-source, licensed under the GPL, and available at the web site http://www.qwalk.org

  4. Monte Carlo simulation of large electron fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faddegon, Bruce A.; Perl, Joseph; Asai, Makoto

    2008-03-01

    Two Monte Carlo systems, EGSnrc and Geant4, the latter with two different 'physics lists,' were used to calculate dose distributions in large electron fields used in radiotherapy. Source and geometry parameters were adjusted to match calculated results to measurement. Both codes were capable of accurately reproducing the measured dose distributions of the six electron beams available on the accelerator. Depth penetration matched the average measured with a diode and parallel-plate chamber to 0.04 cm or better. Calculated depth dose curves agreed to 2% with diode measurements in the build-up region, although for the lower beam energies there was a discrepancy of up to 5% in this region when calculated results are compared to parallel-plate measurements. Dose profiles at the depth of maximum dose matched to 2-3% in the central 25 cm of the field, corresponding to the field size of the largest applicator. A 4% match was obtained outside the central region. The discrepancy observed in the bremsstrahlung tail in published results that used EGS4 is no longer evident. Simulations with the different codes and physics lists used different source energies, incident beam angles, thicknesses of the primary foils, and distance between the primary and secondary foil. The true source and geometry parameters were not known with sufficient accuracy to determine which parameter set, including the energy of the source, was closest to the truth. These results underscore the requirement for experimental benchmarks of depth penetration and electron scatter for beam energies and foils relevant to radiotherapy.

  5. Erythrocyte micronucleus cytome assay of 17 wild bird species from the central Monte desert, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, Arnoldo A M; Ferré, Daniela M; Zarco, Agustín; Cuervo, Pablo F; Gorla, Nora B M

    2016-12-01

    Birds have the potential to be considered valuable bioindicators of the quality of ecosystems and the environmental impact of pollutants. The aims of this study were to determine the micronuclei frequency and other nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes by analyzing a wild bird community from central Monte desert (Argentina) and to clarify if there were any differences among certain species. Frequencies of nuclear abnormalities were determined in 73 wild birds belonging to 17 species and two orders (Passeriformes and Columbiformes). A high proportion of individuals, 90.4 and 80.9 %, had erythrocytes with micronuclei and nuclear buds, respectively. Notched nuclei, binucleated cells, nuclear tails, and nucleoplasmic bridges were also recorded. Certain species appeared to be more informative than others with regard to the possibility of being used as bioindicators of genetic damage. Saltator aurantiirostris and Columbina picui were the only species that showed significantly different frequencies of nuclear alterations, in comparison with the other species. The frequencies here presented are the first reported for these bird species from the orders Passeriformes and Columbiformes. This research supports the notion that the use of these biomarkers could be effectively applied to evaluate spontaneous or induced genetic instability in wild birds.

  6. Monte Carlo simulation of electron slowing down in indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouabah, Z.; Hannachi, M. [Materials and Electronic Systems Laboratory (LMSE), University of Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bordj Bou Arreridj (Algeria); Champion, C. [Université de Bordeaux 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, (CENBG), Gradignan (France); Bouarissa, N., E-mail: n_bouarissa@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Materials Physics and its Applications, University of M' sila, 28000 M' sila (Algeria)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Electron scattering in indium targets. • Modeling of elastic cross-sections. • Monte Carlo simulation of low energy electrons. - Abstract: In the current study, we aim at simulating via a detailed Monte Carlo code, the electron penetration in a semi-infinite indium medium for incident energies ranging from 0.5 to 5 keV. Electron range, backscattering coefficients, mean penetration depths as well as stopping profiles are then reported. The results may be seen as the first predictions for low-energy electron penetration in indium target.

  7. A MONTE CARLO SIMULATION OF SECONDARY ELECTRON AND BACKSCATTERED ELECTRON IMAGES IN SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.M. Li; Z.J. Ding

    2005-01-01

    A new parallel Monte Carlo simulation method of secondary electron (SE) and backscattered electron images (BSE) of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for a complex geometric structure has been developed. This paper describes briefly the simulation method and the modification to the conventional sampling method for the step length. Example simulation results have been obtained for several artificial structures.

  8. A new species of Aplectana (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) parasite of Pleurodema nebulosum (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from the Monte desert, Argentina, with a key to Neotropical species of the genus Aplectana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Mauricio D Piñeiro; González, Cynthya E; Sanabria, Eduardo A

    2017-03-27

    Here we describe a new cosmocercid nematode, Aplectana nebulosa sp. nov., from the small and large intestines of Pleurodema nebulosum (Anura: Leptodactylidae), from the Monte desert of San Juan, Argentina. The new species belongs to the Aplectana group that possesses a gubernaculum and unpaired adcloacal papilla anteriorly to cloaca. It resembles A. membranosa, A. paraelenae and A. travassosi by the presence of four adcloacal papillae, but differs from those species by the following characters: number and arrangement of precloacal papillae; number and arrangement of postcloacal papillae; shape and size of spicules and gubernaculum, and by the presence of lateral alae in caudal region of males. The description of the new species is based on light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and we also provide a key to Neotropical species of Aplectana.

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of electrons in dense gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Wade; Boyle, Greg; Cocks, Daniel; Buckman, Stephen; White, Ron

    2014-10-01

    We implement a Monte-Carlo simulation modelling the transport of electrons and positrons in dense gases and liquids, by using a dynamic structure factor that allows us to construct structure-modified effective cross sections. These account for the coherent effects caused by interactions with the relatively dense medium. The dynamic structure factor also allows us to model thermal gases in the same manner, without needing to directly sample the velocities of the neutral particles. We present the results of a series of Monte Carlo simulations that verify and apply this new technique, and make comparisons with macroscopic predictions and Boltzmann equation solutions. Financial support of the Australian Research Council.

  10. Monte Carlo study of electron transport in monolayer silicene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowik, Piotr; Thobel, Jean-Luc; Adamowicz, Leszek

    2016-11-01

    Electron mobility and diffusion coefficients in monolayer silicene are calculated by Monte Carlo simulations using simplified band structure with linear energy bands. Results demonstrate reasonable agreement with the full-band Monte Carlo method in low applied electric field conditions. Negative differential resistivity is observed and an explanation of the origin of this effect is proposed. Electron mobility and diffusion coefficients are studied in low applied electric field conditions. We demonstrate that a comparison of these parameter values can provide a good check that the calculation is correct. Low-field mobility in silicene exhibits {T}-3 temperature dependence for nondegenerate electron gas conditions and {T}-1 for higher electron concentrations, when degenerate conditions are imposed. It is demonstrated that to explain the relation between mobility and temperature in nondegenerate electron gas the linearity of the band structure has to be taken into account. It is also found that electron-electron scattering only slightly modifies low-field electron mobility in degenerate electron gas conditions.

  11. New electron multiple scattering distributions for Monte Carlo transport simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chibani, Omar (Haut Commissariat a la Recherche (C.R.S.), 2 Boulevard Franz Fanon, Alger B.P. 1017, Alger-Gare (Algeria)); Patau, Jean Paul (Laboratoire de Biophysique et Biomathematiques, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, Universite Paul Sabatier, 35 Chemin des Maraichers, 31062 Toulouse cedex (France))

    1994-10-01

    New forms of electron (positron) multiple scattering distributions are proposed. The first is intended for use in the conditions of validity of the Moliere theory. The second distribution takes place when the electron path is so short that only few elastic collisions occur. These distributions are adjustable formulas. The introduction of some parameters allows impositions of the correct value of the first moment. Only positive and analytic functions were used in constructing the present expressions. This makes sampling procedures easier. Systematic tests are presented and some Monte Carlo simulations, as benchmarks, are carried out. ((orig.))

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of electron beam air plasma characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yong-Feng; Han Xian-Wei; Tan Chang

    2009-01-01

    A high-energy electron beam generator is used to generate a plasma in atmosphere. Based on a Monte Carlo toolkit named GEANT4,a model including complete physics processes is established to simulate the passage of the electron beam in air. Based on the model,the characteristics of the electron beam air plasma are calculated. The energy distribution of beam electrons (BEs) indicates that high-energy electrons almost reside in the centre region of the beam,but low-energy electrons always live in the fringe area. The energy deposition is calculated in two cases,i.e.,with and without secondary electrons (SEs). Analysis indicates that the energy deposition of Ses accounts for a large part of the total energy deposition. The results of the energy spectrum show that the electrons in the inlet layer of the low-pressure chamber (LPC) are monoenergetic,but the energy spectrum of the electrons in the outlet layer is not pure. The SEs are largely generated at the outlet of the LPC. Moreover,both the energy distribution of Bes and the magnitude of the density of SEs are closely related to the pressure of LPC. Thus,a conclusion is drawn that a low magnitude of LPC pressure is helpful for reducing the energy loss in the LPC and also useful for greatly increasing the secondary electron density in dense air.

  13. Monte-Carlo simulation of backscattered electrons in Auger electron spectroscopy. Part 1: Backscattering factor calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tholomier, M.; Vicario, E.; Doghmane, N.

    1987-10-01

    The contribution of backscattered electrons to Auger electrons yield was studied with a multiple scattering Monte-Carlo simulation. The Auger backscattering factor has been calculated in the 5 keV-60 keV energy range. The dependence of the Auger backscattering factor on the primary energy and the beam incidence angle were determined. Spatial distributions of backscattered electrons and Auger electrons are presented for a point incident beam. Correlations between these distributions are briefly investigated.

  14. Monte Carlo model for electron degradation in methane

    CERN Document Server

    Bhardwaj, Anil

    2015-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo model for degradation of 1-10,000 eV electrons in an atmosphere of methane. The electron impact cross sections for CH4 are compiled and analytical representations of these cross sections are used as input to the model.model.Yield spectra, which provides information about the number of inelastic events that have taken place in each energy bin, is used to calculate the yield (or population) of various inelastic processes. The numerical yield spectra, obtained from the Monte Carlo simulations, is represented analytically, thus generating the Analytical Yield Spectra (AYS). AYS is employed to obtain the mean energy per ion pair and efficiencies of various inelastic processes.Mean energy per ion pair for neutral CH4 is found to be 26 (27.8) eV at 10 (0.1) keV. Efficiency calculation showed that ionization is the dominant process at energies >50 eV, for which more than 50% of the incident electron energy is used. Above 25 eV, dissociation has an efficiency of 27%. Below 10 eV, vibrational e...

  15. The macro response Monte Carlo method for electron transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svatos, M M

    1998-09-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to prove the feasibility of basing electron depth dose calculations in a phantom on first-principles single scatter physics, in an amount of time that is equal to or better than current electron Monte Carlo methods. The Macro Response Monte Carlo (MRMC) method achieves run times that are on the order of conventional electron transport methods such as condensed history, with the potential to be much faster. This is possible because MRMC is a Local-to-Global method, meaning the problem is broken down into two separate transport calculations. The first stage is a local, in this case, single scatter calculation, which generates probability distribution functions (PDFs) to describe the electron's energy, position and trajectory after leaving the local geometry, a small sphere or "kugel" A number of local kugel calculations were run for calcium and carbon, creating a library of kugel data sets over a range of incident energies (0.25 MeV - 8 MeV) and sizes (0.025 cm to 0.1 cm in radius). The second transport stage is a global calculation, where steps that conform to the size of the kugels in the library are taken through the global geometry. For each step, the appropriate PDFs from the MRMC library are sampled to determine the electron's new energy, position and trajectory. The electron is immediately advanced to the end of the step and then chooses another kugel to sample, which continues until transport is completed. The MRMC global stepping code was benchmarked as a series of subroutines inside of the Peregrine Monte Carlo code. It was compared to Peregrine's class II condensed history electron transport package, EGS4, and MCNP for depth dose in simple phantoms having density inhomogeneities. Since the kugels completed in the library were of relatively small size, the zoning of the phantoms was scaled down from a clinical size, so that the energy deposition algorithms for spreading dose across 5-10 zones per kugel could

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of electron back diffusion in argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmilović, M.; Stojanović, V.; Petrović, Z. Lj.

    1999-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was applied to study the back-diffusion of electrons in argon at low and moderate values of E/N from 10Td to 10 kTd. Simulations were performed for gaps of 1 cm and for pressures corresponding to the breakdown voltages taken from experimental Paschen curves. Effects of inelastic collisions, ionization, reflection of electrons and anisotropic scattering as well as anisotropic initial and reflected angular distributions of electrons were included. A complete and detailed set of electron scattering cross sections that describes well electron transport in argon was used. We found a very good agreement of the results of simulations with the experimental data for well defined initial conditions, and with several models available in the literature.(A.V. Phelps and Z.LJ. Petrović), Plasma Sources Sci. Tehnol. 8, R21 (1999). While effect of reflection may be large, for realistic values of reflection coefficient and for realistic secondary electron productions the effect may be neglected for the accuracy required in gas discharge modeling.

  17. A Investigation of Radiotherapy Electron Beams Using Monte Carlo Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, George X.

    1995-01-01

    Radiotherapy electron beams are more complicated than photon beams due to variations in the beam production, the scattering of low-energy electrons, and the presence contaminant photons. The detailed knowledge of a radiotherapy beam is essential to an accurate calculation of dose distribution for a treatment planning system. This investigation aims to enhance our understanding of radiotherapy beams by focusing on electron beams used in radiotherapy. It starts with a description of the Monte Carlo simulation code, BEAM, and a detailed simulation of an accelerator head to obtain realistic radiotherapy beams. The simulation covers electron beams from various accelerators, including the NRC research accelerator, the NPL (UK), accelerator, A Varian Clinac 2100C, a Philips SL75-20, a Siemens KD2, an AECL Therac 20, and a Scanditronix MM50. The beam energies range from 4 to 50 MeV. The EGS4 user code, BEAM, is extensively benchmarked against experiment by comparing calculated dose distributions with measured dose distributions in water. The simulated beams are analyzed to obtain the characteristics of various electron beams from a variety of accelerators. The simulated beams are also used as inputs to calculate the following parameters: the mean electron energy, the most probable energy, the energy-range relationships, the depth-scaling factor to convert depths in plastic to water-equivalent depths, the water-to-air stopping-power ratios, and the electron fluence correction factors used to convert dose measured in plastics to dose in water. These parameters are essential for electron beam dosimetry. The results from this study can be applied in cancer clinics to improve the accuracy of the absolute dosimetry. The simulation also provides information about the backscatter into the beam monitor chamber, and predicts the influence on the beam output factors. This investigation presents comprehensive data on the clinical electron beams, and answers many questions which could

  18. Livestock grazing, habitat protection and diversity of bees and wasps in the Central Monte desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego P. VÁZQUEZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El principal objetivo de las reservas es prevenir o mitigar los impactos humanos sobre los ecosistemas naturales. Es importante evaluar cuán bien las reservas alcanzan este objetivo. Evaluamos si la protección del hábitat que brinda la Reserva de la Biósfera de Ñacuñán (Monte Central, Argentina resulta en cambios detectables en la estructura del hábitat, y en la riqueza y la composición de especies de abejas y avispas. Realizamos muestreos con trampas bandeja y observaciones de visitantes florales en seis pares de sitios dentro y fuera de la reserva. Nuestros resultados sugieren que los treinta y cinco años de exclusión del ganado vacuno en Ñacuñán han tenido efectos detectables sobre la estructura del hábitat. Sin embargo, estos cambios en el hábitat se tradujeron sólo en efectos parciales y conflictivos sobre la riqueza de himenópteros, y no tuvieron efectos detectables sobre la composición de himenópteros. Nuestro estudio debería repetirse en el futuro, con un mayor esfuerzo de muestreo y a lo largo de varios años antes que estos resultados puedan ser aplicados como guía de decisiones de manejo.

  19. High-temperature sensitivity and its acclimation for photosynthetic electron transport reactions of desert succulents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetti, M B; Nobel, P S

    1987-08-01

    Photosynthetic electron transport reactions of succulent plants from hot deserts are able to tolerate extremely high temperatures and to acclimate to seasonal increases in temperature. In this study, we report the influence of relatively long, in vivo, high-temperature treatments on electron transport reactions for two desert succulents, Agave deserti and Opuntia ficus-indica, species which can tolerate 60 degrees C. Whole chain electron transport averaged 3 degrees C more sensitive to a 1-hour high-temperature treatment than did PSII (Photosystem II) which in turn averaged 3 degrees C more sensitive than did PSI. For plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30 degrees C/20 degrees C, treatment at 50 degrees C caused these reactions to be inhibited an average of 39% during the first hour, an additional 31% during the next 4 hours, and 100% by 12 hours. Upon shifting the plants from 30 degrees C/20 degrees C to 45 degrees C/35 degrees C, the high temperatures where activity was inhibited 50% increased 3 degrees C to 8 degrees C for the three electron transport reactions, the half-times for acclimation averaging 5 days for A. deserti and 4 days for O. ficus-indica. For the 45 degrees C/35 degrees C plants treated at 60 degrees C for 1 hour, PSI activity was reduced by 54% for A. deserti and 36% for O. ficus-indica. Acclimation leads to a toleration of very high temperatures without substantial disruption of electron transport for these desert succulents, facilitating their survival in hot deserts. Indeed, the electron transport reactions of these species tolerate longer periods at higher temperatures than any other vascular plant so far reported.

  20. High-temperature sensitivity and its acclimation for photosynthetic electron reactions of desert succulents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetti, M.B.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1987-08-01

    Photosynthetic electron reactions of succulent plants from hot deserts are able to tolerate extremely high temperatures and to acclimate to seasonal increase in temperature. In this study, we report the influence of relatively long, in vivo, high-temperature treatments on electron transport reactions for two desert succulents, Agave deserti and Opuntia ficus-indica, species which can tolerate 60{degree}C. Whole chain electron transport averaged 3{degree}C more sensitive to a 1-hour high-temperature treatment than did PSII (Photosystem II) which in turn averaged 3{degree}C more sensitive than did PSI. For plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30{degree}C/20{degree}C, treatment at 50{degree}C cause these reactions to be inhibited an average of 39% during the first hour, an additional 31% during the next 4 hours, and 100% by 12 hours. Upon shifting the plants from 30{degree}C/20{degree}C to 45{degree}C/35{degree}C, the high temperatures where activity was inhibited 50% increased 3{degree}C to 8{degree}C for the three electron transport reactions, the half-times for acclimation averaging 5 days for A. deserti and 4 days for O. ficus-indica. For the 45{degree}C/35{degree}C plants treated at 60{degree}C for 1 hour, PSI activity was reduced by 54% for A. deserti and 36% for O. ficus-indica. Acclimation leads to a toleration of very high temperatures without substantial disruption of electron transport for these desert succulents, facilitating their survival in hot deserts. Indeed, the electron transport reactions of these species tolerate longer periods at higher temperatures than any other vascular plants so far reported.

  1. Thermal ecology of the post-metamorphic Andean toad (Rhinella spinulosa) at elevation in the monte desert, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Eduardo A; Rodríguez, César Y; Vergara, Cristina; Ontivero, Emanuel; Banchig, Mariana; Navas, Ana L; Herrera-Morata, Mario A; Quiroga, Lorena B

    2015-08-01

    Rhinella spinulosa is an anuran toad species distributed latitudinal and altitudinal (1200-5000m) from Peru to Argentina, inhabiting mountain valleys in the Andes. Considering the broad range of habitats where they live, it is important to understand the thermal physiological mechanisms, thermal tolerances and physiological adaptations for surviving in rigorous environments. We investigated the thermal parameters (field body temperature, selected body temperature, locomotor performance in field and laboratory conditions, and thermal extremes) during diurnal activity for a population of juvenile, post-metamorphosed toads (Rhinella spinulosa) from the Monte Desert of San Juan, Argentina. Post-metamorphic toads are active from approximately 1100-1900 (in contrast to nocturnal adult toads). Our findings show that these toads have a wide thermal tolerance range, ranging from a critical thermal maximum of 36.9°C to crystallization temperatures below 0°C. During their active period, toads always showed suboptimal thermal conditions for locomotion. Despite the suboptimal condition for the locomotion, diurnal activity is likely to confer thermal advantages, allowing them to search for food and increase digestion and growth rates. We also found that the toads are capable of super-cooling, which prevents mortality from freezing when the environmental temperatures drop below 0°C. The environmental temperatures are below zero at night, when toads are inactive and take refuge under rocks. In summary, this toad population demonstrates high thermal plasticity, as shown by a relatively high level of activity sustained over a wide range of ambient temperature (~35°C). These thermal adaptations allow this species of juvenile toads to inhabit a wide range of altitudes and latitudes.

  2. Nitrate dynamics in the soil and unconfined aquifer in arid groundwater coupled ecosystems of the Monte desert, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranibar, J. N.; Villagra, P. E.; Gomez, M. L.; JobbáGy, E.; Quiroga, M.; Wuilloud, R. G.; Monasterio, R. P.; Guevara, A.

    2011-12-01

    In arid ecosystems, vegetation controls water and nitrate movement in the soil, reducing solute transport to aquifers. Here we analyzed nitrate distribution and transport throughout the soil profile and to the groundwater under different ecologic (vegetation type) and topographic (upland/lowland) situations across sand dune ecosystems with shallow water tables, subject to domestic grazing in the Monte desert. Based on vertical nitrate distributions in deep soil profiles we found that dune uplands (deep groundwater, low productivity) lost relatively more nitrogen than lowlands (shallow groundwater, high productivity), likely reinforcing productivity contrasts along these topographic positions. The traditional practice of nighttime animal concentration in corrals may affect nitrogen transport, with poorly vegetated interdunes at livestock posts showing higher subsoil nitrate concentrations than a well-vegetated nonsettled interdune. Vegetation left its imprint on the vertical distribution of nitrate, as suggested by the presence of a depletion zone that matched the depth of maximum root densities, followed by an underlying zone of accumulation. To explore how nitrogen exports to groundwater could affect water quality and nutrient supply to phreatophyte plants, we characterized groundwater flow patterns based on a potentiometric map and sediment characteristics, and measured groundwater electric conductivity, nitrate and arsenic concentration, and stable isotopes across 29 wells (5.8-12 m deep). Under the present land use and climate conditions, nitrate leaching does not seem to have an important and widespread effect on water quality. Nitrate concentration exceeded established limits for human consumption (45 mg L-1) in only one well, while arsenic concentration exceeded the established limits (10 μg L-1) in all but one well, reaching extreme values of 629 μg L-1. Yet, our analysis suggests that nitrate exports from corrals can reach the aquifer in localized areas

  3. Hopping electron model with geometrical frustration: kinetic Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Takamichi

    2016-09-01

    The hopping electron model on the Kagome lattice was investigated by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, and the non-equilibrium nature of the system was studied. We have numerically confirmed that aging phenomena are present in the autocorrelation function C ({t,tW )} of the electron system on the Kagome lattice, which is a geometrically frustrated lattice without any disorder. The waiting-time distributions p(τ ) of hopping electrons of the system on Kagome lattice has been also studied. It is confirmed that the profile of p (τ ) obtained at lower temperatures obeys the power-law behavior, which is a characteristic feature of continuous time random walk of electrons. These features were also compared with the characteristics of the Coulomb glass model, used as a model of disordered thin films and doped semiconductors. This work represents an advance in the understanding of the dynamics of geometrically frustrated systems and will serve as a basis for further studies of these physical systems.

  4. Improvements in Monte Carlo Simulation of Large Electron Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faddegon, Bruce A.; /UC, San Francisco; Perl, Joseph; Asai, Makoto; /SLAC

    2007-11-28

    Two Monte Carlo systems, EGSnrc and Geant4, were used to calculate dose distributions in large electron fields used in radiotherapy. Source and geometry parameters were adjusted to match calculated results with measurement. Both codes were capable of accurately reproducing the measured dose distributions of the 6 electron beams available on the accelerator. Depth penetration was matched to 0.1 cm. Depth dose curves generally agreed to 2% in the build-up region, although there is an additional 2-3% experimental uncertainty in this region. Dose profiles matched to 2% at the depth of maximum dose in the central region of the beam, out to the point of the profile where the dose begins to fall rapidly. A 3%/3mm match was obtained outside the central region except for the 6 MeV beam, where dose differences reached 5%. The discrepancy observed in the bremsstrahlung tail in published results that used EGS4 is no longer evident. The different systems required different source energies, incident beam angles, thicknesses of the exit window and primary foils, and distance between the primary and secondary foil. These results underscore the requirement for an experimental benchmark of electron scatter for beam energies and foils relevant to radiotherapy.

  5. Monte Carlo model for electron degradation in xenon gas

    CERN Document Server

    Mukundan, Vrinda

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a Monte Carlo model for studying the local degradation of electrons in the energy range 9-10000 eV in xenon gas. Analytically fitted form of electron impact cross sections for elastic and various inelastic processes are fed as input data to the model. Two dimensional numerical yield spectrum, which gives information on the number of energy loss events occurring in a particular energy interval, is obtained as output of the model. Numerical yield spectrum is fitted analytically, thus obtaining analytical yield spectrum. The analytical yield spectrum can be used to calculate electron fluxes, which can be further employed for the calculation of volume production rates. Using yield spectrum, mean energy per ion pair and efficiencies of inelastic processes are calculated. The value for mean energy per ion pair for Xe is 22 eV at 10 keV. Ionization dominates for incident energies greater than 50 eV and is found to have an efficiency of 65% at 10 keV. The efficiency for the excitation process is 30%...

  6. Quantum Monte Carlo for electronic structure: Recent developments and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriquez, Maria Milagos Soto [Lawrence Berkeley Lab. and Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-04-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods have been found to give excellent results when applied to chemical systems. The main goal of the present work is to use QMC to perform electronic structure calculations. In QMC, a Monte Carlo simulation is used to solve the Schroedinger equation, taking advantage of its analogy to a classical diffusion process with branching. In the present work the author focuses on how to extend the usefulness of QMC to more meaningful molecular systems. This study is aimed at questions concerning polyatomic and large atomic number systems. The accuracy of the solution obtained is determined by the accuracy of the trial wave function`s nodal structure. Efforts in the group have given great emphasis to finding optimized wave functions for the QMC calculations. Little work had been done by systematically looking at a family of systems to see how the best wave functions evolve with system size. In this work the author presents a study of trial wave functions for C, CH, C2H and C2H2. The goal is to study how to build wave functions for larger systems by accumulating knowledge from the wave functions of its fragments as well as gaining some knowledge on the usefulness of multi-reference wave functions. In a MC calculation of a heavy atom, for reasonable time steps most moves for core electrons are rejected. For this reason true equilibration is rarely achieved. A method proposed by Batrouni and Reynolds modifies the way the simulation is performed without altering the final steady-state solution. It introduces an acceleration matrix chosen so that all coordinates (i.e., of core and valence electrons) propagate at comparable speeds. A study of the results obtained using their proposed matrix suggests that it may not be the optimum choice. In this work the author has found that the desired mixing of coordinates between core and valence electrons is not achieved when using this matrix. A bibliography of 175 references is

  7. Monte Carlo simulation of secondary electron images for real sample structures in scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P; Wang, H Y; Li, Y G; Mao, S F; Ding, Z J

    2012-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation methods for the study of electron beam interaction with solids have been mostly concerned with specimens of simple geometry. In this article, we propose a simulation algorithm for treating arbitrary complex structures in a real sample. The method is based on a finite element triangular mesh modeling of sample geometry and a space subdivision for accelerating simulation. Simulation of secondary electron image in scanning electron microscopy has been performed for gold particles on a carbon substrate. Comparison of the simulation result with an experiment image confirms that this method is effective to model complex morphology of a real sample.

  8. Automated Monte Carlo biasing for photon-generated electrons near surfaces.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Brian Claude; Crawford, Martin James; Kensek, Ronald Patrick

    2009-09-01

    This report describes efforts to automate the biasing of coupled electron-photon Monte Carlo particle transport calculations. The approach was based on weight-windows biasing. Weight-window settings were determined using adjoint-flux Monte Carlo calculations. A variety of algorithms were investigated for adaptivity of the Monte Carlo tallies. Tree data structures were used to investigate spatial partitioning. Functional-expansion tallies were used to investigate higher-order spatial representations.

  9. Quantum-trajectory Monte Carlo method for study of electron-crystal interaction in STEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Z; Zeng, R G; Ming, Y; Zhang, M; Da, B; Mao, S F; Ding, Z J

    2015-07-21

    In this paper, a novel quantum-trajectory Monte Carlo simulation method is developed to study electron beam interaction with a crystalline solid for application to electron microscopy and spectroscopy. The method combines the Bohmian quantum trajectory method, which treats electron elastic scattering and diffraction in a crystal, with a Monte Carlo sampling of electron inelastic scattering events along quantum trajectory paths. We study in this work the electron scattering and secondary electron generation process in crystals for a focused incident electron beam, leading to understanding of the imaging mechanism behind the atomic resolution secondary electron image that has been recently achieved in experiment with a scanning transmission electron microscope. According to this method, the Bohmian quantum trajectories have been calculated at first through a wave function obtained via a numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation with a multislice method. The impact parameter-dependent inner-shell excitation cross section then enables the Monte Carlo sampling of ionization events produced by incident electron trajectories travelling along atom columns for excitation of high energy knock-on secondary electrons. Following cascade production, transportation and emission processes of true secondary electrons of very low energies are traced by a conventional Monte Carlo simulation method to present image signals. Comparison of the simulated image for a Si(110) crystal with the experimental image indicates that the dominant mechanism of atomic resolution of secondary electron image is the inner-shell ionization events generated by a high-energy electron beam.

  10. Intensive measurements of gas, water, and energy exchange between vegetation and troposphere during the MONTES Campaign in a vegetation gradient from short semi-desertic shrublands to tall wet temperate forests in the NW Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONTES (“Woodlands”) was a multidisciplinary international field campaign aimed at measuring energy, water and especially gas exchange between vegetation and atmosphere in a gradient from short semi-desertic shrublands to tall wet temperate forests in NE Spain in the North Wester...

  11. Simulating Strongly Correlated Electron Systems with Hybrid Monte Carlo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chuan

    2000-01-01

    Using the path integral representation, the Hubbard and the periodic Anderson model on D-dimensional cubic lattice are transformed into field theories of fermions in D + 1 dimensions. These theories at half-filling possess a positive definite real symmetry fermion matrix and can be simulated using the hybrid Monte Carlo method.

  12. Detailed Monte Carlo Simulation of electron transport and electron energy loss spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarian Shandiz, M; Salvat, F; Gauvin, R

    2016-11-01

    A computer program for detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the transport of electrons with kinetic energies in the range between about 0.1 and about 500 keV in bulk materials and in thin solid films is presented. Elastic scattering is described from differential cross sections calculated by the relativistic (Dirac) partial-wave expansion method with different models of the scattering potential. Inelastic interactions are simulated from an optical-data model based on an empirical optical oscillator strength that combines optical functions of the solid with atomic photoelectric data. The generalized oscillator strength is built from the adopted optical oscillator strength by using an extension algorithm derived from Lindhard's dielectric function for a free-electron gas. It is shown that simulated backscattering fractions of electron beams from bulk (semi-infinite) specimens are in good agreement with experimental data for beam energies from 0.1 keV up to about 100 keV. Simulations also yield transmitted and backscattered fractions of electron beams on thin solid films that agree closely with measurements for different film thicknesses and incidence angles. Simulated most probable deflection angles and depth-dose distributions also agree satisfactorily with measurements. Finally, electron energy loss spectra of several elemental solids are simulated and the effects of the beam energy and the foil thickness on the signal to background and signal to noise ratios are investigated. SCANNING 38:475-491, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. MONTE CARLO SIMULATION OF SPIN-POLARIZED SECONDARY ELECTRONS FROM IRON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X. Sun; Z.J. Ding; H.M Li; K. Salma; Z.M. Zhang; W.S. Tan

    2005-01-01

    A Monte Carlo model considering the electron spin direction and spin asymmetry has been developed. The energy distribution of the secondary electron polarization and the primary energy dependence of the polarization from Fe are studied. The simulation results show that:(1) the intensity of the spin-up secondary electrons is larger thanvthat of thevspin-down secondary electrons, suggesting the secondary electrons are spin polarized; (2) the spin polarization of secondary electrons with nearly zero kinetic energy is higher than the average valance spin polarization, Pb=27% for Fe. With increasing kinetic energy, the spin polarization of the secondary electrons decreases to the value of Pb remaining constant at higher kinetic energies;(3) the spin polarization increases with an increase in the primary energy and reaches a saturation value at higher primary energy in both the Monte Carlo simulation and experimental results.

  14. The application of Monte Carlo method to electron and photon beams transport; Zastosowanie metody Monte Carlo do analizy transportu elektronow i fotonow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zychor, I. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The application of a Monte Carlo method to study a transport in matter of electron and photon beams is presented, especially for electrons with energies up to 18 MeV. The SHOWME Monte Carlo code, a modified version of GEANT3 code, was used on the CONVEX C3210 computer at Swierk. It was assumed that an electron beam is mono directional and monoenergetic. Arbitrary user-defined, complex geometries made of any element or material can be used in calculation. All principal phenomena occurring when electron beam penetrates the matter are taken into account. The use of calculation for a therapeutic electron beam collimation is presented. (author). 20 refs, 29 figs.

  15. Evaluation of Electron Swarm Parameters in SF6 Using Monte Carlo Method

    OpenAIRE

    Settaouti, Abdelrahmane [عبد الرحمن ساتوتو; Settaouti, Lahouaria [هورية ستاوتي

    2005-01-01

    The motion of electrons in sulfur hexafluoride (SFo) in uniform electric fields is simulated using a Monte Carlo method. The swarm parameters are evaluated and compared with experimental results of drift velocity, electron mean energy, ratio of ionization coefficient and attachment coefficient. The electron molecule collision cross sections adopted in the simulation result in a good agreement with the experimental values over the range of EA{ investigated (E is the electric field and N is the...

  16. Evaluation of atomic electron binding energies for Monte Carlo particle transport

    CERN Document Server

    Pia, Maria Grazia; Batic, Matej; Begalli, Marcia; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Quintieri, Lina; Saracco, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A survey of atomic binding energies used by general purpose Monte Carlo systems is reported. Various compilations of these parameters have been evaluated; their accuracy is estimated with respect to experimental data. Their effects on physics quantities relevant to Monte Carlo particle transport are highlighted: X-ray fluorescence emission, electron and proton ionization cross sections, and Doppler broadening in Compton scattering. The effects due to different binding energies are quantified with respect to experimental data. The results of the analysis provide quantitative ground for the selection of binding energies to optimize the accuracy of Monte Carlo simulation in experimental use cases. Recommendations on software design dealing with these parameters and on the improvement of data libraries for Monte Carlo simulation are discussed.

  17. Investigating the origin of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons with Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attallah, R.

    2017-06-01

    Due to severe radiative energy losses during propagation, high-energy cosmic-ray electrons can reach Earth only from nearby sources. Although these sources clearly manifest themselves in the special features of the energy spectrum observed by recent space-borne experiments, especially the increase in the positron fraction, their exact nature is still a matter of debate. The standard method for interpreting cosmic-ray electron data consists in solving appropriate transport equations. It can be supplemented with a Monte Carlo approach taking advantage of the intrinsic random nature of cosmic-ray diffusive propagation. This analysis gives valuable information on the electron-by-electron fluctuations and hence allows to address the issue from a different angle. Here we show how to implement a fully three-dimensional time-dependent Monte Carlo simulation of the propagation of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons from nearby sources and discuss the “single-source” astrophysical scenario.

  18. ELRADGEN: Monte Carlo generator for radiative events in elastic electron-proton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, A V; Ilyichev, A N; Niczyporuk, B B

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the theoretical approach and practical algorithms for simulation of radiative events in elastic ep-scattering. A new Monte Carlo generator for real photon emission events in the process of elastic electron-proton scattering is presented. We perform a few consistency checks and present numerical results.

  19. Effects of physics change in Monte Carlo code on electron pencil beam dose distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toutaoui, Abdelkader, E-mail: toutaoui.aek@gmail.com [Departement de Physique Medicale, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon BP399 Alger RP, Algiers (Algeria); Khelassi-Toutaoui, Nadia, E-mail: nadiakhelassi@yahoo.fr [Departement de Physique Medicale, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon BP399 Alger RP, Algiers (Algeria); Brahimi, Zakia, E-mail: zsbrahimi@yahoo.fr [Departement de Physique Medicale, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon BP399 Alger RP, Algiers (Algeria); Chami, Ahmed Chafik, E-mail: chafik_chami@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Sciences Nucleaires, Faculte de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumedienne, BP 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria)

    2012-01-15

    Pencil beam algorithms used in computerized electron beam dose planning are usually described using the small angle multiple scattering theory. Alternatively, the pencil beams can be generated by Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport. In a previous work, the 4th version of the Electron Gamma Shower (EGS) Monte Carlo code was used to obtain dose distributions from monoenergetic electron pencil beam, with incident energy between 1 MeV and 50 MeV, interacting at the surface of a large cylindrical homogeneous water phantom. In 2000, a new version of this Monte Carlo code has been made available by the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), which includes various improvements in its electron-transport algorithms. In the present work, we were interested to see if the new physics in this version produces pencil beam dose distributions very different from those calculated with oldest one. The purpose of this study is to quantify as well as to understand these differences. We have compared a series of pencil beam dose distributions scored in cylindrical geometry, for electron energies between 1 MeV and 50 MeV calculated with two versions of the Electron Gamma Shower Monte Carlo Code. Data calculated and compared include isodose distributions, radial dose distributions and fractions of energy deposition. Our results for radial dose distributions show agreement within 10% between doses calculated by the two codes for voxels closer to the pencil beam central axis, while the differences are up to 30% for longer distances. For fractions of energy deposition, the results of the EGS4 are in good agreement (within 2%) with those calculated by EGSnrc at shallow depths for all energies, whereas a slightly worse agreement (15%) is observed at deeper distances. These differences may be mainly attributed to the different multiple scattering for electron transport adopted in these two codes and the inclusion of spin effect, which produces an increase of the effective range of

  20. Monte Carlo Simulation of the Coaxial Electrons Backscattering from Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By using the Monte Carlo method, we simulated the trajectories of coaxial backscattering electrons corresponding to a new type of scanning electron microscope. From the calculated results, we obtain a universal expression, which describes with good accuracy the backscattering coefficient versus film thickness under all conditions used. By measuring the coaxial backscattering coefficient and using this universal formula, the thickness of thin films can be determined if the composition is known.

  1. Modified Monte Carlo method for study of electron transport in degenerate electron gas in the presence of electron-electron interactions, application to graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowik, Piotr; Thobel, Jean-Luc; Adamowicz, Leszek

    2017-07-01

    Standard computational methods used to take account of the Pauli Exclusion Principle into Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of electron transport in semiconductors may give unphysical results in low field regime, where obtained electron distribution function takes values exceeding unity. Modified algorithms were already proposed and allow to correctly account for electron scattering on phonons or impurities. Present paper extends this approach and proposes improved simulation scheme allowing including Pauli exclusion principle for electron-electron (e-e) scattering into MC simulations. Simulations with significantly reduced computational cost recreate correct values of the electron distribution function. Proposed algorithm is applied to study transport properties of degenerate electrons in graphene with e-e interactions. This required adapting the treatment of e-e scattering in the case of linear band dispersion relation. Hence, this part of the simulation algorithm is described in details.

  2. Monte Carlo modeling of ion beam induced secondary electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, U., E-mail: uhuh@vols.utk.edu [Biochemistry & Cellular & Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-0840 (United States); Cho, W. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2100 (United States); Joy, D.C. [Biochemistry & Cellular & Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-0840 (United States); Center for Nanophase Materials Science, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Ion induced secondary electrons (iSE) can produce high-resolution images ranging from a few eV to 100 keV over a wide range of materials. The interpretation of such images requires knowledge of the secondary electron yields (iSE δ) for each of the elements and materials present and as a function of the incident beam energy. Experimental data for helium ions are currently limited to 40 elements and six compounds while other ions are not well represented. To overcome this limitation, we propose a simple procedure based on the comprehensive work of Berger et al. Here we show that between the energy range of 10–100 keV the Berger et al. data for elements and compounds can be accurately represented by a single universal curve. The agreement between the limited experimental data that is available and the predictive model is good, and has been found to provide reliable yield data for a wide range of elements and compounds. - Highlights: • The Universal ASTAR Yield Curve was derived from data recently published by NIST. • IONiSE incorporated with the Curve will predict iSE yield for elements and compounds. • This approach can also handle other ion beams by changing basic scattering profile.

  3. Response of ants to grazing disturbance at the central Monte Desert of Argentina:community descriptors and functional group scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia CLAVER; Susana L SILNIK; Florencia F CAMPÓN

    2014-01-01

    Livestock ranching is one of the main productive activities in arid regions of the world. Grazing pro-duces changes in animal as well as plant communities (e.g. richness, abundance and species dominance rela-tionships). Ants are good biological indicators due to the environmental fidelity of some of their community pa-rameters. We described the functional structure of the ant community in the central Monte of Mendoza, Argentina, and examined the effect of grazing using richness, diversity and the functional group scheme. We used pitfall traps to sample ants at a reserve with 30-year cattle exclusion and at an adjacent ranch. Eleven of the 27 recorded spe-cies showed significant differences in their abundance and two species were absent at the ranch. While richness and diversity did not reflect these differences, functional groups did. Hot Climate Specialists were more abundant at the ranch while Cryptic Species and Generalized Myrmicinae increased at the reserve. This study supports the utility of the functional group scheme to study the effects of grazing disturbance in ant communities of arid regions.

  4. PENELOPE, and algorithm and computer code for Monte Carlo simulation of electron-photon showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvat, F.; Fernandez-Varea, J.M.; Baro, J.; Sempau, J.

    1996-10-01

    The FORTRAN 77 subroutine package PENELOPE performs Monte Carlo simulation of electron-photon showers in arbitrary for a wide energy range, from similar{sub t}o 1 KeV to several hundred MeV. Photon transport is simulated by means of the standard, detailed simulation scheme. Electron and positron histories are generated on the basis of a mixed procedure, which combines detailed simulation of hard events with condensed simulation of soft interactions. A simple geometry package permits the generation of random electron-photon showers in material systems consisting of homogeneous bodies limited by quadric surfaces, i.e. planes, spheres cylinders, etc. This report is intended not only to serve as a manual of the simulation package, but also to provide the user with the necessary information to understand the details of the Monte Carlo algorithm.

  5. PENELOPE, an algorithm and computer code for Monte Carlo simulation of electron-photon showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvat, F.; Fernandez-Varea, J.M.; Baro, J.; Sempau, J.

    1996-07-01

    The FORTRAN 77 subroutine package PENELOPE performs Monte Carlo simulation of electron-photon showers in arbitrary for a wide energy range, from 1 keV to several hundred MeV. Photon transport is simulated by means of the standard, detailed simulation scheme. Electron and positron histories are generated on the basis of a mixed procedure, which combines detailed simulation of hard events with condensed simulation of soft interactions. A simple geometry package permits the generation of random electron-photon showers in material systems consisting of homogeneous bodies limited by quadric surfaces, i.e. planes, spheres, cylinders, etc. This report is intended not only to serve as a manual of the simulation package, but also to provide the user with the necessary information to understand the details of the Monte Carlo algorithm. (Author) 108 refs.

  6. A split-step method to include electron-electron collisions via Monte Carlo in multiple rate equation simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huthmacher, Klaus; Molberg, Andreas K.; Rethfeld, Bärbel; Gulley, Jeremy R.

    2016-10-01

    A split-step numerical method for calculating ultrafast free-electron dynamics in dielectrics is introduced. The two split steps, independently programmed in C++11 and FORTRAN 2003, are interfaced via the presented open source wrapper. The first step solves a deterministic extended multi-rate equation for the ionization, electron-phonon collisions, and single photon absorption by free-carriers. The second step is stochastic and models electron-electron collisions using Monte-Carlo techniques. This combination of deterministic and stochastic approaches is a unique and efficient method of calculating the nonlinear dynamics of 3D materials exposed to high intensity ultrashort pulses. Results from simulations solving the proposed model demonstrate how electron-electron scattering relaxes the non-equilibrium electron distribution on the femtosecond time scale.

  7. Monte Carlo Simulation of a Linear Accelerator and Electron Beam Parameters Used in Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent decades, several Monte Carlo codes have been introduced for research and medical applications. These methods provide both accurate and detailed calculation of particle transport from linear accelerators. The main drawback of Monte Carlo techniques is the extremely long computing time that is required in order to obtain a dose distribution with good statistical accuracy. Material and Methods: In this study, the MCNP-4C Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the electron beams generated by a Neptun 10 PC linear accelerator. The depth dose curves and related parameters to depth dose and beam profiles were calculated for 6, 8 and 10 MeV electron beams with different field sizes and these data were compared with the corresponding measured values. The actual dosimetry was performed by employing a Welhofer-Scanditronix dose scanning system, semiconductor detectors and ionization chambers. Results: The result showed good agreement (better than 2% between calculated and measured depth doses and lateral dose profiles for all energies in different field sizes. Also good agreements were achieved between calculated and measured related electron beam parameters such as E0, Rq, Rp and R50. Conclusion: The simulated model of the linac developed in this study is capable of computing electron beam data in a water phantom for different field sizes and the resulting data can be used to predict the dose distributions in other complex geometries.

  8. METHES: A Monte Carlo collision code for the simulation of electron transport in low temperature plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, M.; Franck, C. M.

    2016-06-01

    We present a freely available MATLAB code for the simulation of electron transport in arbitrary gas mixtures in the presence of uniform electric fields. For steady-state electron transport, the program provides the transport coefficients, reaction rates and the electron energy distribution function. The program uses established Monte Carlo techniques and is compatible with the electron scattering cross section files from the open-access Plasma Data Exchange Project LXCat. The code is written in object-oriented design, allowing the tracing and visualization of the spatiotemporal evolution of electron swarms and the temporal development of the mean energy and the electron number due to attachment and/or ionization processes. We benchmark our code with well-known model gases as well as the real gases argon, N2, O2, CF4, SF6 and mixtures of N2 and O2.

  9. Monte Carlo modeling of cavity imaging in pure iron using back-scatter electron scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiang; Gigax, Jonathan; Chen, Di; Garner, F. A.; Shao, Lin

    2016-11-01

    Backscattered electrons (BSE) in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) can produce images of subsurface cavity distributions as a nondestructive characterization technique. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to understand the mechanism of void imaging and to identify key parameters in optimizing void resolution. The modeling explores an iron target of different thicknesses, electron beams of different energies, beam sizes, and scan pitch, evaluated for voids of different sizes and depths below the surface. The results show that the void image contrast is primarily caused by discontinuity of energy spectra of backscattered electrons, due to increased outward path lengths for those electrons which penetrate voids and are backscattered at deeper depths. Size resolution of voids at specific depths, and maximum detection depth of specific voids sizes are derived as a function of electron beam energy. The results are important for image optimization and data extraction.

  10. Monte Carlo study of secondary electron production from gold nanoparticle in proton beam irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Gao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, we examined some characteristics of secondary electrons produced by gold nanoparticle (NP during proton beam irradiation.Method: By using the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit, we simulated the NP at the range from radius (r of 17.5 nm, 25 nm, 35 nm to r = 50 nm. The proton beam energies used were 20MeV, 50MeV, and 100MeV. Findings on secondary electron production and their average kinetic energy  are presented in this paper. Results: Firstly, for NP with a finite size, the secondary electron production increase with decreasing incident proton beam energy and secondary buildup existed outside NP. Secondly, the average kinetic energy of secondary electrons produced by a gold NP increased with incident proton beam energy. Thirdly, the larger the NP size, the more the secondary electron production.Conclusion: Collectively, our results suggest that apart from biological uptake efficiency, we should take the secondary electron production effect into   account when considering the potential use of NPs in proton beam irradiation.-----------------------------------------------Cite this article as: Gao J, Zheng Y. Monte Carlo study of secondary electron production from gold nanoparticle in proton beam irradiation. Int J  Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(2:02025.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14319/ijcto.0202.5

  11. Evaluation of Electron Contamination in Cancer Treatment with Megavoltage Photon Beams: Monte Carlo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seif F

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Megavoltage beams used in radiotherapy are contaminated with secondary electrons. Different parts of linac head and air above patient act as a source of this contamination. This contamination can increase damage to skin and subcutaneous tissue during radiotherapy. Monte Carlo simulation is an accurate method for dose calculation in medical dosimetry and has an important role in optimization of linac head materials. The aim of this study was to calculate electron contamination of Varian linac. Materials and Method: The 6MV photon beam of Varian (2100 C/D linac was simulated by Monte Carlo code, MCNPX, based on its company’s instructions. The validation was done by comparing the calculated depth dose and profiles of simulation with dosimetry measurements in a water phantom (error less than 2%. The Percentage Depth Dose (PDDs, profiles and contamination electron energy spectrum were calculated for different therapeutic field sizes (5×5 to 40×40 cm2 for both linacs. Results: The dose of electron contamination was observed to rise with increase in field size. The contribution of the secondary contamination electrons on the surface dose was 6% for 5×5 cm2 to 27% for 40×40 cm2 , respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results, the effect of electron contamination on patient surface dose cannot be ignored, so the knowledge of the electron contamination is important in clinical dosimetry. It must be calculated for each machine and considered in Treatment Planning Systems.

  12. Livestock grazing, habitat protection and diversity of bees and wasps in the Central Monte desert Ganadería, protección del hábitat y diversidad de abejas y avispas en el desierto del Monte Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego P. Vázquez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Reserves aim mainly at preventing or mitigating human impacts on natural ecosystems. It is important to assess how well reserves meet this goal. We evaluated whether habitat protection offered by Ñacuñán Biosphere Reserve (Central Monte desert, Argentina results in detectable changes in habitat structure and the species richness and composition of bees and wasps. We conducted pan trap sampling and flower visitor observations in six pairs of protected and unprotected sites. Our results suggest that thirty fi ve years of cattle exclusion in Ñacuñán have had detectable effects on habitat structure. However, these changes in habitat structure translated only into partial and conflicting effects on hymenopteran richness, and did not have detectable effects on hymenopteran composition. Our study should be repeated with a greater sampling effort and throughout multiple years before our results can be applied to guide management decisions.El principal objetivo de las reservas es prevenir o mitigar los impactos humanos sobre los ecosistemas naturales. Es importante evaluar cuán bien las reservas alcanzan este objetivo. Evaluamos si la protección del hábitat que brinda la Reserva de la Biósfera de Ñacuñán (Monte Central, Argentina resulta en cambios detectables en la estructura del hábitat, y en la riqueza y la composición de especies de abejas y avispas. Realizamos muestreos con trampas bandeja y observaciones de visitantes florales en seis pares de sitios dentro y fuera de la reserva. Nuestros resultados sugieren que los treinta y cinco años de exclusión del ganado vacuno en Ñacuñán han tenido efectos detectables sobre la estructura del hábitat. Sin embargo, estos cambios en el hábitat se tradujeron sólo en efectos parciales y conflictivos sobre la riqueza de himenópteros, y no tuvieron efectos detectables sobre la composición de himenópteros. Nuestro estudio debería repetirse en el futuro, con un mayor esfuerzo de muestreo y

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of the behaviour of electrons during electron-assisted chemical vapour deposition of diamond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董丽芳; 陈俊英; 董国义; 尚勇

    2002-01-01

    The behaviour of electrons during electron-assisted chemical vapour deposition of diamond is investigated using Monte Carlo simulation. The electron energy distribution and velocity distribution are obtained over a wide range of reduced field E/N (the ratio of the electric field to gas molecule density) from 100 to 2000 in units of 1Td=10-17Vcm2.Their effects on the diamond growth are also discussed. Themain results obtained are as follows. (1) The velocity profile is asymmetric for the component parallel to the field.Ihe velocity distribution has a peak shift in the field direction. Most electrons possess non-zero velocity parallel to the substrate. (2) The number of atomic H is a function of E/N. (3) High-quality diamond can be obtained under the condition of E/N from 50 to 800Td due to sufficient atomic H and electron bombardment.

  14. Experimental validation of the DPM Monte Carlo code using minimally scattered electron beams in heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Indrin J.; Moran, Jean M.; Nurushev, Teamor S.; McShan, Daniel L.; Fraass, Benedick A.; Wilderman, Scott J.; Bielajew, Alex F.

    2002-06-01

    A comprehensive set of measurements and calculations has been conducted to investigate the accuracy of the Dose Planning Method (DPM) Monte Carlo code for electron beam dose calculations in heterogeneous media. Measurements were made using 10 MeV and 50 MeV minimally scattered, uncollimated electron beams from a racetrack microtron. Source distributions for the Monte Carlo calculations were reconstructed from in-air ion chamber scans and then benchmarked against measurements in a homogeneous water phantom. The in-air spatial distributions were found to have FWHM of 4.7 cm and 1.3 cm, at 100 cm from the source, for the 10 MeV and 50 MeV beams respectively. Energy spectra for the electron beams were determined by simulating the components of the microtron treatment head using the code MCNP4B. Profile measurements were made using an ion chamber in a water phantom with slabs of lung or bone-equivalent materials submerged at various depths. DPM calculations are, on average, within 2% agreement with measurement for all geometries except for the 50 MeV incident on a 6 cm lung-equivalent slab. Measurements using approximately monoenergetic, 50 MeV, 'pencil-beam'-type electrons in heterogeneous media provide conditions for maximum electronic disequilibrium and hence present a stringent test of the code's electron transport physics; the agreement noted between calculation and measurement illustrates that the DPM code is capable of accurate dose calculation even under such conditions.

  15. A Monte Carlo calculation of subexcitation and vibrationally-relaxing electron spectra in irradiated liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobut, V.; Frongillo, Y.; Jay-Gerin, J.-P. (Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada). Faculte de Medecine); Patau, J.-P. (Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France))

    1992-12-01

    An energy spectrum of ''subexcitation electrons'' produced in liquid water by electrons with initial energies of a few keV is obtained by using a Monte Carlo transport simulation calculation. It is found that the introduction of vibrational-excitation cross sections leads to the appearance of a sharp peak in the probability density function near the electronic-excitation threshold. Electrons contributing to this peak are shown to be more naturally described if a novel energy spectrum, that we propose to name ''vibrationally-relaxing electron'' spectrum, is introduced. The corresponding distribution function is presented, and an empirical expression of it is given. (author).

  16. Impact of the Electron Density on the Fixed-Node Errors in Quantum Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Rasch, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect of increasing charge density on the Fixed Node Errors in Diffusion Monte Carlo by comparing FN-DMC calculations of the total ground state energy on a 4 electron system done with a Hartree-Fock based trial wave function to calculations by the same method on the same system using a Configuration Interaction based trial wave function. We do this for several different values of nuclear charge, Z. The Fixed Node Error of a Hartree-Fock trial wave function for a 4 electron system increases linearly with increasing nuclear charge.

  17. Monte Carlo study of the effective Sherman function for electron polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drągowski, M.; Włodarczyk, M.; Weber, G.; Ciborowski, J.; Enders, J.; Fritzsche, Y.; Poliszczuk, A.

    2016-12-01

    The PEBSI Monte Carlo simulation was upgraded towards usefulness for electron Mott polarimetry. The description of Mott scattering was improved and polarisation transfer in Møller scattering was included in the code. An improved agreement was achieved between the simulation and available experimental data for a 100 keV polarised electron beam scattering off gold foils of various thicknesses. The dependence of the effective Sherman function on scattering angle and target thickness, as well as the method of finding optimal conditions for Mott polarimetry measurements were analysed.

  18. Monte Carlo study of the effective Sherman function for electron polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drągowski, M., E-mail: mdragowski@fuw.edu.pl [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Pasteura 5, 02093 Warsaw (Poland); Włodarczyk, M. [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Pasteura 5, 02093 Warsaw (Poland); Weber, G. [Helmholtz Institut Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany); Ciborowski, J. [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Pasteura 5, 02093 Warsaw (Poland); Enders, J.; Fritzsche, Y. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Kernphysik, Schlossgartenstraße 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Poliszczuk, A. [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Pasteura 5, 02093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    The PEBSI Monte Carlo simulation was upgraded towards usefulness for electron Mott polarimetry. The description of Mott scattering was improved and polarisation transfer in Møller scattering was included in the code. An improved agreement was achieved between the simulation and available experimental data for a 100 keV polarised electron beam scattering off gold foils of various thicknesses. The dependence of the effective Sherman function on scattering angle and target thickness, as well as the method of finding optimal conditions for Mott polarimetry measurements were analysed.

  19. Equation of state of metallic hydrogen from coupled electron-ion Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Miguel A; Pierleoni, Carlo; Ceperley, D M

    2010-02-01

    We present a study of hydrogen at pressures higher than molecular dissociation using the coupled electron-ion Monte Carlo method. These calculations use the accurate reptation quantum Monte Carlo method to estimate the electronic energy and pressure while doing a Monte Carlo simulation of the protons. In addition to presenting simulation results for the equation of state over a large region of the phase diagram, we report the free energy obtained by thermodynamic integration. We find very good agreement with density-functional theory based molecular-dynamics calculations for pressures beyond 600 GPa and densities above rho=1.4 g/cm(3) , both for thermodynamic and structural properties. This agreement provides a strong support to the different approximations employed in the density-functional treatment of the system, specifically the approximate exchange-correlation potential and the use of pseudopotentials for the range of densities considered. We find disagreement with chemical models, which suggests that a reinvestigation of planetary models--previously constructed using the Saumon-Chabrier-Van Horn equations of state--might be needed.

  20. Probing the astrophysical origin of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons with Monte Carlo simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Attallah, Reda

    2016-01-01

    High-energy cosmic-ray electrons reveal some remarkable spectral features, the most noteworthy of which is the rise in the positron fraction above 10 GeV. Due to strong energy loss during propagation, these particles can reach Earth only from nearby sources. Yet, the exact nature of these sources, which most likely manifest themselves in the observed anomalies, remains elusive. The many explanations put forward to resolve this case range from standard astrophysics to exotic physics. In this paper, we discuss the possible astrophysical origin of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons through a fully three-dimensional time-dependent Monte Carlo simulation. This approach takes advantage of the intrinsic random nature of cosmic-ray diffusive propagation. It provides valuable information on the electron-by-electron fluctuations, making it particularly suitable for analyzing in depth the single-source astrophysical scenario.

  1. Probing the astrophysical origin of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons with Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attallah, R.

    2016-12-01

    High-energy cosmic-ray electrons reveal some remarkable spectral features, the most noteworthy of which is the rise in the positron fraction above 10 GeV. Due to strong energy loss during propagation, these particles can reach Earth only from nearby sources. Yet, the exact nature of these sources, which most likely manifest themselves in the observed anomalies, remains elusive. The many explanations put forward to resolve this case range from standard astrophysics to exotic physics. In this paper, we discuss the possible astrophysical origin of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons through a fully three-dimensional time-dependent Monte Carlo simulation. This approach, which takes advantage of the intrinsic random nature of cosmic-ray diffusive propagation, provides valuable information on the electron-by-electron fluctuations, making it particularly suitable for analyzing in depth the single-source scenario.

  2. Electron density of states of Fe-based superconductors: Quantum trajectory Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashurnikov, V. A.; Krasavin, A. V.; Zhumagulov, Ya. V.

    2016-03-01

    The spectral and total electron densities of states in two-dimensional FeAs clusters, which simulate iron-based superconductors, have been calculated using the generalized quantum Monte Carlo algorithm within the full two-orbital model. Spectra have been reconstructed by solving the integral equation relating the Matsubara Green's function and spectral density by the method combining the gradient descent and Monte Carlo algorithms. The calculations have been performed for clusters with dimensions up to 10 × 10 FeAs cells. The profiles of the Fermi surface for the entire Brillouin zone have been presented in the quasiparticle approximation. Data for the total density of states near the Fermi level have been obtained. The effect of the interaction parameter, size of the cluster, and temperature on the spectrum of excitations has been studied.

  3. Communication: Fixed-node errors in quantum Monte Carlo: Interplay of electron density and node nonlinearities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasch, Kevin M.; Hu, Shuming; Mitas, Lubos [Center for High Performance Simulation and Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    We elucidate the origin of large differences (two-fold or more) in the fixed-node errors between the first- vs second-row systems for single-configuration trial wave functions in quantum Monte Carlo calculations. This significant difference in the valence fixed-node biases is studied across a set of atoms, molecules, and also Si, C solid crystals. We show that the key features which affect the fixed-node errors are the differences in electron density and the degree of node nonlinearity. The findings reveal how the accuracy of the quantum Monte Carlo varies across a variety of systems, provide new perspectives on the origins of the fixed-node biases in calculations of molecular and condensed systems, and carry implications for pseudopotential constructions for heavy elements.

  4. Communication: Fixed-node errors in quantum Monte Carlo: Interplay of electron density and node nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Kevin M.; Hu, Shuming; Mitas, Lubos

    2014-01-01

    We elucidate the origin of large differences (two-fold or more) in the fixed-node errors between the first- vs second-row systems for single-configuration trial wave functions in quantum Monte Carlo calculations. This significant difference in the valence fixed-node biases is studied across a set of atoms, molecules, and also Si, C solid crystals. We show that the key features which affect the fixed-node errors are the differences in electron density and the degree of node nonlinearity. The findings reveal how the accuracy of the quantum Monte Carlo varies across a variety of systems, provide new perspectives on the origins of the fixed-node biases in calculations of molecular and condensed systems, and carry implications for pseudopotential constructions for heavy elements.

  5. Evaluation of angular scattering models for electron-neutral collisions in Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, J. F. J.; Pitchford, L. C.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.; van Dijk, J.

    2016-10-01

    In Monte Carlo simulations of electron transport through a neutral background gas, simplifying assumptions related to the shape of the angular distribution of electron-neutral scattering cross sections are usually made. This is mainly because full sets of differential scattering cross sections are rarely available. In this work simple models for angular scattering are compared to results from the recent quantum calculations of Zatsarinny and Bartschat for differential scattering cross sections (DCS’s) from zero to 200 eV in argon. These simple models represent in various ways an approach to forward scattering with increasing electron energy. The simple models are then used in Monte Carlo simulations of range, straggling, and backscatter of electrons emitted from a surface into a volume filled with a neutral gas. It is shown that the assumptions of isotropic elastic scattering and of forward scattering for the inelastic collision process yield results within a few percent of those calculated using the DCS’s of Zatsarinny and Bartschat. The quantities which were held constant in these comparisons are the elastic momentum transfer and total inelastic cross sections.

  6. Levy-Lieb-Based Monte Carlo Study of the Dimensionality Behaviour of the Electronic Kinetic Functional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshaditya A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider a gas of interacting electrons in the limit of nearly uniform density and treat the one dimensional (1D, two dimensional (2D and three dimensional (3D cases. We focus on the determination of the correlation part of the kinetic functional by employing a Monte Carlo sampling technique of electrons in space based on an analytic derivation via the Levy-Lieb constrained search principle. Of particular interest is the question of the behaviour of the functional as one passes from 1D to 3D; according to the basic principles of Density Functional Theory (DFT the form of the universal functional should be independent of the dimensionality. However, in practice the straightforward use of current approximate functionals in different dimensions is problematic. Here, we show that going from the 3D to the 2D case the functional form is consistent (concave function but in 1D becomes convex; such a drastic difference is peculiar of 1D electron systems as it is for other quantities. Given the interesting behaviour of the functional, this study represents a basic first-principle approach to the problem and suggests further investigations using highly accurate (though expensive many-electron computational techniques, such as Quantum Monte Carlo.

  7. Space applications of the MITS electron-photon Monte Carlo transport code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kensek, R.P.; Lorence, L.J.; Halbleib, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morel, J.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The MITS multigroup/continuous-energy electron-photon Monte Carlo transport code system has matured to the point that it is capable of addressing more realistic three-dimensional adjoint applications. It is first employed to efficiently predict point doses as a function of source energy for simple three-dimensional experimental geometries exposed to simulated uniform isotropic planar sources of monoenergetic electrons up to 4.0 MeV. Results are in very good agreement with experimental data. It is then used to efficiently simulate dose to a detector in a subsystem of a GPS satellite due to its natural electron environment, employing a relatively complex model of the satellite. The capability for survivability analysis of space systems is demonstrated, and results are obtained with and without variance reduction.

  8. Ab Initio Quantum Monte Carlo Simulation of the Warm Dense Electron Gas in the Thermodynamic Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornheim, Tobias; Groth, Simon; Sjostrom, Travis; Malone, Fionn D.; Foulkes, W. M. C.; Bonitz, Michael

    2016-10-01

    We perform ab initio quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations of the warm dense uniform electron gas in the thermodynamic limit. By combining QMC data with the linear response theory, we are able to remove finite-size errors from the potential energy over the substantial parts of the warm dense regime, overcoming the deficiencies of the existing finite-size corrections by Brown et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 146405 (2013)]. Extensive new QMC results for up to N =1000 electrons enable us to compute the potential energy V and the exchange-correlation free energy Fxc of the macroscopic electron gas with an unprecedented accuracy of |Δ V |/|V |,|Δ Fxc|/|F |xc˜10-3 . A comparison of our new data to the recent parametrization of Fxc by Karasiev et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 076403 (2014)] reveals significant deviations to the latter.

  9. Electron emission at very low electron impact energy: experimental and Monte-Carlo results

    CERN Document Server

    Belhaj, M.; Jbara, O.; Puech, J.; Balcon, N.; Payan, D.

    2013-04-22

    The behaviour of electron emission under electron impact at very low energy is of great importance in many applications such as high energy physics, satellites, nuclear reactors, etc. However the question of the total electron reflectivity is still in discussion. Our experimental and theoretical studies show that the total reflectivity at very low energy is far from being an obvious fact. Moreover, our results show that the yield is close to zero and not equal to one for low energy incident electron.

  10. Experimental validation of the DPM Monte Carlo code using minimally scattered electron beams in heterogeneous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetty, Indrin J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)]. E-mail: indrin@med.umich.edu; Moran, Jean M.; Nurushev, Teamor S.; McShan, Daniel L.; Fraass, Benedick A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wilderman, Scott J.; Bielajew, Alex F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2002-06-07

    A comprehensive set of measurements and calculations has been conducted to investigate the accuracy of the Dose Planning Method (DPM) Monte Carlo code for electron beam dose calculations in heterogeneous media. Measurements were made using 10 MeV and 50 MeV minimally scattered, uncollimated electron beams from a racetrack microtron. Source distributions for the Monte Carlo calculations were reconstructed from in-air ion chamber scans and then benchmarked against measurements in a homogeneous water phantom. The in-air spatial distributions were found to have FWHM of 4.7 cm and 1.3 cm, at 100 cm from the source, for the 10 MeV and 50 MeV beams respectively. Energy spectra for the electron beams were determined by simulating the components of the microtron treatment head using the code MCNP4B. Profile measurements were made using an ion chamber in a water phantom with slabs of lung or bone-equivalent materials submerged at various depths. DPM calculations are, on average, within 2% agreement with measurement for all geometries except for the 50 MeV incident on a 6 cm lung-equivalent slab. Measurements using approximately monoenergetic, 50 MeV, 'pencil-beam'-type electrons in heterogeneous media provide conditions for maximum electronic disequilibrium and hence present a stringent test of the code's electron transport physics; the agreement noted between calculation and measurement illustrates that the DPM code is capable of accurate dose calculation even under such conditions. (author)

  11. Theory of Finite Size Effects for Electronic Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations of Liquids and Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Holzmann, Markus; Morales, Miguel A; Tubmann, Norm M; Ceperley, David M; Pierleoni, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Concentrating on zero temperature Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of electronic systems, we give a general description of the theory of finite size extrapolations of energies to the thermodynamic limit based on one and two-body correlation functions. We introduce new effective procedures, such as using the potential and wavefunction split-up into long and short range functions to simplify the method and we discuss how to treat backflow wavefunctions. Then we explicitly test the accuracy of our method to correct finite size errors on example hydrogen and helium many-body systems and show that the finite size bias can be drastically reduced for even small systems.

  12. Fixed-node errors in quantum Monte Carlo: interplay of electron density and node nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Rasch, Kevin M; Mitas, Lubos

    2013-01-01

    We elucidate the origin of large differences (twofold or more) in valence fixed-node errors between the first- vs second-row atom systems for single-configuration trial wave functions. The differences are studied on a set of atoms, molecules, and Si, C solids. These systems are valence isoelectronic and have similar correlation energies, bond patterns, geometries, ground states, and symmetries. We show that the key reasons are the differences between the electron densities combined with the degree of node nonlinearities. The findings reveal how the accuracy of the quantum Monte Carlo varies across a variety of systems and provide new perspectives on the origins of the fixed-node biases.

  13. Monte Carlo analysis of electronic noise in semiconductors under sub-terahertz cyclostationary mixed fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capizzo, M.C.; Persano Adorno, D.; Zarcone, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 18, 90128, Palermo (Italy)

    2006-08-15

    This paper reports the results of Monte Carlo simulations of electronic noise in a GaAs bulk driven by two mixed high-frequency large-amplitude periodic electric fields. Under these conditions, the system response shows some peculiarities in the noise performance, such as a resonant-like enhancement of the spectra near the two frequencies of the applied fields. The relations among the frequency response and the velocity fluctuations as a function of intensities and frequencies of the sub-terahertz mixed excitation fields have been investigated. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of MLC-shaped TrueBeam electron fields benchmarked against measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, Samantha AM; Zavgorodni, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) and combined, modulated photon/electron radiotherapy (MPERT) have received increased research attention, having shown capacity for reduced low dose exposure to healthy tissue and comparable, if not improved, target coverage for a number of treatment sites. Accurate dose calculation tools are necessary for clinical treatment planning, and Monte Carlo (MC) is the gold standard for electron field simulation. With many clinics replacing older accelerators, MC source models of the new machines are needed for continued development, however, Varian has kept internal schematics of the TrueBeam confidential and electron phase-space sources have not been made available. TrueBeam electron fields are not substantially different from those generated by the Clinac 21EX, so we have modified the internal schematics of the Clinac 21EX to simulate TrueBeam electrons. BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc were used to simulate 5x5 and 20x20 cm$^2$ electron fields with MLC-shaped apertures. Secondary collimati...

  15. MONTE CARLO SIMULATION STUDY OF SURFACE ELECTRONIC EXCITATION OF NOBLE METALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.M. Li; Z.J. Ding; Q.R. Pu; Z.M. Zhang

    2002-01-01

    In this work we present a numerical simulation of REELS-spectrum for noble metals,Au and Ag. The calculation is based on an electron-surface inelastic scattering modelpreviously developed. The differential inelastic cross section is obtained fron an inho-mogeneous electron self-energy in the surface region, which provides full informationof the dependency of the total and differential cross section on the kinetic energy,the distance from the surface and the moving direction of electrons, accommodatingthe formulation to the practical situation in surface electron spectroscopes. A novelMonte Carlo simulation code of electron interaction with a surface incorporating thelocal scattering mean free path has been developed. The comparison of the simulatedREELS-spectra with the experimental measurements shows a remarkable agreement onthe spectrum shape, which then confirms that the present model for electron-surfaceinelastic .scattering is quite reasonable. The simulation has further shown the compo.nent to surface excitation due to the individual scattering processes along trajectorypart, i.e., the loss in vacuum before reflection, the loss in vacuum after reflection andloss in metal events.

  16. Quantum Monte Carlo Assessment of the Relevance of Electronic Correlations in Defects and EOS in Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, R Q; Williamson, A J; Dubois, J L; Reboredo, F A

    2008-02-07

    We have developed a highly accurate computational capability to calculate the equation of state (EOS) and defect formation energies of metallic systems. We are using a newly developed algorithm that enables the study of metallic systems with quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. To date, technical limitations have restricted the application of QMC methods to semiconductors, insulators and the homogeneous electron gas. Using this new 'QMC for metals' we can determine, for the first time, the significance of correlation effects in the EOS and in the formation energies of point defects, impurities, surfaces and interfaces in metallic systems. These calculations go beyond the state-of-the-art accuracy which is currently obtained with Density Functional Theory approaches. Such benchmark calculations can provide more accurate predictions for the EOS and the formation energies of vacancies and interstitials in simple metals. These are important parameters in determining the mechanical properties as well as the micro-structural evolution of metals in irradiated materials or under extreme conditions. We describe the development of our 'QMC for metals' code, which has been adapted to run efficiently on a variety of computer architectures including BG/L. We present results of the first accurate quantum Monte Carlo calculation of an EOS of a realistic metallic system that goes beyond the homogeneous electron gas.

  17. Monte Carlo Commissioning of Low Energy Electron Radiotherapy Beams using NXEGS Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is a report on the commissioning of low energy electron beams of a medical linear accelerator for Monte Carlo dose calculation using NXEGS software (NXEGS version 1.0.10.0, NX Medical Software, LLC. A unique feature of NXEGS is automated commissioning, a process whereby a combination of analytic and Monte Carlo methods generates beam models from dosimetric data collected in a water phantom. This study uses NXEGS to commission 6, 9, and 12 MeV electron beams of a Varian Clinac 2100C using three applicators with standard inserts. Central axis depth-dose, primary axis and diagonal beam profiles, and output factors are the measurements necessary for commissioning of the code. We present a comparison of measured dose distributions with the distributions generated by NXEGS, using confidence limits on seven measures of error. We find that confidence limits are typically less than 3% or 3 mm, but increase with increasing source to surface distance (SSD and depth at or beyond R50. We also investigate the dependence of NXEGS' performance on the size and composition of data used to commission the program, finding a weak dependence on number of dose profiles in the data set, but finding also that commissioning data need be measured at only two SSDs.

  18. \\emph{Ab initio} Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of the warm dense electron gas

    CERN Document Server

    Dornheim, Tobias; Malone, Fionn; Schoof, Tim; Sjostrom, Travis; Foulkes, W M C; Bonitz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Warm dense matter is one of the most active frontiers in plasma physics due to its relevance for dense astrophysical objects as well as for novel laboratory experiments in which matter is being strongly compressed e.g. by high-power lasers. Its description is theoretically very challenging as it contains correlated quantum electrons at finite temperature---a system that cannot be accurately modeled by standard analytical or ground state approaches. Recently several breakthroughs have been achieved in the field of fermionic quantum Monte Carlo simulations. First, it was shown that exact simulations of a finite model system ($30 \\dots 100$ electrons) is possible that avoid any simplifying approximations such as fixed nodes [Schoof {\\em et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 115}, 130402 (2015)]. Second, a novel way to accurately extrapolate these results to the thermodynamic limit was reported by Dornheim {\\em et al.} [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 117}, 156403 (2016)]. As a result, now thermodynamic results for the warm dense...

  19. Calculation of electronic properties of multilayer graphene with Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atasever, Ö., E-mail: oznnuur@gmail.com; Özdemir, B., E-mail: bozdemir@cu.edu.tr; Özdemir, M., E-mail: metoz@cu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Çukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Özdemir, M. D., E-mail: mderyaozdemir@aksaray.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Aksaray University, 68100 Aksaray (Turkey); Yarar, Z., E-mail: zyarar@mersin.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mersin University, Çiftlikköy 33343 Mersin (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    In this study, the electronic transport properties of bilayer graphene is investigated by an ensemble Monte Carlo method. The bilayer graphene has a quadratic energy dependence on wave vector near the points known as Dirac points in the reciprocal lattice. For bilayer graphene the scatterings due to acoustic and optic phonons and ionized impurities are taken into account. Velocity-time and steady state velocity-applied field curves are obtained and from the slope of velocity-field curves at low fields, the low field mobility of bilayer graphene is obtained. The dependence of mobility of bilayer graphene on temperature, electron concentration, impurity concentration, acoustic and optic deformation constants is investigated and it is observed that the most important mechanism limiting the mobility is the phonon scattering.

  20. penORNL: a parallel Monte Carlo photon and electron transport package using PENELOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekar, Kursat B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bruce W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Weber, Charles F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The parallel Monte Carlo photon and electron transport code package penORNL was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to enable advanced scanning electron microscope (SEM) simulations on high-performance computing systems. This paper discusses the implementations, capabilities and parallel performance of the new code package. penORNL uses PENELOPE for its physics calculations and provides all available PENELOPE features to the users, as well as some new features including source definitions specifically developed for SEM simulations, a pulse-height tally capability for detailed simulations of gamma and x-ray detectors, and a modified interaction forcing mechanism to enable accurate energy deposition calculations. The parallel performance of penORNL was extensively tested with several model problems, and very good linear parallel scaling was observed with up to 512 processors. penORNL, along with its new features, will be available for SEM simulations upon completion of the new pulse-height tally implementation.

  1. Modified Monte Carlo method for study of electron transport in degenerate electron gas in the presence of electron–electron interactions, application to graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borowik, Piotr, E-mail: pborow@poczta.onet.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland); Thobel, Jean-Luc, E-mail: jean-luc.thobel@iemn.univ-lille1.fr [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologies, UMR CNRS 8520, Université Lille 1, Avenue Poincaré, CS 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cédex (France); Adamowicz, Leszek, E-mail: adamo@if.pw.edu.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland)

    2017-07-15

    Standard computational methods used to take account of the Pauli Exclusion Principle into Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of electron transport in semiconductors may give unphysical results in low field regime, where obtained electron distribution function takes values exceeding unity. Modified algorithms were already proposed and allow to correctly account for electron scattering on phonons or impurities. Present paper extends this approach and proposes improved simulation scheme allowing including Pauli exclusion principle for electron–electron (e–e) scattering into MC simulations. Simulations with significantly reduced computational cost recreate correct values of the electron distribution function. Proposed algorithm is applied to study transport properties of degenerate electrons in graphene with e–e interactions. This required adapting the treatment of e–e scattering in the case of linear band dispersion relation. Hence, this part of the simulation algorithm is described in details.

  2. A Monte Carlo approach to electron contamination sources in the Saturne-25 and -41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malataras, G.; Kappas, C. [Medical Physics Department, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras, Hellas (Greece)]. E-mail: kappas@med.upatras.gr; Lovelock, D.M.J. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York City, NY (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The various components of the accelerator treatment head act as sources of contaminating electrons. The presence of contamination electrons increases the surface dose, which deteriorates the skin-sparing effect. The present study examines the sources of this 'contamination', the influence on the surface dose and the shape of the build-up curve. The Monte Carlo simulation of two linear accelerators, Saturne-25 and -41, allowed us to study the influence of electron contamination in various therapeutic energies and in different geometries. The Saturne-25 and -41 cover a wide range of therapeutic energies with nominal energies 12/23 MV and 6/15 MV, respectively. The analysis of the results shows that at a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm and a wide opening of the collimators, the main sources of contaminating electrons are the flattening filter and the air below it. The contribution of the secondary contamination electrons on the surface dose is 16% for 6 MV and 12 MV, 6% for 15 MV and 17% for 23 MV. The energy spectra of electrons coming from the flattening filter and the air below it are completely different. The air produces electrons of low energies. The mean energies of these spectra vary from 1 MeV to 2 MeV depending on the nominal energy of the photon beam. The secondary electrons generated by the flattening filter produce a wide energy spectrum with mean energies of the same order of the bremsstrahlung spectrum. The flattening filter absorbs the secondary electrons generated in the target, the primary collimator and the air inside the head. (author)

  3. A Monte Carlo approach to electron contamination sources in the Saturne-25 and -41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malataras, G.; Kappas, C.; Lovelock, D. M. J.

    2001-09-01

    The various components of the accelerator treatment head act as sources of contaminating electrons. The presence of contamination electrons increases the surface dose, which deteriorates the skin-sparing effect. The present study examines the sources of this `contamination', the influence on the surface dose and the shape of the build-up curve. The Monte Carlo simulation of two linear accelerators, Saturne-25 and -41, allowed us to study the influence of electron contamination in various therapeutic energies and in different geometries. The Saturne-25 and -41 cover a wide range of therapeutic energies with nominal energies 12/23 MV and 6/15 MV, respectively. The analysis of the results shows that at a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm and a wide opening of the collimators, the main sources of contaminating electrons are the flattening filter and the air below it. The contribution of the secondary contamination electrons on the surface dose is 16% for 6 MV and 12 MV, 6% for 15 MV and 17% for 23 MV. The energy spectra of electrons coming from the flattening filter and the air below it are completely different. The air produces electrons of low energies. The mean energies of these spectra vary from 1 MeV to 2 MeV depending on the nominal energy of the photon beam. The secondary electrons generated by the flattening filter produce a wide energy spectrum with mean energies of the same order of the bremsstrahlung spectrum. The flattening filter absorbs the secondary electrons generated in the target, the primary collimator and the air inside the head.

  4. Quantum Monte Carlo methods and strongly correlated electrons on honeycomb structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Thomas C.

    2010-12-16

    In this thesis we apply recently developed, as well as sophisticated quantum Monte Carlo methods to numerically investigate models of strongly correlated electron systems on honeycomb structures. The latter are of particular interest owing to their unique properties when simulating electrons on them, like the relativistic dispersion, strong quantum fluctuations and their resistance against instabilities. This work covers several projects including the advancement of the weak-coupling continuous time quantum Monte Carlo and its application to zero temperature and phonons, quantum phase transitions of valence bond solids in spin-1/2 Heisenberg systems using projector quantum Monte Carlo in the valence bond basis, and the magnetic field induced transition to a canted antiferromagnet of the Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice. The emphasis lies on two projects investigating the phase diagram of the SU(2) and the SU(N)-symmetric Hubbard model on the hexagonal lattice. At sufficiently low temperatures, condensed-matter systems tend to develop order. An exception are quantum spin-liquids, where fluctuations prevent a transition to an ordered state down to the lowest temperatures. Previously elusive in experimentally relevant microscopic two-dimensional models, we show by means of large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the SU(2) Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice, that a quantum spin-liquid emerges between the state described by massless Dirac fermions and an antiferromagnetically ordered Mott insulator. This unexpected quantum-disordered state is found to be a short-range resonating valence bond liquid, akin to the one proposed for high temperature superconductors. Inspired by the rich phase diagrams of SU(N) models we study the SU(N)-symmetric Hubbard Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet on the honeycomb lattice to investigate the reliability of 1/N corrections to large-N results by means of numerically exact QMC simulations. We study the melting of phases

  5. A Monte Carlo investigation of contaminant electrons due to a novel in vivo transmission detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuni, G; Jensen, J M; McCurdy, B M C

    2011-02-21

    A novel transmission detector (IBA Dosimetry, Germany) developed as an IMRT quality assurance tool, intended for in vivo patient dose measurements, is studied here. The goal of this investigation is to use Monte Carlo techniques to characterize treatment beam parameters in the presence of the detector and to compare to those of a plastic block tray (a frequently used clinical device). Particular attention is paid to the impact of the detector on electron contamination model parameters of two commercial dose calculation algorithms. The linac head together with the COMPASS transmission detector (TRD) was modeled using BEAMnrc code. To understand the effect of the TRD on treatment beams, the contaminant electron fluence, energy spectra, and angular distributions at different SSDs were analyzed for open and non-open (i.e. TRD and block tray) fields. Contaminant electrons in the BEAMnrc simulations were separated according to where they were created. Calculation of surface dose and the evaluation of contributions from contaminant electrons were performed using the DOSXYZnrc user code. The effect of the TRD on contaminant electrons model parameters in Eclipse AAA and Pinnacle(3) dose calculation algorithms was investigated. Comparisons of the fluence of contaminant electrons produced in the non-open fields versus open field show that electrons created in the non-open fields increase at shorter SSD, but most of the electrons at shorter SSD are of low energy with large angular spread. These electrons are out-scattered or absorbed in air and contribute less to surface dose at larger SSD. Calculated surface doses with the block tray are higher than those with the TRD. Contribution of contaminant electrons to dose in the buildup region increases with increasing field size. The additional contribution of electrons to surface dose increases with field size for TRD and block tray. The introduction of the TRD results in a 12% and 15% increase in the Gaussian widths used in the

  6. Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron Beams for Radiotherapy - EGS4, MCNP4b and GEANT3 Intercomparison

    CERN Document Server

    Trindade, A; Alves, C M; Chaves, A; Lopes, C; Oliveira, C; Peralta, L

    2000-01-01

    In medical radiation physics, an increasing number of Monte Carlo codes are being used, which requires intercomparison between them to evaluated the accuracy of the simulated results against benchmark experiments. The Monte Carlo code EGS4, commonly used to simulate electron beams from medical linear accelerators, was compared with GEANT3 and MCNP4b. Intercomparison of electron energy spectra, angular and spatial distribution were carried out for the Siemens KD2 linear accelerator, at beam energies of 10 and 15 MeV for a field size of 10x10 cm2. Indirect validation was performed against electron depth doses curves and beam profiles measured in a MP3-PTW water phantom using a Markus planar chamber. Monte Carlo isodose lines were reconstructed and compared to those from commercial treatment planning systems (TPS's) and with experimental data.

  7. Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron Beams for Radiotherapy - EGS4, MCNP4b and GEANT3 Intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, A.; Rodrigues, P.; Alves, C.; Chaves, A.; Lopes, M. C.; Oliveira, C.; Peralta, L.

    In medical radiation physics, an increasing number of Monte Carlo codes are being used, which requires intercomparison between them to evaluated the accuracy of the simulated results against benchmark experiments. The Monte Carlo code EGS4, commonly used to simulate electron beams from medical linear accelerators, was compared with GEANT3 and MCNP4b. Intercomparison of electron energy spectra, angular and spatial distribution were carried out for the Siemens KD2 linear accelerator, at beam energies of 10 and 15 MeV for a field size of 10x10 cm2. Indirect validation was performed against electron depth doses curves and beam profiles measured in a MP3-PTW water phantom using a Markus planar chamber. Monte Carlo isodose lines were reconstructed and compared to those from commercial treatment planning systems (TPS's) and with experimental data.

  8. A Monte Carlo model of hot electron trapping and detrapping in SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamocsai, R. L.; Porod, W.

    1991-02-01

    High-field stressing and oxide degradation of SiO2 are studied using a microscopic model of electron heating and charge trapping and detrapping. Hot electrons lead to a charge buildup in the oxide according to the dynamic trapping-detrapping model by Nissan-Cohen and co-workers [Y. Nissan-Cohen, J. Shappir, D. Frohman-Bentchkowsky, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 2252 (1985)]. Detrapping events are modeled as trap-to-band impact ionization processes initiated by high energy conduction electrons. The detailed electronic distribution function obtained from Monte Carlo transport simulations is utilized for the determination of the detrapping rates. We apply our microscopic model to the calculation of the flat-band voltage shift in silicon dioxide as a function of the electric field, and we show that our model is able to reproduce the experimental results. We also compare these results to the predictions of the empirical trapping-detrapping model which assumes a heuristic detrapping cross section. Our microscopic theory accounts for the nonlocal nature of impact ionization which leads to a dark space close to the injecting cathode, which is unaccounted for in the empirical model.

  9. Quantum Monte Carlo algorithms for electronic structure at the petascale; the endstation project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J; Ceperley, D M; Purwanto, W; Walter, E J; Krakauer, H; Zhang, S W; Kent, P.R. C; Hennig, R G; Umrigar, C; Bajdich, M; Kolorenc, J; Mitas, L

    2008-10-01

    Over the past two decades, continuum quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) has proved to be an invaluable tool for predicting of the properties of matter from fundamental principles. By solving the Schrodinger equation through a stochastic projection, it achieves the greatest accuracy and reliability of methods available for physical systems containing more than a few quantum particles. QMC enjoys scaling favorable to quantum chemical methods, with a computational effort which grows with the second or third power of system size. This accuracy and scalability has enabled scientific discovery across a broad spectrum of disciplines. The current methods perform very efficiently at the terascale. The quantum Monte Carlo Endstation project is a collaborative effort among researchers in the field to develop a new generation of algorithms, and their efficient implementations, which will take advantage of the upcoming petaflop architectures. Some aspects of these developments are discussed here. These tools will expand the accuracy, efficiency and range of QMC applicability and enable us to tackle challenges which are currently out of reach. The methods will be applied to several important problems including electronic and structural properties of water, transition metal oxides, nanosystems and ultracold atoms.

  10. COMET-PE as an Alternative to Monte Carlo for Photon and Electron Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Robert M.; Rahnema, Farzad

    2014-06-01

    Monte Carlo methods are a central component of radiotherapy treatment planning, shielding design, detector modeling, and other applications. Long calculation times, however, can limit the usefulness of these purely stochastic methods. The coarse mesh method for photon and electron transport (COMET-PE) provides an attractive alternative. By combining stochastic pre-computation with a deterministic solver, COMET-PE achieves accuracy comparable to Monte Carlo methods in only a fraction of the time. The method's implementation has been extended to 3D, and in this work, it is validated by comparison to DOSXYZnrc using a photon radiotherapy benchmark. The comparison demonstrates excellent agreement; of the voxels that received more than 10% of the maximum dose, over 97.3% pass a 2% / 2mm acceptance test and over 99.7% pass a 3% / 3mm test. Furthermore, the method is over an order of magnitude faster than DOSXYZnrc and is able to take advantage of both distributed-memory and shared-memory parallel architectures for increased performance.

  11. Monte Carlo configuration interaction applied to multipole moments, ionisation energies and electron affinities

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, J P; Paterson, M J

    2013-01-01

    The method of Monte Carlo configuration interaction (MCCI) [1,2] is applied to the calculation of multipole moments. We look at the ground and excited state dipole moments in carbon monoxide. We then consider the dipole of NO, the quadrupole of the nitrogen molecule and of BH. An octupole of methane is also calculated. We consider experimental geometries and also stretched bonds. We show that these non-variational quantities may be found to relatively good accuracy when compared with FCI results, yet using only a small fraction of the full configuration interaction space. MCCI results in the aug-cc-pVDZ basis are seen to generally have reasonably good agreement with experiment. We also investigate the performance of MCCI when applied to ionisation energies and electron affinities of atoms in an aug-cc-pVQZ basis. We compare the MCCI results with full configuration-interaction quantum Monte Carlo [3,4] and `exact' non-relativistic results [3,4]. We show that MCCI could be a useful alternative for the calculati...

  12. SU-E-T-277: Raystation Electron Monte Carlo Commissioning and Clinical Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, C; Sansourekidou, P; Pavord, D [Health-quest, Poughkeepsie, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the Raystation v4.0 Electron Monte Carlo algorithm for an Elekta Infinity linear accelerator and commission for clinical use. Methods: A total of 199 tests were performed (75 Export and Documentation, 20 PDD, 30 Profiles, 4 Obliquity, 10 Inhomogeneity, 55 MU Accuracy, and 5 Grid and Particle History). Export and documentation tests were performed with respect to MOSAIQ (Elekta AB) and RadCalc (Lifeline Software Inc). Mechanical jaw parameters and cutout magnifications were verified. PDD and profiles for open cones and cutouts were extracted and compared with water tank measurements. Obliquity and inhomogeneity for bone and air calculations were compared to film dosimetry. MU calculations for open cones and cutouts were performed and compared to both RadCalc and simple hand calculations. Grid size and particle histories were evaluated per energy for statistical uncertainty performance. Acceptability was categorized as follows: performs as expected, negligible impact on workflow, marginal impact, critical impact or safety concern, and catastrophic impact of safety concern. Results: Overall results are: 88.8% perform as expected, 10.2% negligible, 2.0% marginal, 0% critical and 0% catastrophic. Results per test category are as follows: Export and Documentation: 100% perform as expected, PDD: 100% perform as expected, Profiles: 66.7% perform as expected, 33.3% negligible, Obliquity: 100% marginal, Inhomogeneity 50% perform as expected, 50% negligible, MU Accuracy: 100% perform as expected, Grid and particle histories: 100% negligible. To achieve distributions with satisfactory smoothness level, 5,000,000 particle histories were used. Calculation time was approximately 1 hour. Conclusion: Raystation electron Monte Carlo is acceptable for clinical use. All of the issues encountered have acceptable workarounds. Known issues were reported to Raysearch and will be resolved in upcoming releases.

  13. Can electronic zoom replace magnification in mammography? A comparative Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutalonis, M; Delis, H; Pascoal, A; Spyrou, G; Costaridou, L; Panayiotakis, G

    2010-07-01

    Magnification, which is considered to be a relatively high "dose cost" mammographic technique, is a complementary examination performed on women exhibiting breast complaints or abnormalities. Particular attention is given to the imaging procedure as the primary aim is to confirm the existence of suspected abnormalities, despite the additional dose. The introduction of post-processing capabilities and the widespread use of digital mammography promoted some controversy in the last decades on whether electronic zoom performed on the derived initial screening mammogram can effectively replace this technique. This study used Monte Carlo simulation methods to derive simulated screening mammograms produced under several exposure conditions, aiming to electronically magnify and compare them to the corresponding magnification mammograms. Comparison was based on quantitative measurements of image quality, namely contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and spatial resolution. Results demonstrated that CNR was higher for geometric magnification compared to the case of electronic zooming. The percentage difference was higher for lesions of smaller radius and achieved 29% for 0.10 mm details. Although spatial resolution is maintained high in the zoomed images, when investigating microcalcifications of 0.05 mm radius or less, only with geometric magnification can they be visualised.

  14. Monte Carlo simulations of Kα source generated by hot electrons-nanobrush target interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jincui; Zheng, Jianhua; Cao, Lihua; Zhao, Zongqing; Li, Shu; Gu, Yuqiu; Liu, Jie

    2016-09-01

    We focus on the transport processes from hot electrons to Kα x-ray emission in a copper nanobrush target. The physics on the enhancement of Kα photon yield and conversion efficiency from laser to Kα x-ray ηL→Kα is studied by combining Monte Carlo simulations and previous particle-in-cell simulation results. Simulation results show that Kα photon yield and electron- Kα photon conversion efficiency ηe-→Kα from nanobrush targets rise gradually and then stay nearly constant. Kα photon yield from the structured nanobrush target increases with peak number density n0, but the yield is a little less than that from the same-size planar target when the electron temperature T =400 keV and n0=1021 cm-3 . It is because the number density of atoms and ions in the nanobrush target is almost one half of the foil target. Compared to the planar target, Kα photons after the nanobrush target are more than those before the target. Because it is easier for the electrons to enter the structured target surface, and Kα x-ray source is produced in the deeper position of the structured nanobrush target. Considering the realistic number of hot electrons produced by laser-nanobrush and -planar targets interaction, Kα photon yield in nanobrush targets has a significant enhancement of over 2-6 folds relative to laser-foil irradiation. The yield and ηL→K α from the nanobrush target are, respectively, 5.42 ×109 sr-1 and 7.32 ×10-5 when laser strength I λ2≈2 ×1018 W cm-2 μm2 . The yield and ηL→Kα decrease gradually with the laser strength, but the values are always higher than that from the planar target. Therefore, the laser-nanobrush target interaction can produce brighter and smaller-size Kα photon source, compared to a planar target.

  15. High resolution measurements of the electron scattering for applications in electron microscopy and Monte-Carlo simulations of electron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, D

    2000-01-01

    scanning electron microscope is examined. By means of the scattering at mono-crystalline samples the influence of channeling (anomalous absorption and transmission) on backscattered electron spectra is shown. Captions are given in English language. This work presents high resolution measurements of the energy and complete angular distribution of the scattering of 20 keV electrons (energy resolution 0.55%). The examinations include take-off angles close to the target surface and non-perpendicular incidences of electrons partly for the first time. The results are of interest for the understanding of fundamental scattering processes, the interpretation of signals and new detector systems in electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy. Furthermore, they are used for the verification of electron scattering models and simulations. The applied compact electrostatic spectrometers with spherical and toroidal geometries are characterized and compared. High resolution spectra are obtained by deconvolution of the measu...

  16. Monte Carlo dose calculation improvements for low energy electron beams using eMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Michael K; Frei, Daniel; Volken, Werner; Neuenschwander, Hans; Born, Ernst J; Manser, Peter

    2010-08-21

    The electron Monte Carlo (eMC) dose calculation algorithm in Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems) is based on the macro MC method and is able to predict dose distributions for high energy electron beams with high accuracy. However, there are limitations for low energy electron beams. This work aims to improve the accuracy of the dose calculation using eMC for 4 and 6 MeV electron beams of Varian linear accelerators. Improvements implemented into the eMC include (1) improved determination of the initial electron energy spectrum by increased resolution of mono-energetic depth dose curves used during beam configuration; (2) inclusion of all the scrapers of the applicator in the beam model; (3) reduction of the maximum size of the sphere to be selected within the macro MC transport when the energy of the incident electron is below certain thresholds. The impact of these changes in eMC is investigated by comparing calculated dose distributions for 4 and 6 MeV electron beams at source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 and 110 cm with applicators ranging from 6 x 6 to 25 x 25 cm(2) of a Varian Clinac 2300C/D with the corresponding measurements. Dose differences between calculated and measured absolute depth dose curves are reduced from 6% to less than 1.5% for both energies and all applicators considered at SSD of 100 cm. Using the original eMC implementation, absolute dose profiles at depths of 1 cm, d(max) and R50 in water lead to dose differences of up to 8% for applicators larger than 15 x 15 cm(2) at SSD 100 cm. Those differences are now reduced to less than 2% for all dose profiles investigated when the improved version of eMC is used. At SSD of 110 cm the dose difference for the original eMC version is even more pronounced and can be larger than 10%. Those differences are reduced to within 2% or 2 mm with the improved version of eMC. In this work several enhancements were made in the eMC algorithm leading to significant improvements in the accuracy of the dose

  17. Quantum Monte Carlo study of the itinerant-localized model of strongly correlated electrons: Spin-spin correlation functions

    OpenAIRE

    Ivantsov, Ilya; Ferraz, Alvaro; Kochetov, Evgenii

    2016-01-01

    We perform quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the itinerant-localized periodic Kondo-Heisenberg model for the underdoped cuprates to calculate the associated spin correlation functions. The strong electron correlations are shown to play a key role in the abrupt destruction of the quasi long-range antiferromagnetic order in the lightly doped regime.

  18. Quantum Monte Carlo study of the itinerant-localized model of strongly correlated electrons: Spin-spin correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivantsov, Ilya; Ferraz, Alvaro; Kochetov, Evgenii

    2016-12-01

    We perform quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the itinerant-localized periodic Kondo-Heisenberg model for the underdoped cuprates to calculate the associated spin correlation functions. The strong electron correlations are shown to play a key role in the abrupt destruction of the quasi-long-range antiferromagnetic order in the lightly doped regime.

  19. Comparison of analytical and Monte Carlo calculations of multi-photon effects in bremsstrahlung emission by high-energy electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangiarotti, Alessio; Sona, Pietro; Ballestrero, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Approximate analytical calculations of multi-photon effects in the spectrum of total radiated energy by high-energy electrons crossing thin targets are compared to the results of Monte Carlo type simulations. The limits of validity of the analytical expressions found in the literature are establi...

  20. Boltzmann equation analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in N2-O2 streamer discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dujko, S.; Ebert, U.; White, R.D.; Petrović, Z.L.

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of electron transport in N$_{2}$-O$_{2}$ mixtures has been carried out using a multi term theory for solving the Boltzmann equation and Monte Carlo simulation technique instead of conventional two-term theory often employed in plasma modeling community. We focus on the

  1. Comparison of analytical and Monte Carlo calculations of multi-photon effects in bremsstrahlung emission by high-energy electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangiarotti, A. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, Coimbra (Portugal); Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Sona, P., E-mail: pietro.sona@fi.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Polo Scientifico, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Ballestrero, S. [Department of Physics University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg (South Africa); CERN PH/ADT, Geneve (Switzerland); Uggerhoj, U.I.; Andersen, K.K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    Approximate analytical calculations of multi-photon effects in the spectrum of total radiated energy by high-energy electrons crossing thin targets are compared to the results of Monte Carlo type simulations. The limits of validity of the analytical expressions found in the literature are established. The separate contributions to spectral distortion of electromagnetic processes other than bremsstrahlung are also studied in detail.

  2. Radiation induced currents in parallel plate ionization chambers: measurement and Monte Carlo simulation for megavoltage photon and electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Wamied; Seuntjens, Jan P; Verhaegen, Frank; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2006-09-01

    Polarity effects in ionization chambers are caused by a radiation induced current, also known as Compton current, which arises as a charge imbalance due to charge deposition in electrodes of ionization chambers. We used a phantom-embedded extrapolation chamber (PEEC) for measurements of Compton current in megavoltage photon and electron beams. Electron contamination of photon beams and photon contamination of electron beams have a negligible effect on the measured Compton current. To allow for a theoretical understanding of the Compton current produced in the PEEC effect we carried out Monte Carlo calculations with a modified user code, the COMPTON/ EGSnrc. The Monte Carlo calculated COMPTON currents agree well with measured data for both photon and electron beams; the calculated polarity correction factors, on the other hand, do not agree with measurement results. The conclusions reached for the PEEC can be extended to parallel-plate ionization chambers in general.

  3. ITS Version 6 : the integrated TIGER series of coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo transport codes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Brian Claude; Kensek, Ronald Patrick; Laub, Thomas William

    2008-04-01

    ITS is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of lineartime-independent coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Our goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects one of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with an input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and internal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 6, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 5.0 codes, and (2) conversion to Fortran 90. The general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through memory allocation to reduce the need for users to modify and recompile the code.

  4. Monte Carlo computer simulations and electron microscopy of colloidal cluster formation via emulsion droplet evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ingmar; Fortini, Andrea; Wagner, Claudia Simone; Wittemann, Alexander; Schmidt, Matthias

    2011-12-01

    We consider a theoretical model for a binary mixture of colloidal particles and spherical emulsion droplets. The hard sphere colloids interact via additional short-ranged attraction and long-ranged repulsion. The droplet-colloid interaction is an attractive well at the droplet surface, which induces the Pickering effect. The droplet-droplet interaction is a hard-core interaction. The droplets shrink in time, which models the evaporation of the dispersed (oil) phase, and we use Monte Carlo simulations for the dynamics. In the experiments, polystyrene particles were assembled using toluene droplets as templates. The arrangement of the particles on the surface of the droplets was analyzed with cryogenic field emission scanning electron microscopy. Before evaporation of the oil, the particle distribution on the droplet surface was found to be disordered in experiments, and the simulations reproduce this effect. After complete evaporation, ordered colloidal clusters are formed that are stable against thermal fluctuations. Both in the simulations and with field emission scanning electron microscopy, we find stable packings that range from doublets, triplets, and tetrahedra to complex polyhedra of colloids. The simulated cluster structures and size distribution agree well with the experimental results. We also simulate hierarchical assembly in a mixture of tetrahedral clusters and droplets, and find supercluster structures with morphologies that are more complex than those of clusters of single particles.

  5. Path-integral Monte Carlo simulations for electronic dynamics on molecular chains. II. Transport across impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Lothar; Ankerhold, Joachim

    2005-05-01

    Electron transfer (ET) across molecular chains including an impurity is studied based on a recently improved real-time path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) approach [L. Mühlbacher, J. Ankerhold, and C. Escher, J. Chem. Phys. 121 12696 (2004)]. The reduced electronic dynamics is studied for various bridge lengths and defect site energies. By determining intersite hopping rates from PIMC simulations up to moderate times, the relaxation process in the extreme long-time limit is captured within a sequential transfer model. The total transfer rate is extracted and shown to be enhanced for certain defect site energies. Superexchange turns out to be relevant for extreme gap energies only and then gives rise to different dynamical signatures for high- and low-lying defects. Further, it is revealed that the entire bridge compound approaches a steady state on a much shorter time scale than that related to the total transfer. This allows for a simplified description of ET along donor-bridge-acceptor systems in the long-time range.

  6. Comparison of measured and Monte Carlo calculated dose distributions in inhomogeneous phantoms in clinical electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, R.; Olivares, M.; DeBlois, F.; Podgorsak, E. B.; Kawrakow, I.; Seuntjens, J.

    2003-08-01

    Calculations of dose distributions in heterogeneous phantoms in clinical electron beams, carried out using the fast voxel Monte Carlo (MC) system XVMC and the conventional MC code EGSnrc, were compared with measurements. Irradiations were performed using the 9 MeV and 15 MeV beams from a Varian Clinac-18 accelerator with a 10 × 10 cm2 applicator and an SSD of 100 cm. Depth doses were measured with thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques (TLD 700) in phantoms consisting of slabs of Solid WaterTM (SW) and bone and slabs of SW and lung tissue-equivalent materials. Lateral profiles in water were measured using an electron diode at different depths behind one and two immersed aluminium rods. The accelerator was modelled using the EGS4/BEAM system and optimized phase-space files were used as input to the EGSnrc and the XVMC calculations. Also, for the XVMC, an experiment-based beam model was used. All measurements were corrected by the EGSnrc-calculated stopping power ratios. Overall, there is excellent agreement between the corrected experimental and the two MC dose distributions. Small remaining discrepancies may be due to the non-equivalence between physical and simulated tissue-equivalent materials and to detector fluence perturbation effect correction factors that were calculated for the 9 MeV beam at selected depths in the heterogeneous phantoms.

  7. Comparison of measured and Monte Carlo calculated dose distributions in inhomogeneous phantoms in clinical electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doucet, R [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, 1650 Ave Cedar, Montreal H3G 1A4 (Canada); Olivares, M [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, 1650 Ave Cedar, Montreal H3G 1A4 (Canada); DeBlois, F [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, 1650 Ave Cedar, Montreal H3G 1A4 (Canada); Podgorsak, E B [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, 1650 Ave Cedar, Montreal H3G 1A4 (Canada); Kawrakow, I [National Research Council Canada, Ionizing Radiation Standards Group, Ottawa K1A 0R6, Canada (Canada); Seuntjens, J [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, 1650 Ave Cedar, Montreal H3G 1A4 (Canada)

    2003-08-07

    Calculations of dose distributions in heterogeneous phantoms in clinical electron beams, carried out using the fast voxel Monte Carlo (MC) system XVMC and the conventional MC code EGSnrc, were compared with measurements. Irradiations were performed using the 9 MeV and 15 MeV beams from a Varian Clinac-18 accelerator with a 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} applicator and an SSD of 100 cm. Depth doses were measured with thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques (TLD 700) in phantoms consisting of slabs of Solid Water{sup TM} (SW) and bone and slabs of SW and lung tissue-equivalent materials. Lateral profiles in water were measured using an electron diode at different depths behind one and two immersed aluminium rods. The accelerator was modelled using the EGS4/BEAM system and optimized phase-space files were used as input to the EGSnrc and the XVMC calculations. Also, for the XVMC, an experiment-based beam model was used. All measurements were corrected by the EGSnrc-calculated stopping power ratios. Overall, there is excellent agreement between the corrected experimental and the two MC dose distributions. Small remaining discrepancies may be due to the non-equivalence between physical and simulated tissue-equivalent materials and to detector fluence perturbation effect correction factors that were calculated for the 9 MeV beam at selected depths in the heterogeneous phantoms.

  8. Specific Absorbed Fractions of Electrons and Photons for Rad-HUMAN Phantom Using Monte Carlo Method

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wen; Long, Peng-cheng; Hu, Li-qin

    2014-01-01

    The specific absorbed fractions (SAF) for self- and cross-irradiation are effective tools for the internal dose estimation of inhalation and ingestion intakes of radionuclides. A set of SAFs of photon and electron were calculated using the Rad-HUMAN phantom, a computational voxel phantom of Chinese adult female and created using the color photographic image of the Chinese Visible Human (CVH) data set. The model can represent most of Chinese adult female anatomical characteristics and can be taken as an individual phantom to investigate the difference of internal dose with Caucasians. In this study, the emission of mono-energetic photons and electrons of 10keV to 4MeV energy were calculated using the Monte Carlo particle transport calculation code MCNP. Results were compared with the values from ICRP reference and ORNL models. The results showed that SAF from Rad-HUMAN have the similar trends but larger than those from the other two models. The differences were due to the racial and anatomical differences in o...

  9. Specific absorbed fractions of electrons and photons for Rad-HUMAN phantom using Monte Carlo method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen; CHENG Meng-Yun; LONG Peng-Cheng; HU Li-Qin

    2015-01-01

    The specific absorbed fractions (SAF) for self-and cross-irradiation are effective tools for the internal dose estimation of inhalation and ingestion intakes of radionuclides.A set of SAFs of photons and electrons were calculated using the Rad-HUMAN phantom,which is a computational voxel phantom of a Chinese adult female that was created using the color photographic image of the Chinese Visible Human (CVH) data set by the FDS Team.The model can represent most Chinese adult female anatomical characteristics and can be taken as an individual phantom to investigate the difference of internal dose with Caucasians.In this study,the emission of mono-energetic photons and electrons of 10 keV to 4 MeV energy were calculated using the Monte Carlo particle transport calculation code MCNP.Results were compared with the values from ICRP reference and ORNL models.The results showed that SAF from the Rad-HUMAN have similar trends but are larger than those from the other two models.The differences were due to the racial and anatomical differences in organ mass and inter-organ distance.The SAFs based on the Rad-HUMAN phantom provide an accurate and reliable data for internal radiation dose calculations for Chinese females.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of electron beams from an accelerator head using PENELOPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempau, J.; Sánchez-Reyes, A.; Salvat, F.; Oulad ben Tahar, H.; Jiang, S. B.; Fernández-Varea, J. M.

    2001-04-01

    The Monte Carlo code PENELOPE has been used to simulate electron beams from a Siemens Mevatron KDS linac with nominal energies of 6, 12 and 18 MeV. Owing to its accuracy, which stems from that of the underlying physical interaction models, PENELOPE is suitable for simulating problems of interest to the medical physics community. It includes a geometry package that allows the definition of complex quadric geometries, such as those of irradiation instruments, in a straightforward manner. Dose distributions in water simulated with PENELOPE agree well with experimental measurements using a silicon detector and a monitoring ionization chamber. Insertion of a lead slab in the incident beam at the surface of the water phantom produces sharp variations in the dose distributions, which are correctly reproduced by the simulation code. Results from PENELOPE are also compared with those of equivalent simulations with the EGS4-based user codes BEAM and DOSXYZ. Angular and energy distributions of electrons and photons in the phase-space plane (at the downstream end of the applicator) obtained from both simulation codes are similar, although significant differences do appear in some cases. These differences, however, are shown to have a negligible effect on the calculated dose distributions. Various practical aspects of the simulations, such as the calculation of statistical uncertainties and the effect of the `latent' variance in the phase-space file, are discussed in detail.

  11. Denoising of electron beam Monte Carlo dose distributions using digital filtering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, Joseph O.

    2000-07-01

    The Monte Carlo (MC) method has long been viewed as the ultimate dose distribution computational technique. The inherent stochastic dose fluctuations (i.e. noise), however, have several important disadvantages: noise will affect estimates of all the relevant dosimetric and radiobiological indices, and noise will degrade the resulting dose contour visualizations. We suggest the use of a post-processing denoising step to reduce statistical fluctuations and also improve dose contour visualization. We report the results of applying four different two-dimensional digital smoothing filters to two-dimensional dose images. The Integrated Tiger Series MC code was used to generate 10 MeV electron beam dose distributions at various depths in two different phantoms. The observed qualitative effects of filtering include: (a) the suppression of voxel-to-voxel (high-frequency) noise and (b) the resulting contour plots are visually more comprehensible. Drawbacks include, in some cases, slight blurring of penumbra near the surface and slight blurring of other very sharp real dosimetric features. Of the four digital filters considered here, one, a filter based on a local least-squares principle, appears to suppress noise with negligible degradation of real dosimetric features. We conclude that denoising of electron beam MC dose distributions is feasible and will yield improved dosimetric reliability and improved visualization of dose distributions.

  12. Denoising of electron beam Monte Carlo dose distributions using digital filtering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deasy, Joseph O. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 510 So. Kingshighway Blvd, St Louis, MO 63110 (United States). E-mail: deasy at radonc.wustl.edu

    2000-07-01

    The Monte Carlo (MC) method has long been viewed as the ultimate dose distribution computational technique. The inherent stochastic dose fluctuations (i.e. noise), however, have several important disadvantages: noise will affect estimates of all the relevant dosimetric and radiobiological indices, and noise will degrade the resulting dose contour visualizations. We suggest the use of a post-processing denoising step to reduce statistical fluctuations and also improve dose contour visualization. We report the results of applying four different two-dimensional digital smoothing filters to two-dimensional dose images. The Integrated Tiger Series MC code was used to generate 10 MeV electron beam dose distributions at various depths in two different phantoms. The observed qualitative effects of filtering include: (a) the suppression of voxel-to-voxel (high-frequency) noise and (b) the resulting contour plots are visually more comprehensible. Drawbacks include, in some cases, slight blurring of penumbra near the surface and slight blurring of other very sharp real dosimetric features. Of the four digital filters considered here, one, a filter based on a local least-squares principle, appears to suppress noise with negligible degradation of real dosimetric features. We conclude that denoising of electron beam MC dose distributions is feasible and will yield improved dosimetric reliability and improved visualization of dose distributions. (author)

  13. Quantum Monte Carlo Treatment of the Charge Transfer and Diradical Electronic Character in a Retinal Chromophore Minimal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Andrea; Coccia, Emanuele; Gozem, Samer; Olivucci, Massimo; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2015-03-10

    The penta-2,4-dieniminium cation (PSB3) displays similar ground state and first excited state potential energy features as those of the retinal protonated Schiff base (RPSB) chromophore in rhodopsin. Recently, PSB3 has been used to benchmark several electronic structure methods, including highly correlated multireference wave function approaches, highlighting the necessity to accurately describe the electronic correlation in order to obtain reliable properties even along the ground state (thermal) isomerization paths. In this work, we apply two quantum Monte Carlo approaches, the variational Monte Carlo and the lattice regularized diffusion Monte Carlo, to study the energetics and electronic properties of PSB3 along representative minimum energy paths and scans related to its thermal cis–trans isomerization. Quantum Monte Carlo is used in combination with the Jastrow antisymmetrized geminal power ansatz, which guarantees an accurate and balanced description of the static electronic correlation thanks to the multiconfigurational nature of the antisymmetrized geminal power term, and of the dynamical correlation, due to the presence of the Jastrow factor explicitly depending on electron–electron distances. Along the two ground state isomerization minimum energy paths of PSB3, CASSCF calculations yield wave functions having either charge transfer or diradical character in proximity of the two transition state configurations. Here, we observe that at the quantum Monte Carlo level of theory, only the transition state with charge transfer character can be located. The conical intersection, which becomes highly sloped, is observed only if the path connecting the two original CASSCF transition states is extended beyond the diradical one, namely by increasing the bond-length-alternation (BLA). These findings are in good agreement with the results obtained by MRCISD+Q calculations, and they demonstrate the importance of having an accurate description of the static and

  14. Electronic excitations in a dielectric continuum solvent with quantum Monte Carlo: Acrolein in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Franca Maria; Filippi, Claudia; Amovilli, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    We investigate here the vertical n → π* and π → π* transitions of s-trans-acrolein in aqueous solution by means of a polarizable continuum model (PCM) we have developed for the treatment of the solute at the quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) level of the theory. We employ the QMC approach which allows us to work with highly correlated electronic wave functions for both the solute ground and excited states and, to study the vertical transitions in the solvent, adopt the commonly used scheme of considering fast and slow dielectric polarization. To perform calculations in a non-equilibrium solvation regime for the solute excited state, we add a correction to the global dielectric polarization charge density, obtained self consistently with the solute ground-state wave function by assuming a linear-response scheme. For the solvent polarization in the field of the solute in the ground state, we use the static dielectric constant while, for the electronic dielectric polarization, we employ the solvent refractive index evaluated at the same frequency of the photon absorbed by the solute for the transition. This choice is shown to be better than adopting the most commonly used value of refractive index measured in the region of visible radiation. Our QMC calculations show that, for standard cavities, the solvatochromic shifts obtained with the PCM are underestimated, even though of the correct sign, for both transitions of acrolein in water. Only by reducing the size of the cavity to values where more than one electron is escaped to the solvent region, we regain the experimental shift for the n → π* case and also improve considerably the shift for the π → π* transition.

  15. Electronic excitations in a dielectric continuum solvent with quantum Monte Carlo: Acrolein in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floris, Franca Maria, E-mail: floris@dcci.unipi.it; Amovilli, Claudio [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa, Via Risorgimento 35, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Filippi, Claudia [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2014-01-21

    We investigate here the vertical n → π{sup *} and π → π{sup *} transitions of s-trans-acrolein in aqueous solution by means of a polarizable continuum model (PCM) we have developed for the treatment of the solute at the quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) level of the theory. We employ the QMC approach which allows us to work with highly correlated electronic wave functions for both the solute ground and excited states and, to study the vertical transitions in the solvent, adopt the commonly used scheme of considering fast and slow dielectric polarization. To perform calculations in a non-equilibrium solvation regime for the solute excited state, we add a correction to the global dielectric polarization charge density, obtained self consistently with the solute ground-state wave function by assuming a linear-response scheme. For the solvent polarization in the field of the solute in the ground state, we use the static dielectric constant while, for the electronic dielectric polarization, we employ the solvent refractive index evaluated at the same frequency of the photon absorbed by the solute for the transition. This choice is shown to be better than adopting the most commonly used value of refractive index measured in the region of visible radiation. Our QMC calculations show that, for standard cavities, the solvatochromic shifts obtained with the PCM are underestimated, even though of the correct sign, for both transitions of acrolein in water. Only by reducing the size of the cavity to values where more than one electron is escaped to the solvent region, we regain the experimental shift for the n → π{sup *} case and also improve considerably the shift for the π → π{sup *} transition.

  16. Computational Dosimetry for Electron Microbeams: Monte-Carlo Track Simulation with Confocal Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John H.; Wilson, W E.; Lynch, D J.; Resat, Marianne S.; Trease, Harold E.

    2001-10-15

    Both in vitro and in vivo experiments show that cells that do not receive energy directly from the radiation field (bystanders) respond to radiation exposure. This effect is most easily demonstrated with radiation fields composed of particles with high linear energy transfer (LET) that traverse only a few cells before they are stopped. Even at a moderate fluence of high-LET radiation only a small fraction of cells in the irradiated population are hit; hence, many bystanders are present. Low-LET radiation tends to generate a homogeneous distribution of dose at the cellular level so that identifying bystanders is much more difficult than in experiments with the same fluence of high-LET radiation. Experiments are underway at several laboratories to characterize bystander responses induced by low-LET radiation. At the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, experiments of this type are being carried out with an electron microbeam. A cell selected to receive energy directly from the irradiation source is placed over a hole in a mask that covers an electron gun. Monte Carlo simulations by Miller et al.(1) suggest that individual mammalian cells in a confluent monolayer could be targeted for irradiation by 25 to 100 keV electrons with minimal dose leakage to their neighbors. These calculations were based on a simple model of the cellular monolayer in which cells were assumed to be cylindrically symmetric with concentric cytoplasm and nucleus. Radial profiles, the lateral extent of cytoplasm and nucleus as a function of depth into a cell, were obtained from confocal microscopy of HeLa-cell monolayers.

  17. Correlation of electron transport and photocatalysis of nanocrystalline clusters studied by Monte-Carlo continuity random walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoshun; Li, Ziqiang; Zhao, Xiujian

    2015-02-21

    In this research, Monte-Carlo Continuity Random Walking (MC-RW) model was used to study the relation between electron transport and photocatalysis of nano-crystalline (nc) clusters. The effects of defect energy disorder, spatial disorder of material structure, electron density, and interfacial transfer/recombination on the electron transport and the photocatalysis were studied. Photocatalytic activity is defined as 1/τ from a statistical viewpoint with τ being the electron average lifetime. Based on the MC-RW simulation, a clear physical and chemical "picture" was given for the photocatalytic kinetic analysis of nc-clusters. It is shown that the increase of defect energy disorder and material spatial structural disorder, such as the decrease of defect trap number, the increase of crystallinity, the increase of particle size, and the increase of inter-particle connection, can enhance photocatalytic activity through increasing electron transport ability. The increase of electron density increases the electron Fermi level, which decreases the activation energy for electron de-trapping from traps to extending states, and correspondingly increases electron transport ability and photocatalytic activity. Reducing recombination of electrons and holes can increase electron transport through the increase of electron density and then increases the photocatalytic activity. In addition to the electron transport, the increase of probability for electrons to undergo photocatalysis can increase photocatalytic activity through the increase of the electron interfacial transfer speed.

  18. Thyroid cell irradiation by radioiodines: a new Monte Carlo electron track-structure code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champion, Christophe [Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz (France). Lab. de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions]. E-mail: champion@univ-metz.fr; Elbast, Mouhamad; Colas-Linhart, Nicole [Universite Paris 7 (France). Faculte de Medecine. Lab. de Biophysique; Ting-Di Wu [INSERM U759, Orsay (France). Institut Curie Recherche. Imagerie Integrative

    2007-09-15

    The most significant impact of the Chernobyl accident is the increased incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were exposed to short-lived radioiodines and 131-iodine. In order to accurately estimate the radiation dose provided by these radioiodines, it is necessary to know where iodine is incorporated. To do that, the distribution at the cellular level of newly organified iodine in the immature rat thyroid was performed using secondary ion mass microscopy (NanoSIMS{sup 50}). Actual dosimetric models take only into account the averaged energy and range of beta particles of the radio-elements and may, therefore, imperfectly describe the real distribution of dose deposit at the microscopic level around the point sources. Our approach is radically different since based on a track-structure Monte Carlo code allowing following-up of electrons down to low energies ({approx}= 10 eV) what permits a nanometric description of the irradiation physics. The numerical simulations were then performed by modelling the complete disintegrations of the short-lived iodine isotopes as well as of {sup 131}I in new born rat thyroids in order to take into account accurate histological and biological data for the thyroid gland. (author)

  19. A backward Monte-Carlo method for time-dependent runaway electron simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guannan; del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego

    2017-09-01

    Kinetic descriptions of runaway electrons (REs) are usually based on Fokker-Planck models that determine the probability distribution function of REs in 2-dimensional momentum space. Despite the simplification involved, the Fokker-Planck equation can rarely be solved analytically and direct numerical approaches [e.g., continuum and particle-based Monte Carlo (MC)] can be time consuming, especially in the computation of asymptotic-type observables including the runaway probability, the slowing-down and runaway mean times, and the energy limit probability. Here, we present a novel backward MC approach to these problems based on backward stochastic differential equations that describe the dynamics of the runaway probability by means of the Feynman-Kac theory. The key ingredient of the backward MC algorithm is to place all the particles in a runaway state and simulate them backward from the terminal time to the initial time. As such, our approach can provide much faster convergence than direct MC methods (by significantly reducing the number of particles required to achieve a prescribed accuracy) while at the same time maintaining the advantages of particle-based methods (compared to continuum approaches). The proposed algorithm is unconditionally stable and can be parallelized as easy as the direct MC method, and its extension to dimensions higher than two is straightforward, thus paving the way for conducting large-scale RE simulation.

  20. Consequences of light absorptance in calculating electron transport rate of desert and succulent plants

    OpenAIRE

    Stemke, JA; Santiago, LS

    2011-01-01

    The proportional light absorptance by photosynthetic tissue (α) is used with chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence methods to calculate electron transport rate (ETR). Although a value of α of 0.84 is often used as a standard for calculating ETR, many succulent plant species and species with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) have photosynthetic tissues that vary greatly in color or are highly reflective, and could have values of α that differ from 0.84, thus affecting the calculation of ETR. We meas...

  1. Statistical Exploration of Electronic Structure of Molecules from Quantum Monte-Carlo Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat, Mr; Zubarev, Dmitry; Lester, Jr., William A.

    2010-12-22

    In this report, we present results from analysis of Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulation data with the goal of determining internal structure of a 3N-dimensional phase space of an N-electron molecule. We are interested in mining the simulation data for patterns that might be indicative of the bond rearrangement as molecules change electronic states. We examined simulation output that tracks the positions of two coupled electrons in the singlet and triplet states of an H2 molecule. The electrons trace out a trajectory, which was analyzed with a number of statistical techniques. This project was intended to address the following scientific questions: (1) Do high-dimensional phase spaces characterizing electronic structure of molecules tend to cluster in any natural way? Do we see a change in clustering patterns as we explore different electronic states of the same molecule? (2) Since it is hard to understand the high-dimensional space of trajectories, can we project these trajectories to a lower dimensional subspace to gain a better understanding of patterns? (3) Do trajectories inherently lie in a lower-dimensional manifold? Can we recover that manifold? After extensive statistical analysis, we are now in a better position to respond to these questions. (1) We definitely see clustering patterns, and differences between the H2 and H2tri datasets. These are revealed by the pamk method in a fairly reliable manner and can potentially be used to distinguish bonded and non-bonded systems and get insight into the nature of bonding. (2) Projecting to a lower dimensional subspace ({approx}4-5) using PCA or Kernel PCA reveals interesting patterns in the distribution of scalar values, which can be related to the existing descriptors of electronic structure of molecules. Also, these results can be immediately used to develop robust tools for analysis of noisy data obtained during QMC simulations (3) All dimensionality reduction and estimation techniques that we tried seem to

  2. Total skin electron therapy treatment verification: Monte Carlo simulation and beam characteristics of large non-standard electron fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavon, Ester Carrasco [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Sanchez-Doblado, Francisco [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Leal, Antonio [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Capote, Roberto [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Lagares, Juan Ignacio [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Perucha, Maria [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Arrans, Rafael [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain)

    2003-09-07

    Total skin electron therapy (TSET) is a complex technique which requires non-standard measurements and dosimetric procedures. This paper investigates an essential first step towards TSET Monte Carlo (MC) verification. The non-standard 6 MeV 40 x 40 cm{sup 2} electron beam at a source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm as well as its horizontal projection behind a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) screen to SSD = 380 cm were evaluated. The EGS4 OMEGA-BEAM code package running on a Linux home made 47 PCs cluster was used for the MC simulations. Percentage depth-dose curves and profiles were calculated and measured experimentally for the 40 x 40 cm{sup 2} field at both SSD = 100 cm and patient surface SSD = 380 cm. The output factor (OF) between the reference 40 x 40 cm{sup 2} open field and its horizontal projection as TSET beam at SSD = 380 cm was also measured for comparison with MC results. The accuracy of the simulated beam was validated by the good agreement to within 2% between measured relative dose distributions, including the beam characteristic parameters (R{sub 50}, R{sub 80}, R{sub 100}, R{sub p}, E{sub 0}) and the MC calculated results. The energy spectrum, fluence and angular distribution at different stages of the beam (at SSD = 100 cm, at SSD = 364.2 cm, behind the PMMA beam spoiler screen and at treatment surface SSD = 380 cm) were derived from MC simulations. Results showed a final decrease in mean energy of almost 56% from the exit window to the treatment surface. A broader angular distribution (FWHM of the angular distribution increased from 13deg at SSD 100 cm to more than 30deg at the treatment surface) was fully attributable to the PMMA beam spoiler screen. OF calculations and measurements agreed to less than 1%. The effect of changing the electron energy cut-off from 0.7 MeV to 0.521 MeV and air density fluctuations in the bunker which could affect the MC results were shown to have a negligible impact on the beam fluence distributions. Results

  3. Evaluation of the usefulness of the electron Monte Carlo algorithm for planning radiotherapy with the use of electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukomska, Sandra; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Zawadzka, Anna; Gruda, Mariusz; Giżyńska, Marta; Jankowska, Anna; Piziorska, Maria

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to verify the accuracy of calculations of dose distributions for electron beams performed using the electron Monte Carlo (eMC) v.10.0.28 algorithm implemented in the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems). Implementation of the objective of the study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage the influence of several parameters defined by the user on the calculation accuracy was assessed. After selecting a set of parameters for which the best results were obtained a series of tests were carried. The tests were carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the Polish Society of Medical Physics (PSMP). The calculation and measurement of dose rate under reference conditions for semi quadratic and shaped fields were compared by individual cut-outs. We compared the calculated and measured percent depth doses, profiles and output factors for beams with an energy of 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 MeV, for semi quadratic fields and for three different SSDs 100, 110, and 120 cm. All tests were carried out for beams generated in the Varian 2300CD Clinac linear accelerator. The results obtained during the first stage of the study demonstrated that the highest compliance between the calculations and measurements were obtained for the mean statistical uncertainty equal to 1, and the parameter responsible for smoothing the statistical noise defined as medium. Comparisons were made showing similar compliance calculations and measurements for the calculation grid of 0.1 cm and 0.25 cm and therefore the remaining part of the study was carried out for these two grids. In stage 2 it was demonstrated that the use of calculation grid of 0.1 cm allows for greater compliance of calculations and measurements. For energy 12, 15 and 18 MeV discrepancies between calculations and measurements, in most cases, did not exceed the PSMP action levels. The biggest differences between measurements and calculations were obtained for 6 MeV energy, for

  4. Validation of total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) technique dosimetry data by Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevelsky, Alexander; Borzov, Egor; Daniel, Shahar; Bar-Deroma, Rachel

    2016-07-08

    Total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) is a complex technique which requires many nonstandard measurements and dosimetric procedures. The purpose of this work was to validate measured dosimetry data by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using EGSnrc-based codes (BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc). Our MC simulations consisted of two major steps. In the first step, the incident electron beam parameters (energy spectrum, FWHM, mean angular spread) were adjusted to match the measured data (PDD and profile) at SSD = 100 cm for an open field. In the second step, these parameters were used to calculate dose distributions at the treatment distance of 400 cm. MC simulations of dose distributions from single and dual fields at the treatment distance were performed in a water phantom. Dose distribution from the full treatment with six dual fields was simulated in a CT-based anthropomorphic phantom. MC calculations were compared to the available set of measurements used in clinical practice. For one direct field, MC calculated PDDs agreed within 3%/1 mm with the measurements, and lateral profiles agreed within 3% with the measured data. For the OF, the measured and calculated results were within 2% agreement. The optimal angle of 17° was confirmed for the dual field setup. Dose distribution from the full treatment with six dual fields was simulated in a CT-based anthropomorphic phantom. The MC-calculated multiplication factor (B12-factor), which relates the skin dose for the whole treatment to the dose from one calibration field, for setups with and without degrader was 2.9 and 2.8, respectively. The measured B12-factor was 2.8 for both setups. The difference between calculated and measured values was within 3.5%. It was found that a degrader provides more homogeneous dose distribution. The measured X-ray contamination for the full treatment was 0.4%; this is compared to the 0.5% X-ray contamination obtained with the MC calculation. Feasibility of MC simulation in an anthropomorphic phantom

  5. SU-E-T-489: Quantum versus Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo Simulations of Low Energy Electron Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, R; Kawrakow, I

    2012-06-01

    Widely-used classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations of low energy electron transport neglect the quantum nature of electrons; however, at sub-1 keV energies quantum effects have the potential to become significant. This work compares quantum and classical simulations within a simplified model of electron transport in water. Electron transport is modeled in water droplets using quantum mechanical (QM) and classical trajectory Monte Carlo (MC) methods. Water droplets are modeled as collections of point scatterers representing water molecules from which electrons may be isotropically scattered. The role of inelastic scattering is investigated by introducing absorption. QM calculations involve numerically solving a system of coupled equations for the electron wavefield incident on each scatterer. A minimum distance between scatterers is introduced to approximate structured water. The average QM water droplet incoherent cross section is compared with the MC cross section; a relative error (RE) on the MC results is computed. RE varies with electron energy, average and minimum distances between scatterers, and scattering amplitude. The mean free path is generally the relevant length scale for estimating RE. The introduction of a minimum distance between scatterers increases RE substantially (factors of 5 to 10), suggesting that the structure of water must be modeled for accurate simulations. Inelastic scattering does not improve agreement between QM and MC simulations: for the same magnitude of elastic scattering, the introduction of inelastic scattering increases RE. Droplet cross sections are sensitive to droplet size and shape; considerable variations in RE are observed with changing droplet size and shape. At sub-1 keV energies, quantum effects may become non-negligible for electron transport in condensed media. Electron transport is strongly affected by the structure of the medium. Inelastic scatter does not improve agreement between QM and MC simulations of low

  6. A simple setup to measure muon lifetime and electron energy spectrum of muon decay and its Monte Carlo simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Yushi; Mei, Yefeng; Zhang, Zhao; Ning, Chuangang

    2016-01-01

    We designed a simple setup to measure the muon lifetime and the electron energy spectra of muon decay. A low cost coincidental circuit was designed to select the signals of muon decay events detected by a plastic scintillator detector. It triggered a digital oscilloscope to record the signals of muon decay events for measuring the muon lifetime and electron energy spectrum. A Landau-distribution energy loss method was introduced to conduct the energy calibration of the system. The experimental results were well reproduced by the Monte Carlo simulation. The software and hardware of the system are completely open to students, thus more helpful for instruction and motivation.

  7. Thyroid cell irradiation by radioiodines: a new Monte Carlo electron track-structure code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Champion

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The most significant impact of the Chernobyl accident is the increased incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were exposed to short-lived radioiodines and 131-iodine. In order to accurately estimate the radiation dose provided by these radioiodines, it is necessary to know where iodine is incorporated. To do that, the distribution at the cellular level of newly organified iodine in the immature rat thyroid was performed using secondary ion mass microscopy (NanoSIMS50. Actual dosimetric models take only into account the averaged energy and range of beta particles of the radio-elements and may, therefore, imperfectly describe the real distribution of dose deposit at the microscopic level around the point sources. Our approach is radically different since based on a track-structure Monte Carlo code allowing following-up of electrons down to low energies (~ 10eV what permits a nanometric description of the irradiation physics. The numerical simulations were then performed by modelling the complete disintegrations of the short-lived iodine isotopes as well as of 131I in new born rat thyroids in order to take into account accurate histological and biological data for the thyroid gland.O impacto mais significante do acidente de Chernobyl é o crescimento da incidência de câncer de tireóide em crianças que foram expostas a radioiodos de vida curta e ao Iodo-131. Na estimativa precisa da dose de radiação fornecida por esses radioiodos, é necessário conhecer onde o iodo está incorporado. Para obtermos esse resultado, a distribuição em nível celular de iodo recentemente organificado na tireóde de ratos imaturos foi realizada usando microscopia de massa iônica secundária (NanoSIMS50. Modelos dosimétricos atuais consideram apenas a energia média das partículas beta dos radioelementos e pode, imperfeitamente descrever a distribuição real de dose ao nível microscópico em torno dos pontos pesquisados. Nossa abordagem

  8. A reverse Monte Carlo method for deriving optical constants of solids from reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da, B.; Sun, Y.; Ding, Z. J. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, People' s Republic of China (China); Mao, S. F. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, People' s Republic of China (China); Zhang, Z. M. [Centre of Physical Experiments, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, People' s Republic of China (China); Jin, H.; Yoshikawa, H.; Tanuma, S. [Advanced Surface Chemical Analysis Group, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2013-06-07

    A reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method is developed to obtain the energy loss function (ELF) and optical constants from a measured reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy (REELS) spectrum by an iterative Monte Carlo (MC) simulation procedure. The method combines the simulated annealing method, i.e., a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of oscillator parameters, surface and bulk excitation weighting factors, and band gap energy, with a conventional MC simulation of electron interaction with solids, which acts as a single step of MCMC sampling in this RMC method. To examine the reliability of this method, we have verified that the output data of the dielectric function are essentially independent of the initial values of the trial parameters, which is a basic property of a MCMC method. The optical constants derived for SiO{sub 2} in the energy loss range of 8-90 eV are in good agreement with other available data, and relevant bulk ELFs are checked by oscillator strength-sum and perfect-screening-sum rules. Our results show that the dielectric function can be obtained by the RMC method even with a wide range of initial trial parameters. The RMC method is thus a general and effective method for determining the optical properties of solids from REELS measurements.

  9. A reverse Monte Carlo method for deriving optical constants of solids from reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, B.; Sun, Y.; Mao, S. F.; Zhang, Z. M.; Jin, H.; Yoshikawa, H.; Tanuma, S.; Ding, Z. J.

    2013-06-01

    A reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method is developed to obtain the energy loss function (ELF) and optical constants from a measured reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy (REELS) spectrum by an iterative Monte Carlo (MC) simulation procedure. The method combines the simulated annealing method, i.e., a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of oscillator parameters, surface and bulk excitation weighting factors, and band gap energy, with a conventional MC simulation of electron interaction with solids, which acts as a single step of MCMC sampling in this RMC method. To examine the reliability of this method, we have verified that the output data of the dielectric function are essentially independent of the initial values of the trial parameters, which is a basic property of a MCMC method. The optical constants derived for SiO2 in the energy loss range of 8-90 eV are in good agreement with other available data, and relevant bulk ELFs are checked by oscillator strength-sum and perfect-screening-sum rules. Our results show that the dielectric function can be obtained by the RMC method even with a wide range of initial trial parameters. The RMC method is thus a general and effective method for determining the optical properties of solids from REELS measurements.

  10. Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with FLUKA Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Mairani, A; Valente, M; Battistoni, G; Botta, F; Pedroli, G; Ferrari, A; Cremonesi, M; Di Dia, A; Ferrari, M; Fasso, A

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, FLUKA Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, FLUKA has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one. Methods: FLUKA DPKS have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10-3 MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy ((89)Sr, (90)Y, (131)I, (153)Sm, (177)Lu, (186)Re, and (188)Re). Point isotropic...

  11. A split-step method to include electron–electron collisions via Monte Carlo in multiple rate equation simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huthmacher, Klaus [Department of Physics and OPTIMAS Research Center, University of Kaiserslautern (Germany); Molberg, Andreas K. [Department of Chemistry and OPTIMAS Research Center, University of Kaiserslautern (Germany); Rethfeld, Bärbel [Department of Physics and OPTIMAS Research Center, University of Kaiserslautern (Germany); Gulley, Jeremy R., E-mail: jgulley@kennesaw.edu [Department of Physics, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    A split-step numerical method for calculating ultrafast free-electron dynamics in dielectrics is introduced. The two split steps, independently programmed in C++11 and FORTRAN 2003, are interfaced via the presented open source wrapper. The first step solves a deterministic extended multi-rate equation for the ionization, electron–phonon collisions, and single photon absorption by free-carriers. The second step is stochastic and models electron–electron collisions using Monte-Carlo techniques. This combination of deterministic and stochastic approaches is a unique and efficient method of calculating the nonlinear dynamics of 3D materials exposed to high intensity ultrashort pulses. Results from simulations solving the proposed model demonstrate how electron–electron scattering relaxes the non-equilibrium electron distribution on the femtosecond time scale.

  12. Evaluation of a commercial electron treatment planning system based on Monte Carlo techniques (eMC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemler, Peter; Besserer, Jürgen; Schneider, Uwe; Neuenschwander, Hans

    2006-01-01

    A commercial electron beam treatment planning system on the basis of a Monte Carlo algorithm (Varian Eclipse, eMC V7.2.35) was evaluated. Measured dose distributions were used for comparison with dose distributions predicted by eMC calculations. Tests were carried out for various applicators and field sizes, irregular shaped cut outs and an inhomogeneity phantom for energies between 6 Me V and 22 MeV Monitor units were calculated for all applicator/energy combinations and field sizes down to 3 cm diameter and source-to-surface distances of 100 cm and 110 cm. A mass-density-to-Hounsfield-Units calibration was performed to compare dose distributions calculated with a default and an individual calibration. The relationship between calculation parameters of the eMC and the resulting dose distribution was studied in detail. Finally, the algorithm was also applied to a clinical case (boost treatment of the breast) to reveal possible problems in the implementation. For standard geometries there was a good agreement between measurements and calculations, except for profiles for low energies (6 MeV) and high energies (18 Me V 22 MeV), in which cases the algorithm overestimated the dose off-axis in the high-dose region. For energies of 12 MeV and higher there were oscillations in the plateau region of the corresponding depth dose curves calculated with a grid size of 1 mm. With irregular cut outs, an overestimation of the dose was observed for small slits and low energies (4% for 6 MeV), as well as for asymmetric cases and extended source-to-surface distances (12% for SSD = 120 cm). While all monitor unit calculations for SSD = 100 cm were within 3% compared to measure-ments, there were large deviations for small cut outs and source-to-surface distances larger than 100 cm (7%for a 3 cm diameter cut-out and a source-to-surface distance of 10 cm).

  13. Comment about the use of Monte-Carlo methodology for the representation of atomic electronic densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoarau, Jean; Rayez, Jean-Claude

    2016-09-01

    Representations of atomic orbitals based on Monte-Carlo (MC) approaches are not always correct when using various sets of orthogonal coordinates other than Cartesian coordinates. The analysis proposed here gives elements for a proper use of MC methodology. It can be very useful for students and for teachers.

  14. Comment about the use of Monte-Carlo methodology for the representation of atomic electronic densities

    CERN Document Server

    Hoarau, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Representations of atomic orbitals based on Monte-Carlo (MC) approaches are not always correct when using various sets of orthogonal coordinates other than Cartesian coordinates. The analysis proposed here gives elements for a proper use of MC methodology. It can be very useful for students and for teachers.

  15. Dosimetric dependence of the dimensional characteristics on a lead shield in electron radiotherapy: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, James C L; Grigorov, G N

    2009-04-29

    This study investigates the dosimetric dependence of the dimension of a lead (Pb) layer for shielding using clinical electron beams with different energies. Monte Carlo simulations were used to generate phase space files of the 4, 9 and 16 MeV electron beams produced by a Varian 21 EX linear accelerator using the EGSnrc-based BEAMnrc code, and validated by measurements using films. Pb layers with different thicknesses (2, 4, 6 and 8 mm) and diameters (2.5, 3, 3.5 and 4 cm) were placed at the center of an electron field on a Solid Water phantom. Beam profiles were determined at the depth of maximum dose (d(m)) using Monte Carlo simulations. The line doses under the Pb layer at d(m) including the penumbra at the edge of the layer and relative dose at the central beam axis (CAX) were studied with varying thickness and diameter of the layer. It is found that 2 mm of Pb layer is adequate to provide 5 half value layer (HVL) attenuation for the 4 MeV electron beams, and the beam profiles at dm under the Pb layer depend on the diameter but the thickness of the Pb. However, for the 9 and 16 MeV electron beams, the relative dose at the CAX and dm depends on both the thickness and diameter of the Pb layer. For 8 mm thickness of Pb, 4 and 5 HVL attenuation of electron beams with energies of 9 and 16 MeV can be achieved at d(m), respectively. Moreover, the beam profile under the Pb layer at dm depends on (1) the penumbra region at the edge of the Pb layer, (2) the beam attenuation varying with the thickness of the Pb layer, (3) the electron side scatter contributing to the CAX under the Pb layer, and (4) the photon contamination produced by the Pb layer. A parameter called "shielding area factor", defined as the ratio of the length between two points of 50% relative doses in the beam profile at dm to the diameter of the Pb layer, is suggested to the radiation oncology staff to predict the required size and thickness of Pb for shielding a target with known dimension at d(m). The

  16. Comparison of Electron-Beam Dose Distributions in a Heterogeneous Phantom Obtained Using Radiochromic Film Dosimetry and Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Anjomani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays new radiochromic films have an essential role in radiotherapy dosimetry. Properties such as high sensitivity, good reproducibility, high spatial resolution, easy readout and portability have made them attractive for dosimetry, especially in high-dose-gradient regions. Material and Methods: In this study, electron-beam dose distributions in homogenous and heterogeneous phantoms were calculated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code and compared with experimental measurements obtained by GAFCHROMIC® EBT film and p-type silicon diode dosimetry. Irradiation was carried out using an Elekta linear accelerator at two different electron energies (8 and 15 MeV, with a 10×10 cm2 applicator and at 100 cm source-to-surface distance. Results: The results show good agreement (within 2% between radiochromic film measurements and MCNP results. Conclusions: The results show that the new radiochromic films can be used in electron dosimetry and that they are also reliable in presence of heterogeneous media.

  17. {\\em Ab initio} Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of the warm dense electron gas in the thermodynamic limit

    CERN Document Server

    Dornheim, Tobias; Sjostrom, Travis; Malone, Fionn D; Foulkes, W M C; Bonitz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We perform \\emph{ab initio} quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations of the warm dense uniform electron gas in the thermodynamic limit. By combining QMC data with linear response theory we are able to remove finite-size errors from the potential energy over the entire warm dense regime, overcoming the deficiencies of the existing finite-size corrections by Brown \\emph{et al.}~[PRL \\textbf{110}, 146405 (2013)]. Extensive new QMC results for up to $N=1000$ electrons enable us to compute the potential energy $V$ and the exchange-correlation free energy $F_{xc}$ of the macroscopic electron gas with an unprecedented accuracy of $|\\Delta V|/|V|, |\\Delta F_{xc}|/|F|_{xc} \\sim 10^{-3}$. A comparison of our new data to the recent parametrization of $F_{xc}$ by Karasiev {\\em et al.} [PRL {\\bf 112}, 076403 (2014)] reveals significant inaccuracies of the latter.

  18. Desert Scrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.L.C.; Halama, K.J.; Lovich, R.E.

    2016-01-01

    Desert scrublands comprise the lower to mid-elevation portions of four different ecosystems including the Chihuahuan, Great Basin, Mojave and Sonoran Deserts. Together the area inside their outer boundaries includes over 8% of the surface area of the United States. Despite significant differences in the flora and fauna of these bioregions they all share the common trait of being arid shrub-steppe ecosystems, receiving, on average, less than 254 mm of rain per year. The austere nature of these landscapes belies their significant biodiversity, the amazing behavioral and physiological adaptations of the biota, and the fragility of the ecosystems to human disturbances. For example, the Mojave Desert alone has at least 250 species of ephemeral plants, mostly winter annuals, and up to 90% are endemic.

  19. Tests of the Monte Carlo simulation of the photon-tagger focal-plane electronics at the MAX IV Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, M.F. [Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Myers, L.S. [Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Annand, J.R.M. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Fissum, K.G., E-mail: kevin.fissum@nuclear.lu.se [Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Hansen, K.; Isaksson, L. [MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Jebali, R. [Arktis Radiation Detectors Limited, 8045 Zürich (Switzerland); Lundin, M. [MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-04-21

    Rate-dependent effects in the electronics used to instrument the tagger focal plane at the MAX IV Laboratory were recently investigated using the novel approach of Monte Carlo simulation to allow for normalization of high-rate experimental data acquired with single-hit time-to-digital converters (TDCs). The instrumentation of the tagger focal plane has now been expanded to include multi-hit TDCs. The agreement between results obtained from data taken using single-hit and multi-hit TDCs demonstrate a thorough understanding of the behavior of the detector system.

  20. Dosimetric measurements and Monte Carlo simulation for achieving uniform surface dose in pulsed electron beam irradiation facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V C Petwal; J N Rao; Jishnu Dwivedi; V K Senecha; K V Subbaiah

    2010-03-01

    A prototype pulsed electron beam irradiation facility for radiation processing of food and medical products is being commissioned at our centre in Indore, India. Analysis of surface dose and uniformity for a pulsed beam facility is of crucial importance because it is influenced by various operating parameters such as beam current, pulse repetition rate (PRR), scanning current profile and frequency, scanning width and product conveying speed. A large number of experiments are required to determine the harmonized setting of these operating parameters for achieving uniform dose. Since there is no readily available tool to set these parameters, use of Monte Carlo methods and computational tools can prove to be the most viable and time saving technique to support the assessment of the dose distribution. In the present study, Monte Carlo code, MCNP, is used to simulate the transport of 10 MeV electron beam through various mediums coming into the beam path and generate an equivalent dose profile in a polystyrene phantom for stationary state. These results have been verified with experimentally measured dose profile, showing that results are in good agreement within 4%. The Monte Carlo simulation further has been used to optimize the overlapping between the successive pulses of a scan to achieve ± 5% dose uniformity along the scanning direction. A mathematical model, which uses the stationary state data, is developed to include the effect of conveyor speed. The algorithm of the model is discussed and the results are compared with the experimentally measured values, which show that the agreement is better than 15%. Finally, harmonized setting for operating parameters of the accelerator are derived to deliver uniform surface dose in the range of 1–13 kGy/pass.

  1. Benchmarking of the dose planning method (DPM) Monte Carlo code using electron beams from a racetrack microtron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Indrin J; Moran, Jean M; McShan, Daniel L; Fraass, Benedick A; Wilderman, Scott J; Bielajew, Alex F

    2002-06-01

    A comprehensive set of measurements and calculations has been conducted to investigate the accuracy of the Dose Planning Method (DPM) Monte Carlo code for dose calculations from 10 and 50 MeV scanned electron beams produced from a racetrack microtron. Central axis depth dose measurements and a series of profile scans at various depths were acquired in a water phantom using a Scanditronix type RK ion chamber. Source spatial distributions for the Monte Carlo calculations were reconstructed from in-air ion chamber measurements carried out across the two-dimensional beam profile at 100 cm downstream from the source. The in-air spatial distributions were found to have full width at half maximum of 4.7 and 1.3 cm, at 100 cm from the source, for the 10 and 50 MeV beams, respectively. Energy spectra for the 10 and 50 MeV beams were determined by simulating the components of the microtron treatment head using the code MCNP4B. DPM calculations are on average within +/- 2% agreement with measurement for all depth dose and profile comparisons conducted in this study. The accuracy of the DPM code illustrated in this work suggests that DPM may be used as a valuable tool for electron beam dose calculations.

  2. Abiotic gradients drive floristic composition and structure of plant communities in the Monte Desert Gradientes abióticos dirigen la composición florística y la estructura de las comunidades de plantas en el Desierto del Monte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO ACEBES

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defining plant communities in desert zones is difficult due to large scale homogeneity and small scale heterogeneity, thus making provision of systematic information for conservation decisions problematic. We analysed plant communities of the most arid sector of Monte Desert for structure, plant composition and environmental variables. Small-scale variables such as slope, rock cover, bare ground and litter, as well as large-scale ones such as species diversity, composition and similarity within and between sites were included. Analyses of floristic composition showed the difficulty of segregating distinct communities due to high internal heterogeneity and overlap between the different sites. Only mesquite woodlands, a community situated at the extreme of the soil moisture-gradient was segregated. Ordination on structural variables was somewhat more successful in segregating communities on the basis of substrate type and of tree and shrub cover. Our results showed the difficulty distinguishing plant communities in temperate deserts, suggesting the existence of relatively stable assemblages of species at the extremes of the gradients and of great heterogeneity within and between sites. They cannot be defined by floristic variables solely, but require environmental information also.La definición de comunidades discretas de plantas en zonas desérticas es complejo debido tanto a su homogeneidad a gran escala como a su heterogeneidad a pequeña escala, lo que acaba generando dificultades para la toma de decisiones de conservación. En este trabajo analizamos las comunidades de plantas del sector más árido del Desierto del Monte en función de su estructura y composición florística. Se han utilizado también variables ambientales estimadas a pequeña escala como la pendiente o la superficie de roca, suelo desnudo y hojarasca, así como variables que operan a mayor escala como la diversidad de especies, la composición florística y la similitud

  3. Path-integral Monte-Carlo simulations for electronic dynamics on molecular chains: I. Sequential hopping and super exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Mühlbacher, L; Escher, C M

    2004-01-01

    An improved real-time quantum Monte Carlo procedure is presented and applied to describe the electronic transfer dynamics along molecular chains. The model consists of discrete electronic sites coupled to a thermal environment which is integrated out exactly within the path integral formulation. The approach is numerically exact and its results reduce to known analytical findings (Marcus theory, golden rule) in proper limits. Special attention is paid to the role of superexchange and sequential hopping at lower temperatures in symmetric donor-bridge-acceptor systems. In contrast to previous approximate studies, superexchange turns out to play a significant role only for extremely high lying bridges where the transfer is basically frozen or for extremely low temperatures where for weaker dissipation a description in terms of rate constants is no longer feasible. For bridges with increasing length an algebraic decrease of the yield is found for short as well as for longer bridges. The approach can be extended t...

  4. Monte Carlo simulation on electron transport in Si sub 1 sub - sub y C sub y alloy layers

    CERN Document Server

    Ihm, S H; Lee, C H; Lee, H J; Kim, J Y; Chun, S K

    1999-01-01

    We investigated electron transport in strained Si sub 1 sub - sub y C sub y alloy layers grown on Si(100) substrates using the Monte Carlo simulation. The electron mobility higher than that of bulk Si over a wide range of temperatures from 40 K to 300 K is mainly attributed to the valley splitting induced by the tensile strain in the Si sub 1 sub - sub y C sub y layer. For lower temperatures less than 100 K the mobility increases sharply depending on the carbon fraction up to about 0.6%. Beyond the fraction, however, it keeps almost constant regardless of increasing the carbon fraction. On the other hand, we observe a monotonic mobility increase with increasing the carbon for a higher temperature regime.

  5. GPU-Accelerated Monte Carlo Electron Transport Methods: Development and Application for Radiation Dose Calculations Using Six GPU cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lin; Du, Xining; Liu, Tianyu; Xu, X. George

    2014-06-01

    An electron-photon coupled Monte Carlo code ARCHER - Accelerated Radiation-transport Computations in Heterogeneous EnviRonments - is being developed at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute as a software testbed for emerging heterogeneous high performance computers that utilize accelerators such as GPUs. This paper presents the preliminary code development and the testing involving radiation dose related problems. In particular, the paper discusses the electron transport simulations using the class-II condensed history method. The considered electron energy ranges from a few hundreds of keV to 30 MeV. For photon part, photoelectric effect, Compton scattering and pair production were modeled. Voxelized geometry was supported. A serial CPU code was first written in C++. The code was then transplanted to the GPU using the CUDA C 5.0 standards. The hardware involved a desktop PC with an Intel Xeon X5660 CPU and six NVIDIA Tesla™ M2090 GPUs. The code was tested for a case of 20 MeV electron beam incident perpendicularly on a water-aluminum-water phantom. The depth and later dose profiles were found to agree with results obtained from well tested MC codes. Using six GPU cards, 6x106 electron histories were simulated within 2 seconds. In comparison, the same case running the EGSnrc and MCNPX codes required 1645 seconds and 9213 seconds, respectively. On-going work continues to test the code for different medical applications such as radiotherapy and brachytherapy.

  6. Elucidating the electron transport in semiconductors via Monte Carlo simulations: an inquiry-driven learning path for engineering undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persano Adorno, Dominique; Pizzolato, Nicola; Fazio, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    Within the context of higher education for science or engineering undergraduates, we present an inquiry-driven learning path aimed at developing a more meaningful conceptual understanding of the electron dynamics in semiconductors in the presence of applied electric fields. The electron transport in a nondegenerate n-type indium phosphide bulk semiconductor is modelled using a multivalley Monte Carlo approach. The main characteristics of the electron dynamics are explored under different values of the driving electric field, lattice temperature and impurity density. Simulation results are presented by following a question-driven path of exploration, starting from the validation of the model and moving up to reasoned inquiries about the observed characteristics of electron dynamics. Our inquiry-driven learning path, based on numerical simulations, represents a viable example of how to integrate a traditional lecture-based teaching approach with effective learning strategies, providing science or engineering undergraduates with practical opportunities to enhance their comprehension of the physics governing the electron dynamics in semiconductors. Finally, we present a general discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of using an inquiry-based teaching approach within a learning environment based on semiconductor simulations.

  7. Electron swarm properties under the influence of a very strong attachment in SF6 and CF3I obtained by Monte Carlo rescaling procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirić, J.; Bošnjaković, D.; Simonović, I.; Petrović, Z. Lj; Dujko, S.

    2016-12-01

    Electron attachment often imposes practical difficulties in Monte Carlo simulations, particularly under conditions of extensive losses of seed electrons. In this paper, we discuss two rescaling procedures for Monte Carlo simulations of electron transport in strongly attaching gases: (1) discrete rescaling, and (2) continuous rescaling. The two procedures are implemented in our Monte Carlo code with an aim of analyzing electron transport processes and attachment induced phenomena in sulfur-hexafluoride (SF6) and trifluoroiodomethane (CF3I). Though calculations have been performed over the entire range of reduced electric fields E/n 0 (where n 0 is the gas number density) where experimental data are available, the emphasis is placed on the analysis below critical (electric gas breakdown) fields and under conditions when transport properties are greatly affected by electron attachment. The present calculations of electron transport data for SF6 and CF3I at low E/n 0 take into account the full extent of the influence of electron attachment and spatially selective electron losses along the profile of electron swarm and attempts to produce data that may be used to model this range of conditions. The results of Monte Carlo simulations are compared to those predicted by the publicly available two term Boltzmann solver BOLSIG+. A multitude of kinetic phenomena in electron transport has been observed and discussed using physical arguments. In particular, we discuss two important phenomena: (1) the reduction of the mean energy with increasing E/n 0 for electrons in \\text{S}{{\\text{F}}6} and (2) the occurrence of negative differential conductivity (NDC) in the bulk drift velocity only for electrons in both \\text{S}{{\\text{F}}6} and CF3I. The electron energy distribution function, spatial variations of the rate coefficient for electron attachment and average energy as well as spatial profile of the swarm are calculated and used to understand these phenomena.

  8. Application of variance reduction techniques in Monte Carlo simulation of clinical electron linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoubair, M.; El Bardouni, T.; El Gonnouni, L.; Boulaich, Y.; El Bakkari, B.; El Younoussi, C.

    2012-01-01

    Computation time constitutes an important and a problematic parameter in Monte Carlo simulations, which is inversely proportional to the statistical errors so there comes the idea to use the variance reduction techniques. These techniques play an important role in reducing uncertainties and improving the statistical results. Several variance reduction techniques have been developed. The most known are Transport cutoffs, Interaction forcing, Bremsstrahlung splitting and Russian roulette. Also, the use of a phase space seems to be appropriate to reduce enormously the computing time. In this work, we applied these techniques on a linear accelerator (LINAC) using the MCNPX computer Monte Carlo code. This code gives a rich palette of variance reduction techniques. In this study we investigated various cards related to the variance reduction techniques provided by MCNPX. The parameters found in this study are warranted to be used efficiently in MCNPX code. Final calculations are performed in two steps that are related by a phase space. Results show that, comparatively to direct simulations (without neither variance-reduction nor phase space), the adopted method allows an improvement in the simulation efficiency by a factor greater than 700.

  9. Generalized eMC implementation for Monte Carlo dose calculation of electron beams from different machine types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Michael K; Cygler, Joanna; Frei, Daniel; Volken, Werner; Neuenschwander, Hans; Born, Ernst J; Manser, Peter

    2013-05-07

    The electron Monte Carlo (eMC) dose calculation algorithm available in the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems) is based on the macro MC method and uses a beam model applicable to Varian linear accelerators. This leads to limitations in accuracy if eMC is applied to non-Varian machines. In this work eMC is generalized to also allow accurate dose calculations for electron beams from Elekta and Siemens accelerators. First, changes made in the previous study to use eMC for low electron beam energies of Varian accelerators are applied. Then, a generalized beam model is developed using a main electron source and a main photon source representing electrons and photons from the scattering foil, respectively, an edge source of electrons, a transmission source of photons and a line source of electrons and photons representing the particles from the scrapers or inserts and head scatter radiation. Regarding the macro MC dose calculation algorithm, the transport code of the secondary particles is improved. The macro MC dose calculations are validated with corresponding dose calculations using EGSnrc in homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms. The validation of the generalized eMC is carried out by comparing calculated and measured dose distributions in water for Varian, Elekta and Siemens machines for a variety of beam energies, applicator sizes and SSDs. The comparisons are performed in units of cGy per MU. Overall, a general agreement between calculated and measured dose distributions for all machine types and all combinations of parameters investigated is found to be within 2% or 2 mm. The results of the dose comparisons suggest that the generalized eMC is now suitable to calculate dose distributions for Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators with sufficient accuracy in the range of the investigated combinations of beam energies, applicator sizes and SSDs.

  10. Generalized eMC implementation for Monte Carlo dose calculation of electron beams from different machine types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Michael K.; Cygler, Joanna; Frei, Daniel; Volken, Werner; Neuenschwander, Hans; Born, Ernst J.; Manser, Peter

    2013-05-01

    The electron Monte Carlo (eMC) dose calculation algorithm available in the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems) is based on the macro MC method and uses a beam model applicable to Varian linear accelerators. This leads to limitations in accuracy if eMC is applied to non-Varian machines. In this work eMC is generalized to also allow accurate dose calculations for electron beams from Elekta and Siemens accelerators. First, changes made in the previous study to use eMC for low electron beam energies of Varian accelerators are applied. Then, a generalized beam model is developed using a main electron source and a main photon source representing electrons and photons from the scattering foil, respectively, an edge source of electrons, a transmission source of photons and a line source of electrons and photons representing the particles from the scrapers or inserts and head scatter radiation. Regarding the macro MC dose calculation algorithm, the transport code of the secondary particles is improved. The macro MC dose calculations are validated with corresponding dose calculations using EGSnrc in homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms. The validation of the generalized eMC is carried out by comparing calculated and measured dose distributions in water for Varian, Elekta and Siemens machines for a variety of beam energies, applicator sizes and SSDs. The comparisons are performed in units of cGy per MU. Overall, a general agreement between calculated and measured dose distributions for all machine types and all combinations of parameters investigated is found to be within 2% or 2 mm. The results of the dose comparisons suggest that the generalized eMC is now suitable to calculate dose distributions for Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators with sufficient accuracy in the range of the investigated combinations of beam energies, applicator sizes and SSDs.

  11. Simulation of Electron Trajectories in the Multicusp Ion Source Using Geantn4 Monte Carlo Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi Azadboni, Fatemeh; Sedaghatizade, Mahmood

    2010-04-01

    To optimize the multicusp ion source, understanding of transport properties of electrons is indispensable. Since the transport of electrons in the multicusp ion source is a three-dimensional problem, we use the 3D computer code Geant4, to model the particle trajectories. The goal is to study the effect of electron injection into a cylindrical gas chamber and the electron trajectories. The role of the magnetic filter in contemporary negative ion sources is analyzed. The conditions in the magnetic filter adjacent to the plasma electrode optimum for the generation, formation, and extraction of an H- ion beam are found. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Shielding calculations for industrial 5/7.5MeV electron accelerators using the MCNP Monte Carlo Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, Eyal; Orion, Itzhak

    2017-09-01

    High energy X-rays from accelerators are used to irradiate food ingredients to prevent growth and development of unwanted biological organisms in food, and by that extend the shelf life of the products. The production of X-rays is done by accelerating 5 MeV electrons and bombarding them into a heavy target (high Z). Since 2004, the FDA has approved using 7.5 MeV energy, providing higher production rates with lower treatments costs. In this study we calculated all the essential data needed for a straightforward concrete shielding design of typical food accelerator rooms. The following evaluation is done using the MCNP Monte Carlo code system: (1) Angular dependence (0-180°) of photon dose rate for 5 MeV and 7.5 MeV electron beams bombarding iron, aluminum, gold, tantalum, and tungsten targets. (2) Angular dependence (0-180°) spectral distribution simulations of bremsstrahlung for gold, tantalum, and tungsten bombarded by 5 MeV and 7.5 MeV electron beams. (3) Concrete attenuation calculations in several photon emission angles for the 5 MeV and 7.5 MeV electron beams bombarding a tantalum target. Based on the simulation, we calculated the expected increase in dose rate for facilities intending to increase the energy from 5 MeV to 7.5 MeV, and the concrete width needed to be added in order to keep the existing dose rate unchanged.

  13. Modelling of the electronic and ferroelectric properties of trichloroacetamide using Monte Carlo and first-principles calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxuan Cai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The electronic structure and ferroelectric mechanism of trichloroacetamide were studied using first principles calculations and density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. Using both Bader charge and electron deformation density, large molecular spontaneous polarization is found to originate from the charge transfer cause by the strong “push-pull” effect of electron-releasing interacting with electron-withdrawing groups. The intermolecular hydrogen bonds, NH⋯O, produce dipole moments in adjacent molecules to be aligned with each other. They also reduce the potential energy of the molecular chain threaded by hydrogen bonds. Due to the symmetric crystalline properties, however, the polarization of trichloroacetamide is mostly compensated and therefore small. Using the Berry Phase method, the spontaneous polarization of trichloroacetamide was simulated, and good agreement with the experimental values was found. Considering the polarization characteristics of trichloroacetamide, we constructed a one-dimensional ferroelectric Hamiltonian model to calculate the ferroelectric properties of TCAA. Using the Hamiltonian model, the thermal properties and ferroelectricity of trichloroacetamide were studied using the Monte Carlo method, and the Tc value was calculated.

  14. An OpenCL-based Monte Carlo dose calculation engine (oclMC) for coupled photon-electron transport

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Zhen; Folkerts, Michael; Qin, Nan; Jiang, Steve B; Jia, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) method has been recognized the most accurate dose calculation method for radiotherapy. However, its extremely long computation time impedes clinical applications. Recently, a lot of efforts have been made to realize fast MC dose calculation on GPUs. Nonetheless, most of the GPU-based MC dose engines were developed in NVidia CUDA environment. This limits the code portability to other platforms, hindering the introduction of GPU-based MC simulations to clinical practice. The objective of this paper is to develop a fast cross-platform MC dose engine oclMC using OpenCL environment for external beam photon and electron radiotherapy in MeV energy range. Coupled photon-electron MC simulation was implemented with analogue simulations for photon transports and a Class II condensed history scheme for electron transports. To test the accuracy and efficiency of our dose engine oclMC, we compared dose calculation results of oclMC and gDPM, our previously developed GPU-based MC code, for a 15 MeV electron ...

  15. Simulation of irradiation exposure of electronic devices due to heavy ion therapy with Monte Carlo Code MCNP6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapins, Janis; Guilliard, Nicole; Bernnat, Wolfgang; Buck, Arnulf

    2017-09-01

    During heavy ion irradiation therapy the patient has to be located exactly at the right position to make sure that the Bragg peak occurs in the tumour. The patient has to be moved in the range of millimetres to scan the ill tissue. For that reason a special table was developed which allows exact positioning. The electronic control can be located outside the surgery. But that has some disadvantage for the construction. To keep the system compact it would be much more comfortable to put the electronic control inside the surgery. As a lot of high energetic secondary particles are produced during the therapy causing a high dose in the room it is important to find positions with low dose rates. Therefore, investigations are needed where the electronic devices should be located to obtain a minimum of radiation, help to prevent the failure of sensitive devices. The dose rate was calculated for carbon ions with different initial energy and protons over the entire therapy room with Monte Carlo particle tracking using MCNP6. The types of secondary particles were identified and the dose rate for a thin silicon layer and an electronic mixture material was determined. In addition, the shielding effect of several selected material layers was calculated using MCNP6.

  16. Ant colony algorithm implementation in electron and photon Monte Carlo transport: Application to the commissioning of radiosurgery photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Pareja, S.; Galan, P.; Manzano, F.; Brualla, L.; Lallena, A. M. [Servicio de Radiofisica Hospitalaria, Hospital Regional Universitario ' ' Carlos Haya' ' , Avda. Carlos Haya s/n, E-29010 Malaga (Spain); Unidad de Radiofisica Hospitalaria, Hospital Xanit Internacional, Avda. de los Argonautas s/n, E-29630 Benalmadena (Malaga) (Spain); NCTeam, Strahlenklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45122 Essen (Germany); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: In this work, the authors describe an approach which has been developed to drive the application of different variance-reduction techniques to the Monte Carlo simulation of photon and electron transport in clinical accelerators. Methods: The new approach considers the following techniques: Russian roulette, splitting, a modified version of the directional bremsstrahlung splitting, and the azimuthal particle redistribution. Their application is controlled by an ant colony algorithm based on an importance map. Results: The procedure has been applied to radiosurgery beams. Specifically, the authors have calculated depth-dose profiles, off-axis ratios, and output factors, quantities usually considered in the commissioning of these beams. The agreement between Monte Carlo results and the corresponding measurements is within {approx}3%/0.3 mm for the central axis percentage depth dose and the dose profiles. The importance map generated in the calculation can be used to discuss simulation details in the different parts of the geometry in a simple way. The simulation CPU times are comparable to those needed within other approaches common in this field. Conclusions: The new approach is competitive with those previously used in this kind of problems (PSF generation or source models) and has some practical advantages that make it to be a good tool to simulate the radiation transport in problems where the quantities of interest are difficult to obtain because of low statistics.

  17. Development of parallel monte carlo electron and photon transport (PMCEPT) code III: Applications to medical radiation physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Oyeon; Han, Youngyih; Jeong, Hae Sun

    2012-05-01

    Minimizing the differences between dose distributions calculated at the treatment planning stage and those delivered to the patient is an essential requirement for successful radiotheraphy. Accurate calculation of dose distributions in the treatment planning process is important and can be done only by using a Monte Carlo calculation of particle transport. In this paper, we perform a further validation of our previously developed parallel Monte Carlo electron and photon transport (PMCEPT) code [Kum and Lee, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 47, 716 (2005) and Kim and Kum, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 1640 (2006)] for applications to clinical radiation problems. A linear accelerator, Siemens' Primus 6 MV, was modeled and commissioned. A thorough validation includes both small fields, closely related to the intensity modulated radiation treatment (IMRT), and large fields. Two-dimensional comparisons with film measurements were also performed. The PMCEPT results, in general, agreed well with the measured data within a maximum error of about 2%. However, considering the experimental errors, the PMCEPT results can provide the gold standard of dose distributions for radiotherapy. The computing time was also much faster, compared to that needed for experiments, although it is still a bottleneck for direct applications to the daily routine treatment planning procedure.

  18. Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with FLUKA Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, F; Mairani, A; Battistoni, G; Cremonesi, M; Di Dia, A; Fassò, A; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, M; Paganelli, G; Pedroli, G; Valente, M

    2011-07-01

    The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, FLUKA Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, FLUKA has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one. FLUKA DPKS have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10-3 MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy (89Sr, 90Y, 131I 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, and 188Re). Point isotropic sources have been simulated at the center of a water (bone) sphere, and deposed energy has been tallied in concentric shells. FLUKA outcomes have been compared to PENELOPE v.2008 results, calculated in this study as well. Moreover, in case of monoenergetic electrons in water, comparison with the data from the literature (ETRAN, GEANT4, MCNPX) has been done. Maximum percentage differences within 0.8.RCSDA and 0.9.RCSDA for monoenergetic electrons (RCSDA being the continuous slowing down approximation range) and within 0.8.X90 and 0.9.X90 for isotopes (X90 being the radius of the sphere in which 90% of the emitted energy is absorbed) have been computed, together with the average percentage difference within 0.9.RCSDA and 0.9.X90 for electrons and isotopes, respectively. Concerning monoenergetic electrons, within 0.8.RCSDA (where 90%-97% of the particle energy is deposed), FLUKA and PENELOPE agree mostly within 7%, except for 10 and 20 keV electrons (12% in water, 8.3% in bone). The

  19. Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botta, F; Di Dia, A; Pedroli, G; Mairani, A; Battistoni, G; Fasso, A; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, M; Paganelli, G

    2011-06-01

    The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one.Methods: fluka DPKs have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10–3 MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, and 188Re). Point isotropic sources have been simulated at the center of a water (bone) sphere, and deposed energy has been tallied in concentric shells. fluka outcomes have been compared to penelope v.2008 results, calculated in this study as well. Moreover, in case of monoenergetic electrons in water, comparison with the data from the literature (etran, geant4, mcnpx) has been done. Maximum percentage differences within 0.8·RCSDA and 0.9·RCSDA for monoenergetic electrons (RCSDA being the continuous slowing down approximation range) and within 0.8·X90 and 0.9·X90 for isotopes (X90 being the radius of the sphere in which 90% of the emitted energy is absorbed) have been computed, together with the average percentage difference within 0.9·RCSDA and 0.9·X90 for electrons and isotopes, respectively.Results: Concerning monoenergetic electrons, within 0.8·RCSDA (where 90%–97% of the particle energy is deposed), fluka and penelope agree mostly within 7%, except for 10 and 20 keV electrons (12% in water, 8

  20. Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botta, F.; Mairani, A.; Battistoni, G.; Cremonesi, M.; Di Dia, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, M.; Paganelli, G.; Pedroli, G.; Valente, M. [Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (I.N.F.N.), Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Nuclear Medicine Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 2014 Milan (Italy); Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); FaMAF, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba and CONICET, Cordoba, Argentina C.P. 5000 (Argentina)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one. Methods: fluka DPKs have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10{sup -3} MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy ({sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 186}Re, and {sup 188}Re). Point isotropic sources have been simulated at the center of a water (bone) sphere, and deposed energy has been tallied in concentric shells. fluka outcomes have been compared to penelope v.2008 results, calculated in this study as well. Moreover, in case of monoenergetic electrons in water, comparison with the data from the literature (etran, geant4, mcnpx) has been done. Maximum percentage differences within 0.8{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} and 0.9{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} for monoenergetic electrons (R{sub CSDA} being the continuous slowing down approximation range) and within 0.8{center_dot}X{sub 90} and 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90} for isotopes (X{sub 90} being the radius of the sphere in which 90% of the emitted energy is absorbed) have been computed, together with the average percentage difference within 0.9{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} and 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90} for electrons and isotopes, respectively. Results: Concerning monoenergetic electrons

  1. Studies on the radial dose distribution for clinical electron beams of 9 and 16 MeV using Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoriyaz, Helio; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Zevallos-Chavez, Juan Y. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: hyoriyaz@ipen.br; Furnari, Laura; Poli, Maria Esmeralda R. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2005-07-01

    Radial dose distributions have been obtained for several electron beam field sizes through the Monte Carlo simulation. Measurements were performed by an ionization chamber in a 50x50x50 cm{sup 3} water phantom which is routinely used for calibration. Calculated and measured values were compared to adjust the input energy spectra used for the Monte Carlo simulation. The methodology presented here is part of the 'tuning procedure' for the construction of electron beam sources typically used for radiotherapy. (author)

  2. Electronic and magnetic properties of TbNi4Si: Ab initio calculations, mean field approximation and Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensadiq, A.; Zaari, H.; Benyoussef, A.; El Kenz, A.

    2016-09-01

    Using the density functional theory, the electronic structure; density of states, band structure and exchange couplings of Tb Ni4 Si compound have been investigated. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of this material have been studied using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) and Mean Field Approximation (MFA) within a three dimensional Ising model. We calculated the isothermal magnetic entropy change, adiabatic temperature change and relative cooling power (RCP) for different external magnetic field and temperature. The highest obtained isothermal magnetic entropy change is of -14.52 J kg-1 K-1 for a magnetic field of H=4 T. The adiabatic temperature reaches a maximum value equal to 3.7 K and the RCP maximum value is found to be 125.12 J kg-1 for a field magnetic of 14 T.

  3. A comparison of the relative biological effectiveness of low energy electronic brachytherapy sources in breast tissue: a Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Shane A.; Reniers, Brigitte; de Jong, Evelyn E. C.; Rusch, Thomas; Verhaegen, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Electronic brachytherapy sources use low energy photons to treat the tumor bed during or after breast-conserving surgery. The relative biological effectiveness of two electronic brachytherapy sources was explored to determine if spectral differences due to source design influenced radiation quality and if radiation quality decreased with distance in the breast. The RBE was calculated through the number of DNA double strand breaks (RBEDSB) using the Monte Carlo damage simulator (MCDS) in combination with other Monte Carlo electron/photon spectrum calculations. 50kVp photons from the Intrabeam (Carl Zeiss Surgical) and Axxent (Xoft) through 40-mm spherical applicators were simulated to account for applicator and tissue attenuation in a variety of breast tissue compositions. 40kVp Axxent photons were also simulated. Secondary electrons (known to be responsible for most DNA damage) spectra at different distance were inputted into MCDS to calculate the RBEDSB. All RBEDSB used a cobalt-60 reference. RBEDSB data was combined with corresponding average photon spectrum energy for the Axxent and applied to model-based average photon energy distributions to produce an RBEDSB map of an accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) patient. Both Axxent and Intrabeam 50kVp spectra were shown to have a comparable RBEDSB of between 1.4 and 1.6 at all distances in spite of progressive beam hardening. The Axxent 40kVp also demonstrated a similar RBEDSB at distances. Most RBEDSB variability was dependent on the tissue type as was seen in rib (RBEDSB  ≈  1.4), gland (≈1.55), adipose (≈1.59), skin (≈1.52) and lung (≈1.50). RBEDSB variability between both sources was within 2%. A correlation was shown between RBEDSB and average photon energy and used to produce an RBEDSB map of a dose distribution in an APBI patient dataset. Radiation quality is very similar between electronic brachytherapy sources studied. No significant reductions in RBEDSB were observed with

  4. Electronic and magnetic properties of the Co2-based Heusler compounds under pressure: first-principles and Monte Carlo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrebin, M. A.; Sokolovskiy, V. V.; Buchelnikov, V. D.

    2016-09-01

    Structural, magnetic and electronic properties of stoichiometric Co2 YZ Heusler alloys (Y  =  Cr, Fe, Mn and Z  =  Al, Si, Ge) have been studied by means of ab initio calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. The investigations were performed in dependence on different levels of approximations in DFT (FP and ASA modes, as well as GGA and GGA  +  U schemes) and external pressure. It is shown that in the case of the GGA scheme the half-metallic behavior is clearly observed for compounds containing Cr and Mn transition metals, while Co2FeZ alloys demonstrate the pseudo half-metallic behavior. It is demonstrated that an applied pressure and an account of Coulomb repulsion (U) lead to the stabilization of the half-metallic nature for Co2 YZ alloys. The strongest ferromagnetic inter-sublattice (Co-Y) interactions together with intra-sublattice (Co-Co and Y-Y) interactions explain the high values of the Curie temperature obtained by Monte Carlo simulations using the Heisenberg model. It is observed that a decrease in valence electrons of Y atoms (i.e. Fe substitution by Mn and Cr) leads to the weakening of the exchange interactions and to the reduction of the Curie temperature. Besides, in the case of the FP mode Curie temperatures were found in a good agreement with available experimental and theoretical data, where the latter were obtained by applying the empirical relation between the Curie temperature and the total magnetic moment.

  5. Comparative Dosimetric Estimates of a 25 keV Electron Micro-beam with three Monte Carlo Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainardi, Enrico; Donahue, Richard J.; Blakely, Eleanor A.

    2002-09-11

    The calculations presented compare the different performances of the three Monte Carlo codes PENELOPE-1999, MCNP-4C and PITS, for the evaluation of Dose profiles from a 25 keV electron micro-beam traversing individual cells. The overall model of a cell is a water cylinder equivalent for the three codes but with a different internal scoring geometry: hollow cylinders for PENELOPE and MCNP, whereas spheres are used for the PITS code. A cylindrical cell geometry with scoring volumes with the shape of hollow cylinders was initially selected for PENELOPE and MCNP because of its superior simulation of the actual shape and dimensions of a cell and for its improved computer-time efficiency if compared to spherical internal volumes. Some of the transfer points and energy transfer that constitute a radiation track may actually fall in the space between spheres, that would be outside the spherical scoring volume. This internal geometry, along with the PENELOPE algorithm, drastically reduced the computer time when using this code if comparing with event-by-event Monte Carlo codes like PITS. This preliminary work has been important to address dosimetric estimates at low electron energies. It demonstrates that codes like PENELOPE can be used for Dose evaluation, even with such small geometries and energies involved, which are far below the normal use for which the code was created. Further work (initiated in Summer 2002) is still needed however, to create a user-code for PENELOPE that allows uniform comparison of exact cell geometries, integral volumes and also microdosimetric scoring quantities, a field where track-structure codes like PITS, written for this purpose, are believed to be superior.

  6. Electron-pair densities with time-dependent quantum Monte-Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, Ivan P

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use sets of de Broglie-Bohm trajectories to describe the quantum correlation effects which take place between the electrons in helium atom due to exchange and Coulomb interactions. A short-range screening of the Coulomb potential is used to modify the repulsion between the same spin electrons in physical space in order to comply with the Pauli's exclusion principle. By calculating the electron-pair density for ortho-helium we found that the shape of the exchange hole can be controlled uniquely by a simple screening parameter. For para-helium the inter-electronic distance, and hence the Coulomb hole, results from the combined action of the Coulomb repulsion and the non-local quantum correlations. In this way a robust and self-interaction-free approach is present to find both the ground state and the time evolution of non-relativistic quantum systems.

  7. Monte Carlo modeling of electron density in hypersonic rarefied gas flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Jin; Zhang, Yuhuai; Jiang, Jianzheng [State Key Laboratory of High Temperature Gas Dynamics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-12-09

    The electron density distribution around a vehicle employed in the RAM-C II flight test is calculated with the DSMC method. To resolve the mole fraction of electrons which is several orders lower than those of the primary species in the free stream, an algorithm named as trace species separation (TSS) is utilized. The TSS algorithm solves the primary and trace species separately, which is similar to the DSMC overlay techniques; however it generates new simulated molecules of trace species, such as ions and electrons in each cell, basing on the ionization and recombination rates directly, which differs from the DSMC overlay techniques based on probabilistic models. The electron density distributions computed by TSS agree well with the flight data measured in the RAM-C II test along a decent trajectory at three altitudes 81km, 76km, and 71km.

  8. ERRATUM: Denoising of electron beam Monte Carlo dose distributions using digital filtering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, Joseph O.

    2000-08-01

    A printed error has been discovered on pages 1771 and 1772 of the above paper. Figures 4 and 5 should have been the other way around (the captions were correct as printed). For the correct version see the electronic journal.

  9. Path-integral Monte Carlo simulations for electronic dynamics on molecular chains. I. Sequential hopping and super exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Lothar; Ankerhold, Joachim; Escher, Charlotte

    2004-12-01

    An improved real-time quantum Monte Carlo procedure is presented and applied to describe the electronic transfer dynamics along molecular chains. The model consists of discrete electronic sites coupled to a thermal environment which is integrated out exactly within the path integral formulation. The approach is numerically exact and its results reduce to known analytical findings (Marcus theory, golden rule) in proper limits. Special attention is paid to the role of superexchange and sequential hopping at lower temperatures in symmetric donor-bridge-acceptor systems. In contrast to previous approximate studies, superexchange turns out to play a significant role only for extremely high-lying bridges where the transfer is basically frozen or for extremely low temperatures where for weaker dissipation a description in terms of rate constants is no longer feasible. For bridges with increasing length an algebraic decrease of the yield is found for short as well as for long bridges. The approach can be extended to electronic systems with more complicated topologies including impurities and in presence of external time-dependent forces.

  10. A backward Monte Carlo method for efficient computation of runaway probabilities in runaway electron simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guannan; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Kinetic descriptions of RE are usually based on the bounced-averaged Fokker-Planck model that determines the PDFs of RE in the 2 dimensional momentum space. Despite of the simplification involved, the Fokker-Planck equation can rarely be solved analytically and direct numerical approaches (e.g., continuum and particle-based Monte Carlo (MC)) can be time consuming specially in the computation of asymptotic-type observable including the runaway probability, the slowing-down and runaway mean times, and the energy limit probability. Here we present a novel backward MC approach to these problems based on backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs). The BSDE model can simultaneously describe the PDF of RE and the runaway probabilities by means of the well-known Feynman-Kac theory. The key ingredient of the backward MC algorithm is to place all the particles in a runaway state and simulate them backward from the terminal time to the initial time. As such, our approach can provide much faster convergence than the brute-force MC methods, which can significantly reduce the number of particles required to achieve a prescribed accuracy. Moreover, our algorithm can be parallelized as easy as the direct MC code, which paves the way for conducting large-scale RE simulation. This work is supported by DOE FES and ASCR under the Contract Numbers ERKJ320 and ERAT377.

  11. State-averaged Monte Carlo configuration interaction applied to electronically excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, J P

    2014-01-01

    We introduce state-averaging into the method of Monte Carlo configuration interaction (SA-MCCI) to allow the stable and efficient calculation of excited states. We show that excited potential curves for H$_{3}$, including a crossing with the ground state, can be accurately reproduced using a small fraction of the FCI space. A recently introduced error measure for potential curves [J. P. Coe and M. J. Paterson, J. Chem. Phys., 137, 204108 (2012)] is shown to also be a fair approach when considering potential curves for multiple states. We demonstrate that potential curves for LiF using SA-MCCI agree well with the FCI results and the avoided crossing occurs correctly. The seam of conical intersections for CH$_{2}$ found by Yarkony [J. Chem. Phys., 104, 2932 (1996)] is used as a test for SA-MCCI and we compare potential curves from SA-MCCI with FCI results for this system for the first three triplet states. We then demonstrate the improvement from using SA-MCCI on the dipole of the $2$ $^{1}A_{1}$ state of carbo...

  12. On the relationships between electron spot size, focal spot size, and virtual source position in Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterpin, E.; Chen, Y.; Lu, W.; Mackie, T. R.; Olivera, G. H.; Vynckier, S. [Department of Molecular Imaging and Experimental Radiotherapy (IMRE), Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1200 Brussels (Belgium) and Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); TomoTherapy, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and TomoTherapy, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States); TomoTherapy, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States); Department of Molecular Imaging and Experimental Radiotherapy (IMRE), Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: Every year, new radiotherapy techniques including stereotactic radiosurgery using linear accelerators give rise to new applications of Monte Carlo (MC) modeling. Accurate modeling requires knowing the size of the electron spot, one of the few parameters to tune in MC models. The resolution of integrated megavoltage imaging systems, such as the tomotherapy system, strongly depends on the photon spot size which is closely related to the electron spot. The aim of this article is to clarify the relationship between the electron spot size and the photon spot size (i.e., the focal spot size) for typical incident electron beam energies and target thicknesses. Methods: Three electron energies (3, 5.5, and 18 MeV), four electron spot sizes (FWHM=0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mm), and two tungsten target thicknesses (0.15 and 1 cm) were considered. The formation of the photon beam within the target was analyzed through electron energy deposition with depth, as well as photon production at several phase-space planes placed perpendicular to the beam axis, where only photons recorded for the first time were accounted for. Photon production was considered for ''newborn'' photons intersecting a 45x45 cm{sup 2} plane at the isocenter (85 cm from source). Finally, virtual source position and ''effective'' focal spot size were computed by backprojecting all the photons from the bottom of the target intersecting a 45x45 cm{sup 2} plane. The virtual source position and focal spot size were estimated at the plane position where the latter is minimal. Results: In the relevant case of considering only photons intersecting the 45x45 cm{sup 2} plane, the results unambiguously showed that the effective photon spot is created within the first 0.25 mm of the target and that electron and focal spots may be assumed to be equal within 3-4%. Conclusions: In a good approximation photon spot size equals electron spot size for high energy X-ray treatments

  13. Measured and Monte Carlo simulated electron backscatter to the monitor chamber for the Varian TrueBeam Linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Samantha A. M.; Gagne, Isabelle M.; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Zavgorodni, Sergei

    2016-12-01

    To accurately simulate therapeutic electron beams using Monte Carlo methods, backscatter from jaws into the monitor chamber must be accounted for via the backscatter factor, S b. Measured and simulated values of S b for the TrueBeam are investigated. Two approaches for measuring S b are presented. Both require service mode operation with the dose and pulse forming networking servos turned off in order to assess changes in dose rate with field size. The first approach samples an instantaneous dose rate, while the second approach times the delivery of a fixed number of monitor units to assess dose rate. Dose rates were measured for 6, 12 and 20 MeV electrons for jaw- or MLC-shaped apertures between 1× 1 and 40× 40 cm2. The measurement techniques resulted in values of S b that agreed within 0.21% for square and asymmetric fields collimated by the jaws. Measured values of S b were used to calculate the forward dose component in a virtual monitor chamber using BEAMnrc. Based on this forward component, simulated values of S b were calculated and compared to measurement and Varian’s VirtuaLinac simulations. BEAMnrc results for jaw-shaped fields agreed with measurements and with VirtuaLinac simulations within 0.2%. For MLC-shaped fields, the respective measurement techniques differed by as much as 0.41% and BEAMnrc results differed with measurement by as much as 0.4%, however, all measured and simulated values agreed within experimental uncertainty. Measurement sensitivity was not sufficient to capture the small backscatter effect due to the MLC, and Monte Carlo predicted backscatter from the MLC to be no more than 0.3%. Backscatter from the jaws changed the electron dose rate by up to 2.6%. This reinforces the importance of including a backscatter factor in simulations of electron fields shaped with secondary collimating jaws, but presents the option of ignoring it when jaws are retracted and collimation is done with the MLC.

  14. Desert Shield and Desert Storm Emerging Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-07

    by identifying activo component an civilian maintenance instructors to replace active component instructors receiving orders for war or other PCS sites...STORM Desert scenarios in UCOFT 81619 /61WY (00687) DESERT STORM Activo Tank Table 911 816sy 90990 (006m) DESERT STloM Degraded Mode Guoery WS1W 4042iA

  15. Denoising of electron beam Monte Carlo dose distributions. Erratum. Phys. Med. Biol. 45 1765-1779

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deasy, Joseph O

    2000-08-01

    A printed error has been discovered on pages 1771 and 1772 of the above paper. Figures 4 and 5 should have been the other way around (the captions were correct as printed). For the correct version see the electronic journal. (author)

  16. Single electron ionization and electron capture cross sections for (C{sup 6+}, H{sub 2}O) interaction within the Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, H.N., E-mail: tranngochoang@tdt.edu.vn [Division of Nuclear Physics, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Dao, D.D. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Incerti, S. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Université de Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Bernal, M.A. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Karamitros, M. [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Université de Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Nhan Hao, T.V. [Center of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Danang (Viet Nam); Center for Theoretical and Computational Physics, College of Education, Hue University, 34 Le Loi Street, Hue City (Viet Nam); Dang, T.M. [VNUHCM-University of Science (Viet Nam); Francis, Z. [Saint Joseph University, Beyrouth (Lebanon)

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a derivation of cross sections for single ionization and electron capture processes within the Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) approach. Specifically, we have used a potential stemming from an ab initio calculation in Green et al.’s framework to describe the dynamics of the water molecule system. Proposing a modified version of the Classical Over-Barrier (COB) potential, we have found that a cut-off of roughly 28 a.u. on the initial distance of the projectile produced a reasonable accuracy. A global agreement has been obtained in our calculations compared to experimental and other theoretical results for C{sup 6+} ion energies ranging from 10 keV/u to 10 MeV/u.

  17. Relationship between mass density, electron density, and elemental composition of body tissues for Monte Carlo simulation in radiation treatment planning

    CERN Document Server

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: For Monte Carlo simulation of radiotherapy, x-ray CT number of every system needs to be calibrated and converted to mass density and elemental composition. This study aims to formulate material properties of body tissues for practical two-step conversion from CT number. Methods: We used the latest compilation on body tissues that constitute reference adult male and female. We formulated the relations among mass, electron, and elemental densities into polylines to connect representative tissues, for which we took mass-weighted mean for the tissues in limited density regions. We compared the polyline functions of mass density with a bi-line for electron density and broken lines for elemental densities, which were derived from preceding studies. Results: There was generally high correlation between mass density and the other densities except of C, N, and O for light spongiosa tissues occupying 1% of body mass. The polylines fitted to the dominant tissues and were generally consistent with the bi-line an...

  18. ITS version 5.0 : the integrated TIGER series of coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo transport codes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Brian Claude; Kensek, Ronald Patrick; Laub, Thomas William

    2004-06-01

    ITS is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state of the art Monte Carlo solution of linear time-independent couple electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Our goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects one of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with an input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and internal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 5.0, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 3.0 continuous-energy codes, (2)multigroup codes with adjoint transport capabilities, and (3) parallel implementations of all ITS codes. Moreover the general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through increased internal error checking and improved code portability.

  19. Evaluation of PENFAST - A fast Monte Carlo code for dose calculations in photon and electron radiotherapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, B.; Poumarede, B.; Tola, F.; Barthe, J. [CEA, LIST, Dept Technol Capteur et Signal, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the potential of accelerated dose calculations, using the fast Monte Carlo (MC) code referred to as PENFAST, rather than the conventional MC code PENELOPE, without losing accuracy in the computed dose. For this purpose, experimental measurements of dose distributions in homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms were compared with simulated results using both PENELOPE and PENFAST. The simulations and experiments were performed using a Saturne 43 linac operated at 12 MV (photons), and at 18 MeV (electrons). Pre-calculated phase space files (PSFs) were used as input data to both the PENELOPE and PENFAST dose simulations. Since depth-dose and dose profile comparisons between simulations and measurements in water were found to be in good agreement (within {+-} 1% to 1 mm), the PSF calculation is considered to have been validated. In addition, measured dose distributions were compared to simulated results in a set of clinically relevant, inhomogeneous phantoms, consisting of lung and bone heterogeneities in a water tank. In general, the PENFAST results agree to within a 1% to 1 mm difference with those produced by PENELOPE, and to within a 2% to 2 mm difference with measured values. Our study thus provides a pre-clinical validation of the PENFAST code. It also demonstrates that PENFAST provides accurate results for both photon and electron beams, equivalent to those obtained with PENELOPE. CPU time comparisons between both MC codes show that PENFAST is generally about 9-21 times faster than PENELOPE. (authors)

  20. Electron fields in clinical application. A comparison of pencil beam and Monte Carlo algorithm; Elektronenfelder in der klinischen Anwendung. Ein Vergleich von Pencil-Beam- und Monte-Carlo-Algorithmus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treutwein, M.; Bogner, L. [Universitaetsklinikum Regensburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie

    2007-08-15

    Background and Purpose: For several years three-dimensional treatment-planning systems have used pencil beam algorithms in the calculation of electron fields. Nowadays, exact Monte Carlo methods are commercially available, showing good correspondence to experimental results. Clinical examples are investigated to find differences in the dose distribution of treatment plans, which are calculated with both pencil beam and Monte Carlo algorithm. Material and Methods: Two different clinical applications are regarded: (1) an irradiation of the chest wall, and (2) an electron field to the vertebral column. The dose distributions are calculated by Oncentra trademark MasterPlan on the one hand, using the Monte Carlo code VMC++, and by Helax trademark TMS on the other hand (both Nucletron B.V., Veenendaal, The Netherlands). Profiles and depth dose curves are evaluated by the Verisoft trademark program of PTW (Freiburg, Germany). Results: In the case of chest wall irradiation, the depth dose curves for the three investigated energies, 9, 15 and 21 MeV, agree rather well, also in lung tissue. The mean value for the lung differs only by 4% related to the dose maximum. In the case of vertebral column irradiation, however, the dose difference is more pronounced and, in the prevertebral region, is 56% lower for the VMC++ plan than in the pencil beam calculation. Conclusion: For irradiations of the chest wall, dose distribution calculations by means of pencil beam algorithm may be applied. Calculating electron dose distributions in cases of larger bone inhomogeneities, the more exact Monte Carlo algorithm should be preferred. (orig.)

  1. Monte Carlo calculation of ion, electron, and photon spectra of xenon atoms in x-ray free-electron laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Son, Sang-Kil; 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.063415

    2013-01-01

    When atoms and molecules are irradiated by an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), they are highly ionized via a sequence of one-photon ionization and relaxation processes. To describe the ionization dynamics during XFEL pulses, a rate equation model has been employed. Even though this model is straightforward for the case of light atoms, it generates a huge number of coupled rate equations for heavy atoms like xenon, which are not trivial to solve directly. Here, we employ the Monte Carlo method to address this problem and we investigate ionization dynamics of xenon atoms induced by XFEL pulses at a photon energy of 4500 eV. Charge state distributions, photo-/Auger electron spectra, and fluorescence spectra are presented for x-ray fluences of up to $10^{13}$ photons/$\\mu$m$^2$. With the photon energy of 4500 eV, xenon atoms can be ionized up to +44 through multiphoton absorption characterized by sequential one-photon single-electron interactions.

  2. Modeling and Design of GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors and Hot Electron Transistors through Monte Carlo Particle-based Device Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligo, Riccardo

    In this work, the insight provided by our sophisticated Full Band Monte Carlo simulator is used to analyze the behavior of state-of-art devices like GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors and Hot Electron Transistors. Chapter 1 is dedicated to the description of the simulation tool used to obtain the results shown in this work. Moreover, a separate section is dedicated the set up of a procedure to validate to the tunneling algorithm recently implemented in the simulator. Chapter 2 introduces High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs), state-of-art devices characterized by highly non linear transport phenomena that require the use of advanced simulation methods. The techniques for device modeling are described applied to a recent GaN-HEMT, and they are validated with experimental measurements. The main techniques characterization techniques are also described, including the original contribution provided by this work. Chapter 3 focuses on a popular technique to enhance HEMTs performance: the down-scaling of the device dimensions. In particular, this chapter is dedicated to lateral scaling and the calculation of a limiting cutoff frequency for a device of vanishing length. Finally, Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 describe the modeling of Hot Electron Transistors (HETs). The simulation approach is validated by matching the current characteristics with the experimental one before variations of the layouts are proposed to increase the current gain to values suitable for amplification. The frequency response of these layouts is calculated, and modeled by a small signal circuit. For this purpose, a method to directly calculate the capacitance is developed which provides a graphical picture of the capacitative phenomena that limit the frequency response in devices. In Chapter 5 the properties of the hot electrons are investigated for different injection energies, which are obtained by changing the layout of the emitter barrier. Moreover, the large signal characterization of the

  3. SU-E-T-356: Accuracy of Eclipse Electron Macro Monte Carlo Dose Algorithm for Use in Bolus Electron Conformal Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carver, R [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Popple, R; Benhabib, S [UniversityAlabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United Kingdom); Antolak, J [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Sprunger, C [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Hogstrom, K [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of electron dose distribution calculated by the Varian Eclipse electron Monte Carlo (eMC) algorithm for use with recent commercially available bolus electron conformal therapy (ECT). Methods: eMC-calculated electron dose distributions for bolus ECT have been compared to those previously measured for cylindrical phantoms (retromolar trigone and nose), whose axial cross sections were based on the mid-PTV CT anatomy for each site. The phantoms consisted of SR4 muscle substitute, SR4 bone substitute, and air. The bolus ECT treatment plans were imported into the Eclipse treatment planning system and calculated using the maximum allowable histories (2×10{sup 9}), resulting in a statistical error of <0.2%. Smoothing was not used for these calculations. Differences between eMC-calculated and measured dose distributions were evaluated in terms of absolute dose difference as well as distance to agreement (DTA). Results: Results from the eMC for the retromolar trigone phantom showed 89% (41/46) of dose points within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA. There was an average dose difference of −0.12% with a standard deviation of 2.56%. Results for the nose phantom showed 95% (54/57) of dose points within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA. There was an average dose difference of 1.12% with a standard deviation of 3.03%. Dose calculation times for the retromolar trigone and nose treatment plans were 15 min and 22 min, respectively, using 16 processors (Intel Xeon E5-2690, 2.9 GHz) on a Varian Eclipse framework agent server (FAS). Results of this study were consistent with those previously reported for accuracy of the eMC electron dose algorithm and for the .decimal, Inc. pencil beam redefinition algorithm used to plan the bolus. Conclusion: These results show that the accuracy of the Eclipse eMC algorithm is suitable for clinical implementation of bolus ECT.

  4. Effect of defect accumulation on ion-beam damage morphology by electronic excitation in lithium niobate: A MonteCarlo approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera de Mena, Antonio; Crespillo Almenara, Miguel; Olivares Roza, Jimena; García, G.; Argullo Lopez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    We present a MonteCarlo approach to the non-radiative exciton-decay model recently proposed to describe ion-beam damage in LiNbO3 produced in the electronic excitation regime. It takes into account the statistical (random) spatial distribution of ion impacts on the crystal surface. The MonteCarlo approach is necessary to simulate the evolution of the damage morphology with irradiation fluence from the single track regime to the overlapping track regime. A detailed comparison between the morph...

  5. Optimisation of electron cone design in high energy radiotherapy using the Monte Carlo method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northey, B J; Zavgorodni, S F

    2002-03-01

    Cylindrical solid-walled steel electron collimators are used at the Royal Adelaide Hospital with a Siemens KD2 Mevatron accelerator to produce circular fields 2-8 cm in diameter. The cones are used in contact with the patient's skin. A flat treatment field is required at the treatment depth and the beam should also satisfy the uniformity standards as specified by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). However, the seven and eight centimetre diameter cones provided by the manufacturer did not meet these specifications. In particular, the maximum dose relative to the depth-dose maximum on the central axis exceeded 126% as compared with the IEC recommended value of 109%, when used with a 21 MeV electron beam. Cone modifications were previously investigated by others with the results demonstrating some improvement in the 'horn' (as it appears on surface dose profiles) but still not satisfying IEC requirements. In the present paper the EGS4 code was used to model the existing treatment head geometry and cones, as well as new suggested modifications to the cone. The results of the simulation for the existing cone geometry corresponded closely to previously obtained measurements. The suggested collimator modifications involved a plastic insert along the internal wall of the collimator. Variations of the insert width and height were simulated for a 21 MeV electron beam and the results plotted to indicate the optimal insert dimensions. A plastic insert with the dimensions taken from one of the best models was produced and tested. The measurements showed close agreement with the simulation results (for the 'horn' height, dose within 1% and radial position within 2 mm) and improvement of the "maximum ratio of absorbed dose" from 126% before modification to 108% with the plastic insert. The tested insert was also simulated for a 12 MeV electron beam, to see whether permanent fitting of such an insert would have a deleterious effect at lower energies. Neither

  6. Effect of the electron transport through thin slabs on the simulation of linear electron accelerators of use in therapy: A comparative study of various Monte Carlo codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilches, M. [Servicio de Fisica y Proteccion Radiologica, Hospital Regional Universitario ' Virgen de las Nieves' , Avda. de las Fuerzas Armadas, 2, E-18014 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: mvilches@ugr.es; Garcia-Pareja, S. [Servicio de Radiofisica Hospitalaria, Hospital Regional Universitario ' Carlos Haya' , Avda. Carlos Haya, s/n, E-29010 Malaga (Spain); Guerrero, R. [Servicio de Radiofisica, Hospital Universitario ' San Cecilio' , Avda. Dr. Oloriz, 16, E-18012 Granada (Spain); Anguiano, M.; Lallena, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2007-09-21

    When a therapeutic electron linear accelerator is simulated using a Monte Carlo (MC) code, the tuning of the initial spectra and the renormalization of dose (e.g., to maximum axial dose) constitute a common practice. As a result, very similar depth dose curves are obtained for different MC codes. However, if renormalization is turned off, the results obtained with the various codes disagree noticeably. The aim of this work is to investigate in detail the reasons of this disagreement. We have found that the observed differences are due to non-negligible differences in the angular scattering of the electron beam in very thin slabs of dense material (primary foil) and thick slabs of very low density material (air). To gain insight, the effects of the angular scattering models considered in various MC codes on the dose distribution in a water phantom are discussed using very simple geometrical configurations for the LINAC. The MC codes PENELOPE 2003, PENELOPE 2005, GEANT4, GEANT3, EGSnrc and MCNPX have been used.

  7. The determination of pair-distance distribution by double electron-electron resonance: regularization by the length of distance discretization with Monte Carlo calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzuba, Sergei A.

    2016-08-01

    Pulsed double electron-electron resonance technique (DEER, or PELDOR) is applied to study conformations and aggregation of peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, and other macromolecules. For a pair of spin labels, experimental data allows for the determination of their distance distribution function, P(r). P(r) is derived as a solution of a first-kind Fredholm integral equation, which is an ill-posed problem. Here, we suggest regularization by increasing the distance discretization length to its upper limit where numerical integration still provides agreement with experiment. This upper limit is found to be well above the lower limit for which the solution instability appears because of the ill-posed nature of the problem. For solving the integral equation, Monte Carlo trials of P(r) functions are employed; this method has an obvious advantage of the fulfillment of the non-negativity constraint for P(r). The regularization by the increasing of distance discretization length for the case of overlapping broad and narrow distributions may be employed selectively, with this length being different for different distance ranges. The approach is checked for model distance distributions and for experimental data taken from literature for doubly spin-labeled DNA and peptide antibiotics.

  8. Influences of spherical phantom heterogeneities on dosimetric charactristics of miniature electronic brachytherapy X-ray sources: Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Jashni, Hojatollah; Safigholi, Habib; Meigooni, Ali S

    2014-10-23

    Dose calculations in current brachytherapy treatment planning systems (TPS) are commonly based on TG-43U1 formalism. These TPS are obtained by superposition principle of single-source dosimetric parameters in liquid water, neglecting the effects of tissue heterogeneity. In this work, the sensitivity of the TG-43U1 based radial dose function (g(r)) of Miniature Electronic Brachytherapy X-ray Sources (MEBXS) to bone-heterogeneity was examined. To quantify the heterogeneity effects for g(r), a series of Monte Carlo (MC) based radiation transport simulations at the center of homogeneous and heterogeneous spherical phantoms were performed using the MCNP5 code. The ratio of the g(r) in the heterogeneius phantom to the uniform soft tisuue phantom as a function of the bone thickness was determined. These results indicated that for 40keV beam, the maximum ratios for thicknesses of 1cm and 2cm were 3.36 and 3.27, respectively. These values changed to 4.28 and 4.06, for 60keV beam, respectively. Introduction of 0.5cm or 1cm red marrow, into the interior of the cortical bone changed the maximum variations to, 3.54, and 3.57 for 40keV, and 4.28, and 4.25, for 60keV, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Monte-Carlo simulation of the equilibrium beam polarization in ultra-high energy electron(positron) storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Zhe; Barber, Desmond P; Qin, Qing

    2015-01-01

    With the recently emerging global interest in building a next generation of circular electron-positron colliders to study the properties of the Higgs boson, and other important topics in particle physics at ultra-high beam energies, it is also important to pursue the possibility of implementing polarized beams at this energy scale. It is therefore necessary to set up simulation tools to evaluate the beam polarization at these ultra-high beam energies. In this paper, a Monte-Carlo simulation of the equilibrium beam polarization based on the Polymorphic Tracking Code(PTC) is described. The simulations are for a model storage ring with parameters similar to those of proposed circular colliders in this energy range, and they are compared with the suggestion that there are different regimes for the spin dynamics underlying the polarization of a beam in the presence of synchrotron radiation at ultra-high beam energies. In particular, it has been suggested that the so-called "correlated" crossing of spin resonances ...

  10. Comparative Dosimetric Estimates of a 25 keV Electron Micro-beam with three Monte Carlo Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Mainardi, E; Donahue, R J

    2002-01-01

    The calculations presented compare the different performances of the three Monte Carlo codes PENELOPE-1999, MCNP-4C and PITS, for the evaluation of Dose profiles from a 25 keV electron micro-beam traversing individual cells. The overall model of a cell is a water cylinder equivalent for the three codes but with a different internal scoring geometry: hollow cylinders for PENELOPE and MCNP, whereas spheres are used for the PITS code. A cylindrical cell geometry with scoring volumes with the shape of hollow cylinders was initially selected for PENELOPE and MCNP because of its superior simulation of the actual shape and dimensions of a cell and for its improved computer-time efficiency if compared to spherical internal volumes. Some of the transfer points and energy transfer that constitute a radiation track may actually fall in the space between spheres, that would be outside the spherical scoring volume. This internal geometry, along with the PENELOPE algorithm, drastically reduced the computer time when using ...

  11. Kinetic Monte Carlo Modeling of Charge Carriers in Organic Electronic Devices: Suppression of the Self-Interaction Error

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Haoyuan

    2017-05-18

    Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations have emerged as an important tool to help improve the efficiency of organic electronic devices by providing a better understanding of their device physics. In the KMC simulation of an organic device, the reliability of the results depends critically on the accuracy of the chosen charge-transfer rates, which are themselves strongly influenced by the site-energy differences. These site-energy differences include components coming from the electrostatic forces present in the system, which are often evaluated through electric potentials described by the Poisson equation. Here we show that the charge-carrier self-interaction errors that appear when evaluating the site-energy differences can lead to unreliable simulation results. To eliminate these errors, we propose two approaches that are also found to reduce the impact of finite-size effects. As a consequence, reliable results can be obtained at reduced computational costs. The proposed methodologies can be extended to other device simulation techniques as well.

  12. STRONG CORRELATIONS AND ELECTRON-PHONON COUPLING IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS - A QUANTUM MONTE-CARLO STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MORGENSTERN, [No Value; FRICK, M; VONDERLINDEN, W

    1992-01-01

    We present quantum simulation studies for a system of strongly correlated fermions coupled to local anharmonic phonons. The Monte Carlo calculations are based on a generalized version of the Projector Quantum Monte Carlo Method allowing a simultaneous treatment of fermions and dynamical phonons. The

  13. Incorporation of the electron energy equation into the hybrid Monte Carlo - fluid model for glow discharge: the applicability and reliability of the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eylenceoglu, Ender; Rafatov, Ismail; Kudryavtsev, Anatoly

    2016-09-01

    A modification of the conventional hybrid Monte Carlo - fluid model for glow discharge, which incorporates the electron energy equation, is considered. In the proposed model electrons are separated into two groups, namely, high energetic fast and low energetic slow (bulk) electrons. Density profiles of ions, slow electrons, and meta-stable particles are determined from the solution of corresponding continuity equations. Fast electrons, which are responsible for ionization and excitation events in the discharge, are simulated by the Monte-Carlo method. The temperature profile for slow electrons is obtained from the solution of the energy balance equation. The transport (mobility and diffusion) coefficients as well as the reaction rates for slow electrons are determined as functions of the electron temperature. Test calculations are carried out for the direct current glow discharge in argon within two-dimensional geometry. Comparison of the computed results with those obtained from the conventional fluid and hybrid models and the experimental data is done, the applicability and reliability of the proposed model is studied in details.

  14. SU-D-19A-04: Parameter Characterization of Electron Beam Monte Carlo Phase Space of TrueBeam Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, A; Yin, F; Wu, Q [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Sawkey, D [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: For TrueBeam Monte Carlo simulations, Varian does not distribute linac head geometry and material compositions, instead providing a phase space file (PSF) for the users. The PSF has a finite number of particle histories and can have very large file size, yet still contains inherent statistical noises. The purpose of this study is to characterize the electron beam PSF with parameters. Methods: The PSF is a snapshot of all particles' information at a given plane above jaws including type, energy, position, and directions. This study utilized a preliminary TrueBeam PSF, of which validation against measurement is presented in another study. To characterize the PSF, distributions of energy, position, and direction of all particles are analyzed as piece-wise parameterized functions of radius and polar angle. Subsequently, a pseudo PSF was generated based on this characterization. Validation was assessed by directly comparing the true and pseudo PSFs, and by using both PSFs in the down-stream MC simulations (BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc) and comparing dose distributions for 3 applicators at 15 MeV. Statistical uncertainty of 4% was limited by the number of histories in the original PSF. Percent depth dose (PDD) and orthogonal (PRF) profiles at various depths were evaluated. Results: Preliminary results showed that this PSF parameterization was accurate, with no visible differences between original and pseudo PSFs except at the edge (6 cm off axis), which did not impact dose distributions in phantom. PDD differences were within 1 mm for R{sub 7} {sub 0}, R{sub 5} {sub 0}, R{sub 3} {sub 0}, and R{sub 1} {sub 0}, and PRF field size and penumbras were within 2 mm. Conclusion: A PSF can be successfully characterized by distributions for energy, position, and direction as parameterized functions of radius and polar angles; this facilitates generating sufficient particles at any statistical precision. Analyses for all other electron energies are under way and results will be

  15. Is wax equivalent to tissue in electron conformal therapy planning? A Monte Carlo study of material approximation introduced dose difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ray R; Feygelman, Vladimir; Harris, Eleanor R; Rao, Nikhil; Moros, Eduardo G; Zhang, Geoffrey G

    2013-01-07

    With CT-based Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations, material composition is often assigned based on the standard Hounsfield unit ranges. This is known as the density threshold method. In bolus electron conformal therapy (BolusECT), the bolus material, machineable wax, would be assigned as soft tissue and the electron density is assumed equivalent to soft tissue based on its Hounsfield unit. This study investigates the dose errors introduced by this material assignment. BEAMnrc was used to simulate electron beams from a Trilogy accelerator. SPRRZnrc was used to calculate stopping power ratios (SPR) of tissue to wax, SPR (tissue) (wax), and tissue to water, SPR(tissue) (water), for 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 MeV electron beams, of which 12 and 15MeV beams are the most commonly used energies in BolusECT. DOSXYZnrc was applied in dose distribution calculations in a tissue phantom with either flat wax slabs of various thicknesses or a wedge-shaped bolus on top. Dose distribution for two clinical cases, a chest wall and a head and neck, were compared with the bolus material treated as wax or tissue. The SPR(tissue) (wax) values for 12 and 15MeV beams are between 0.935 and 0.945, while the SPR(tissue) (water) values are between 0.990 and 0.991. For a 12 MeV beam, the dose in tissue immediately under the bolus is overestimated by 2.5% for a 3 cm bolus thickness if the wax bolus is treated as tissue. For 15 MeV beams, the error is 1.4%. However, in both clinical cases the differences in the PTV DVH is negligible. Due to stopping power differences, dose differences of up to 2.5% are observed in MC simulations if the bolus material is misassigned as tissue in BolusECT dose calculations. However, for boluses thinner than 2 cm that are more likely encountered in practice, the error is within clinical tolerance.

  16. Tamaño y composición de la colonia de tres especies de hormigas del género Pogonomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae en la porción central del desierto del Monte, Argentina Colony size and composition in three Pogonomyrmex ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in the central Monte desert, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz E. Nobua Behrmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El tamaño de la colonia es un atributo fundamental en la biología de las hormigas ya que está asociado a características ecológicamente relevantes, como sus estrategias de alimentación. Mientras que el tamaño de la colonia de varias especies de hormigas granívoras del género Pogonomyrmex de América del Norte se ha estudiado en detalle, no existe tal información para las especies de América del Sur. En este trabajo, se determinó el tamaño y la composición de la colonia y se describió la estructura del nido de tres especies de Pogonomyrmex que habitan la porción central del desierto del Monte en Argentina: P. mendozanus Cuezzo & Claver, P. inermis Forel y P. rastratus Mayr. Para ello, se excavaron dos nidos de cada especie y se recolectaron todos los individuos encontrados. Las tres especies tienen colonias pequeñas, compuestas por 300-1.100 individuos, de los cuales aproximadamente el 70% son obreras adultas. La estructura de sus nidos es relativamente simple, similar a la de la mayoría de las especies norteamericanas estudiadas, pero con un menor desarrollo en profundidad y un número menor de cámaras; probablemente se deba al menor número de obreras que poseen. Estas características (colonias pequeñas y nidos poco desarrollados son consideradas típicas para las especies del género Pogonomyrmex de América del Sur, lo que las diferencia de la mayoría de sus congéneres estudiados en América del Norte.Colony size in ants is associated with important ecological characteristics such as foraging strategy. Though colony size has been studied with some detail for several North American species of Pogonomyrmex harvester ants, it remains unknown for South American species. We studied colony size, composition, and nest structure of three species of Pogonomyrmex harvester ants inhabiting the central Monte desert in Argentina: P. mendozanus Cuezzo & Claver, P. inermis Forel and P. rastratus Mayr. We excavated two nests of each

  17. Establishing an Initial Electron Beam Model with Monte Carlo Simulation for a Single 6 MV X-ray Medical Linac Based on Particle Dynamics Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-bin; KONG Xiao-xiao; LI Quan-feng; LIN Xiao-qi; BAO Shang-lian

    2009-01-01

    Objective:In this study,we try to establish an initial electron beam model by combining Monte Carlo simulation method with particle dynamic calculation (TRSV) for the single 6 MV X-ray accelerating waveguide of BJ- 6 medical linac. Methods and Materials:1. We adapted the treatment head configuration of BJ- 6 medical linac made by Beijing Medical Equipment Institute (BMEI) as the radiation system for this study. 2. Use particle dynamics calculation code called TRSV to drive out the initial electron beam parameters of the energy spectrum, the spatial intensity distribution, and the beam incidence angle. 3. Analyze the 6 MV X-ray beam characteristics of PDDc, OARc in a water phantom by using Monte Carlo simulation (BEAMnrc,DOSXYZnrc) for a preset of the initial electron beam parameters which have been determined by TRSV, do the comparisons of the measured results of PDDm, OARm in a real water phantom, and then use the deviations of calculated and measured results to slightly modify the initial electron beam model back and forth until the deviations meet the error less than 2%. Results:The deviations between the Monte Carlo simulation results of percentage depth doses at PDDc and off-axis ratios OARc and the measured results of PDDm and OARm in a water phantom were within 2%. Conclusion:When doing the Monte Carlo simulation to determine the parameters of an initial electron beam for a particular medical linac like BJ- 6, modifying some parameters based on the particle dynamics calculation code would give some more reasonable and more acceptable results.

  18. Dosimetric characteristics of electron beams produced by two mobile accelerators, Novac7 and Liac, for intraoperative radiation therapy through Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Sergio; Karaj, Evis; Felici, Giuseppe; Di Martino, Fabio

    2013-01-07

    The Novac7 and Liac are linear accelerators (linacs) dedicated to intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT), which produce high energy, very high dose-per-pulse electron beams. The characteristics of the accelerators heads of the Novac7 and Liac are different compared to conventional electron accelerators. The aim of this work was to investigate the specific characteristics of the Novac7 and Liac electron beams using the Monte Carlo method. The Monte Carlo code BEAMnrc has been employed to model the head and simulate the electron beams. The Monte Carlo simulation was preliminarily validated by comparing the simulated dose distributions with those measured by means of EBT radiochromic film. Then, the energy spectra, mean energy profiles, fluence profiles, photon contamination, and angular distributions were obtained from the Monte Carlo simulation. The Spencer-Attix water-to-air mass restricted collision stopping power ratios (sw,air) were also calculated. Moreover, the modifications of the percentage depth dose in water (backscatter effect) due to the presence of an attenuator plate composed of a sandwich of a 2 mm aluminum foil and a 4 mm lead foil, commonly used for breast treatments, were evaluated. The calculated sw,air values are in agreement with those tabulated in the IAEA TRS-398 dosimetric code of practice within 0.2% and 0.4% at zref (reference depth in water) for the Novac7 and Liac, respectively. These differences are negligible for practical dosimetry. The attenuator plate is sufficient to completely absorb the electron beam for each energy of the Novac7 and Liac; moreover, the shape of the dose distribution in water strongly changes with the introduction of the attenuator plate. This variation depends on the energy of the beam, and it can give rise to an increase in the maximum dose in the range of 3%-9%.

  19. A Monte Carlo simulation code for calculating damage and particle transport in solids: The case for electron-bombarded solids for electron energies up to 900 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiang; Shao, Lin

    2017-03-01

    Current popular Monte Carlo simulation codes for simulating electron bombardment in solids focus primarily on electron trajectories, instead of electron-induced displacements. Here we report a Monte Carol simulation code, DEEPER (damage creation and particle transport in matter), developed for calculating 3-D distributions of displacements produced by electrons of incident energies up to 900 MeV. Electron elastic scattering is calculated by using full-Mott cross sections for high accuracy, and primary-knock-on-atoms (PKAs)-induced damage cascades are modeled using ZBL potential. We compare and show large differences in 3-D distributions of displacements and electrons in electron-irradiated Fe. The distributions of total displacements are similar to that of PKAs at low electron energies. But they are substantially different for higher energy electrons due to the shifting of PKA energy spectra towards higher energies. The study is important to evaluate electron-induced radiation damage, for the applications using high flux electron beams to intentionally introduce defects and using an electron analysis beam for microstructural characterization of nuclear materials.

  20. South American mammal zoogeography: evidence from convergent evolution in desert rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, M A

    1975-05-01

    Current theories regarding colonization of South America by mammals are divided between those supported by fossil evidence, which suggest the original mammal fauna of the isolated continent was augmented by early immigrants (primates, caviomorph rodents, and later, procyonids) with a final large influx of northern mammals occurring with the formation of the Panama land bridge, and an opposing view which states that the purported "recent invaders" are too taxonomically and ecologically differentiated to have colonized since the land bridge arose. The second theory suggests that most extant mammals entered before the Plio-Pleistocene land connection. An analysis of degree of physiological adaptation, natural history, distribution patterns, and a multivariate assessment of convergent evolution of Monte Desert rodents indicate that South American cricetine rodents are not highly specialized for desert life. Their degree of adaptation could be accounted for, in large part, by adaptations for arid or semiarid Andean habitats. No Monte Desert rodent has developed the specialized desert traits that have evolved in most desert rodent faunas of the world, although extinct marsupials similar to living bipedal desert rodents were present in the Monte as recently as late Pliocene. Evidence suggests that Monte caviomorphs have been associated with the desert for a longer period than cricetines, and that the latter represent a fairly recent invasion of the Monte Desert. The data thus support the first hypothesis of South American mammal colonization.

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of the electron transport through thin slabs: A comparative study of PENELOPE, GEANT3, GEANT4, EGSnrc and MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilches, M. [Servicio de Fisica y Proteccion Radiologica, Hospital Regional Universitario ' Virgen de las Nieves' , Avda. de las Fuerzas Armadas, 2, E-18014 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: mvilches@ugr.es; Garcia-Pareja, S. [Servicio de Radiofisica Hospitalaria, Hospital Regional Universitario ' Carlos Haya' , Avda. Carlos Haya, s/n, E-29010 Malaga (Spain)]. E-mail: garciapareja@gmail.com; Guerrero, R. [Servicio de Radiofisica, Hospital Universitario ' San Cecilio' , Avda. Dr. Oloriz, 16, E-18012 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: rafael.guerrero.alcalde.sspa@juntadeandalucia.es; Anguiano, M. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: mangui@ugr.es; Lallena, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: lallena@ugr.es

    2007-01-15

    The Monte Carlo simulation of the electron transport through thin slabs is studied with five general purpose codes: PENELOPE, GEANT3, GEANT4, EGSnrc and MCNPX. The different material foils analyzed in the old experiments of Kulchitsky and Latyshev [L.A. Kulchitsky, G.D. Latyshev, Phys. Rev. 61 (1942) 254] and Hanson et al. [A.O. Hanson, L.H. Lanzl, E.M. Lyman, M.B. Scott, Phys. Rev. 84 (1951) 634] are used to perform the comparison between the Monte Carlo codes. Non-negligible differences are observed in the angular distributions of the transmitted electrons obtained with the some of the codes. The experimental data are reasonably well described by EGSnrc, PENELOPE (v.2005) and GEANT4. A general good agreement is found for EGSnrc and PENELOPE (v.2005) in all the cases analyzed.

  2. Electron beam quality kQ,Q0 factors for various ionization chambers: a Monte Carlo investigation with penelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erazo, F.; Brualla, L.; Lallena, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    In this work we calculate the beam quality correction factor {{k}\\text{Q,{{\\text{Q}}0}}} for various plane-parallel ionization chambers. A set of Monte Carlo calculations using the code penelope/penEasy have been carried out to calculate the overall correction factor fc,Q for eight electron beams corresponding to a Varian Clinac 2100 C/D, with nominal energies ranging between 6 MeV and 22 MeV, for a 60Co beam, that has been used as the reference quality Q0 and also for eight monoenergetic electron beams reproducing the quality index R50 of the Clinac beams. Two field sizes, 10 × 10 cm2 and 20 × 20 cm2 have been considered. The {{k}\\text{Q,{{\\text{Q}}0}}} factors have been calculated as the ratio between fc,Q and {{f}\\text{c,{{\\text{Q}}0}}} . Values for the Exradin A10, A11, A11TW, P11, P11TW, T11 and T11TW ionization chambers, manufactured by Standard Imaging, as well as for the NACP-02 have been obtained. The results found with the Clinac beams for the two field sizes analyzed show differences below 0.6%, even in the case of the higher energy electron beams. The {{k}\\text{Q,{{\\text{Q}}0}}} values obtained with the Clinac beams are 1% larger than those found with the monoenergetic beams for the higher energies, above 12 MeV. This difference can be ascribed to secondary photons produced in the linac head and the air path towards the phantom. Contrary to what was quoted in a previous work (Sempau et al 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 4427-44), the beam quality correction factors obtained with the complete Clinac geometries and with the monoenergetic beams differ significantly for energies above 12 MeV. Material differences existing between chambers that have the same geometry produce non-negligible modifications in the value of these correction factors.

  3. Feasibility assessment of the interactive use of a Monte Carlo algorithm in treatment planning for intraoperative electron radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Pedro; Udías, José M; Herranz, Elena; Santos-Miranda, Juan Antonio; Herraiz, Joaquín L; Valdivieso, Manlio F; Rodríguez, Raúl; Calama, Juan A; Pascau, Javier; Calvo, Felipe A; Illana, Carlos; Ledesma-Carbayo, María J; Santos, Andrés

    2014-12-01

    This work analysed the feasibility of using a fast, customized Monte Carlo (MC) method to perform accurate computation of dose distributions during pre- and intraplanning of intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) procedures. The MC method that was implemented, which has been integrated into a specific innovative simulation and planning tool, is able to simulate the fate of thousands of particles per second, and it was the aim of this work to determine the level of interactivity that could be achieved. The planning workflow enabled calibration of the imaging and treatment equipment, as well as manipulation of the surgical frame and insertion of the protection shields around the organs at risk and other beam modifiers. In this way, the multidisciplinary team involved in IOERT has all the tools necessary to perform complex MC dosage simulations adapted to their equipment in an efficient and transparent way. To assess the accuracy and reliability of this MC technique, dose distributions for a monoenergetic source were compared with those obtained using a general-purpose software package used widely in medical physics applications. Once accuracy of the underlying simulator was confirmed, a clinical accelerator was modelled and experimental measurements in water were conducted. A comparison was made with the output from the simulator to identify the conditions under which accurate dose estimations could be obtained in less than 3 min, which is the threshold imposed to allow for interactive use of the tool in treatment planning. Finally, a clinically relevant scenario, namely early-stage breast cancer treatment, was simulated with pre- and intraoperative volumes to verify that it was feasible to use the MC tool intraoperatively and to adjust dose delivery based on the simulation output, without compromising accuracy. The workflow provided a satisfactory model of the treatment head and the imaging system, enabling proper configuration of the treatment planning

  4. Dosimetric verification of a commercial Monte Carlo treatment planning system (VMC++) for a 9 MeV electron beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiapparelli, P; Zefiro, D; Taccini, G

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of the voxel-based Monte Carlo algorithm implemented in the commercial treatment planning system ONCENTRA MASTERPLAN for a 9 MeV electron beam produced by a linear accelerator Varian Clinac 2100 C/D. In order to realize an experimental verification of the computed data, three different groups of tests were planned. The first set was performed in a water phantom to investigate standard fields, custom inserts, and extended treatment distances. The second one concerned standard field, irregular entrance surface, and oblique incidence in a homogeneous PMMA phantom. The last group involved the introduction of inhomogeneities in a PMMA phantom to simulate high and low density materials such as bone and lung. Measurements in water were performed by means of cylindrical and plane-parallel ionization chambers, whereas measurements in PMMA were carried out by the use of radiochromic films. Point dose values were compared in terms of percentage difference, whereas the gamma index tool was used to perform the comparison between computed and measured dose profiles, considering different tolerances according to the test complexity. In the case of transverse scans, the agreement was searched in the plane formed by the intersection of beam axis and the profile (2D analysis), while for percentage depth dose curves, only the beam axis was explored (1D analysis). An excellent agreement was found for point dose evaluation in water (discrepancies smaller than 2%). Also the comparison between planned and measured dose profiles in homogeneous water and PMMA phantoms showed good results (agreement within 2%-2 mm). Profile evaluation in phantoms with internal inhomogeneities showed a good agreement in the case of "lung" insert, while in tests concerning a small "bone" inhomogeneity, a discrepancy was particularly evidenced in dose values on the beam axis. This is due to the inaccurate geometrical description of the phantom that is linked

  5. Electron dose distributions caused by the contact-type metallic eye shield: Studies using Monte Carlo and pencil beam algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sei-Kwon; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Hwang, Taejin; Park, Soah; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Jin Han, Tae; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Me-Yeon; Ju Kim, Kyoung, E-mail: kjkim@hallym.or.kr; Bae, Hoonsik

    2015-10-01

    A metallic contact eye shield has sometimes been used for eyelid treatment, but dose distribution has never been reported for a patient case. This study aimed to show the shield-incorporated CT-based dose distribution using the Pinnacle system and Monte Carlo (MC) calculation for 3 patient cases. For the artifact-free CT scan, an acrylic shield machined as the same size as that of the tungsten shield was used. For the MC calculation, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc were used for the 6-MeV electron beam of the Varian 21EX, in which information for the tungsten, stainless steel, and aluminum material for the eye shield was used. The same plan was generated on the Pinnacle system and both were compared. The use of the acrylic shield produced clear CT images, enabling delineation of the regions of interest, and yielded CT-based dose calculation for the metallic shield. Both the MC and the Pinnacle systems showed a similar dose distribution downstream of the eye shield, reflecting the blocking effect of the metallic eye shield. The major difference between the MC and the Pinnacle results was the target eyelid dose upstream of the shield such that the Pinnacle system underestimated the dose by 19 to 28% and 11 to 18% for the maximum and the mean doses, respectively. The pattern of dose difference between the MC and the Pinnacle systems was similar to that in the previous phantom study. In conclusion, the metallic eye shield was successfully incorporated into the CT-based planning, and the accurate dose calculation requires MC simulation.

  6. Feasibility assessment of the interactive use of a Monte Carlo algorithm in treatment planning for intraoperative electron radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Pedro; Udías, José M.; Herranz, Elena; Santos-Miranda, Juan Antonio; Herraiz, Joaquín L.; Valdivieso, Manlio F.; Rodríguez, Raúl; Calama, Juan A.; Pascau, Javier; Calvo, Felipe A.; Illana, Carlos; Ledesma-Carbayo, María J.; Santos, Andrés

    2014-12-01

    This work analysed the feasibility of using a fast, customized Monte Carlo (MC) method to perform accurate computation of dose distributions during pre- and intraplanning of intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) procedures. The MC method that was implemented, which has been integrated into a specific innovative simulation and planning tool, is able to simulate the fate of thousands of particles per second, and it was the aim of this work to determine the level of interactivity that could be achieved. The planning workflow enabled calibration of the imaging and treatment equipment, as well as manipulation of the surgical frame and insertion of the protection shields around the organs at risk and other beam modifiers. In this way, the multidisciplinary team involved in IOERT has all the tools necessary to perform complex MC dosage simulations adapted to their equipment in an efficient and transparent way. To assess the accuracy and reliability of this MC technique, dose distributions for a monoenergetic source were compared with those obtained using a general-purpose software package used widely in medical physics applications. Once accuracy of the underlying simulator was confirmed, a clinical accelerator was modelled and experimental measurements in water were conducted. A comparison was made with the output from the simulator to identify the conditions under which accurate dose estimations could be obtained in less than 3 min, which is the threshold imposed to allow for interactive use of the tool in treatment planning. Finally, a clinically relevant scenario, namely early-stage breast cancer treatment, was simulated with pre- and intraoperative volumes to verify that it was feasible to use the MC tool intraoperatively and to adjust dose delivery based on the simulation output, without compromising accuracy. The workflow provided a satisfactory model of the treatment head and the imaging system, enabling proper configuration of the treatment planning

  7. CELLDOSE: A Monte Carlo code to assess electron dose distribution - S values for {sup 131}I in spheres of various sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champion, C. [Univ Metz, Lab Phys Mol et Collis, Inst Phys, F-57078 Metz 3 (France); Zanotti-Fregonara, P. [Commissariat Energie Atom, DSV, I2BM, SHFJ, LIME, Orsay (France); Hindie, E [Hop St Louis, AP-HP, Paris (France); Hindie, E. [Imagerie Mol Diagnost et Ciblage Therapeut, Ecole Doctorale B2T, IUH, Paris, Univ Paris 07 (France)

    2008-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulation can be particularly suitable for modeling the microscopic distribution of energy received by normal tissues or cancer cells and for evaluating the relative merits of different radiopharmaceuticals. We used a new code, CELLDOSE, to assess electron dose for isolated spheres with radii varying from 2,500 {mu}m down to 0.05 {mu}m, in which {sup 131}I is homogeneously distributed. Methods: All electron emissions of {sup 131}I were considered,including the whole {beta}{sup -} {sup 131}I spectrum, 108 internal conversion electrons, and 21 Auger electrons. The Monte Carlo track-structure code used follows all electrons down to an energy threshold E-cutoff 7.4 eV. Results: Calculated S values were in good agreement with published analytic methods, lying in between reported results for all experimental points. Our S values were also close to other published data using a Monte Carlo code. Contrary to the latter published results, our results show that dose distribution inside spheres is not homogeneous, with the dose at the outmost layer being approximately half that at the center. The fraction of electron energy retained within the spheres decreased with decreasing radius (r): 87.1 % for r 2,500 {mu}m, 8.73% for r 50 {mu}m, and 1.18% for r 5 {mu}m. Thus, a radioiodine concentration that delivers a dose of 100 Gy to a micro-metastasis of 2,500 {mu}m radius would deliver 10 Gy in a cluster of 50 {mu}m and only 1.4 Gy in an isolated cell. The specific contribution from Auger electrons varied from 0.25% for the largest sphere up to 76.8% for the smallest sphere. Conclusion: The dose to a tumor cell will depend on its position in a metastasis. For the treatment of very small metastases, {sup 131}I may not be the isotope of choice. When trying to kill isolated cells or a small cluster of cells with {sup 131}I, it is important to get the iodine as close as possible to the nucleus to get the enhancement factor from Auger electrons. The Monte Carlo code

  8. 钎锌矿相GaN电子高场输运特性的Monte Carlo模拟研究%Electron transport property in wurtzite GaN at high electric field with Monte Carlo simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宝增; 张锁良; 刘鑫

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of the electron transport property in wurtize GaN using an ensemble full band Monte Carlo simulation. The data of wurtzite GaN band structure calculated with the first-principles total-energy pseudopotential method is used in the simulations. The impact ionization scattering rate is calculated based on Cartier's method. The average electron drift velocity and the average electron energy each as a function of electric field are computed. The electron impact ionization coefficient is calculated as a function of applied electric field. The analysis of the impact ionization coefficient shows that when the applied electric field is greater than 1 MV/cm, the obvious impact ionization events occur. The analysis of the quantum yield shows that when the electron energy is greater than 7 eV, the quantum yield increases rapidly with electron energy increasing. We study the occupancy of the electrons in the eight conduction bands at the applied electric field ranging from 0 to 4 MV / cm. For the case of the low applied electric field all of the electrons are located in the 1st conduction band. With the increase of the applied electric field, some of the electrons move to high index conduction bands. For the whole range of the applied electric field, most of the electrons are located in the 1st conduction band and 2nd conduction band, a small number of the electrons are located in the 3rd, 4th and 5th conduction band, and very few electrons are located in the 7th and 8th conduction band.%应用全带多粒子Monte Carlo模拟方法,研究了钎锌矿相GaN材料电子的高场输运特性.模拟中利用了基于第一性原理总能量赝势方法计算得到的纤锌矿GaN的能带结构数据.用Cartier的方法,计算碰撞电离散射率.计算得到了电子平均漂移速度和电子平均能量与电场的关系曲线.电离系数的分析表明当电场强度大于1 MV/cm时,才会有明显的碰撞电离发生,量子产额的分析

  9. Optimal Allocation of Power-Electronic Interfaced Wind Turbines Using a Genetic Algorithm - Monte Carlo Hybrid Optimization Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Siano, Pierluigi; Chen, Zhe;

    2010-01-01

    limit requirements. The method combines the Genetic Algorithm (GA), gradient-based constrained nonlinear optimization algorithm and sequential Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The GA searches for the optimal locations and capacities of WTs. The gradient-based optimization finds the optimal power factor...

  10. Optimal Allocation of Power-Electronic Interfaced Wind Turbines Using a Genetic Algorithm - Monte Carlo Hybrid Optimization Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Siano, Pierluigi; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    limit requirements. The method combines the Genetic Algorithm (GA), gradient-based constrained nonlinear optimization algorithm and sequential Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The GA searches for the optimal locations and capacities of WTs. The gradient-based optimization finds the optimal power factor...

  11. A quantum Monte Carlo study on electron correlation in all-metal aromatic clusters MAl4(-) (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cu, Ag and Au).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Bráulio Gabriel A; Hai, G-Q; Teixeira Rabelo, J N; Cândido, Ladir

    2014-05-14

    Using fixed-node diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (FN-DMC) simulation we investigate the electron correlation in all-metal aromatic clusters MAl4(-) (with M = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cu, Ag and Au). The electron detachment energies and electron affinities of the clusters are obtained. The vertical electron detachment energies obtained from the FN-DMC calculations are in very good agreement with the available experimental results. Calculations are also performed within the Hartree-Fock approximation, density-functional theory (DFT), and the couple-cluster (CCSD(T)) method. From the obtained results, we analyse the impact of the electron correlation effects in these bimetallic clusters and find that the correlation of the valence electrons contributes significantly to the detachment energies and electron affinities, varying between 20% and 50% of their total values. Furthermore, we discuss the electron correlation effects on the stability of the clusters as well as the accuracy of the DFT and CCSD(T) calculations in the present systems.

  12. Adjustment of algorithm of calculation Monte Carlo for Electrons (eMC) in the ECLIPSE Planer; Ajuste de algoritmo de calculo Monte Carlo para electrones (eMC) en el planificador Eclipse Planner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde Velasco, J. M.; Garcia Repiso, S.; Martin rincon, C.; Ramos Pacho, J. A.; Delgado Aparicio, J. M.; Perez alvarez, M. E.; Saez Beltran, M.; Gomez Gonzalez, N.; Cons Perez, N.; Sena Espinel, E.

    2013-07-01

    The implementation of a Monte Carlo algorithm requires not only a careful series of steps, but also adjust various parameters of calculation which will influence both in the goodness of the calculation of doses as in the time required for the calculation, being necessary to reach a compromise solution that get acceptable calculation accuracy in a time of calculation which is acceptable. In this paper we present our experience in this setting. (Author)

  13. How to prescribe lung stereotactic radiotherapy with algorithms taking electron transport into account (Monte Carlo, and so on)?; Comment prescrire en radiotherapie stereotaxique dans le poumon avec les algorithmes tenant compte du transport des electrons (Monte-Carlo, etc.)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacornerie, T.; Prevost, B.; Reynaert, N. [Centre Oscar-Lambret, Lille (France); Lisbona, A.; Thillays, F. [Institut de cancerologie de l' Ouest Rene-Gauducheau, Nantes (France)

    2011-10-15

    As important differences are noticed in lung for some dose calculation algorithms (Pencil Beam and Monte Carlo for IPlan RT Dose, Ray-Tracing and Monte Carlo for CyberKnife, Pencil Beam and Collapsed Cone for Clinac 6V), the authors report the search for a way to adapt protocols established with old algorithms and to minimize the difference between teams who are using a same irradiation scheme, for example three 20 Gy fractions. They have studied whether the prescription of a peripheral isodose to the previsional target volume (PTV) is the best approach. Irradiation plans have been calculated for different types of accelerators, with two types of algorithms, and for three different lesion sizes. The doses received by 98, 50 and 2 per cent of the volume are analyzed for the PTV, the gross tumour volume (GTV) and for the irradiated lung volumes. Differences are as much important as target size is low. It appears that type B algorithms (Monte Carlo, Collapsed Cone) are recommended. Short communication

  14. Quantitative and analytical comparison of isodose distributions for shaped electron fields from ADAC Pinnacle treatment planning system and Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishmael Parsai, E., E-mail: e.parsai@utoledo.ed [University of Toledo Health Science Campus, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mail Stop 1151, 3000 Arlington Avenue, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Shvydka, Diana; Kang, Jun; Chan, Philip; Pearson, David; Ahmad, Faheem [University of Toledo Health Science Campus, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mail Stop 1151, 3000 Arlington Avenue, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We assess the accuracy of ADAC Pinnacle{sup 3} commercial treatment planning system (TPS) in computation of isodose distributions for shaped electron fields. The assessment is based on comparison of dose profiles generated by TPS and a Monte Carlo model for different beam energies, applicator sizes, and percentages of field blocking. Dose differences of up to 14% are observed at the depth of maximum dose. These discrepancies, often ignored in clinical evaluations, are attributable to inadequate modeling of scatter from applicators and blocks by TPS.

  15. Quantitative and analytical comparison of isodose distributions for shaped electron fields from ADAC Pinnacle treatment planning system and Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsai, E Ishmael; Shvydka, Diana; Kang, Jun; Chan, Philip; Pearson, David; Ahmad, Faheem

    2010-12-01

    We assess the accuracy of ADAC Pinnacle(3) commercial treatment planning system (TPS) in computation of isodose distributions for shaped electron fields. The assessment is based on comparison of dose profiles generated by TPS and a Monte Carlo model for different beam energies, applicator sizes, and percentages of field blocking. Dose differences of up to 14% are observed at the depth of maximum dose. These discrepancies, often ignored in clinical evaluations, are attributable to inadequate modeling of scatter from applicators and blocks by TPS.

  16. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of electronic excitation energies: the case of the singlet $n \\to \\pi^*$ (CO) transition in acrolein

    CERN Document Server

    Toulouse, Julien; Reinhardt, Peter; Hoggan, Philip E; Umrigar, C J

    2010-01-01

    We report state-of-the-art quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the singlet $n \\to \\pi^*$ (CO) vertical excitation energy in the acrolein molecule, extending the recent study of Bouab\\c{c}a {\\it et al.} [J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 130}, 114107 (2009)]. We investigate the effect of using a Slater basis set instead of a Gaussian basis set, and of using state-average versus state-specific complete-active-space (CAS) wave functions, with or without reoptimization of the coefficients of the configuration state functions (CSFs) and of the orbitals in variational Monte Carlo (VMC). It is found that, with the Slater basis set used here, both state-average and state-specific CAS(6,5) wave functions give an accurate excitation energy in diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC), with or without reoptimization of the CSF and orbital coefficients in the presence of the Jastrow factor. In contrast, the CAS(2,2) wave functions require reoptimization of the CSF and orbital coefficients to give a good DMC excitation energy. Our best estimates of ...

  17. An assessment of the Photon Contamination due to Bremsstrahlung Radiation in the Electron Beams of a NEPTUN 10PC Linac using a Monte Carlo Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Jabbari

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In clinical electron beams, most of bremsstrahlung radiation is produced by various linac head structures. This bremsstrahlung radiation dose is influenced by the geometry and construction of every component of the linac treatment head structures. Thus, it can be expected that the amount of the contaminated photon dose due to bremsstrahlung radiation varies among different linacs, even for the same electron beam energy. The aims of this study were to simulate the NEPTUN 10PC linac electron beams and to calculate the photon contamination dose due to bremsstrahlung radiation in these beams using a Monte Carlo method. Materials and methods: A NEPTUN 10PC linac was simulated in its electron mode using the BEAMnrc code. This linac can provide three electron beam energies of 6, 8 and 10 MeV. Detailed information required for the simulation, including the geometry and materials of various components of the linac treatment head, was provided by the vender. For all simulations, the cut-off energies for electron and photon transport were set at ECUT=0.521 MeV and PCUT=0.010 MeV, respectively. The KS statistical test was used for validation of the simulated models. Then, relevant bremsstrahlung radiation doses for the three electron beam energies of the linac were calculated for the reference field using the Monte Carlo method.   Results: The KS test showed a good agreement between the calculated values (resulting from the simulations and the measured ones. The results showed that the amount of contaminated photon dose due to bremsstrahlung radiation from various components of the simulated linac at the surface of the phantom was between 0.2%-0.5% of the maximum dose for the three electron beam energies. Conclusion:  Considering the good agreement between the measured and simulated data, it can be concluded that the simulation method as well as the calculated bremsstrahlung doses have been made at a good level of accuracy and precision

  18. Monte Carlo calculations of monoenergetic electron depth dose distributions in LiF chips: Skin dose correction factors for beta rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Y.S. [Ben Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheva (Israel); Hirning, C.R. [Ontario Hydro, Whitby (Canada); Yuen, P.; Wong, P. [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada)

    1994-10-01

    Monte Carlo calculations have been carried out for monoenergetic electrons from 0.1 to 4 MeV irradiating LiF chips in both perpendicular and isotropic geometry. This enabled the calculation of skin dose correction factors (beta factors) for typical beta energy spectra as measured with a beta-ray spectrometer at CANDU nuclear generating stations. The correction factors were estimated by averaging the depth dose distributions for the monoenergetic electrons over the experimentally measured beta-ray spectra. The calculations illustrate the large uncertainty in beta factors arising from the unknown angular distribution of the beta-ray radiation field and uncertainties in the shape of the beta-ray spectra below 500 keV. 28 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of prompt gamma-ray spectra from depleted uranium under D-T neutron irradiation and electron recoil spectra in a liquid scintillator detector

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Jianguo; Liu, Rong; Zhu, Tonghua; Zhang, Xinwei; Ye, Bangjiao

    2015-01-01

    To overcome the problem of inefficient computing time and unreliable results in MCNP5 calculation, a two-step method is adopted to calculate the energy deposition of prompt gamma-rays in detectors for depleted uranium spherical shells under D-T neutrons irradiation. In the first step, the gamma-ray spectrum for energy below 7 MeV is calculated by MCNP5 code; secondly, the electron recoil spectrum in a BC501A liquid scintillator detector is simulated based on EGSnrc Monte Carlo Code with the gamma-ray spectrum from the first step as input. The comparison of calculated results with experimental ones shows that the simulations agree well with experiment in the energy region 0.4-3 MeV for the prompt gamma-ray spectrum and below 4 MeVee for the electron recoil spectrum. The reliability of the two-step method in this work is validated.

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of non relativistic electron transport in irradiated liquid water: yield of species formed at 10[sup -15] and 10[sup -12]S. Simulation Monte Carlo du transport d'electrons non relativistes dans l'eau liquide irradiee: rendement des especes formees a 10[sup -15] et 10[sup -12]S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobut, V.; Frongillo, Y.; Jay-Gerin, J.P. (Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada)); Patau, J.P. (Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France))

    1993-04-01

    The ingredients and the results of our Monte Carlo simulation of the slowing down of nonrelativistic electrons in irradiated liquid water and of the evolution of the created species are presented. The proportion of excited and ionized species can be seen in the calculated yields at 10[sup -15] s. A fast reorganization of the medium allows radicals and molecular products to be formed and their yields at 10[sup -12] are calculated. Yields of 5.3 electrons and 6.0 hydroxyl radicals per 100 eV absorbed energy are compatible with experimental values at 30 and 200 picoseconds.

  1. Simulation of Auger electron emission from nanometer-size gold targets using the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incerti, S.; Suerfu, B.; Xu, J.; Ivantchenko, V.; Mantero, A.; Brown, J. M. C.; Bernal, M. A.; Francis, Z.; Karamitros, M.; Tran, H. N.

    2016-04-01

    A revised atomic deexcitation framework for the Geant4 general purpose Monte Carlo toolkit capable of simulating full Auger deexcitation cascades was implemented in June 2015 release (version 10.2 Beta). An overview of this refined framework and testing of its capabilities is presented for the irradiation of gold nanoparticles (NP) with keV photon and MeV proton beams. The resultant energy spectra of secondary particles created within and that escape the NP are analyzed and discussed. It is anticipated that this new functionality will improve and increase the use of Geant4 in the medical physics, radiobiology, nanomedicine research and other low energy physics fields.

  2. Simulation of Auger electron emission from nanometer-size gold targets using the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incerti, S., E-mail: sebastien.incerti@tdt.edu.vn [Division of Nuclear Physics, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Suerfu, B.; Xu, J. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Ivantchenko, V. [Ecoanalytica, Moscow (Russian Federation); Geant4 Associates International Ltd, Hebden Bridge (United Kingdom); Mantero, A. [SWHARD srl, via Greto di Cornigliano 6r, 16152 Genova (Italy); Brown, J.M.C. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Bernal, M.A. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Francis, Z. [Université Saint Joseph, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, Beirut (Lebanon); Karamitros, M. [Notre Dame Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States); Tran, H.N. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2016-04-01

    A revised atomic deexcitation framework for the Geant4 general purpose Monte Carlo toolkit capable of simulating full Auger deexcitation cascades was implemented in June 2015 release (version 10.2 Beta). An overview of this refined framework and testing of its capabilities is presented for the irradiation of gold nanoparticles (NP) with keV photon and MeV proton beams. The resultant energy spectra of secondary particles created within and that escape the NP are analyzed and discussed. It is anticipated that this new functionality will improve and increase the use of Geant4 in the medical physics, radiobiology, nanomedicine research and other low energy physics fields.

  3. An empirical determination of upper operational frequency limits of transferred electron mechanism in bulk GaAs and GaN through ensemble Monte Carlo particle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, S.; van Zyl, R. R.; Perold, W. J.

    2015-08-01

    The ensemble Monte Carlo particle simulation technique is used to determine the upper operational frequency limit of the transferred electron mechanism in bulk GaAs and GaN empirically. This mechanism manifests as a decrease in the average velocity of the electrons in the bulk material with an increase in the electric field bias, which yields the characteristic negative slope in the velocity-field curves of these materials. A novel approach is proposed whereby the hysteresis in the simulated dynamic, high-frequency velocity-field curves is exploited. The upper operational frequency limit supported by the material is defined as that frequency, where the average gradient of the dynamic characteristic curve over a radio frequency cycle approaches zero. Effects of temperature and doping level on the operational frequency limit are reported. The frequency limit thus obtained is also useful to predict the highest fundamental frequency of operation of transferred electron devices, such as Gunn diodes, which are based on materials that support the transferred electron mechanism. Based on the method presented here, the upper operational frequency limits of the transferred electron mechanism in bulk GaAs and GaN are 80 and 255 GHz, respectively, at typical doping levels and operating temperatures of Gunn diodes.

  4. Monte Carlo electron beam lithography simulation of sub-0.1-mum T-gate process for millimeter-wave HEMTs considering 50-kV and 100-kV electron beam exposure systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Myung-Sik; Rhee, Jin-Koo [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun-Ha [Sangmyung University, Chonan (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ho-Jung [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-15

    A computationally efficient and accurate Monte Carlo (MC) simulator for electron beam lithography has been developed and applied for the sub-0.1-mum T-shaped gate (T-gate) process in HEMT devices for the millimeter-wave applications. The enhanced MC simulator for the electron trajectory includes elastic scattering and inelastic scatterings, which include inner-shell ionizations, outer-shell (free) excitations, and plasmon excitations in multi-layer resists and heterogeneous substrates. Our model has been applied to the structure of PMMA/P(MMA-MAA)/PMMA on a GaAs substrate to form the T-gate shape in resist layers. We considered and modeled a real fabrication process, such as the electron-beam double-exposure method, to obtain better reproducibility and controllability in the fabrication of high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) devices. To model an accurate T-gate process by using electron beam lithography, we have modeled three different developers using a string algorithm such as MCB, Methanol : IPA (1 : 1), and MIBK : IPA (1 : 3). Our simulations for the T-gate electron beam lithography have been verified by comparing them with the SEM measurements at a 50-keV electron beam exposure system. In this paper, we show and discuss the differences of exposure profiles and developed pattern shapes for the sub-0.1-mum T-gate formation process in trilayer resists using 50-kV and 100-kV electron beam exposure systems.

  5. Calculation of electron dose to target cells in a complex environment by Monte Carlo code ''CELLDOSE''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindie, Elif; Moretti, Jean-Luc [Hopital Saint-Louis, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Paris (France)]|[Universite Paris 7, Imagerie Moleculaire Diagnostique et Ciblage Therapeutique, Paris (France); Champion, Christophe [Universite Paul Verlaine, Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, Metz Institut de Physique, Metz (France); Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Ravasi, Laura [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DSV/I2BM/SHFJ/LIME, Orsay (France); Rubello, Domenico [Instituto Oncologico Veneto (IOV) - IRCCS, Department of Nuclear Medicine - PET Centre, Rovigo (Italy); Colas-Linhart, Nicole [Faculte de Medecine Xavier Bichat, Laboratoire de Biophysique, Paris (France)

    2009-01-15

    We used the Monte Carlo code ''CELLDOSE'' to assess the dose received by specific target cells from electron emissions in a complex environment. {sup 131}I in a simulated thyroid was used as a model. Thyroid follicles were represented by 170{mu}m diameter spherical units made of a lumen of 150{mu}m diameter containing colloidal matter and a peripheral layer of 10{mu}m thick thyroid cells. Neighbouring follicles are 4{mu}m apart. {sup 131}I was assumed to be homogeneously distributed in the lumen and absent in cells. We firstly assessed electron dose distribution in a single follicle. Then, we expanded the simulation by progressively adding neighbouring layers of follicles, so to reassess the electron dose to this single follicle implemented with the contribution of the added layers. Electron dose gradient around a point source showed that the {sup 131}I electron dose is close to zero after 2,100{mu}m. Therefore, we studied all contributions to the central follicle deriving from follicles within 12 orders of neighbourhood (15,624 follicles surrounding the central follicle). The dose to colloid of the single follicle was twice as high as the dose to thyroid cells. Even when all neighbours were taken into account, the dose in the central follicle remained heterogeneous. For a 1-Gy average dose to tissue, the dose to colloidal matter was 1.168 Gy, the dose to thyroid cells was 0.982 Gy, and the dose to the inter-follicular tissue was 0.895 Gy. Analysis of the different contributions to thyroid cell dose showed that 17.3% of the dose derived from the colloidal matter of their own follicle, while the remaining 82.7% was delivered by the surrounding follicles. On the basis of these data, it is shown that when different follicles contain different concentrations of {sup 131}I, the impact in terms of cell dose heterogeneity can be important. By means of {sup 131}I in the thyroid as a theoretical model, we showed how a Monte Carlo code can be used to map

  6. Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron Swarms Parameters in c-C4F8/CF4 Gas Mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xue-li; XIAO Deng-ming; WANG Yan-an; ZHANG Zhou-sheng

    2008-01-01

    The swarm parametes for c-C4F8/CF4 mixtures, including the density-normalized effective ionization coefficient, drift velocity and mean energy were calculated using Monte-Carlo method with the null collision technique. The overall density-reduced electric field strength could be varied between 150 and 500 Td,while the c-C4F8 content in gas mixtures is varied in the range of 0-100%. The value of the density-normalize deffective ionization coefficient shows a strong dependence on the c-C4F8 content, becoming more electronegative as the content of c-C4F8 is increased. The drift velocity of c-C4F4/CF4 mixtures is more affected by CF4. The calculated limiting field strength for c-C4F8/CF4 mixtures is higher than that of SF6/CF4.

  7. Sensors for Desert Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Chauhan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

  8. Monte Carlo simulations and benchmark measurements on the response of TE(TE) and Mg(Ar) ionization chambers in photon, electron and neutron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chun; Huang, Tseng-Te; Liu, Yuan-Hao; Chen, Wei-Lin; Chen, Yen-Fu; Wu, Shu-Wei; Nievaart, Sander; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2015-06-01

    The paired ionization chambers (ICs) technique is commonly employed to determine neutron and photon doses in radiology or radiotherapy neutron beams, where neutron dose shows very strong dependence on the accuracy of accompanying high energy photon dose. During the dose derivation, it is an important issue to evaluate the photon and electron response functions of two commercially available ionization chambers, denoted as TE(TE) and Mg(Ar), used in our reactor based epithermal neutron beam. Nowadays, most perturbation corrections for accurate dose determination and many treatment planning systems are based on the Monte Carlo technique. We used general purposed Monte Carlo codes, MCNP5, EGSnrc, FLUKA or GEANT4 for benchmark verifications among them and carefully measured values for a precise estimation of chamber current from absorbed dose rate of cavity gas. Also, energy dependent response functions of two chambers were calculated in a parallel beam with mono-energies from 20 keV to 20 MeV photons and electrons by using the optimal simple spherical and detailed IC models. The measurements were performed in the well-defined (a) four primary M-80, M-100, M120 and M150 X-ray calibration fields, (b) primary 60Co calibration beam, (c) 6 MV and 10 MV photon, (d) 6 MeV and 18 MeV electron LINACs in hospital and (e) BNCT clinical trials neutron beam. For the TE(TE) chamber, all codes were almost identical over the whole photon energy range. In the Mg(Ar) chamber, MCNP5 showed lower response than other codes for photon energy region below 0.1 MeV and presented similar response above 0.2 MeV (agreed within 5% in the simple spherical model). With the increase of electron energy, the response difference between MCNP5 and other codes became larger in both chambers. Compared with the measured currents, MCNP5 had the difference from the measurement data within 5% for the 60Co, 6 MV, 10 MV, 6 MeV and 18 MeV LINACs beams. But for the Mg(Ar) chamber, the derivations reached 7

  9. Particle in cell/Monte Carlo collision analysis of the problem of identification of impurities in the gas by the plasma electron spectroscopy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusoglu Sarikaya, C.; Rafatov, I.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    The work deals with the Particle in Cell/Monte Carlo Collision (PIC/MCC) analysis of the problem of detection and identification of impurities in the nonlocal plasma of gas discharge using the Plasma Electron Spectroscopy (PLES) method. For this purpose, 1d3v PIC/MCC code for numerical simulation of glow discharge with nonlocal electron energy distribution function is developed. The elastic, excitation, and ionization collisions between electron-neutral pairs and isotropic scattering and charge exchange collisions between ion-neutral pairs and Penning ionizations are taken into account. Applicability of the numerical code is verified under the Radio-Frequency capacitively coupled discharge conditions. The efficiency of the code is increased by its parallelization using Open Message Passing Interface. As a demonstration of the PLES method, parallel PIC/MCC code is applied to the direct current glow discharge in helium doped with a small amount of argon. Numerical results are consistent with the theoretical analysis of formation of nonlocal EEDF and existing experimental data.

  10. Accelerated event-by-event Monte Carlo microdosimetric calculations of electrons and protons tracks on a multi-core CPU and a CUDA-enabled GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantzis, Georgios; Tachibana, Hidenobu

    2014-01-01

    For microdosimetric calculations event-by-event Monte Carlo (MC) methods are considered the most accurate. The main shortcoming of those methods is the extensive requirement for computational time. In this work we present an event-by-event MC code of low projectile energy electron and proton tracks for accelerated microdosimetric MC simulations on a graphic processing unit (GPU). Additionally, a hybrid implementation scheme was realized by employing OpenMP and CUDA in such a way that both GPU and multi-core CPU were utilized simultaneously. The two implementation schemes have been tested and compared with the sequential single threaded MC code on the CPU. Performance comparison was established on the speed-up for a set of benchmarking cases of electron and proton tracks. A maximum speedup of 67.2 was achieved for the GPU-based MC code, while a further improvement of the speedup up to 20% was achieved for the hybrid approach. The results indicate the capability of our CPU-GPU implementation for accelerated MC microdosimetric calculations of both electron and proton tracks without loss of accuracy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Monte Carlo electron-trajectory simulations in bright-field and dark-field STEM: Implications for tomography of thick biological sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, A.A.; Hohmann-Marriott, M.F.; Zhang, G. [Laboratory of Bioengineering and Physical Science, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bldg. 13, Rm. 3N17, 13 South Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-5766 (United States); Leapman, R.D. [Laboratory of Bioengineering and Physical Science, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bldg. 13, Rm. 3N17, 13 South Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-5766 (United States)], E-mail: leapmanr@mail.nih.gov

    2009-02-15

    A Monte Carlo electron-trajectory calculation has been implemented to assess the optimal detector configuration for scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography of thick biological sections. By modeling specimens containing 2 and 3 at% osmium in a carbon matrix, it was found that for 1-{mu}m-thick samples the bright-field (BF) and annular dark-field (ADF) signals give similar contrast and signal-to-noise ratio provided the ADF inner angle and BF outer angle are chosen optimally. Spatial resolution in STEM imaging of thick sections is compromised by multiple elastic scattering which results in a spread of scattering angles and thus a spread in lateral distances of the electrons leaving the bottom surface. However, the simulations reveal that a large fraction of these multiply scattered electrons are excluded from the BF detector, which results in higher spatial resolution in BF than in high-angle ADF images for objects situated towards the bottom of the sample. The calculations imply that STEM electron tomography of thick sections should be performed using a BF rather than an ADF detector. This advantage was verified by recording simultaneous BF and high-angle ADF STEM tomographic tilt series from a stained 600-nm-thick section of C. elegans. It was found that loss of spatial resolution occurred markedly at the bottom surface of the specimen in the ADF STEM but significantly less in the BF STEM tomographic reconstruction. Our results indicate that it might be feasible to use BF STEM tomography to determine the 3D structure of whole eukaryotic microorganisms prepared by freeze-substitution, embedding, and sectioning.

  12. A Monte Carlo study on electron and neutron contamination caused by the presence of hip prosthesis in photon mode of a 15 MV Siemens PRIMUS linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Behmadi, Marziyeh; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Gholamhosseinian, Hamid

    2013-09-06

    Several investigators have pointed out that electron and neutron contamination from high-energy photon beams are clinically important. The aim of this study is to assess electron and neutron contamination production by various prostheses in a high-energy photon beam of a medical linac. A 15 MV Siemens PRIMUS linac was simulated by MCNPX Monte Carlo (MC) code and the results of percentage depth dose (PDD) and dose profile values were compared with the measured data. Electron and neutron contaminations were calculated on the beam's central axis for Co-Cr-Mo, stainless steel, Ti-alloy, and Ti hip prostheses through MC simulations. Dose increase factor (DIF) was calculated as the ratio of electron (neutron) dose at a point for 10 × 10 cm² field size in presence of prosthesis to that at the same point in absence of prosthesis. DIF was estimated at different depths in a water phantom. Our MC-calculated PDD and dose profile data are in good agreement with the corresponding measured values. Maximum dose increase factor for electron contamination for Co-Cr-Mo, stainless steel, Ti-alloy, and Ti prostheses were equal to 1.18, 1.16, 1.16, and 1.14, respectively. The corresponding values for neutron contamination were respectively equal to: 184.55, 137.33, 40.66, and 43.17. Titanium-based prostheses are recommended for the orthopedic practice of hip junction replacement. When treatment planning for a patient with hip prosthesis is performed for a high-energy photon beam, attempt should be made to ensure that the prosthesis is not exposed to primary photons.

  13. Characteristics of miniature electronic brachytherapy x-ray sources based on TG-43U1 formalism using Monte Carlo simulation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safigholi, Habib; Faghihi, Reza; Jashni, Somaye Karimi; Meigooni, Ali S. [Faculty of Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, 73481-13111, Persepolis (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Research Center, Shiraz University, 71936-16548, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, 71348-14336, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Radiation therapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, 3730 South Eastern Avenue, Las Vegas, Nevada 89169 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: The goal of this study is to determine a method for Monte Carlo (MC) characterization of the miniature electronic brachytherapy x-ray sources (MEBXS) and to set dosimetric parameters according to TG-43U1 formalism. TG-43U1 parameters were used to get optimal designs of MEBXS. Parameters that affect the dose distribution such as anode shapes, target thickness, target angles, and electron beam source characteristics were evaluated. Optimized MEBXS designs were obtained and used to determine radial dose functions and 2D anisotropy functions in the electron energy range of 25-80 keV. Methods: Tungsten anode material was considered in two different geometries, hemispherical and conical-hemisphere. These configurations were analyzed by the 4C MC code with several different optimization techniques. The first optimization compared target thickness layers versus electron energy. These optimized thicknesses were compared with published results by Ihsan et al.[Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264, 371-377 (2007)]. The second optimization evaluated electron source characteristics by changing the cathode shapes and electron energies. Electron sources studied included; (1) point sources, (2) uniform cylinders, and (3) nonuniform cylindrical shell geometries. The third optimization was used to assess the apex angle of the conical-hemisphere target. The goal of these optimizations was to produce 2D-dose anisotropy functions closer to unity. An overall optimized MEBXS was developed from this analysis. The results obtained from this model were compared to known characteristics of HDR {sup 125}I, LDR {sup 103}Pd, and Xoft Axxent electronic brachytherapy source (XAEBS) [Med. Phys. 33, 4020-4032 (2006)]. Results: The optimized anode thicknesses as a function of electron energy is fitted by the linear equation Y ({mu}m) = 0.0459X (keV)-0.7342. The optimized electron source geometry is obtained for a disk-shaped parallel beam (uniform cylinder) with 0.9 mm radius. The TG-43

  14. Vertical and adiabatic excitations in anthracene from quantum Monte Carlo: Constrained energy minimization for structural and electronic excited-state properties in the JAGP ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Nicolas; Bouaouli, Samira; Mauri, Francesco; Sorella, Sandro; Casula, Michele

    2015-06-01

    We study the ionization energy, electron affinity, and the π → π∗ (1La) excitation energy of the anthracene molecule, by means of variational quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods based on a Jastrow correlated antisymmetrized geminal power (JAGP) wave function, developed on molecular orbitals (MOs). The MO-based JAGP ansatz allows one to rigorously treat electron transitions, such as the HOMO → LUMO one, which underlies the 1La excited state. We present a QMC optimization scheme able to preserve the rank of the antisymmetrized geminal power matrix, thanks to a constrained minimization with projectors built upon symmetry selected MOs. We show that this approach leads to stable energy minimization and geometry relaxation of both ground and excited states, performed consistently within the correlated QMC framework. Geometry optimization of excited states is needed to make a reliable and direct comparison with experimental adiabatic excitation energies. This is particularly important in π-conjugated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, where there is a strong interplay between low-lying energy excitations and structural modifications, playing a functional role in many photochemical processes. Anthracene is an ideal benchmark to test these effects. Its geometry relaxation energies upon electron excitation are of up to 0.3 eV in the neutral 1La excited state, while they are of the order of 0.1 eV in electron addition and removal processes. Significant modifications of the ground state bond length alternation are revealed in the QMC excited state geometry optimizations. Our QMC study yields benchmark results for both geometries and energies, with values below chemical accuracy if compared to experiments, once zero point energy effects are taken into account.

  15. Vertical and adiabatic excitations in anthracene from quantum Monte Carlo: Constrained energy minimization for structural and electronic excited-state properties in the JAGP ansatz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Nicolas; Bouaouli, Samira; Mauri, Francesco; Sorella, Sandro; Casula, Michele

    2015-06-07

    We study the ionization energy, electron affinity, and the π → π(∗) ((1)La) excitation energy of the anthracene molecule, by means of variational quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods based on a Jastrow correlated antisymmetrized geminal power (JAGP) wave function, developed on molecular orbitals (MOs). The MO-based JAGP ansatz allows one to rigorously treat electron transitions, such as the HOMO → LUMO one, which underlies the (1)La excited state. We present a QMC optimization scheme able to preserve the rank of the antisymmetrized geminal power matrix, thanks to a constrained minimization with projectors built upon symmetry selected MOs. We show that this approach leads to stable energy minimization and geometry relaxation of both ground and excited states, performed consistently within the correlated QMC framework. Geometry optimization of excited states is needed to make a reliable and direct comparison with experimental adiabatic excitation energies. This is particularly important in π-conjugated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, where there is a strong interplay between low-lying energy excitations and structural modifications, playing a functional role in many photochemical processes. Anthracene is an ideal benchmark to test these effects. Its geometry relaxation energies upon electron excitation are of up to 0.3 eV in the neutral (1)La excited state, while they are of the order of 0.1 eV in electron addition and removal processes. Significant modifications of the ground state bond length alternation are revealed in the QMC excited state geometry optimizations. Our QMC study yields benchmark results for both geometries and energies, with values below chemical accuracy if compared to experiments, once zero point energy effects are taken into account.

  16. Vertical and adiabatic excitations in anthracene from quantum Monte Carlo: Constrained energy minimization for structural and electronic excited-state properties in the JAGP ansatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuy, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.dupuy@impmc.upmc.fr [Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, case 115, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Bouaouli, Samira, E-mail: samira.bouaouli@lct.jussieu.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, case 115, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Mauri, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.mauri@impmc.upmc.fr; Casula, Michele, E-mail: michele.casula@impmc.upmc.fr [CNRS and Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, case 115, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Sorella, Sandro, E-mail: sorella@sissa.it [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Beirut 2-4, 34014 Trieste, Italy and INFM Democritos National Simulation Center, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-06-07

    We study the ionization energy, electron affinity, and the π → π{sup ∗} ({sup 1}L{sub a}) excitation energy of the anthracene molecule, by means of variational quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods based on a Jastrow correlated antisymmetrized geminal power (JAGP) wave function, developed on molecular orbitals (MOs). The MO-based JAGP ansatz allows one to rigorously treat electron transitions, such as the HOMO → LUMO one, which underlies the {sup 1}L{sub a} excited state. We present a QMC optimization scheme able to preserve the rank of the antisymmetrized geminal power matrix, thanks to a constrained minimization with projectors built upon symmetry selected MOs. We show that this approach leads to stable energy minimization and geometry relaxation of both ground and excited states, performed consistently within the correlated QMC framework. Geometry optimization of excited states is needed to make a reliable and direct comparison with experimental adiabatic excitation energies. This is particularly important in π-conjugated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, where there is a strong interplay between low-lying energy excitations and structural modifications, playing a functional role in many photochemical processes. Anthracene is an ideal benchmark to test these effects. Its geometry relaxation energies upon electron excitation are of up to 0.3 eV in the neutral {sup 1}L{sub a} excited state, while they are of the order of 0.1 eV in electron addition and removal processes. Significant modifications of the ground state bond length alternation are revealed in the QMC excited state geometry optimizations. Our QMC study yields benchmark results for both geometries and energies, with values below chemical accuracy if compared to experiments, once zero point energy effects are taken into account.

  17. Evaluation of a commercial VMC++ Monte Carlo based treatment planning system for electron beams using EGSnrc/BEAMnrc simulations and measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edimo, P; Clermont, C; Kwato, M G; Vynckier, S

    2009-09-01

    In the present work, Monte Carlo (MC) models of electron beams (energies 4, 12 and 18MeV) from an Elekta SL25 medical linear accelerator were simulated using EGSnrc/BEAMnrc user code. The calculated dose distributions were benchmarked by comparison with measurements made in a water phantom for a wide range of open field sizes and insert combinations, at a single source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 100cm. These BEAMnrc models were used to evaluate the accuracy of a commercial MC dose calculation engine for electron beam treatment planning (Oncentra MasterPlan Treament Planning System (OMTPS) version 1.4, Nucletron) for two energies, 4 and 12MeV. Output factors were furthermore measured in the water phantom and compared to BEAMnrc and OMTPS. The overall agreement between predicted and measured output factors was comparable for both BEAMnrc and OMTPS, except for a few asymmetric and/or small insert cutouts, where larger deviations between measurements and the values predicted from BEAMnrc as well as OMTPS computations were recorded. However, in the heterogeneous phantom, differences between BEAMnrc and measurements ranged from 0.5 to 2.0% between two ribs and 0.6-1.0% below the ribs, whereas the range difference between OMTPS and measurements was the same (0.5-4.0%) in both areas. With respect to output factors, the overall agreement between BEAMnrc and measurements was usually within 1.0% whereas differences up to nearly 3.0% were observed for OMTPS. This paper focuses on a comparison for clinical cases, including the effects of electron beam attenuations in a heterogeneous phantom. It, therefore, complements previously reported data (only based on measurements) in one other paper on commissioning of the VMC++ dose calculation engine. These results demonstrate that the VMC++ algorithm is more robust in predicting dose distribution than Pencil beam based algorithms for the electron beams investigated.

  18. The electronic, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO doped with doubles impurities (Cr, Fe): An LDA-SIC and Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani, El Mehdi; Laghrissi, Ayoub; Lamouri, Rachida; Ez-Zahraouy, Hamid; Benyoussef, Abdelilah

    2017-01-01

    Electronic structure, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO doped with single and double impurities Zn1-xCrxO, Zn1-xFexO, and Zn1-2xCrxFexO (x=0.03 and 0.06) are investigated using first-principles calculations. Based on the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method combined with the coherent potential approximation, we investigated the half-metallic ferromagnetic behavior of doubles impurities (Cr, Fe) doped ZnO. To support our results, we apply the self-interaction-corrected local density approximation (SIC-LDA) to study the electronic structure, optical and magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO with doubles impurities (Cr, Fe) showing that the half-metallic ferromagnetic state still persists. The stability of the ferromagnetic state compared with the spin-glass state is investigated by comparing their total energies. The exchange interactions obtained from first principle calculations and used in a classical Ising model by a Monte Carlo approach resulted in ferromagnetic states with high Neel temperature.

  19. First-principles and Monte Carlo studies of the Ni2(Mn,Cr)Ga Heusler alloys electronic and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrebin, M. A.; Sokolovskiy, V. V.; Smolyakova, E. E.; Buchelnikov, V. D.

    2017-02-01

    Structural, magnetic and electronic properties of a series of Ni2Mn1-x Cr x Ga Heusler alloys have been studied by means of ab initio calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. The optimized lattice parameters of all investigated compositions are close to 5.81 Å and weakly depend on Cr excess. The martensitic transformation in Ni-Mn-Cr-Ga alloys occurs in all compositional range. Tetragonal distortions weakly depend on Cr concentration. Besides, an increase in energy difference between austenite and martensite with increasing Cr content was observed. For electronic and magnetic properties, it was observed that Ni2Mn1-x Cr x Ga demonstrate the metallic behavior. Using the SPR-KKR calculations of magnetic exchange constants, we have shown that the largest contribution to the total exchange energy is associated between nearest neighbor Ni-Mn pair. These inter-sublattice interactions in austenitic phase are higher then intra-sublattice interactions (Ni-Ni and Mn(Cr)-Mn(Cr)). Estimated Curie temperatures for Ni2Mn1-x Cr x Ga are found to decrease with increasing Cr content. All obtained results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  20. Monte Carlo analysis of transient electron transport in wurtzite Zn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}O combined with first principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ping, E-mail: pingwang@xidian.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Service Networks, School of Telecommunications Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Hu, Linlin; Shan, Xuefei [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Service Networks, School of Telecommunications Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Yang, Yintang [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Song, Jiuxu; Guo, Lixin [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Zhang, Zhiyong [School of Information Science and Technology, Northwest University, Xi’an 710127 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Transient characteristics of wurtzite Zn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}O are investigated using a three-valley Ensemble Monte Carlo model verified by the agreement between the simulated low-field mobility and the experiment result reported. The electronic structures are obtained by first principles calculations with density functional theory. The results show that the peak electron drift velocities of Zn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}O (x = 11.1%, 16.7%, 19.4%, 25%) at 3000 kV/cm are 3.735 × 10{sup 7}, 2.133 × 10{sup 7}, 1.889 × 10{sup 7}, 1.295 × 10{sup 7} cm/s, respectively. With the increase of Mg concentration, a higher electric field is required for the onset of velocity overshoot. When the applied field exceeds 2000 kV/cm and 2500 kV/cm, a phenomena of velocity undershoot is observed in Zn{sub 0.889}Mg{sub 0.111}O and Zn{sub 0.833}Mg{sub 0.167}O respectively, while it is not observed for Zn{sub 0.806}Mg{sub 0.194}O and Zn{sub 0.75}Mg{sub 0.25}O even at 3000 kV/cm which is especially important for high frequency devices.

  1. SU-E-T-112: An OpenCL-Based Cross-Platform Monte Carlo Dose Engine (oclMC) for Coupled Photon-Electron Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Z; Shi, F; Folkerts, M; Qin, N; Jiang, S; Jia, X [The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Ctr, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Low computational efficiency of Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation impedes its clinical applications. Although a number of MC dose packages have been developed over the past few years, enabling fast MC dose calculations, most of these packages were developed under NVidia’s CUDA environment. This limited their code portability to other platforms, hindering the introduction of GPU-based MC dose engines to clinical practice. To solve this problem, we developed a cross-platform fast MC dose engine named oclMC under OpenCL environment for external photon and electron radiotherapy. Methods: Coupled photon-electron simulation was implemented with standard analogue simulation scheme for photon transport and Class II condensed history scheme for electron transport. We tested the accuracy and efficiency of oclMC by comparing the doses calculated using oclMC and gDPM, a previously developed GPU-based MC code on NVidia GPU platform, for a 15MeV electron beam and a 6MV photon beam in a homogenous water phantom, a water-bone-lung-water slab phantom and a half-slab phantom. We also tested code portability of oclMC on different devices, including an NVidia GPU, two AMD GPUs and an Intel CPU. Results: Satisfactory agreements were observed in all photon and electron cases, with ∼0.48%–0.53% average dose differences at regions within 10% isodose line for electron beam cases and ∼0.15%–0.17% for photon beam cases. It took oclMC 3–4 sec to perform transport simulation for electron beam on NVidia Titan GPU and 35–51 sec for photon beam, both with ∼0.5% statistical uncertainty. The computation was 6%–17% slower than gDPM due to the differences in both physics model and development environment, which is considered not significant for clinical applications. In terms of code portability, gDPM only runs on NVidia GPUs, while oclMC successfully runs on all the tested devices. Conclusion: oclMC is an accurate and fast MC dose engine. Its high cross

  2. Measurements of output factors with different detector types and Monte Carlo calculations of stopping-power ratios for degraded electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Peter; Knöös, Tommy; Nilsson, Per

    2004-10-07

    The aim of the present study was to investigate three different detector types (a parallel-plate ionization chamber, a p-type silicon diode and a diamond detector) with regard to output factor measurements in degraded electron beams, such as those encountered in small-electron-field radiotherapy and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT). The Monte Carlo method was used to calculate mass collision stopping-power ratios between water and the different detector materials for these complex electron beams (nominal energies of 6, 12 and 20 MeV). The diamond detector was shown to exhibit excellent properties for output factor measurements in degraded beams and was therefore used as a reference. The diode detector was found to be well suited for practical measurements of output factors, although the water-to-silicon stopping-power ratio was shown to vary slightly with treatment set-up and irradiation depth (especially for lower electron energies). Application of ionization-chamber-based dosimetry, according to international dosimetry protocols, will introduce uncertainties smaller than 0.3% into the output factor determination for conventional IORT beams if the variation of the water-to-air stopping-power ratio is not taken into account. The IORT system at our department includes a 0.3 cm thin plastic scatterer inside the therapeutic beam, which furthermore increases the energy degradation of the electrons. By ignoring the change in the water-to-air stopping-power ratio due to this scatterer, the output factor could be underestimated by up to 1.3%. This was verified by the measurements. In small-electron-beam dosimetry, the water-to-air stopping-power ratio variation with field size could mostly be ignored. For fields with flat lateral dose profiles (>3 x 3 cm2), output factors determined with the ionization chamber were found to be in close agreement with the results of the diamond detector. For smaller field sizes the lateral extension of the ionization chamber hampers

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of electron drift and diffusion in counting gases under the influence of electric and magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Biagi, S F

    1999-01-01

    A fast and accurate computer simulation program for electron drift and diffusion in gases under the influence of electric and magnetic fields is described and some calculated results are compared to precise experimental results in carbon tetraflouride and methane mixtures. The calculated Lorentz angles are shown to be typically within 1 deg. of the measured experimental values. The program allows the electric and magnetic fields to be at any angle to each other.

  4. Ant colony method to control variance reduction techniques in the Monte Carlo simulation of clinical electron linear accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Pareja, S. [Servicio de Radiofisica Hospitalaria, Hospital Regional Universitario ' Carlos Haya' , Avda. Carlos Haya, s/n, E-29010 Malaga (Spain)], E-mail: garciapareja@gmail.com; Vilches, M. [Servicio de Fisica y Proteccion Radiologica, Hospital Regional Universitario ' Virgen de las Nieves' , Avda. de las Fuerzas Armadas, 2, E-18014 Granada (Spain); Lallena, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2007-09-21

    The ant colony method is used to control the application of variance reduction techniques to the simulation of clinical electron linear accelerators of use in cancer therapy. In particular, splitting and Russian roulette, two standard variance reduction methods, are considered. The approach can be applied to any accelerator in a straightforward way and permits, in addition, to investigate the 'hot' regions of the accelerator, an information which is basic to develop a source model for this therapy tool.

  5. Ecoregion sections of California deserts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset delineates ecological sections within California deserts. These deserts occupy the southeastern portion of California and include two ecoregional...

  6. SU-E-T-632: Preliminary Study On Treating Nose Skin Using Energy and Intensity Modulated Electron Beams with Monte Carlo Based Dose Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, L; Eldib, A; Li, J; Price, R; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Uneven nose surfaces and air cavities underneath and the use of bolus present complexity and dose uncertainty when using a single electron energy beam to plan treatments of nose skin with a pencil beam-based planning system. This work demonstrates more accurate dose calculation and more optimal planning using energy and intensity modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) delivered with a pMLC. Methods: An in-house developed Monte Carlo (MC)-based dose calculation/optimization planning system was employed for treatment planning. Phase space data (6, 9, 12 and 15 MeV) were used as an input source for MC dose calculations for the linac. To reduce the scatter-caused penumbra, a short SSD (61 cm) was used. Our previous work demonstrates good agreement in percentage depth dose and off-axis dose between calculations and film measurement for various field sizes. A MERT plan was generated for treating the nose skin using a patient geometry and a dose volume histogram (DVH) was obtained. The work also shows the comparison of 2D dose distributions between a clinically used conventional single electron energy plan and the MERT plan. Results: The MERT plan resulted in improved target dose coverage as compared to the conventional plan, which demonstrated a target dose deficit at the field edge. The conventional plan showed higher dose normal tissue irradiation underneath the nose skin while the MERT plan resulted in improved conformity and thus reduces normal tissue dose. Conclusion: This preliminary work illustrates that MC-based MERT planning is a promising technique in treating nose skin, not only providing more accurate dose calculation, but also offering an improved target dose coverage and conformity. In addition, this technique may eliminate the necessity of bolus, which often produces dose delivery uncertainty due to the air gaps that may exist between the bolus and skin.

  7. Comparison of film measurements and Monte Carlo simulations of dose delivered with very high-energy electron beams in a polystyrene phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Liu, Michael; Palma, Bianey; Koong, Albert C.; Maxim, Peter G., E-mail: Peter.Maxim@Stanford.edu, E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu; Loo, Billy W., E-mail: Peter.Maxim@Stanford.edu, E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States); Dunning, Michael; McCormick, Doug; Hemsing, Erik; Nelson, Janice; Jobe, Keith; Colby, Eric; Tantawi, Sami; Dolgashev, Valery [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To measure radiation dose in a water-equivalent medium from very high-energy electron (VHEE) beams and make comparisons to Monte Carlo (MC) simulation results. Methods: Dose in a polystyrene phantom delivered by an experimental VHEE beam line was measured with Gafchromic films for three 50 MeV and two 70 MeV Gaussian beams of 4.0–6.9 mm FWHM and compared to corresponding MC-simulated dose distributions. MC dose in the polystyrene phantom was calculated with the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes based on the experimental setup. Additionally, the effect of 2% beam energy measurement uncertainty and possible non-zero beam angular spread on MC dose distributions was evaluated. Results: MC simulated percentage depth dose (PDD) curves agreed with measurements within 4% for all beam sizes at both 50 and 70 MeV VHEE beams. Central axis PDD at 8 cm depth ranged from 14% to 19% for the 5.4–6.9 mm 50 MeV beams and it ranged from 14% to 18% for the 4.0–4.5 mm 70 MeV beams. MC simulated relative beam profiles of regularly shaped Gaussian beams evaluated at depths of 0.64 to 7.46 cm agreed with measurements to within 5%. A 2% beam energy uncertainty and 0.286° beam angular spread corresponded to a maximum 3.0% and 3.8% difference in depth dose curves of the 50 and 70 MeV electron beams, respectively. Absolute dose differences between MC simulations and film measurements of regularly shaped Gaussian beams were between 10% and 42%. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate that relative dose distributions for VHEE beams of 50–70 MeV can be measured with Gafchromic films and modeled with Monte Carlo simulations to an accuracy of 5%. The reported absolute dose differences likely caused by imperfect beam steering and subsequent charge loss revealed the importance of accurate VHEE beam control and diagnostics.

  8. Journeying the Redshift Desert

    CERN Document Server

    Renzini, Alvio

    2009-01-01

    The cosmic star formation rate, AGN activity, galaxy growth, mass assembly and morphological differentiation all culminate at redshift $\\sim 2$. Yet, the redshift interval $1.4\\lsim z\\lsim 3$ is harder to explore than the closer and the more distant Universe. In spite of so much action taking place in this spacetime portion of the Universe, it has been dubbed the ``Redshift Desert'', as if very little was happening within its boundaries. The difficulties encountered in properly mapping the galaxy populations inhabiting the Desert are illustrated in this paper, along with some possible remedy.

  9. Monte Carlo simulations and benchmark measurements on the response of TE(TE) and Mg(Ar) ionization chambers in photon, electron and neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yi-Chun [Health Physics Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan County, Taiwan (China); Huang, Tseng-Te, E-mail: huangtt@iner.gov.tw [Health Physics Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan County, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yuan-Hao [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu City, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei-Lin [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu City, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Fu [Atomic Energy Council, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Wu, Shu-Wei [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Nievaart, Sander [Institute for Energy, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Petten (Netherlands); Jiang, Shiang-Huei [Dept. of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-01

    The paired ionization chambers (ICs) technique is commonly employed to determine neutron and photon doses in radiology or radiotherapy neutron beams, where neutron dose shows very strong dependence on the accuracy of accompanying high energy photon dose. During the dose derivation, it is an important issue to evaluate the photon and electron response functions of two commercially available ionization chambers, denoted as TE(TE) and Mg(Ar), used in our reactor based epithermal neutron beam. Nowadays, most perturbation corrections for accurate dose determination and many treatment planning systems are based on the Monte Carlo technique. We used general purposed Monte Carlo codes, MCNP5, EGSnrc, FLUKA or GEANT4 for benchmark verifications among them and carefully measured values for a precise estimation of chamber current from absorbed dose rate of cavity gas. Also, energy dependent response functions of two chambers were calculated in a parallel beam with mono-energies from 20 keV to 20 MeV photons and electrons by using the optimal simple spherical and detailed IC models. The measurements were performed in the well-defined (a) four primary M-80, M-100, M120 and M150 X-ray calibration fields, (b) primary {sup 60}Co calibration beam, (c) 6 MV and 10 MV photon, (d) 6 MeV and 18 MeV electron LINACs in hospital and (e) BNCT clinical trials neutron beam. For the TE(TE) chamber, all codes were almost identical over the whole photon energy range. In the Mg(Ar) chamber, MCNP5 showed lower response than other codes for photon energy region below 0.1 MeV and presented similar response above 0.2 MeV (agreed within 5% in the simple spherical model). With the increase of electron energy, the response difference between MCNP5 and other codes became larger in both chambers. Compared with the measured currents, MCNP5 had the difference from the measurement data within 5% for the {sup 60}Co, 6 MV, 10 MV, 6 MeV and 18 MeV LINACs beams. But for the Mg(Ar) chamber, the derivations

  10. Optimisation of the imaging and dosimetric characteristics of an electronic portal imaging device employing plastic scintillating fibres using Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, S. J.; McNamara, A. L.; Vial, P.; Holloway, L.; Kuncic, Z.

    2014-11-01

    A Monte Carlo model of a novel electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been developed using Geant4 and its performance for imaging and dosimetry applications in radiotherapy has been characterised. The EPID geometry is based on a physical prototype under ongoing investigation and comprises an array of plastic scintillating fibres in place of the metal plate/phosphor screen in standard EPIDs. Geometrical and optical transport parameters were varied to investigate their impact on imaging and dosimetry performance. Detection efficiency was most sensitive to variations in fibre length, achieving a peak value of 36% at 50 mm using 400 keV x-rays for the lengths considered. Increases in efficiency for longer fibres were partially offset by reductions in sensitivity. Removing the extra-mural absorber surrounding individual fibres severely decreased the modulation transfer function (MTF), highlighting its importance in maximising spatial resolution. Field size response and relative dose profile simulations demonstrated a water-equivalent dose response and thus the prototype’s suitability for dosimetry applications. Element-to-element mismatch between scintillating fibres and underlying photodiode pixels resulted in a reduced MTF for high spatial frequencies and quasi-periodic variations in dose profile response. This effect is eliminated when fibres are precisely matched to underlying pixels. Simulations strongly suggest that with further optimisation, this prototype EPID may be capable of simultaneous imaging and dosimetry in radiotherapy.

  11. ITS version 5.0 :the integrated TIGER series of coupled electron/Photon monte carlo transport codes with CAD geometry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Brian Claude; Kensek, Ronald Patrick; Laub, Thomas William

    2005-09-01

    ITS is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of linear time-independent coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Our goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects one of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with an input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and internal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 5.0, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 3.0 continuous-energy codes, (2) multigroup codes with adjoint transport capabilities, (3) parallel implementations of all ITS codes, (4) a general purpose geometry engine for linking with CAD or other geometry formats, and (5) the Cholla facet geometry library. Moreover, the general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through increased internal error checking and improved code portability.

  12. Southwestern desert resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, William L.; van Riper, Charles; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2010-01-01

    The southwestern deserts stretch from southeastern California to west Texas and then south to central Mexico. The landscape of this region is known as basin and range topography featuring to "sky islands" of forest rising from the desert lowlands which creates a uniquely diverse ecology. The region is further complicated by an international border, where governments have caused difficulties for many animal populations. This book puts a spotlight on individual research projects which are specific examples of work being done in the area and when they are all brought together, to shed a general light of understanding the biological and cultural resources of this vast region so that those same resources can be managed as effectively and efficiently as possible. The intent is to show that collaborative efforts among federal, state agency, university, and private sector researchers working with land managers, provides better science and better management than when scientists and land managers work independently.

  13. Experimental determination of the radial dose distribution in high gradient regions around {sup 192}Ir wires: Comparison of electron paramagnetic resonance imaging, films, and Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbun, N.; Leveque, Ph.; Abboud, F.; Bol, A.; Vynckier, S.; Gallez, B. [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, Avenue Mounier 73.40, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium); Molecular Imaging and Experimental Radiotherapy Unit, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Research, Universite catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 55, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium); Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, Avenue Mounier 73.40, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: The experimental determination of doses at proximal distances from radioactive sources is difficult because of the steepness of the dose gradient. The goal of this study was to determine the relative radial dose distribution for a low dose rate {sup 192}Ir wire source using electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) and to compare the results to those obtained using Gafchromic EBT film dosimetry and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: Lithium formate and ammonium formate were chosen as the EPR dosimetric materials and were used to form cylindrical phantoms. The dose distribution of the stable radiation-induced free radicals in the lithium formate and ammonium formate phantoms was assessed by EPRI. EBT films were also inserted inside in ammonium formate phantoms for comparison. MC simulation was performed using the MCNP4C2 software code. Results: The radical signal in irradiated ammonium formate is contained in a single narrow EPR line, with an EPR peak-to-peak linewidth narrower than that of lithium formate ({approx}0.64 and 1.4 mT, respectively). The spatial resolution of EPR images was enhanced by a factor of 2.3 using ammonium formate compared to lithium formate because its linewidth is about 0.75 mT narrower than that of lithium formate. The EPRI results were consistent to within 1% with those of Gafchromic EBT films and MC simulations at distances from 1.0 to 2.9 mm. The radial dose values obtained by EPRI were about 4% lower at distances from 2.9 to 4.0 mm than those determined by MC simulation and EBT film dosimetry. Conclusions: Ammonium formate is a suitable material under certain conditions for use in brachytherapy dosimetry using EPRI. In this study, the authors demonstrated that the EPRI technique allows the estimation of the relative radial dose distribution at short distances for a {sup 192}Ir wire source.

  14. A virtual-accelerator-based verification of a Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm for electron beam treatment planning in clinical situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieslander, Elinore; Knöös, Tommy

    2007-02-01

    The introduction of Monte Carlo (MC) techniques for treatment planning and also for verification purposes will have considerable impact on the radiation therapy planning process. The aim of this work was to use a virtual accelerator to study the performance of a MC-based electron dose calculation algorithm, implemented in a commercial treatment planning system. The performance in phantoms containing air and bone as well as in patient-specific geometries (thorax wall, nose, parotid gland and spinal cord) has been studied. The agreement between the virtual accelerator and the MC dose calculation algorithm is generally very good. A gamma-evaluation with criteria of 0.03 Gy/3 mm (per Gy at the depth of maximum dose) shows that, even for the worst cases, only a small volume of about 1.5% has gamma>1.0. In the worst case, with the 0.02 Gy/2 mm criteria, about 92% of the volume receiving more than 0.85 Gy per 100 monitor units (MU) has gamma-values <1.0. The corresponding value for the volume receiving more than 0.10 Gy/100 MU is about 98%. For the 18 MeV spinal-cord case, where a 6 x 20 cm2 insert is used, the TPS underestimates the dose outside the primary field due to inadequate modelling of the insert. The possibility of dose calculations in typical patient cases makes the virtual accelerator a powerful tool for validation and evaluation of dose calculation algorithms present in treatment planning systems.

  15. Validation of a commercial TPS based on the VMC(++) Monte Carlo code for electron beams: commissioning and dosimetric comparison with EGSnrc in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, A; Martignano, A; Simonato, F; Paiusco, M

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present work was the validation of the VMC(++) Monte Carlo (MC) engine implemented in the Oncentra Masterplan (OMTPS) and used to calculate the dose distribution produced by the electron beams (energy 5-12 MeV) generated by the linear accelerator (linac) Primus (Siemens), shaped by a digital variable applicator (DEVA). The BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc (EGSnrc package) MC model of the linac head was used as a benchmark. Commissioning results for both MC codes were evaluated by means of 1D Gamma Analysis (2%, 2 mm), calculated with a home-made Matlab (The MathWorks) program, comparing the calculations with the measured profiles. The results of the commissioning of OMTPS were good [average gamma index (γ) > 97%]; some mismatches were found with large beams (size ≥ 15 cm). The optimization of the BEAMnrc model required to increase the beam exit window to match the calculated and measured profiles (final average γ > 98%). Then OMTPS dose distribution maps were compared with DOSXYZnrc with a 2D Gamma Analysis (3%, 3 mm), in 3 virtual water phantoms: (a) with an air step, (b) with an air insert, and (c) with a bone insert. The OMTPD and EGSnrc dose distributions with the air-water step phantom were in very high agreement (γ ∼ 99%), while for heterogeneous phantoms there were differences of about 9% in the air insert and of about 10-15% in the bone region. This is due to the Masterplan implementation of VMC(++) which reports the dose as "dose to water", instead of "dose to medium".

  16. Aquaporins in desert rodent physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannabecker, Thomas L

    2015-08-01

    Desert rodents face a sizeable challenge in maintaining salt and water homeostasis due to their life in an arid environment. A number of their organ systems exhibit functional characteristics that limit water loss above that which occurs in non-desert species under similar conditions. These systems include renal, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, nasal, and skin epithelia. The desert rodent kidney preserves body water by producing a highly concentrated urine that reaches a maximum osmolality nearly three times that of the common laboratory rat. The precise mechanism by which urine is concentrated in any mammal is unknown. Insights into the process may be more apparent in species that produce highly concentrated urine. Aquaporin water channels play a fundamental role in water transport in several desert rodent organ systems. The role of aquaporins in facilitating highly effective water preservation in desert rodents is only beginning to be explored. The organ systems of desert rodents and their associated AQPs are described.

  17. Monte Carlo radiation transport in external beam radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Çeçen, Yiğit

    2013-01-01

    The use of Monte Carlo in radiation transport is an effective way to predict absorbed dose distributions. Monte Carlo modeling has contributed to a better understanding of photon and electron transport by radiotherapy physicists. The aim of this review is to introduce Monte Carlo as a powerful radiation transport tool. In this review, photon and electron transport algorithms for Monte Carlo techniques are investigated and a clinical linear accelerator model is studied for external beam radiot...

  18. Dosimetry for electron Intra-Operative RadioTherapy: Comparison of output factors obtained through alanine/EPR pellets, ionization chamber and Monte Carlo-GEANT4 simulations for IORT mobile dedicate accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrale, Maurizio; Longo, Anna; Russo, Giorgio; Casarino, Carlo; Candiano, Giuliana; Gallo, Salvatore; Carlino, Antonio; Brai, Maria

    2015-09-01

    In this work a comparison between the response of alanine and Markus ionization chamber was carried out for measurements of the output factors (OF) of electron beams produced by a linear accelerator used for Intra-Operative Radiation Therapy (IORT). Output factors (OF) for conventional high-energy electron beams are normally measured using ionization chamber according to international dosimetry protocols. However, the electron beams used in IORT have characteristics of dose per pulse, energy spectrum and angular distribution quite different from beams usually used in external radiotherapy, so the direct application of international dosimetry protocols may introduce additional uncertainties in dosimetric determinations. The high dose per pulse could lead to an inaccuracy in dose measurements with ionization chamber, due to overestimation of ks recombination factor. Furthermore, the electron fields obtained with IORT-dedicated applicators have a wider energy spectrum and a wider angular distribution than the conventional fields, due to the presence of electrons scattered by the applicator's wall. For this reason, a dosimetry system should be characterized by a minimum dependence from the beam energy and from angle of incidence of electrons. This become particularly critical for small and bevelled applicators. All of these reasons lead to investigate the use of detectors different from the ionization chamber for measuring the OFs. Furthermore, the complete characterization of the radiation field could be accomplished also by the use of Monte Carlo simulations which allows to obtain detailed information on dose distributions. In this work we compare the output factors obtained by means of alanine dosimeters and Markus ionization chamber. The comparison is completed by the Monte Carlo calculations of OFs determined through the use of the Geant4 application "iort _ therapy" . The results are characterized by a good agreement of response of alanine pellets and Markus

  19. Making silica rock coatings in the lab: synthetic desert varnish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Randall S.; Kolb, Vera M.; Philip, Ajish I.; Lynne, Bridget Y.; McLoughlin, Nicola; Sephton, Mark; Wacey, David; Green, Owen R.

    2005-09-01

    Desert varnish and silica rock coatings have perplexed investigators since Humboldt and Darwin. They are found in arid regions and deserts on Earth but the mechanism of their formation remains challenging (see Perry et al. this volume). One method of researching this is to investigate natural coatings, but another way is to attempt to produce coatings in vitro. Sugars, amino acids, and silicic acid, as well as other organic and (bio)organic compounds add to the complexity of naturally forming rock coatings. In the lab we reduced the complexity of the natural components and produced hard, silica coatings on basaltic chips obtained from the Mojave Desert. Sodium silicate solution was poured over the rocks and continuously exposed to heat and/or UV light. Upon evaporation the solutions were replenished. Experiments were performed at various pH's. The micro-deposits formed were analyzed using optical, SEM-EDAX, and electron microprobe. The coatings formed are similar in hardness and composition to silica glazes found on basalts in Hawaii as well as natural desert varnish found in US southwest deserts. Thermodynamic mechanisms are presented showing the theoretical mechanisms for overcoming energy barriers that allow amorphous silica to condense into hard coatings. This is the first time synthetic silica glazes that resemble natural coatings in hardness and chemical composition have been successfully reproduced in the laboratory, and helps to support an inorganic mechanism of formation of desert varnish as well as manganese-deficient silica glazes.

  20. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    2005-01-01

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  1. Ab initio and Monte Carlo investigations of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of new ferromagnetic Heusler alloys with high Curie temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannenberg, Antje

    2011-08-30

    The mechanism which causes many of the unusual thermomechanical properties of martensitic alloys, as for example, superelasticity and the shape-memory effect, is the martensitic transformation. The prototype ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) is Ni{sub 2}MnGa. But a technological breakthrough is missing due to its poor ductility and low operation temperatures. The goal of this thesis is the proposal of new FSMA appropriate for future technological applications. I focus on X{sub 2}YZ Heusler alloys which are mainly based on Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni for the X and Y sites and Z=Ga or Zn. The big challenge of this work is to find material classes which combine the unique magnetomechanical properties of FSMA which are large recoverable magnetostrictive strains, high magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy, and highly mobile twin boundaries with transformation temperatures clearly above room temperature and a reduced brittleness. Such a study, providing material classes which from a theoretical point of view are promising candidates for future FSMA, will help the experimental physicists to select interesting subgroups in the vast number of possible chemical compositions of X{sub 2}YZ Heusler alloys. I have systematically varied the composition in the new Heusler alloys in order to find trends indicating generic tendencies of the material properties, for instance, as a function of the valence electron concentration e/a. A main feature of this thesis is the attempt to find the origin of the competing structural ordering tendencies between conventional X{sub 2}YZ and inverse (XY)XZ Heusler structures which are observed for all systems investigated. In the first part of this work the accuracy and predictive power of ab initio and Monte Carlo simulations is demonstrated by reproducing the experimental phase diagram of Ni-Mn-(Ga,In,Sn,Sb). The linear increasing and decreasing slopes of T{sub M} and T{sub C} can be reproduced by total and free energy calculations and the analysis

  2. Monte Carlo Simulation on Low-Energy Electrons Scatteringin Ni, NiTi and Ti Bulks%Ni,Ti及NiTi合金低能电子散射的Monte Carlo模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈海军

    2005-01-01

    采用Monte Carlo方法,模拟了低能电子束(能量E0≤5 keV)作用下Ni,Ti及NiTi合金固体中的电子散射,分析了3种金属/合金中散射电子的能量与空间分布.研究表明:(1)入射电子能量E0越小,各材料的背散射电子(BSEs)深度、吸收电子(AEs)深度及散射电子能量损失的深度均越小,分辨率越高;(2)相同E0下,各材料的BSEs,AEs及能量损失深度均有NiNiTi>Ti;(3)NiTi合金的BSEs深度、AEs深度及能量损失的深度和分辨率分别近似于Ni,Ti固体相应量的平均值.

  3. Ecological zones of California deserts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset delineates ecological zones within California deserts. We derived ecological zones by reclassifying LANDFIRE vegetation biophysical setting types, plus...

  4. Remote Sensing Field Guide - Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    sea in North America is in the Gran Desierto of northern Sonora, Mexico, which extends northward into the Yuma Desert of Arizona and the Algodones...parallel to the dune chains. PATTERN INDICATOR SHEET - DESERT DUNES PHOTO: AERIAL (OBLIQUE) STAR - COMPOUND LOCATION: Mexico (Northern) El Gran Desierto ...dunes. This field is in the central part of El Gran Desierto about 20 km south of the Arizona-Mexico border Photo B (on back) is a closer view. For orien

  5. An electron-impact cross section data set (10 eV-1 keV) of DNA constituents based on consistent experimental data: A requisite for Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bug, Marion U.; Yong Baek, Woon; Rabus, Hans; Villagrasa, Carmen; Meylan, Sylvain; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.

    2017-01-01

    This work provides the first cross section data set of DNA constituents for an impact of electrons in the energy range between about 10 eV and 1 keV on a DNA target. The data set is designed for an implementation in Monte Carlo simulations and consists of model functions, taking into account elastic scattering, ionization and excitation interactions with the DNA constituents tetrahydrofuran, trimethylphosphate, pyrimidine and purine. It was developed on the basis of experimentally determined absolute differential and total scattering cross sections in accordance with the available literature data. The data set will be available in the Geant4-DNA toolkit to allow secondary electron transport in a DNA-like medium down to the ionization threshold.

  6. Extended Ensemble Monte Carlo

    OpenAIRE

    Iba, Yukito

    2000-01-01

    ``Extended Ensemble Monte Carlo''is a generic term that indicates a set of algorithms which are now popular in a variety of fields in physics and statistical information processing. Exchange Monte Carlo (Metropolis-Coupled Chain, Parallel Tempering), Simulated Tempering (Expanded Ensemble Monte Carlo), and Multicanonical Monte Carlo (Adaptive Umbrella Sampling) are typical members of this family. Here we give a cross-disciplinary survey of these algorithms with special emphasis on the great f...

  7. Monte-Carlo simulation of decananometric nMOSFETs: Multi-subband vs. 3D-electron gas with quantum corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riolino, I.; Braccioli, M.; Lucci, L.; Palestri, P.; Esseni, D.; Fiegna, C.; Selmi, L.

    2007-11-01

    In this paper two Monte-Carlo simulators implementing different models for the influence of carrier quantization on the electrostatics and transport are used to analyze sub-100 nm double-gate SOI devices. To this purpose a new stable and efficient scheme to implement the contacts in the simulation of double-gate SOI devices is introduced first. Then, results in terms of drain current and microscopic quantities are compared, providing new insight on the limitation of a well assessed semiclassical transport simulation approach and a more rigorous multi-subband model.

  8. Desert and desertification in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the greatest environmental concerns in Iran as in other arid and semiarid countries is the transformation of once productive, or marginally productive, land to deteriorated land and soil unable to support plants and animals. Because the land becomes barren and dry, the process is described as desertification, which occurs as a sequence of events. The area of deserts in Iran is about 340,000 Km2 (less than one fifth of its total area), of which 100,000 Km2 is being used for some cultivation, 120,000 Km2 is subjected to moving sands about 40 % of which is active sand dunes. Most of features and processes usual in world famous deserts are also observed in Iran: low precipitation, high evaporation, poor or lack of vegetation, saline and alkaline soils, low population and small and sparse oases. The deserts of Iran are generally classified in the subtropical, warm, arid and semiarid group, but the effect and presence of some geographical and geoclimatical factors such as height, vicinity to Indian Ocean and so on do some changes in climatic conditions and geographical features causing some local and regional differences in them. Geographically, two groups of deserts have been known in Iran: (1) Coastal deserts which, like a ribbon with variable width, stretch from extreme southeast to extreme southwest, at the north parts of Oman Sea and Persian Gulf. One important feature of these deserts is relatively high humidity which differentiates them from other deserts. This causes an increase in vegetation coverage and hence a decrease in eolian erosion and also a dominance of chemical weathering to that of physical. (2) internal deserts, which rest in central, eastern and southeastern plateau of the country and in independent and semi dependent depressions. This situation, which is due to the surrounding high mountains, blocks humidity entry and causes the aridity of these deserts. Wind as a dominant process in the area causes deflated features such as Reg (desert

  9. Recommended Cross-Desert Driving Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Beijing - Duolun - Dalai Nur- Hexigten Banner -Saihanba - Weichang - Luanping - Miyun - Beijing. Along this 1,600-kilometer route is a 150-kin section(between Duolun and Darhan) of desert with no surfaced road - a paradise for desert drivers.

  10. Full Band Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron Transport in Ge with Anisotropic Scattering Process%考虑各项异性散射的锗中电子输运的全能带蒙特卡洛模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; Ravaioli Umberto

    2005-01-01

    在考虑各向异性散射的基础上,对锗中电子输运特性进行了全能带蒙特卡洛模拟.计算过程如下:锗的全能带由nonlocal empirical pseudopotential 方法求得;态密度的相对值通过不同能量的状态数得到;声子色散谱由adiabatic bond-charge模型求出;电子-声子散射率在低能量时采用费米黄金律得出的非抛物线散射率,高能量则通过态密度对其修正而得到;散射后的状态满足能量守恒和动量守恒.通过比较计算结果与实验报道,证实了该模型算法的正确性,由于该模型能正确反映锗中电子的速度与能量特性,同时又能大大降低散射率的计算成本,故可运用在器件模拟中.%The electron transport properties in Ge are calculated by full band Monte Carlo technique with anisotropic scattering consideration.The calculation procedures are as follows:the full band structure is calculated by nonlocal empirical pseudopotential approach;the relative value of density of state (DOS) is computed by counting the number of states located in a certain region of the energy;the phonon dispersion curve is obtained from an adiabatic bond-charge model;the electron-phonon scattering rates are approximated by the nonparabolic model derived from Fermi's golden rule at low energy region and scaled by DOS at higher energy region;the energy and momentum conservations are employed for choosing the final state after scattering.The validity of this Monte Carlo simulator and the physical models that are used is fully confirmed by comparing the program output to experimental results listed in As this Monte Carlo model can accurately reproduce the velocity and energy characteristics of electrons in Ge and the DOS scaled scattering rate can significantly reduce the computational cost for scattering rates,this approach is suitable for device simulation.

  11. Semiclassical three-valley Monte Carlo simulation analysis of steady-state and transient electron transport within bulk InAsxP1-x, InAs and InP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Arabshahi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We have studied how electrons, initially in thermal equilibrium, drift under the action of an applied electric field within bulk zincblende InAsxP1-x, InAs and InP. Calculations are made using a non-parabolic effective-mass energy band model. Monte Carlo simulation includes all of the major scattering mechanisms. The band parameters used in the simulation are extracted from optimised pseudo-potential band calculations to ensure excellent agreement with experimental information and ab-initio band models. The effects of alloy scattering on the electron transport physics are examined. For all materials, it is found that electron velocity overshoot only occurs when the electric field is increased to a value above a certain critical field, unique to each material. This critical field is strongly dependent on the material parameters. Transient velocity overshoot has also been simulated, with the sudden application of fields up to 1600 kVm-1, appropriate to the gate-drain fields expected within an operational field-effect transistor. The electron drift velocity relaxes to the saturation value of about 1.5105 ms-1 within 4 pico-seconds for all crystal structures. The steady-state and transient velocity overshoot characteristics are in fair agreement with other recent calculations.

  12. Physics and Simulation of Diffusive Transport in Nanoscale Transistors MESFET Device Ga0.49 In0.51P Using Monte Carlo Method of Electronic Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourdine Massoum

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of microelectronics has made surprising advances in the last decade, mainly pushed by the enormous progress in semiconductor technology. Such a reduction of dimensions allows the fabrication of chips with more than one million components. In addition, it opens the way to new physical phenomena, which were not present in traditional structures. In this context, the Monte Carlo simulation has particular significance. This approach allowed conceiving applicable model for GaInP MESFET operating in the turn-one or pinch-off region, and valid for the short-channel and the long-channel GaInP MESFET, in which the two-dimensional potential distribution contributed by the depletion layer under the gate is obtained by conventional 1D approximation

  13. Stone structures in the Syrian Desert

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    An arid land, known as the Syrian Desert, is covering a large part of the Middle East. In the past, this harsh environment, characterized by huge lava fields, the "harraat", was considered as a barrier between Levant and Mesopotamia. When we observe this desert from space, we discover that it is crossed by some stone structures, the "desert kites", which were the Neolithic traps for the game. Several stone circles are visible too, as many Stonehenge sites dispersed in the desert landscape.

  14. Uma abordagem simplificada do método Monte Carlo Quântico: da solução de integrais ao problema da distribuição eletrônica A simplified approach to the Quantum Monte Carlo method: from the solution of integrals to the electronic distribution problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Fernando Delfino Angelotti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an introductory and general discussion on the quantum Monte Carlo methods, some fundamental algorithms, concepts and applicability. In order to introduce the quantum Monte Carlo method, preliminary concepts associated with Monte Carlo techniques are discussed.

  15. Phytoremediation for Oily Desert Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Samir

    This chapter deals with strategies for cleaning oily desert soils through rhizosphere technology. Bioremediation involves two major approaches; seeding with suitable microorganisms and fertilization with microbial growth enhancing materials. Raising suitable crops in oil-polluted desert soils fulfills both objectives. The rhizosphere of many legume and non-legume plants is richer in oil-utilizing micro-organisms than non-vegetated soils. Furthermore, these rhizospheres also harbour symbiotic and asymbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and are rich in simple organic compounds exuded by plant roots. Those exudates are excellent nutrients for oil-utilizing microorganisms. Since many rhizospheric bacteria have the combined activities of hydrocarbon-utilization and nitrogen fixation, phytoremediation provides a feasible and environmentally friendly biotechnology for cleaning oil-polluted soils, especially nitrogen-poor desert soils.

  16. Dew condensation on desert beetle skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J; Mongruel, A; Medici, M-G; Baquero, E; Parker, A R; Milimouk-Melnytchuk, I; González-Viñas, W; Beysens, D

    2014-11-01

    Some tenebrionind beetles inhabiting the Namib desert are known for using their body to collect water droplets from wind-blown fogs. We aim to determine whether dew water collection is also possible for desert insects. For this purpose, we investigated the infra-red emissivity, and the wetting and structural properties, of the surface of the elytra of a preserved specimen of Physasterna cribripes (Tenebrionidæ) beetle, where the macro-structure appears as a series of "bumps", with "valleys" between them. Dew formation experiments were carried out in a condensation chamber. The surface properties (infra-red emissivity, wetting properties) were dominated by the wax at the elytra surface and, to a lower extent, its micro-structure. We performed scanning electron microscope on histological sections and determined the infra-red emissivity using a scanning pyrometer. The emissivity measured (0.95±0.07 between 8-14 μm) was close to the black body value. Dew formation occurred on the insect's elytra, which can be explained by these surface properties. From the surface coverage of the condensed drops it was found that dew forms primarily in the valleys between the bumps. The difference in droplet nucleation rate between bumps and valleys can be attributed to the hexagonal microstructure on the surface of the valleys, whereas the surface of the bumps is smooth. The drops can slide when they reach a critical size, and be collected at the insect's mouth.

  17. Monte Carlo fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, F.B.; Sutton, T.M.

    1996-02-01

    This report is composed of the lecture notes from the first half of a 32-hour graduate-level course on Monte Carlo methods offered at KAPL. These notes, prepared by two of the principle developers of KAPL`s RACER Monte Carlo code, cover the fundamental theory, concepts, and practices for Monte Carlo analysis. In particular, a thorough grounding in the basic fundamentals of Monte Carlo methods is presented, including random number generation, random sampling, the Monte Carlo approach to solving transport problems, computational geometry, collision physics, tallies, and eigenvalue calculations. Furthermore, modern computational algorithms for vector and parallel approaches to Monte Carlo calculations are covered in detail, including fundamental parallel and vector concepts, the event-based algorithm, master/slave schemes, parallel scaling laws, and portability issues.

  18. Monte Carlo methods

    OpenAIRE

    Bardenet, R.

    2012-01-01

    ISBN:978-2-7598-1032-1; International audience; Bayesian inference often requires integrating some function with respect to a posterior distribution. Monte Carlo methods are sampling algorithms that allow to compute these integrals numerically when they are not analytically tractable. We review here the basic principles and the most common Monte Carlo algorithms, among which rejection sampling, importance sampling and Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC) methods. We give intuition on the theoretic...

  19. SU-E-T-552: Monte Carlo Calculation of Correction Factors for a Free-Air Ionization Chamber in Support of a National Air-Kerma Standard for Electronic Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mille, M; Bergstrom, P [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To use Monte Carlo radiation transport methods to calculate correction factors for a free-air ionization chamber in support of a national air-kerma standard for low-energy, miniature x-ray sources used for electronic brachytherapy (eBx). Methods: The NIST is establishing a calibration service for well-type ionization chambers used to characterize the strength of eBx sources prior to clinical use. The calibration approach involves establishing the well-chamber’s response to an eBx source whose air-kerma rate at a 50 cm distance is determined through a primary measurement performed using the Lamperti free-air ionization chamber. However, the free-air chamber measurements of charge or current can only be related to the reference air-kerma standard after applying several corrections, some of which are best determined via Monte Carlo simulation. To this end, a detailed geometric model of the Lamperti chamber was developed in the EGSnrc code based on the engineering drawings of the instrument. The egs-fac user code in EGSnrc was then used to calculate energy-dependent correction factors which account for missing or undesired ionization arising from effects such as: (1) attenuation and scatter of the x-rays in air; (2) primary electrons escaping the charge collection region; (3) lack of charged particle equilibrium; (4) atomic fluorescence and bremsstrahlung radiation. Results: Energy-dependent correction factors were calculated assuming a monoenergetic point source with the photon energy ranging from 2 keV to 60 keV in 2 keV increments. Sufficient photon histories were simulated so that the Monte Carlo statistical uncertainty of the correction factors was less than 0.01%. The correction factors for a specific eBx source will be determined by integrating these tabulated results over its measured x-ray spectrum. Conclusion: The correction factors calculated in this work are important for establishing a national standard for eBx which will help ensure that dose

  20. Exploring Monte Carlo methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, William L

    2012-01-01

    Exploring Monte Carlo Methods is a basic text that describes the numerical methods that have come to be known as "Monte Carlo." The book treats the subject generically through the first eight chapters and, thus, should be of use to anyone who wants to learn to use Monte Carlo. The next two chapters focus on applications in nuclear engineering, which are illustrative of uses in other fields. Five appendices are included, which provide useful information on probability distributions, general-purpose Monte Carlo codes for radiation transport, and other matters. The famous "Buffon's needle proble

  1. Desert Environmental Handbook. First Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    Department of the Army, February 1972. 2. Analogs of Yuma Climate I-XI, US Army Natick Laboratories, Natick, Massachusetts, 1958-60. 3. Kolb, C. R.; Dornbusch ...Station Atrea, Arizona, Purdue University, March 1955. Kolb, C. R.; Dornbusch , W. K. Jr.; 1. Analogs of Yuma Terrain in the Middle East Desert; 2

  2. On a Crowded Desert Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Samuel

    1989-01-01

    Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

  3. Women in the Gobi Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    THE plane flew for about an hour,transporting me from Beijing to adeserted land,the Gobi desert,where sits the China Arms Testing &Training Target Field.For about 40 years,thousands of scientists and technicianshave made hundreds of greatachievements in the history of Chinesearms testing;among them are a lot ofunusual women making their own quietcontributions.

  4. On a Crowded Desert Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Samuel

    1989-01-01

    Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

  5. Monte Carlo simulations for plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, M.; Murakami, S.; Nakajima, N.; Wang, W.X. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Plasma behaviours are very complicated and the analyses are generally difficult. However, when the collisional processes play an important role in the plasma behaviour, the Monte Carlo method is often employed as a useful tool. For examples, in neutral particle injection heating (NBI heating), electron or ion cyclotron heating, and alpha heating, Coulomb collisions slow down high energetic particles and pitch angle scatter them. These processes are often studied by the Monte Carlo technique and good agreements can be obtained with the experimental results. Recently, Monte Carlo Method has been developed to study fast particle transports associated with heating and generating the radial electric field. Further it is applied to investigating the neoclassical transport in the plasma with steep gradients of density and temperatures which is beyong the conventional neoclassical theory. In this report, we briefly summarize the researches done by the present authors utilizing the Monte Carlo method. (author)

  6. Desert Pathfinder at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    The Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) project celebrates the inauguration of its outstanding 12-m telescope, located on the 5100m high Chajnantor plateau in the Atacama Desert (Chile). The APEX telescope, designed to work at sub-millimetre wavelengths, in the 0.2 to 1.5 mm range, passed successfully its Science Verification phase in July, and since then is performing regular science observations. This new front-line facility provides access to the "Cold Universe" with unprecedented sensitivity and image quality. After months of careful efforts to set up the telescope to work at the best possible technical level, those involved in the project are looking with satisfaction at the fruit of their labour: APEX is not only fully operational, it has already provided important scientific results. "The superb sensitivity of our detectors together with the excellence of the site allow fantastic observations that would not be possible with any other telescope in the world," said Karl Menten, Director of the group for Millimeter and Sub-Millimeter Astronomy at the Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR) and Principal Investigator of the APEX project. ESO PR Photo 30/05 ESO PR Photo 30/05 Sub-Millimetre Image of a Stellar Cradle [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 627 pix - 200k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1254 pix - 503k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1539 x 2413 pix - 1.3M] Caption: ESO PR Photo 30/05 is an image of the giant molecular cloud G327 taken with APEX. More than 5000 spectra were taken in the J=3-2 line of the carbon monoxide molecule (CO), one of the best tracers of molecular clouds, in which star formation takes place. The bright peak in the north of the cloud is an evolved star forming region, where the gas is heated by a cluster of new stars. The most interesting region in the image is totally inconspicuous in CO: the G327 hot core, as seen in methanol contours. It is a truly exceptional source, and is one of the richest sources of emission from complex organic molecules in the

  7. TH-C-12A-10: Surface Dose Enhancement Using Novel Hybrid Electron and Photon Low-Z Therapy Beams: Monte Carlo Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, C; Parsons, D [Dept of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Robar, J; Kelly, R [Dept of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Dept of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The introduction of the TrueBeam linac platform provides access to an in-air target assembly making it possible to apply novel treatments using multiple target designs. One such novel treatment uses multiple low-Z targets to enhance surface dose replacing the use of synthetic tissue equivalent material (bolus). This treatment technique will decrease the common dosimetric and set up errors prevalent in using physical treatment accessories like bolus. The groundwork for a novel treatment beam used to enhance surface dose to within 80-100% of the dose at dmax by utilizing low-Z (Carbon) targets of various percent CSDA range thickness operated at 2.5–4 MeV used in conjunction with a clinical 6 MV beam is presented herein. Methods: A standard Monte Carlo model of a Varian Clinac accelerator was developed to manufacturers specifications. Simulations were performed using Be, C, AL, and C, as potential low-Z targets, placed in the secondary target position. The results determined C to be the target material of choice. Simulations of 15, 30 and 60% CSDA range C beams were propagated through slab phantoms. The resulting PDDs were weighted and combined with a standard 6 MV treatment beam. Versions of the experimental targets were installed into a 2100C Clinac and the models were validated. Results: Carbon was shown to be the low-Z material of choice for this project. Using combinations of 15, 30, 60% CSDA beams operated at 2.5 and 4 MeV in combination with a standard 6 MV treatment beam the surface dose was shown to be enhanced to within 80–100% the dose at dmax. Conclusion: The modeled low-Z beams were successfully validated using machined versions of the targets. Water phantom measurements and slab phantom simulations show excellent correlation. Patient simulations are now underway to compare the use of bolus with the proposed novel beams. NSERC.

  8. Validation of Compton Scattering Monte Carlo Simulation Models

    CERN Document Server

    Weidenspointner, Georg; Hauf, Steffen; Hoff, Gabriela; Kuster, Markus; Pia, Maria Grazia; Saracco, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Several models for the Monte Carlo simulation of Compton scattering on electrons are quantitatively evaluated with respect to a large collection of experimental data retrieved from the literature. Some of these models are currently implemented in general purpose Monte Carlo systems; some have been implemented and evaluated for possible use in Monte Carlo particle transport for the first time in this study. Here we present first and preliminary results concerning total and differential Compton scattering cross sections.

  9. Monte Carlo methods in AB initio quantum chemistry quantum Monte Carlo for molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Lester, William A; Reynolds, PJ

    1994-01-01

    This book presents the basic theory and application of the Monte Carlo method to the electronic structure of atoms and molecules. It assumes no previous knowledge of the subject, only a knowledge of molecular quantum mechanics at the first-year graduate level. A working knowledge of traditional ab initio quantum chemistry is helpful, but not essential.Some distinguishing features of this book are: Clear exposition of the basic theory at a level to facilitate independent study. Discussion of the various versions of the theory: diffusion Monte Carlo, Green's function Monte Carlo, and release n

  10. Exercise Desert Rock Letter Orders. Army, Camp Desert Rock, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1957-08-01

    WILF.iED J MSGT A19032i3 HJ;,ŕWAY, ELLafGzJN 8FC Xf,37791267 INOZ W, P. 1. PVT2 US52401808 KELLEY, JESSIE J SFC R1� EVaS, LOUIS PFC .,53073109...Ord Co (HAM) Camo Desert Rock, Nevada You will preeeed to Reynolds Funeral Vome, Sigourney, Iowa 0/a 24 AU ist 1957 for apprx fourteen (14) days to

  11. Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the damage potential of electron beam and tests of beam loss detector based on quartz Cherenkov radiator read out by a silicon photomultiplier on CLIC Test Facility 3(CTF3)

    CERN Document Server

    Orfanelli, Styliani; Gazis, E

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study is a feasibility study aiming at the development of an electron/positron linear collider with a centre of mass energy in the multi-TeV energy range. Each Linac will have a length of 21 km, which means that very high accelerating gradients (>100 MV/m) are required. To achieve the high accelerating gradients, a novel two-beam acceleration scheme, in which RF power is transferred from a high-current, low-energy drive beam to the low-current, high energy main accelerating beam is designed. A Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system will be designed for CLIC to meet the requirements of the accelerator complex. Its main role as part of the machine protection scheme will be to detect potentially dangerous beam instabilities and prevent subsequent injection into the main beam or drive beam decelerators. The first part of this work describes the GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations performed to estimate the damage potential of high energy electron beams impacting a copper target. The second...

  12. Self-healing diffusion quantum Monte Carlo algorithms: methods for direct reduction of the fermion sign error in electronic structure calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboredo, F A; Hood, R Q; Kent, P C

    2009-01-06

    We develop a formalism and present an algorithm for optimization of the trial wave-function used in fixed-node diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) methods. The formalism is based on the DMC mixed estimator of the ground state probability density. We take advantage of a basic property of the walker configuration distribution generated in a DMC calculation, to (i) project-out a multi-determinant expansion of the fixed node ground state wave function and (ii) to define a cost function that relates the interacting-ground-state-fixed-node and the non-interacting trial wave functions. We show that (a) locally smoothing out the kink of the fixed-node ground-state wave function at the node generates a new trial wave function with better nodal structure and (b) we argue that the noise in the fixed-node wave function resulting from finite sampling plays a beneficial role, allowing the nodes to adjust towards the ones of the exact many-body ground state in a simulated annealing-like process. Based on these principles, we propose a method to improve both single determinant and multi-determinant expansions of the trial wave function. The method can be generalized to other wave function forms such as pfaffians. We test the method in a model system where benchmark configuration interaction calculations can be performed and most components of the Hamiltonian are evaluated analytically. Comparing the DMC calculations with the exact solutions, we find that the trial wave function is systematically improved. The overlap of the optimized trial wave function and the exact ground state converges to 100% even starting from wave functions orthogonal to the exact ground state. Similarly, the DMC total energy and density converges to the exact solutions for the model. In the optimization process we find an optimal non-interacting nodal potential of density-functional-like form whose existence was predicted in a previous publication [Phys. Rev. B 77 245110 (2008)]. Tests of the method are

  13. Quantum Monte Carlo with variable spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Cody A; Bennett, M Chandler; Mitas, Lubos

    2016-06-28

    We investigate the inclusion of variable spins in electronic structure quantum Monte Carlo, with a focus on diffusion Monte Carlo with Hamiltonians that include spin-orbit interactions. Following our previous introduction of fixed-phase spin-orbit diffusion Monte Carlo, we thoroughly discuss the details of the method and elaborate upon its technicalities. We present a proof for an upper-bound property for complex nonlocal operators, which allows for the implementation of T-moves to ensure the variational property. We discuss the time step biases associated with our particular choice of spin representation. Applications of the method are also presented for atomic and molecular systems. We calculate the binding energies and geometry of the PbH and Sn2 molecules, as well as the electron affinities of the 6p row elements in close agreement with experiments.

  14. Quantum Monte Carlo with Variable Spins

    CERN Document Server

    Melton, Cody A; Mitas, Lubos

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the inclusion of variable spins in electronic structure quantum Monte Carlo, with a focus on diffusion Monte Carlo with Hamiltonians that include spin-orbit interactions. Following our previous introduction of fixed-phase spin-orbit diffusion Monte Carlo (FPSODMC), we thoroughly discuss the details of the method and elaborate upon its technicalities. We present a proof for an upper-bound property for complex nonlocal operators, which allows for the implementation of T-moves to ensure the variational property. We discuss the time step biases associated with our particular choice of spin representation. Applications of the method are also presented for atomic and molecular systems. We calculate the binding energies and geometry of the PbH and Sn$_2$ molecules, as well as the electron affinities of the 6$p$ row elements in close agreement with experiments.

  15. Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of topological phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Arata; Kimura, Taro

    2016-12-01

    We study the electron-electron interaction effects on topological phase transitions by the ab initio quantum Monte Carlo simulation. We analyze two-dimensional class A topological insulators and three-dimensional Weyl semimetals with the long-range Coulomb interaction. The direct computation of the Chern number shows the electron-electron interaction modifies or extinguishes topological phase transitions.

  16. Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of topological phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Arata

    2016-01-01

    We study the electron-electron interaction effects on topological phase transitions by the ab-initio quantum Monte Carlo simulation. We analyze two-dimensional class A topological insulators and three-dimensional Weyl semimetals with the long-range Coulomb interaction. The direct computation of the Chern number shows the electron-electron interaction modifies or extinguishes topological phase transitions.

  17. Recent Developments in Quantum Monte Carlo: Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspuru-Guzik, Alan; Austin, Brian; Domin, Dominik; Galek, Peter T. A.; Handy, Nicholas; Prasad, Rajendra; Salomon-Ferrer, Romelia; Umezawa, Naoto; Lester, William A.

    2007-12-01

    The quantum Monte Carlo method in the diffusion Monte Carlo form has become recognized for its capability of describing the electronic structure of atomic, molecular and condensed matter systems to high accuracy. This talk will briefly outline the method with emphasis on recent developments connected with trial function construction, linear scaling, and applications to selected systems.

  18. MORSE Monte Carlo code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described.

  19. Seed dispersal of desert annuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, D Lawrence; Flores-Martinez, Arturo; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Barron-Gafford, Greg; Becerra, Judith X

    2008-08-01

    We quantified seed dispersal in a guild of Sonoran Desert winter desert annuals at a protected natural field site in Tucson, Arizona, USA. Seed production was suppressed under shrub canopies, in the open areas between shrubs, or both by applying an herbicide prior to seed set in large, randomly assigned removal plots (10-30 m diameter). Seedlings were censused along transects crossing the reproductive suppression borders shortly after germination. Dispersal kernels were estimated for Pectocarya recurvata and Schismus barbatus from the change in seedling densities with distance from these borders via inverse modeling. Estimated dispersal distances were short, with most seeds traveling less than a meter. The adhesive seeds of P. recurvata went farther than the small S. barbatus seeds, which have no obvious dispersal adaptation. Seeds dispersed farther downslope than upslope and farther when dispersing into open areas than when dispersing into shrubs. Dispersal distances were short relative to the pattern of spatial heterogeneity created by the shrub and open space mosaic. This suggests that dispersal could contribute to local population buildup, possibly facilitating species coexistence. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that escape in time via delayed germination is likely to be more important for desert annuals than escape in space.

  20. Neutron energy and time-of-flight spectra behind the lateral shield of a high energy electron accelerator beam dump 2, Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Roesler, Stefan; Rokni, Sayed H; Taniguchi, Shingo

    2003-01-01

    Energy spectra of high-energy neutrons and neutron time-of-flight spectra were calculated for the setup of experiment T-454 performed with a NE213 liquid scintillator at the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The neutrons were created by the interaction a 28.7 GeV electron beam in the aluminum beam dump of the FFTB which is housed inside a thick steel and concrete shielding. In order to determine the attenuation length of high-energy neutrons additional concrete shielding of various thicknesses was placed outside the existing shielding. The calculations were performed using the FLUKA interaction and transport code. The energy and time-of-flight spectra were recorded for the location of the detector allowing a detailed comparison with the experimental data. A generally good description of the data is achieved adding confidence to the use of FLUKA for the design of shielding for high-energy electron accelerators. (5 refs).

  1. Neutron energy and time-of-flight spectra behind the lateral shield of a high-energy electron accelerator beam dump. Part 2. Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Roesler, S; Rokni, S H; Taniguchi, S

    2003-01-01

    Energy spectra of high-energy neutrons and neutron time-of-flight spectra were calculated for the setup of experiment T-454 performed with a NE213 liquid scintillator at the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The neutrons were created by the interaction a 28.7 GeV electron beam in the aluminum beam dump of the FFTB which is housed inside a thick steel and concrete shielding. In order to determine the attenuation length of high-energy neutrons additional concrete shielding of various thicknesses was placed outside the existing shielding. The calculations were performed using the FLUKA interaction and transport code. The energy and time-of-flight spectra were recorded for the location of the detector allowing a detailed comparison with the experimental data. A generally good description of the data is achieved adding confidence to the use of FLUKA for the design of shielding for high-energy electron accelerators.

  2. Network topology of the desert rose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigmund Mongstad Hope

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Desert roses are gypsum crystals that consist of intersecting disks. We determine their geometrical structure using computer assisted tomography. By mapping the geometrical structure onto a graph, the topology of the desert rose is analyzed and compared to a model based on diffusion limited aggregation. By comparing the topology, we find that the model gets a number of the features of the real desert rose right, whereas others do not fit so well.

  3. SU-E-T-448: On the Perturbation Factor P-cav of the Markus Parallel Plate Ion Chambers in Clinical Electron Beams, Monte Carlo Based Reintegration of An Historical Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigts-Rhetz, P von; Zink, K [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen - University of Applied Sciences, Giessen, Hessen (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: All present dosimetry protocols recommend well-guarded parallel-plate ion chambers for electron dosimetry. For the guard-less Markus chamber an energy dependent fluence perturbation correction pcav is given. This perturbation correction was experimentally determined by van der Plaetsen by comparison of the read-out of a Markus and a NACP chamber, which was assumed to be “perturbation-free”. Aim of the present study is a Monte Carlo based reiteration of this experiment. Methods: Detailed models of four parallel-plate chambers (Roos, Markus, NACP and Advanced Markus) were designed using the Monte Carlo code EGSnrc and placed in a water phantom. For all chambers the dose to the active volume filled with low density water was calculated for 13 clinical electron spectra (E{sub 0}=6-21 MeV) at the depth of maximum and at the reference depth under reference conditions. In all cases the chamber's reference point was positioned at the depth of measurement. Moreover, the dose to water DW was calculated in a small water voxel positioned at the same depth. Results: The calculated dose ratio D{sub NACP}/D{sub Markus}, which according to van der Plaetsen reflects the fluence perturbation correction of the Markus chamber, deviates less from unity than the values given by van der Plaetsen's but exhibits a similar energy dependence. The same holds for the dose ratios of the other well guarded chambers. But, in comparison to water, the Markus chamber reveals the smallest overall perturbation correction which is nearly energy independent at both investigated depths. Conclusion: The simulations principally confirm the energy dependence of the dose ratio D{sub NACP}/D{sub Markus} as published by van der Plaetsen. But, as shown by our simulations of the ratio D{sub W}/D{sub Markus}, the conclusion drawn in all dosimetry protocols is questionable: in contrast to all well-guarded chambers the guard-less Markus chamber reveals the smallest overall perturbation

  4. Fungi and bacteria involved in desert varnish formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-George, S.; Palmer, F.; Staley, J. T.; Curtiss, B.; Adams, J. B.; Borns, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Desert varnish is a coating of ferromanganese oxides and clays that develops on rock surfaces in arid to semi-arid regions. Active respiration but not photosynthesis was detected on varnished rock surfaces from the Sonoran Desert. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, and cultivation experiments indicate that both fungi, primarily dematiaceous hyphomycetes, and bacteria are found on and within desert varnish coatings from the arid regions studied. Some fungi grow as microcolonial fungi (MCF) on rocks, and microscopic observations suggest MCF become incorporated in the varnish coating. SEM-EDAX (energy dispersive X-ray systems) analyses indicate the MCF contain 3 of the characteristic elements of varnish: iron, aluminum, and silicon. In some locations, MCF are also enriched in manganese relative to the rock substratum. Furthermore, some of the dematiaceous hyphomycetes that have been cultivated are able to oxidize manganese under laboratory conditions. It is possible that manganese-oxidizing bacteria, which are found in varnish, also play an important role in varnish formation.

  5. Quantum Monte Carlo simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yazhen

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary scientific studies often rely on the understanding of complex quantum systems via computer simulation. This paper initiates the statistical study of quantum simulation and proposes a Monte Carlo method for estimating analytically intractable quantities. We derive the bias and variance for the proposed Monte Carlo quantum simulation estimator and establish the asymptotic theory for the estimator. The theory is used to design a computational scheme for minimizing the mean square er...

  6. Monte Carlo transition probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy, L. B.

    2001-01-01

    Transition probabilities governing the interaction of energy packets and matter are derived that allow Monte Carlo NLTE transfer codes to be constructed without simplifying the treatment of line formation. These probabilities are such that the Monte Carlo calculation asymptotically recovers the local emissivity of a gas in statistical equilibrium. Numerical experiments with one-point statistical equilibrium problems for Fe II and Hydrogen confirm this asymptotic behaviour. In addition, the re...

  7. Measuring the top anti-t Production Cross-Section in the Electron + Jets Channel in Proton - Anti-proton Collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV with the D0 Detector at the Tevatron: A Monte Carlo Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Su-Jung; /Bonn U.

    2004-02-01

    The measurement of the t{bar t} production cross section at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using the final state with an electron and jets is studied with Monte Carlo event samples. All methods used in the real data analysis to measure efficiencies and to estimate the background contributions are examined. The studies focus on measuring the electron reconstruction efficiencies as well as on improving the electron identification and background suppression. With a generated input cross section of 7 pb the following result is obtained: {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} = (7 {+-} 1.63(stat){sub -1.14}{sup +0.94} (syst)) pb.

  8. Off-Road and the Fragile Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Part one of a two-part article sets forth the dimensions and the political-cultural aspects of the use of off-road vehicles in desert areas. Presents arguments for and against off-road vehicle use on national-resource land as exemplified in the California Desert. (Editor/JR)

  9. A River in the Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仲言

    1994-01-01

    The Arabian Peninsula today is a barren desert. But 6,000 yearsago, says Farouk El-Baz,a river ran through the heart of the peninsula.From the Hijaz Mountains in western Saudi Arabia, it flowed 530 milesnortheast, emptying into the Persian Gulf through a delta that coveredmost of present day Kuwait. The Kuwait River, as El-Baz has dubbedit, averaged 5 miles wide and 50 feet deep along its entire length, and itcarried gravel from the Hijaz all the way to Kuwait. "It must have been amighty river, "says El-Baz.

  10. Simplified analysis of naturally ventilated desert buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, E.H.; Richards, P.G.; Rousseau, P.G. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Etzion, Y.; Erell, E. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede Boqer (Israel). J. Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research)

    1992-10-01

    The verification of a simplified thermal analysis procedure and its application to naturally ventilated desert buildings are discussed. Measurements for buildings in the Negev Desert, made independently by the Desert Architecture Unit of the Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, were inter alia used to verify the simplified thermal analysis procedure QUICK, developed by the Centre for Experimental and Numerical Thermoflow. As detailed information for validation purposes is not always readily available to researchers, the measurements as well as the buildings' descriptions are given in detail in this paper. The effect of natural ventilation strategies on the indoor air temperatures is also investigated for the desert buildings. A simplified but novel procedure to calculate the air change rates through the building from the measured wind speeds, building geometry and surroundings is proposed. Hourly air change rates determined with the proposed procedure are employed in the simulations with QUICK. (author)

  11. 基于蒙特卡洛方法研究电子线输出因子影响因素%Analysis of electron beam output factors by Monte Carlo method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟子锋; 刘丹; 张勇; 李润霄; 景仲昊; 冯峰; 韩春

    2014-01-01

    目的 使用蒙特卡洛方法计算电子线输出因子,探讨直线加速器各组成部分对输出因子影响.方法 使用蒙特卡洛MCTP软件模拟瓦里安23EX医用直线加速器6、9、18 MeV电子线,源皮距100 cm下不同射野大小(2 cm×2cm~25 cm×25 cm)的输出因子.使用Scanditronix Wellhofer Blue Phantom自动扫描系统三维水箱测量相同条件下的输出因子.观察计算与测量结果差异,要求两者<2%.再使用蒙特卡洛方法分别计算不同能量下不同限束系统条件下原粒子和散射粒子的输出因子(包括限光筒、铅门、挡铅的输出因子),并讨论限束系统各个部件对输出因子的影响.结果 MCTP系统计算的6、9、18 MeV电子线输出因子与测量结果间差异<1%.电子线能量、限光筒—铅门—挡铅组合以复杂的方式影响原粒子和散射粒子,从而影响输出因子.结论 蒙特卡洛MCTP软件能精确计算不同能量下不同限束系统条件下原粒子和散射粒子的输出因子,电子线能量及限束系统以复杂方式影响输出因子.%Objective To investigate the application of the Monte Carlo dose calculation of output factors for electron beams in radiotherapy.Methods The code EGS4/MCTP was used to simulate the head of a medical linear accelerator (Varian 23EX) to calculate the output factors for 6 MeV,9 MeV and 18 MeV electron beams.The source-to-surface distance used was 100 cm.The field sizes ranged from 2 cm × 2 cm to 25 cm × 25 cm.The calculated output factors agreed with the corresponding measured factors which were measured by the IBA Phantom system to within 2%.Then,the output factors of direct articles and indirect articles which were under different energy and various cone-insert combinations were calculated by the code EGS4/MCTP.Results The calculated output factors agreement with the measurements is found to be mostly under the 1% level.The variation of output factors depends on the characteristics of

  12. A Galactic Cosmic Ray Electron Spectrum from 2 MeV to 2 TeV That Fits Voyager 5-60 MeV Data at Low Energies and PAMELA and AMS-2 Data at 10 GeV Using an Electron Source Spectrum E^-2.25 A Calculation Using a Monte Carlo Diffusion Model

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, W R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we fit the observed galactic cosmic ray electron spectrum from a few MeV to 1 TeV. New data from Voyager from 5-60 MeV beyond the heliopause is used along with high energy data from the PAMELA, FERMI and AMS-2 instruments in Earth orbit. Using a Monte Carlo diffusion model for galactic propagation we obtain a source rigidity spectrum with a spectral index =-2.25 independent of energy below 10 GeV, possibly steepening above 10 GeV to 2.40 at the highest energies. This spectrum will fit the electron data over 5 orders of magnitude to within + 10% at both low and high energies. This steepening of the electron source spectrum could be an important feature of the acceleration process, e.g., synchrotron loss during acceleration could steepen the source spectrum. This fit requires only a single break in the rigidity dependence of the diffusion coefficient by ~1.0 power in the exponent at about 1.0 GV. The calculations also predict the distribution of electrons perpendicular to the galactic disk. The ga...

  13. Water subsidies from mountains to deserts: their role in sustaining groundwater-fed oases in a sandy landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Jobbagy Gampel, Esteban Gabriel; Nosetto, Marcelo Daniel; Villagra, Pablo Eugenio; Jackson, Robert B.

    2017-01-01

    In arid regions throughout the world, shallow phreatic aquifers feed natural oases of much higher productivity than would be expected solely from local rainfall. In South America, the presence of well-developed Prosopis flexuosa woodlands in the Monte Desert region east of the Andes has puzzled scientists for decades. Today these woodlands provide crucial subsistence to local populations, including descendants of the indigenous Huarpes. We explore the vulnerability and importance of phreatic ...

  14. The Virtual Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Hrivnacova, I; Berejnov, V V; Brun, R; Carminati, F; Fassò, A; Futo, E; Gheata, A; Caballero, I G; Morsch, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    The concept of Virtual Monte Carlo (VMC) has been developed by the ALICE Software Project to allow different Monte Carlo simulation programs to run without changing the user code, such as the geometry definition, the detector response simulation or input and output formats. Recently, the VMC classes have been integrated into the ROOT framework, and the other relevant packages have been separated from the AliRoot framework and can be used individually by any other HEP project. The general concept of the VMC and its set of base classes provided in ROOT will be presented. Existing implementations for Geant3, Geant4 and FLUKA and simple examples of usage will be described.

  15. Deserts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graulund, Rune

    2016-01-01

    , comic sketches and lyrical reveries; travel writing is now a crucial focus for discussion across many subjects within the humanities and social sciences. An ideal starting point for beginners, but also offering new perspectives for those familiar with the field, The Routledge Companion to Travel Writing...

  16. Deserts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graulund, Rune

    2016-01-01

    , comic sketches and lyrical reveries; travel writing is now a crucial focus for discussion across many subjects within the humanities and social sciences. An ideal starting point for beginners, but also offering new perspectives for those familiar with the field, The Routledge Companion to Travel Writing...

  17. Microphytic crusts: 'topsoil' of the desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne

    1990-01-01

    Deserts throughout the world are the home of microphytic, or cryptogamic, crusts. These crusts are dominated by cyanobacteria, previously called blue-green algae, and also include lichens, mosses, green algae, microfungi and bacteria. They are critical components of desert ecosystems, significantly modifying the surfaces on which they occur. In the cold deserts of the Colorado Plateau (including parts of Utah, Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico), these crusts are extraordinarily well-developed, and may represent 70-80% of the living ground cover.

  18. Monte Carlo Simulation on the Irradiation Damage of Contaminative Electrons to the Skin Cell in External Radiotherapy%放疗污染电子对皮肤细胞损伤的蒙特卡罗模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊桢宇; 林辉; 蔡金凤; 代玉美; 张拥军; 朱成成

    2014-01-01

    detected at a certain extent by Monte Carlo physical simulation. This damage model of the low energy electron to DNA and these simulated results could be used to evaluate the damage effect of the low energy contaminative electron to the skin cells in the external radiotherapy.%采用Geant4-DNA低能物理模型研究了污染电子在细胞DNA水平上的物理作用和能量沉积。利用密度聚类算法分析了损伤产额分布;并结合皮肤细胞辐射敏感性参数和临床表征剂量,探讨了低能电子对皮肤细胞的损伤特征。模拟发现,产生的DSB中约20%是cDSB;DSB产额是SSB的约4%;损伤聚类包含的SSB一般63个,20 keV和100 keV电子也可造成>5个SSB的聚类损伤;晚反应、高α值的组织更应注意防护低能电子辐射;由于LQ模型中剂量平方项的影响,cDSB损伤致死系数ε随入射电子数目的增加而增大。当105个电子入射时,ε的数值可较单个电子增大3%∼15%。可通过调节直接电离损伤概率弥补间接损伤产额,研究细胞辐照损伤的内在机理。本工作建立的低能电子对细胞DNA的损伤模型及结果,可用于评价放疗中低能污染电子对皮肤细胞的损伤效应。

  19. Multi-electron systems in strong magnetic fields II: A fixed-phase diffusion quantum Monte Carlo application based on trial functions from a Hartree-Fock-Roothaan method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boblest, S.; Meyer, D.; Wunner, G.

    2014-11-01

    We present a quantum Monte Carlo application for the computation of energy eigenvalues for atoms and ions in strong magnetic fields. The required guiding wave functions are obtained with the Hartree-Fock-Roothaan code described in the accompanying publication (Schimeczek and Wunner, 2014). Our method yields highly accurate results for the binding energies of symmetry subspace ground states and at the same time provides a means for quantifying the quality of the results obtained with the above-mentioned Hartree-Fock-Roothaan method. Catalogue identifier: AETV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 72 284 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 604 948 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: Cluster of 1-˜500 HP Compaq dc5750. Operating system: Linux. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes. Code includes MPI directives. RAM: 500 MB per node Classification: 2.1. External routines: Boost::Serialization, Boost::MPI, LAPACK BLAS Nature of problem: Quantitative modelings of features observed in the X-ray spectra of isolated neutron stars are hampered by the lack of sufficiently large and accurate databases for atoms and ions up to the last fusion product iron, at high magnetic field strengths. The predominant amount of line data in the literature has been calculated with Hartree-Fock methods, which are intrinsically restricted in precision. Our code is intended to provide a powerful tool for calculating very accurate energy values from, and thereby improving the quality of, existing Hartree-Fock results. Solution method: The Fixed-phase quantum Monte Carlo method is used in combination with guiding functions obtained in Hartree

  20. Desert National Wildlife Range Wilderness study summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a summary of a wilderness study done of the Desert National Wildlife Range pursuant to the Wilderness Act of 1964. It provides information as to the...

  1. Proposed Desert Pupfish Preserve : Supplemental LARC Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains supplements to a previous report on the desert pupfish preserve proposal. The attachments are titled: “Vertebrate Animals and Vascular...

  2. Calcretes in the Thar desert: Genesis, chronology and palaeoenvironment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R P Dhir; S K Tandon; B K Sareen; R Ramesh; T K G Rao; A J Kailath; N Sharma

    2004-09-01

    The calcretes in the Thar desert occur in a variety of settings, including the piedmonts, sheet-wash aggraded plains; and this study adds calcretes in regolith and colluvio-alluvial plains to the group of settings in which calcretes occur in the region. Field logs, morphological details and analytical data such as petrographic, cathodoluminescence and geochemical characteristics are described along with a discussion on their implications. Sand dunes and sandy plains dating to > 20 ka have weakly developed calcretes. The better-developed calcrete horizons occur in pied- monts, interdunes or in areas that have sufficient groundwater. Deep sections in the region show phases of calcrete development in aeolian sand aggradation at ∼150, ∼100, ∼60 and 27-14 ka. The extensive sheetwash plains have mature calcretes and date to mid-Pleistocene. Our studies indicate that these calcretes represent a hybrid process, where carbonate enrichment of the originally calcareous host occurred due to periodically raised groundwaters, and its differentiation into nodules occurred under subaerial environment i.e., after recession of groundwater. Deep sections also show a stack of discrete calcretes that developed in individual aggradation episodes with hiatuses as indicated by ESR dating results. Nodules display a multiplicity of carbonate precipitation events and internal reorganization of calcitic groundmass. The process is accompanied by degradation and transformation of unstable minerals, particularly clays and with a neosynthesis of palygorskite. The ancient calcretes are dated from the beginning of the Quaternary to ∼600 ka and show more evolved morphologies marked by brecciation, dissolution, laminar growth on brecciated surfaces, pisolites and several generations of re-cementation. Mica/chlorite schists and such other rocks are particularly vulnerable to replacement by carbonate. In an extreme case, replacement of quart-zose sandstone was observed also. The presence of

  3. Monte Carlo Option Princing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Maya

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El método Monte Carlo se aplica a varios casos de valoración de opciones financieras. El método genera una buena aproximación al comparar su precisión con la de otros métodos numéricos. La estimación que produce la versión Cruda de Monte Carlo puede ser aún más exacta si se recurre a metodologías de reducción de la varianza entre las cuales se sugieren la variable antitética y de la variable de control. Sin embargo, dichas metodologías requieren un esfuerzo computacional mayor por lo cual las mismas deben ser evaluadas en términos no sólo de su precisión sino también de su eficiencia.

  4. Monte Carlo and nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Dauchet, Jérémi; Blanco, Stéphane; Caliot, Cyril; Charon, Julien; Coustet, Christophe; Hafi, Mouna El; Eymet, Vincent; Farges, Olivier; Forest, Vincent; Fournier, Richard; Galtier, Mathieu; Gautrais, Jacques; Khuong, Anaïs; Pelissier, Lionel; Piaud, Benjamin; Roger, Maxime; Terrée, Guillaume; Weitz, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method is widely used to numerically predict systems behaviour. However, its powerful incremental design assumes a strong premise which has severely limited application so far: the estimation process must combine linearly over dimensions. Here we show that this premise can be alleviated by projecting nonlinearities on a polynomial basis and increasing the configuration-space dimension. Considering phytoplankton growth in light-limited environments, radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres, electromagnetic scattering by particles and concentrated-solar-power-plant productions, we prove the real world usability of this advance on four test-cases that were so far regarded as impracticable by Monte Carlo approaches. We also illustrate an outstanding feature of our method when applied to sharp problems with interacting particles: handling rare events is now straightforward. Overall, our extension preserves the features that made the method popular: addressing nonlinearities does not compromise o...

  5. Fundamentals of Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollaber, Allan Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-16

    This is a powerpoint presentation which serves as lecture material for the Parallel Computing summer school. It goes over the fundamentals of the Monte Carlo calculation method. The material is presented according to the following outline: Introduction (background, a simple example: estimating π), Why does this even work? (The Law of Large Numbers, The Central Limit Theorem), How to sample (inverse transform sampling, rejection), and An example from particle transport.

  6. [The relationship between teenage pregnancy and school desertion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Marta; Ferrada, Cristina; Pérez, Ruth; Cid, Luis; Casanueva, Víctor; García, Apolinaria

    2004-01-01

    In Chile, the prevalence of teenage pregnancy is 17%. To assess relationship between adolescent pregnancy and school desertion. At the Hospital Guillermo Grant Benavente's Departament of Obstetrics and Gynecology, in Concepción, Chile, 2001 a comparative, cross sectional and correlational study was conducted. The study group were pregnant adolescents who deserted from school system, divided in two subgroups: 86 adolescents who deserted before pregnancy and 130 who deserted during pregnancy. Twenty percent of teenagers that deserted from school before pregnancy belonged to a sublevel of poverty, compared with 5% of those who deserted during pregnancy. Flunk was frequent in both but higher in girls that deserted before pregnancy (46.5 and 36.9% respectively, (prelationship between teenage pregnancy and school desertion. Adolescents who deserted from school before pregnancy are more vulnerable.

  7. Confidence and efficiency scaling in Variational Quantum Monte Carlo calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Delyon, François; Holzmann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Based on the central limit theorem, we discuss the problem of evaluation of the statistical error of Monte Carlo calculations using a time discretized diffusion process. We present a robust and practical method to determine the effective variance of general observables and show how to verify the equilibrium hypothesis by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We then derive scaling laws of the efficiency illustrated by Variational Monte Carlo calculations on the two dimensional electron gas.

  8. Confidence and efficiency scaling in variational quantum Monte Carlo calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delyon, F.; Bernu, B.; Holzmann, Markus

    2017-02-01

    Based on the central limit theorem, we discuss the problem of evaluation of the statistical error of Monte Carlo calculations using a time-discretized diffusion process. We present a robust and practical method to determine the effective variance of general observables and show how to verify the equilibrium hypothesis by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We then derive scaling laws of the efficiency illustrated by variational Monte Carlo calculations on the two-dimensional electron gas.

  9. Desert dust hazards: A global review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, N. J.

    2017-02-01

    Dust storms originate in many of the world's drylands and frequently present hazards to human society, both within the drylands themselves but also outside drylands due to long-range transport of aeolian sediments. Major sources of desert dust include the Sahara, the Middle East, central and eastern Asia, and parts of Australia, but dust-raising occurs all across the global drylands and, on occasion, beyond. Dust storms occur throughout the year and they vary in frequency and intensity over a number of timescales. Long-range transport of desert dust typically takes place along seasonal transport paths. Desert dust hazards are here reviewed according to the three phases of the wind erosion system: where dust is entrained, during the transport phase, and on deposition. This paper presents a synthesis of these hazards. It draws on empirical examples in physical geography, medical geology and geomorphology to discuss case studies from all over the world and in various fields. These include accelerated soil erosion in agricultural zones - where dust storms represent a severe form of accelerated soil erosion - the health effects of air pollution caused by desert aerosols via their physical, chemical and biological properties, transport accidents caused by poor visibility during desert dust events, and impacts on electricity generation and distribution. Given the importance of desert dust as a hazard to human societies, it is surprising to note that there have been relatively few attempts to assess their impact in economic terms. Existing studies in this regard are also reviewed, but the wide range of impacts discussed in this paper indicates that desert dust storms deserve more attention in this respect.

  10. Monts Jura Jazz Festival

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The 5th edition of the "Monts Jura Jazz Festival" will take place at the Esplanade du Lac in Divonne-les-Bains, France on September 21 and 22. This festival organized by the CERN Jazz Club and supported by the CERN Staff Association is becoming a major musical event in the Geneva region. International Jazz artists like Didier Lockwood and David Reinhardt are part of this year outstanding program. Full program and e-tickets are available on the festival website. Don't miss this great festival!

  11. Monts Jura Jazz Festival

    CERN Multimedia

    Jazz Club

    2012-01-01

    The 5th edition of the "Monts Jura Jazz Festival" that will take place on September 21st and 22nd 2012 at the Esplanade du Lac in Divonne-les-Bains. This festival is organized by the "CERN Jazz Club" with the support of the "CERN Staff Association". This festival is a major musical event in the French/Swiss area and proposes a world class program with jazz artists such as D.Lockwood and D.Reinhardt. More information on http://www.jurajazz.com.

  12. LMC: Logarithmantic Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, Adam B.

    2017-06-01

    LMC is a Markov Chain Monte Carlo engine in Python that implements adaptive Metropolis-Hastings and slice sampling, as well as the affine-invariant method of Goodman & Weare, in a flexible framework. It can be used for simple problems, but the main use case is problems where expensive likelihood evaluations are provided by less flexible third-party software, which benefit from parallelization across many nodes at the sampling level. The parallel/adaptive methods use communication through MPI, or alternatively by writing/reading files, and mostly follow the approaches pioneered by CosmoMC (ascl:1106.025).

  13. Desert Amplification in a Warming Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liming

    2016-08-01

    Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950–2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest warming consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a warming climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global warming associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface warming rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor.

  14. Properties of Reactive Oxygen Species by Quantum Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Zen, Andrea; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of Chemistry, Biology and Atmospheric Science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab-initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal ...

  15. Desert basins of the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Konieczki, Alice D.; Rees, Julie A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation’s most important natural resources. It provides drinking water to urban and rural communities, supports irrigation and industry, sustains the flow of streams and rivers, and maintains riparian and wetland ecosystems. In many areas of the Nation, the future sustainability of ground-water resources is at risk from overuse and contamination. Because ground-water systems typically respond slowly to human actions, a long-term perspective is needed to manage this valuable resource. This publication is one in a series of fact sheets that describe ground-water-resource issues across the United States, as well as some of the activities of the U.S. Geological Survey that provide information to help others develop, manage, and protect ground-water resources in a sustainable manner. Ground-water resources in the Southwest are among the most overused in the United States. Natural recharge to aquifers is low and pumping in many areas has resulted in lowering of water tables. The consequences of large-scale removal of water from storage are becoming increasingly evident. These consequences include land subsidence; loss of springs, streams, wetlands and associated habitat; and degradation of water quality. Water managers are now seeking better ways of managing ground-water resources while looking for supplemental sources of water. This fact sheet reviews basic information on ground water in the desert basins of the Southwest. Also described are some activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that are providing scientific information for sustainable management of ground-water resources in the Southwest. Ground-water sustainability is defined as developing and using ground water in a way that can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic, or social consequences.

  16. Ecological stability of Tarim Desert Highway shelterbelt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhibin; XU Xinwen; LEI Jiaqiang; LI Shengyu

    2006-01-01

    The Tarim Desert Highway shelterbelt,located in hinterland of Taklimakan Desert, is irrigated by underground saline water, with three to thirty gram per litter mineral degrees. The sustainability and stability are affected by multifarious stress.The structural and functional characteristics of shelterbelt are studied to probe into correlation between environment and shelterbelt. On basis, decision analysis is applied to study ecological stability of the Tarim Desert Highway shelterbelt, to screen out limited factors, to establish general index system, and to evaluate the stability of the shelterbelt nowadays.Finally, the concept of ecological stability is utilized to manage the artificial ecosystem. The results show that the artificial ecosystem is relatively flimsy, whose stability can be increased by adjusting stand structure and improving the nutrient cycle.

  17. Rural childhoods in Egypt's desert lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    . Many settlers move to the Mubarak villages in order to give their children a good start in life. The desert villages are associated with a type of ‘rural idyll’. The process of settling in the desert impacts upon the children’s possible pathways to adulthood and their identities and social...... relationships. Not only do the children grow up in a different physical context, they are also exposed to new norms, values and behaviour that influences their everyday life and shape their identity. Especially the change from living in large, extended families to living in nuclear families as well as women......’s new roles impact upon the children’s lives. The social contexts shaping the desert childhoods are in some ways more similar to contexts in ‘developed’ countries than in other parts of rural Egypt. The paper ends up by contrasting ideas of rural childhoods in Egypt with those found in ‘developed...

  18. Long-term accumulation of atmospheric dust in rocky deserts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, D.; Offer, Z.Y.

    2005-01-01

    The spatial pattern of long-term (hundreds to thousands of years) accumulation of dust in rocky deserts was investigated in the northern Negev Desert of Israel. The concentration of dust in the desert subsoil was measured at 41 locations in a 53 ha test area for which detailed information exists on

  19. The Punitive Paradox: Desert and the Compulsion to Punish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clear, Todd R.

    1996-01-01

    Explores the concept of a "just deserts" justice paradox in which carrying out a deserved penalty breaches the values that undergird the theory of just deserts. Examines whether it might ever be proper, from a desert perspective, to choose not to impose a deserved punishment. (KW)

  20. Monte Carlo 2000 Conference : Advanced Monte Carlo for Radiation Physics, Particle Transport Simulation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Baräo, Fernando; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Távora, Luis; Vaz, Pedro

    2001-01-01

    This book focusses on the state of the art of Monte Carlo methods in radiation physics and particle transport simulation and applications, the latter involving in particular, the use and development of electron--gamma, neutron--gamma and hadronic codes. Besides the basic theory and the methods employed, special attention is paid to algorithm development for modeling, and the analysis of experiments and measurements in a variety of fields ranging from particle to medical physics.

  1. Jojoba could stop the desert creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-25

    The Sahara desert is estimated to be expanding at a rate of 5km a year. The Sudanese government is experimenting with jojoba in six different regions as the bush has the potential to stop this ''desert creep''. The plant, a native to Mexico, is long known for its resistance to drought and for the versatile liquid wax that can be extracted from its seeds. It is estimated that one hectare of mature plants could produce 3000 kg of oil, currently selling at $50 per litre, and so earn valuable foreign currency.

  2. MCMini: Monte Carlo on GPGPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, Ryan C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-25

    MCMini is a proof of concept that demonstrates the possibility for Monte Carlo neutron transport using OpenCL with a focus on performance. This implementation, written in C, shows that tracing particles and calculating reactions on a 3D mesh can be done in a highly scalable fashion. These results demonstrate a potential path forward for MCNP or other Monte Carlo codes.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE VOVEL MONTE CARLO (VMC) DOSE CALCULATION ALGORITHM FOR RADIATION THERAPY WITH ELECTRON BEAMS%用于电子束辐射治疗的一种Monte Carlo剂量算法的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾革; Fippel,M; 等

    2001-01-01

    在放射治疗中, Monte Carlo 方法与其它传统方法相比能更加精确地计算剂量分布.最近,一种快速的Monte Carlo方法--Voxel Monte Carlo (VMC) 引起了广泛的注意.作者用实验验证了VMC在水中的剂量计算精度.实验在德国Philips SL25 医用加速器上进行,研究了3种能量的电子束(6MeV, 10 MeV和18 MeV)在不同射野大小和不同入射方向情况下的剂量问题.水模采用德国PTW-Freiburg公司生产的水模系统,剂量探测器也采用其公司生产的"点式”电离室探测器,其灵敏体积为0.015cm3.VCM计算中的加速器模型采用"点源”入射电子束模型.结果表明,VCM理论计算和实验数据在绝大多数情况下符合较好,其偏差小于2%,在个别情况下,如极小射野(2cm×2cm)时的表面剂量分布和辐射场外的表面剂量分布,其偏差可达到4%,作者认为是所采用的入射电子束模型精度不够造成的.但是,此类偏差对临床应用的影响可忽略不计.

  4. Monte Carlo methods for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadiku, Matthew NO

    2009-01-01

    Until now, novices had to painstakingly dig through the literature to discover how to use Monte Carlo techniques for solving electromagnetic problems. Written by one of the foremost researchers in the field, Monte Carlo Methods for Electromagnetics provides a solid understanding of these methods and their applications in electromagnetic computation. Including much of his own work, the author brings together essential information from several different publications.Using a simple, clear writing style, the author begins with a historical background and review of electromagnetic theory. After addressing probability and statistics, he introduces the finite difference method as well as the fixed and floating random walk Monte Carlo methods. The text then applies the Exodus method to Laplace's and Poisson's equations and presents Monte Carlo techniques for handing Neumann problems. It also deals with whole field computation using the Markov chain, applies Monte Carlo methods to time-varying diffusion problems, and ...

  5. New Insights in Preservation of Meteorites in Hot Deserts: The Oldest Hot Desert Meteorite Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, A.; Rochette, P.; Bourlès, D.; Gattacceca, J.; Merchel, S.; Jull, A. J. T.; Valenzuela, M.

    2016-08-01

    Terrestrial ages of a subset of a chilean meteorite collection have been determined with cosmogenic nuclides. We show here that provided the environnement is favorable enough, hot desert meteorites can survive over a million year.

  6. Gas discharges modeling by Monte Carlo technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Marija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic assumption of the Townsend theory - that ions produce secondary electrons - is valid only in a very narrow range of the reduced electric field E/N. In accordance with the revised Townsend theory that was suggested by Phelps and Petrović, secondary electrons are produced in collisions of ions, fast neutrals, metastable atoms or photons with the cathode, or in gas phase ionizations by fast neutrals. In this paper we tried to build up a Monte Carlo code that can be used to calculate secondary electron yields for different types of particles. The obtained results are in good agreement with the analytical results of Phelps and. Petrović [Plasma Sourc. Sci. Technol. 8 (1999 R1].

  7. Metropolis Methods for Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Ceperley, D. M.

    2003-01-01

    Since its first description fifty years ago, the Metropolis Monte Carlo method has been used in a variety of different ways for the simulation of continuum quantum many-body systems. This paper will consider some of the generalizations of the Metropolis algorithm employed in quantum Monte Carlo: Variational Monte Carlo, dynamical methods for projector monte carlo ({\\it i.e.} diffusion Monte Carlo with rejection), multilevel sampling in path integral Monte Carlo, the sampling of permutations, ...

  8. Archimedes, the Free Monte Carlo simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Sellier, Jean Michel D

    2012-01-01

    Archimedes is the GNU package for Monte Carlo simulations of electron transport in semiconductor devices. The first release appeared in 2004 and since then it has been improved with many new features like quantum corrections, magnetic fields, new materials, GUI, etc. This document represents the first attempt to have a complete manual. Many of the Physics models implemented are described and a detailed description is presented to make the user able to write his/her own input deck. Please, feel free to contact the author if you want to contribute to the project.

  9. Microflora in soils of desert regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, R. E.

    1970-01-01

    Desert soil samples, collected using aseptic techniques, are low in organic matter and cation exchange capacity. Aerobic and microaerophilic bacteria are most abundant, next are algae and molds. Chemical and physical properties are determined by standard procedures, including the Kjeldahl method and the use of Munsell soil color charts.

  10. From desert to deluge in the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenzie, Judith A.

    2002-01-01

    Some time between five and six million years ago, the Mediterranean Sea became isolated from the Atlantic Ocean. In consequence some areas dried out -- hence the title of Kenneth Hsü’s book The Mediterranean was a Desert 1 -- and large salty lakes recharged by rivers flowing through deep canyons rep

  11. Extrafloral nectar fuels ant life in deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-Rickert, Adriana; Diez, Patricia; Marazzi, Brigitte

    2014-11-07

    Interactions mediated by extrafloral nectary (EFN)-bearing plants that reward ants with a sweet liquid secretion are well documented in temperate and tropical habitats. However, their distribution and abundance in deserts are poorly known. In this study, we test the predictions that biotic interactions between EFN plants and ants are abundant and common also in arid communities and that EFNs are only functional when new vegetative and reproductive structures are developing. In a seasonal desert of northwestern Argentina, we surveyed the richness and phenology of EFN plants and their associated ants and examined the patterns in ant-plant interaction networks. We found that 25 ant species and 11 EFN-bearing plant species were linked together through 96 pairs of associations. Plants bearing EFNs were abundant, representing ca. 19 % of the species encountered in transects and 24 % of the plant cover. Most ant species sampled (ca. 77 %) fed on EF nectar. Interactions showed a marked seasonal pattern: EFN secretion was directly related to plant phenology and correlated with the time of highest ant ground activity. Our results reveal that EFN-mediated interactions are ecologically relevant components of deserts, and that EFN-bearing plants are crucial for the survival of desert ant communities. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  12. Reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, John L.; Sinha, Tushar; Bowling, Laura C.; Schoups, Gerrit H.W.; Wallender, Wesley W.; Campana, Michael E.; Cherkauer, Keith A.; Fuller, Pam L.; Graf, William L.; Hopmans, Jan W.; Kominoski, John S.; Taylor, Carissa; Trimble, Stanley W.; Webb, Robert H.; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing human appropriation of freshwater resources presents a tangible limit to the sustainability of cities, agriculture, and ecosystems in the western United States. Marc Reisner tackles this theme in his 1986 classic Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water. Reisner's analysis paints a portrait of region-wide hydrologic dysfunction in the western United States, suggesting that the storage capacity of reservoirs will be impaired by sediment infilling, croplands will be rendered infertile by salt, and water scarcity will pit growing desert cities against agribusiness in the face of dwindling water resources. Here we evaluate these claims using the best available data and scientific tools. Our analysis provides strong scientific support for many of Reisner's claims, except the notion that reservoir storage is imminently threatened by sediment. More broadly, we estimate that the equivalent of nearly 76% of streamflow in the Cadillac Desert region is currently appropriated by humans, and this figure could rise to nearly 86% under a doubling of the region's population. Thus, Reisner's incisive journalism led him to the same conclusions as those rendered by copious data, modern scientific tools, and the application of a more genuine scientific method. We close with a prospectus for reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert, including a suite of recommendations for reducing region-wide human appropriation of streamflow to a target level of 60%.

  13. Reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, John L.; Sinha, Tushar; Bowling, Laura C.; Schoups, Gerrit H. W.; Wallender, Wesley W.; Campana, Michael E.; Cherkauer, Keith A.; Fuller, Pam L.; Graf, William L.; Hopmans, Jan W.; Kominoski, John S.; Taylor, Carissa; Trimble, Stanley W.; Webb, Robert H.; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing human appropriation of freshwater resources presents a tangible limit to the sustainability of cities, agriculture, and ecosystems in the western United States. Marc Reisner tackles this theme in his 1986 classic Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water. Reisner's analysis paints a portrait of region-wide hydrologic dysfunction in the western United States, suggesting that the storage capacity of reservoirs will be impaired by sediment infilling, croplands will be rendered infertile by salt, and water scarcity will pit growing desert cities against agribusiness in the face of dwindling water resources. Here we evaluate these claims using the best available data and scientific tools. Our analysis provides strong scientific support for many of Reisner's claims, except the notion that reservoir storage is imminently threatened by sediment. More broadly, we estimate that the equivalent of nearly 76% of streamflow in the Cadillac Desert region is currently appropriated by humans, and this figure could rise to nearly 86% under a doubling of the region's population. Thus, Reisner's incisive journalism led him to the same conclusions as those rendered by copious data, modern scientific tools, and the application of a more genuine scientific method. We close with a prospectus for reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert, including a suite of recommendations for reducing region-wide human appropriation of streamflow to a target level of 60%. PMID:21149727

  14. Spectral reflectance in the Tunisian desert.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epema, G.F.

    1992-01-01

    .Satellites provide the possibility to give a synoptical view of the earth surface at regular time intervals. Satellites operating in the optical wavelengths have however as disadvantage that monitoring of the surface characteristics becomes impossible as soon as clouds are present. Deserts and dese

  15. Liquid Water Restricts Habitability in Extreme Deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S; Brown, Sarah; Landenmark, Hanna; Samuels, Toby; Siddall, Rebecca; Wadsworth, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Liquid water is a requirement for biochemistry, yet under some circumstances it is deleterious to life. Here, we show that liquid water reduces the upper temperature survival limit for two extremophilic photosynthetic microorganisms (Gloeocapsa and Chroococcidiopsis spp.) by greater than 40°C under hydrated conditions compared to desiccated conditions. Under hydrated conditions, thermal stress causes protein inactivation as shown by the fluorescein diacetate assay. The presence of water was also found to enhance the deleterious effects of freeze-thaw in Chroococcidiopsis sp. In the presence of water, short-wavelength UV radiation more effectively kills Gloeocapsa sp. colonies, which we hypothesize is caused by factors including the greater penetration of UV radiation into hydrated colonies compared to desiccated colonies. The data predict that deserts where maximum thermal stress or irradiation occurs in conjunction with the presence of liquid water may be less habitable to some organisms than more extreme arid deserts where organisms can dehydrate prior to being exposed to these extremes, thus minimizing thermal and radiation damage. Life in extreme deserts is poised between the deleterious effects of the presence and the lack of liquid water. Key Words: Deserts-Extremophiles-Stress-High temperatures-UV radiation-Desiccation. Astrobiology 17, 309-318.

  16. Preventing desert locust plagues: optimizing management interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.; Cressman, K.; Magor, J.I.

    2007-01-01

    Solitarious desert locusts, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), inhabit the central, arid, and semi-arid parts of the species¿ invasion area in Africa, the Middle East, and South-West Asia. Their annual migration circuit takes them downwind to breed sequentially where winter, sp

  17. Habitat selection by juvenile Mojave Desert tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brian D; Halstead, Brian J.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Peaden, J. Mark; Buhlmann, Kurt A.; Tuberville, Tracey D.; Nafus, Melia G.

    2016-01-01

    Growing pressure to develop public lands for renewable energy production places several protected species at increased risk of habitat loss. One example is the Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), a species often at the center of conflicts over public land development. For this species and others on public lands, a better understanding of their habitat needs can help minimize negative impacts and facilitate protection or restoration of habitat. We used radio-telemetry to track 46 neonate and juvenile tortoises in the Eastern Mojave Desert, California, USA, to quantify habitat at tortoise locations and paired random points to assess habitat selection. Tortoise locations near burrows were more likely to be under canopy cover and had greater coverage of perennial plants (especially creosote [Larrea tridentata]), more coverage by washes, a greater number of small-mammal burrows, and fewer white bursage (Ambrosia dumosa) than random points. Active tortoise locations away from burrows were closer to washes and perennial plants than were random points. Our results can help planners locate juvenile tortoises and avoid impacts to habitat critical for this life stage. Additionally, our results provide targets for habitat protection and restoration and suggest that diverse and abundant small-mammal populations and the availability of creosote bush are vital for juvenile desert tortoises in the Eastern Mojave Desert.

  18. Introduction to the variational and diffusion Monte Carlo methods

    CERN Document Server

    Toulouse, Julien; Umrigar, C J

    2015-01-01

    We provide a pedagogical introduction to the two main variants of real-space quantum Monte Carlo methods for electronic-structure calculations: variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC). Assuming no prior knowledge on the subject, we review in depth the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm used in VMC for sampling the square of an approximate wave function, discussing details important for applications to electronic systems. We also review in detail the more sophisticated DMC algorithm within the fixed-node approximation, introduced to avoid the infamous Fermionic sign problem, which allows one to sample a more accurate approximation to the ground-state wave function. Throughout this review, we discuss the statistical methods used for evaluating expectation values and statistical uncertainties. In particular, we show how to estimate nonlinear functions of expectation values and their statistical uncertainties.

  19. Wood decay in desert riverine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas; Stricker, Craig A.; Nelson, S. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Floodplain forests and the woody debris they produce are major components of riverine ecosystems in many arid and semiarid regions (drylands). We monitored breakdown and nitrogen dynamics in wood and bark from a native riparian tree, Fremont cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. wislizeni), along four North American desert streams. We placed locally-obtained, fresh, coarse material [disks or cylinders (∼500–2000 cm3)] along two cold-desert and two warm-desert rivers in the Colorado River Basin. Material was placed in both floodplain and aquatic environments, and left in situ for up to 12 years. We tested the hypothesis that breakdown would be fastest in relatively warm and moist aerobic environments by comparing the time required for 50% loss of initial ash-free dry matter (T50) calculated using exponential decay models incorporating a lag term. In cold-desert sites (Green and Yampa rivers, Colorado), disks of wood with bark attached exposed for up to 12 years in locations rarely inundated lost mass at a slower rate (T50 = 34 yr) than in locations inundated during most spring floods (T50 = 12 yr). At the latter locations, bark alone loss mass at a rate initially similar to whole disks (T50 = 13 yr), but which subsequently slowed. In warm-desert sites monitored for 3 years, cylinders of wood with bark removed lost mass very slowly (T50 = 60 yr) at a location never inundated (Bill Williams River, Arizona), whereas decay rate varied among aquatic locations (T50 = 20 yr in Bill Williams River; T50 = 3 yr in Las Vegas Wash, an effluent-dominated stream warmed by treated wastewater inflows). Invertebrates had a minor role in wood breakdown except at in-stream locations in Las Vegas Wash. The presence and form of change in nitrogen content during exposure varied among riverine environments. Our results suggest woody debris breakdown in desert riverine ecosystems is primarily a microbial process with rates determined by landscape position

  20. Desert-steppe migration on the Loess Plateau at about 450 kaBP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOJingbo

    2005-01-01

    According to the field investigation, observation by an electronic microscope and x-ray identification and chemical analysis, desert-steppe migration in the Loess Plateau at about 450 kaBP was studied. The data show that gypsum illuvial horizon indicating the desert-steppe environment developed in the early stage of the formation of the fifth layer loess in Shaoling tableland in Chang'an and Bailu tableland in Xran of Shaanxi are situated in the southern Loess Plateau. This indicates that remarkable drying occurred, a large-scope migration of desert steppe took place toward south and the climate zone migrated 5 degrees in latitude to south which is the largest migration range indicated by geochemical indexes. The desert-steppe and more wild environment distributed widely on the Loess Plateau at that time. The development of gypsum also indicates that the climate changed at 450 kaBP from monsoon climate to nonmonsoon climate in the Loess Plateau, and the region was not affected by summer monsoon and was in the cold and dry environment of nonmonsoon climate. Annual mean nrecinitation was about 200 rnm. 400 mm less at that time than at oresent.

  1. Lectures on Monte Carlo methods

    CERN Document Server

    Madras, Neal

    2001-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods form an experimental branch of mathematics that employs simulations driven by random number generators. These methods are often used when others fail, since they are much less sensitive to the "curse of dimensionality", which plagues deterministic methods in problems with a large number of variables. Monte Carlo methods are used in many fields: mathematics, statistics, physics, chemistry, finance, computer science, and biology, for instance. This book is an introduction to Monte Carlo methods for anyone who would like to use these methods to study various kinds of mathemati

  2. Monte Carlo Simulation Optimizing Design of Grid Ionization Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Yu-lai; WANG; Qiang; YANG; Lu

    2013-01-01

    The grid ionization chamber detector is often used for measuring charged particles.Based on Monte Carlo simulation method,the energy loss distribution and electron ion pairs of alpha particle with different energy have been calculated to determine suitable filling gas in the ionization chamber filled with

  3. Monte Carlo method for magnetic impurities in metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, J. E.; Fye, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses a Monte Carlo algorithm to study properties of dilute magnetic alloys; the method can treat a small number of magnetic impurities interacting wiith the conduction electrons in a metal. Results for the susceptibility of a single Anderson impurity in the symmetric case show the expected universal behavior at low temperatures. Some results for two Anderson impurities are also discussed.

  4. A Variational Monte Carlo Approach to Atomic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    The practicality and usefulness of variational Monte Carlo calculations to atomic structure are demonstrated. It is found to succeed in quantitatively illustrating electron shielding, effective nuclear charge, l-dependence of the orbital energies, and singlet-tripetenergy splitting and ionization energy trends in atomic structure theory.

  5. Monte Carlo systems used for treatment planning and dose verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brualla, Lorenzo [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, NCTeam, Strahlenklinik, Essen (Germany); Rodriguez, Miguel [Centro Medico Paitilla, Balboa (Panama); Lallena, Antonio M. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Granada (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    General-purpose radiation transport Monte Carlo codes have been used for estimation of the absorbed dose distribution in external photon and electron beam radiotherapy patients since several decades. Results obtained with these codes are usually more accurate than those provided by treatment planning systems based on non-stochastic methods. Traditionally, absorbed dose computations based on general-purpose Monte Carlo codes have been used only for research, owing to the difficulties associated with setting up a simulation and the long computation time required. To take advantage of radiation transport Monte Carlo codes applied to routine clinical practice, researchers and private companies have developed treatment planning and dose verification systems that are partly or fully based on fast Monte Carlo algorithms. This review presents a comprehensive list of the currently existing Monte Carlo systems that can be used to calculate or verify an external photon and electron beam radiotherapy treatment plan. Particular attention is given to those systems that are distributed, either freely or commercially, and that do not require programming tasks from the end user. These systems are compared in terms of features and the simulation time required to compute a set of benchmark calculations. (orig.) [German] Seit mehreren Jahrzehnten werden allgemein anwendbare Monte-Carlo-Codes zur Simulation des Strahlungstransports benutzt, um die Verteilung der absorbierten Dosis in der perkutanen Strahlentherapie mit Photonen und Elektronen zu evaluieren. Die damit erzielten Ergebnisse sind meist akkurater als solche, die mit nichtstochastischen Methoden herkoemmlicher Bestrahlungsplanungssysteme erzielt werden koennen. Wegen des damit verbundenen Arbeitsaufwands und der langen Dauer der Berechnungen wurden Monte-Carlo-Simulationen von Dosisverteilungen in der konventionellen Strahlentherapie in der Vergangenheit im Wesentlichen in der Forschung eingesetzt. Im Bemuehen, Monte

  6. Monte Carlo integration on GPU

    OpenAIRE

    Kanzaki, J.

    2010-01-01

    We use a graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast computations of Monte Carlo integrations. Two widely used Monte Carlo integration programs, VEGAS and BASES, are parallelized on GPU. By using $W^{+}$ plus multi-gluon production processes at LHC, we test integrated cross sections and execution time for programs in FORTRAN and C on CPU and those on GPU. Integrated results agree with each other within statistical errors. Execution time of programs on GPU run about 50 times faster than those in C...

  7. Snow, the Great River, and the Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.

    2005-12-01

    While many major rivers around the world originate from alpine snowpacks in mountain regions, some experience the extreme contrast of flowing through harsh desert environments downriver. One such stream is the Rio Grande which rises in the San Juan and the Sangre de Christo mountains of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico. Eventually, the snow fed Rio Grande flows through North America's largest desert, the Chihuahuan Desert in New Mexico, Texas, and Mexico, and simultaneously becomes part of the border between the United States and Mexico. As is often true, urban areas develop along the river corridors rather than in more inaccessible mountain regions. This demographic preference tends to isolate the vast majority of population in the Rio Grande, who are dependent on water for their livelihoods, from the mountain snowpacks where the flow is generated. Ironically then, snow is seldom viewed as the source of the much needed water flowing through the desert by the majority of the basin's population. In arid regions of the western U.S., water demand far exceeds the water supply, and water use is apportioned under the doctrine of prior appropriation with the oldest right getting the first use of water. The increasing population in urban areas does not usually have a right to use the water flowing through the desert unless water rights have been purchased by municipalities from the major category of water user in these basins, namely, irrigated agriculture. In the entire Rio Grande basin, irrigation makes up 80% of the consumptive use of water. Additionally, basin compacts and international treaties apportion water between states and countries. Because these formal agreements were based on above average runoff years, there is little flexibility in changing the use of water, particularly in dry to normal runoff years. Most of the older water rights in the Rio Grande, especially the upper basin, are supplied by snowmelt. This leaves the lower basin to depend upon

  8. TRIPOLI-4: Monte Carlo transport code functionalities and applications; TRIPOLI-4: code de transport Monte Carlo fonctionnalites et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Both, J.P.; Lee, Y.K.; Mazzolo, A.; Peneliau, Y.; Petit, O.; Roesslinger, B. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), Service d' Etudes de Reacteurs et de Modelisation Avancee, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2003-07-01

    Tripoli-4 is a three dimensional calculations code using the Monte Carlo method to simulate the transport of neutrons, photons, electrons and positrons. This code is used in four application fields: the protection studies, the criticality studies, the core studies and the instrumentation studies. Geometry, cross sections, description of sources, principle. (N.C.)

  9. Quantum Monte Carlo Endstation for Petascale Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubos Mitas

    2011-01-26

    NCSU research group has been focused on accomplising the key goals of this initiative: establishing new generation of quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) computational tools as a part of Endstation petaflop initiative for use at the DOE ORNL computational facilities and for use by computational electronic structure community at large; carrying out high accuracy quantum Monte Carlo demonstration projects in application of these tools to the forefront electronic structure problems in molecular and solid systems; expanding the impact of QMC methods and approaches; explaining and enhancing the impact of these advanced computational approaches. In particular, we have developed quantum Monte Carlo code (QWalk, www.qwalk.org) which was significantly expanded and optimized using funds from this support and at present became an actively used tool in the petascale regime by ORNL researchers and beyond. These developments have been built upon efforts undertaken by the PI's group and collaborators over the period of the last decade. The code was optimized and tested extensively on a number of parallel architectures including petaflop ORNL Jaguar machine. We have developed and redesigned a number of code modules such as evaluation of wave functions and orbitals, calculations of pfaffians and introduction of backflow coordinates together with overall organization of the code and random walker distribution over multicore architectures. We have addressed several bottlenecks such as load balancing and verified efficiency and accuracy of the calculations with the other groups of the Endstation team. The QWalk package contains about 50,000 lines of high quality object-oriented C++ and includes also interfaces to data files from other conventional electronic structure codes such as Gamess, Gaussian, Crystal and others. This grant supported PI for one month during summers, a full-time postdoc and partially three graduate students over the period of the grant duration, it has resulted in 13

  10. High performance robotic traverse of desert terrain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, William (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA)

    2004-09-01

    This report presents tentative innovations to enable unmanned vehicle guidance for a class of off-road traverse at sustained speeds greater than 30 miles per hour. Analyses and field trials suggest that even greater navigation speeds might be achieved. The performance calls for innovation in mapping, perception, planning and inertial-referenced stabilization of components, hosted aboard capable locomotion. The innovations are motivated by the challenge of autonomous ground vehicle traverse of 250 miles of desert terrain in less than 10 hours, averaging 30 miles per hour. GPS coverage is assumed to be available with localized blackouts. Terrain and vegetation are assumed to be akin to that of the Mojave Desert. This terrain is interlaced with networks of unimproved roads and trails, which are a key to achieving the high performance mapping, planning and navigation that is presented here.

  11. Applications of quantum Monte Carlo methods in condensed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kolorenc, Jindrich

    2010-01-01

    The quantum Monte Carlo methods represent a powerful and broadly applicable computational tool for finding very accurate solutions of the stationary Schroedinger equation for atoms, molecules, solids and a variety of model systems. The algorithms are intrinsically parallel and are able to take full advantage of the present-day high-performance computing systems. This review article concentrates on the fixed-node/fixed-phase diffusion Monte Carlo method with emphasis on its applications to electronic structure of solids and other extended many-particle systems.

  12. PEPSI — a Monte Carlo generator for polarized leptoproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankiewicz, L.; Schäfer, A.; Veltri, M.

    1992-09-01

    We describe PEPSI (Polarized Electron Proton Scattering Interactions), a Monte Carlo program for polarized deep inelastic leptoproduction mediated by electromagnetic interaction, and explain how to use it. The code is a modification of the LEPTO 4.3 Lund Monte Carlo for unpolarized scattering. The hard virtual gamma-parton scattering is generated according to the polarization-dependent QCD cross-section of the first order in α S. PEPSI requires the standard polarization-independent JETSET routines to simulate the fragmentation into final hadrons.

  13. Himalayan Mountain Range, Taklimakan Desert, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Looking north from Kashmir India (27.5N, 76.5E) into the Tibetan Plateau and beyond, the Taklimakan Desert of far western China appears to be covered with an extensive layer of haze that blankets the entire region. Reaching even into the western Siberian Plains of the CIS. This rugged land is one of the world's richest treasure troves of mineral wealth but the accessability into this remote area is so difficult that it is not yet economically feasible.

  14. Expansion and contraction of Chinese deserts during the Quaternary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东生; 孙继敏

    2002-01-01

    Episodic dune formations during the Quaternary are found in many deserts of China.The causes of desert expansions on different time scales are not the same. Desert extension atabout 1.1 and 0.9 Ma ago were the response to the active tectonic movements, whereas the de-sert evolutions on the ten-thousand years time scale were the response to the orbital scale climaticchanges. Spatial scale studies on desert evolution indicate that desert margins shifted greatly dur-ing the last glacial maximum (LGM) and the Holocene optimum, its changing from 125°E of theLGM to 105°E of the climatic optimum. Historical desertification in the semiarid China is not a re-sponse to climate drought but largely associated with the human impacts (mainly over-cultivation)since about 2300 years ago, which leads to the reworking of the underlying LGM sands.

  15. Wind modeling of Chihuahuan Desert dust outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Rivera, Nancy I.; Gill, Thomas E.; Gebhart, Kristi A.; Hand, Jennifer L.; Bleiweiss, Max P.; Fitzgerald, Rosa M.

    The Chihuahuan Desert region of North America is a significant source of mineral aerosols in the Western Hemisphere, and Chihuahuan Desert dust storms frequently impact the Paso del Norte (El Paso, USA/Ciudad Juarez, Mexico) metropolitan area. A statistical analysis of HYSPLIT back trajectory residence times evaluated airflow into El Paso on all days and on days with synoptic (non-convective) dust events in 2001-2005. The incremental probability—a measure of the areas most likely to have been traversed by air masses arriving at El Paso during dusty days—was only strongly positively associated with the region west-southwest of the city, a zone of known dust source areas. Focused case studies were made of major dust events on 15 April and 15 December 2003. Trajectories approached the surface and MM5 (NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model) wind speeds increased at locations consistent with dust sources observed in satellite imagery on those dates. Back trajectory and model analyses suggested that surface cyclones adjacent to the Chihuahuan Desert were associated with the extreme dust events, consistent with previous studies of dust storms in the Southern High Plains to the northeast. The recognition of these meteorological patterns serves as a forecast aid for prediction of dust events likely to impact the Paso del Norte.

  16. Adsorption of dyes on Sahara desert sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlikli, Canan; Bekiari, Vlasoula; Kus, Mahmut; Boduroglu, Numan; Oner, Ilker; Lianos, Panagiotis; Lyberatos, Gerasimos; Icli, Siddik

    2009-10-15

    Sahara desert sand (SaDeS) was employed as a mineral sorbent for retaining organic dyes from aqueous solutions. Natural sand has demonstrated a strong affinity for organic dyes but significantly lost its adsorption capacity when it was washed with water. Therefore, characterization of both natural and water washed sand was performed by XRD, BET, SEM and FTIR techniques. It was found that water-soluble kyanite, which is detected in natural sand, is the dominant factor affecting adsorbance of cationic dyes. The sand adsorbs over 75% of cationic dyes but less than 21% for anionic ones. Among the dyes studied, Methylene Blue (MB) demonstrated the strongest affinity for Sahara desert sand (Q(e)=11.98 mg/g, for initial dye solution concentration 3.5 x 10(-5)mol/L). The effects of initial dye concentration, the amount of the adsorbent, the temperature and the pH of the solution on adsorption capacity were tested by using Methylene Blue as model dye. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were applied. It was concluded that adsorption of Methylene Blue on Sahara desert sand followed pseudo-second order kinetics. Gibbs free energy, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and found -6411 J/mol, -30360 J/mol and -76.58 J/mol K, respectively. These values indicate that the adsorption is an exothermic process and has a spontaneous nature at low temperatures.

  17. The Palm Desert renewable [hydrogen] transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.

  18. CAMEL REARING IN CHOLISTAN DESERT OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. ALI, M. SHAFIQ CHAUDHRY1 AND U. FAROOQ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The camel is one of the typical and the best adopted animals of the desert, capable of enduring thirst and hunger for days and is the most patient of land animals. For desert nomads of Pakistani Cholistan, it is a beloved companion, a source of milk and meat, transport facility provider and a racing/dancing animal, thus, playing an important role in the socioeconomic uplift of the local community. Camels of Marrecha or Mahra breed are mainly used for riding and load carrying but may be trained for dancing or racing. Berella is another heavy and milch breed of camel famous for milk production and can produce upto 10-15 liters of milk per day. This breed is also suitable for draught purpose, though comparatively slow due to heavy body. The present paper also describes the traditional camel rearing system used by nomads of Cholistan desert. Some aspects of camel health, production, feeding, socio-economic values, marketing and some constraints and suggestions are also given so that the policy makers may consider them for the welfare of this animal.

  19. Sonoran Desert: Fragile Land of Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Produced and Directed by Wessells, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    'Sonoran Desert: Fragile Land of Extremes' shows how biologists with the U.S. Geological Survey work with other scientists in an effort to better understand native plants and animals such as desert tortoises, saguaro cacti, and Gila monsters. Much of the program was shot in and around Saguaro National Park near Tucson, Arizona. Genetic detective work, using DNA, focuses on understanding the lives of tortoises. Studies of saguaros over many decades clarify how these amazing plants reproduce and thrive in the desert. Threats from fire, diseases in tortoises, and a growing human population motivate the scientists. Their work to identify how these organisms live and survive is a crucial step for the sound management of biological resources on public lands. This 28-minute program, USGS Open-File Report 03-305, was shot entirely in high definition video and produced by the USGS Western Ecological Research Center and Southwest Biological Science Center; produced and directed by Stephen Wessells, Western Region Office of Communications.

  20. Improved hybrid Monte Carlo-fluid model for the electrical characteristics in an analytical radio-frequency glow discharge in argon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaerts, A.; Gijbels, R.; W. Goedheer,

    2001-01-01

    An improved hybrid Monte Carlo-fluid model for electrons, argon ions and fast argon atoms, is presented for the rf Grimm-type glow discharge. In this new approach, all electrons, including the large slow electron group in the bulk plasma, are treated with the Monte Carlo model. The calculation

  1. Aerosol direct radiative forcing in desert and semi-desert regions of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jinyuan; Gong, Chongshui; Wang, Shigong; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-05-01

    The optical properties of dust aerosols were measured using narrow-band data from a portable sun photometer at four desert and semi-desert stations in northwestern China from 2004 to 2007. Ground-based and satellite observations indicated absorbing dust aerosol loading over the region surrounded by eight large-scale deserts. Radiation forcing was identified by using the Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) model. The ranges of annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angström exponents, and single-scattering albedo (SSA) were from 0.25 to 0.35, from - 0.73 to 1.18, and from 0.77 to 0.86, respectively. The ranges of annual mean aerosol direct radiative forcing values at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), mid-atmosphere, and on the surface were from 3.9 to 12.0, from 50.0 to 53.1, and from - 39.1 to - 48.1 W/m2, respectively. The aerosols' optical properties and radiative characteristics showed strong seasonal variations in both the desert and semi-desert regions. Strong winds and relatively low humidity will lead dust aerosols in the atmosphere to an increase, which played greatly affected these optical properties during spring and winter in northwestern China. Based on long-term observations and retrieved data, aerosol direct radiative forcing was confirmed to heat the atmosphere (50-53 W/m2) and cool the surface (- 39 to - 48 W/m2) above the analyzed desert. Radiative forcing in the atmosphere in spring and winter was 18 to 21 W/m2 higher than other two seasons. Based on the dust sources around the sites, the greater the AOD, the more negative the forcing. The annual averaged heating rates for aerosols close to the ground (1 km) were approximately 0.80-0.85 K/day.

  2. Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo samplers

    KAUST Repository

    Beskos, Alexandros

    2016-08-29

    In this article we consider the approximation of expectations w.r.t. probability distributions associated to the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs); this scenario appears routinely in Bayesian inverse problems. In practice, one often has to solve the associated PDE numerically, using, for instance finite element methods which depend on the step-size level . hL. In addition, the expectation cannot be computed analytically and one often resorts to Monte Carlo methods. In the context of this problem, it is known that the introduction of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method can reduce the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error. This is achieved via a telescoping identity associated to a Monte Carlo approximation of a sequence of probability distributions with discretization levels . ∞>h0>h1⋯>hL. In many practical problems of interest, one cannot achieve an i.i.d. sampling of the associated sequence and a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) version of the MLMC method is introduced to deal with this problem. It is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the attractive property of a reduction of the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error, can be maintained within the SMC context. That is, relative to exact sampling and Monte Carlo for the distribution at the finest level . hL. The approach is numerically illustrated on a Bayesian inverse problem. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  3. The Use of Water During the Crew 144, Mars Desert Research Station, Utah Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Well. from November 29th to December 14th, 2014, the author conducted astrobiological and geological surveys, as analog astronaut member of the international Crew 144, at the site of the Mars Society's Mars Desert Research Station, located at a remote location in the Utah desert, United States. The use of water for drinking, bathing, cleaning, etc., in the crew was a major issue for consideration for a human expedition to the planet Mars in the future. The author would like to tell about the factors of the rationalized use of water.

  4. Monte Carlo simulations of the Galileo energetic particle detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jun, I; Garrett, H B; McEntire, R W

    2002-01-01

    Monte Carlo radiation transport studies have been performed for the Galileo spacecraft energetic particle detector (EPD) in order to study its response to energetic electrons and protons. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiation transport codes, MCNP version 4B (for electrons) and MCNPX version 2.2.3 (for protons), were used throughout the study. The results are presented in the form of 'geometric factors' for the high-energy channels studied in this paper: B1, DC2, and DC3 for electrons and B0, DC0, and DC1 for protons. The geometric factor is the energy-dependent detector response function that relates the incident particle fluxes to instrument count rates. The trend of actual data measured by the EPD was successfully reproduced using the geometric factors obtained in this study.

  5. Quantum Monte Carlo for vibrating molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Chemistry Dept.]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

    1996-08-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) has successfully computed the total electronic energies of atoms and molecules. The main goal of this work is to use correlation function quantum Monte Carlo (CFQMC) to compute the vibrational state energies of molecules given a potential energy surface (PES). In CFQMC, an ensemble of random walkers simulate the diffusion and branching processes of the imaginary-time time dependent Schroedinger equation in order to evaluate the matrix elements. The program QMCVIB was written to perform multi-state VMC and CFQMC calculations and employed for several calculations of the H{sub 2}O and C{sub 3} vibrational states, using 7 PES`s, 3 trial wavefunction forms, two methods of non-linear basis function parameter optimization, and on both serial and parallel computers. In order to construct accurate trial wavefunctions different wavefunctions forms were required for H{sub 2}O and C{sub 3}. In order to construct accurate trial wavefunctions for C{sub 3}, the non-linear parameters were optimized with respect to the sum of the energies of several low-lying vibrational states. In order to stabilize the statistical error estimates for C{sub 3} the Monte Carlo data was collected into blocks. Accurate vibrational state energies were computed using both serial and parallel QMCVIB programs. Comparison of vibrational state energies computed from the three C{sub 3} PES`s suggested that a non-linear equilibrium geometry PES is the most accurate and that discrete potential representations may be used to conveniently determine vibrational state energies.

  6. Scaling the relative dominance of exogenous drivers in structuring desert small mammal assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Daniela; Ojeda, Ricardo A.

    2015-11-01

    Assemblage patterns could be primarily generated by two types of drivers: exogenous (such as environmental and climatic factors) and endogenous (interactions such as competition, predation, mutualism or herbivory). The most widely accepted hypothesis states that at smaller scales (such as patch scale), interspecific interactions are the major drivers structuring communities, whereas at larger regional scales, factors such as climate, topography and soil act as ecological filters that determine assemblage composition. The general aim of this paper is to compare different exogenous drivers in terms of their relative dominance in structuring desert small mammal communities across a range of spatial scales, from patch to regional, and compare them with previous results on endogenous drivers. Our results show that as spatial scale increases, the explanatory power of exogenous factors also increases, e.g. from 17% at the patch scale (i.e. abundance) to 99% at the regional scale (i.e. diversity). Moreover, environmental drivers vary in type and strength depending on the community estimator across several spatial scales. On the other hand, endogenous drivers such as interspecific interactions are more important at the patch scale, diminishing in importance towards the regional scale. Therefore, the relative importance of exogenous versus endogenous drivers affects small mammal assemblage structure at different spatial scales. Our results fill up a knowledge gap concerning ecological drivers of assemblage structure at intermediate spatial scales for Monte desert small mammals, and highlight the importance of dealing with multi-causal factors in explaining ecological patterns of assemblages.

  7. Equilibrium Statistics: Monte Carlo Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Martin

    Monte Carlo methods use random numbers, or ‘random’ sequences, to sample from a known shape of a distribution, or to extract distribution by other means. and, in the context of this book, to (i) generate representative equilibrated samples prior being subjected to external fields, or (ii) evaluate high-dimensional integrals. Recipes for both topics, and some more general methods, are summarized in this chapter. It is important to realize, that Monte Carlo should be as artificial as possible to be efficient and elegant. Advanced Monte Carlo ‘moves’, required to optimize the speed of algorithms for a particular problem at hand, are outside the scope of this brief introduction. One particular modern example is the wavelet-accelerated MC sampling of polymer chains [406].

  8. Monte Carlo Hamiltonian: Linear Potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xiang-Qian; LIU Jin-Jiang; HUANG Chun-Qing; JIANG Jun-Qin; Helmut KROGER

    2002-01-01

    We further study the validity of the Monte Carlo Hamiltonian method. The advantage of the method,in comparison with the standard Monte Carlo Lagrangian approach, is its capability to study the excited states. Weconsider two quantum mechanical models: a symmetric one V(x) = |x|/2; and an asymmetric one V(x) = ∞, forx < 0 and V(x) = x, for x ≥ 0. The results for the spectrum, wave functions and thermodynamical observables are inagreement with the analytical or Runge-Kutta calculations.

  9. Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick M.; Kouba, Coy K.; Foster, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    The Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation (PROPSET) program calculates the frequency of on-orbit upsets in computer chips (for given orbits such as Low Earth Orbit, Lunar Orbit, and the like) from proton bombardment based on the results of heavy ion testing alone. The software simulates the bombardment of modern microelectronic components (computer chips) with high-energy (.200 MeV) protons. The nuclear interaction of the proton with the silicon of the chip is modeled and nuclear fragments from this interaction are tracked using Monte Carlo techniques to produce statistically accurate predictions.

  10. Monte Carlo Simulations of the Photospheric Process

    CERN Document Server

    Santana, Rodolfo; Hernandez, Roberto A; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo (MC) code we wrote to simulate the photospheric process and to study the photospheric spectrum above the peak energy. Our simulations were performed with a photon to electron ratio $N_{\\gamma}/N_{e} = 10^{5}$, as determined by observations of the GRB prompt emission. We searched an exhaustive parameter space to determine if the photospheric process can match the observed high-energy spectrum of the prompt emission. If we do not consider electron re-heating, we determined that the best conditions to produce the observed high-energy spectrum are low photon temperatures and high optical depths. However, for these simulations, the spectrum peaks at an energy below 300 keV by a factor $\\sim 10$. For the cases we consider with higher photon temperatures and lower optical depths, we demonstrate that additional energy in the electrons is required to produce a power-law spectrum above the peak-energy. By considering electron re-heating near the photosphere, the spectrum for these simulations h...

  11. THE MCNPX MONTE CARLO RADIATION TRANSPORT CODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WATERS, LAURIE S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCKINNEY, GREGG W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; DURKEE, JOE W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; FENSIN, MICHAEL L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; JAMES, MICHAEL R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; JOHNS, RUSSELL C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; PELOWITZ, DENISE B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-10

    MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) is a general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code with three-dimensional geometry and continuous-energy transport of 34 particles and light ions. It contains flexible source and tally options, interactive graphics, and support for both sequential and multi-processing computer platforms. MCNPX is based on MCNP4B, and has been upgraded to most MCNP5 capabilities. MCNP is a highly stable code tracking neutrons, photons and electrons, and using evaluated nuclear data libraries for low-energy interaction probabilities. MCNPX has extended this base to a comprehensive set of particles and light ions, with heavy ion transport in development. Models have been included to calculate interaction probabilities when libraries are not available. Recent additions focus on the time evolution of residual nuclei decay, allowing calculation of transmutation and delayed particle emission. MCNPX is now a code of great dynamic range, and the excellent neutronics capabilities allow new opportunities to simulate devices of interest to experimental particle physics; particularly calorimetry. This paper describes the capabilities of the current MCNPX version 2.6.C, and also discusses ongoing code development.

  12. Chemical application of diffusion quantum Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, P. J.; Lester, W. A., Jr.

    1983-10-01

    The diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method gives a stochastic solution to the Schroedinger equation. As an example the singlet-triplet splitting of the energy of the methylene molecule CH2 is given. The QMC algorithm was implemented on the CYBER 205, first as a direct transcription of the algorithm running on our VAX 11/780, and second by explicitly writing vector code for all loops longer than a crossover length C. The speed of the codes relative to one another as a function of C, and relative to the VAX is discussed. Since CH2 has only eight electrons, most of the loops in this application are fairly short. The longest inner loops run over the set of atomic basis functions. The CPU time dependence obtained versus the number of basis functions is discussed and compared with that obtained from traditional quantum chemistry codes and that obtained from traditional computer architectures. Finally, preliminary work on restructuring the algorithm to compute the separate Monte Carlo realizations in parallel is discussed.

  13. Validation of columnar CsI x-ray detector responses obtained with hybridMANTIS, a CPU-GPU Monte Carlo code for coupled x-ray, electron, and optical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Diksha; Badano, Aldo

    2013-03-01

    hybridMANTIS is a Monte Carlo package for modeling indirect x-ray imagers using columnar geometry based on a hybrid concept that maximizes the utilization of available CPU and graphics processing unit processors in a workstation. The authors compare hybridMANTIS x-ray response simulations to previously published MANTIS and experimental data for four cesium iodide scintillator screens. These screens have a variety of reflective and absorptive surfaces with different thicknesses. The authors analyze hybridMANTIS results in terms of modulation transfer function and calculate the root mean square difference and Swank factors from simulated and experimental results. The comparison suggests that hybridMANTIS better matches the experimental data as compared to MANTIS, especially at high spatial frequencies and for the thicker screens. hybridMANTIS simulations are much faster than MANTIS with speed-ups up to 5260. hybridMANTIS is a useful tool for improved description and optimization of image acquisition stages in medical imaging systems and for modeling the forward problem in iterative reconstruction algorithms.

  14. The Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The present paper describes, for purposes of the Department of Energy (DoE) Hydrogen Program Review, Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period January through June 1996. This period represents the first six months of the three year project. The estimated cost over three years is $3.9M, $1.859M of which is funded by the DoE ($600 k for fiscal year 1996). The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project will demonstrate the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as vehicle power plants. This transportation system will be developed in the City of Palm Desert in southern California and will include a fleet of 8 fuel cell powered vehicles, solar and wind powered hydrogen generating facilities, a consumer-ready refueling station, and a service infrastructure. The system holds the promise of a clean environment and an energy supply that is predictable, domestic, safe, and abundant. During, the first part of 1996 SERC has nearly completed building a fuel cell powered personal utility vehicle, which features an upgraded safety and computer system; they have designed and built a test bench that is able to mimic golf cart loads and test fuel cell system auxiliary components; they have begun the design of the solar hydrogen generating station; they have worked with Sandia National Laboratory on an advanced metal hydride storage system; they have increased the power density of the SERC fuel cell by as much as 50%; and they have reached out to the rest of the world with a new fact sheet, world wide web pages, a press release, video footage for a television program. and instruction within the community.

  15. Physiological conjunction of allelochemicals and desert plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosef Friedjung, Avital; Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Dudai, Nativ; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    Plants exchange signals with other physical and biological entities in their habitat, a form of communication termed allelopathy. The underlying principles of allelopathy and secondary-metabolite production are still poorly understood, especially in desert plants. The coordination and role of secondary metabolites were examined as a cause of allelopathy in plants thriving under arid and semiarid soil conditions. Desert plant species, Origanum dayi, Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia judaica from two different sources (cultivar cuttings and wild seeds) were studied in their natural habitats. Growth rate, relative water content, osmotic potential, photochemical efficiency, volatile composition and vital factors of allelopathy were analyzed at regular intervals along four seasons with winter showing optimum soil water content and summer showing water deficit conditions. A comprehensive analysis of the volatile composition of the leaves, ambient air and soil in the biological niche of the plants under study was carried out to determine the effects of soil water conditions and sample plants on the surrounding flora. Significant morpho-physiological changes were observed across the seasons and along different soil water content. Metabolic analysis showed that water deficit was the key for driving selective metabolomic shifts. A. judaica showed the least metabolic shifts, while A. sieberi showed the highest shifts. All the species exhibited high allelopathic effects; A. judaica displayed relatively higher growth-inhibition effects, while O. dayi showed comparatively higher germination-inhibition effects in germination assays. The current study may help in understanding plant behavior, mechanisms underlying secondary-metabolite production in water deficit conditions and metabolite-physiological interrelationship with allelopathy in desert plants, and can help cull economic benefits from the produced volatiles.

  16. Physiological conjunction of allelochemicals and desert plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avital Yosef Friedjung

    Full Text Available Plants exchange signals with other physical and biological entities in their habitat, a form of communication termed allelopathy. The underlying principles of allelopathy and secondary-metabolite production are still poorly understood, especially in desert plants. The coordination and role of secondary metabolites were examined as a cause of allelopathy in plants thriving under arid and semiarid soil conditions. Desert plant species, Origanum dayi, Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia judaica from two different sources (cultivar cuttings and wild seeds were studied in their natural habitats. Growth rate, relative water content, osmotic potential, photochemical efficiency, volatile composition and vital factors of allelopathy were analyzed at regular intervals along four seasons with winter showing optimum soil water content and summer showing water deficit conditions. A comprehensive analysis of the volatile composition of the leaves, ambient air and soil in the biological niche of the plants under study was carried out to determine the effects of soil water conditions and sample plants on the surrounding flora. Significant morpho-physiological changes were observed across the seasons and along different soil water content. Metabolic analysis showed that water deficit was the key for driving selective metabolomic shifts. A. judaica showed the least metabolic shifts, while A. sieberi showed the highest shifts. All the species exhibited high allelopathic effects; A. judaica displayed relatively higher growth-inhibition effects, while O. dayi showed comparatively higher germination-inhibition effects in germination assays. The current study may help in understanding plant behavior, mechanisms underlying secondary-metabolite production in water deficit conditions and metabolite-physiological interrelationship with allelopathy in desert plants, and can help cull economic benefits from the produced volatiles.

  17. Pastoralist rock art in the Black Desert of Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusgaard, N.O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the current problems that exist with the rock art research of the Black Desert in Jordan and presents some preliminary field results of the author’s research on the petroglyphs. It also explore the possibilities that the rock art affords to learn more about the elusive desert

  18. The Desert and the Sown Project in Northern Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerner, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The desert and sown project, which started in 1999 and continued in 2008-2009, studied the region between the settled areas east of Irbid and Ramtha and the surrounding desert at Mafraq (northern Jordan). Large parts of the material comes from the Palaeolithic period, while some smaller tells date...

  19. From desert to deluge in the Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, Judith A.

    2002-01-01

    Some time between five and six million years ago, the Mediterranean Sea became isolated from the Atlantic Ocean. In consequence some areas dried out -- hence the title of Kenneth Hsü’s book The Mediterranean was a Desert 1 -- and large salty lakes recharged by rivers flowing through deep canyons replaced the previously marine basins. During this time, the remaining bodies of water were either too salty or not salty enough for normal marine fauna to flourish. This was the so-called Messinian s...

  20. Morphodynamics of Planetary Deserts: A Laboratory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.; Courrech Du Pont, S.; Rodriguez, S.

    2014-12-01

    Earth deserts show a rich variety of dune shapes from transverse to barchan, star and linear dunes depending on the history of wind regimes (strength and variability) and sand availability [1]. In desert, exposed to one wind direction, dunes perpendicular to the wind direction are found to be transverse or barchans, only sand availability plays a key role on their formation and evolution. However, the evolution time scale of such structures (several years) limits our investigation of their morphodynamics understanding. We use here, a laboratory experiment able to considerably reduce space and time scales by reproducing millimeter to centimeter subaqueous dunes by controlling environmental parameters such as type of wind (multi-winds, bimodal, quasi-bimodal or unidirectional wind) and amount of sediment [2,3]. This set up allows us to characterize more precisely the different modes of dune formation and long-term evolution, and to constrain the physics behind the morphogenesis and dynamics of dunes. Indeed, the formation, evolution and transition between the different dune modes are better understood and quantified thanks to a new setting experiment able to give a remote sediment source in continuous (closer to what happens in terrestrial desert): a sand distributor that controls the input sand flow. Firstly, in a one wind direction conditions, we managed to follow and quantify the growth of the instability of transverse dunes that break into barchans when the sand supply is low and reversely when the sand supply is higher, barchan fields evolve to bars dunes ending to form transverse. The next step will be to perform experiments under two winds conditions in order to better constrain the formation mode of linear dunes, depending also only on the input sand flux. Previous experiments shown that linear "finger" dunes can be triggered by the break of transverse dunes and then the elongating of one barchan's arm [4]. These studies can farther explain more precisely in

  1. Monte Carlo Particle Lists: MCPL

    CERN Document Server

    Kittelmann, Thomas; Knudsen, Erik B; Willendrup, Peter; Cai, Xiao Xiao; Kanaki, Kalliopi

    2016-01-01

    A binary format with lists of particle state information, for interchanging particles between various Monte Carlo simulation applications, is presented. Portable C code for file manipulation is made available to the scientific community, along with converters and plugins for several popular simulation packages.

  2. Finding organic vapors - a Monte Carlo approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuollekoski, Henri; Boy, Michael; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku

    2010-05-01

    Aerosols have an important role in regulating the climate both directly by absorbing and scattering solar radiation, as well as indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. While it is known that their net effect on radiative forcing is negative, several key aspects remain mysterious. There exist plenty of known primary sources of particles due to both natural and man-made origin - for example desert dust, volcanic activity and tire debris. On the other hand, it has been shown that the formation of secondary particles, by nucleation from precursor vapors, is a frequent, global phenomenon. However, the very earliest steps in new particle formation - nucleation and early growth by condensation - have many big question marks on them. While several studies have indicated the importance of a sufficient concentration of sulphuric acid vapor for the process, it has also been noted that this is usually not enough. Heads have therefore turned to organic vapors, which in their multitude could explain various observed characteristics of new particle formation. But alas, the vast number of organic compounds, their complex chemistry and properties that make them difficult to measure, have complicated the quantifying task. Nevertheless, evidence of organic contribution in particles of all size classes has been found. In particular, a significant organic constituent in the very finest particles suggests the presence of a high concentration of very low-volatile organic vapors. In this study, new particle formation in the boreal forest environment of Hyytiälä, Finland, is investigated in a process model. Our goal is to quantify the concentration, to find the diurnal profile and to get hints of the identity of some organic vapors taking part in new particle formation. Previous studies on the subject have relied on data analysis of the growth rate of the observed particles. However, due to the coarse nature of the methods used to calculate growth rates, this approach has its

  3. Interacting Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard M.; Reining, Lucia; Ceperley, David M.

    2016-06-01

    Preface; Part I. Interacting Electrons: Beyond the Independent-Particle Picture: 1. The many electron problem: introduction; 2. Signatures of electron correlation; 3. Concepts and models for interacting electrons; Part II. Foundations of Theory for Many-Body Systems: 4. Mean fields and auxiliary systems; 5. Correlation functions; 6. Many-body wavefunctions; 7. Particles and quasi-particles; 8. Functionals in many-particle physics; Part III. Many-Body Green's Function Methods: 9. Many-body perturbation theory: expansion in the interaction; 10. Many-body perturbation theory via functional derivatives; 11. The RPA and the GW approximation for the self-energy; 12. GWA calculations in practice; 13. GWA calculations: illustrative results; 14. RPA and beyond: the Bethe-Salpeter equation; 15. Beyond the GW approximation; 16. Dynamical mean field theory; 17. Beyond the single-site approximation in DMFT; 18. Solvers for embedded systems; 19. Characteristic hamiltonians for solids with d and f states; 20. Examples of calculations for solids with d and f states; 21. Combining Green's functions approaches: an outlook; Part IV. Stochastic Methods: 22. Introduction to stochastic methods; 23. Variational Monte Carlo; 24. Projector quantum Monte Carlo; 25. Path integral Monte Carlo; 26. Concluding remarks; Part V. Appendices: A. Second quantization; B. Pictures; C. Green's functions: general properties; D. Matsubara formulation for Green's functions for T ̸= 0; E. Time-ordering, contours, and non-equilibrium; F. Hedin's equations in a basis; G. Unique solutions in Green's function theory; H. Properties of functionals; I. Auxiliary systems and constrained search; J. Derivation of the Luttinger theorem; K. Gutzwiller and Hubbard approaches; References; Index.

  4. Atomistic Monte Carlo simulation of lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Sklenar, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    , as assessed by calculation of molecular energies and entropies. We also show transition from a crystalline-like to a fluid DPPC bilayer by the CBC local-move MC method, as indicated by the electron density profile, head group orientation, area per lipid, and whole-lipid displacements. We discuss the potential......Biological membranes are complex assemblies of many different molecules of which analysis demands a variety of experimental and computational approaches. In this article, we explain challenges and advantages of atomistic Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of lipid membranes. We provide an introduction...... into the various move sets that are implemented in current MC methods for efficient conformational sampling of lipids and other molecules. In the second part, we demonstrate for a concrete example, how an atomistic local-move set can be implemented for MC simulations of phospholipid monomers and bilayer patches...

  5. Atomistic Monte Carlo simulation of lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Sklenar, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Biological membranes are complex assemblies of many different molecules of which analysis demands a variety of experimental and computational approaches. In this article, we explain challenges and advantages of atomistic Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of lipid membranes. We provide an introduction......, as assessed by calculation of molecular energies and entropies. We also show transition from a crystalline-like to a fluid DPPC bilayer by the CBC local-move MC method, as indicated by the electron density profile, head group orientation, area per lipid, and whole-lipid displacements. We discuss the potential...... of local-move MC methods in combination with molecular dynamics simulations, for example, for studying multi-component lipid membranes containing cholesterol....

  6. NASA Desert RATS 2011 Education Pilot Project and Classroom Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, J. E.; McGlone, M.; Allen, J.; Tobola, K.; Graff, P.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of tests of hardware and operations carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona, as an analog to future exploration activities beyond low Earth orbit [1]. For the past several years, these tests have occurred in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, north of Flagstaff. For the 2011 Desert RATS season, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) at NASA headquarters provided support to develop an education pilot project that would include student activities to parallel the Desert RATS mission planning and exploration activities in the classroom, and educator training sessions. The development of the pilot project was a joint effort between the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate and the Aerospace Education Services Project (AESP), managed at Penn State University.

  7. Applications of Monte Carlo Methods in Calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.; Gordon, Florence S.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the application of probabilistic ideas, especially Monte Carlo simulation, to calculus. Describes some applications using the Monte Carlo method: Riemann sums; maximizing and minimizing a function; mean value theorems; and testing conjectures. (YP)

  8. Plant responses to an edaphic gradient across an active sand dune/desert boundary in the great basin desert.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenthal, D.M.; Ludwig, F.; Donovan, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    In arid ecosystems, variation in precipitation causes broad-scale spatial heterogeneity in soil moisture, but differences in soil texture, development, and plant cover can also create substantial local soil moisture heterogeneity. The boundary between inland desert sand dunes and adjacent desert

  9. Plant responses to an edaphic gradient across an active sand dune/desert boundary in the great basin desert.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenthal, D.M.; Ludwig, F.; Donovan, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    In arid ecosystems, variation in precipitation causes broad-scale spatial heterogeneity in soil moisture, but differences in soil texture, development, and plant cover can also create substantial local soil moisture heterogeneity. The boundary between inland desert sand dunes and adjacent desert hab

  10. (U) Introduction to Monte Carlo Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hungerford, Aimee L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-20

    Monte Carlo methods are very valuable for representing solutions to particle transport problems. Here we describe a “cook book” approach to handling the terms in a transport equation using Monte Carlo methods. Focus is on the mechanics of a numerical Monte Carlo code, rather than the mathematical foundations of the method.

  11. The Solar Spectrum in the Atacama Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, R. R.; Damiani, A.; Seckmeyer, G.; Jorquera, J.; Caballero, M.; Rowe, P.; Ferrer, J.; Mubarak, R.; Carrasco, J.; Rondanelli, R.; Matus, M.; Laroze, D.

    2016-03-01

    The Atacama Desert has been pointed out as one of the places on earth where the highest surface irradiance may occur. This area is characterized by its high altitude, prevalent cloudless conditions and relatively low columns of ozone and water vapor. Aimed at the characterization of the solar spectrum in the Atacama Desert, we carried out in February-March 2015 ground-based measurements of the spectral irradiance (from the ultraviolet to the near infrared) at seven locations that ranged from the city of Antofagasta (on the southern pacific coastline) to the Chajnantor Plateau (5,100 m altitude). Our spectral measurements allowed us to retrieve the total ozone column, the precipitable water, and the aerosol properties at each location. We found that changes in these parameters, as well as the shorter optical path length at high-altitude locations, lead to significant increases in the surface irradiance with the altitude. Our measurements show that, in the range 0-5100 m altitude, surface irradiance increases with the altitude by about 27% in the infrared range, 6% in the visible range, and 20% in the ultraviolet range. Spectral measurements carried out at the Izaña Observatory (Tenerife, Spain), in Hannover (Germany) and in Santiago (Chile), were used for further comparisons.

  12. Scorpions and scorpionism in Iran's central desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, Jalil; Saghafipour, Abedin; Mozaffari, Ehsan; Keyhani, Amir; Jesri, Nahid

    2017-02-01

    Venomous scorpions have extreme importance in field of medicine and public health. This descriptive - analytic study was done to identify scorpion fauna, their ecological aspects as well as scorpionism for risk management and prevention of this health problem in Iran's central desert. Four urban and fifteen rural areas with various climates and topography locations were selected for monthly scorpion collection through a randomly cluster sampling in 2013. The clinical data was obtained from questionnaires provided in 2009-2014. Totally, 1481 scorpion sting cases were recorded. The majority were treated less than 6h after the sting. Statistical tests showed significant difference between season, scorpion's color, living place of patients and scorpionism cases. Plain areas had the most occurrence of scorpionism followed by foothills. Moreover, 311 scorpion samples belonged to 7 species of Buthidae were collected. Mesobuthus eupeus was the dominant species in both rural and urban areas. Most of the collected samples were from indoors, yards and around the houses. The most scorpion activity was recorded in the summer. The studied areas had rich scorpion fauna due to various climates and topography locations. Scorpion stings can be important and fatal in this area, particularly in the plain regions with semi-desert climate. An investigation for assessment of peoples' awareness on prevention methods of scorpionism and also the determination and the assessment of effective factors on reducing the elapsed time between scorpion stings and receiving medical care are here recommended.

  13. Evolutionary Hotspots in the Mojave Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharyn B. Marks

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity within species provides the raw material for adaptation and evolution. Just as regions of high species diversity are conservation targets, identifying regions containing high genetic diversity and divergence within and among populations may be important to protect future evolutionary potential. When multiple co-distributed species show spatial overlap in high genetic diversity and divergence, these regions can be considered evolutionary hotspots. We mapped spatial population genetic structure for 17 animal species across the Mojave Desert, USA. We analyzed these in concurrence and located 10 regions of high genetic diversity, divergence or both among species. These were mainly concentrated along the western and southern boundaries where ecotones between mountain, grassland and desert habitat are prevalent, and along the Colorado River. We evaluated the extent to which these hotspots overlapped protected lands and utility-scale renewable energy development projects of the Bureau of Land Management. While 30–40% of the total hotspot area was categorized as protected, between 3–7% overlapped with proposed renewable energy project footprints, and up to 17% overlapped with project footprints combined with transmission corridors. Overlap of evolutionary hotspots with renewable energy development mainly occurred in 6 of the 10 identified hotspots. Resulting GIS-based maps can be incorporated into ongoing landscape planning efforts and highlight specific regions where further investigation of impacts to population persistence and genetic connectivity may be warranted.

  14. Evolutionary hotspots in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergast, Amy G.; Inman, Richard D.; Barr, Kelly R.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Wood, Dustin A.; Medica, Philip A.; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Stephen, Catherine L.; Gottscho, Andrew D.; Marks, Sharyn B.; Jennings, W. Bryan; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity within species provides the raw material for adaptation and evolution. Just as regions of high species diversity are conservation targets, identifying regions containing high genetic diversity and divergence within and among populations may be important to protect future evolutionary potential. When multiple co-distributed species show spatial overlap in high genetic diversity and divergence, these regions can be considered evolutionary hotspots. We mapped spatial population genetic structure for 17 animal species across the Mojave Desert, USA. We analyzed these in concurrence and located 10 regions of high genetic diversity, divergence or both among species. These were mainly concentrated along the western and southern boundaries where ecotones between mountain, grassland and desert habitat are prevalent, and along the Colorado River. We evaluated the extent to which these hotspots overlapped protected lands and utility-scale renewable energy development projects of the Bureau of Land Management. While 30–40% of the total hotspot area was categorized as protected, between 3–7% overlapped with proposed renewable energy project footprints, and up to 17% overlapped with project footprints combined with transmission corridors. Overlap of evolutionary hotspots with renewable energy development mainly occurred in 6 of the 10 identified hotspots. Resulting GIS-based maps can be incorporated into ongoing landscape planning efforts and highlight specific regions where further investigation of impacts to population persistence and genetic connectivity may be warranted.

  15. Monte Carlo physical dosimetry for small photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perucha, M.; Rincon, M.; Leal, A.; Carrasco, E. [Sevilla Univ. (Spain). Dept. Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica; Sanchez-Doblado, F. [Sevilla Univ. (Spain). Dept. Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica]|[Hospital Univ. Virgen Macarena, Sevilla (Spain). Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica; Nunez, L. [Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain). Servicio de Radiofisica; Arrans, R.; Sanchez-Calzado, J.A.; Errazquin, L. [Hospital Univ. Virgen Macarena, Sevilla (Spain). Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica

    2001-07-01

    Small field dosimetry is complicated due to the lack of electronic equilibrium and to the high steep dose gradients. This works compares PDD curves, profiles and output factors measured with conventional detectors (film, diode, TLD and ionisation chamber) and calculated with Monte Carlo. The 6 MV nominal energy from a Philips SL-18 linac has been simulated by using the OMEGA code. MC calculation reveals itself as a convenient method to validate OF and profiles in special conditions, such as small fields. (orig.)

  16. Continuous Time Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of Kondo shuttling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Assaad, Fakher; Jarrell, Mark

    2010-03-01

    The Kondo shuttling problem is investigated by using the Continuous Time Quantum Monte Carlo method in both the anti-adiabatic limit φTK and the intermediate regime φ˜TK, where φ is the phonon modulation frequency and TK is the Kondo temperature. We investigate the potential emergence of Kondo effect or Kondo breakdown as a function of the phonon modulation frequency and electron-phonon coupling. This research is supported by grant OISE-0952300.

  17. Density matrix quantum Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Blunt, N S; Spencer, J S; Foulkes, W M C

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a quantum Monte Carlo method capable of sampling the full density matrix of a many-particle system, thus granting access to arbitrary reduced density matrices and allowing expectation values of complicated non-local operators to be evaluated easily. The direct sampling of the density matrix also raises the possibility of calculating previously inaccessible entanglement measures. The algorithm closely resembles the recently introduced full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo method, but works all the way from infinite to zero temperature. We explain the theory underlying the method, describe the algorithm, and introduce an importance-sampling procedure to improve the stochastic efficiency. To demonstrate the potential of our approach, the energy and staggered magnetization of the isotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on small lattices and the concurrence of one-dimensional spin rings are compared to exact or well-established results. Finally, the nature of the sign problem...

  18. Efficient kinetic Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Tim P.

    2008-02-01

    This paper concerns kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithms that have a single-event execution time independent of the system size. Two methods are presented—one that combines the use of inverted-list data structures with rejection Monte Carlo and a second that combines inverted lists with the Marsaglia-Norman-Cannon algorithm. The resulting algorithms apply to models with rates that are determined by the local environment but are otherwise arbitrary, time-dependent and spatially heterogeneous. While especially useful for crystal growth simulation, the algorithms are presented from the point of view that KMC is the numerical task of simulating a single realization of a Markov process, allowing application to a broad range of areas where heterogeneous random walks are the dominate simulation cost.

  19. Gopherus agassizii (Desert Tortoise). Non-native seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, J.R.; Loughran, Caleb L.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    Sahara Mustard (Brassica tournefortii) is a non-native, highly invasive weed species of southwestern U.S. deserts. Sahara Mustard is a hardy species, which flourishes under many conditions including drought and in both disturbed and undisturbed habitats (West and Nabhan 2002. In B. Tellman [ed.], Invasive Plants: Their Occurrence and Possible Impact on the Central Gulf Coast of Sonora and the Midriff Islands in the Sea of Cortes, pp. 91–111. University of Arizona Press, Tucson). Because of this species’ ability to thrive in these habitats, B. tournefortii has been able to propagate throughout the southwestern United States establishing itself in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah. Unfortunately, naturally disturbed areas created by native species, such as the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), within these deserts could have facilitated the propagation of B. tournefortii. (Lovich 1998. In R. G. Westbrooks [ed.], Invasive Plants, Changing the Landscape of America: Fact Book, p. 77. Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds [FICMNEW], Washington, DC). However, Desert Tortoises have never been directly observed dispersing Sahara Mustard seeds. Here we present observations of two Desert Tortoises dispersing Sahara Mustard seeds at the interface between the Mojave and Sonoran deserts in California.

  20. Evolution and Functional Classification of Vertebrate Gene Deserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovcharenko, I; Loots, G; Nobrega, M; Hardison, R; Miller, W; Stubbs, L

    2004-07-14

    Gene deserts, long stretches of DNA sequence devoid of protein coding genes, span approximately one quarter of the human genome. Through human-chicken genome comparisons we were able to characterized one third of human gene deserts as evolutionarily stable - they are highly conserved in vertebrates, resist chromosomal rearrangements, and contain multiple conserved non-coding elements physically linked to their neighboring genes. A linear relationship was observed between human and chicken orthologous stable gene deserts, where the human deserts appear to have expanded homogeneously by a uniform accumulation of repetitive elements. Stable gene deserts are associated with key vertebrate genes that construct the framework of vertebrate development; many of which encode transcription factors. We show that the regulatory machinery governing genes associated with stable gene deserts operates differently from other regions in the human genome and relies heavily on distant regulatory elements. The regulation guided by these elements is independent of the distance between the gene and its distant regulatory element, or the distance between two distant regulatory cassettes. The location of gene deserts and their associated genes in the genome is independent of chromosomal length or content presenting these regions as well-bounded regions evolving separately from the rest of the genome.

  1. Adaptive Multilevel Monte Carlo Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, H

    2011-08-23

    This work generalizes a multilevel forward Euler Monte Carlo method introduced in Michael B. Giles. (Michael Giles. Oper. Res. 56(3):607–617, 2008.) for the approximation of expected values depending on the solution to an Itô stochastic differential equation. The work (Michael Giles. Oper. Res. 56(3):607– 617, 2008.) proposed and analyzed a forward Euler multilevelMonte Carlo method based on a hierarchy of uniform time discretizations and control variates to reduce the computational effort required by a standard, single level, Forward Euler Monte Carlo method. This work introduces an adaptive hierarchy of non uniform time discretizations, generated by an adaptive algorithmintroduced in (AnnaDzougoutov et al. Raùl Tempone. Adaptive Monte Carlo algorithms for stopped diffusion. In Multiscale methods in science and engineering, volume 44 of Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. Eng., pages 59–88. Springer, Berlin, 2005; Kyoung-Sook Moon et al. Stoch. Anal. Appl. 23(3):511–558, 2005; Kyoung-Sook Moon et al. An adaptive algorithm for ordinary, stochastic and partial differential equations. In Recent advances in adaptive computation, volume 383 of Contemp. Math., pages 325–343. Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2005.). This form of the adaptive algorithm generates stochastic, path dependent, time steps and is based on a posteriori error expansions first developed in (Anders Szepessy et al. Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 54(10):1169– 1214, 2001). Our numerical results for a stopped diffusion problem, exhibit savings in the computational cost to achieve an accuracy of ϑ(TOL),from(TOL−3), from using a single level version of the adaptive algorithm to ϑ(((TOL−1)log(TOL))2).

  2. A diffusion quantum Monte Carlo study of geometries and harmonic frequencies of molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shih-I.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an approach in determination of equilibrium geometries and harmonic frequencies of molecules by the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck diffusion quantum Monte Carlo method based on the floating spherical Gaussians. In conjunction with a projected and renormalized Hellmann-Feynman gradient and an electronic energy at variational Monte Carlo and diffusion quantum Monte Carlo, respectively, the quasi-Newton algorithm implemented with the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno updated Hessian was used to find the optimized molecular geometry. We applied this approach to N2 and H2O molecules. The geometry and harmonic frequencies calculated were consistent with some sophisticated ab initio calculated values within reasonable statistical uncertainty.

  3. Quantum Monte Carlo study of the first-row atoms and ions

    CERN Document Server

    Seth, P; Needs, R J

    2010-01-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the first-row atoms Li-Ne and their singly-positively-charged ions are reported. Multi-determinant-Jastrow-backflow trial wave functions are used which recover more than 98% of the correlation energy at the Variational Monte Carlo (VMC) level and more than 99% of the correlation energy at the Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) level for both the atoms and ions. We obtain the first ionization potentials to chemical accuracy. We also report scalar relativistic corrections to the energies, mass-polarization terms, and one- and two-electron expectation values.

  4. Browning in Desert Boundaries in Asia in Recent Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Su-Jong; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Brown, Molly E.; Kug, Jong-Seong; Piao, Shilong

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the changes in desert boundaries in Asia (Gobi, Karakum, Lut, Taklimakan, and Thar deserts) during the growing season (April October) in the years 1982 2008 were investigated by analyzing the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), precipitation, and temperature. In the desert boundary regions, the domain mean NDVI values increased by 7.2% per decade in 1982 1998 but decreased by 6.8% per decade thereafter. Accordingly, the bare soil areas (or nonvegetated areas) of the inside of the desert boundaries contracted by 9.8% per decade in the 1990s and expanded by 8.7% per decade in the 2000s. It is noted that the five deserts experience nearly simultaneous NDVI changes although they cover a very diverse area of Asia. In contrast, changes in temperature and precipitation in the deserts show rather diverse results. In desert boundaries located along 40 N (Gobi, Taklimakan, and Karakum), the decadal changes in vegetation greenness were mainly related to regional climate during the entire analysis period. Precipitation increased in the 1990s, providing favorable conditions for vegetation growth (i.e., greening), but precipitation reduced (19 mm per decade) and warming intensified (0.7 C per decade) in the 2000s, causing less moisture to be available for vegetation growth (i.e., browning). In desert boundaries below 40 N (Lut and Thar), although an increase in precipitation (8 mm per decade) led to greening in the 1990s, local changes in precipitation and temperature did not necessarily cause browning in the 2000s. Observed multidecadal changes in vegetation greenness in the present study suggest that under significant global and/or regional warming, changes in moisture availability for vegetation growth in desert boundaries are an important factor when understanding decadal changes in areas vulnerable to desertification over Asia.

  5. Properties of Desert Sand and CMAS Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2014-01-01

    As-received desert sand from a Middle East country has been characterized for its phase composition and thermal stability. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the presence of quartz (SiO2), calcite (CaCO3), gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), and NaAlSi3O8 phases in as-received desert sand and showed weight loss of approx. 35 percent due to decomposition of CaCO3 and CaSO4.2H2O when heated to 1400 C. A batch of as-received desert sand was melted into calcium magnesium aluminosilicate (CMAS) glass at approx. 1500 C. From inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, chemical composition of the CMAS glass was analyzed to be 27.8CaO-4MgO-5Al2O3-61.6SiO2-0.6Fe2O3-1K2O (mole percent). Various physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the glass have been evaluated. Bulk density of CMAS glass was 2.69 g/cc, Young's modulus 92 GPa, Shear modulus 36 GPa, Poisson's ratio 0.28, dilatometric glass transition temperature (T (sub g)) 706 C, softening point (T (sub d)) 764 C, Vickers microhardness 6.3 +/- 0.4 GPa, indentation fracture toughness 0.75 +/- 0.15 MPa.m (sup 1/2), and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) 9.8 x 10 (exp -6)/degC in the temperature range 25 to 700 C. Temperature dependence of viscosity has also been estimated from various reference points of the CMAS glass using the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) equation. The glass remained amorphous after heat treating at 850 C for 10 hr but crystallized into CaSiO3 and Ca-Mg-Al silicate phases at 900 C or higher temperatures. Crystallization kinetics of the CMAS glass has also been investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA). Activation energies for the crystallization of two different phases in the glass were calculated to be 403 and 483 kJ/mol, respectively.

  6. In vitro germination of desert rose varieties(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Lemos Varella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The drought stress resistance is a characteristic of the desert rose and its estimable beauty flowers, which gave it great relevance in the ornamental market. However, the desert rose production and germination is hampered by possible sterility of their male and female flowers and frequent problems in pollination, so the tissue culture is a promising alternative to the propagation of these plants. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid on four commercial varieties of desert rose (Adenium obesum cultivated in vitro. The seeds of the varieties ‘Orange Pallet’, ‘Carnation violet’, ‘Diamond ring’ and ‘Vermiliont’ were sterilized and inoculated on Water + Agar (T0, medium MS (T1, ½ MS (T2, MS + 0.25 mg L-1 GA3 (T3, MS + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 (T4, ½ MS + 0.25 mg L-1 GA3 (T5, ½ MS 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 (T6. The seeds germination of A. obesum was initiated on the fourth day of cultivation and on the tenth day was possible to observe the expansion of the cotyledons and leaf expansion with subsequent development of early secondary root. The ‘Orange pallet’ variety germinated 100% of seeds on water + agar and MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 of GA3. For ‘Diamond Ring’ and ‘Carnation violet’ the highest rate of germination occurred in treatments MS ½; 0.25 mg L-1 GA3; MS + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 averaging 80% and 70%, respectively. For ‘Vermiliont’ the best response was in MS and MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 ranging between 70-90% germinated embryos. It was registered different malformations in all treatments like absence of roots and apexes during seedling development. The concentrations of GA3 did not affect significantly the seed germination.

  7. Desert Research and Technology Studies 2005 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy J.; Kosmo, Joseph J.; Janoiko, Barbara A.; Bernard, Craig; Splawn, Keith; Eppler, Dean B.

    2006-01-01

    During the first two weeks of September 2005, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) Advanced Extravehicular Activity (AEVA) team led the field test portion of the 2005 Research and Technology Studies (RATS). The Desert RATS field test activity is the culmination of the various individual science and advanced engineering discipline areas year-long technology and operations development efforts into a coordinated field test demonstration under representative (analog) planetary surface terrain conditions. The purpose of the RATS is to drive out preliminary exploration concept of operations EVA system requirements by providing hands-on experience with simulated planetary surface exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) hardware and procedures. The RATS activities also are of significant importance in helping to develop the necessary levels of technical skills and experience for the next generation of engineers, scientists, technicians, and astronauts who will be responsible for realizing the goals of the Constellation Program. The 2005 Desert RATS was the eighth RATS field test and was the most systems-oriented, integrated field test to date with participants from NASA field centers, the United States Geologic Survey (USGS), industry partners, and research institutes. Each week of the test, the 2005 RATS addressed specific sets of objectives. The first week focused on the performance of surface science astro-biological sampling operations, including planetary protection considerations and procedures. The second week supported evaluation of the Science, Crew, Operations, and Utility Testbed (SCOUT) proto-type rover and its sub-systems. Throughout the duration of the field test, the Communications, Avionics, and Infomatics pack (CAI-pack) was tested. This year the CAI-pack served to provide information on surface navigation, science sample collection procedures, and EVA timeline awareness. Additionally, 2005 was the first

  8. ARCHER{sub RT} – A GPU-based and photon-electron coupled Monte Carlo dose computing engine for radiation therapy: Software development and application to helical tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Lin; Du, Xining; Liu, Tianyu; Ji, Wei; Xu, X. George, E-mail: xug2@rpi.edu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Yang, Youming; Bednarz, Bryan [Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Sterpin, Edmond [Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium 1348 (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Using the graphical processing units (GPU) hardware technology, an extremely fast Monte Carlo (MC) code ARCHER{sub RT} is developed for radiation dose calculations in radiation therapy. This paper describes the detailed software development and testing for three clinical TomoTherapy® cases: the prostate, lung, and head and neck. Methods: To obtain clinically relevant dose distributions, phase space files (PSFs) created from optimized radiation therapy treatment plan fluence maps were used as the input to ARCHER{sub RT}. Patient-specific phantoms were constructed from patient CT images. Batch simulations were employed to facilitate the time-consuming task of loading large PSFs, and to improve the estimation of statistical uncertainty. Furthermore, two different Woodcock tracking algorithms were implemented and their relative performance was compared. The dose curves of an Elekta accelerator PSF incident on a homogeneous water phantom were benchmarked against DOSXYZnrc. For each of the treatment cases, dose volume histograms and isodose maps were produced from ARCHER{sub RT} and the general-purpose code, GEANT4. The gamma index analysis was performed to evaluate the similarity of voxel doses obtained from these two codes. The hardware accelerators used in this study are one NVIDIA K20 GPU, one NVIDIA K40 GPU, and six NVIDIA M2090 GPUs. In addition, to make a fairer comparison of the CPU and GPU performance, a multithreaded CPU code was developed using OpenMP and tested on an Intel E5-2620 CPU. Results: For the water phantom, the depth dose curve and dose profiles from ARCHER{sub RT} agree well with DOSXYZnrc. For clinical cases, results from ARCHER{sub RT} are compared with those from GEANT4 and good agreement is observed. Gamma index test is performed for voxels whose dose is greater than 10% of maximum dose. For 2%/2mm criteria, the passing rates for the prostate, lung case, and head and neck cases are 99.7%, 98.5%, and 97.2%, respectively. Due to

  9. Desert disturbance assessments of regional oil exploitation by Aster and ETM+ images in Taklimakan Desert China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fang-Hua; Fu, Yongshuo; Zhang, Jiaxun

    2008-09-01

    To feed its rapidly growing energy demand, oil exploitation in China has never been more intensive. The most obvious characteristics of oil exploitation are progressive and regional, which can be monitored by remote sensing, such as land use and cover change, either perpetual or temporary, during oil field development such as construction of oil well, roads, transportation systems and other facilities. In this paper, the oil field located on the north edge of Taklimakan Desert, in the Tarim River watershed in northwest of China. The disturbance effects of regional oil exploitation were the main content of regional environmental managements and monitoring. Based on Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Aster images, analyzed regional land use and landscape change from 2001 to 2003. By the comparison, it can be concluded that the ecological quality was deteriorating in these 3 years. The woodland was degrading to grass and desert. The area of woodland dropped from 9.06 km(2) in 2001 to 3.24 km(2) in 2003 with a 64.23% decrease. At the same time, the area of shrubbery lessened 18.23%. On the other hand, the whole area of desert and Saline soils inflated from 15.08 km(2) in 2001 to 25.36 km(2) in 2003. The patch number of bare land did climb dramatically, but single patch area increased. The research demonstrated that desert and Saline soils patches were activated by the human behavior and climate change. The information from the ETM+ and Aster images was proved be an effective and efficient way to be applied in regional environmental managements.

  10. Observations on variational and projector Monte Carlo methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umrigar, C J

    2015-10-28

    Variational Monte Carlo and various projector Monte Carlo (PMC) methods are presented in a unified manner. Similarities and differences between the methods and choices made in designing the methods are discussed. Both methods where the Monte Carlo walk is performed in a discrete space and methods where it is performed in a continuous space are considered. It is pointed out that the usual prescription for importance sampling may not be advantageous depending on the particular quantum Monte Carlo method used and the observables of interest, so alternate prescriptions are presented. The nature of the sign problem is discussed for various versions of PMC methods. A prescription for an exact PMC method in real space, i.e., a method that does not make a fixed-node or similar approximation and does not have a finite basis error, is presented. This method is likely to be practical for systems with a small number of electrons. Approximate PMC methods that are applicable to larger systems and go beyond the fixed-node approximation are also discussed.

  11. Aesthetic value of aeolian geomorphosites in the Kumtagh Desert, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinFeng Wu; Xin Wang; Feng Guo; Lei Li

    2014-01-01

    Tourism development of aeolian geomorphosites in the Kumtagh Desert is beneficial to both harmonious development of human-nature relationship and the sustainable development of the tourist industry in the Kumtagh Desert and its sur-rounding area. This paper adopts some research methods including field observation, expert assessment, and systematic investigation to analyze and evaluate the aesthetic value of aeolian geomorphosites in the Kumtagh Desert from three aspects of"Beauty of Morphology","Beauty of Color"and"Beauty of Forms". This research is a creative work in the field of aeolian geomorphosites combining the method of aeolian geomorphology and tourism geography.

  12. Monte Carlo Wave Packet Theory of Dissociative Double Ionization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Henriette Astrup; Madsen, Lars Bojer; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear dynamics in strong-field double ionization processes is predicted using a stochastic Monte Carlo wave packet technique. Using input from electronic structure calculations and strong-field electron dynamics the description allows for field-dressed dynamics within a given molecule as well...

  13. Holocene climatic change in Hunshandake Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Heling; SU Zhizhu; SUN Liangying; SUN Zhong; ZHANG Hong; JIN Liya

    2004-01-01

    Research on the geological data of Hunshandake Desert in China monsoon region revealed that Holocene summer monsoon had experienced six prevailing periods and seven weakening periods. The climatic humidity and the vegetation had also undergone the similar periodical variation influenced by the monsoon periodicity. The period when summer monsoon prevailed or winter monsoon weakened and climatic humidity and vegetation coverage relatively increased, corresponded to the global warming events;whereas the period when summer monsoon weakened or winter monsoon prevailed and climatic humidity and vegetation coverage relatively decreased, corresponded to the arid events in middle to low latitudes and the cold events in North Atlantic. As for the changing regularity of summer monsoon intensity there were two distinct periodicities of 1456 years and 494 years, also these two periodicities had global significance.

  14. Thermodynamic and pedogenic differences between desert microsites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael; Caldwell, Todd; Lin, Henry

    2014-05-01

    Feedbacks exist between soil properties, climate and ecological productivity. In arid alluvial fan deposits common to the southwestern United States, the strength of these complex feedbacks change slowly over long time frames (e.g., 10s to 100s of millennia) as the climate has become drier and warmer. The feedbacks are also influenced by relatively short-time-frame processes of shrub establishment and subshrub processes that create distinct interspace and sub-canopy microsites. Pedogenic processes in both cases proceed at different rates—slowly in interspaces and rapidly beneath canopies—yet both are subject to similar energy and mass inputs entering the system from above the canopy. In this study, we apply a branch of non-equilibrium (open system) thermodynamics to explain desert pedogenic processes and how the two microsites are tied together. The general concept is that energy and mass flow naturally in directions that minimize gradients, hence maximizing randomness and entropy. We hypothesize that younger soils begin as random bodies, but that energy input from the sun, and mass input from water, dust and vegetation create gradients over time, leading to microsites of pavements and canopies. These features eventually reach metastability and the potential for self-destruction increases (i.e., desert pavements eventually fall apart and erode). We seek to apply these concepts to Mojave Desert soils/ecosystems that have been studied in the field and the laboratory, with the goal of explaining and/or predicting the pathways of pedogenesis in these environments. Of particular interest is how these concepts might be applied in microsite locations influence the two-way coupling of pedologic development and ecosystem functions, and whether we can predict the strength of these feedbacks and processes using knowledge of soil systems today. The field site is found in the Mojave Natural Preserve, CA, USA, where high spatial resolution infiltrometer measurements were

  15. Desert ants learn vibration and magnetic landmarks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Buehlmann

    Full Text Available The desert ants Cataglyphis navigate not only by path integration but also by using visual and olfactory landmarks to pinpoint the nest entrance. Here we show that Cataglyphis noda can additionally use magnetic and vibrational landmarks as nest-defining cues. The magnetic field may typically provide directional rather than positional information, and vibrational signals so far have been shown to be involved in social behavior. Thus it remains questionable if magnetic and vibration landmarks are usually provided by the ants' habitat as nest-defining cues. However, our results point to the flexibility of the ants' navigational system, which even makes use of cues that are probably most often sensed in a different context.

  16. Belowground productivity of two cool desert communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, M M; Camp, L B

    1974-06-01

    A new technique based upon the dilution of C (14) /C (12) ratios in structural carbon of root systems during the course of the growing season was used to evaluate belowground turnover or productivity of two cool desert communities in northern Utah, USA. This technique provides a measure of turnover of the root system of established perennial plant communities avoiding many of the disadvantages of other techniques. Adjacent communities dominated by Atriplex confertifolia and Ceratoides lanata both exhibited belowground productivity values exceeding aboveground production by three-fold. The greater belowground turnover of the Atriplex-dominated community may be a factor contributing to the maintenance of a greater quantity of aboveground biomass and prolonged periods of active photosynthesis during the driest portions of the year when Ceratoides becomes largely photosynthetically inactive.

  17. GPUs: An Oasis in the Supercomputing Desert

    CERN Document Server

    Kamleh, Waseem

    2012-01-01

    A novel metric is introduced to compare the supercomputing resources available to academic researchers on a national basis. Data from the supercomputing Top 500 and the top 500 universities in the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) are combined to form the proposed "500/500" score for a given country. Australia scores poorly in the 500/500 metric when compared with other countries with a similar ARWU ranking, an indication that HPC-based researchers in Australia are at a relative disadvantage with respect to their overseas competitors. For HPC problems where single precision is sufficient, commodity GPUs provide a cost-effective means of quenching the computational thirst of otherwise parched Lattice practitioners traversing the Australian supercomputing desert. We explore some of the more difficult terrain in single precision territory, finding that BiCGStab is unreliable in single precision at large lattice sizes. We test the CGNE and CGNR forms of the conjugate gradient method on the normal equa...

  18. Ethnomycological survey of traditional usage and indigenous knowledge on desert truffles among the native Sahara Desert people of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradai, Lyès; Neffar, Souad; Amrani, Khaled; Bissati, Samia; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-03-13

    Desert truffles are edible hypogeous fungi, highly appreciated by the inhabitants of hot-desert settlements. Native Saharan people use truffles for food, promoting tourism, increasing fertility, and treatment of eye diseases and fatigue. This study consists of a cross-sectional survey focusing on the knowledge, use and ethnomycological practices of desert truffles among the native people of the Algerian Northern Sahara. The study was conducted through direct interviews with 60 truffle-hunters in the regions of Ouargla and Ghardaia. Three species were harvested and consumed by the surveyed subjects: Terfezia claveryi was the most appreciated and most expensive species, followed by Terfezia areanaria moderately preferred, then Tirmania nivea the least appreciated and least expensive. Among the 60 interviewees, 90% rely on the abundance of symbiotic plants (Helianthemum lippii) to harvest truffles, 65% begin harvesting from mid-February to March, after rains of the autumn (38%) and winter (36%), particularly in the Wadi beds (37%) and Daya landscapes (32%). Interviewees harvested truffles mainly for home consumption; however 26.7% sell any harvest surplus, and of those only 15% generate significant revenue from this source, and 73% considered the sale of desert truffles to have low financial value. Desert truffles are used in traditional medicine, especially against eye infections (22%), weakness (19%) and to promote male fertility (19%). In the case of desert truffles for consumption, the surveyed population preferred to prepare the truffles with couscous and meat, or in porridge. Respondents used price as the main criterion for deciding whether to purchase desert truffles. The surveyed trufflers use the knowledge passed from one generation to the next to help ensure a good harvest of truffles during each foray into the desert. Our findings highlight the various uses of truffles in the Sahara Desert, and how these relate to the lifestyle of local people. Copyright

  19. Oregon High Desert Interpretive Center : Economic feasibility and impact analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a proposal to construct a High Desert Interpretive Center to inform visitors to Harney County, Oregon of the opportunities for education, recreation and...

  20. Final Critical Habitat for the Desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius) occur based on the description provided in...

  1. The potential of energy farming in the southeastern California desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, V.

    1980-04-01

    The use of energy forms to provide future sources of energy for California is considered. Marginal desert lands in southeastern California are proposed for the siting of energy farms using acacia, eucalyptus, euphorbia, guayule, jojoba, mesquite, or tamarisk.

  2. Proposal for multi-agency facility : High Desert Interagency Partnership

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a proposal to construct a multi-agency facility to house the High Desert Interagency Partnership. The facility would be on federally owned land in Hines,...

  3. Annual plants in arid and semi-arid desert regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuehua LI; Xiaolan LI; Deming JIANG; Zhimin LIU; Qinghe YU

    2008-01-01

    Annual plants are the main vegetation in arid and semi-arid desert regions.Because of their unique traits,they are the optimal experimental subjects for eco-logical studies.In this article,we summarize annual plants' seed germination strategies,seedling adaptability mechanism to environments,seed dispersal,and soil seed banks.We also discuss the biotic and abiotic factors affecting the composition and dynamics of annual plant populations and communities.Because annual plants have important ecological functions in desert vegetation systems,this study on annual plants will be of great bene-fit to the conservation and restoration of desert ecosys-tems,the rational utilization of resources,and the sustainable development of desert regions.

  4. The Trail Inventory of Desert NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Desert National Wildlife Range. Trails in this inventory are eligible for...

  5. The Trail Inventory of Desert National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Desert National Wildlife Range. Trails in this inventory are eligible for...

  6. Final Critical Habitat for the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) occur based on the description provided in the...

  7. Species status assessment for the Sonoran desert tortoise

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Sonoran desert tortoise (Gopherus morafkai) occurs in various habitat types in Arizona and northern Mexico. It was made a candidate for listing in 2010 by the...

  8. Final Critical Habitat for the Desert yellowhead (Yermo xanthocephalus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Desert yellowhead (Yermo xanthocephalus) occur. The geographic extent includes...

  9. Desert Peak East Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemach, Ezra [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Drakos, Peter [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Spielman, Paul [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Akerley, John [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This manuscript is a draft to replaced with a final version at a later date TBD. A summary of activities pertaining to the Desert Peak EGS project including the planning and resulting stimulation activities.

  10. Ecophysiology of two Sonoran Desert evergreen shrubs during extreme drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent drought across the arid Southwest US may be especially problematic for evergreen desert species that maintain leaves through dry periods. In July, 2002 we compared the ecophysiogical performance of the microphyllous creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) to broadleaved jojoba (Simmondisa chinensis...

  11. Vegetation - Anza-Borrego Desert State Park [ds165

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Anza Borrego Desert State Park (ABDSP) Vegetation Map depicts vegetation within the Park and its surrounding environment. The map was prepared by the Department...

  12. Recovery and vulnerability of the Mojave Desert ecosystem:

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — Desert surfaces are inherently fragile, and many land uses disrupt the thin crusts that typically protect the landscape from wind and water erosion. Depiction of the...

  13. Prediction of Dust Propensity for Military Operations in Desert Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    FWE GOPI TECHNICAL REPORT EL8-1 PREDICTION OF DUST PROPENSITY FOR of Eginers’.MILITARY OPERATIONS IN DESERT AREAS by William K. Dornbusch , John N...11 TTLE~ ~I IAT40 30/069 Prediction of Dust Propensity for Military operations in Desert Areas 12. F"RSONAL AVTNO9(%) Dornbusch . William K.; Strange...Harrison was Chief, EL. The study was performed and this report was written by Messrs. William K. Dornbusch , John N. Strange, and Allen D. Rooke, Jr

  14. A Future for the Past of Desert Vernacular Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Desert vernacular architecture has always been the product of a sustainable building cycle. People inherited the traditional way of building from their ancestors and the knowledge was transferred and developed from one generation to another. Inhabitants responded to their environment and climate through trial and error in a way that satisfied their needs and aspirations to create a developing building tradition. This natural and cultural cycle is about to disappear in many desert vernacular s...

  15. Ecological and evolutionary physiology of desert birds: a progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph B; Tieleman, B Irene

    2002-02-01

    The adaptive significance of mechanisms of energy and water conservation among species of desert rodents, which avoid temperature extremes by remaining within a burrow during the day, is well established. Conventional wisdom holds that arid-zone birds, diurnal organisms that endure the brunt of their environment, occupy these desert climates because of the possession of physiological design features common to all within the class Aves. We review studies that show that desert birds may have evolved specific features to deal with hot desert conditions including: a reduced basal metabolic rate (BMR) and field metabolic rate (FMR), and lower total evaporative water loss (TEWL) and water turnover (WTO).Previous work on the comparative physiology of desert birds relied primarily on information gathered on species from the deserts of the southwestern U.S., which are semi-arid habitats of recent geologic origin. We include data on species from Old World deserts, which are geologically older than those in the New World, and place physiological responses along an aridity axis that includes mesic, semi-arid, arid, and hyperarid environments.The physiological differences between desert and mesic birds that we have identified using the comparative method could arise as a result of acclimation to different environments, of genetic change mediated by selection, or both. We present data on the flexibility of BMR and TEWL in Hoopoe Larks that suggest that phenotypic adjustments in these variables can be substantial. Finally, we suggest that linkages between the physiology of individual organism and its life-history are fundamental to the understanding of life-history evolution.

  16. Direct aperture optimization for IMRT using Monte Carlo generated beamlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Alanah M; Bush, Karl; Milette, Marie-Pierre; Popescu, I Antoniu; Otto, Karl; Duzenli, Cheryl

    2006-10-01

    This work introduces an EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo (MC) beamlet does distribution matrix into a direct aperture optimization (DAO) algorithm for IMRT inverse planning. The technique is referred to as Monte Carlo-direct aperture optimization (MC-DAO). The goal is to assess if the combination of accurate Monte Carlo tissue inhomogeneity modeling and DAO inverse planning will improve the dose accuracy and treatment efficiency for treatment planning. Several authors have shown that the presence of small fields and/or inhomogeneous materials in IMRT treatment fields can cause dose calculation errors for algorithms that are unable to accurately model electronic disequilibrium. This issue may also affect the IMRT optimization process because the dose calculation algorithm may not properly model difficult geometries such as targets close to low-density regions (lung, air etc.). A clinical linear accelerator head is simulated using BEAMnrc (NRC, Canada). A novel in-house algorithm subdivides the resulting phase space into 2.5 X 5.0 mm2 beamlets. Each beamlet is projected onto a patient-specific phantom. The beamlet dose contribution to each voxel in a structure-of-interest is calculated using DOSXYZnrc. The multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions are linked to the location of the beamlet does distributions. The MLC shapes are optimized using direct aperture optimization (DAO). A final Monte Carlo calculation with MLC modeling is used to compute the final dose distribution. Monte Carlo simulation can generate accurate beamlet dose distributions for traditionally difficult-to-calculate geometries, particularly for small fields crossing regions of tissue inhomogeneity. The introduction of DAO results in an additional improvement by increasing the treatment delivery efficiency. For the examples presented in this paper the reduction in the total number of monitor units to deliver is approximately 33% compared to fluence-based optimization methods.

  17. Monte Carlo approach to turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueben, P.; Homeier, D.; Muenster, G. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Jansen, K. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Mesterhazy, D. [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2009-11-15

    The behavior of the one-dimensional random-force-driven Burgers equation is investigated in the path integral formalism on a discrete space-time lattice. We show that by means of Monte Carlo methods one may evaluate observables, such as structure functions, as ensemble averages over different field realizations. The regularization of shock solutions to the zero-viscosity limit (Hopf-equation) eventually leads to constraints on lattice parameters required for the stability of the simulations. Insight into the formation of localized structures (shocks) and their dynamics is obtained. (orig.)

  18. Contraction of the Gobi Desert, 2000–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Sternberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deserts are critical environments because they cover 41% of the world’s land surface and are home to 2 billion residents. As highly dynamic biomes desert expansion and contraction is influenced by climate and anthropogenic factors with variability being a key part of the desertification debate across dryland regions. Evaluating a major world desert, the Gobi in East Asia, with high resolution satellite data and the meteorologically-derived Aridity Index from 2000 to 2012 identified a recent contraction of the Gobi. The fluctuation in area, primarily driven by precipitation, is at odds with numerous reports of human-induced desertification in Mongolia and China. There are striking parallels between the vagueness in defining the Gobi and the imprecision and controversy surrounding the Sahara desert’s southern boundary in the 1980s and 1990s. Improved boundary definition has implications fGobi; desert boundary; expansion and contraction; Aridity Index; NDVI; Mongolia; China or understanding desert “greening” and “browning”, human action and land use, ecological productivity and changing climate parameters in the region. The Gobi’s average area of 2.3 million km2 in the 21st century places it behind only the Sahara and Arabian deserts in size.

  19. Monte Carlo techniques in radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Verhaegen, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Modern cancer treatment relies on Monte Carlo simulations to help radiotherapists and clinical physicists better understand and compute radiation dose from imaging devices as well as exploit four-dimensional imaging data. With Monte Carlo-based treatment planning tools now available from commercial vendors, a complete transition to Monte Carlo-based dose calculation methods in radiotherapy could likely take place in the next decade. Monte Carlo Techniques in Radiation Therapy explores the use of Monte Carlo methods for modeling various features of internal and external radiation sources, including light ion beams. The book-the first of its kind-addresses applications of the Monte Carlo particle transport simulation technique in radiation therapy, mainly focusing on external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. It presents the mathematical and technical aspects of the methods in particle transport simulations. The book also discusses the modeling of medical linacs and other irradiation devices; issues specific...

  20. Approaching Chemical Accuracy with Quantum Monte Carlo

    OpenAIRE

    Petruzielo, Frank R.; Toulouse, Julien; Umrigar, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; A quantum Monte Carlo study of the atomization energies for the G2 set of molecules is presented. Basis size dependence of diffusion Monte Carlo atomization energies is studied with a single determinant Slater-Jastrow trial wavefunction formed from Hartree-Fock orbitals. With the largest basis set, the mean absolute deviation from experimental atomization energies for the G2 set is 3.0 kcal/mol. Optimizing the orbitals within variational Monte Carlo improves the agreem...

  1. Mean field simulation for Monte Carlo integration

    CERN Document Server

    Del Moral, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In the last three decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the use of interacting particle methods as a powerful tool in real-world applications of Monte Carlo simulation in computational physics, population biology, computer sciences, and statistical machine learning. Ideally suited to parallel and distributed computation, these advanced particle algorithms include nonlinear interacting jump diffusions; quantum, diffusion, and resampled Monte Carlo methods; Feynman-Kac particle models; genetic and evolutionary algorithms; sequential Monte Carlo methods; adaptive and interacting Marko

  2. Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo of Lithium Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rasch, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    We study lithium systems over a range of number of atoms, e.g., atomic anion, dimer, metallic cluster, and body-centered cubic crystal by the diffusion Monte Carlo method. The calculations include both core and valence electrons in order to avoid any possible impact by pseudo potentials. The focus of the study is the fixed-node errors, and for that purpose we test several orbital sets in order to provide the most accurate nodal hyper surfaces. We compare our results to other high accuracy calculations wherever available and to experimental results so as to quantify the the fixed-node errors. The results for these Li systems show that fixed-node quantum Monte Carlo achieves remarkably high accuracy total energies and recovers 97-99 % of the correlation energy.

  3. Monte Carlo Methods in ICF (LIRPP Vol. 13)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, George B.

    2016-10-01

    Monte Carlo methods appropriate to simulate the transport of x-rays, neutrons, ions and electrons in Inertial Confinement Fusion targets are described and analyzed. The Implicit Monte Carlo method of x-ray transport handles symmetry within indirect drive ICF hohlraums well, but can be improved SOX in efficiency by angular biasing the x-rays towards the fuel capsule. Accurate simulation of thermonuclear burn and burn diagnostics involves detailed particle source spectra, charged particle ranges, inflight reaction kinematics, corrections for bulk and thermal Doppler effects and variance reduction to obtain adequate statistics for rare events. It is found that the effects of angular Coulomb scattering must be included in models of charged particle transport through heterogeneous materials.

  4. Estimation of beryllium ground state energy by Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, K. M. Ariful [Department of Physical Sciences, School of Engineering and Computer Science, Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB) Dhaka (Bangladesh); Halder, Amal [Department of Mathematics, University of Dhaka Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2015-05-15

    Quantum Monte Carlo method represent a powerful and broadly applicable computational tool for finding very accurate solution of the stationary Schrödinger equation for atoms, molecules, solids and a variety of model systems. Using variational Monte Carlo method we have calculated the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom. Our calculation are based on using a modified four parameters trial wave function which leads to good result comparing with the few parameters trial wave functions presented before. Based on random Numbers we can generate a large sample of electron locations to estimate the ground state energy of Beryllium. Our calculation gives good estimation for the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom comparing with the corresponding exact data.

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of quantum Zeno effect in the brain

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiev, Danko

    2014-01-01

    Environmental decoherence appears to be the biggest obstacle for successful construction of quantum mind theories. Nevertheless, the quantum physicist Henry Stapp promoted the view that the mind could utilize quantum Zeno effect to influence brain dynamics and that the efficacy of such mental efforts would not be undermined by environmental decoherence of the brain. To address the physical plausibility of Stapp's claim, we modeled the brain using quantum tunneling of an electron in a multiple-well structure such as the voltage sensor in neuronal ion channels and performed Monte Carlo simulations of quantum Zeno effect exerted by the mind upon the brain in the presence or absence of environmental decoherence. The simulations unambiguously showed that the quantum Zeno effect breaks down for timescales greater than the brain decoherence time. To generalize the Monte Carlo simulation results for any n-level quantum system, we further analyzed the change of brain entropy due to the mind probing actions and proved ...

  6. Quantum Monte Carlo study of the protonated water dimer

    CERN Document Server

    Dagrada, Mario; Saitta, Antonino M; Sorella, Sandro; Mauri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    We report an extensive theoretical study of the protonated water dimer (Zundel ion) by means of the highly correlated variational Monte Carlo and lattice regularized Monte Carlo approaches. This system represents the simplest model for proton transfer (PT) and a correct description of its properties is essential in order to understand the PT mechanism in more complex acqueous systems. Our Jastrow correlated AGP wave function ensures an accurate treatment of electron correlations. Exploiting the advantages of contracting the primitive basis set over atomic hybrid orbitals, we are able to limit dramatically the number of variational parameters with a systematic control on the numerical precision, crucial in order to simulate larger systems. We investigate energetics and geometrical properties of the Zundel ion as a function of the oxygen-oxygen distance, taken as reaction coordinate. In both cases, our QMC results are found in excellent agreement with coupled cluster CCSD(T) technique, the quantum chemistry "go...

  7. Monte Carlo Treatment Planning for Advanced Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronholm, Rickard

    and validation of a Monte Carlo model of a medical linear accelerator (i), converting a CT scan of a patient to a Monte Carlo compliant phantom (ii) and translating the treatment plan parameters (including beam energy, angles of incidence, collimator settings etc) to a Monte Carlo input file (iii). A protocol...... previous algorithms since it uses delineations of structures in order to include and/or exclude certain media in various anatomical regions. This method has the potential to reduce anatomically irrelevant media assignment. In house MATLAB scripts translating the treatment plan parameters to Monte Carlo...

  8. 1-D EQUILIBRIUM DISCRETE DIFFUSION MONTE CARLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. EVANS; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    We present a new hybrid Monte Carlo method for 1-D equilibrium diffusion problems in which the radiation field coexists with matter in local thermodynamic equilibrium. This method, the Equilibrium Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (EqDDMC) method, combines Monte Carlo particles with spatially discrete diffusion solutions. We verify the EqDDMC method with computational results from three slab problems. The EqDDMC method represents an incremental step toward applying this hybrid methodology to non-equilibrium diffusion, where it could be simultaneously coupled to Monte Carlo transport.

  9. From Fireproof Desert to Flammable Grassland: Buffelgrass Invasion in the Sonoran Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Only a few decades ago, the Sonoran Desert of northwestern Mexico and southern Arizona was considered mostly fireproof, a case of not enough fine fuel to connect the dominant shrubs and cacti. This has changed with invasions by non-native, winter annual and summer-flower perennial grasses that are rapidly transforming fireproof desert into flammable grassland. Of particular concern is buffelgrass, Pennisetum ciliare, a fire-prone and invasive African perennial grass that has already converted millions of hectares across Sonora since the mid-1960s and has made quick headway in southern and central Arizona beginning in the 1980s. Near Tucson and Phoenix, AZ, buffelgrass invasion is proceeding exponentially, with population expansion (and the costs of mitigation) more than doubling every year. As this conversion progresses, there will be increased fire risks, lost tourist revenue, diminished property values, insurmountable setbacks to conservation efforts, and the threat of large ignition fronts in desert valleys routinely spreading into the mountains. Although somewhat belated, an integrated, multi-jurisdictional effort is being organized to reduce ecological and economic impacts. My presentation will summarize the history and context of buffelgrass introduction and invasion, the disconnect in attitudes and policies across state and international boundaries, ongoing management efforts, the role of science and responsibilities of scientists, accelerated spread with changing climate, and impacts to regional ecosystems and economies. This narrative may serve as a template for other semi-arid lands where buffelgrass and similar grasses have become invasive, including Australia, South America, and many islands in the Pacific Ocean (including Hawaii), Indian Ocean, and Caribbean Sea.

  10. Respondence and feedback of modern sand deserts to climate change--A case study in Gurbantunggut Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The research on the respondence and feedback of modern sand deserts to the climate change is an important component part in the studies on the global climate change. Deserts respond to the climate change, meanwhile, they affect the climate with their feedback of peculiar environment during the respondence. Many researches on desert climate have been carried out at home and abroad. However, there is little research on the respondence and feedback of modern fixed, semi-fixed and mobile deserts in arid areas to the climate change, in which the factor analysis as well as the parameter changing effects is especially the difficult problem all along. In this note, the parameters of the respondence and feedback of Gurbantunggut Desert to the climate change are measured and analyzed, some variable parameters of water-heat exchange are obtained, and a numerical model of desertification is developed according to a series of climate change of about 40 years and the variable relations of meteorological and physical features of the sand surface in Gurbantunggut Desert.

  11. Error in Monte Carlo, quasi-error in Quasi-Monte Carlo

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiss, R. H. P.; Lazopoulos, A.

    2006-01-01

    While the Quasi-Monte Carlo method of numerical integration achieves smaller integration error than standard Monte Carlo, its use in particle physics phenomenology has been hindered by the abscence of a reliable way to estimate that error. The standard Monte Carlo error estimator relies on the assumption that the points are generated independently of each other and, therefore, fails to account for the error improvement advertised by the Quasi-Monte Carlo method. We advocate the construction o...

  12. Searching for Life in Death Valley (and Other Deserts) - Microchemical Investigations on Desert Varnish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Al-Amri, A. M.; Jochum, K. P.; Kappl, M.; Kilcoyne, A. D.; Macholdt, D.; Müller, M.; Pöhlker, C.; Weber, B.; Weigand, M.

    2014-12-01

    Desert varnishes are thin, shiny, blackish to brown coatings frequently found on the surfaces of exposed rocks in deserts around the globe. They have been proposed as terrestrial analogues of superficial hematite enrichments observed on Mars. While the first scientific studies of such varnishes go back to Darwin and von Humboldt, and intensive studies by a variety of techniques have been conducted over the last few decades, their origin is still a matter of debate. Microscopic and molecular studies have shown the presence of fungi and bacteria, but it is still unclear whether they are involved in the formation of the varnish material or just opportunistic colonizers on available surfaces. We have analysed samples of desert varnish from sites in Death Valley, the Mojave Desert, the Negev of Israel, Central Saudi Arabia, and the Succulent Karoo by a variety of microanalytical techniques. Measurements by UV-femtosecond Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry show enrichments of manganese, iron, barium and other elements. Isotopic and trace chemical signatures show that these enriched elements cannot originate from the rocks that form the substrate on which the crusts have been deposited, but most likely are the result of (bio?)chemical transformation of windblown material. For a more detailed investigation of the internal structure of the crusts, we prepared ultra-thin sections (~100 nm) using focused ion beam slicing and analysed them by Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy with Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS). This technique revealed layered or chaotic structures consisting of alternating Mn and Fe-rich zones. Some of these layers are enriched in organic carbon with spectral features dominated by aromatic and carboxylate functionalities, indicating a biological origin of some of the crust material. Some crusts also show cavities that are lined with similar organic material. Since the age of these crusts is

  13. Monte Carlo and analytic simulations in nanoparticle-enhanced radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paro AD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Autumn D Paro,1 Mainul Hossain,2 Thomas J Webster,1,3,4 Ming Su1,4 1Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2NanoScience Technology Center and School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA; 3Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 4Wenzhou Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Analytical and Monte Carlo simulations have been used to predict dose enhancement factors in nanoparticle-enhanced X-ray radiation therapy. Both simulations predict an increase in dose enhancement in the presence of nanoparticles, but the two methods predict different levels of enhancement over the studied energy, nanoparticle materials, and concentration regime for several reasons. The Monte Carlo simulation calculates energy deposited by electrons and photons, while the analytical one only calculates energy deposited by source photons and photoelectrons; the Monte Carlo simulation accounts for electron–hole recombination, while the analytical one does not; and the Monte Carlo simulation randomly samples photon or electron path and accounts for particle interactions, while the analytical simulation assumes a linear trajectory. This study demonstrates that the Monte Carlo simulation will be a better choice to evaluate dose enhancement with nanoparticles in radiation therapy. Keywords: nanoparticle, dose enhancement, Monte Carlo simulation, analytical simulation, radiation therapy, tumor cell, X-ray 

  14. Tradeoffs and Synergies between biofuel production and large solar infrastructure in deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Sujith; Lobell, David B; Field, Christopher B

    2014-01-01

    Solar energy installations in deserts are on the rise, fueled by technological advances and policy changes. Deserts, with a combination of high solar radiation and availability of large areas unusable for crop production are ideal locations for large solar installations. However, for efficient power generation, solar infrastructures use large amounts of water for construction and operation. We investigated the water use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with solar installations in North American deserts in comparison to agave-based biofuel production, another widely promoted potential energy source from arid systems. We determined the uncertainty in our analysis by a Monte Carlo approach that varied the most important parameters, as determined by sensitivity analysis. We considered the uncertainty in our estimates as a result of variations in the number of solar modules ha(-1), module efficiency, number of agave plants ha(-1), and overall sugar conversion efficiency for agave. Further, we considered the uncertainty in revenue and returns as a result of variations in the wholesale price of electricity and installation cost of solar photovoltaic (PV), wholesale price of agave ethanol, and cost of agave cultivation and ethanol processing. The life-cycle analyses show that energy outputs and GHG offsets from solar PV systems, mean energy output of 2405 GJ ha(-1) year(-1) (5 and 95% quantile values of 1940-2920) and mean GHG offsets of 464 Mg of CO2 equiv ha(-1) year(-1) (375-562), are much larger than agave, mean energy output from 206 (171-243) to 61 (50-71) GJ ha(-1) year(-1) and mean GHG offsets from 18 (14-22) to 4.6 (3.7-5.5) Mg of CO2 equiv ha(-1) year(-1), depending upon the yield scenario of agave. Importantly though, water inputs for cleaning solar panels and dust suppression are similar to amounts required for annual agave growth, suggesting the possibility of integrating the two systems to maximize the efficiency of land and water use to produce

  15. 6 MV 医用加速器电子对效应的蒙特卡罗模拟研究%Monte Carlo Simulation Study on Electron-pair Effect of 6 MV Medical Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔栋; 顾思毅; 倪婕; 孙亮

    2014-01-01

    The Geant4 w as used to construct the head and irradiation conditions of 6MV medical accelerator . The measurement data in the water phantom were compared to ensure the constructed model correct .Phase space files of different fields and different levels were obtained by simulating the process of particle transporting of the accelera‐tor .The positron and annihilation photon were as indicator ,and the effect of fields and components of the accelerator head on the production of electron‐pair was studied by analyzing those files .The influence of electron‐pair effect on accelerator beam and ener‐gy deposited in the phantom was simulated .The results show that the smaller the field is ,the more the production of electron‐pair is .The production of electron‐pair is obvi‐ous when beam passes through target ,flatten filter and secondary collimator ,and it is especially obvious to secondary collimator .The electron‐pair effect makes contamination electron increase about 4% ,beam’s average energy lower ,beam’s particle angular dis‐tribution more dispersed and doses of surface of phantom and outside fields increase .%以Geant4编程构建6 M V医用加速器机头和照射条件,并通过实测数据比对验证模型的正确性,模拟加速器粒子输运过程,获取不同射野和不同层面的粒子相空间文件,以正电子和湮没光子为指标研究射野及各机头部件对电子对效应产生的影响,模拟电子对效应对加速器射束及水模中剂量沉积的影响。结果表明:射野面积越小,电子对效应产生越多;在靶、均整器及次级准直器处均会有较明显的电子对效应发生,其中次级准直器是主要的发生部件;电子对效应使射束中污染电子增加了约4%,降低了射束的平均能量,使射束粒子分布更加分散,增加了模体表面剂量及射野外剂量。

  16. Acceptance and implementation of a system of planning computerized based on Monte Carlo; Aceptacion y puesta en marcha de un sistema de planificacion comutarizada basado en Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Tarjuelo, J.; Garcia-Molla, R.; Suan-Senabre, X. J.; Quiros-Higueras, J. Q.; Santos-Serra, A.; Marco-Blancas, N.; Calzada-Feliu, S.

    2013-07-01

    It has been done the acceptance for use clinical Monaco computerized planning system, based on an on a virtual model of the energy yield of the head of the linear electron Accelerator and that performs the calculation of the dose with an algorithm of x-rays (XVMC) based on Monte Carlo algorithm. (Author)

  17. 76 FR 59682 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Western Area Lower Colorado Balancing Authority-Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Customer Service Region--Western Area Lower Colorado... the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) Desert Southwest Customer Service Region (DSWR... Murray, Rates Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration, P.O...

  18. A unified Monte Carlo interpretation of particle simulations and applications to nonneutral plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydemir, A.Y.

    1993-09-01

    Using a ``Monte Carlo interpretation`` a particle simulations, a general description of low-noise techniques is developed in terms well-known Monte Carlo variance reduction methods. Some of these techniques then are applied to linear and nonlinear studies of pure electron plasmas in cylindrical geometry, with emphasis on the generation and nonlinear evolution of electron vortices. Long-lived l = 1 and l and l = 2 vortices, and others produced by unstable diocotron modes in hollow profiles, are studies. It is shown that low-noise techniques make it possible to follow the linear evolution and saturation of even the very weakly unstable resonant diocotron modes.

  19. Assaying Visual Memory in the Desert Locust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senne Dillen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of associative learning cues has been demonstrated in several stages of feeding and food selection. Short neuropeptide F (sNPF, an insect neuropeptide whose effects on feeding behavior have previously been well established, may be one of the factors bridging feeding and learning behavior. Recently, it was shown in Drosophila melanogaster that the targeted reduction of Drome-sNPF transcript levels significantly reduced sugar-rewarded olfactory memory. While Drosophila mainly relies on olfactory perception in its food searching behavior, locust foraging behavior is likely to be more visually orientated. Furthermore, a feeding-dependent regulation of Schgr-sNPF transcript levels has previously been observed in the optic lobes of the locust brain, suggesting a possible involvement in visual perception of food and visual associative memory in this insect species. In this study, we describe the development of a robust and reproducible assay allowing visual associative memory to be studied in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. Furthermore, we performed an exploratory series of experiments, studying the role of Schgr-sNPF in this complex process.

  20. Determination of bioclimatic comfort in Sirjan desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Mahmoodi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate plays an important role in assessment of quality of outdoor built environments and bioclimatic comfort physiologically influences on human body's characteristics. In this paper, we present an empirical study on bioclimatic comfort in Sirjan desert located in the province of Kerman, Iran. The results of our study shows that velocity of air can reach one meter per second during the daily hours only during the month of September, which causes comfort on people's body. However, even this velocity cannot cause comfort during the night. During the months of March, April and October, whether maintains a velocity of 0.1 meter/second, which brings comfort and it is possible to live with simple dress. During the months of May, June and July it is possible to reach comfort with simple cover during the night. It is possible to reach the same condition with thicker coverage in nightly hours during the months of May and September. However, it is not possible to reach comfort with thick dress any nightly hours of year.

  1. [Estimation of aboveground biomass of desert plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chengyi; Song, Yudong; Wang, Yuchao; Jiang, Pinan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the research of plant quadrate in Sangong River Basin in Xinjiang, the fitted equations were given, which could be used to estimate the aboveground biomass of typical desert plant by using the thicket characteristics such as length of crown diameter, width of crown diameter, number of basal branch, length of new branch, basal diameter (D) and plant height (H) as parameters. Using the length of crown diameter and the width of crown diameter as parameters, the fitted equation was set up and tested for estimating the aboveground biomass of Reaumuria soongorica Maxim. It had a relatively high accuracy and a fine linear relationship between the predicted values and measured values. Its coefficient and relative standard deviation was 0.9989 and 4.79%-10.12%, respectively. The results indicated that the fitted equation was easy and available for estimating the aboveground biomass of Reaumuria soongorica Maxim in large scale. The fitted equations were also set up and tested for estimating the aboveground biomass of Haloxylon ammodendron and Tamarix ramosissima by using the basal diameter and height of plant as the parameters. The coefficients and relative standard deviations of these equations were 0.9902, 0.9875 and 6.87%-19.22%, 7.49%-18.47%, respectively. Therefore, estimating the biomass of Reaumuria soongorica in large scale through crown characteristics was available, and estimating the biomass of Halaxylon Ammodendron and Tamarix ramosissima through crown characteristics would produce certain error.

  2. Copper isotope fractionation by desert shrubs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarrete, Jesica U., E-mail: jnavarrete2@miners.utep.edu [University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Geological Sciences, 500 W. University Ave, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Viveros, Marian; Ellzey, Joanne T. [University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Biological Sciences, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Borrok, David M. [University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Geological Sciences, 500 W. University Ave, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Copper has two naturally occurring stable isotopes of masses 63 and 65 which can undergo mass dependent fractionation during various biotic and abiotic chemical reactions. These interactions and their resulting Cu isotope fractionations can be used to determine the mechanisms involved in the cycling of Cu in natural systems. In this study, Cu isotope changes were investigated at the organismal level in the metal-accumulating desert plant, Prosopis pubescens. Initial results suggest that the lighter Cu isotope was preferentially incorporated into the leaves of the plant, which may suggest that Cu was actively transported via intracellular proteins. The roots and stems show a smaller degree of Cu isotope fractionation and the direction and magnitude of the fractionations was dependent upon the levels of Cu exposure. Based on this and previous work with bacteria and yeast, a trend is emerging that suggests the lighter Cu isotope is preferentially incorporated into biological components, while the heavier Cu isotope tends to become enriched in aqueous solutions. In bacteria, plants and animals, intracellular Cu concentrations are strictly regulated via dozens of enzymes that can bind, transport, and store Cu. Many of these enzymes reduce Cu(II) to Cu(I). These initial results seem to fit into a broader picture of Cu isotope cycling in natural systems where oxidation/reduction reactions are fundamental in controlling the distributions of Cu isotopes.

  3. Closed bioregenerative life support systems: Applicability to hot deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Yuriy S.; Musaev, Ibrahim; Polyakov, Sergey V.

    2010-09-01

    Water scarcity in hot deserts, which cover about one-fifth of the Earth's land area, along with rapid expansion of hot deserts into arable lands is one of the key global environmental problems. As hot deserts are extreme habitats characterized by the availability of solar energy with a nearly complete absence of organic life and water, space technology achievements in designing closed ecological systems may be applicable to the design of sustainable settlements in the deserts. This review discusses the key space technology findings for closed biogenerative life support systems (CBLSS), which can simultaneously produce food, water, nutrients, fertilizers, process wastes, and revitalize air, that can be applied to hot deserts. Among them are the closed cycle of water and the acceleration of the cycling times of carbon, biogenic compounds, and nutrients by adjusting the levels of light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, and air velocity over plant canopies. Enhanced growth of algae and duckweed at higher levels of carbon dioxide and light intensity can be important to provide complete water recycling and augment biomass production. The production of fertilizers and nutrients can be enhanced by applying the subsurface flow wetland technology and hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacteria for treating liquid and solid wastes. The mathematical models, optimization techniques, and non-invasive measuring techniques developed for CBLSS make it possible to monitor and optimize the performance of such closed ecological systems. The results of long-duration experiments performed in BIOS-3, Biosphere 2, Laboratory Biosphere, and other ground-based closed test facilities suggest that closed water cycle can be achieved in hot-desert bioregenerative systems using the pathways of evapotranspiration, condensation, and biological wastewater treatment technologies. We suggest that the state of the art in the CBLSS design along with the possibility of using direct sunlight for

  4. Monte Carlo simulation of ICRF discharge initiation in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripský, M.; Wauters, T.; Lyssoivan, A.; Křivská, A.; Louche, F.; Van Schoor, M.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.

    2015-12-01

    Discharges produced and sustained by ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) waves in absence of plasma current will be used on ITER for (ion cyclotron-) wall conditioning (ICWC). The here presented simulations aim at ensuring that the ITER ICRH&CD system can be safely employed for ICWC and at finding optimal parameters to initiate the plasma. The 1D Monte Carlo code RFdinity1D3V was developed to simulate ICRF discharge initiation. The code traces the electron motion along one toroidal magnetic field line, accelerated by the RF field in front of the ICRF antenna. Electron collisions in the calculations are handled by a Monte Carlo procedure taking into account their energies and the related electron collision cross sections for collisions with H2, H2+ and H+. The code also includes Coulomb collisions between electrons and ions (e - e, e - H2+ , e - H+). We study the electron multiplication rate as a function of the RF discharge parameters (i) antenna input power (0.1-5MW), and (ii) the neutral pressure (H2) for two antenna phasing (monopole [0000]-phasing and small dipole [0π0π]-phasing). Furthermore, we investigate the electron multiplication rate dependency on the distance from the antenna straps. This radial dependency results from the decreasing electric amplitude and field smoothening with increasing distance from the antenna straps. The numerical plasma breakdown definition used in the code corresponds to the moment when a critical electron density nec for the low hybrid resonance (ω = ωLHR) is reached. This numerical definition was previously found in qualitative agreement with experimental breakdown times obtained from the literature and from experiments on the ASDEX Upgrade and TEXTOR.

  5. Atomistic Monte Carlo simulation of lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Sklenar, Heinz

    2014-01-24

    Biological membranes are complex assemblies of many different molecules of which analysis demands a variety of experimental and computational approaches. In this article, we explain challenges and advantages of atomistic Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of lipid membranes. We provide an introduction into the various move sets that are implemented in current MC methods for efficient conformational sampling of lipids and other molecules. In the second part, we demonstrate for a concrete example, how an atomistic local-move set can be implemented for MC simulations of phospholipid monomers and bilayer patches. We use our recently devised chain breakage/closure (CBC) local move set in the bond-/torsion angle space with the constant-bond-length approximation (CBLA) for the phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). We demonstrate rapid conformational equilibration for a single DPPC molecule, as assessed by calculation of molecular energies and entropies. We also show transition from a crystalline-like to a fluid DPPC bilayer by the CBC local-move MC method, as indicated by the electron density profile, head group orientation, area per lipid, and whole-lipid displacements. We discuss the potential of local-move MC methods in combination with molecular dynamics simulations, for example, for studying multi-component lipid membranes containing cholesterol.

  6. Atomistic Monte Carlo Simulation of Lipid Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wüstner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological membranes are complex assemblies of many different molecules of which analysis demands a variety of experimental and computational approaches. In this article, we explain challenges and advantages of atomistic Monte Carlo (MC simulation of lipid membranes. We provide an introduction into the various move sets that are implemented in current MC methods for efficient conformational sampling of lipids and other molecules. In the second part, we demonstrate for a concrete example, how an atomistic local-move set can be implemented for MC simulations of phospholipid monomers and bilayer patches. We use our recently devised chain breakage/closure (CBC local move set in the bond-/torsion angle space with the constant-bond-length approximation (CBLA for the phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC. We demonstrate rapid conformational equilibration for a single DPPC molecule, as assessed by calculation of molecular energies and entropies. We also show transition from a crystalline-like to a fluid DPPC bilayer by the CBC local-move MC method, as indicated by the electron density profile, head group orientation, area per lipid, and whole-lipid displacements. We discuss the potential of local-move MC methods in combination with molecular dynamics simulations, for example, for studying multi-component lipid membranes containing cholesterol.

  7. Amino Acid Analyses of Acid Hydrolysates in Desert Varnish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Randall S.; Staley, James T.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Engel, Mike

    2001-01-01

    There has long been a debate as to whether rock varnish deposits are microbially mediated or are deposited by inorganic processes. Varnished rocks are found throughout the world primarily in arid and semi-arid regions. The varnish coats are typically up to 200 microns thick and are composed of clays and alternating layers enriched in manganese and iron oxides. The individual layers range in thickness from 1 micron to greater than 10 microns and may continue laterally for more than a 100 microns. Overlapping botryoidal structures are visible in thin section and scanning electron micrographs. The coatings also include small amounts of organic mater and detrital grains. Amino-acid hydrolysates offer a means of assessing the organic composition of rock varnish collected from the Sonoran Desert, near Phoenix, AZ. Chromatographic analyses of hydrolysates from powdered samples of rock varnish suggest that the interior of rock varnish is relatively enriched in amino acids and specifically in d-alanine and glutamic acid. Peptidoglycan (murein) is the main structural component of gram-positive bacterial cell walls. The d-enantiomer of alanine and glutamic acid are specific to peptidoglycan and are consequently an indicator for the presence of bacteria. D-alanine is also found in teichoic acid which is only found in gram-positive bacteria. Several researchers have cultured bacteria from the surface of rock varnish and most have been gram-positive, suggesting that gram-positive bacteria are intimately associated with varnish coatings and may play a role in the formation of varnish coatings.

  8. Water Sources for Cyanobacteria Below Desert Rocks in the Negev Desert Determined by Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    We present year round meteorological and conductivity measurements of colonized hypolithic rocks in the Arava Valley, Negev Desert, Israel. The data indicate that while dew is common in the Negev it is not an important source of moisture for hypolithic organisms at this site. The dominance of cyanobacteria in the hypolithic community are consistent with predictions that cyanobacteria are confined to habitats supplied by rain. To monitor the presence of liquid water under the small Negev rocks we developed and tested a simple field conductivity system based on two wires placed about 0.5 cm apart. Based on 21 replicates recorded for one year in the Negev we conclude that in natural rains (0.25 mm to 6 mm) the variability between sensor readings is between 20 and 60% decreasing with increasing rain amount. We conclude that the simple small electrical conductivity system described here can be used effectively to monitor liquid water levels in lithic habitats. However, the natural variability of these sensors indicates that several replicates should be deployed. The results and method presented have use in arid desert reclamation programs.

  9. Water sources for cyanobacteria below desert rocks in the Negev Desert determined by conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. McKay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present year round meteorological and conductivity measurements of colonized hypolithic rocks in the Arava Valley, Negev Desert, Israel. The data indicate that while dew is common in the Negev it is not an important source of moisture for hypolithic organisms at this site. The dominance of cyanobacteria in the hypolithic community is consistent with predictions that cyanobacteria are confined to habitats supplied by rain. To monitor the presence of liquid water under the small Negev rocks we developed and tested a simple field conductivity system based on two wires placed about 0.5 cm apart. Based on 21 replicates recorded for one year in the Negev we conclude that in natural rains (0.25 mm to 6 mm the variability between sensor readings is between 20 and 60% decreasing with increasing rain amount. We conclude that the simple small electrical conductivity system described here can be used effectively to monitor liquid water levels in lithic habitats. However, the natural variability of these sensors indicates that several replicates should be deployed. The results and method presented have use in arid desert reclamation programs.

  10. Langevin Monte Carlo filtering for target tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iglesias Garcia, Fernando; Bocquel, Melanie; Driessen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the Langevin Monte Carlo Filter (LMCF), a particle filter with a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm which draws proposals by simulating Hamiltonian dynamics. This approach is well suited to non-linear filtering problems in high dimensional state spaces where the bootstrap filte

  11. An introduction to Monte Carlo methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, J. -C.; Barkema, G. T.

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are methods for simulating statistical systems. The aim is to generate a representative ensemble of configurations to access thermodynamical quantities without the need to solve the system analytically or to perform an exact enumeration. The main principles of Monte Carlo sim

  12. An introduction to Monte Carlo methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, J. -C.; Barkema, G. T.

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are methods for simulating statistical systems. The aim is to generate a representative ensemble of configurations to access thermodynamical quantities without the need to solve the system analytically or to perform an exact enumeration. The main principles of Monte Carlo sim

  13. Challenges of Monte Carlo Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Alex Roberts [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-10

    These are slides from a presentation for Parallel Summer School at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Solving discretized partial differential equations (PDEs) of interest can require a large number of computations. We can identify concurrency to allow parallel solution of discrete PDEs. Simulated particles histories can be used to solve the Boltzmann transport equation. Particle histories are independent in neutral particle transport, making them amenable to parallel computation. Physical parameters and method type determine the data dependencies of particle histories. Data requirements shape parallel algorithms for Monte Carlo. Then, Parallel Computational Physics and Parallel Monte Carlo are discussed and, finally, the results are given. The mesh passing method greatly simplifies the IMC implementation and allows simple load-balancing. Using MPI windows and passive, one-sided RMA further simplifies the implementation by removing target synchronization. The author is very interested in implementations of PGAS that may allow further optimization for one-sided, read-only memory access (e.g. Open SHMEM). The MPICH_RMA_OVER_DMAPP option and library is required to make one-sided messaging scale on Trinitite - Moonlight scales poorly. Interconnect specific libraries or functions are likely necessary to ensure performance. BRANSON has been used to directly compare the current standard method to a proposed method on idealized problems. The mesh passing algorithm performs well on problems that are designed to show the scalability of the particle passing method. BRANSON can now run load-imbalanced, dynamic problems. Potential avenues of improvement in the mesh passing algorithm will be implemented and explored. A suite of test problems that stress DD methods will elucidate a possible path forward for production codes.

  14. Cytology of long-term desiccation in the desert cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis (Chroococcales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiola, M. G.; Ocampo-Friedmann, R.; Friedmann, E. I.

    1993-01-01

    Young and old cultures (up to 66 months) of two Chroococcidiopsis sp. strains isolated from the Negev desert, Israel, were examined by epifluorescence and electron microscopy. In old cultures, cell viability and autofluorescence were lower than in young cultures. An increase was seen with age in the polysaccharide content of the sheaths of nanocytes and nanocyte mother cells, and a decrease of phycobiliproteins was also seen. In the oldest cultures most of the cells were dead and in various stages of degeneration. Single living cells were scattered among the dead ones. No resting cells were formed in the oldest cultures, but many cell groups showed highly electron-dense sheaths and, in the cytoplasm, ribosomes and glycogen. These changes in cell structure may have a role in preventing water loss from the cell.

  15. The MC21 Monte Carlo Transport Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton TM, Donovan TJ, Trumbull TH, Dobreff PS, Caro E, Griesheimer DP, Tyburski LJ, Carpenter DC, Joo H

    2007-01-09

    MC21 is a new Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code currently under joint development at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory and the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. MC21 is the Monte Carlo transport kernel of the broader Common Monte Carlo Design Tool (CMCDT), which is also currently under development. The vision for CMCDT is to provide an automated, computer-aided modeling and post-processing environment integrated with a Monte Carlo solver that is optimized for reactor analysis. CMCDT represents a strategy to push the Monte Carlo method beyond its traditional role as a benchmarking tool or ''tool of last resort'' and into a dominant design role. This paper describes various aspects of the code, including the neutron physics and nuclear data treatments, the geometry representation, and the tally and depletion capabilities.

  16. Monte Carlo simulations and benchmark studies at CERN's accelerator chain

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083190; Brugger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Mixed particle and energy radiation fields present at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its accelerator chain are responsible for failures on electronic devices located in the vicinity of the accelerator beam lines. These radiation effects on electronics and, more generally, the overall radiation damage issues have a direct impact on component and system lifetimes, as well as on maintenance requirements and radiation exposure to personnel who have to intervene and fix existing faults. The radiation environments and respective radiation damage issues along the CERN’s accelerator chain were studied in the framework of the CERN Radiation to Electronics (R2E) project and are hereby presented. The important interplay between Monte Carlo simulations and radiation monitoring is also highlighted.

  17. 77 FR 65133 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... Identification of plan. * * * * * (c) * * * (379) * * * (i) * * * (E) Mojave Desert Air Quality Management... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA...

  18. The Ocean deserts:salt budgets of northern subtropical oceans and their

    KAUST Repository

    Carton, Jim

    2011-04-09

    The Ocean deserts: salt budgets of northern subtropical oceans and their relationship to climate variability The high salinity near surface pools of the subtropical oceans are the oceanic deserts, with high levels of evaporation and low levels of precip

  19. Desert Tortoise Head-start Program at Twentynine Palms Marine Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    Hillard. Shell hardness measurement in juvenile desert tortoises, Gopherus agassizii, Herpetological Review, (09 2011): 0. doi: 07/23/2012 2.00...yearlings released to the open desert. Herpetological Conservation and Biology.

  20. Complex Fault Interaction in the Yuha Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, K.; Cochran, E. S.; Richards-Dinger, K. B.; Sumy, D. F.

    2012-12-01

    We determine precise hypocentral locations for over 3,600 aftershocks that occurred in the Yuha Desert (YD) region following the 4 April 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah (EMC) earthquake until 14 June 2010 originally located by the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN). To calculate precise hypocenters we used manually identified phase arrivals and cross-correlation delay times in a series of absolute and relative relocation procedures with algorithms including hypoinverse, velest and hypoDD. We used velest to simultaneously invert for station corrections and the best-fitting velocity model for the event and station distribution. Location errors were reduced with this process to ~20 m horizontally and ~80 m vertically. The locations reveal a complex pattern of faulting with en echelon fault segments trending toward the northwest, approximately parallel to the North American-Pacific plate boundary and en echelon, conjugate features trending to the northeast. The relocated seismicity is highly correlated with the mapped faults that show triggered surface slip in response to the EMC mainshock. Aftershocks are located between depths of 2 km and 11 km, consistent with previous studies of seismogenic thickness in the region. Three-dimensional analysis reveals individual and intersecting fault planes between 5 km and 10 km in the along-strike and along-dip directions. These fault planes remain distinct structures at depth, indicative of conjugate faulting, and do not appear to coalesce onto a through-going fault segment. We observe a complex spatiotemporal migration of aftershocks with individual fault strands that are often active for relatively short time periods. In addition, events relocated by Hauksson et al., (2012) that occur in the two-year period following the 15 June 2010 M5.7 Ocotillo earthquake show majority of seismicity occurred along the Laguna Salada-West branch. At the same time, seismicity along the Laguna Salada-East and other faults in the Yuha Desert